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TOEIC is an English test taken by non-native speakers who want to use

English in their international workplace.
In actual fact , TOEIC is a very challenging examination. One reason for this
is TOEIC questions use many difficult words. Learners, therefore, need a
considerable number of business-related vocabulary items. Another reason
is TOEIC questions actually require logical thinking. Many candidates who
are not familiar with vocabulary items and not comfortable with this type of
thinking may find the test hard to attain the score they need.
Before you start studying for the test, the first thing you should do is set
a goal. If you are taking the test in order to apply for a job, find out what
proficiency level is required. Next, find relevant and beneficial materials to
practice so as to develop your test-taking strategies.
Being aware of the practical demand of learners, we have designed a set of
Hackers books at basic and intermediate levels- Hackers TOEIC Lis-
tening and Hackers TOEIC Reading whose materials and questions
are well selected from a variety of sources and from the most recent TOEIC
tests. A lot of clear and detailed explanations plus a wide range of practice
activities in these books will certainly meet your needs and enable you to
achieve a high score on the TOEIC test.
This series of books can be used in class with the assistance of an instruct-
or or for self-study.
Hopefully, you will find these books truly practical and helpful , and you will
soon achieve your expected goal.
www.nhantriviet.com 3
Hackers TOEIC Reading
Main Features 7 I Main Parts 8 I About TOEIC 1 o I
TOEIC Tips 12 I TOEIC Reading Test 14 I
Your Current Level & Preferred Learning Styles 18 I
Diagnostic Test 21
GRAMMAR Parts 5 6
Section 1 Basic Sentence Elements
Chaeter 01 Subjects, Verbs
01 Subjects
02 Dummy Subject It
03 Dummy Subject There
04 Verbs
05 Number / Tense / Voice of a Verb
06 Verbs in the Imperative
Chaeter 02 Objects, Complements
01 Objects
02 Dummy Object It
03 Complements
04 Noun Complements vs. Adjective Complements
Chapter 03 Modifiers
01 Modifiers
02 Modifying Phrases, Modifying Clauses
Section 2 Verb-Related Structures
Chaeter 04 Forms and Types of English Verbs
01 Modal I Auxiliary Verb + Bare Infinitive
02 Auxiliary Verb Be I Have + Participle Form
03 Transitive Verbs, Intransitive Verbs
04 Bare Infinitives in That-Clauses
Chaeter 05 Subject-Verb Agreement
01 Subject-Verb Agreement in Number
02 Subject-Verb Agreement with Expressions of Quantity
03 Subject-Verb Agreement with Coordinating and
Correlative Conjunctions
04 Subject-Verb Agreement in Relative Clauses
Chaeter 06 Tenses
01 Present/ Past/ Future Simple Tense
02 Present/ Past/ Future Progressive Tense
03 Present/ Past/ Future Perfect Tense
04 Agreement in Tense
Chaeter 07 Active Voice, Passive Voice
01 Identifying Active I Passive Sentences
02 Passive Voice of Verbs in Sentence Structures 4 and 5
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Ha ckers TOEIC Reading
03 Active and Passive Voices of Perception Verbs
04 Expressions of the Passive Form
Chaeter 08 Subjunctives
01 Future I Past/ Past Perfect/ Mixed Subjunctive
02 Other Structures of Subjunctives
Section 3 Verbals
Chaeter 09 To-infinitives 108
01 Forms of To-infinitives and Their Subjects
02 Functions of To-infinitives
03 Verbs I Nouns I Adjectives Followed by a To-infinitive
04 Bare Infinitives as Object Complements
Chaeter 10 Gerunds 116
01 Functions, Forms of Gerunds and Their Subjects
02 Verbs Followed by a Gerund
03 Gerunds vs. Nouns
04 Common Expressions with Gerunds
Chaeter 11 Participles
01 Functions of Participles
02 Partici pial Phrases
03 Present Participles vs. Past Participles
04 Confusing Expressions
Section 4 Parts of S eech
Chaeter 12 Nouns
01 Positions of Nouns
02 Count Nouns vs. Non-Count Nouns
03 Determiners and Nouns
04 Concrete Nouns vs. Abstract Nouns
05 Compound Nouns
06 Common Nouns in TOEIC
Chaeter 13 Pronouns 144
01 Personal Pronouns, Possessive Pronouns, Possessive
02 Reflexive Pronouns
03 Demonstrative Pronouns, Demonstrat ive Adjectives
04 Indefinite Pronouns / Adjectives (1): One, Another, Other
05 Indefinite Pronouns / Adjectives (2): Some / Any, No / None,
06 Agreement between Nouns and Pronouns / Possessive Adjectives
Chaeter 14 Adjectives 154
01 Positions of Adjectives
02 Quantifiers as Adjectives and Indefinite Pronouns
03 Confusing Adjectives
04 Expressions with Be + Adjective
Chapter 1S Adverbs
01 Functions and Positions of Adverbs
02 Confusing Adverbs
03 Adverbs of Time
04 Adverbs of Frequency
05 Connecting Adverbs
06 Emphasizing Adverbs (1)
07 Emphasizing Adverbs (2)
08 Other Adverbs
Chapter 16 Prepositions 174
01 Preposition In I At! On
02 Prepositions of Time
03 Prepositions of Place
04 Prepositions of Direction
05 Prepositions of Reason, Concession, Purpose, Exception,
and Addition
06 Preposition Of and Others
07 Other Prepositions
08 Common Expressions Formed by Verb I Adjective I Noun +
Section 5 Conunctions and Clauses
Chapter 17 Coordinating Conjunctions, Correlative
Conjunctions 188
01 Coordinating Conjunctions
02 Correlative Conjunctions
Chapter 18 Noun Clauses 194
01 Positions of Noun Clauses
02 Noun Clauses Introduced by That
03 Noun Clauses Introduced by If / Whether
04 Noun Clauses Introduced by an Interrogative Word
05 Noun Clauses Introduced by a Compound Relative Pronoun
06 Distinguishing between What and That
Chapter 19 Relative Clauses
01 Positions and Functions of Relative Clauses
02 Relative Pronouns
03 Usage of Relative Pronouns
04 Relative Adverbs
Chapter 20 Adverb Clauses 212
01 Positions and Functions of Adverb Clauses
02 Conjunctions in Adverb Clauses of Time
03 Conjunctions in Adverb Clauses of Condition and Concession
04 Conjunctions in Adverb Clauses of Reason, Purpose, Result,
Except ion and Others
05 Compound Relative Adverbs I Pronouns
06 Adverb Clause Conjunctions vs. Prepositions
Section 6 S ecial Structures
Chapter 21 Comparison
01 Comparison of Equality
02 Comparative
03 Superlative
04 Other Structures of Comparison
www nh;:tntri\/iot rArn
Chapter 22 Parallelism, Inversion
01 Parallelism
02 Inversion
Section 1 Collocations
Chapter 01 Collocations with Prepositions
Chapter 02 Collocations with Adjectives
Chapter 03 Collocations with Verbs (1)
Chapter 04 Collocations with Verbs (2)
Chapter OS Collocations with Nouns
Chapter 06 Other Collocations
Section 2 Content Words
Chapter 07 Verbs
Chapter 08 Nouns
Chapter 09 Adjectives
Chapter 10 Adverbs
Section 3 Content Words with Similar Mean in
Chapter 11 Verbs with Similar Meaning 322
Chapter 12 Nouns with Similar Meaning 328
Chapter 13 Adjectives, Adverbs with Similar Meaning 334
Section 1 T es of Questions
Chapter 01 Overview Questions
Chapter 02 Information Questions
Chapter 03 NOT /TRUE Questions
Chapter 04 Inference Questions
Chapter OS Synonym Questions
Section 2 Sin le Passa es
Chapter 06 E-mails I Letters
Chapter 07 Advertisements
Chapter 08 Notices & Announcements
Chapter 09 Articles & Reports
Chapter 10 Memorandums
Chapter 11 Information
Chapter 12 Non-Prose Readings
Section 3 Double Passa es
Chapter 13 E-mail/ Letter-Related Readings
Chapter 14 Advertisement-Related Readings
Chapter 15 Announcement-Related Readings
Chapter 16 Article-Related Readings
Chapter 17 Non-Prose-Related Readings
Actual Tests 459 I Essential Vocabulary &
Expressions 513 I Answers 543
6 - Hackers TOEIC Reading www.nhantriviet.com
Main Features
This book contains the following features:
01. A large collection of actual questions
02. A comprehensive presentation of English grammar points
03. A combination of fundamental theories and actual practice
04. Typical questions and useful tips for doing the TOEIC Reading test
05. Essential vocabulary and expressions for each part of the TOEIC Reading
06. Two actual tests
www.nhantriviet.com Main Features - 7
Main Parts
Hackers TOEIC Reading
This book includes the following parts:
01. Diagnostic Test
A diagnostic test is given for you to find out your current level of English and be able to decide on an
appropriate study plan and put this book into ful l use.
02. Grammar: Basic Points
A brief introduction to basic and essential grammar points is shown to help you get a general idea of
the fundamentals of English grammar.
03. Grammar: Explanations
All basic and essential Engl ish grammar points are then clearly explained to facilitate you in doing
Parts 5 and 6 of the TOEIC test.
04. Grammar: TOEIC Questions
You will have a chance to put what you have just learned into practice by doing three typical TOEIC
questions at the end of every grammar point presented.
05. Vocabulary & Reading: Types of Questions and Useful Tips
Typical questions in the Vocabulary and Reading sections together with Useful Tips are well pres-
ented to enhance your test-taking strategies for Part 7 of the TOEIC test.
8 Hackers TOEIC Reading www.nhantriviet.com
06. Hackers Practice
Exercises on choosing the correct word in brackets and correcting mistakes given at regular intervals
aim at consolidating the vocabulary and grammar points you have learned in the previous parts.
07. Hackers Test
By doing all the questions which are similar to those in the TOEIC Reading test , you can familiarize
yourself with the testing points in the TOEIC Reading test and improve your test-taking ability.
08. Actual Tests
You should do the two actual tests at the end of the book within the time limit and under exam con-
ditions to check your progress compared with the result of the diagnostic test you have got before
using this book.
09. Essential Vocabulary and Expressions
Essential vocabulary items and expressions for Parts 5 and 6 of the TOEIC test are carefully arranged
so that you can manage to learn a number of them each day for at most 30 days to enlarge your store
of TOEIC vocabulary and expressions.
www.nhantriviet.com Main Parts - 9
What is TOEIC?
TOEIC is short for Test of English for International Communication. It is an Engl ish test de-
signed specifically to measure the everyday business English skills of non-native people work-
ing in an international environment. It also allows employers to make hiring decisions, pro-
motions, or transfers depending on job seekers' qualifications and English proficiency. TOEIC
questions are based on a variety of real -world settings and situations:
Corporate Development - research, prod-
uct development
Dining Out - business lunches, banquets,
receptions, reservations
Entertainment - cinema, music, art, exhib-
itions, museums, media
Finance and Budgeting - banking, invest-
ments, taxes, accounting, bi ll ing
General Business - cont racts, negotiations,
mergers, marketing, sales, invoicing, war-
ranties, business planning, conferences,
labor relations
Health Care - medical insurance, visits to
doctors I dentists, clinics, hospitals
Housing/ Corporate Property - construc-
tion, specifications, buyi ng and renting,
electric and gas services
TOEIC test format
Human Resources - recruiting, hiring, retir-
ing, promoting, job applications, job adver-
tisements, salari es, pensions, awards
Manufacturing - assembly lines, plant man-
agement, quality control
Office - procedures, board meetings, com-
mittees, letters, memos, telephone, fax and
e- mai l messages, equipment
Purchasing -shopping, shipping
Technical Areas - electronics, technology,
computers, laboratories and related equip-
ment , technical specifications
Travel -trains, airplanes, taxis, buses,
ships, ferries, tickets, schedules, station and
ai rport announcements, car rentals, hotels,
reservations, delays and cancellations
Number of
. Maximum
Task 1me
Questions Score
Part 1 Photograph Descriptions 10
Part 2 Questions & Responses 30
45 minutes 495
Part 3 Short Conversations 30
Part 4 Short Talks 30
Part 5 Sentence Completion 40
Part 6 Text Completion 12
75 minutes 495
Single Passages 28
Part 7
Double Passages 20
Total 7 Parts 200 120 minutes 990
10 - Hackers TOEIC Reading www .n hantriviet.com
01 In spite of the decreasing amount of silver,
the value of the metal has fallen in
the past years.
(A) sharp
(C) sharpness
(B) sharply
(D) sharpen
02 Unlike writers who prefer specializing
in a specific genre, freelancers usually work
with many literary types.
(A) much (B) more
(C) the most (D) many
03 This report is a list of projects that we
are working on in the marketing
(A) lately
(C) commonly
04 It is important for
(B) currently
(D) daily
interested in doing
an investigative piece to check their sources
and ensure their stories are accurate.
(A) journalists
(C) journalism
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(B) journal
(D) journalistic
05 The entire staff would like to congratulate Mr.
Richards his winning the "Employee
of the Year" Award.
(A) to
(C) with
(B) in
(D) on
06 Dealing with angry customers every day
became too to handle, so she quit
the receiver position.
(A) frustrate
(C) frustrating
(B) frustrated
(D) frustration
07 Those who sign up for Internet connection
now will have the to try our service
for free.
(A) opportunity
(C) situation
(B) job
(D) progress
08 Hank from depression, having lost
his job in January from budget cutbacks in the
service department.
(A) will suffer (B) was suffering
(C) will have suffered (D) suffer
09 The company decided to give her a chance,
doubts regarding her ability to
perform such high-level tasks.
(A) but (B) yet
(C) nevertheless (D) despite
10 The office manager gave a short
about the office's new security system.
(A) confession (B) presentation
(C) organization (D) interpretation
11 Please be reminded that we are not
responsible for any damage to the product
due to careless use, intentional misuse or
customer negligence.
(A) other (B) the other
(C) another (D) others
12 Sales of small cars have been so high in Asia
that the German automaker is into
entering the Asian market.
(A) watching
(C) searching
(B) looking
(D) viewing
13 the remodeling is finished, the office
cubicles can be put back in place and regular
work hours can begin again.
(A) As soon as (B) However
(C) While (D) In time for
14 We experienced applicants with
strong qualifications and good marketing skills
for sales position.
(A) research
(C) seek
(B) contain
(D) persuade
15 A thorough of the journal article
is needed before it can be published next
(A) revising
(C) revise
(B) revision
(D) revised
16 The proposal should be ready next week,
how long it takes the architects to
finish the floor plan.
(A) resulting from
(C) depending on
(B) partly because
(D) certain
17 The speakers will be on the radio talk show
their views on energy issues in North
(A) introductory
(C) introduction
(B) introduce
(D) introducing
18 renting a vehicle, verify the exact
amount to be paid for licenses and
maintenance costs.
{A) Rather than
(C) Because
(B) When
(D) As though
19 The profitability of the X-27 is about
1 0 percent higher than previous models of
this machine.
(A) overall
(C) overdue
(B) overcast
(D) overwhelmed
20 Please let me know if there are office spaces
still available lease in the new
(A) into
(C) for
(B) as
(D) with
Questions 21-23 refer to the following advertisement.
Happy Pharmacy Valued Customer Day
We are pleased to announce that Happy Pharmacy will be celebrating its 1 0
h anniversary next
week. We recognize that our success is largely due to the strong support we receive from custom-
ers like you. In appreciation, we would like to invite you in our Valued Customer Day on
21 (A) participate
(B) to participate
(C) participating
(D) participation
April 26. Visit any of our convenient locations and you will be treated to refreshments, as well as
a 15 percent discount on all purchases over $20.00. In addition, you will get the chance to meet
local health practitioners, try out new products, and enter your name to win a two months' worth of
vitamins courtesy of Happy Pharmacy. We hope that you will take advantage of this great oppor-
tunity to save money and get to know the health services in your area. We hope to offer
22 (A) recently
(B) conclusively
(C) continually
(D) timelessly
more events like this in the future. A flyer with our store addresses for your information.
24 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
23 (A) enclosed
(B) has enclosed
(C) was enclosed
(D) is enclosed
Questions 24-26 refer to the foll owing e-mail.
From: Breakgen Productions
To: Darcey Kerr
Subject: DVD Order
Dear Ms. Kerr,
Thank you for your recent order for a copy of our DVD boxed set of Werewolf Killer. Unfortunately,
we have discontinued this boxed set edition and will be unable to fulfill your order as . We
24 (A) request
(B) requesting
(C) requests
(D) requested
apologize for any inconvenience this may cause. We do offer an alternative version of this DVD that
contains the original broadcasts as well as other additional features. Bonuses include
25 (A) presently
(B) previ ously
(C) purposefully
(D) generally
unreleased footage, a documentary about the making of the program, and an interview with the
director. Because of this material , the DVD has become one of our bestsellers.
26 (A) essential
(B) supplemental
(C) excessive
(D) promotional
The only other difference between the boxed set you ordered and this edition is the external pack-
aging. Of course, should you decide to purchase a copy of Werewolf Killer and find that it is not
suitable, you may return it for a full refund.
Elmo J. Pudd
Customer Service Department , Breakgen Productions
nt ivi . m
Directions: In this part, you will be asked to read several texts, such as advertisements, articles or
examples of business correspondence. Each text is followed by several questions. Select the best
answer to each question and mark the corresponding letter (A), (B), (C), or (D) on your textbook.
26 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
Questions 27-28 refer to the following invitation.
fJ'fie 'Embassy of Spain
requests tfie pfeasure of your company
at a reception aruf cfinner
to weCc.ome
tfie new .9Lm6assatfor of Spain, .9Lntonio :Martinez
on :Friday, tfie twenty-secoruf of .9Lugust
at 7:00p.m.
fJ'fie fJ'own Jiote[
:Manfiattan, 'J..[ew Yori(City
r.B fact( tie
'l(egina '])avis
o/ arufer6i[t Offices
:Manfiattan, 'J..LY
27 What is the reason for the dinner?
(A) To award an outstanding manager
28 What is the recipient asked to do?
(A) Bring a companion
(B) To welcome a government representative
(C) To introduce a new executive
(D) To welcome a visiting delegati on
(B) Be on time
(C) Prepare food
(D) Reply to the invitation
Diaanostic TP<t - 77
Questions 29-30 refer to the following information.
The community center is pleased to announce that it will
be hosting the Midwestern Women's Association's s th an-
nual bazaar next weekend. Items to be sold at the event
include home-made quilts, freshly baked pies, jams, and
hand-made crafts. All participating community members are
asked to bring at least one item to sell at the bazaar. Of
course, donations are welcomed and will be used to im-
prove the community center facilities. We are considering
the installation of a media center for the education and
convenience of the community youth who aren't fortu-
nate enough to have access to such technology. With your
contributions, it will also be possible to organize and hold
more meaningful events for the community. As always,
please spread the word to your neighbors about the event
next Saturday. A sign-up sheet is located on the bulletin
board in the main hall. It is sure to be a time of warmth,
friendsh i p, and community!
29 What are participants of the event asked to do?
(A) Help set up tables
(B) Donate an item
(C) Purchase tickets in advance
(D) Fill out a form
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30 What is mentioned about the bazaar?
(A) It is a yearly event.
(B) It is outdoors.
(C) It is free of charge.
(D) It is held during the summer.
Questions 31-33 refer to the following job advertisement.
Executive Housekeeper
We are looking for an individual with an energetic personality. The qualified candidate
will be responsible for managing and overseeing all public areas of the compound. A
minimum of 3 years' experience in a similar position is required.
Convention Services Representative
Assists the manager in ensuring maximum sales, profit, and guest satisfaction of catering
groups through proactive selling, maximization of incremental revenue of confirmed book-
ings and securing repeat bookings. Must have a minimum of 2 years' experience.
Front Desk Agent
The front desk agent is responsibl e for the professional and efficient operation of the recep-
tion desk. Previous experience necessary. Must be outgoing and people-oriented and have
excell ent oral and written communication skills. Possesses the ability to deal with pressure
in a graceful and courteous manner. Position must be filled today.
Guest Service Agent
Guest services for arriving guests. Responsibiliti es include door person and valet. A driver' s
li cense is necessary. Must be able to lift up to 80ibs and work standing for long periods of
time. Full-time posi ti on. May require extended work hours on weekdays and weekends.
E-mail a resume and all pertinent informati on to hrd@fairfield.com. Those applying for
supervisory positi ons must include two letters of reference.
31 Who might have put up this advertisement?
(A) A housekeeping agency
(B) A convention hall
(C) A large hotel
(D) A recruiting firm
32 What is a requirement of the front desk agent job?
(A) A minimum of 3 years' experience
(B) Good interpersonal skills
(C) A degree in hotel management
(D) Proficient typing skills
33 What should be submitted for the executive
(A) Letters of recommendation
(B) A copy of college transcripts
(C) A copy of a driver's license
(D) A certificate of training
Diagnostic Test - 29
Questions 34-37 refer to the following article.
Although many in the industry were surprised by Anna Page's win for best actress at the
Independent Movie Awards (IMA), nobody was more surprised than the young Australian
herself. "I am really shocked. It is a great honor to even be nominated. I will treasure this
moment for years to come."
Although only twenty-three years of age, Anna has already appeared in eight films, acting
in her first movie at the age of twelve. Anna has always done smaller, supporting roles but
was noticed by film director Kennedy James, who decided she was perfect for his film Ju-
piter, which led to critical praise and eventually an IMA. Anna says she's not interested in
big budget films and always works on smaller, independent productions. "With independent
films, there isn't this pressure that exists in studio films. You are freer to try something new
or different. I have never enjoyed doing movies that are totally controlled by a big studio."
Anna said she would love to work with Kennedy James again, and that the two of them
are currently working on a script. When asked how winning the IMA has changed her life,
Anna replied, "Well, I definitely get more movie offers, but other than that, not much. I'm
the same girl I've always been."
The IMAs are awarded annually to actors, directors and writers of independent film produc-
tions. Films must focus on social issues and be financed by filmmakers. Awards are given
based on the votes of more than 3,000 peers in the independent film industry.
34 What is true about Ms. Page?
(A) She is a film director.
(B) She was surprised to win the award.
(C) She has acted in twelve films.
(D) She is interested in writing.
35 The phrase "have never enjoyed" in
paragraph 2, li ne 7 is closest in meaning to
(A) am not part of
(B) have not experienced
(C) do not like
(D) am not involved in
30 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
36 What is a requirement for an Independent
Movie Award?
(A) Winners must appear in ten films.
(B) Winners must be under thirty years of age.
(C) Winners must be nominated by 3,000
(D) Winners must work on movies about social
37 What is suggested about the films Ms. Page
has acted in?
(A) They were big budget productions.
(B) They were small films.
(C) They were not enjoyable.
(D) They were all directed by Kennedy James.
Questions 38-40 refer to the following letter.
Robert Hartshire
1219 North Street
Helmsley Park, CA
Dear Mr. Hartshire,
Carrie Wynand
Wadley Mortgage Firm
Woodland Hills, CA
October 21
This is in response to your inquiry regarding the mortgage trainee position we advertised in The Cali-
fornia Herald. We would like to congratulate you on your interest in becoming a mortgage banker.
There has been an overwhelmingly favorable response by mortgage brokers to the possibilities af-
forded by an online system that has resulted in record double-digit growth.
The mortgage banking team consists of professionals who are setting industry standards for innovation
and service. Wadley Mortgage emphasizes the need to expand its system into the technological world.
Therefore, we support the professional development and training of our employees. We firmly believe
that the key to success rests in the quality of our bankers. Therefore, we are proud to offer people the
opportunity to take part in our training program.
To participate in our program, you will need to submit the following: an application using the applica-
tion form available on Wadley Mortgage's website, a Jetter of reference, and your resume (including
a cover letter). After you submit the required documents, the selection committee will post their deci-
sion on the website, which you may access with the code sent to your e-mail account after the entire
application has been received.
Once again, thank you for your interest.
Best regards,
Carr;e ivynand
Carrie Wynand
38 What is the purpose of this letter?
(A) To inform the applicant that he was rejected
(B) To remind the applicant that his documents
are incomplete
(C) To respond to a potential applicant
(D) To tell the applicant when he can get the
39 What should the candidate do next?
(A) Indicate interest by calling Ms. Wynand
(B) Visit the office for an interview
(C) Send a reply via e-mail
(D) Provide the necessary paperwork
40 What is suggested about Mr. Hartshire?
(A) He works at Wadley Mortgage.
(B) He has previously contacted the firm.
(C) He has already applied to the program.
(D) He has experience in the banking industry.
Questions 41-45 refer to the following e-mail and memo.
To: All Employees
Josephine Napolitano
April 26
Training Sessions for Accounting Software
Starting next week, we will be offering training courses for new accounting software which
was installed on our network this week.
Introduction MayS Conference Room A
Updates and innovations May6 Conference Room A
Workshop May9 Computer Lab 8
Question I Answer session May 10 Conference Room D
Mr. Alex Miller from ACS Software will conduct the first two presentations, and our own
computer technician, Ms. Wentworth, will be leading our workshop and question I answer
session. Those interested are required to register with the personnel department before
April 30.
To: All staff (accounting department)
From: Erica Bane, director of finance
Everyone received an e-mail from the personnel department about the training courses
in May for the new software program from ACS. All employees from the accounting
department are required to attend these courses, not just new staff.
Although some of you are already familiar with the program, there have been recent
changes and updates to the software that you may not be aware of. This is why I think
the courses would be beneficial for everyone. Each session will last from 9 a.m. to 11
a.m., so you will have enough time to finish your work. If you do have any problems
attending because of your schedule, please speak with Tom Holmes.
32 - Hackers TOEIC Reading www.nhantriviet.com
41 What is indicated in the e-mail?
(A) The courses will begin on April 30.
(B) The workshop will be conducted by an
ACS representative.
(C) Registration forms are at the front desk.
(D) The training sessions will be held in the
same month.
42 What department does Ms. Napolitano work
(A) Technical support
(B) Personnel
(C) Marketing
(D) Accounting
43 What is the purpose of the memo?
(A) To tell workers about new office regulations
(B) To inform staff of requirements
(C) To request registration forms from
(D) To explain a new software program
44 What does the memo suggest?
(A) All accounting staff will attend the training
(B) Trai ning will be held in the personnel
(C) The trai ning sessions will be conducted by
Tom Hol mes.
(D) Training schedules will be sent to
45 What are employees with schedule problems
asked to do?
(A) Call the personnel department
(B) Send an e-mail to Ms. Bane
(C) Contact Mr. Holmes
(D) Cancel their appointments
Diagnostic Test - 33
Questions 46-50 refer to the following article and letter.
Sunday, June 18: The 19
Office Furnishings Fair (OFF) was held at the international con-
vention center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from June 15 to 17. This event played host to
more than 400 office furniture and supply companies from around the globe. This year,
such notable designers as Camilla Puglia and Denver Green were showcased. Organizers
estimate that more than 80,000 people attended the event, and that this year's trade fair
was the best yet, with nearly 18,000 orders placed. The fair lasted three days, and Jared
Ibrahim, spokesman for the convention center, said, "We could easily have kept the busi-
ness flowing for another three days."
Hiro Yakutake
Eiko Industries
Shibuya-Ku, Tokyo 150-8691
Dear Mr. Yakutake,
June 24
I met with you at your company's exhibition area on the first day of the Office Fur-
nishings Fair in Kuala Lumpur. You showed me some of your company's new desk
designs and provided me with a brochure.
We are very interested in some of your products, but unfortunately, I never received
a price list while at the fair. If you could e-mail me a copy of the list to sthath@
neoresearch.net, I would appreciate it. After I receive the list, I will call you to dis-
cuss a possible order. Our offices are moving to a new building, so we would require
new furnishings by September 10.
Thanks for your help. I hope to do business with you soon.
Steve Hathaway
Resource Director, Neo Research Corp.
34 - Hackers TOEIC Reading www.nhantriviet.com
46 In the article, what is NOT mentioned about
the trade fai r?
(A) It was held in Malaysia.
(B) It has been held nineteen times.
(C) It lasted for five days.
(D) It attracted more than 400 companies.
47 In the article, the word "notable" in line 4 is
closest in meaning to
(A) customary
(B) important
(C) definite
(D) elaborate
48 What is indicated in the letter?
(A) Eiko Industries produces office furniture.
(B) Eiko Industries offers a free delivery service.
(C) Eiko Industries is a new company.
(D) Eiko Industries is based in Kuala Lumpur.
49 When did Mr. Hathaway most likely meet with
Mr. Yakutake?
(A) June 15
(B) June 16
(C) June 18
(D) June 24
50 What does Mr. Hathaway ask Mr. Yakutake to
(A) Fax a price list
(B) Make a phone call
(C) Send an e-mail
(D) Mail a brochure
Answers: p. 543
After doing the diagnostic test, you
should refer to page 18 to find out
your current level.


' I
In the TOEIC test, grammar questions are found in Part 5 -Sentence Completion, and Part 6- Text
Completion. Questions in Parts 5 and 6 also involve business settings and situations like those in the
other parts of the test.
Testing Points
TOEIC testing points on grammar are similar to those often found in general English grammar. They
include basic sentence elements, verb-related structures, verbals, parts of speech, conjunctions and
clauses, and special structures like comparison, parallelism, and inversion.
Question Percentage
Basic sentence elements 3%
Verb-related structures 12%
Verbals 10%
Test-Taking Strategies
Step 1: Look at the four answer choices to decide whether it is a grammar question.
For example, if you see words of the same root, such as information, inform, informative, informa-
tively, or give, to give, giving, given, provided as possible answer choices to a question, you can
conclude that it is a grammar question.
Step 2: Look at the words around the gap to find out important clues and understand
the meaning of the whole sentence or the whole text.
Part 5: Example
Rosalind ___ decided to accept the textile design job that
was offered to her by F rness Clothing Manufactures.
(A) finalize (B) final! (C) finalized (D) final - ----t-'
Step 1 : Look at the four answer choices to
decide whether it is a grammar question.
The four answer choices are words derived
from the same root (final). You, therefore, can
conclude that this is a question on grammar.
Part 6: Example
'--------------------1 Step 2: Look at the words around the gap to
find out important clues and understand the
meaning of the whole sentence.
The missing word comes between the subject
(Rosalind) and the verb (decided). By finding
The air-travel industry and environmentalists from around the out the important clues (the subject and the
country are eagerly awaiting the 2nd Air Transportation and the
verb), you can decide that a modifier (an ad-
Environment Conference next week.
verb) is needed for the gap.
(A) can open
Step 1 : Look at the four answer choices to
(B) opened
decide whether it is a grammar question.
(C) opening
The four answer choices are verb-related
(D) is opened
words. You, therefore, can conclude that this
is a question on grammar.
The keynote speakers will focus on the concerns and progress
made in each of these areas by speaking on current trends in 1-- Step 2: Look at the words around the gap to
creating more environmentally friendly aircraft and airports.
find out important clues and understand the
meaning of the whole sentence or the whole
The sentence already has a main verb in the
present continuous tense (are awaiting).
Therefore, only the noun (opening) is the best
answer choice.
Section 1
Basic Sentence Elements
Chapter 01 - Subjects, Verbs
Chapter 02 - Objects, Complements
Chapter 03 - Modifiers
Basic Points
A verb refers to the action or state of a subject. A subject is a person
or thing that performs the action in a sentence.
Kathy ate an apple.
Ate in this sentence is the verb showing the action of the subject Kathy (a person) who
does the action.
In a complete sentence, there must always be a subject and a verb.
Kathy an apple. (X)
ate an apple. (X)
Both of these examples are not sentences. The first one does not have a verb, and the
second does not have a subject. To form a complete sentence, a subject and a verb
must always exist.
42 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
01 Subjects
0 Subjects in sentences may have various forms, all of which have the function of a noun
coming before a main verb. Common forms of subjects include:
Noun phrase The top executives agreed to negotiate with the union.
Pronoun They are having a team meeting today.
Gerund phrase Operating the machinery is difficult.
To-mfinitive phrase To meet the president was a privilege.
Noun clause What Jane needs for her office is unclear.
~ The underlined parts are the focus of the subjects. These parts are often tested in TOEIC.
Note: A to-1nf1nit1ve coming 1n the pos1tion of a subject IS not common. It is often used in the structure w1th
the dummy subject It presented i ~ Po1nt 02 of thiS chapter - Dummy Subject lt.
8 Verbs and adjectives cannot come in the position of a subject.
A rushed 6eeiee should be avoided under any circumstances.
~ h e verb decide cannot come in the position of the subject. It should be the noun decision.
The financial healthy of the company is in doubt.
~ The adjective healthy cannot come in the position of the subject. It should be the noun health.
8 A subject and its verb must agree in number.
The prospects of increased revenue awaits us next year.
prospect --
~ Because the verb awaits is singular, the subject must also be in the singular form (prospect).
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B) , (C), or
(D) -best completes the sentence.
1. Please remember that the of
electronic devices is prohibited during
takeoffs and landings.
(A) operation
(C) operated
(B) operate
(D) operator
2. Personal left behind on seats in the
theater are brought to the lost and found
department, but most are never claimed.
(A) belonging (B) belongs
(C) belongings (D) belong
3. The new that is going up at Williams
Street will accommodate hundreds of
commercial enterprises.
(A) structural (B) structurally
(C) structured (D) structure
Answers: p. 543
Chapter 01 Subjects, Verbs - 43

02 Dummy Subject It
0 It is used to replace a long subject such as a to-infinitive phrase or a that-clause. In this case,
It is called dummy subject, and the long subject is called real subject.
It is important to open negotiations with the Brazilian firm.
Dummy subject Real subject (to infinitive phrase)
It is understood that Mr. Gann will resign fairly soon.
Dummy subject Real subject (thatclause)
@ It is used with a that-clause to emphasize the noun or prepositional phrase that comes after lt.
It was Jane that gave a speech.
Emphasized part
It is in the conference room that the most important meetings take place.
Emphasized part
Note: When the emphasized part is a person, that can be replaced by who(m). When the emphasized part 1s
a thing, that can be replaced by which.
It was Patrick who won the game.
It was the song which captured my attention.
' - - "" --' '
@) The dummy subject It cannot be replaced by any other word.
::r:hat was a cat that was stuck in the tree last night.
..- That cannot replace it.
fflere is possible that nobody will attend the meeting.
..- There cannot replace it.
TOEIC Questions
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B), (C), or
(D) -best completes the sentence.
1. When deciding what food to serve guests at
a party, is always best to choose
dishes that can be prepared ahead of time.
(A) there (B) what
(C) that (D) it
44 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
2. It is mandatory to a work identification
card when you first enter the company.
(A) obtain (B) obtaining
(C) obtainment (D) obtained
3. Although the two copywriters in the office are
often at odds with one another, is clear
that they have respect for each other's work.
(A) there (B) it
(C) what (D) that
Answers: p. 543
03 Dummy Subject There
0 There is used to show the existence of somebody or something and is used in the structure
There+ linking verb (be, remain, exist)+ real subject (noun/noun phrase).
There are eleven offices on this floor.
Dummy Real subject (noun phrase)
There remains some doubt over her level of dedication.
Dummy Real subject (noun phrase)
There exists a possibility that the company will be bought out this year.
Dummy Real subject (noun phrase)
@ In the structure There + linking verb + real subject, a verb cannot come in the position of the
real subject.
We will contact you if there are cancelled.
-- cancellations
There are must be followed by the noun cancellations which is the real subject of the sentence.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. remain significant challenges for
the fledgling company as it tries to gain a
foothold in a highly competitive market.
(A) It (B) There
(C) He (D) They
Hackers Skill Distinguishing between it and there
2. The publisher prints an apology on the second
page of the magazine when there are
of fact in previous issues.
(A) errs (B) erroneous
(C) errors (D) erred
3. I am hopeful that somewhere in the city
exists a position with the hours and
benefits I seek.
(A) there
(C) he
(B) it
(D) what
Answers: p. 543
Read the whole sentence. If the sentence expresses an opinion or a comment, use the dummy subject
it. If the sentence mentions the existence of somebody or something, use the dummy subject There.
When you want to travel , it (tftefe) is a good idea to plan ahead.
There (It) is a guidebook in each language.
The dummy subject It is followed by a noun, an adjective, a prepositional phrase, etc. The dummy
subject There can be followed by a noun/noun phrase only.
It (=tflete) is fair to give him a chance.


04 Verbs
0 In a sentence, a verb must come after its subject (an auxiliary/a modal verb may come before
The supervisor oversees an entire office.
The supervisor can oversee an entire office.
8 Two forms derived from a verb are bare infinitive + -ing and to + bare infinitive.
The supervisor overseeing an entire office. (X)
The supervisor to oversee an entire office. (X)
and to oversee are not the mai n verbs because they are not conjugated. Overseeing (gerund/
present participle) and to oversee (to-i nfi nitive) are called verbals.
@) Nouns and adjectives cannot come in the position of a verb.
Jake affi-vat a few minutes late for the meeting.
noun arrival cannot come in the posi tion of the verb. It should be the conjugated verb arrived.
This company compliant with government regulations.
adjective compliant cannot come in the posi tion of the verb. It should be the conjugated verb
Note: Pay attention to verbs that have the same form as nouns or adjectives.
function complete schedule contact place
finance question separate deposit demand
process cost name secure service
influence purchase experience document correct
feature transfer claim access
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B) , (C) , or
(D) -best completes the sentence.
2. The new regulation from the Department of
Transportation a change in the manner
in which rest time is calculated for commercial
vehicle drivers.
1. The value of the dollar yesterday
against the Japanese yen after the conflict in
the Middle East died down.
(A) rising (B) to rise
(C) risen (D) rose
46 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(A) requires
(C) to require
3. Salaried employees
(B) requiring
(D) requirement
a 10 percent
increase in wages last year as an incentive to
increase production.
(A) receipt
(C) received
(B) to receive
(D) receiving
Answers: p. 543
05 Number/Tense/Voice of a Verb
0 Subjects and their verbs must agree in number.
The results of the inquiry was made public today.
the subject is in the plural form (results), the verb must be in the plural form, too (were).
8 Verbs must agree in tense based on time expressions.
Randy jeffls the firm seven years ago.
Because there is a time expression indicating the past (seven years ago) , the verb must be conjugated in
the past tense (j oined).
@) Verbs must correctly be used in the active voice or the passive voice.
The accounting reports checked by a team of auditors.
were checked
subject The accounting reports is a thing and is acted on by a team. Thus, its verb must be in the
passive voice (were checked) .
They were used their savings for a charitable cause.
subject They performs the action, so its verb must be in the active voice (used).
r I
Note: Number/tense/vo1ce of a verb will be presented 1n detail1n Chapters 05, 06, and 07 of Section 2-
' Verb-Related Structures. .
.. l: .. - - ..... '1.. ....."'-...'&!')oo" t . . ' '- . !
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B), (C), or
(D) -best completes the sentence.
1. A notice about the vacancy on the
company message board.
(A) were posted (B) have posted
(C) to post (D) will be posted
2. Mr. Franzen Joyce Marcus head
inspector of the company's several factories
located in the southern region of the country.
(A) name (B) named
(C) is naming (D) namely
3. When CSI Peripherals its sales
division, one middle manager and three
assistant administrators were dismissed.
(A) was restructuring
(C) to restructure
(B) was restructured
(D) restructures
Answers: p. 543
Chapter 01 Subjects, Verbs - 47


"' c..
06 Verbs in the Imperative
0 An imperative sentence starts with a bare infinitive.
Place the report on my desk.
Please complete this form and sign at the bottom.
Note: An imperative sentence does not have a subject. Imperative sentences are used to give orders. com-
mands, warn1ngs, or 1nstruct1ons. For a polite request, we add please at the beg1nn1ng or end of the
sentence .
,. " _1.. "' 0 "'"-\"" '
8 When + participial phrase or If-clause before an imperative sentence
When investigating an insurance claim, follow all company procedures.
If you would like to request a transfer, submit this form.
In the TOEIC test, verbs in the imperative are more commonly asked than the When + participial phrase
or If-clause. Sometimes, you may find phrases introduced by Whatever instead.
@) Only bare infinitives can come in the position of the main verb in an imperative sentence.
Conjugated verbs, verbals, nouns, or any other part of speech cannot be put in this position.
Please Aa-s a seat.
conjugated verb cannot be used in the imperative.
Whatever your destination, on J Net for quality service.
gerund cannot be used in the imperative.
When negotiating a partnership, tfia+ to be open-minded.
noun cannot be used in the imperative.
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B), (C), or
(D) -best completes the sentence.
1. When making a presentation,
discussing matters already known to the
(A) to avoid
(C) avoiding
48 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(B) avoids
(D) avoid
2. Whatever your investment needs, on
Farallon Services to provide the information and
advice you need to make a wise investment.
(A) counts (B) count
(C) counted (D) counting
3. If the strategy fails to meet the team's objectives,
the plan in order to determine where its
weaknesses are.
(A) evaluating
(C) evaluate
(B) to evaluate
(D) evaluation
Answers: p. 543

Choose a correct option for each sentence.
01 The technician (working/worked) night and day to get the security system running.
02 The (complete / completion) of the new office will enhance our operations in Europe.
03 The freshness of the vegetables at the market (vary / varies) depending on the time of year.
04 (Reduce I Reducing) the amount of paper wasted in the office is one of the manager's priorities.
05 Investment activities for the agreement (comprise/comprisal) cash payments as well as stock
06 (It/That) was important to finish discussing the recent deal before moving on to other business.
07 All assignments should (send / be sent) to the director's mailbox by the Saturday deadl ine.
Decide whether each of the sentences below is correct or incorrect. If it is correct, write
"correct"; if it is incorrect, point out the mistake(s) and provide (a) correction(s).
08 Efficient is the most important consideration in the company's decision about whether to relocate.
09 When Joseph completes the audit , he concluded that it needed to be revised.
10 When uncertain about what to do in a work-related situation, asks your supervisor.
11 The information Robert provided is several months out of date.
12 There is known that high salaries contribute to staff retention and loyalty.
13 The engineer estimation that the building will need three thousand tons of concrete.
14 Its downtown locate means that the office is in a prestigious business district.
Answers: p. 543

Part 5
01 Management on resource allocation
for the coming quarter will have to be set
aside until the director arrives back from his
business trip.
(A) decides
(C) decisions
(B) decide
(D) decisive
02 The price of a sketch or an oil painting
the frame and the cost of delivering
the artwork to the buyer's address.
(A) include (B) including
(C) includes (D) inclusion
03 Commuters arriving at the Logan Square
station had no choice but to use the stairway
because the was being repaired.
(A) escalate (B) escalator
(C) escalation (D) escalating
04 The lipstick samples back to the
manufacturer when it was discovered that a
number of the lipstick cases were defective.
(A) were sent (B) were sending
(C) sent (D) being sent
05 Director Patterson's was that the
institute should move its headquarters to
Austin, Texas.
(A) conclusion
(C) conclude
(B) conclusive
(D) conclusively
06 Sales revenue significantly since the
launch of the company's new ad campaign.
(A) increase (B) will increase
(C) has increased (D) increasing
07 If you plan on renovating your apartment, be
sure that the changes you make with
the stipulations in your rental contract.
(A) compliant (B) complying
(C) compliance (D) comply
SO - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(9 Time limit: 11 minutes
08 The training department requires even
seasoned employees to attend safety courses
in the workplace.
(A) prevent
(C) to prevent
09 Katherine Bryant
of accidents is paramount
(B) prevention
(D) preventable
Purcell Firm forty
years ago, making her one of our longest-
serving employees since the firm was first
(A) joining
(C) joined
(B) join
(D) joins
10 The Japanese backed out of the
World Peace Conference when more than
half its members came down with the flu the
day before their flight.
(A) delegate
(C) delegation
(B) delegated
(D) delegating
11 The chef a cooking clinic for
housewives to teach them how to make
consomme and other French soups.
(A) to organize (B) organized
(C) organization (D) organizing
12 The sudden of Harvey Wyman as
executive director has left the corporation in
a state of uncertainty.
(A) resign
(C) resignedly
(B) resignation
(D) resigned
13 Approximately half of the employees at
Sabian & Randolf, Ltd. to work by
(A) commute (B) commutes
(C) is commuting (D) has commuted
14 By the end of the first quarter, the company
estimated profit by over 1 0 percent.
(A) exceeding (B) had exceeded
(C) was exceeded (D) to exceed
15 The of the agreement forced the
lessee to comply with the legal requirements
necessary to obtain a new contract.
(A) cancel (B) cancellation
(C) cancelling (D) cancelled
16 The project development director
evaluations for all projects administered
in the last quarter to be on her desk by
tomorrow morning.
(A) have expected
(C) to expect
(B) expects
(D) expecting
17 The Board overwhelmingly the
proposal made by the marketing division,
considering it too complex at the present
stage of expansion.
(A) rejected
(C) reject
Part 6
(B) rejecting
(D) was rejected
Questions 21-23 refer to the following memo.
18 is very important that all visitors to
the production plant wear protective glasses
and helmets in the assembly area.
{A) What (B) This
(C) That (D) It
19 The new main office was housed in a bright
and modern building, but its was
inconvenient for employees who didn't have a
(A) locate
(C) located
(B) to locate
(D) location
20 When having an important document
delivered, the receiver that the
package is on its way.
(A) notification (B) notify
(C) notifies (D) notifying
We will begin our week-long training seminar this coming Monday, May 31 . The
21 (A) intend
(C) intending
of this
(B) intention
(D) intentional
seminar is to improve office efficiency and productivity. We will be holding the seminar in Confer-
ence Room D. As seating is limited to only forty people, employees wishing to attend the work-
shop are to register ahead of time. You can sign up at the personnel office, but please
22 (A) determined (B) altered
(C) advised (D) utilized
be aware that we written permission from your manager before we can register you for this
23 (A) require (B) requirement
(C) requiring (D) to require
event. Thanks for your cooperation, and we hope to see you at the seminar on Monday.
Answers: p. 543
www.nhantriviet.com Chapter 01 Subjects, Verbs - 51

"' a.
" <0
Basic Points
An object is the receiver of the act ion in a sentence. It completes the
meaning of a transitive verb.
I like pizza.
Pizza completes the meaning of the verb like and it is the object of the sentence. With-
out this object , the sentence is incomplete.
I li ke. (X)
Some verbs need two objects. One is the indirect object and the other
is the direct object.
My girlfriend gave me chocolate.
Object 1 Object 2
Usually, the meaning of the verb give is completed by two objects as in sentence struc-
ture 4 - subject + verb + object 1 (indirect object) + object 2 (direct object) . Common
verbs used with this structure include give, grant , teach, instruct , send, buy, bring,
tell , offer, etc.
A complement completes the meaning of a verb and modifies the
subject or object of a sentence. There are subject complements and
object complements.
He is a magician.
I find magic exciting.
A magician is the complement of the subject He, and exciting is the complement of
the object magic. Without these complements, the sentences are incomplete.
He is. (X)
I find magic. (X)
52 - Hackers TOEIC Reading www.nhantriviet.com
01 Objects
0 Objects in sentences may take certain forms, all of which function as a noun. Common forms
of objects include:
Noun phrase
Jake has enough business sense to run his own company.
I can't find them anywhere in the office.
Fred hates working overtime.
Helen wants to get a new job.
Gerund phrase
To-infinitive phrase
Noun clause I agree that we need new filing cabinets.
~ The underlined parts are the focus of the objects. These parts are often tested in TOEIC.
@ Verbs, adjectives, and adverbs cannot come in the position of an object.
The company guarantees 6eHvef in five to seven days.
~ The verb deliver cannot come in the position of the object. It should be the noun delivery.
Planners designed the productive with the teenage consumer in mind.
~ The adjective productive cannot come in the position of the object. It should be the noun product.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C) , or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Reliance Property Developers takes great
in announcing that we have
purchased eleven square kilometers of land
in the Hartford area.
(A) please
(C) pleasant
~ ~ . L.- .... _: .. :_ .... ----
(B) pleasure
(D) pleasurable
.. ,. ; ,
2. Working in the field helped the trainees to
formulate a better business that
would address the problems raised by Mr.
(A) strategic
(C) strategy
(B) strategical
(D) strategize
3. The manager posted a note stating that the
staff should know the revised for
company tours.
(A) proceed
(C) procedural
(B) proceeds
(D) procedures
Answers: p. 543

"' 0..
02 Dummy Object It
0 The structure subject+ verb+ dummy object it+ adjective+ real object (to-infinitive phrase/that-
clause) is used to put more emphasis on the opinion rather than the real object.
I found to use the software easy.
it easy to use the software
The real obj ect of the sentence is the to-infinitive phrase to use the software.
The entire staff thought that the CEO didn't attend the seminar peculiar.
it peculiar that the CEO didn't attend the seminar
The real object of the sentence is the that-clause that the CEO didn't attend the seminar.
Note: When the real object IS a noun phrase, the structure w1th the dummy object it cannot be used.
Mrs. Tyne's leadership made .it possible the expans1on of the companx.
) , ... ....... ,;;._, I i '"
8 The phrase make it possible is frequently used.
The machinery will make it possible to increase productivity.
The to-infinitive phrase to increase productivity is the real object of this sentence.
Revisions to the contract will make it possible negotiate interest rates.
to negotiate
The to-infi nitive to negotiate, not the bare infinitive negotiate, must be used.
Note: You can replace possible by other adjectives such as easy, difficult, necessary, etc. These adjectives
modify the real object of the sentence.
The Internet made it easy to find information about job openings.
He made it difficult to talk by constantly interrupting.
Decide which of the choices- (A) , (B) , (C) , or
(D) -best completes the sentence.
1. The proposed budget increases would make
it possible added support to each
sector of the firm.
(A) give
(C) to give
54 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(B) gave
(D) in giving
2. The whole community found it unreasonable
the city proposed building a landfill
site within a twenty-mile radius of the city limits.
(A) whi ch (B) about
(C) that (D) when
3. To develop a spirit of creativity in the office,
supervisors should make it necessary
the initiative of each employee.
(A) recognize (B) to recognize
(C) of recognizi ng (D) recognized
Answers: p. 543
03 Complements
0 Complements may take the form of a noun or an adjective.
Complements in the form of a noun
Noun phrase Previous work experience will be an advantage for applicants.
Gerund phrase His specialty is designing databases.
To-infinitive phrase The important thing is to include your phone number.
Noun clause The problem is that we do not have sufficient capital.
Complements in the form of an adjective
The new investments are profitable.
We found the art exhibit fascinating.
The underlined parts are the focus of the complements. These parts are often tested in TOEIC.
@ Verbs and adverbs cannot come in the position of a complement.
All employees are cooperate with the new policy.
The verb cooperate cannot come in the position of the complement. It should be the adjective cooperative.
Excellent acting made the performance excitingly.
The adverb excitingly cannot come in the position of the complement. It should be the adjective exciting.
@) Verbs followed by a subject complement or an object complement
Verbs followed by a subject complement
Verbs followed by an object complement
She became a professional musician.
Mr. Shaw had always considered himself a self-motivated individual.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C) ,
or (D) - best completes the sentence.
1 . The salesmen have been very
in their attempts to get us to purchase a
beachfront property.
(A) persuade
(C) persuading
(B) persuasive
(D) persuaded
2. It was a great that Brian Mann did not
receive the Employee of the Year Award because
he had worked so hard.
(A) disappoints (B) disappointed
(C) disappointing (D) disappointment
3. Although I' m about your situation, I have
to consider the best interests of this company.
(A) empathetic (B) empathize
(C) empathizing (D) empathically
Answers: p. 544
Chapter 02 Objects, Complements - 55
"" )>
04 Noun Complements vs. Adjective Complements
0 When a complement takes the form of a noun, it follows a linking verb or an object and tells us
who/what the subject or object is.
Alice is a ballet dancer.
After two months, Jack became a general manager.
~ The complements a ballet dancer and a general manager give information about the subjects Alice and Jack.
People called him a liar.
We all considered his speech a masterpiece.
~ The complements a liar and a masterpiece give information about the objects him and his speech.
@ When a complement takes the form of an adjective, it follows a linking verb or an object and
gives an opinion, a feeling, an attitude, etc. about the subject or object.
The paintings are impressive.
She seemed bothered at work today.
~ The complements impressive and bothered give opinions about the subjects The paintings and She.
The manager made the workers nervous.
The bank keeps its depositors satisfied with insurance guarantees.
~ The complements nervous and satisfied modify the objects the workers and its depositors.
Note: Complements of the dummy subject it and real subjects (to-infinitive phrase/that-clause):
It is my recommendation for you to move into a higher level class.
It is recommendable for you to move into a higher level class.
{; Both the noun recommendation and the adjective recommendable come in the position of the comple-
ment. However, there should be a possessive adjective or an indefinite article before the noun.
It is ~ p i t y that you can't continue working with us.
It is pitiful that you can't continue working with us.
~ Both the noun pity and the adjective pitiful come in the position of the complement. However, the
first sentence will be grammatically wrong if the noun pity lacks the article a.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Mrs. Heinz is that the company will
be more successful next year.
(A) optimistic (B) optimism
(C) optimist (D) optimistically
2. Because prices at department store sales
were quite , shoppers did not think it
necessary to compare prices.
(A) competition (B) competitive
(C) competitor (D) compete
3. It is for investors to check a company's
performance before purchasing any shares.
(A) advice (B) advisable
(C) advise (D) advisor
Answers: p. 544
Hackers Skill If a complement mentions the state of the subject or object in the sentence, it must
take the form of an adjective, not a noun.
Janelle became interest (- interested) in journalism after attending the writers' workshop.
The bank keeps its depositors satisfaction (- satisfied) with insurance guarantees.
56 - Hackers TOEIC Reading www.nhantriviet.com

Choose a correct option for each sentence.
01 Your reservation for the workshop will not be (complete/completion) until we receive full payment.
02 Sandra lacked the (mature/maturity) needed for someone in a position of such responsibility.
03 The company made the associate (proud/proudly) by electing him as vice president.
04 Investors in the company expressed (amazing/amazement) at the rate of return they received .
05 James asked his broker to keep him (inform I informed) about developments in the market.
06 Unless you send us a written (confirmation/confirmed) , we are not able to ship the order.
07 The new database becomes (operational/operationally) as soon as Mr. Mills gives authorization.
Decide whether each of the sentences below is correct or incorrect. If it is correct, write
"correct"; if it is incorrect, point out the mistake(s) and provide (a) correction(s).
08 When applying for a business loan, you need provide your bank account information.
09 Many people consider credit cards convenience and safe to carry.
10 Sudden budget cuts made it necessary lay off two hundred employees.
11 I found professional workshops incredibly help and productive.
12 Mrs. Fields prefers sharing office tasks to working alone.
13 It is always wisdom to review a contract before signing an agreement to all of its terms.
14 The insurance company offers its customers numerous coverage options.
Answers: p. 544

Part 5
01 Speedy Carrier cannot guarantee
of packages in cases where natural and
unavoidable calamities occur.
(A) deliver
(C) delivered
(B) delivery
(D) deliverable
02 An outstanding tenor and a captivating plot
made last night's opera at the Carnegie Hall
(A) exciting
(C) excitedly
(B) excitable
(D) excitement
03 Starting up the consulting firm is a
that Mr. Richards is eager to take up.
(A) venture (B) venturesome
(C) ventured (D) venturing
04 New factory workers must have their
superintendent's for requisition of
any supplies needed for the assembly line.
(A) approve (B) approval
(C) approves (D) approvingly
05 Customer complaints have become much
more since we installed the
automatic messaging system that filters calls.
(A) managing (B) manage
(C) manageable (D) management
06 The of the company's financial
officer has left a vacancy that the CEO is
trying to quickly fill.
(A) resigned
(C) resignation
(B) resignedly
(D) resign
07 Accounting graduates are required to obtain
to establish their credentials as
licensed public accountants.
(A) certify (B) certified
(C) certifiable (D) certification
58 - Hackers TOEI C Reading
G Time limit: 11 minutes
08 Points earned on the purchase of any of the
products are not to other customers.
(A) transfers (B) transfer
(C) transferable (D) transference
09 The company normally requires each
applicant to be interviewed, but they made
an for Mr. Payne because of his
outstanding resume.
(A) exceptional
(C) except
(B) exception
(D) excepting
10 The health club management keeps
customers by providing quality
service and discounted memberships on a
monthly basis.
(A) satisfaction
(C) satisfyingly
(B) satisfy
(D) satisfied
11 I don't consider it helpful the
manager for advice, as he seems to know
less than anyone else.
(A) ask (B) to ask
(C) by asking (D) asked
12 Meat packing plants must be given a week's
before an inspector from the
Department of Agriculture visits the plant.
(A) notice (B) notices
(C) noticed (D) noticeable
13 Please be and refrain from speaking
loudly or causing a disruption during the
speaker's presentation.
(A) considered (B) consider
(C) consideration (D) considerate
14 Each year, the reclusive writer
25 percent of his yearly earnings to an
orphanage located just outside of the city.
(A) donates (B) donating
(C) are donated (D) to donate
15 Computer game manufacturers are often
even in times of economic slowdown
because the games they produce are usually
(A) profitable
(C) profit
(B) profitably
(D) profiteers
16 Jeff Myers prefers a job that offers the
he enjoyed while completing his internship at
Rytech International.
(A) flexible
(C) flex
17 It is
(B) flexed
(D) flexibility
that with the glut of digital products
coming into the market, the electronics industry
is entering a challenging phase.
(A) cleared (B) clearly
(C) clearest (D) clear
Part 6
18 The firm was granted an to file its
corporate tax with no penalty as long as it
makes the necessary tax prepayments.
(A) extend (B) to extend
(C) extension (D) extensive
19 The artist, whose paintings are currently on
exhibit at the Parkinson Art Center, gets his
from the works of Monet and Degas.
(A) inspi re (B) inspiring
(C) inspired (D) inspiration
20 Most recruiters admit that it is an for
candidates to have a strong background in at
least one foreign language.
(A) advantage (B) advantaged
(C) advantageous (D) advantageously
Questions 21-23 refer to the following information.
For those with frequent changes of address or who wish to maintain privacy in terms of their mail ,
acquiring a post-office box ensures . Once you have selected the most suitable size
21 (A) secure (B) secured
(C) security (D) securely
for your requirements, you will be asked to submit a completed registration form. Due to high
, applicants should be aware that a wait of up to three months may be required. After
22 (A) demand (B) technology
(C) elevation (D) election
approval for ownership of a box is granted, further complications in receiving your mail should
remain as the P.O. box section of the post office is open from 7 a.m. to 10 p.m. daily,
23 (A) minimal (B) minimize
(C) minimizing (D) mi nimall y
including weekends and holidays.
Note: Our policy states that we are not responsible for theft due to lost or stolen keys. Should such
incidents occur, please notify the staff immediately.
Answers: p. 544
Basic Points
A modifier is a word or a group of words that modify basic parts in a
sentence (subject, verb, object , complement). It adds more descrip-
tion to the sentence.
She is lying under the tree.
Basic parts Modif1er
She is lying already forms a complete sentence. The phrase under the tree provides
more information to it.
A modifier is not a must. Sometimes, it can be omitted from a sentence.
He is running with his dog. (0)
He is running. (O)
Without the phrase with his dog, the sentence is sti ll complete and makes sense.
There may be several modifiers in a sentence.
Of all the people I know, Jackie was the best saleswoman that I had ever worked
The basic sentence Jackie was the best saleswoman can be modified by Of all the
people I know and that I had ever worked with.
60 - Hackers TOEIC Reading www.nhantriviet.com
01 Modifiers
0 Modifiers can take any of the following forms:
Prepositional phrase the park, I saw Janice.
I came here to see you. To-mfinit1ve phrase
Participial phrase
Relative clause
Adverb clause
The people invited to the party were my friends.
I respect my colleague who works extremely hard.
When we arrived, we sat down for a cup of tea.
The underlined parts are the focus of the modifiers. These parts are often tested in TOEIC.
Note: Prepositional phrases are presented in deta1l in Chapter 16 of Section 4 - Parts of Speech. to-inf1n1tive
phrases and partic1p1al phrases 1n Chapters 09 and 11 of Section 3 -Verbals, relat1ve clauses and
, adverb clauses in Chapters 19 and 20 of Section 5 - Conjunctions and Clauses.
l '
@ Positions of modifiers
+ subject + verb
[Despite an extensive audit], the error was not discovered.
Mod1fler prepositional phrase) Subject Verb
subject + + verb
These desks [remaining in the hall] must be removed soon.
Subject Modifier (participial phrase) Verb
subject + verb - +
Darren decided to take the new job [although it would be challenging].
Subject Verb Object Modifier (adverb clause)
@ How to find out modifiers
Find out the main verb find out the subject mark the modifier(s) in [ ]
Candidates [applying for the job] must pass a background check.
2) SUbjeCt 3) mod1f1er 1) verb
Find out the main verb in the sentence (must pass) , then the subject (candidates) , and finally mark the
Decide which of the choices - (A) , (B), (C) , or
(D)- best completes the sentence.
1. the new supervisor is mild-mannered
and soft-spoken, she is very firm about getting
work done on time.
(A) Even
(C) If
(B) Then
(D) While
2. The membership packages are offered
by the book club are based on the reading
needs and tastes of the members.
(A) they
(C) those
(B) that
(D) these
3. The newspaper publisher submitted to
an investigation, that charges of
plagiarism against his star reporter would be
dealt with quickly.
(A) ensuring
(C) ensure
(B) be ensured
(D) ensures
Answers: p. 544
Chapter 03 Modifiers - 61

"' ..
02 Modifying Phrases, Modifying Clauses
0 A modifying phrase does not include a conjugated verb. Prepositional phrases, to-infinitive
phrases, and participial phrases belong to this group.
Prepositional phrase Because of a decrease in orders, the company ordered fewer supplies.
To-infinitive phrase The consultant suggested several strategies to reduce overhead costs.
Participial phrase Employees on the trip will be given their plane tickets tomorrow.
The underlined parts are the focus of the modifying phrases. These parts are often tested in TOEI C.
@ A modifying clause is formed by a subject and a conjugated verb. Relative clauses and adverb
clauses belong to this group.
Relative clause
Adverb clause
The arena is a place which hosts sporting and musical events.
The request cannot be approved until Mrs. Charles signs this form.
The underlined parts are the focus of the modifying clauses. These parts are often tested in TOEIC.
@ Introductory words in modifying phrases and modifying clauses
Prepositions, to-infinitives, or participles are often used to start modifying phrases.
Relative pronouns or conjunctions are often used to start modifying clauses.
She left without a word to anyone.
word to anyone is a phrase, so the preposi ti on without must be used to start it.
Unless conditions improve, I' m going to have to change companies soon.
improve is a clause, so the conjunction unless must be used to start it.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C) , or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
this is only Ms. Planter's third week,
she has quickly become a standout in company
(A) Although
(C) Nevertheless
(B) In spite of
(D) However
2. The breakdown of a major piece of machinery
production forced the owner to
announce a temporary plant shutdown.
(A) since (B) during
(C) while (D) except
3. the problems Team B is experiencing,
the manager decided that it would be best
to give the team a little more time to write its
project assessment report.
(A) Even if (B) Since
(C) Nevertheless (D) Because of
Answers: p. 544
'""AI'AI nh::.ntri\Ji,:::at rom

Find out the modifiers in the following sentences and mark them in [ ].
01 In spite of a scheduling conflict, Jacob attended the annual meeting.
02 Shoppers purchasing less than ten items can use the express checkout lane.
03 The man read an article whose topic dealt with working relationships.
04 A valuable employee is one who is diligent, trustworthy, and self-motivated.
05 Industrial automation has laid off numerous trade union members from the assembly line.
06 Rob was disciplined for using funds without proper permission.
07 While Dan waited in the office lobby, he read a magazine article.
Choose a correct option for each sentence.
08 Craig's version (unless/ of) the events contradicted statements made by other witnesses.
09 A meeting was called (to resolve/resolve) the conflict between the coworkers.
10 Mrs. Bishop worked (even though/despite) she was suffering from the flu.
11 Miners (working/work) in the coal industry face significant health risks.
12 (Because of / Because) Andy delivered excellent results, his boss granted him a raise.
13 A market analyst is a positi on (and/which) is highly valued on Wall Street.
14 Our division will work on the sales project (during/while) the next month.
Answers: p. 544

Part 5
01 The meeting was still a success the
guidance of the vice president and others in
senior management.
(A) though
(C) unless
(B) without
(D) even
02 All products in the catalog are available in
our online store, customers to shop
from the convenience of their homes.
(A) allows
(C) will allow
(B) allow
(D) allowing
03 the wide range of services offered
by the agency, it is surprising they have a
fairly narrow client base.
(A) Meanwhile (B) Then
(C) Considering (D) Again
04 Please give us your mobile phone number
Mr. Saunders has other questions to
ask you.
(A) in case
(C) despite
(B) even if
(D) therefore
05 The women our organization
are either full-time housewives or college
students who want to make a difference in
our community.
(A) join (B) joining
(C) will join (D) will be joining
06 A reminder was sent to the staff that wise
of company supplies would decrease
monthly expenditures.
(A) utilization
(C) utilize
(B) utility
(D) utilizer
07 In the business world today, there is a
growing optimism
the dollar.
(A) view
(C) over
64 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
the rising value of
(B) with respect
(D) refer to
(j Time limit: 11 minutes
08 The Miracle Skin Company has received
hundreds of inquiries it ran its first
advertisement in all the major dailies.
(A) before (B) by
(C) since (D) past
09 The company's standing in the telecommuni-
cations industry was forged years of
putting the customer's needs first.
(A) regarding (B) but
(C) when (D) through
1 0 Delegates from the ITO have gathered
the practicality of current import/
export laws.
(A) to analyze
(C) analyst
(B) analyze
(D) analysis
worries that the government will
be unable to control the budget deficit, it is
expected that national spending will reach an
all-time high.
(A) Nevertheless
(C) After
(B) Despite
(D) However
new competitors have flooded the
market, management does not view them as
a serious threat to business.
(A) In spite (B) For
(C) Regardless of (D) Even though
13 The studio is expected to release five more
films before the end of the year their
summer movie makes a good showing at the
box office.
(A) there
(C) if
(B) so
(D) then
14 The company is strict about having progress
reports submitted the end of each
(A) early
(C) by
(B) when
(D) promptly
15 Companies are decreasing the amount of fuel
they use higher prices for energy
sources have begun to cut into their profits.
(A) except (B) as
(C) until (D) at
16 The investigation team questioned all of the
associates in the alleged plot to
embezzle company funds.
(A) involves (B) involve
(C) involved (D) involvement
17 The work took much less time to accomplish
the manager organized the staff into
task groups.
(A) following
(C) soon
Part 6
(B) after
(D) by
Questions 21-23 refer to the following article.
18 Consumer confidence in the company
over the months, due in part to a strategic
merchandising campaign.
(A) increase (B) increasing
(C) to increase (D) has increased
19 All members the project team should
report to the conference room at 2 p.m. for a
special meeting on project proposal writing.
(A) once (B) unless
(C) of (D) when
20 An effective manager should not only be
able to delegate responsibilities but also give
to the staff .
(A) encouragement
(C) encouraging
(B) encourage
(D) encouraged
The air-travel industry and environmentalists from around the country are eagerly awaiting the 2 nd
Air Transportation and the Environment Conference next week. The keynote speakers
21 (A) can open (B) opened
(C) opening (D) is opened
will focus on the concerns and progress made in each of these areas by speaking on current trends
in creating more environmentally friendly aircraft and airports.
The 1 st Air Transportation and the Environment Conference was highly successful , and all the ses-
sions were very well . Therefore, early registration is strongly recommended as
22 (A) attended (B) organized
(C) deserved (D) managed
is certain that the discussion meetings scheduled for this year will fill up quickly as well.
23 (A) this (B) it
(C) there (D) that
Answers: p. 544
r L . ~ """ r.A--l:.t: .......

66 www.nhantriviet.com
Section 2
Verb-Related Structures
Chapter 04 - Forms and Types of English Verbs
Chapter 05 - Subject-Verb Agreement
Chapter 06 - Tenses
Chapter 07 - Active Voice, Passive Voice
Chapter 08 - Subjunctives
Basic Points
An English verb has five typical forms below:
G) Basic form or bare infinitive
I work for an advertising company.
Third person singular present form (bare infinitive + -s/ -es)
She likes to go camping.
@ Past form (bare infinitive+ -ed/irregular past form)
I visited my parents last week.
Brian told me a funny story.
@ Present participle form (bare infinitive + -ing)
I am playing the trumpet.
@ Past participle form (bare infinitive+ -ed / irregular past participle form)
The cat was saved by a stranger.
I had brought some cookies to school.
<::> Past participle is written as p.p.
English verbs are divided into three types: intransitive verbs, transitive
verbs, and linking verbs. Intransitive verbs are used in sentence struc-
ture 1; linking verbs are used in sentence structure 2; and transitive
verbs are used in sentence structures 3, 4, and 5.
G) Structure 1: Subject + intransitive verb
She smiled.
Structure 2: Subject + linking verb + subject complement
Mark is smart.
@ Structure 3: Subject + transitive verb + object
Dogs like swimming.
@ Structure 4: Subject + transitive verb + indirect object + direct object
She sent me a flower.
@ Structure 5: Subject + transitive verb + object + object complement
I found Mark wise.
68 - Hackers TOEIC Reading www.nhantriviet.com
01 Modal I Auxiliary Verb + Bare Infinitive
0 All modal verbs, such as will/would, may/might, can/could, must, should, must be followed
by a bare infinitive.
I will te-eaH you.
- call
~ The modal verb will must be followed by the bare infinitive call , not the to-infinitive to call.
We could ~ to the park today if you would like to.
~ h e modal verb could must be followed by the bare infinitive go, not the gerund going.
All campers should remembrance to bring the following items.
-- remember
~ h e modal verb should must be followed by the bare infinitive remember, not the noun remembrance .
She will forgives you.
- forgive
~ The modal verb will must be followed by the bare infinitive forgive, not the third person singular present
form forgives.
Notes: 1 . Do not get confused when there is the negative word not and I or an adverb between a modal verb
and a bare infinitive.
Employers should not automaticallY' dismiss complaints by employees.
2. Use bare infinitives after the following expressions.
ought to had better ' would like to used to
have to be able to be going to
Shelly used to work at Greenspan.
He is able to run every morning before work.
:. -. - I
8 A bare infinitive must be used after the auxiliary verb do/does/did to form a negative sen-
tence, an interrogative sentence, or an inversion structure.
They did not affivB1 until 2 p.m.
~ After the auxiliary verb did which is used to form the negative sentence, the bare infinitive arrive, not the
past form arrived, must be used.
Never did I thought about switching careers.
- think
~ After the auxiliary verb did which is used in the inversion structure, the bare infinitive think, not the past
form thought, must be used.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. The corporation's plan to overhaul the
employee benefits program will
because it has the full support of the staff.
(A) success
(C) succeeds
(B) succeed
(D) to succeed
2. To achieve success in today's competitive
environment, companies must a solid
business plan.
(A) to establish
(C) establish
(B) establishing
(D) establishes
3. The book was delivered by an international
courier, but it did not until three
weeks after the expected delivery date.
(A) arrival (B) arrive
(C) arriving (D) arrived
Answers: p. 544
Chapter 04 Forms and Types of English Verbs - 69

02 Auxiliary Verb Be I Have + Participle Form
0 V-ing and p.p. go with the auxiliary verb be to form the progressive tense (be + V-ing) and
the passive voice (be+ p.p.); p.p. goes with the auxiliary verb have to form the perfect tense
(have+ p.p.).
Progressive tense She is looking out the window.
Passive voice Rental cars were brought back here.
Perfect tense I have seen Lion King.
Note: The bare infinitive of the verb be is used after modal verbs (may, must, can, etc.).
Susan may be finishing her project tonight.
Rental cars must be brought back here.
. .
@ A bare infinitive cannot come after the auxiliary verb be or have.
Edward is watefl a film this evening.
After the auxili ary verb be, watching is used to form the progressive tense.
The form must be Stffimit by Tuesday.
After the auxiliary verb be, submitted is used to form the passive voice.
I have see the new advertisement.
After the auxiliary verb have, seen is used to form the perfect tense.
Note: Have IS not always an aux1hary verb. As an ordinary verb, it means to experience, to possess/own or to
eat. .
, The company has critical financial problems.
.. . .'.......:....:.r_...,..!:d!&d.___u_:l.tM .,, ... .. L
Decide which of the choices - (A) , (B) , (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. The astute manager discerns unspoken
employee gripes even before they are
(A) express
(C) expressive
70 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(B) expression
(D) expressed
2. Environmental groups have severely
the auto industry's lackluster efforts to reduce
harmful emissions.
(A) criti cal
(C) criticism
(B) criticized
(D) criticize
3. Real estate values have been from
year to year in most parts of the United
(A) rise (B) rose
(C) risen (D) rising
Answers: p. 544
03 Transitive Verbs, Intransitive Verbs
0 An intransitive verb requires a preposition before its object, while a transitive verb must imme-
diately be followed by an object.
Intransitive verb + preposition + object
speak to a group
talk to your customer
talk about the problem
come to a decision
reply to letters
react to the updated version
respond to a question
agree with/to/on their sales policy
object to the plan
Transitive verb + object
mention his absence
discuss the issue
instruct me to hire a lawyer
explain the contract
answer the question
approve the request
oppose the new system
We have to diseuss about the sudden decrease in export sales of this month.
Before the noun phrase the sudden decrease is the preposition about. Therefore, an intransitive verb is
needed. Discuss is a transitive verb and talk is an intransitive verb. Hence, talk is the correct choice.
8 Note the differences between transitive verbs which require only one object (that-clause) and
transitive verbs which require two objects (also called ditransitive verbs).
Transitive verbs (structure 3) + object {that-clause) Transitive verbs (structure 4) + object 1 + object 2
say/mention/announce (to me) that
suggest I propose I recommend (to me) that
explain I describe (to me) that
tell I inform I notify me that
advise me that
assure I convince me that
The supplier sate the purchaser that they had new stock.
There are two objects the purchaser and that they had new stock, so a verb of sentence structure 4 will
be correct. Said is a verb of sentence structure 3 and told is a verb of sentence structure 4. Hence, told
is the correct choice.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. The Chief of Security to us that we
should take the highest precautions to ensure
no information was leaked to the press.
(A) informed (B) convinced
(C) notified (D) mentioned
2. The council the director that
continued support of the Baker project might
result in financial loss.
(A) advised
(C) recommended
3. My stockbroker
(B) explained
(D) announced
me about a safe
investment plan that would secure my financial
(A) gave
(C) suggested
(B) told
(D) recommended
Answers: p. 544
Chapter 04 Forms and Types of English Verbs - 71
" <0
04 Bare Infinitives in That-Clauses
0 After verbs/adjectives/nouns expressing suggestions, requests, duties, etc., bare infinitives
must be used in that-clauses.
Verbs suggest propose recommend request ask
require demand insist command order
Adjectives imperative essential necessary important
Noun advice
My advice is that she takes more classes in business communications.
-- take
the noun advice expressing a suggestion, the bare infinitive take must be used in the that-clause.
The hotel manager requests that any meetings afe held in the conference room.
the verb request expressing a demand, the bare infinitive be must be used in the that-clause.
It is essential that the process ts completed in a timely fashion.
the adjective essential expressing a duty, the bare infinitive be must be used in the that-clause.
Note: If verbs/adjectives/nouns are used in main clauses but they do not express
suggestions, requests, duties, etc., then the verbs in that-clauses do NOT take the form of bare
A recent cancer study suggests that exposure to the sun make (- makes) our skin prone to cancer.
Suggest in this sentence does not mean to advise but to show/ point out. Thus, in this case, a bare
jnfinitive used in the that-clause.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. The Trattoria Restaurant requests that
patrons reservations for a table at
least two weeks ahead of time.
(A) makes (B) making
(C) made (D) make
72 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
2. The manufacturer insists that the defective
air bags replaced in spite of the high
cost of recalling thousands of affected cars.
(A) are (B) be
(C) have (D) has
3. Due to the urgency of this matter, it is
imperative that Mr. Lambert one of
our customer representatives by 5 p.m.
{A) is contacting (B) will contact
(C) contact (D) contacted
Answers: p. 544

Choose a correct option for each sentence.
01 Crystal will gladly (accept/ acceptance) her boss' offer of a promotion and a raise.
02 It is important that the city (receive/ receives) state funds for its budget.
03 The famous author was asked to (speak/mention) to Harvard's graduating finance majors about
the meaning of success.
04 Should you (be/are) unable to attend, have my secretary send you the minutes from the meeting.
05 Jessie (would like/was liked) the opportunity to serve on the committee for international diplomacy.
06 Despite the financial benefits, most people in the community (oppose/object) the construction of a
chemical plant.
07 The commentator failed to (mention / notify) to us that the source for the story was unreliable.
Decide whether each of the sentences below is correct or incorrect. If it is correct, write
"correct"; if it is incorrect, point out the mistake(s) and provide (a) correction(s).
08 You had better turned in those evaluations before you put in a request for time off.
09 Kate has apply for some vacation time for this coming August.
10 It is imperative that you will submit all reports in a timely fashion.
11 A ceremony will held in honor of Mrs. Stansfield's many accomplishments.
12 Only on Saturday afternoons does the clinic accepts walk-in patients.
13 She is compile the documents and should have them ready for you shortly.
14 It is essential that we to remain aware of our competitors' activities.
Answers: p. 545


"' ..
Part 5
01 The fee must within two days if you
do not wish to forfeit your reservation.
(A) be paying (B) be paid
(C) to pay (D) have paid
02 While Harman's used to imported
furniture, it is now sticking to local products
to avoid the hassles of customs.
(A) have sold
(C) sell
(B) sold
(D) selling
03 It is essential that no unauthorized persons
into the building once it has been
locked by the security personnel.
(A) admitted (B) admit
(C) be admitted (D) admittance
04 Until recently, the Family Entertainment
Arcade located in the mall not
generati ng the revenue its owners expected.
(A) is (B) was
(C) has (D) being
05 Financial advisers suggest that setting aside
cash for emergencies it easier for
the first-time investor to recover from losses.
(A) makes
(C) make
(B) be made
(D) made
06 Because the positions need to be filled
immediately, applications for the positions
indicated below be received or
postmarked no later than March 21 .
(A) might (B) ought
(C) need (D) must
07 The notice on the community bulletin board
requested that the purse to its owner
and stated that a small reward would be
(A) returns
(C) be returned
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(B) returning
(D) to return
( -1 Time limit: 11 minutes
08 The two leading construction firms have
indicated their in bidding for the
Swanson Tenement Project.
(A) interested (B) interesting
(C) interest (D) interests
09 At the meeting, we will about the
problem concerning the misuse of company
telephones and fax machines.
(A) object (B) oppose
(C) talk (D) discuss
10 Once all the proposals have been submitted,
we will which company is best suited
for the new construction project.
(A) determination (B) determine
(C) determined (D) determines
11 Your team will need to meet and prepare a
timetable when you ready to begin
work on the new project.
(A) be (B) are
(C) have (D) will be
12 The canned chicken soup manufacturer
insists that all the cans , regardless
of losses to the company.
(A) recall (B) recalling
(C) be recalled (D) are recalled
13 The director not agree with the
company president, as he believes that the
word processing software market is already
(A) is
(C) did
(B) was
(D) has
14 A test was given to the applicants to
eliminate those who did not the
basic knowledge requirements for the job.
(A) meet (B) meeting
(C) be met (D) to meet
15 The final report should on the
more recent findings rather than on the data
collected a few months ago.
(A) base (B) based
(C) be based (D) to be based
16 Because of the sudden collapse of the firm,
hundreds of people themselves
without a job.
(A) are found
(C) be found
(B) finding
(D) found
17 Faced with a huge decrease in sales, the
company half of its employees and
closed down two factories.
(A) dismiss
(C) dismissed
Part 6
(B) dismissal
(D) was dismissed
Questions 21-23 refer to the following article.
New Drug Said to Knock Out Stress
18 The stockroom manager the window
display designer that the fall display would
have to wait because of a delay with the
(A) explained
(C) announced
(B) informed
(D) proposed
19 Only after one of the employees expressed
concern did they investigating
harassment claims against the supervisor.
(A) started (B) starting
(C) starts (D) start
20 As there are so many calls for computer
system repairs, the company technician has
his supervisor to hire additional
(A) ask
(C) asked
(B) asking
(D) been asked
With PharmaNext currently holding a monopoly on work-related stress-relieving drugs, MediComp
has unveiled their new product in an attempt to control the market. According to a company spokes-
person, Stress-Out TM will in treating stress caused by illnesses and pains, and also
21 (A) aid (B) to aid
(C) aiding (D) aided
provide a balanced mix of multi-vitamins to improve one's immune system. Having received certifi-
cation from the federal drug administration, MediComp has a few companies with free
22 (A) supply (B) supplier
(C) supplying (D) supplied
trial samples of the drug. Studies showed that employee improved after only two weeks
23 (A) creation (B) productivity
(C) execution (D) abundance
and employees stated they felt healthier and more energetic. The drug is said to be made of a
hundred percent organic, herbal ingredients and will not cause any side effects. It will be readily
available at all major pharmacies by next month.
Answers: p. 545
www.nhantriviet.com Chapter 04 Forms and Types of English Verbs - 75

Basic Points
Verbs must agree with their subjects in number.
A dog barks.
Subject Verb
(singular) (singular)
Dogs bark.
Subject Verb
(plural) (plural)
In the first sentence, the subject A dog is singular, so the verb is singular, too (barks).
In the second sentence, the subject Dogs is plural, so the verb is plural , too (bark).
The suffix -s I -es is added to the basic form of a verb to form a singular
verb; a bare infinitive is used to form a plural verb.
Basic form Singular form Plural form
visit visits visit
watch watches watch
do does do
have has have
The girl has lots of ideas about what to write.
The children have lots of ideas about what to write.
These rules are only applied in the present simple tense. In the past simple tense, both
singular verbs and plural verbs have the same form.
The teacher encouraged the students to speak freely.
The teachers encouraged the students to speak freely.
However, the form of the verb be is different between the singular and the plural in not
only the present tense but also the past tense.
Basic form
76 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
Singular form
(Present tense) am I is
(Past tense) was
Plural form
01 Subject- Verb Agreement in Number
0 A singular subject must go with a singular verb; a plural subject must go with a plural verb.
The lunch menu changes daily.
~ h e subject The lunch menu is singular, so the verb is singular, too (changes) .
The ferries have restaurants that are open for all three meals.
~ h e subject The ferries is plural , so the verb is plural , too (have) .
8 A gerund phrase or a noun clause as the subject of a sentence always goes with a singular verb.
Reading a book makes me want to fall asleep.
~ The gerund phrase Reading a book must go with the singular verb makes.
What I remember about her is a willingness to negotiate.
~ The noun clause What I remember about her must go with the singular verb is.
@) Modifiers between subjects and verbs do not affect the subject-verb agreement in number.
Services [at this hotel] includes airport pick-up.
~ Do not let the noun hotel in the modifying phrase distract you. The subject of this sentence is Services,
which agrees with the plural verb include.
The statement [drawn up by Werner Accountants] provide a benchmark for evaluation.
~ Do not let the noun Werner Accountants in the modifying phrase distract you. The subject of this sentence
is The statement , which agrees with the singular verb provides.
Decide which of the choices - (A) , (B) , (C) , or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. The recent meeting between the two
companies that a deal is near.
(A) imply (B) implies
(C) was implied (D) implying
2. As the members of management have come to
realize, the of implementing the new
business proposition has to be studied further.
(A) prospect (B) prospective
(C) prospects (D) prosperous
3. A decrease in the supply of clean water sources
sales in water purification products.
(A) aid
(C) ai ding
(B) aids
(D) was aided
Answers: p. 545
Hackers Skill Pay no attention to the modifier(s), make the subject and the verb agree with each other.

"' 0..
02 Subject-Verb Agreement with Expressions of Quantity
0 Singular verbs are used with singular expressions of quantity, and plural verbs are used with
plural expressions of quantity.
Singular expressions of quantity
one /each +singular noun
one/each+ of the+ plural noun
every + singular noun
the number of + plural noun
somebody, someone, something
anybody, anyone, anything
everybody, everyone, everything
nobody, no one, nothing
Plural expressions of quantity
many/several / few/both (+of the)+ plural noun
a number of + plural noun
a couple/variety of+ plural noun
One of the trainees has scored perfect on the company procedures test.
Every person at this meeting looks exhausted.
Many schools have football teams.
Many of the employees take vacation time in the summer.
A variety of methods are used to obtain information.
Note: VV:hen many, several, both, etc. are used as pronouns and come in the pos1t1on of a subject, they take
plural verbs.
Many predict rates w111 be rising soon.
. I -. -. -.. ~ - .. . .
8 For subjects with expressions of quantity indicating a part or the whole, their verbs will agree in
number with the nouns after of the.
all , most, any, some, half, a lot/lots
part, the rest, the bulk, percent, fraction
+of the +
singular noun + singular verb
plural noun + plural verb
Half of the annual profit goes to paying taxes and insurance fees.
~ T h e noun after half of the is singular (annual profit), and so is the verb (goes).
Roughly half of the employees at K Company commute to work by bus.
~ T h e noun after half of the is plural (employees) , and so is the verb (commute).
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. A variety of colors to be used in the
painting, but we will not know which ones
until it is cleaned.
(A) appear (B) appears
(C) is appeared (D) are appeared
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2. Every employee to consider what his
or her prospects are for career advancement
and personal growth, and HRD will provide
counseling services to assist them.
(A) have needed (B) needs
(C) needi ng (D) to need
3. All of the consultants' suggestions about the
company's position regarding the upcoming
merger into consideration by the CEO.
(A) is taking (B) was taken
(C) will take (D) have been taken
Answers: p. 545
03 Subject-Verb Agreement with Coordinating and Correlative
0 When two subjects are connected by the coordinating conjunction and, a plural verb is used.
The president and the director are working on the plan.
~ h e two subjects The president and the director are connected by and, so the verb is plural (are) .
Plural verbs are also used in the structure Both A and B.
Both the flower bed and the garden need to be watered.
~ h e two subjects The flower bed and the garden are connected by Both ... and, so the verb is plural (need) .
8 When two subjects are connected by the coordinating conjunction or, the verb will agree with
the subject closest to it.
Two vans or a bus is needed to take those children somewhere.
~ The two subjects Two vans and a bus are connected by or. Hence, the verb takes the singular form (is) to
agree with the singular subject a bus.
8 When two subjects are connected by the following correlative conjunctions, the verb will agree
with the subject B.
Either A orB
Neither A nor B
Not A but B
Not only A but (also) 8
e In addition to-, along with-, as well as- , and together with - are modifiers that do not
affect the number of verbs.
Mr. Clarion, (along with his partners] , tfltft* the new venture will work.
~ The verb here corresponds with the singular subject Mr. Clarion, regardless of the modifying phrase along
with his partners.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Mr. Burns and the secretary of our Arlington
branch to the weekend gathering.
(A) is coming (B) are coming
(C) comes (D) has come
2. The chef's assistant and I a special
menu for this evening's wine tasting event,
which will be attended by some top sommeliers.
(A) am preparing (B) prepares
(C) are preparing (D) has prepared
3. The federal government, along with the
cooperation of leading industrial companies,
to create more jobs for skilled workers.
(A) is pushing (B) are pushing
(C) pushing (D) have been pushed
Answers: p. 545

"' n
"' c..
04 Subject-Verb Agreement in Relative Clauses
0 In a relative clause, if the antecedent is in the singular form, a singular verb must be used. If
the antecedent is plural, a plural verb must be used.
Singular antecedent . . singular verb
PI I t d t
+ subject relat1ve pronoun (who, which, that) +
1 1
ura an ece en p ura ver
We have hired an associate who has experience in international sales.
~ h e verb in the relative clause takes the singular form (has) as the antecedent is singular (an associate) .
Receptionists who don't have database experience are useless in today's job market.
~ h e verb in the relative clause takes the plural form (don't have) as the antecedent is plural (Receptionists).
@ Do not confuse antecedents and modifiers.
Offices [in this building] that is currently leased on a monthly basis will be subject to additional
charges. are
~ h e antecedent is Offices, so the corresponding verb takes the plural form (are) . Do not be distracted by
the singular noun this building in the modifying phrase.
The virus [in the computers], which were passed on by e-mail , was removed by a computer
technician. was
~ h e antecedent is The virus, so the corresponding verb takes the singular form (was) . Do not be distracted
by the plural noun the computers in the modifying phrase.
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B), (C), or
(D) -best completes the sentence.
1. Files that in the main facility are
being removed in an effort to computerize all
records and data.
(A) were stored
(C) was stored
80 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(B) have stored
(D) stores
2. Each year, we send representatives from
our firm to job fairs that at college
campuses throughout the country.
(A) held (B) are held
(C) are holding (D) was held
3. The number of users who support
has increased since the company released the
latest version of its software.
(A) require
(C) is required
(B) requires
(D) are required
Answers: p. 545

Choose a correct option for each sentence.
01 Plans to open an office in Asia (was/were) delayed for several months.
02 Employees at this firm that (is/ are) currently salaried will be asked to pull overtime this week.
03 (Many I Much) fear that small business taxes will rise next year.
04 All computers in the office (was/were) damaged in the fire.
05 The guests brought to the convention (is/ are) from the international branch in Germany.
06 Savings (bank/banks) in the western region have begun to increase loan activity.
07 The supervisor, together with investigators, (is/are) going to confront the accountant about fraud
Decide whether each of the sentences below is correct or incorrect. If it is correct, write
"correct"; if it is incorrect, point out the mistake(s) and provide (a) correction(s).
08 A car and a truck is on sale during the year-end clearance program.
09 Half of the stocks listed on the exchange pays annual dividends.
10 Several guests request that the hotel swimming pool be opened early.
11 The news warn that the airline industry is on the verge of collapse.
12 Uniform with company emblems are required by airlines for both security reasons and customer
convenience purposes.
13 Accurate information is needed to make business and economic decisions.
14 Reducing waste through increased recycling are both practical and necessary.
Answers: p. 545

Part 5
01 All for long-distance phone calls
made from the office are the employee's
(A) charge
(C) to charge
(B) charging
(D) charges
02 Price-Rite and Herald chain stores are
popular with the public, and offer
quality goods at affordable prices.
(A) one (B) them
(C) both (D) either
03 North America's Atlas, featuring articles on
individualism and capitalism, in
August by Russell Palmer.
(A) publish (B) to publish
(C) will be published (D) have been published
04 Questions the recent changes in
employee benefits and eligibility should be
addressed to Mr. Henderson in personnel.
(A) concerning (B) concern
(C) concerned (D) concerns
05 A medication is known to be dose-dependent
when its effects as its dosage varies.
(A) change (B) changing
(C) to change (D) changes
06 A customer has called to complain that the
product he ordered last month not
yet arrived.
(A) is
(C) has
07 Salespeople who
(B) are
(D) have
their interactions
with customers on a case-to-case basis are
more effective than those who stick to the
same approach with everyone.
(A) handle (B) handles
(C) are handled (D) handling
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G Time limit: 11 minutes
08 The flu epidemic will probably an
increased demand for over-the-counter
(A) stimulates
(C) to stimulate
(B) stimulated
(D) stimulate
09 The cheap cost of labor in developing
countries as a motive for companies
to move production overseas.
(A) is seen (B) has seen
(C) see (D) seeing
1 0 The shipment of construction tools
scheduled to be delivered last week, but a
transportation problem caused a short delay.
(A) was (B) are
(C) were (D) is
11 Work on such infrastructure facil ities as
power and water supply, as well as roads and
telecommunications, shape in the
small town of Loleta.
(A) to take
(C) has taken
(B) taking
(D) take
12 Disallowing the use of inappropriate language
at the workplace a long-standing rule
that has been enforced since the company's
(A) have
(C) is
(B) has
(D) being
13 A full two-year warranty is provided to anyone
who an Eaton laptop computer during
the month of May.
(A) purchasing
(C) purchaser
(B) purchase
(D) purchases
14 We would like to inform the participants that the
fees for the two-day educational event
reference materials, lodging, and meals.
(A) cover (B) to cover
(C) is covered (D) has covered
15 With corporate ownership increasing in the
Eastern hemisphere, many that labor
jobs will triple over the next five years.
(A) predicting (B) to predict
(C) predict (D) has predicted
16 The selection committee to review
the resume, portfolio, and reference letters of
each potential candidate.
(A) is wanting (B) wants
(C) wanting (D) have wanted
17 The aforementioned increase in pay is
offered only to who have completed
the required two-year full-time employment
(A) employ
(C) employees
Part 6
(B) employer
(D) employment
Questions 21-23 refer to the following letter.
Noel Velasquez
1 015 Meriwether Drive
Birmingham, Ml 48009
Dear Mr. Velasquez,
18 The tips listed on the first page of every issue
buyers determine what computer
accessories they really need and where to
buy them.
(A) help (B) helping
(C) is helping (D) to be helped
19 After completing his degree in business
administration, Jeff Damon began working
for a research organization that in
marketing strategies.
(A) to specialize (B) specializes
(C) was specialized (D) have specialized
20 The number of individuals being recruited by
the company this summer for temporary jobs
to exceed fifty.
(A) is expected (B) are expecting
(C) expects (D) expecting
Thank you for contacting Blue-Ray Distributors about the problem with your plasma television. We
for your inconvenience and will do everything possible to provide you with a solution. You
21 (A) apologize (B) apologizing
(C) to apologize (D) apology
mentioned that your television screen only black and white images. This occurs when the
22 (A) would display (B) display
(C) displays (D) was displayed
television set is not used correctly or has a manufacturing defect. Our company primarily deals with
damage related to shipping, handling and delivery. In view of this, we think it is best to inform the
manufacturer of your problem. We therefore advise you to contact your nearest Xavier Manufactur-
ers center. Please do not hesitate to call us at 555-1836 if there is anything else we can
23 (A) security (B) repair
(C) marketing (D) technology
do, or if you require any further assistance.
Sincerely yours,
Pierre Leon
Customer Representative
Answers: p. 545
Chapter OS Subject-Verb Agreement- 83
"' ..
" <0
Basic Points
Tenses indicate the time of certain actions or states.
She worked on the paper last week.
She works on the paper a little bit every day.
She will work on the paper tomorrow.
The verb work changes its form to worked, works, and will work depending on the time
the action takes place. These verb variants are called tenses.
In English, there are simple tenses, progressive tenses, and perfect
Simple tenses are used to indicate an action or a state at a specific time. They take the
forms of bare infinitive (+ -s/ -es), bare infinitive + -ed I irregular past form, and will
+ bare infinitive.
Present simple Club members meet every Wednesday at 7 p.m.
Past simple Club members met in various locations in Grand Folks.
Future simple Club members will meet today after school.
Progressive tenses are used to indicate an action or a state that is in progress. They
take the form of be + V-ing.
Present progressive Jane is walking.
Past progressive Jane was walking.
Future progressive Jane will be walking to work.
Perfect tenses are used to indicate an action or a state that already finished. They take
the form of have + p.p.
Present perfect
Past perfect
Future perfect
84 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
Denise has left.
Denise had left already.
Denise will have left by that time.
01 Present/ Past/ Future Simple Tense
0 The present simple tense is used to express a habitual action or a general truth.
She usually charges high fees for her consulting service.
The present simple tense (charges) is used to express the habitual action.
A good supervisor creates a nice environment.
The present simple tense (creates) refers to the overall characteristic of a good supervisor.
@ The past simple tense is used to express an action or a state that happened and finished in the
Miguel instituted the Art Appreciation Program two years ago.
action finished in the past (two years ago) , so the verb is in the past simple tense (instituted).
8 The future simple tense is used to indicate an action that will happen after the moment of
speaking or a prediction in the future.
We will go to the beach tomorrow.
The future simple tense (will go) refers to the action in the future.
Note: Both the present progressive tense {be + V-ing) and the structure be going to + bare infinitive are used
to express future planned act1ons.
I am seeing Cathy on Tuesday mght.
a new cell phone next week.
' '
9 The present simple tense is used in adverb clauses of time referring to the future and in first
conditional clauses.
When you will finish the course, a certificate will be sent to you.
The present simple tense (finish) is used in the adverb clause of time though it refers to the future time.
If the survey results wfH--I:}e satisfactory, the company will launch the sale.
The present simple tense (are) is used in the first conditional clause though it refers to the future time.
Notes: .1. Adverb oftime and conditional clauses are introduced by the following conjunctions: when,
before, after,as soon as, once, by the time, if, unless, etc. '
2. When m,ain clauses go with aqverb clauses of time referring to the future and first conditional
clauses, their verbs are generally in the future simple tense.
When you finish the certificate is sent (-will be sent) to you.
':> The verb in the adverb clause of time is in the present simple tense (finish), so the verb in the
main clause is in the future simple tense (will be sent). v,,, .,.,
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Mr. and Mrs. Robertson, who the
Strong Children Organization, will be giving
speeches at our company dinner tonight.
(A) founding (B) foundation
(C) found (D) founded
2. Mr. Sanders out of the country until next
Friday, but you can contact him by e-mail if there
are matters of urgency.
(A) is being
(C) will have been
(B) will be
(D) has been
3. If management Ms. Fernandez to rewrite
the project analysis over the weekend, they will
have to pay her for overtime.
(A) will ask (B) asks
(C) will have asked (D) would ask
Answers: p. 545

'" c..
02 Present/ Past/ Future Progressive Tense
0 The present progressive tense (am/is/are+ V-ing) is used to express an action that is
happening at present or at the moment of speaking.
She is living in Canada at the moment.
- The present progressive tense is used to express the action that is in progress at (is living) .
Notes: 1. To express a habitual action, we use the present simple tense, not the present progressive tense.
Mr. Clark is usually giving (- usually gives) us snacks in the afternoon.
I action happens habitually, so the present simple tense is used (gives).
2. To express an action or a state in progress, we use the present progressive tense, not the present
I ,
t s1mple tense.
J The dog barks (- is barking) at the cat.
. so pro2:essive tense is used (is barking).
@ The past progressive tense (was/were + V-ing) is used to put emphasis on the course of an
action at a specific time in the past.
I was watching TV at eight o'clock yesterday.
- The action was in progress at a specific time in the past (eight o'clock yesterday) , so the past progressive
tense is used (was watching).
@) The future progressive tense (will be+ V-ing) is used to put emphasis on the course of an
action at a specific time in the future.
At this time tomorrow, I will be lying on the beach.
- The action will be in progress at a specific time in the future (this time tomorrow) , so the future progressive
tense is used (will be lying) .
9 Below are some static verbs that cannot be used in progressive tenses.
I am pFefeFFing the sound of the sea.
- Prefer is a perception verb, so the present progressive tense am preferring cannot be used.
The president is being out of the office.
- Be is a static verb, so the present progressive tense is being cannot be used.
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. The majority of home designers believe that
more people in the United States in
townhouses or gated communities by the year
(A) had been lived
(C) will be living
86 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(B) lived
(D) is living
2. Facilities at the university recreational center
an Olympic-sized swimming pool , five
racquetball courts, and an indoor track.
(A) are including (B) include
(C) includes (D) has included
3. The company president the applicant
for the accounting manager position at 8 this
(A) interview
(C) was interviewing
(B) interviewed
(D) will interview
Answers: p. 545
03 Present/Past/Future Perfect Tense
0 The present perfect tense (have I has+ p.p.) is used to express an action that began in the past and continues
up to the present time, or has just been completed at the moment of speaking. It also suggests that a past
action still has an effect upon something at present.
He has served for 5 years on the board of Brown University.
~ The act of serving began 5 years ago and continues until now, so the present perfect tense is used (has served) .
I have already finished my project.
~ The project was started in the past and has just been completed, so the present perfect tense is used (have
finished) .
I have never visited Mexico.
~ This experience has not taken place from the past to the present time, so the present perfect tense is used (have
never visited).
I have lost my watch.
~ h e incident has happened at some time unknown before the moment of speaking, so the present pefect tense
is used (have lost).
@ The past perfect tense (had + p.p.) is used to indicate that one action occurred and completed before
another action in the past.
When the party finished, my sister had already departed.
~ The act of the sister's leaving happened before the party ended, so we use the past perfect tense had departed.
@) The future perfect tense (will have + p.p.) is used to express an action that will be completed before a
specific point of time in the future.
I will have studied for 5 years by next December.
~ h e act of studying will last 5 years and complete before a specific time in the future (next December) , so we use
the future perfect tense (will have studied) .
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. This year the car industry many
investors because automotive products
now make up 15 percent of the country' s
(A) attract
(C) attracting
(B) has attracted
(D) had attracted
2. By exercising at the gym during lunchtime, she
could relieve work-related stress that
built up from the morning.
(A) are (B) would
(C) has been (D) had been
3. Next fall, Irene employed with this
corporation for over a decade as an advisor to
the president.
(A) has been
(C) had
(B) is
(D) will have been
Answers: p. 545
Chapter 06 Tenses 87

"' c..
04 Agreement in Tense
0 Verbs must agree in tense based on time expressions. Below are some time expressions that are
commonly used.
Past simple tense
Present simple tense
since + a point of time
Future simple and future perlect tenses
recently often in the past next + a period of time
a period of time + ago
last + a period of time
in + a point of time in
each month /year
in the last /past -
over the year
by/until+ a point of time in the future
as of + a point of time in the future
by the time + subject + verb (present tense)
when + subject +verb (present tense) the past
She has started to work for this firm last year.
Because last year refers to the past, the past simple tense started is used.
She tattgftt English since she moved here.
has taught --
With the structure since + subject + verb (past simple tense), the verb in the main clause is in the present perfect
tense (has taught).
She has served for 14 years by the time she retires.
will have served
the structure by the time + subject + verb (present simple tense), the verb in the main clause is in the future
perfect tense (will have served).
Note: W1th the structure by the time+ subject+ verb (past simple tense), the verb 1n the ma1n clause is in the past perfect tense.
left (- had left) the office by the time the package was delivered.
verb in the adverb clause of t1me is in the past s1mple tense (was delivered), so the verb 1n the main clause
. be past f?erlecl tense (had left).
@ When the verb in the main clause is in the past simple tense, the verb in the subordinate clause will
be in the past simple or past perfect tense.
Mr. MacKenzie explained that the fiscal report is completed the preceding week.
was completed
The verb in the main clause is in the past simple tense (explained) and the subordinate clause also mentions a past
event, so the verb in the subordinate clause must be in the past simple tense (was completed).
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B), (C), or (D)
-best completes the sentence.
1. Television viewership slightly since the
advent of the Information Age and the invention
of the personal computer.
(A) drop (B) will drop
(C) has dropped (D) dropping
88 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
2. Last week, a newspaper columnist an
article that triggered an investigation into the
university's admissions practices.
(A) writes (B) has written
(C) wrote (D) have written
3. Management was informed that the shipment
from the branch office in Paris the
following Thursday.
(A) arriving
(C) have arrived
(B) would arrive
(D) has arrived
Answers: p. 545
www .nha ntriviet.com

Choose a correct option for each sentence.
01 When Martin (reads I read) the contract, he discovered that he had been deceived.
02 William reluctantly (attends/attended) the seminar, but he surprisingly found it very helpful.
03 After returning from vacation, we learned that a storm (had damaged/damages) our house.
04 James (retire/retired) years ago, but he still has stock in his former employer.
05 The reports estimate that earnings (will double/has doubled) by the end of next year.
06 If you (believe/had believed) that there may be financial wrongdoing, please notify your supervisor.
07 What the new IT specialist knows about data systems (was/will be) useful when the office updates
its computer programs.
08 As soon as the board (makes/will make) its decision, the managers will implement the plan.
09 The Pioneer Fund (has been / is) the company's biggest earner over the past four years.
10 The manufacturing company (needs/is needing) to increase production capacity in order to keep
pace with its competitors.
Choose a correct time expression for each sentence.
11 Mr. Hyland will have served as CEO of the company for ten years (since/by the time) he retires.
12 Jeffery has analyzed stock market figures (in/since) 2000 when he joined a firm on Wall Street.
13 Steven, who previously worked in the sales department, is a manager in the head office (two years
ago / at the moment) .
14 The company (once/usually) requires three years of experience for all job applicants.
Answers: p. 546
"" )>

" <C
Part 5
01 The employees in the accounting division
were stunned to learn that three of their co-
workers that very morning.
(A) had fired
(C) had been fired
(B) will have been fired
(D) fired
02 Mr. Keating Rick Chang as officer-
in-charge for the duration of his European
business trip last Wednesday.
(A) designate (B) is designating
(C) has designated (D) designated
03 When Mr. Arellano and his team
the wri te-up, please have them send it to my
desk immediately.
(A) will finish
(C) finish
(B) would finish
(D) will have finished
04 A competent manager opportunities
for his employees to improve themselves
(A) created
(C) creates
(B) create
(D) creating
05 Until the beginning of this year, the amuse-
ment park not attracting many
(A) has
(C) is
(B) was
(D) being
06 A new printer for the faculty room
purchased as soon as the requisition slip is
(A) will be
(C) had been
(B) would be
(D) has been
07 In the past ten years, the number of Americans
using 90 percent of their disposable income to
pay off credit card debts by 30
(A) has been rising
(C) was rising
90 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(B) will have risen
(D) has risen
(9 Time limit: 11 minutes
08 Participants to complete an evaluation
at the conclusion of the photography workshop.
(A) is asked (B) were asked
(C) have asked (D) were asking
09 Because of the weakening economy this
year, any purchases in new assets and
properties carefully studied over the
next several months.
(A) have (B) have been
(C) will have to be (D) will have been
10 To create a more healthy work atmosphere,
Graydon Finance a sports center in
the office facilities two months ago.
(A) building (B) built
(C) has built (D) builds
11 Analysts predict that agricultural
biotechnology little interest for
investors because of the opposition to
genetically modified products.
(A) hold (B) held
(C) will hold (D) have held
12 If you any problems with your new
word processing software, check the handbook
first before consulting our technical support.
(A) had experienced (B) experience
(C) were experienced (D) experiencing
13 Although online brokers usually the
least in commissions, they require you to
do your own research instead of giving you
(A) charging
(C) charge
14 Ever since Mr. Smith
(B) charges
(D) are charging
head of the
town's community center, he has been
holding at least two meetings per week.
(A) was elected (B) will elect
(C) is electing (D) had elected
15 The supervisor thinks that the factory's produc-
tion capacity by the end of the year,
provided a new group of full-time workers is hired.
(A) will double (B) has doubled
(C) had doubled (D) been doubled
16 Recently, those in managerial positions
in more seminars and lectures on positive
leadership and motivation for employees.
(A) were participated
(B) are to be participating
(C) have been participating
(D) will have been participating
17 The two law firms more clients now that
they have joined forces on their goal to provide
affordable legal advice.
(A) receives (B) receiving
(C) are receiving (D) were received
Part 6
Questions 21-23 refer to the following letter.
Pamela Bailey
1001 Briggs Road, Suite 280
Mt. Laurel , NJ 08054
Dear Ms. Bailey,
18 By the time the two new large printers are
installed, demand for the popular publication
(A) has increased
(C) been increased
19 Although there
(B) had increased
(D) will have increased
a concerted effort by
the company to increase its market share, the
results have been disappointing.
(A) has been (B) are
(C) were (D) will be
20 Mr. Benson said that the maid never
to clean his quarters the whole time he
stayed at the hotel.
(A) comes
(C) come
(B) came
(D) coming
I am pleased to inform you that your application for the position of managerial assistant has been
accepted. On behalf of Bio-Meds Pharmaceutical Company, I would like to congratulate you. As
mentioned in the description, you will be providing support to management, supervisory
21 (A) operating (B) promise
(C) career (D) job
and professional staff. Your main duties will be scheduling appointments and events, transmitting
information and following up on projects conducted by the staff. During your three-month trial
period, you will be trained by Nelson Meade, whom you during your interview. Should you
22 (A) meet (B) met
(C) would have met (D) will meet
the position, you will start on February 20. We hope to hear from you before February 17
23 (A) accepted (B) accepting
(C) acceptance (D) accept
and look forward to working with you.
Sincerely yours,
Rita Carson
Human Resources Department
Answers: p. 546
"" >

"' n

" <0
Basic Points
The active voice is used to emphasize the agent or performer of an ac-
t ion. The passive voice is used to emphasize the receiver of an action,
not the agent who performs it . The structure of the passive voice is be
(conjugated) + past participle (p.p.).
Active voice I designed this building.
Passive voice This building was designed by me.
In the first sentence, t he subject I is the performer of the action design. So, the act ive
voice is used.
In the second sentence, the subject This building receives the action design. So, the
passive voice is used.
Forms of the active voice Simple tenses
Forms of the passive voice be + p.p.
be+ V-ing
(Progressive tenses)
be being + p.p.
(Progressive tenses)
have+ p.p.
(Perfect tenses)
have been + p. p.
(Perfect tenses)
To form a passive sentence, the object of the active sentence will be-
come the subject of the passive sentence. Then, the verb in the active
sentence will be changed into the past participle after adding the verb
be which must agree with the new subject and the tense of the verb in
the active sentence.
Active voice Carol cooked dinner.
Passive voice
Subject Verb {active) Object
Dtnner was cooked oy Carol.
Subject Verb (passive) by + agent
Only transitive verbs can be used in the passive voice; intransitive verbs
cannot because they do not have direct objects.
We were arrived in Prague. (X)
We arrived in Prague. (O)
Arrive is an intransitive verb; thus, it cannot be used in the passive voice.
Some intransitive verbs that are frequent ly found in the TOEIC test include take place,
rise, occur, and consist. Remember that these verbs cannot be used in the passive voice.
92 - Hackers TOEIC Reading www.nhantriviet.com
01 Identifying Active I Passive Sentences
0 An active sentence includes an object following a transitive verb, while a passive sentence does
not have an object (except the verb in the sentence is ditransitive).
The assistant is-ttse6 the computer.
~ The verb use is a transitive verb and followed by the object the computer. Hence, the verb must be in the
active voice (uses).
A new machine will iftstalf.
be installed
~ The transitive verb install needs an object, but there is no object here. So, the verb must be in the pas-
sive voice (be installed) .
@ Verbs in to-infinitive phrases and relative clauses can be put in the active or passive voice
based on whether they have a direct object or not.
The tenant is supposed to be paid the rent on July 1.
to pay
~ Because there is an object (the rent) in the to-infinitive phrase, the verb in this to-infinitive phrase must be
in the active voice (to pay) .
The draft was supposed to discuss in the workshop.
to be discussed
~ Because there is no object in the to-infinitive phrase, the verb in this to-infinitive phrase must be in the
passive voice (to be discussed).
A famous author who is written children's fairy tales is signing autographs today.
~ Because there is an object (children's fairy tales) in the relative clause, the verb in this relative clause must
be in the active voice (writes).
We have received all of the items that list in the files.
are listed
~ e c a u s e there is no object in the relative clause, the verb in this relative clause must be in the passive
voice (are listed).
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B), (C),
or (D) - best completes the sentence.
1. The e-mail addresses and telephone
numbers should be carefully in
the blanks provided.
(A) written
(C) wrote
(B) write
(D) writing
2. the mailing of the package, you will need
to add five dollars more to the shipping fee.
(A) To expedite (B) Expedited
(C) To be expedited (D) Will expedite
3. You must fill out the tax form, a copy of which
is to the contractual agreement you
received on the first day.
(A) attach (B) attachment
(C) attaching (D) attached
Answers: p. 546
Hackers Skill Remember that if there is an object after a transitive verb, the sentence is in the ac-
tive voice. On the contrary, if there is no object, the sentence is in the passive voice.

"' a.
02 Passive Voice of Verbs in Sentence Structures 4 and 5
0 Transitive verbs in sentence structure 4 have two objects. Either of these objects can become
the subject in the passive sentence, depending on the focus.
Active voice
Passive voice
Indirect object becomes the subject
Direct object becomes the subject
She gave her sister the car.
Her sister was given the car.
The car was given to her sister.
~ When the indirect object her sister becomes the subject in the passive sentence, the direct object the car
follows the passive verb. When the direct object the car becomes the subject in the passive sentence, the
preposition to is added before the indirect object her sister.
Note: When the direct object of such verbs as give, send, grant becomes the subject in the passrve sentence,
after the passive verb, the preposrtron to rs added before the indrrect object. The preposition for is used
rnstead for verbs like buy, make, get, find, build.
The house was built to (-for) homeless people.
. I -
8 Transitive verbs in sentence structure 5 have an object and an object complement. In the pas-
sive sentence, the object complement is placed after the passive verb.
When the object complement is a noun phrase:
Active voice Victoria considered him a genius.
Passive voice He was considered a genius by Victoria.
~ h e object him becomes the subject He in the passive sentence; the object complement a genius re-
mains after the passive verb was considered. Do not mistake a genius as the object and conclude that
this is an incorrect passive sentence.
When the object complement is a to-infinitive phrase:
Active voice He asked me to send a stamped envelope.
Passive voice I was asked to send a stamped envelope.
~ h e object me becomes the subject I in the passive sentence, and the object complement to send -
remains after the passive verb was asked.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Ray Murphy submitted a requisition form
yesterday to make certain he given
a projector for today's presentation.
(A) has (B) have
(C) is (D) are
94 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
2. Though somewhat new at making presentations,
Paul Blakely is the best public speaker
of the team.
(A) consider
(C) considering
(B) to consider
(D) considered
3. The research team to make back-up
files of all their work to prevent loss of valuable
(A) reminded
(C) will remind
(B) was reminded
(D) was reminding
Answers: p. 546
03 Active and Passive Voices of Perception Verbs
0 For perception verbs, also called verbs of perception, the active voice is used if the subject
itself causes the feelings, and the passive voice is used if the subject has or receives the
Positive feelings interest excite amuse please
fascinate encourage satisfy
Negative feelings disappoint discourage dissatisfy depress
tire trouble
Shock, confusion bewilder frustrate shock surprise
The results of the negotiations .,..,ere pleased both of the attending parties.
-.. The subject The results brings about the feeling of pleasure, so the active voice is used (pleased).
I am pleasing to hear that you are feeling better.
am pleased
-.. The subject I receives the feeling of pleasure, so the passive voice is used (am pleased).
The regional director .vas dissatisfied the workers by refusing to give salary raises.
-.. The subject The regional director brings about the feeling of dissatisfaction, so the active voice is used
The workers dissatisfy with management's handling of the situation.
are dissatisfied
The subject The workers receives the feeling of dissatisfaction, so the passive voice is used (are
dissatisfied) .
The news was surprised the man.
-.. The subject The news brings about the feeling of surprise, so the active voice is used (surprised).
The man surprised by the news.
was surprised
-.. The subject The man receives the feeling of surprise, so the passive voice is used (was surprised) .
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Young businessmen who set up venture
companies should guard against being
during the first year of operations.
(A) disappoint (B) disappointed
(C) disappointing (D) disappointment
2. When he took up cooking, Jerry Porter was
to learn how easy it was to make
inexpensive, great-tasting meals.
(A) fascinate (B) fascinating
(C) being fascinated (D) fascinated
3. The manager her staff with news of
an upcoming bonus if sales figures reached
company goals by the end of the quarter.
(A) encourage (B) was encouraged
(C) encouraging (D) encouraged
Answers: p. 546

04 Expressions of the Passive Form
0 Expressions with verbs in sentence structure 3 + prepositions
be amused at be surprised at be worried about
be pleased with be alarmed at be concerned about/over
be delighted with be astonished at be bored with
be satisfied with be frightened at be tired of
be gratified with be shocked at be ashamed of
be disappointed at be divided into be convinced of
be interested in be absorbed in be equipped with
be involved in be indulged in be covered with
be engaged in be devoted to be crowded with
be associated with be dedicated to be based on
be related to be skilled in be exposed to
This hotel room is equipped with luxurious baths and tiles.
The strength of the alloy is closely related to the quality of the ore.
@ Expressions with verbs in sentence structure 5 + to-infinitive phrases
be asked to be required to be allowed to
be requested to be urged to be permitted to
be told to be advised to be prepared to
be reminded to be warned to be supposed to
be encouraged to be intended to be scheduled to
be invited to be expected to
The project managers are required to fill in forms and get them signed.
Employees are reminded to use office e-mail only for business purposes.
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B), (C), or (D)
-best completes the sentence.
1. The accounting team is to providing
accurate billing statements and resolving all
customer enquiries within twenty-four hours.
(A) dedicating (B) dedicated
(C) dedicate (D) dedication
96 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
2. As a member of our office, you are invited
the annual charity auction.
(A) attending (B) to attend
(C) attends (D) attend
3. We are truly with the positive
consumer response to our new marketing
(A) delight
(C) delighted
(B) delighting
(D) delightedly
Answers: p. 546

Choose a correct option for each sentence.
01 Judy (implied I was implied) that she was treated unfairly by management recently.
02 Sales (expect/are expected) to decrease as a result of the recession.
03 The budget director (rejected/was rejected) the plan to cut back on spending.
04 The business owner was (frustrating/frustrated) by the lack of adequate capital to make investments.
05 Artists (have painted I have been painted) a large mural on a wall in the conference hall.
06 The plans for the merger (will take/will be taken) at least a month to evaluate.
07 Jason was (exciting /excited) to learn that he was being considered for a promotion.
Decide whether each of the sentences below is correct or incorrect. If it is correct, write
"correct"; if it is incorrect, point out the mistake(s) and provide (a) correction(s).
08 Employee motivation is closely relating to the success of a company.
09 The building will be undergoing renovation for the next three weeks.
10 A proposal for a partnership offered to an Italian firm last week.
11 This product made for busy working mothers who need help in the kitchen.
12 All assembly line workers are advised wearing protective eyewear and gloves while working.
13 A lifelong honorary membership in the firm has granted to the retired CEO.
14 The company is dedicated to its goal of introducing products that are modern, functional, and
Answers: p. 546
www.nhantriviet.com Chapter 07 Active Voice, Passive Voice - 97

Part 5
01 A replacement for the outgoing advertising
manager has not yet been , but the
possibilities have been narrowed down to five
(A) chose
(C) chosen
(B) choice
(D) choose
02 Each year, Gibbins Foods, a local food
manufacturer, five thousand cans of
vegetables to the city's homeless shelters.
(A) donates (B) to donate
(C) donating (D) are donated
03 The contract stipulates that an employee is
to do overtime during weeks that
presentations or special reports are being
(A) requirement
(C) required
(B) requires
(D) requisition
04 The campaigns that assigned to the
broadcasting division have been scrapped
due to lack of support.
(A) having (B) were
(C) be (D) had
05 The announcement in the newsletter is
meant to Mr. Meyer's remarks on
the merger between the two communications
(A) clarified
(C) clarification
(B) be clarified
(D) clarify
06 No matter what the brand, computers pur-
chased at this shop will be free
of charge for a full year from the date of
(A) service
(C) to service
(B) servicing
(D) serviced
07 First-class seats are with Internet
hook-ups, global telephones and faxing
capabilities for all of your airborne professional
(A) equip
(C) equipped
98 - Hackers TOEIC Readmg
(B) equipment
(D) equipping
G Time limit: 11 minutes
08 The manager is to announce that
Morgan & Co. will be giving stock options to all
interested employees.
(A) please
(C) pleasant
(B) pleased
(D) pleasing
09 After today's planning session is completed,
the members of each group will be
a report of their team's objectives for the next
three years.
(A) generation
(C) generated
(B) generate
(D) generating
10 We would like you by our assistant
manager who will give you a tour of the
company's offices and facilities.
(A) escorting (B) to escort
(C) to be escorted (D) escort
11 Harwood Department Store will be
later this weekend to allow our shoppers to
take advantage of our end-of-season clearance
(A) close
(C) to close
(B) closes
(D) closing
12 To meet the special needs of our branches
in Asia, a total of twenty-four trained staff will
to Japan, Hong Kong, and Thailand.
(A) send (B) be sent
(C) be sending (D) have sent
13 Membership at the exclusive sports club
benefits ranging from the use of all
sports equipment to discounted rates at the
club's restaurant and bar.
(A) includes
(C) have included
(B) to include
(D) including
14 The introduction of the specially trained conflict
resolution advisors to reduce tension
between management and frustrated employees.
(A) expected
(B) is expected
(C) has been expecting
(D) will have been expecting
15 If the director that the top candidate
was still a consultant for Master Lines, Inc., he
could have given others greater priority.
(A) tell (B) telling
(C) had told (D) had been told
16 the machine's continued operation,
a thorough check by maintenance personnel
should take place bimonthly.
(A) To be ensure (B) To ensure
(C) Will ensure (D) Ensured
17 The winners of the logo contest are to
be at the dinner this evening, which will begin
at 8:00 p.m. at the International Plaza Hotel's
Blue Room.
(A) plan
(C) planning
Part 6
(B) plans
(D) planned
Questions 21-23 refer to the following memo.
Date: March 3
To: All Personnel
From: Matthew Sparks, Administrative Office
Subject: Vehicle Maintenance
18 Participants in the seminar were to
make hotel reservations by the date indicated
on the list of hotels.
(A) advisable
(C) advising
(B) advisory
(D) advised
19 Before structural renovations take place, all
businesses must the building as
indicated in the official notice issued last
(A) vacant
(C) vacate
(B) vacancy
(D) be vacated
20 Access to the computer terminals
during evening hours, so it is necessary for
us to finish the work during the day.
(A) restrict (B) to restrict
(C) is restricted (D) has restricted
Now that the winter season is nearly over, all company cars must in for necessary
21 (A) be turned (B) to turn
(C) turn (D) turning
maintenance and repairs. Icy road conditions and freezing temperatures result in greater wear on
the cars' tires, engines, cooling systems and transmissions. Although sales personnel use their
cars more often, other staff are also required to check their
22 (A) vehicles
(C) projects
(B) receipts
(D) purchases
This week, all employees to bring their automobiles in to any of the automotive centers
23 (A) encouraging (B) is encouraging
(C) encouraged (D) are encouraged
that the company recommends. Thank you.
Answers: p. 546
www.nhantriviet.com Chapter 07 Active Voice, Passive Voice - 99

Basic Points
The subjunctive is used to express a hypothetical situation, which means
a situation that is contrary to the fact in the present or in the past. It is
also used to express a situation that is unlikely to happen in the future.
If I were rich, I would travel the world.
If I had been rich, I would have led a very different life.
The first sentence implies a situation contrary to the present fact. It can be inferred that
this person is not rich, so he / she cannot travel the world.
The second sentence implies a situation contrary to the fact in the past. It can be under-
stood that this person was not rich, so his/ her life was not good then.
The subjunctive is used in if-clauses with special tenses.
If I won a million dollars, I would faint.
This is a situation contrary to the present fact. The past simple tense (won) is used in the
if-clause, and the past form of the modal verb goi ng with the bare infinitive of the main
verb (would faint) is used in the main clause.
If I had won the lottery, I would have sent many poor teenagers to college.
This is a situation contrary to the fact in the past. The past perfect tense (had won) is
used in the if-clause, and the past form of the modal verb going with the perfect form of
the main verb (would have sent) is used in the main clause.
It is important to distinguish between real conditional sentences and
possible future conditions starting with if.
If you experience any difficulties, please contact one of our customer service staff.
If I have a midday break tomorrow, we will meet up for a lunch.
These conditional sentences are used to express that the action in the main clause can
only take place in case a certain condition in the if-clause is fulfill ed.
100 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
01 Future/Past/Past Perfect/Mixed Subjunctive
0 The verb forms in the if-clause and the main clause of the future/past/past perfect subjunct-
ive are as follows:
Future subjunctive I If + subject+ should + bare infinitive, subject +
will/can/may /should + bare infinitive
Expressing a situation that will
be unlikely to happen in the
Past subjunctive
If + subject + verb in past simple tense (be becomes Expressing a situation contrary
were regardless of what the subject is), subject + to a fact in the present
would/could/might/should + bare infinitive
Past perfect
If+ subject+ had p.p. , subject+ would/could/
I might/should + have p.p.
Expressing a situation contrary
to a fact in the past
If rain should come today, we will move the party indoors.
If computers were cheap, I would buy ten of them for my home.
If Nancy had come, Jeff might have turned down the invitation.
8 In the mixed subjunctive, the time relation between the if-clause and main clause is different.
If + subject + had p.p., subject+ would + bare infinitive
Past pertect subJunctive Past subjunctive
- The past perfect subjunctive in the if-clause refers to a situation contrary to a fact in the past, and
the past subjunctive in the main clause implies a situation contrary to a fact in the present.
If I had asked for time off last month, I would be on vacation now.
~ h e past perfect subjunctive had asked in the if-clause refers to the situation contrary to the fact in the past.
The past subjunctive would be in the main clause implies the situation contrary to the fact in the present .
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B), (C), or (D) 2. If personal income taxes had been lowered,
- best completes the sentence.
1. If measures had not been taken to reduce
company expenses, the added costs would
by the customers.
(A) assume
(B) have been assumed
(C) had been assumed
(D) be assuming
the national economy
(A) recovered
(B) has recovered
(C) would have recovered
(D) has been recovered
much more
3. If the client had come on time, these
negotiations completed by now.
(A) would be (B) would have been
(C) wouldn't have been (D) would not be
Answers: p. 546
Chapter 08 Subjunctives - 101

"' c.
" <0
02 Other Structures of Subjunctives
0 If-clauses can be replaced by the inversion structure.
Future subjunctive If + subject + should + bare infinitive, subject + will I can I may I should + bare infinitive
q Should+ subject+ bare infinitive, subject+ will/can/may/should+ bare infinitive
Past subjunctive If+ subject+ were+ noun/adjective, etc., subject+ would/could/might/should+ bare
(Only when the infinitive
main verb in the q Were+ subject+ noun / adjective, etc., subject+ would/could/might/should+ bare
if-clause is were) infinitive
Past perfect
If+ subject+ had p.p., subject+ would/could/might/should+ have p.p.
q Had+ subject+ p.p., subject+ would/could/might/should+ have p.p.
If Arnold should call, he can come at any time.
q Should Arnold call, he can come at any time.
If Brad and I were not friends, I would be interested in dating him.
q Were Brad and I not friends, I would be interested in dating him.
If he had worked harder, he would have gotten the promotion.
q Had he worked harder, he would have gotten the promotion.
8 If-clauses can also be replaced by the structure without+ noun/object pronoun.
Past subjunctive Subject+ would/could/might/should+ bare infinitive+ without+ noun/object
pronoun ( = if it were not for+ noun /object pronoun)
Past perfect subjunctive Subject+ would/could/might/should+ have p.p. +without+ noun/object pronoun
( = if it had not been for + noun /object pronoun)
I couldn't do it without you.
I could never have done it without you.
Note: Otherwise is also used to replace an if-clause.
He took a taxi; otherwise (= if he had not taken a taxi), he would not have made the meeting on
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Had the contract earlier, we might
have been able to discuss the conditions and
make a decision before the weekend.
(A) deliver (B) delivered
(C) been delivered (D) were delivered
2. Had the team submitted the report on
schedule, the manager to postpone
the meeting of the Board of Directors.
(A) did not have (B) would not be had
(C) would not had (D) would not have had
3. your rental application be denied, the
owner of the apartment will refund the cost of
processing the application.
(A) Could (B) Do
(C) May (D) Should
Answers: p. 546
..... .... - L-.. ........ ... : : ..... + ,.,..._...
Choose a correct option for each sentence.
01 If it had not been for inflation, Jamie would (save/have saved) more money.
02 The team (can/could) never have done such a good job without Steve's input.
03 If I had filled out the application on time, I would (be/have been) working there now.
04 Kelly would not (take/have taken) the job if she had known about the other offer.
05 But for the dedicated efforts of our staff, the business (will/would) have crumbled under the
06 If people (used/have used) public transportation. more, the air would be less polluted.
07 Had the flight been cancelled, we would (miss/have missed) the meeting.
Correct the underlined parts in the following sentences.
08 If Joseph applied for the job, he would have been hired.
09 If it were not for its loyal employees, the company is not where it is today.
10 If Jack asked the workers politely to work overtime, they would have at least considered it.
11 Had the client called about the problem, it will be solved immediately by the representative.
12 If Erin bought that house, she would have put herself into deep debt.
13 If she has finished her work this week, she would have gone shopping with us.
14 Our public relations department shall have been more prepared to handle the press' questions.
Answers: p. 546

Part 5
01 If customers were unhappy with the quality of
a product, the store it or provide a
(A) would exchange (B) exchange
(C) have exchanged (D) will exchange
02 Had we that Mr. Robbins had a case
pending in criminal court , we would never
have hired him for the job.
(A) been known (B) knew
(C) know (D) known
03 The company never have won
the account without the support of the
very talented copywriters in the advertising
(A) would
(C) must
(B) need
(D) can
04 If all members of our staff were consistently
productive, it is likely that our output
(A) have been
(C) been
(B) would be
(D) be
05 The reductions in the budget will have serious
implications if the projects in the next
(A) will be executed
(C) are executed
(B) executes
(D) will execute
06 If insolvency laws do not change and
continue to favor creditors, many small-scale
companies bankrupt.
(A) have gone (B) will go
(C) went (D) goes
07 The supervisor commented that the manual
could better had the company hired
an editor to go over the material before it was
(A) organize (B) be organized
(C) have organized (D) have been organized
104 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(9 Time limit: 11 minutes
08 Without the health clubs in the city, amenities
such as weight machines and separate
saunas for men and women
(A) cannot be provided
(B) could not have been provided
(C) were not provided
(D) were not providing
09 The recurring problem of unheated rooms
would if the owner had responded to
the tenants' initial complaints.
(A) have been elimination
(B) had been eliminated
(C) have been eliminated
(D) have been eliminating
1 0 Had the president that an important
client was waiting, he would have asked him
to wait in his office.
(A) been informed
(C) informed
(B) be informed
(D) inform
11 Had the director been out of the country, his
assistant charge of ongoing projects
during that time.
(A) had taken
(C) were taking
(B) could have taken
(D) will have taken
12 If the plans made sooner, Gilbert &
Sons would be conducting the feasibility study
for the Safeway Water Project by now.
(A) were being (B) was being
(C) had been (D) have been
13 If the error had not been reported immediately,
the customer his order until after the
Christmas season had ended.
(A) would not have received
(B) would not receive
(C) did not receive
(D) would not be received
14 Had their systems been protected with a reliable
anti-virus program, subscribers no
problems with their computers now.
(A) will have (B) have
(C) would have (D) had
15 If it had not been for a tip from my stock-
broker, I thousands of dollars in
doomed stocks.
(A) was lost
(C) would lose
(B) have lost
(D) would have lost
16 the machine parts arrived promptly,
we would have been able to finish assembling
the machine in time for its first run.
(A) Have
(C) Should
(B) Had
(D) Were
17 A world-renowned economist that
except for the euro, currencies around the
world will continue to devalue.
(A) is predicted
(C) predicts
Part 6
(B) predict
(D) predicting
Questions 21-23 refer to the following letter.
Dear Mr. Elwood,
18 If preparations had been made for the
presentation, it
the proposal.
(A) would be
(C) had been
much easier to sell
(B) has been
(D) would have been
19 The original documents would not have ma-
terialized continued efforts from our
ever dedicated and thorough research team.
(A) so as (B) as to
(C) in that (D) if it had not been for
20 Had estimated figures been more accurate,
strategists would a better financial
plan to tackle the budget deficit.
(A) create (B) be creating
(C) have created (D) had been created
This is in regard to your question about utility payments. A Direct Transfer system will automatically
subtract payments for utility bills from your bank account. you make a utility payment using
21 (A) Did (B) Would
(C) Should (D) Have
this system, the amount withdrawn to pay for the bill will be listed on your bank statement for the
next month.
This service is provided free for all employees of Kirkwood Manufacturers. However, if you wish to
cancel it, you will need to submit an official request. The request form is available at your company's
administrative office. It must be signed an administrative supervisor and mailed in to us.
22 (A) by
(C) at
(B) to
(D) for
If you have other questions, please call a customer service at (925) 555-3429. Representatives are
available from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. , you may contact us by e-mail at
23 (A) Accordingly (B) Alternatively
(C) Technically (D) Originally
Answers: p. 547

"' a.
Section 3
Chapter 09 -To-infinitives
Chapter 1 0 - Gerunds
Chapter 11 - Participles
Basic Points
Verbals are words formed from a verb, functioning as different parts of
speech. They are sometimes called non-finite verbs. Verbals include to-
infinitives, gerunds, and participles.
A to-infinitive is a verbal functioning as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb
in a sentence.
I to like apples. (X)
I like to travel abroad. (0)
I want something to eat. (0)
I work to make money. (0)
As you can see, to like in the first example cannot function as a main verb; to travel
functions as a noun because it is the object of the verb like; to eat functions as an
adjective modifying the object something; and to make functions as an adverb
modifying the verb work.
Like a verb, a to-infinitive can be followed by its object or a
complement , or modified by an adverb.
I want to learn magic.
I want to be a magician.
I need to exercise regularly.
To learn has the object magic; to be is completed by the complement a magician; and
to exercise is modified by the adverb regularly.
108 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
01 Forms of To-infinitives and Their Subjects
0 A to-infinitive is formed by to+ bare infinitive.
Use this telephone line to eoffiffiUAieation with the main office.
for eoffiffiUAieate
to communicate
Only to + bare infinitive is the correct form.
@ The passive form of a to-infinitive is to be+ p.p. Its progressive form is to be + V-ing. Its perfect
form is to have + p.p.
I really didn't like to be told what to do.
person does not want other people to tell him/her what to do. Hence, the passive form to be told is
I observed that the students appeared to be cheating during long exams.
progressive tense can be used to imply a complaint. Hence, the progressive form to be cheating is
It is nice to have finished the work.
person has finished the work before expressing his/her opinion about it. Hence, the perfect form to
have finished is used.
Note: The passive form of to-Infinitives after such verbs as need, deserve, and require may be replaced by
Your hair needs to be cut.= Your ha1r
. . '
8 The structure for + noun I object pronoun is used to mention the performer or the subject of
His parents' goal was for Rob to become a doctor.
The subject of the to-infinitive is Rob.
In order for us to do a good job, we must have more time.
The subject of the to-infinitive is we, which is changed into the object pronoun us when placed after the
preposition for.
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Mr. Cummings, who is leading the new
project, would like all the team members to
come together brainstorm ideas
about marketing strategies.
(A) for (B) to
(C) as (D) with
c .
2. Now that the new branch has opened, the
company can use this opportunity to
business in Latin America.
(A) expand
(C) expanded
(B) expanding
(D) have expanded
3. The landlord will shut off the heating system
in the entire building determine why
some floors are not being properly heated.
(A) as if (B) such that
(C) in order to (D) in spite of
Answers: p. 547
Hackers Skill to + noun or for+ bare infinitive cannot replace the correct form to + bare infinitive.
_t_ __ .... _: :_ .... ----
02 Functions of To-infinitives
0 To-infinitives can function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.
Just like nouns, to-infinitives can come in the position of a subject, an object , or a complement.
Subject complement
Object complement
To observe is one way of learning new things.
You need to call a service technician.
The goal of the meeting is to reach a decision.
Janice helped Craig to write the report.
Just like adjectives, to-infinitives can modify nouns.
Modifying a noun He has a letter ~
Just like adverbs, to-infinitives can modify verbs by showing purposes, reasons, results, etc.
I am writing to inquire whether more funds are available.
I am pleased to grant Betty a promotion to vice president.
He called the center only to find out the tickets had sold out.
~ T h e underlined parts are the focus of the to-infinitives. These parts are frequently tested in TOE I C.
@ Verbs cannot come in the position of a to-infinitive.
You promised lool( over my report!
to look over
~ This sentence already has a main verb (promised), so there cannot be another verb but a to-infinitive (to
look over) coming in the position of the object.
The memo indicated a need for the factory enhance its efficiency.
to enhance
~ T h i s sentence already has a main verb (indicated), so there cannot be another verb but a to-infinitive (to
enhance) that functions as an adjective modifying the noun need.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. The firm temporarily closed one of its
branch offices
(A) will reduce
(C) reduced
110 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
operating expenses.
(B) reduces
(D) to reduce
2. The purpose of the program is
museum staff with the know-how and feedback
to set priorities and identify areas for change.
(A) provide (B) provided
(C) provision (D) to provide
3. The Dogwood Company is pleased
that you can now purchase seeds and all your
gardening needs directly from their website.
(A) to announce
(C) announced
(B) announcement
(D) be announcing
Answers: p. 547
03 Verbs/Nouns/Adjectives Followed by a To-infinitive
0 Verbs followed by a to-infinitive
Verb+ object (to-infinitive)
want to need to wish to
plan to aim to decide to
hope to
propose to
fail to
desire to
offer to
serve to
expect to
ask to
pretend to
promise to agree to refuse to
afford to manage to prefer to
Verb + object+ complement (to-infinitive)
~ ~ ~
want + object + to need + object + to expect+ object+ to invite +object+ to ask+ object+ to
encourage +object+ to persuade +object+ to convince + object+ to cause+ object+ to require+ object+ to
force + object + to compel + object + to get + object + to tell + object + to allow + object + to
permit + object + to enable + object + to forbid + object + to remind + object + to warn + object + to
advise + object + to
Verb+ complement (to-infinitive)
remain to seem to appear to
Management wants to reorganize the marketing division.
Their commitment to quality enabled the company to win the contract.
How well this plan will work remains to be seen.
8 Nouns followed by a to-infinitive
ability to
decision to
readiness to
authority to
effort to
right to
capacity to
need to
time to
chance to
opportunity to
way to
claim to
plan to
wish to
Chefs should have the ability to create different dishes.
@) Adjectives followed by a to-infinitive
be able to
be eager to
be easy to
be ready to
be anxious to
be difficult to
be willing to
be pleased to
be good to
be likely to
be delighted to
be dangerous to
Jody should be able to work well with the new employee.
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Having failed a consensus,
the manager asked that the decision be
(A) creating
(C) to creating
(B) created
(D) to create
2. Please take time the names on this
invitation list and feel free to add anyone
whom we might have missed.
(A) review (B) be reviewed
(C) to review (D) reviewing
3. The CEO believes that the staff will be able
on the Albers Project once the staff
evaluations are completed.
(A) concentrate (B) concentrating
(C) to concentration (D) to concentrate
Answers: p. 547

04 Bare Infinitives as Object Complements
In the following structures, bare infinitives are used in place of to-infinitives and come in the pos-
ition of an object complement.
0 Causative verb (make/let/have) + object+ bare infinitive
Mrs. Banks let us ~ t a k e the day off.
~ o is omitted in the structure let somebody do something.
8 help ( + object) + bare infinitive/to-infinitive
Vince helped Carol (to) complete the assignment.
Company retreats help (to) strengthen employee relationships.
~ Both a bare infinitive and a to-infinitive can come in the position of the object complement or the object
of the verb help.
@) Perception verb (hear/see/watch/notice) + object+ bare infinitive/present participle
I saw her cross the road.
I saw her crossing the road.
~ Both a bare infinitive and a present participle can follow the object of perception verbs, but the present
participle is used to emphasize that the action is in progress.
Note: When the object of a percept1on verb has a pass1ve meaning, it is followed by a past part1c1ple, not a
bare 1nf1nit1ve.
I heard my name repeat (- repeated).
~ ' .> ... f.-'2. ' '"
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. The training program offered by the company
can help your future work options.
(A) broad (B) broaden
(C) broader (D) broadly
112 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
2. The general manager will have his assistant
the proceedings of the meeting and
prepare a report for senior management.
(A) transcribe (B) to be transcribed
(C) be transcribing (D) transcribed
3. Employees who want to do volunteer work
sponsored by the company are to let their
supervisors before the end of the
(A) know
(C) known
(B) to know
(D) knowing
Answers: p. 547

Choose a correct option for each sentence.
01 The CEO will be happy (win/to win) a vote of confidence from the board.
02 It is possible to (custom/customize) this program if it does not suit you.
03 The ability (type/to type) quickly and accurately is a valuable skill.
04 Darren let problems in his personal life (to influence/influence) his performance at work.
05 Your presence at the administrative office is required for the wage claim (proceed/to proceed) .
06 Sonia arranged to have the package (deliver I delivered) to the office overnight.
07 Your suggestion will enable us (improving/to improve) the quality of our products.
Decide whether each of the sentences below is correct or incorrect. If it is correct, write
"correct"; if it is incorrect, point out the mistake(s) and provide (a) correction(s).
08 The employee had no right signing for the shipment brought to the office Saturday.
09 The accountants want to be warned when the IRS is coming to visit.
10 The head office must send the approval slip for Mr. Reynolds start working with us.
11 The manager will have a study do by the research department.
12 If you want to keep your job, you'd better be willing put in more effort.
13 If you don't have time today, get the assistant to bring the files over to management.
14 There are different ways attract business to areas where unemployment is high.
Answers: p. 547
"' l>


"' c..
Part 5
01 Mr. Coulter designated a room for archive
storage in order the loss or damage
of important documents.
(A) to curtail (B) to be curtailed
(C) curtailed (D) curtailment
02 Customers who need lengthy
documents over the Internet should have their
network connection configured to optimize
large data transfers.
(A) receive
(C) receiving
(B) to receive
(D) reception
03 It was important the presentation
before giving it to the over two hundred
business school graduates in the audience.
(A) rehearse (B) rehearsal
(C) to rehearse (D) rehearsed
04 The problem is that nobody in the office
has the authority make a decision
regarding her employment status.
(A) for (B) with
(C) to (D) as
05 Mr. Rosenberg had his secretary out
copies of the agenda to each of the members
of the Board of Directors.
(A) is mailing
(C) mailed
(B) mail
(D) to mail
06 Some customers prefer a m1n1mum
balance in their checking accounts rather
than pay monthly fees.
(A) to maintain
(C) maintained
(B) is maintaining
(D) maintain
07 How the public will react to the soft drink's
new formula remains
(A) to be
(C) have been
(B) being
(D) been
(9 Time limit: 11 minutes
08 Customer complaints show that there may be
a need for Net Manage the present
quality assurance and monitoring systems.
(A) enhance (B) to enhance
(C) enhancing (D) to enhancing
09 The building owner has a policy of letting
lessees to unoccupied units if they
are dissatisfied with their present unit.
(A) to move (B) be moving
(C) move (D) to be moved
10 As a still-life photographer, Mr. Bryant aims to
a particular mood when he snaps the
(A) capture
(C) capturing
11 We called the mall
(B) captured
(D) have captured
out whether the
products were sold out.
(A) findi ng (B) for finding
(C) to find (D) find
12 The candidate promised to
prescription drug prices by as much as 30
percent if voted into office.
(A) low (B) lower
(C) lowering (D) having lowered
13 It is necessary all factory employees
to sign out the tools they use and return them
at the end of the workday.
(A) for (B) further
(C) because (D) these
14 If a client is not utterly satisfied with an ad
campaign, we will return to the drawing board
(A) starting
(C) to start
(B) for starting
(D) start
........ .. ................... + ... :.,; ..... ... ,.. ,... .........
15 Three people from the research department
have been asked to investigate ways
non-taxable imported goods into the country.
(A) bring (B) of bring
(C) to bring (D) bringing
16 With the prices of natural gas and other
energy sources increasing, utility companies
are now encouraging people energy.
(A) conserve (B) conserved
(C) to conserve (D) for conserving
17 All the employees are ready
the new
(A) implementing
(C) implement
Part 6
(B) to implement
(D) implemented
Questions 21-23 refer to the following letter.
Edward Mitchell
1505 Main Street
Fairfax, VA 20151
Dear Mr. Mitchell ,
18 For further help the program, please
refer to the instructions on our website or
e-mail us with your specific question.
(A) install (B) to install
(C) installed (D) be installed
19 The projects committee advised the proposal
writer to the project beneficiaries in
order to determine their real needs.
(A) talk
(C) talked
(B) talking
(D) to talk
20 Several new waiters and salespeople were
hired the influx of customers during
the long holiday season.
(A) to handle (B) handling
(C) to be handling (D) to be handled
I am pleased your application for full-time employment as a marketing manager for the
21 (A) confirm (B) confirming
(C) be confirmed (D) to confirm
Bloom & Bloom Accounting Group was accepted. We are that your knowledge, skills and
22 (A) confide (B) confident
(C) to confide (D) confidence
experience wil l be valuable to our firm. You will report directly to Mr. Sanders, who will instruct you
of your specific responsibi li ties during your probation period. If you have any questions regarding
our offer, please contact us . Otherwise, please sign every page of the enclosed contract
23 (A) similarly (B) favorably
(C) immediately (D) basically
and return it to us by business-reply envelope on or before January 20. Thank you, and we look
forward to seeing you at the orientation on January 23 at 9:00 a.m.
Sincerely yours,
Melissa Hayes
Human Resources Department
Answers: p. 547
. i

Basic Points
A gerund is formed by adding the suffix -ing to a bare infinitive. How-
ever, not all words ending in -ing are gerunds. A gerund can be used
as a noun in a sentence.
She cleaning the house every day. (X)
I hate cleaning. (0)
The gerund cleaning cannot come in the position of a mai n verb, but it is a noun
coming in the position of the object.
A gerund is a verbal, so it can be followed by its object or a complement ,
or modified by an adverb.
I li ke playing baseball.
Becoming a doctor is not easy.
Eating slowly is a good habit.
As you can see, playing has the object baseball ; becoming stands before the
complement a doctor; and eating is modified by the adverb slowly.
1 16 - Hackers TOEIC Reading www.nhantriviet.com
01 Functions, Forms of Gerunds and Their Subjects
0 Grammatically, gerunds can function as a noun coming in the position of a subject, an object,
or a complement.
Subject Providing a loan will allow the bank to collect interest.
Object of a verb Stan enjoys golf.
Object of a preposition The director aims at reducing corporate debt.
Complement John's hobby is listening to music.
underlined parts are the focus of the gerunds. These parts are often tested in TOEIC.
8 Verbs cannot come in the position of a gerund.
Sarah is thinking about btty a car.
The verb buy cannot come in the position of the object of the preposition about.
@) The passive form of a gerund is being + p.p. Its perfect form is having + p.p.
Karen loves being looked at in her new dress.
loves people to look at her in her new dress. Hence, the passive form of the gerund is used (being
looked) .
He denied having lied.
act of lying happened before the act of denying. Hence, the perfect form of the gerund is used (having
e In case the subject/performer of a gerund is mentioned, a possessive case of a noun or a
pronoun is put in front of this gerund.
I don't mind John's going with us.
The subject of the gerund going is John's.
His going with us is out of the question.
subject of the gerund going is His.
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. regular donations to local charities
from business profits is not only personally
rewarding, but is good for developing a
(A) Give (B) Gives
(C) Giving (D) Given
2. Department heads distributed a memo
reminding employees to refrain from
their cell phones during company meetings.
(A) to use (B) using
(C) uses (D) use
3. The chef obtains interesting and different
results with this dish by the
ingredients he uses in the recipe.
(A) vary (B) varying
(C) varied (D) varies
Answers: p. 547

"' a.
02 Verbs Followed by a Gerund
0 Below are some verbs followed by a gerund as their object.
enjoy V-ing
suggest V-ing
finish V-ing
give up V-ing
dislike V-ing
avoid V-ing
recommend V-ing
quit V-ing
postpone V-ing
deny V-ing
Russ will consider to work for a new company.
consider V-ing
discontinue V-ing
mind V-ing
~ h e verb consider must be followed by a gerund (working). not a to-infinitive.
@ Some verbs take either a gerund or a to-infinitive as their object.
There are some verbs followed by either a gerund or a to-infinitive; however, the meanings are
Jane has just begun learned to drive.
learning/to learn
~ h e verb begin may be followed by a gerund or a to-infinitive, and there is no difference in meaning.
Other verbs include like, love, prefer, hate, start, intend, attempt , continue, etc.
Some verbs are followed by either a gerund or a to-infinitive and the meanings change.
I remembered canceling that order.
I remembered to cancel that order.
I forgot turning off the light.
I forgot to turn off the light.
~ For the verbs remember, forget , regret , there are differences in meaning between gerunds and to-infini-
tives coming in the position of their objects. Gerunds are used to express actions which happened in the
past and to-i nfinitives are used to express purposes or actions in the future.
Note: Other verbs such as advise, allow, permit, forbid are followed by a gerund or object+ to-infinitive.
The hospital does not permit smoking in the building.
The hospital does not permit people to smoke in the building.
C ,_ " I J ,
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. The small appliance manufacturer has
recently begun into the consumer
electronics industry.
(A) expand
(C) expanding
1 18 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(B) expanded
(D) has expanded
2. It would be wise of you to consider
with your firm, as the job market is tough right
(A) renegot iate
(C) to renegotiate
(B) renegotiated
(D) renegotiating
3. Do not forget the application form
before submitting it to Ms. Radowick at the
front desk.
(A) signing
(C) to sign
(B) sign
(D) signed
Answers: p. 547
03 Gerunds vs. Nouns
0 A gerund can be followed by an object, but a noun cannot.
The chain was successful in establishment a new store.
~ h e noun establishment cannot take an object. Here, the gerund establishing must be used.
@ There is no indefinite article before a gerund while there may be an indefinite article before a
singular count noun.
The bank has experienced ~ marked increasing in deposits in recent weeks.
~ A gerund cannot follow an indefinite article; thus, the noun increase must be used.
@) Sometimes there are differences in meaning between a gerund and a similar noun.
advertising - advertisement
housing - house
meaning - means
spending - spend
covering - coverage
mailing - mail
processing - process
staffing - staff
funding - fund
marketing - market
seating - seat
ticketing - ticket
For proper process, submit all documents completely and accurately.
~ The noun process means a series of actions to achieve a result. The gerund processing means dealing
with/managing. Based on the meaning of the sentence, the gerund processing must be used.
After the phone lines went down, the company decided to seek out other meaning of communica-
tion with clients. means
~ h e noun means is equivalent to a method/way of doing something while the gerund meaning means
expressing/describing. Hence, the noun means must be used.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. By paperwork, the Stamford
Company is able to more efficiently
accomplish routine tasks.
(A) reduce (B) reduced
(C) reducing (D) reduction
2. The frozen dinner company is utilizing
consumer on nutrition to formulate
wholesome menus for its products.
(A) research (B) to research
(C) researching (D) researched
3. The team met for three hours to discuss
strategies for the midmarket needs
of small to medium-sized businesses.
(A) address
(C) addressing
(B) to address
(D) addressed
Answers: p. 547

"' a.
04 Common Expressions with Gerunds
0 Below are some common expressions with gerunds.
go V-i ng
on V-i ng
It's no use V-ing
spend + time/ money + V-ing
have difficulty/ trouble / a problem (in) V-ing
We will be busy editing this article.
be busy (in) V-ing
be worth V-ing
keep (on) V-ing
feel li ke V-ing
cannot help V-ing
The company will have trouble carrying out its plans.
8 The preposition to + gerund
contribute to V-i ng
look forward to V-i ng
object to V-i ng
lead to V-ing
I look forward to your joining the company.
be committed to V-ing
be dedicated to V-ing
be devoted to V-ing
be used to V-ing
The company is committed to providing the best possible service.
Note: Pay attention to the verb form following the preposition to jo1ned by a coordinating conjunction.
We are looking forward to touring the area and to see (- to seemg) the sights .
.;, The conjunction and JOins the two equivalent parts in the sentence; t1ence, to seeing must be used
to be equivalent to to touring.
- ~ ~ ~ -._.., . ~ ~ : : . _ . - : ~ ~ .... -- I
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B) , (C) , or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Mr. Gray looks forward to out more
about investment opportunities with your
growing company.
(A) find
(C) have found
120 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(B) finding
(D) be found
2. The overseas branches have had many
difficulties in the main branch's
system to their local operations.
(A) adapt (B) adapts
(C) adapt ed (D) adapting
3. Although the employees are satisfied with the
training program, they object to to
travel an hour each way to get to the training
center and back.
(A) have
(C) had
(B) has
(D) having
Answers: p. 547

Choose a correct option for each sentence.
01 Daniel is used to (work/working) under deadlines and in high-pressure situations.
02 I an forgot (to give/ giving) sufficient notice about his resignation to his employers.
03 Be careful to use appropriate (word/wording) when writing up the contract.
04 Sheila decided to keep (working/to work) through most of her pregnancy.
05 Studies have shown that a positive environment can significantly improve worker {effectiveness/
effecting) .
06 The project contributed to (raise/raising) environmental awareness.
07 Shoppers cannot help (to wonder/wondering) why the prices at the department store are so high.
Decide whether each of the sentences below is correct or incorrect. If it is correct, write
"correct"; if it is incorrect, point out the mistake(s) and provide (a) correction(s).
08 Paul's job is take care of a request from his supervisor.
09 I would like you to prepare for your first day by reviewing company policies.
10 Many people cannot afford the cost of obtain medical care without health insurance.
11 It would be best to avoid to talk on the phone during work hours.
12 While he's an expert in buying stocks, he's not good at know when to sell.
13 I would prefer to have my salary wired to my account directly each month.
14 Her impressive volunteering record proves that Jessica is dedicated to help others in need.
Answers: p. 547

Part 5
01 Age-related changes can contribute to one's
having problems soundly.
(A) sleep (B) sleeps
(C) slept (D) sleeping
02 The government's report found that CIZMO
Group had failed to take the necessary steps
in the building's cash vault.
(A) secured (B) was secured
(C) securing (D) has secured
03 Despite more employees for the
factory, the production manager still believes
the facility is understaffed.
(A) hired (B) have hired
(C) having hired (D) were hired
04 Because demand for sharp-toed boots has
been decreasing, Martinique Shoemakers has
decided to discontinue this particular
(A) made
(C) make
(B) making
(D) to make
05 The department is committed to
customers with a satisfactory resolution to
their complaints.
(A) provision
(C) provides
(B) providing
(D) provided
06 Please indicate your desire to renew your
membership with our club within ten days of
this notice.
(A) received
(C) receive
(B) receipt
(D) receiving
07 The factory supervisor equipment
and machinery through a second-hand dealer
who sells slightly used items at bargain
(A) to purchase
(C) purchasing
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(B) purchase
(D) purchases
0 Time limit: 11 minutes
08 The cosmetics division is considering
a product line for men, which will probably
include facial creams and concealers.
(A) introduce
(C) to introduce
(B) introducing
(D) introduced
09 The managers involved with the negotiations
are pleased with the progress of the talks
and believe that they will reach a mutually
(A) to conclude
(C) concluding
(B) concluded
(D) conclusion
1 0 The recent cuts in budget appropriations were
aimed at the company's year-end
(A) reduce
(C) reducing
(B) reduced
(D) reduction
11 Shopping websites can continue to
shoppers by ensuring product quality, offering
low prices, and being user-friendly.
(A) attractive (B) attract
(C) attracting (D) attraction
12 Rather than go at the local super-
markets, residents of the town are urged to
buy produce straight from the farms.
(A) to shop (B) shopping
(C) for shopping (D) to shopping
13 your business card to individuals you
meet will allow you to advertise your business
in an inexpensive and effective way.
(A) Hand (B) Hands
(C) Handed (D) Handing
14 I am calling to get some information on
the 1S
h International Symposium on
Mobile Radio Communications in September.
(A) to attend (B) attending
(C) attended (D) attendance
15 A demonstration of the most recent PDA
model will place in the conference
room on the third floor before it goes on sale.
(A) take (B) be taken
(C) be taking (D) have taken
16 By May, the weather should become warm
enough to permit in the cellar or
basement for longer periods of time.
(A) stay (B) to stay
(C) staying (D) stayed
17 the difficult bar exam, he spent most
of his waking moments reading reference
materials at the library.
(A) For passing (B) To pass
(C) By passing (D) On passing
Part 6
Questions 21-23 refer to the following e-mail.
Date: February 10
From: tharris@comdev.com
To: ebryant@comdev.com
Subject: News on Thai branch
18 The promotion advisor, Mr. Dorsey, enjoys
with potential clients during the open
house days held once a month.
(A) talk (B) talked
(C) talking (D) to talk
19 City developers will begin the park-
ing lot into a luxury shopping center after the
summer ends.
(A) convert
(C) to converting
(B) converting
(D) converted
20 In an atmosphere conducive to
studying, the library has painted the walls a
color that is easy on the eyes of the students.
(A) establish (B) establishing
(C) established (D) establishment
I have just arrived at headquarters fol lowing my visit to our new office in Thailand. The branch
has conducted training for management and staff, focusing on new customer service and project
However, the office communication problems between its foreign staff and local managers.
21 (A) had experienced (B) will experience
(C) experienced (D) is experiencing
The problem does not involve language; rather, it has to do with cultural differences in work style. I
recommend our training program to include sessions that would make employee relocation
22 (A) upgrade (B) upgrading
(C) to upgrade (D) upgraded
run more smoothly. These sessions would to improving relations between local and
23 (A) prohibit (B) contribute
(C) develop (D) increase
international employees.
I have attached a report with further information and would like to know your thoughts regarding the
Thai office when you have time.
Answers: p. 548

"' a.
Basic Points
A participle is a verbal , sharing in part the characteristics of both a verb
and an adjective. However, it only functions as an adjective in a sen-
tence. There are present participles (verb + -ing) and past participles
(verb + -ed and irregular past participles).
I broken heart. (X)
The man was dying of a broken heart. (0)
They removed all the marble blocks broken into several pieces. (O)
The participle broken cannot function as a verb. It modifies the noun heart or the noun
phrase the marble blocks. So it functions as an adjective.
A participle shares the characteristics of a verb. Therefore, there may
be an object or a complement after a participle, or a participle may be
modified by an adverb.
There were a lot of people enjoying the nice weather.
The car repaired yesterday is working well.
The present participle enjoying has the object the nice weather, and the past participle
repaired is modified by the adverb yesterday.
However, when a participle is used to modify a noun, there must be no object, comple-
ment, or adverb between them.
The repaired yesterday car is working well. (X)
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01 Functions of Participles
0 Participles can function as an adjective.
Just like an adjective, a participle can modify its preceding or following noun.
Modifying a following noun As a result of increasing demand, we are in a position to raise prices.
Modifying a preceding noun The staff members (who were) expected to attend didn't turn up.
~ T h e underlined parts are the focus of the participles. These parts are often tested in TOEIC.
Just like an adjective, a participle can come in the position of a subject complement or an object
Subject complement The task seems challenging.
Object complement Mr. Dover keeps his partners motivated.
N ~ t e There are some special cases where a parttciple must follow the noun it modtfies, for example people
questioned, people interviewed, people concerned.
The ~ gave very dtfferent opinions.
' l
8 Verbs cannot come in the position of a participle.
She could have been a +earl actress.
~ T h e verb lead cannot modify the noun actress. Hence, the participle leading functioning as an adjective
must be used.
The candidate htre last week turned down the position.
~ The verb hire cannot modify the noun candidate. Hence, the participle hired functioning as an adjective
must be used.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
{D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Because flu is a public concern,
pharmaceutical companies have been
marketing a variety of medications.
(A) grow (B) grew
(C) growth (D) growing
www.nhantriviPt C"om
2. Photo-Ops is a bimonthly publication
by an organization of amateur photographers
devoted to their avocation.
{A) distributes
(C) are distributed
(B) distributed
(D) will distribute
3. The resort keeps its patrons by
offering numerous services that ensure their
comfort and well-being.
(A) satisfy (B) satisfies
(C) satisfied (D) satisfaction
Answers: p. 548
"' 'iii

" <0
02 Participial Phrases
0 Participial phrases can function as adverb clauses of time, reason, condition, entailment, etc.
Time Having failed the job interview, I returned to university.
= After I had failed the job interview
Reason Feeling confident, Susan asked for a raise.
= Because she felt confident
Condition Marketed cleverly, the game will be very popular.
= If it is marketed cleverly
Entailment The supermarket added a foreign foods section, including items from Southeast Asia.
= and it included items from Southeast Asia
underli ned parts are the focus of the participial phrases. These parts are often tested in TOEI C.
Note: A conjunction of an adverb clause may be added to make the meaning of a participial phrase clear.
Before Signing the contract, make sure that you understand it fully.
. You may enter the bank vault when accompan1ed by security personnel.
.:. .
8 Verbs and nouns cannot come in the position of participles in participial phrases.
Surprise by the sudden drop in the value of the stock, the investor immediately sold his shares.
verb Surprise cannot come in the position of the participl e Surprised.
When application for a transfer, explain your situation fully.
-- applying
noun application cannot come after the conjuncti on when. Hence, the parti ci pl e applying must be
8 To express events that happen simultaneously, the structure with+ object+ participle is used.
Mrs. Sedrick walked by with papers falling out of her briefcase.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B) , (C) , or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. completed the initial write-up of the
study, the researcher submitted the draft to
her supervisor for feedback.
(A) Had (B) Having
(C) Have (D) Has
1 26 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
2. Once , both corporations will examine
what alternatives are available for the affiliates
they separately own.
(A) merged (B) merge
(C) are merged (D) have merged
3. After carefully the holes in security,
experts agreed that passwords should be
changed once a month.
(A) review (B) reviews
(C) reviewing (D) are reviewed
Answers: p. 548
03 Present Participles vs. Past Participles
0 Present participles are used when they have an active relation with the nouns they modify. In
contrast, past participles are used if the relation is passive.
We have seen a proposal recommending us to change company regulations.
the relation between the participle and the noun a proposal is active, we use the present parti-
ciple recommending, which means a proposal that recommends us.
The discount offer is not valid on tickets purchased on the Internet.
the relation between the participle and the noun tickets is passive, we use the past participle
purchased, which means tickets that are purchased.
@ When a participle comes in the position of a subject complement or an object complement,
a present participle is used if the relation between the subject or object and the participle is
active, and a past participle is used if the relation is passive.
"' )>
The game became exciting. I
relation between the subject The game and its complement is active, so the present participle
exciting is used. Exciting here is also called the present participial adjective, which is used to describe
the people or things that cause a certain feeling to somebody.
The writer made the executive summary polished.
This sentence can be understood as The executive summary was polished by the writer. The relation
between the object the executive summary and its complement is passive. Hence, the past participle
polished is used.
@) To combine two clauses having the same subject, use a present participial phrase when the
subject and the participle have an active relation, and use a past participial phrase when the
relation is passive.
You must read the terms of the contract carefully before signing the agreement.
The subject You does the act of signing, so it and the participle have an active relation. Thus, the present
participle signing is used.
Enclosed within the office compound, the restaurant is frequented by employees.
subject the restaurant cannot enclose the office compound, so it and the participle have a passive
relation. Thus, the past participle enclosed is used.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. The receipts attached to the travel report
indicate the total amount for the trip
to the overseas branch.
(A) pay
(C) paid
(B) pays
(D) paying
2. Mr. Sanders has decided to take on the
position at Barker Technologies because the
work seems
(A) interest
(C) interesting
(B) interests
(D) interested
3. in the downtown area, the information
center for expatriates provides various types
of assistance and serves as a meeting place
for young adults.
(A) Locating (B) Located
(C) Locate (D) Location
Answers: p. 548
04 Confusing Expressions
0 Present participle + noun
during his opening remarks
maintenance of existing equipment
my missing luggage
leave a lasting impression on the school system
a leading commercial company
The presiding officer will emcee the seminar.
the most promising member of the team
improving techniques
ct. improved techniques
The interviewer met with the promised candidate to ask him about his long-term goals.
~ The present participle promising means potential.
8 Past participle + noun
the preferred means of transportation
the proposed plan of rebuilding
a(n) qualified I skilled I experienced programmer
a designated parking area
request a reserved parking space
view the detailed product information
without written consent
in limited warranty
limited items
newly purchased computer hardware
heavy demand for customized products
an increase in the price of finished products
the superior quality of the handcrafted pieces
repeated dismissal from the firm
explain in the attached document
responsible for the damaged items
The trainer asked his experiencing assistant to help the participants.
~ h e past participle experienced means trained/ skilled/qualified.
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B), (C), or (D)-
best completes the sentence.
1. For over three hundred years, cork has been the
means to cap wine bottles, but manufac-
turers are now looking into metal screw caps.
(A) preferred (B) preferring
(C) preference (D) preferably
128 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
2. The new company regulation states that
tardiness will be grounds for
suspension from work without pay.
(A) repeating (B) repeats
(C) repeated (D) repeatedly
3. The small shop recently won an award for
the originality and outstanding quality of
its pieces.
(A) handcraft
(C) handcrafted
(B) handcrafts
(D) handcrafting
Answers: p. 548
Choose a correct option for each sentence.
01 When (reserved/reserving) banquet space at this hotel, you must pay a deposit.
02 We must make a (lasting/lasted) impression on our clients to maintain long-term relations with them.
03 Please have this signed and stamped by the date (writing/written) on this form.
04 Mr. Donaldson received an invitation (welcoming/welcomed) him to the wedding reception.
05 Rain poured relentlessly, (dampened/dampening) the company picnic.
06 Applicants (interesting I interested) in the early decision program should apply by September 1.
07 This is just a reminder to keep your doors (locked/locking) at night for safety.
Decide whether each of the sentences below is correct or incorrect. If it is correct, write
"correct"; if it is incorrect, point out the mistake(s) and provide (a) correction(s).
08 We decided to try a restaurant served raw seafood and other dishes.
09 The proposed plan was acceptable to all members of the committee.
10 Felt lucky, Charles decided to ask his boss for a raise.
11 The bank will send the depositor an update statement of transactions.
12 Every day after eating lunch, Kate takes a short walk around the block.
13 Please include payment in the reply envelope providing in your catalogue.
14 We have searched everywhere for the missed reports, but they are yet to be found.
Answers: p. 548
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"' )>

"" c..
Part 5
01 The hotel provides personal service and
careful attention to detail , that you
have a relaxing and comfortable stay.
(A) be ensured (B) ensure
(C) ensures (D) ensuring
02 An invoice will be generated and included
with the order being to the address
you indicated on the form.
(A) send (B) sent
(C) sending (D) sends
03 in 2010, the gallery continues to add
new exhibition rooms.
(A) Renovate (B) Renovated
(C) Having renovated (D) Renovating
04 The editor spoke to his assistant about how
to keep the writers to write lively and
interesting articles.
(A) have inspiration
(C) inspired
(B) be inspired
(D) inspiring
05 Net Connect furnishes its clients with
networking solutions, ranging from file
and printer sharing to group calendar and
(A) customize
(C) customized
(B) customizes
(D) customizing
06 In his ten years at Sortel Networks, Mr.
Gutierrez has shown that he performs
admirably when with tight deadlines.
(A) face (B) facing
(C) faces (D) faced
07 Readers find the young writer's first novel
despite the fact that the initial
reviews of the book were so dismal.
(A) fascinate (B) fascination
(C) fascinating (D) fascinated
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(9 Time limit: 11 minutes
08 From the moment he comes up with a
concept, it usually takes Mr. Barnes a week
to produce the product.
(A) finished (B) finishing
(C) finish (D) finishes
09 The corporation head, who a large
city orphanage, will establish a non-profit
computer learning center for the
(A) foundation
(C) found
(B) founded
(D) founding
1 0 The number of employees to work
at foreign branches in Asia and Europe will
probably continue to increase.
(A) agree (B) agreeing
(C) agreed (D) agreement
11 Even though the business trip was
a lot of headway was made with our future
Swiss partner.
(A) tire
(C) tiring
(B) tired
(D) tiredness
12 If the front door is locked, punch in your
access code while down the green
button on the door handle.
(A) hold
(C) held
(B) holds
(D) holding
13 Facilities have been established to facilitate
pick-ups and drop-offs for passengers
the train and subway stations.
(A) used (B) using
(C) use (D) will use
14 The symposium's event is the Peace
Ball , where delegates can meet members of
the community.
(A) culminate
(C) culminating
(B) culmination
(D) culminated
15 Misuse or neglect can result in the equipment
damaged, requiring parts replacement
or extensive repair.
(A) was
(C) having
(B) been
(D) being
16 Due to a significant change in the nation's
tax laws, we are likely to see
investments by foreign individuals.
(A) decrease (B) to decrease
(C) decreases (D) decreased
17 Mr. Morris and I are excluding the section
by Ms. Wood because her
conclusion was based on outdated
(A) be written
(C) was written
Part 6
(B) writing
(D) written
Questions 21-23 refer to the following letter.
Alex Colby
705 Penndel Boulevard
Mill s WY 82644
Dear Mr. Colby,
18 Employees are expected to use the newly
reference materials to expand their
knowledge of computer software and their
(A) purchased
(C) purchases
(B) purchasing
(D) purchase
19 The stadium was packed with thousands of
people waiting to see the two soccer teams
(A) playing
(C) to play
(B) played
(D) are playing
20 The state government has decided to
introduce a program targeting unemployed
men and women to re-enter a highly
competitive job market.
(A) are trying (B) try
(C) trying (D) will try
Thank you for choosing Jaipur Travel Package Tours, your doorway into the fascinating country of
India. The package you have selected is an eight-day, seven-night tour five Indian cities
21 (A) to cover (B) covered
(C)cover (D)covering
and several of the country's top tourist attractions. We will make all the necessary reservations for
your tour. Your flight to New Delhi is scheduled to at 3:20 p.m. on May 31 . We ask that
22 (A) keep (B) depart
(C) reach (D) postpone
you our office in Evanston at least one week before your flight so that you can finish any
23 (A) visited (B) visit
(C) will visit (D) to visit
remaining paperwork before we finali ze the reservations and timetable. Thank you and I look forward
to meeting with you.
Sincerely yours,
Marilou Eagl in
Travel Representative
Jai pur TPT
Answers: p. 548

"' c..
Section 4
Parts of Speech
Chapter 12 - Nouns
Chapter 13 - Pronouns
Chapter 14 - Adjectives
Chapter 15 - Adverbs
Chapter 16 - Prepositions
Basic Points
A noun is a word used to name a person, place, thing, or an idea.
teacher cat coffee rain math dream Korea
Nouns are divided into count nouns and non-count nouns.
Count nouns include:
Common nouns (referring to a
person or thing in a general sense) manager, typist, ticket, letter, etc.
Collective nouns (naming a group
of people or things) family, people, team, committee, etc.
Non-count nouns include:
Proper nouns
Abstract nouns
Seoul, Hong Kong, Tom, Christmas, etc.
love, anger, peace, loyalty, faith, information,
education, etc.
Mass nouns paper, water, wood, glass, oil , etc.
Nouns are usually accompanied by determiners (articles, quantifiers,
possessive I demonstrative adjectives).
CD Article
We need a car for several weeks.
I decided to sell the car.
In the first sentence, the indefinite article a is used before the noun car because it is
singular and unidentified. In the second sentence, the definite article the is used before
the noun car because both the speaker and the listener have known which car it is.
Generally, the indefinite article a/ an is used before an unidentified singular noun, and
the definite article the is used before an identified noun.
(?) Quantifier
Some cars on the list are not available in Korea.
@ Possessive I Demonstrative adjective
Mike parked his car two blocks from the bank.
I bought this car last year.
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01 Positions of Nouns
0 In a sentence, nouns can come in the position of the subject, object, or complement.
Subject Customer satisfaction must be considered.
Object of a verb The library will be accepting donations of used textbooks.
Object of a preposition Suncorp moved to its new office last year.
Complement Having a strong corporate culture is an advantage for the company.
It was a great disappointment that an agreement was not reached.
Note: Nouns can also come 1n the position of the object of verbals.
They are trying to increase employee productivity.
8 Nouns are usually found after an article, an adjective/a participle, a possessive adjective/
case, a preposition, or another noun.
Article + noun
Adjective I participle + noun
Possessive adjective I case + (adjective +) noun
Noun + noun - compound noun
the features of the dishwasher
offer a lot of practical information
would like to express his disappointment
Latzer's second edition is more useful than the old one .
meet the production schedule
@) Verbs, adjectives, and adverbs cannot come in the position of a noun.
Tax incentives can be used to encourage Hwest in small businesses.
~ Only the noun investment can be the object of the to-infinitive to encourage.
They generally have lots of information regarding their iAelustriol.
~ n l y the noun industry can be the object of the preposition regarding.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C) , or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. I'd like to delay the of the copy
machine until we can move the old one into
the basement.
(A) delivered
(C) deliverable
(B) deliver
(D) delivery
2. The feasibility study which was postponed a
few months ago is expected to resume in time
for the New Projects Committee's
(A) evaluated (B) evaluation
(C) evaluator (D) evaluates
3. Prescription service and the purchase of
medication over the Internet are provided at
great to sickly and aging patients.
(A) convened (B) convenient
(C) conveniently (D) convenience
Answers: p. 548
Chapter 12 Nouns - 135
"' )>

02 Count Nouns vs. Non-Count Nouns
0 Count nouns are usually preceded by the article a/an/the or may be used in the plural form.
On the contrary, non-count nouns cannot follow the article a/an and cannot be used in the
plural form.
I need eAaif without arms.
a chair /chairs
~ C h a i r is a count noun, so it must be in the form of a chair or chai rs.
We need a furniture/furnitums to fill the room.
~ Furniture is a non-count noun, so it cannot be in the form of a furniture or furnitures.
Notes: 1. There must be an indefinite article before a singular noun while the suffix -(e)s is added to a plural
You can print a coupon from the website.
Boxes are piled up in the office.
2. Below are some count nouns that look like non-count nouns.
discount price purpose refund relation
approach statement workplace source
compliment request belongings measure
standard fund
3. Below are some non-count nouns that look like count nouns.
access advice baggage equipment information
weaponry luggage machinery news stationery
8 Below are some confusing count nouns and non-count nouns because of their similar meanings.
Count nouns - Non-count nouns Count nouns - Non-count nouns
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
an account - accounting
an advertisement - advertising
clothes - clothing
a fund - funding
furni shings - furniture
goods - merchandise
Decide which of the choices - (A) , (B), (C) , or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. With so many products to choose from,
consumers demand a high of
customer service when choosing which
company to support.
(A) level
(C) levels
136 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(B) leveling
(D) leveled
a lender - lending
a letter- mail
a permit - permission
a process, procedures - processing
a seat - seating
a ticket - ti cketing
2. Many of the policyholders of National
Insurance receive ten percent for
cars or houses covered in their contracts.
(A) discount
(C) discounting
(B) discounts
(D) discounted
3. We became one of the most recognized digital
camera manufacturers through an
that both young adults and parents could
relate to.
(A) advertise
(C) advertising
(B) advertisable
(D) advertisement
Answers: p. 548
03 Determiners and Nouns
0 The indefinite article a 1 an cannot precede plural nouns or non-count nouns but singular nouns
She works for a foreign company.
Another factor contributed to )( higher fuel prices.
I've got interesting information about the event.
The article a cannot precede the plural noun prices. The article an cannot precede the non-count noun
Note: The article a precedes a Singular noun or an adjective modifying a Singular noun starting with a consonant
sound, and the article an precedes one starting w1th a vowel sound. This depends on pronunciation, not
a discount a university an effort an hour
@ The definite article the can precede both a count noun and a non-count noun.
I just bought the book that you recommended.
I bought the works of Shakespeare.
There is no charge to borrow the equipment.
8 Quantifiers can precede both count nouns and non-count nouns.
Preceding count nouns
Singular nouns Plural nouns
Preceding non-count nouns
Preceding both count and
non-count nouns
each (a) few
fewer (a) little
several less
much no
Mtteft financial advisors will charge an hourly rate.
is a plural noun, so the quantifier many is used.
The newest MP3 model boasted several new featttre.
quantifier several always precedes a plural noun, so the noun must be in the plural form (features) .
Note: All, more, and most may precede a plural noun.
Most tree (-trees) lose their leaves each fall, but some keep them over winter.
: -- I
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. merchandise returned to the store
after purchase must be checked for flaws or
alterations before being put back on the shelf.
(A) An (B) There is
(C) Any (D) In that
2. After spending a full year on redesign, our
programmers have developed a program that
offers customers several convenient new
(A) to feature
(C) featuring
(B) feature
(D) features
probationary accounting trainee must
undergo six months' instruction before he is
allowed to work in financial systems.
(A) All (B) Much
(C) Each (D) A few
Answers: p. 548

04 Concrete Nouns vs. Abstract Nouns
0 Concrete nouns refer to humans or objects/things that can be perceived by our five senses -
touch, sight, taste, hearing, or smell, e.g. air, salt, etc. Abstract nouns refer to those that we
cannot sense- they have no physical existence, e.g. advice, satisfaction, diligence, etc. Both
concrete and abstract nouns come, of course, in the position of a noun but their meaning will
play a decisive role for the sentence to make sense.
accountant - account, accounting
applicant, application - appliance
attendant, attendee - attendance
consultant - consultation, consultancy
occupant - occupancy, occupation
producer, product - production
analyst - analysis
architect - architecture
assembler - assembly
authority - authorization
beneficiary - benefit
consumer - consumption
contributor - contribution
distributor - distribution
donor - donation
editor- edition
employee - employment
engineer - engineering
founder - foundation
illustrator - illustration
inspector - inspection
I instructor - instruction
interpreter - interpretation
journalist - journal
manager - management
manufacturer - manufacture
negotiator - negotiation
opener - opening
operator - operation
owner - ownership
I participant - participation
president - presidency
receptionist - reception
relative - relation
representative - representation
resident - residence
rival - rivalry
server - service
subscriber - subscription
supervisor - supervision
I technician - technology
An architecture carefully studies a site before making a perspective.
~ h e subject in this sentence requires a concrete noun indicating a person (architect), not an abstract
noun (architecture).
The founder of the local art center reflects the city's commitment to artists and culture.
~ h e subject in this sentence requires an abstract noun (foundation). not a concrete noun indicating a
person (founder) .
TOEIC Questions
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. If long-term is a possibility at this
company, I would be interested and willing to
relocate myself to this site.
(A) employs (B) employee
(C) employed (D) employment
138 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
2. The chemical company gave local government
officials a report detailing the of its
plant in Westbury.
(A) operative
(C) operation
(B) operator
(D) operate
3. It is common practice today for psychologists
to serve as to toy companies in the
design of toys for children of different ages.
(A) consult (B) consultants
(C) consultancy (D) consultations
Answers: p. 548
05 Compound Nouns
0 A compound noun is a noun that is made up of two or more words. Most compound nouns in
English are formed by noun + noun.
account number
application fee
application form
arrival date
assembly line
attendance record
client satisfaction
communication skill
conference room
confidentiality policy
confirmation number
construction delay
enrollment form
exchange rate
exercise equipment
expansion project
expiration date
feasibility study
growth rate
housing department
interest rate
investment advice
keynote speaker
living expenses
occupancy rate
performance appraisal I evaluation
product information
quality requirement
Good communicated skills are essential to the project.
reception desk
reference letter
registration form
repair facility
research program
retail sales
retirement celebration
retirement luncheon
return policy
safety inspection
sales representative
security card
service desk
weather forecast
8 The suffix -{e)s is added to the second noun to form a plural compound noun.
research program - research programs
job opening - job openings
Note: You cannot add the suffix -(e)s to the preceding noun to form a plural compound noun. The following
compound nouns have preceding nouns end1ng in -(e)s, but they are still s1ngular nouns.
customs office public relations department electronics company earnings growth
savings account/bank/plan sales division/promotion human resources department
' - I . .
@ The suffix -s cannot be added to the words functioning as an adjective modifying a noun.
two thousands tickets (X) - two thousand tickets (0)
a four-years-old girl (X) - a four-year-old girl (0)
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B) , (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. The program is being financed
privately, although the government is looking
into the possibility of supporting the program.
(A) researching (B) researched
(C) research (D) researches
2. The equipment at the new fitness club
is guaranteed to help men and women achieve
greater muscle tone in just a few weeks.
(A) exercise (B) exercisable
(C) exercising (D) exercised
3. With nearly two orders placed within
the first day, the manager has decided to add
another work shift to meet product demand.
(A) thousands (B) a thousand
(C) thousand (D) thousands of
Answers: p. 548

"' c.
06 Common Nouns in TOEIC
0 Below are some common nouns that are derived from the same root but take different
segmentation .
the amount of media coverage
the largest global delivery company
do not accept any late entries
present a form of identification
the company's best interests
show great interest in alternative energy resources
reduce the likelihood of system failure
the objective of this program is to help -
ten percent on all items
high percentage of the budget
purchase a parking permit
building security procedures
production remains steady
demonstrate the highest productivity
throughout the remainder of the week
accept responsibility for belongings left
the fastest growing segment of the automobile industry
have the business sense
the effective utilization of personnel at all levels
- The nouns on the left column are frequently found in TOEIC answer choices.
Pamela Hayes was given the responsiveness of preparing the equipment needed for the
presentation. responsibility
~ h i s sentence requires a noun which means duty (responsibility), not showing quick response
TOBC QuestiOns
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Any submitted without the
requirements listed in the contest rules will
automatically be disqualified.
(A) enter (B) entries
(C) entering (D) entrance
140 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
2. Visitors are not allowed to use the back of the
building to park their cars without obtaining a
parking from the attendant.
(A) permit (B) permission
(C) permitting (D) to permit
3. Having a good business can help one
to plan a career that involves long-term goals
and strategies.
(A) to sense
(C) sensation
(B) sensing
(D) sense
Answers: p. 548
www .n h a ntriviet.com

Choose a correct option for each sentence.
01 Laffless Law Firm is highly recommended for its (commit I commitment) to meeting its clients' needs.
02 The manufacturer accepts no (responsibility I responsiveness) for replacement if the product is
broken due to misuse.
03 In an effort to meet the encroaching deadline, management has sped up its (producing/production)
04 In order to prevent the (likeness/likelihood) of malfunction, computer systems are now equipped to
monitor themselves.
05 The financial (health/healthy) of the company was revived when the new marketing director devised
a clever sales pitch.
06 All products must be removed from the shelves in accordance with the marked (expiring/ expiration)
date on each package.
07 Evaluations will be based not only on personal performance but also employee (attendance/attending)
Decide whether each of the sentences below is correct or incorrect. If it is correct, write
"correct"; if it is incorrect, point out the mistake(s) and provide (a) correction(s).
08 The franchise is debating the locate of its new store.
09 Every application was given an official receipt for fees paid.
10 A workshop on the developer of economic relations between the EU and Japan took place in Tokyo.
11 The general manager handles the supervisor of all employees.
12 The frequent business traveling is allowed to enter the airport's exclusive lounge.
13 Although his occupancy was teaching, he dabbled in stock trading.
14 The Power Health Club urges people to discover the beneficiaries of supervised exercise and
Answers: p. 549
www.nhantriviet.com Chapter 12 Nouns - 141
"" )>

Part 5
01 Mr. Cook of the accounting division is under
enormous to submit the financial
statements by this afternoon.
(A) pressing (B) pressed
(C) press (D) pressure
02 The administrative supervisor will consider
the of his assistant's contract in
light of suspicion regarding his loyalty to the
(A) cancel
(C) cancelled
(B) cancelling
(D) cancellation
03 The report indicated that the company's
average annual earnings was much
higher than analysts had estimated.
(A) grow (B) growing
(C) growth (D) grown
04 During Henry Ford's time, the of the
Modei-T was divided into eighty-four distinct
steps, with each step assigned to a single
(A) assemble
(C) assembler
(B) assembly
(D) assembled
05 The manager would like to thank the factory
workers for the highest the company
has had in the past twenty years.
(A) product (B) productivity
(C) productive (D) produce
06 The project implementation committee is
staffed by a group with years of
experience in the formation of financial
(A) dedicated
(C) dedicating
(B) dedication
(D) dedicate
07 Unlike fossil fuels, which are expensive and
limited in supply, renewable energy sources
tend to emit fewer
(A) pollutes
(C) pollution
142 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(B) polluted
(D) pollutants
(9 Time limit: 11 minutes
08 The factory supervisor said that there was
no but to shut down production until
the technicians could repair the defective
(A) alternate
(C) alternation
(B) alternative
(D) alternatively
09 It is vital to clearly state and define the
of the project before planning the
first stage.
(A) objective
(C) objectivity
(B) objection
(D) objectionable
10 The for the book cover went through
several revisions before it was finally approved
by the publisher.
(A) designed
(C) design
(B) designing
(D) designer
11 numbers of former customers were
maintained in the database for six months as
part of the company's standard procedure.
(A) Account (B) Accounts
(C) Accounting (D) Accountable
12 For the of today's seminar, we will
focus on the growing need for interpreters in
the global market.
(A) remain
(C) remaining
(B) remained
(D) remainder
13 To the surprise of the visitors, the elevator
door in the old building opened suddenly
while the elevator was still in
(A) moving (B) moved
(C) move (D) motion
14 In an effort to improve , we are
installing laser-activated alarms at the front of
every major entrance.
(A) secure (B) securely
(C) secured (D) security
15 Sales of the book The Hours slowed down
following the last few
(A) day
(C) days
of the movie's
(B) a day
(D) date
16 It is in the best of the company
to comply with environmental regulations
although this may cut into its profits.
(A) interests (B) interesting
(C) interestingly (D) interested
17 If the submitted do not meet federal
requirements, the embassy will be unable to
issue a passport .
(A) photographs
(C) photographers
Part 6
(B) photography
(D) photographic
18 Each customer is regrettably limited to one
discount coupon per during the sales
(A) purchase
(C) purchasing
(B) to purchase
(D) purchased
19 A personal finance report includes the credit
status of an individual and is used by the
to determine whether or not to grant
a loan.
(A) lend
(C) lender
(B) lent
(D) lending
20 For inquiries on estimated arrival time for
your order, please contact the
company by clicking on the following link.
(A) deliver (B) delivery
(C) deliverance (D) deliverable.
Questions 21-23 refer to the following announcement.
I would like to take just a few minutes this morning one of our employees. As most of you
21 (A) congratulate (B) congratulation
(C) to congratulate (D) will congratulate
are aware of , the company recently conducted a customer service survey. This survey was unique
in that it is the first time we have used a survey to analyze our customer's needs and satisfaction.
Of all our staff members, Lloyd Robertson received the highest rating from our customers in terms
of service, customer , and courtesy.
22 (A) satisfyingly (B) satisfaction
(C) satisfying (D) satisfied
In of his efforts, he will be receiving a special reward which includes a one-week paid
23 (A) preference (B) agreement
(C) appreciation (D) importance
vacation and a return flight for two to Fiji.
Overall , we received very positive feedback from our customers and are very satisfied with
every one's performance.
Answers: p. 549
Chapter 12 Nouns - 143

"' a.
Basic Points
A pronoun is used to replace a noun or a noun phrase to avoid repetition.
It can come in the position of the subject, object, or complement in a
I shut my cat in the room, and my cat scratched the door.
- I shut my cat in the room, and it scratched the door.
The pronoun it is used to replace the noun phrase my cat.
In English, pronouns are divided into personal pronouns, possessive pro-
nouns, reflexive pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, and indefinite pronouns.
CD A personal pronoun (1, you, he, she, they, etc.) is used to refer to a specific person or
thing that has been mentioned.
Helen quit her job because she didn't get along with her co-workers.
The personal pronoun she is used to refer to the proper noun Helen.
A possessive pronoun is used to substitute a noun phrase that indicates a possession
My book has lost. Can I borrow yours?
The possessive pronoun yours is used in place of your book.
@ A reflexive pronoun is used to emphasize the subject or object of a sentence, or when
the subject and object are t he same. Reflexive pronouns are formed by adding the suffix
-self I -selves to object pronouns or possessive adjectives.
James talks to himself when he works.
If we replace himself with him, it means James talks to another man, not his own self.
@ A demonstrative pronoun (this / these, that/those) points to and ident ifies humans or
things. When it comes before a noun, it functions as a demonstrative adjective.
I have never seen scenery like this.
This book will be interesting.
This in the first sentence is a demonstrative pronoun, while This in the second sentence is
a demonstrative adjective.
An indefinite pronoun (some, any, etc.) refers to humans or things that are not defi nite
or specific. When it comes before a noun, it functions as an indefinite adjective.
Some of the visitors are single.
Some visitors are single.
Some in the first sentence is an indefinite pronoun, whi le Some in the second sentence is
an indefinite adjective.
144 - Hackers TOEIC Reading www.nhantriviet.com
01 Personal Pronouns, Possessive Pronouns, Possessive Adjectives
Personal pronoun
Person Number
Possessive pronoun Possessive adjective
Subject pronoun Object pronoun
Singular I me mine my
Plural we us ours our
Second Singular I Plural you you yours your
he him his his
Singular she her hers her
it it
Plural they them theirs their
0 Subject pronouns come in the position of a subject.
They were given free tickets to the show.
He will go with us to the park as long as we take our bikes.
8 Object pronouns can come in the position of the object of a verb or the object of a preposition .
The advisor helped them to understand the legal situation.
Mr. Wilson works with me.
Note: Not only object pronouns can follow a preposition.
I am satisfied with me(- my) job.
::: In th1s sentence, the possessive adjective my must come before the noun job.
l ' = 0 i!r r I "' , ,
@) Possessive pronouns are used to replace the structure possessive adjective+ noun. They
can come in the position of the subject, object, or complement in a sentence.
My book is about plants, but hers is about herbs.
e Possessive adjectives always come before nouns to express possession.
Many people make decisions based on their emotions.
Note: The art1cle a/an/the cannot be put in front of a possess1ve adjective, e.g. a my client. Hence. a
possessive pronoun is used instead, e.g. a client of mine.
' " ' ' ' ff I ' ' I
TOEIC Questions
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C),
or (D) - best completes the sentence.
1. When the trade negotiators arrived at
the airport, were picked up and
brought to their hotel.
(A) them
(C) their
(B) theirs
(D) they
2. After delivering proposal , Mr. Douglas sat
with committee advisors to li sten to their comments.
(A) he
(C) him
(B) his
(D) himself
3. If you experience any problems using the website,
you may contact at any of the following
telephone numbers or send an e-mail to
(A) we
(C) our
(B) us
(D) ours
Answers: p. 549
Hackers Skill A possessive adjective always precedes a noun while a possessive pronoun never does.
Many people make decisions based on theirs (- their) emotions.
My book is about plants, but her (- hers) is about herbs.
"' )>


02 Reflexive Pronouns
herself itself
0 Reflexive pronouns are used when the subject and object of a sentence are the same.
Sometimes, Jessica talks to herself. (herself = Jessica)
In this sentence, herself refers to Jessica.
cf. Sometimes, Jessica talks to her. (her * Jessica)
In this sentence, her refers to someone else.
0 Reflexive pronouns are also used to emphasize the subject or object of a sentence. In this case,
reflexive pronouns are optional and can be omitted.
The manager himself guided the group to the factory.
! didn't have time to read the report myself.
She liked the house itself, but not the location.
Note: The reflex1ve pronoun used in imperative sentences is yourself because the subject you is implied.
Don't try to do repairs oneself (- yourself).
0 Below are some common expressions with reflexive pronouns.
by oneself (= alone = on one's own)
for oneself of itself in itself
She prefers to travel by herself rather than with a tour group.
You should judge for yourself.
TOE1C Questions
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C) , or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. I have not been able to examine the
statement although it has been on
my desk for the past two days.
(A) me (B) myself
(C) mine (D) my
' .'
2. Chad Reyes's total sales for this year topped
everyone else's in the entire company, so the
manager gave the top employee award.
(A) him (B) he
(C) his (D) himself
3. Karen got the job by despite rumors
that she has friends in high places.
(A) her (B) she
(C) herself (D) hers
Answers: p. 549
Hackers Skill When the subject and object do not refer to the same person /thing, an object
pronoun, not a reflexive pronoun, is used.
Members of the Fulbright Council have granted themselves (- them) scholarships.
Members of the Fulbright Council have granted scholarships to other people, not themselves. Hence, the
object pronoun them is used.
146 - Hackers TOEIC Reading www.nhantriviet.com
03 Demonstrative Pronouns, Demonstrative Adjectives
0 The demonstrative pronoun that/those is used to replace a noun that has been mentioned.
Mr. Schmidt's performance is far superior to that [of his associates).
I think London's restaurants are better than those [of New York) .
The only warranties applying to the vehicle are those [offered by the manufacturer).
After the demonstrative pronoun that/those is a modifier (a prepositional phrase, a relat ive clause, or a
participial phrase).
;::, NMeJ; that isthe subject or object of a relative clause.
t! than (- the one) you were dancing with.
cf : The' blonde.girlslsawwere older than those you were dancing With.
.: .. I .-.- . . --
1. 2, ,. .
J Mr:Schmidt'sperformance is far superior to:this (- that) of his assoc1ates.
.. these(- those) of another company.
.1.: 'c t.:!u .. .dill\. , , .
8 The demonstrative pronoun those is used to mean the people who ...
Those [who are responsible for this crime] will be severely punished.
Those [interested in joining the discussion] need to register in advance.
these sentences, Those means the people who .. . They do not replace any nouns before them. A
modifier immediately follows Those.
Note: They /them cannot replace those 1n th1s case.
Those) interested in joining the discussion need to register in advance.
@ This/that/these/those as a demonstrative adjective is used when preceding a noun.
This meeting will be difficult.
Those buildings were built several decades ago.
Note: The demonstrative adjective those in the follow1ng sentences is equivalent to the.
Those trainers (= The trainers) who wish to attend the conference should reg1ster this month.
Those memones (=The memones) wh1ch we acquire in early childhood rarely lose their vividness.
----.-- - . . I ,
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C) , or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. This factory's shoes can be distinguished
from of another factory because of
the spiral imprint on the bottom.
(A) this (B) them
(C) that (D) those
---- . -'---.... : .. :.-... ------
2. For hoping to participate in this year's
marathon, an application form has been made
available online to facilitate quick and easy
(A) those
(C) ones
(B) who
(D) them
3. Food prices in general rose nearly 14 percent,
with the price of meat going up by 20 percent
and of vegetables by 5.8 percent.
(A) this (B) that
(C) these (D) those
Answers: p. 549
Chaoter 13 Pronouns - 147
04 Indefinite Pronouns/ Adjectives (1 ): One, Another, Other
0 The indefinite pronoun one is used to replace an unspecified singular noun.
I sold my old car and bought a new one.
must be a noun (car) in the sentence before one is used.
8 The indefinite pronoun another is used to replace somebody/something besides the person/
thing that has been mentioned. The indefinite adjective another means one more.
One of the students is from Mexico. Another student is from Japan. (Another is from Japan.)
the indefinite adjective another is a singular noun. The definite article the cannot come before
@) The indefinite pronoun others is used to replace different people/things from the one(s) already
mentioned. The indefinite adjective other is used to describe different people/things from the
one(s) already mentioned.
One of the students is from Mexico. Other students are from Brazil. (Others are from Brazil.)
indefinite adjective other precedes a plural noun, while others is used as a pronoun.
Note: The indefinite adject1ve other may also precede a non-count noun.
. We can get information from the website.
9 The other(s) means those remaining after one or more people/things have left or been excluded.
I have three books. Two are mine. The other book is yours. (The other is yours.)
I have three books. One is mine. The other books are yours. (The others are yours.)
other(+ singular noun) indicates one person / thing remaining, and the other+ plural noun (or the
others) indicates two or more persons / things remaining.
TOEIC Questions
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. The company has grown so quickly that its
owners are planning to set up one branch in
China and in Japan.
(A) each other (B) one another
(C) other (D) another
2. The company purchased most of its necessities
from a single supplier, but were ordered
from special sources.
(A) other
(C) the other
(B) others
(D) both
3. During the orientation for new employees, it was
discovered that two of the workers already knew
(A) ones
(C) another
(B) other
(D) others
Answers: p. 549
Hackers Skill Another precedes a singular noun and other precedes a plural noun or a non-count
Other (- Another) candidate has jumped into the presidential race.
We are willing to explore another (- other) options.
148 - Hackers TOEIC Reading www.nhantriviet.com
05 Indefinite Pronouns/ Adjectives (2): Some/Any, No/None, Most
0 Some/any is used as either a pronoun or an adjective, which means a few of or a little of.
Some as an adjective is used in affirmative sentences; any as an adjective is used in nega-
tive, interrogative, and conditional sentences. Some/any can come before or replace both
count and non-count nouns.
Some members of the group didn't show up.
Some disapproved of the idea.
I' m going to buy some clothes.
There's some ice in the freezer.
We don't have any of the equipment.
Have you got any luggage?
If there are any letters for me, can you send them
to this address?
Notes: 1. Some Is also used in interrogative sentences to offer or request something.
Would you like coffee? I Can I have soup?
2. Any.meaning wf1ateverlwhoever is used in affirmative sentences.
Any equipment removed from the lab must be signed for. (= If there is any equipment]
person involved in the project can see the reports.
3. Something I somebody I someone is used in affirmative sentences. Anything I anybody I anyone is
used in negative, interrogative, and conditional sentences.
I don't want anything to eat. I There's at the door.
. t ' I
@ No precedes a noun and functions as an adjective, while the pronoun none can stand alone.
We had to walk home because there was no bus.
All the tickets have been sold. There are none left.
None of the shops were open.
Notes: n No one cannot be modified by of+ noun. and not must be used before one or a/an to emphasize
the negation.
No (- Not) one of them knew how to handle it.
2 Anything is used in negative sentences, while nothing can be used in affirmative sentences and is
eguivalent to not anY!hing.
iThere is an hing (-'- nothing) to add to the list.
8 Most can be used as a pronoun or an adjective, which means the majority/the biggest
amount of something.
Most of the people didn't enjoy the party.
Most people didn't enjoy the party.
TOEIC Questions
Decide which of the choices- (A) , (B) , (C) , or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. of the clerks in the supply room
faulted themselves for not accurately
recording the inventory of supplies.
(A) No (B) One
(C) Some (D) Any
2. We received the sales figures for last year, but
there appears to be of a discrepancy
in the third quarter.
(A) something
(C) anything
(B) everything
(D) nothing
3. The project approval committee received forty
proposals, of which were related to
the transmission of electricity to rural areas.
(A) most (B) the most
(C) any (D) almost
Answers: p. 549
"' )>


06 Agreement between Nouns and Pronouns I Possessive Adjectives
0 Nouns and pronouns/possessive adjectives must agree in number. Singular nouns take
singular pronouns/possessive adjectives, and plural nouns take plural pronouns/possessive
Personal pronouns I
Possessive adjectives
1/me/my, you/you/your, he/ him/hi s,
she I her I her, it! it/ its
we/us/our, you / you / your,
they / them /their
Reflexive pronouns
Demonstrative pronouns
myself, yoursel f, himsel f, herself, itself
thi s, that
ourselves, yourselves, themselves
these, those
Businesses should consider the social implications of its activities.
Mr. Pak and the other employees tried to finish it by ftimself.
A grandparent's lQ!>_ is easier than these of a parent.
Note: In case this/that/these/those functions as an adjecttve, tt must agree in number with the noun that
follows. Therefore, this/that precedes a singular noun and these/those precedes a plural noun.
these (- this) travel expense report this (- these) areas
";: " .,. "' t \:-' -
@ Personal pronouns and possessive adjectives must agree in gender and person with nouns.
Mr. Jones enjoyed the work so much that it changed his career.
Mrs. Pringle and ftis husband attended an investment club.
The firm wishes to announce the addition of Mr. Hopkins to ftis board of directors.
The country has become one of the largest natural gas producers by increasing yettf production.
TOEIC Questions
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C) , or (D)
- best completes t he sentence.
1. The library has its own collection of rare books,
but also sponsors local exhibits with
books loaned by other libraries.
(A) they (B) he
(C) it (D) we
2. Ms. Novak is worried that the floral arrangements
ordered will not arrive in ti me for the
reception dinner.
(A) she
(C) are
(B) that
(D) until
3. The executive committee decided that the task
force would not have own decision-
making capacity, but would defer to management
for resolutions.
(A) its
(C) her
(B) his
(D) theirs
Answers: p. 549
Hackers Skill To be sure of the agreement between nouns and pronouns/possessive adjectives,
you have to identify which noun the pronoun /adjective replaces.
The firm wishes to announce the addition of Mr. Hopkins to his (- its) board of directors.
The possessive adjecti ve its is used to refer to The firm, not Mr. Hopkins.
1 SO - Hackers TOEIC Reading

Choose a correct option for each sentence.
01 Cashiers are asked to report to (them/their) division heads if there is any discrepancy in the tills.
02 Tycon is a successful corporation because its employees are more skilled than (that/those) of
other companies.
03 In order to process the request , we must have (your/yours) account number and permanent
04 If you need (another I other) application form, go to the reception desk and they will assist you.
05 Mrs. Gray was expected to arrive by (her/herself) , but she couldn't find the conference center.
06 We consider (him/his) not only the best analyst in the industry but also the top manager.
07 We will teach (that/those) individuals who run their own businesses how to manage daily
Decide whether each of the sentences below is correct or incorrect. If it is correct, write
"correct"; if it is incorrect, point out the mistake(s) and provide (a) correction(s).
08 Labor unions are opposed to the bills, saying he would worsen conditions for temporary workers.
09 The problem is that construction companies saw all its profits for last year disappear into steel costs.
10 By boosting our production, the company hopes to climb out of bankruptcy.
11 Although the marketing strategy failed, the CEO has decided to give them another try.
12 Absent employees must send in a letter explaining the reason for its absence.
13 We extend its sincerest appreciation to the National Consumer Committee for a job well done.
14 Compact Inc. has decided to recall its laptops and upgrade themselves at no additional cost to the
Answers: p. 549


Part 5
01 The finance department would like to
announce the addition of Jake Pasternak
to team of accountants.
(A) its
(C) his
(B) it
(D) him
02 One employee at the company prefers
working during fixed hours, while
appreciates the flex-hour system recently
installed by the manager.
(A) any (B) other
(C) either (D) another
03 We are waiting for Anrom to turn in its annual
fiscal report before we calculate
(A) us (B) our
(C) ourselves (D) ours
04 Mr. Eisenhower was offered a number of
positions in the company, of which
was exactly what he was looking for.
(A) few (B) none
(C) both (D) all
05 The company cannot let present
problem with organizational restructuring
affect its plans to merge with Macro
(A) its
(C) itself
(B) it
(D) them
06 Famous people sometimes make good use
of celebrity status by launching their
own product lines.
(A) they
(C) them
(B) their
(D) themselves
07 The assistant accounting manager doesn't
have authority to release the
documents the client is requesting.
(A) another (B) one
(C) no (D) any
(9 Time limit: 11 minutes
08 It is the company's policy that the director
must abstain from any political
involvement in carrying out his responsibilities.
(A) him (B) himself
(C) he (D) his
09 Employees working on an incentive-based
contract are more efficient than who
are salaried and locked into a one-year term.
(A) such (B) that
(C) those (D) someone
a single missing file has been
retrieved from the main computer yet, causing
widespread panic in the office.
(A) No
(C) None
(B) Any
(D) Not
11 At the Svelte Health Club, all patrons should
have body fat percentage measured
before they embark on an exercise regimen.
(A) they (B) them
(C) their (D) theirs
12 One associate remained in the main office
with the visiting executives while
ran out to gather the prepared reports and
(A) other
(C) each other
(B) the other
(D) one another
13 them had two or three years of
experience in graphic design before coming
to our company.
(A) Most
(C) Almost
(B) Most of
(D) Any of
14 Larger businesses are expected by the
government to donate a certain percentage of
earnings to charities each year.
(A) its
(C) it
(B) their
(D) them
15 The company requires employees to
wear proper headgear at all construction sites
as an important safety procedure.
(A) them (B) theirs
(C) its (D) it
16 The bureau is hesitant to cut public sector health
costs, but proposal may be applied to
the private sector by the end of the week.
(A) that (B) those
(C) them (D) theirs
17 You have illegally passed on confidential
financial information to corporation,
so the police will have to be notified.
(A) any (B) other
(C) others (D) another
Part 6
Questions 21-23 refer to the following letter.
November 4
Eil een Rivera
213 West 35th Street, Suite 1301
New York, NY 10001
Dear Ms. Rivera,
18 The court ordered that both parties present
their copies of the original contract to
(A) another (B) other
(C) other ones (D) each other
19 determined to earn their holiday
bonus must not miss any days between now
and the Christmas break.
(A) They
(C) Those
(B) That
(D) Someone
20 The finance expert received the proposals
and will now sift through before
determining which one will best suit the
company's interests.
(A) it
(C) theirs
(B) them
(D) ours
We would like to congratulate you on one of fi ve internships being offered by the Gables &
21 (A) obtaining (B) obtain
(C) obtained (D) obtains
Gabbert Firm. This year, quite a number of exceptionally talented from all over the country
22 (A) candidates (B) nominees
(C) suitors (D) petitioners
applied for this position.
A small reception will be held at Conference Room 2 on November 10 at 3:00p.m. for all the successful
candidates. Please contact my assistant , Ms. Lisa Foster at 555-2919, if you will be able to attend. Con-
gratulations once again on your extraordinary achievement. We do hope to see on November 1 0.
Sincerely yours,
Bi ll Patterson
23 (A) them (B) it
(C) him (D) you
Answers: p. 549
Chapter 1 3 Pronouns - 1 53

" <0
Basic Points
An adjective is a word that is used to modify a noun or a pronoun by
describing, identifying, or quantifying it.
I like long hair.
The bridge is pretty long.
In the first sentence, the adjective long modifies the noun hair. In the second one, the
adjective long modifies the noun bridge.
An adjective usually ends in one of these suffixes: -able, -al, -ible, -ic,
-ive, -ous, -ful, -ly.
Some adjectives end in the suffix -ly. Do not confuse them with adverbs.
likely lively costly deadly friendly
01 Positions of Adjectives
0 Adjectives modify nouns in a sentence.
(Article) + (adverb) + adjective + noun
You will get the specific information about the meeting.
The ~ successful fair was attended by thousands of people.
Adj ective + compound noun
John was awarded for his exceptional job performance with a promotion.
Noun + adjective
The bank will take every measure possible to ensure the safety of the cashiers.
Notes: 1. Do not use an adverb to replace the adjective which comes before and actually modifies the
structure adjective + noun.
Please report the totally (- l<:>tal) financial expenses.
2. Adjectives ending in -able/ -ible, e.g. possible, available, often come after the nouns they modify.
The tickets available are for the day performance only.
8 Adjectives can also come in the position of the complement in a sentence.
Subject complement It is important to be creative in the field of advertising.
Object complement Light-colored walls make a room bright.
@) Nouns and adverbs cannot come in the position of an adjective.
People can become overweight because of an improperly diet.
~ o modify the noun diet , the adjective improper is used.
There is an opening for an C)(perience floor manager.
~ o modify the compound noun floor manager, the adjective experienced is used.
Decide which of the choices- (A) , (B) , (C) , or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Commercial banks are advised to take
action to amend the serious currency
shortfall .
(A) quickness
(C) quickly
(B) quicken
(D) quick
2. If we continue with the production
rate, inventory in all stores should be stocked
by next week.
(A) present
(C) presently
(B) presented
(D) presenting
3. Workers in general are much less
to detail during the day if they haven't had
sufficient rest.
(A) attentive
(C) attentively
(B) attention
(D) attentiveness
Answers: p. 549
Chapter 14 Adjectives - 155

02 Quantifiers as Adjectives and Indefinite Pronouns
0 Quantifiers are words or phrases that express quantity, functioning as an adjective. Below are
some common quantifiers.
Before count nouns
Singular nouns Plural nouns
a/an every (a) few fewer
each another both many
one several numerous
Mtteft customers benefited from the service.
Before non-count
(a) little
is a plural noun, so many, not much, is used.
I was given few information at the help desk.
is a non-count noun, so little, not few, is used.
Before both count and
non-count nouns
no more
most any
some other
Note: When all / more/most/other IS used w1th count nouns, the nouns must be in the plural form.
All letter (- letters) should be signed.
, -:---:::-;_ I t "* -
@ Below are some quantifiers used as indefinite pronouns. The inseparable phrase of the is put
between each of them and a noun to express a part or the whole of something.
each all both
much most
any (a) few
(a) little
+ of the + noun
Some ef-1-the progress in sales was due to the unique ads.
of the
The phrase of the is inseparable.
Notes: 1. All and both can be followed by the without of.
staff ask1ng for time off must submit a request form.
2. A possess1ve adJeCtive can replace the in the phrase of the.
All of our .staff have full-time jobs.
' " .t,_
TOEJC Questions
Decide which of the choices - (A) , (B) , (C) , or 2. The unconventional manner of leadership by
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. order that comes to our
department is processed with the utmost
care and attention.
(A) Many
(C) Every
156 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(B) All
(D) Most
the company's new marketing manager was the
cause of debate in the office.
(A) much
(C) mostly
(B) many
(D) almost
3. Pharmacists have publicly refused to condone
any cream which claims to provide
impossible cosmetic results and skin altering
(A) every
(C) many
(B) a lot
(D) some of
Answers: p. 549
03 Confusing Adjectives
0 Below are some adjectives which either are derived from the same root or have nearly similar
spelling but have quite different meanings.
appreciable - appreciative
argumentative - arguable
beneficial - beneficent
careful - caring
considerable - considerate
comparable - comparative
comprehensible - comprehensive
economic - economical
favorable - favorite
impressive - impressed
informed - informative
persuasive - persuaded
probable - probabilistic
profitable - proficient
prospective - prosperous
reliable - reliant
respectable - respective
responsible - responsive
satisfactory - satisfying
seasonal - seasoned
successful - successive
understanding - understandable
Background music has an appreciative effect on employee productivity.
Appreciable means noticeable/ large, while appreciative means grateful.
It is important to keep your supervisor informative about any problems.
Informed means having a lot of knowledge, while informative means providing useful information.
Telephone representatives are trained not to be arguable with customers.
means often arguing/ wanting to argue, while arguable means having some point that is
not agreeable.
Gaffftg use of the machine will prevent it from malfunctioning.
Careful means giving a lot of attention, while caring means kind.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C),
or (D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Despite consumer opposition, Noden
will spend time researching the
potential benefits of adding GPS to its cell
(A) consider
(C) considerable
(B) considerate
(D) consideration
2. Because his response to the questions was less
than , the school officials decided to deny
him acceptance into their graduate program.
(A) satisfaction (B) satisfied
(C) satisfactory (D) satisfying
3. Stunned by the performance of the
violinist, the magazine critic was at a loss for
words when he sat down to write a review of the
(A) impress
(C) impressively
(B) impressed
(D) impressive
Answers: p. 549

"' <C
04 Expressions with Be + Adjective
0 Below are some common expressions with be + adjective.
be about to V
be apt to V
= be likely to V
= be liable to sth/to V
be available to V
be available for sth
be aware of sth
= be conscious of sth
= be cognizant of sth
be capable of V-ing
be comparable to sth
She is looking for a new job as her company is about to go bankrupt.
Sales are likely to increase this season due to high consumer confidence.
The applicant indicated that she was available to start working immediately.
Patricia Wells is usually available for private consultation on weekends only.
Everyone should be aware of the dangers of second-hand smoke.
The department is capable of providing specialized rescue service.
Export figures from this year are comparable to statistics from the past two years.
be consistent with sth Product qual ity and design must be consistent with customer demand.
be eligible for sth
be eligible to V
Freelance workers are not eligible for the company pension plan.
All staff members are eligible to attend the meeting.
be responsible for sth The city police were responsible for the accident.
be skilled in/at sth People who are skilled in website design are in high demand these days.
be subject to sth
ct . be subjective to sth
Part of this presentation may be subject to revision.
cf. Truth is subjective to the individual.
be willing to V He is willing to do whatever it takes to succeed.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B) , (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Given the recent trends in stocks and bonds,
the market is to drop by 2 percent in
the next couple of quarters.
(A) like (B) alike
(C) likely (D) likelihood
158 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
2. Unless the company's proof of age
requirement is satisfied, application for
membership in the online shopping club may
be to rejection.
(A) subject (B) subjects
(C) subj ect ive (D) subjecti ng
3. Persons with disabilities are not
to apply for labor positions because of the
extensive physical demands.
(A) eligi bili ty (B) eligibleness
(C) eligible (D) eligibly
Answers: p. 550

Choose a correct option for each sentence.
01 After a heated debate, the director and assistant manager both returned to their (respective I
respectable) offices.
02 Once his father dies, Ben Gershwin will be the (successful/successive) heir to the family's textile
03 The weekly staff meeting is held (every I all) Wednesday morning in the presentation room.
04 In general , this year's gross output is (comparative/comparable) to that of the previous three years .
05 The government called for the (continued/continuation) intervention of inspectors in factories
mass-producing corporate goods.
06 There is so (many/much) competition that prices are likely to stay low.
07 It was incredibly (considerable/considerate) of the director to give the workers extra vacation time
this Christmas.
Decide whether each of the sentences below is correct or incorrect. If it is correct, write
"correct"; if it is incorrect, point out the mistake(s) and provide (a) correction(s).
08 The economical outlook portends steep rises in interest rates for business loans.
09 In preparation for the Olympics, many contractors are bidding for the construction of a permanently
sports complex.
10 Once the new security system was put in, the store had fewer trouble with prowlers.
11 Rumor has it that Urban Bank is like to merge with Fargo Inc. next year.
12 A variety of difference factors have contributed to the company's failure, the main one being sales.
13 Todd is an understandable leader who makes all of the workers feel comfortable.
14 The government has announced that businesses contributing to locally charities will be given tax
Answers: p. 550
www.nhantriviet.com Chapter 14 Adjectives - 1 59

Part 5
01 Mr. Jefferson is a good leader because he is
able to provide criticism in a way that
people are receptive to.
(A) constructs (B) constructor
(C) constructive (D) construction
02 Erickson & Co. has called in a number of
professional advisors to give their
opinions about the company's potential
(A) finance
(C) financed
(B) financial
(D) financing
03 To avoid giving clients misleading advice on
investments, brokers must have access to
information that is completely
(A) reliance (B) reliable
(C) reliant (D) relying
04 When the analyst provides me with
details, I will write up the final report and
send it to your office.
(A) almost (B) a lot
(C) quite (D) more
05 If there are any changes in the schedule and
activities for next week's open house, your
supervisor will fill you in.
(A) directing (B) directly
(C) directed (D) direct
06 Visitors to the United States often see signs
in public places that state, "Management
is not for any loss or damage of
personal belongings left unattended."
(A) responsibly (B) responsible
(C) responsibility (D) responsive
07 Many injuries at the construction site can
be prevented or minimized with the use of
(A) protect
(C) protective
160 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(B) protects
(D) protecting
(9 Time limit: 11 minutes
08 We think that the community center is the
venue for our annual company
(A) ideal
(C) ideally
(B) idealize
(D) idealistically
09 All of the employees have been quite
with the police during the rigorous
investigation of the company.
(A) cooperate (B) cooperative
(C) cooperating (D) cooperation
1 0 The report indicated that independent
broker agents in the European continent
were being put out of business by larger
(A) the most
(C) most of
(B) almost
(D) most
11 The company now requires all newly hired
accountants to undergo two months of
intensive training before taking on
any work responsibilities.
(A) formal (B) formed
(C) forming (D) formally
12 The sponsoring company has prepared a
online exhibit of the artist's paintings
for individuals who do not have time to visit
the art center.
(A) special
(C) specialist
(B) specially
(D) specialize
13 Larger discount stores that sell products in
bulk are to middle-class families that
lead busy lives.
(A) attracted
(C) attraction
(B) attractive
(D) attractively
14 The bank is offering a new service that will
allow patrons to examine personal transactions
listed in a weekly statement.
(A) consolidate (B) consolidator
(C) consolidated (D) consolidation
15 The interests of the corporation make
it difficult for management to form definite
(A) diverse
(C) diversifying
(B) diversification
(D) diversity
16 Every means will be used to ensure
that your valuables are delivered quickly and
(A) possibility
(C) possibilities
(B) possible
(D) possibly
17 The size of the memory card in
mobile phones which feature a built-in camera
will allow users to save hundreds of images.
(A) reduce (B) reducing
(C) reduced (D) reduction
Part 6
Questions 21-23 refer to the following e-mail.
Dear Ms. Goldman,
18 If inventory is well planned and done in an
orderly fashion, it will be trouble than
it was last year.
(A) fewer
(C) a few
(B) least
(D) less
19 This folder contains important and
documents and should be placed inside Mr.
Berr's safe when he doesn't need it.
(A) confidential (B) confiding
(C) confidentially (D) confident
20 At his retirement party, a number of Jack's
colleagues congratulated him on a highly
career in the journalism field.
(A) succeed (B) successive
(C) succeeded (D) successful
I am writing to the receipt of your application for our First Time Home Owner Mortgage Plan.
21 (A) remark (B) understand
(C) suggest (D) confirm
I am pleased to inform you that your loan has been approved and we will be able to lend you the
amount . As indicated in your chosen plan, once the initial transaction is performed, you
22 (A) requests (B) requesting
(C) requested (D) is requested
wil l be required to deposit monthly installments covering the principal payment and interest into the
bank account which will be opened for this purpose. The option to transfer into a closed interest
rate package will remain for a period of three years, after which time it will be mandatory
23 (A) effect (B) effected
(C) effective (D) effectively
for you to continue with the current plan. Please contact the bank to set up an appointment to
begin the mortgage process.
Thank you.
Answers: p. 550

Basic Points
An adverb is a word used to emphasize a state or an action.
They highly recommended the product.
That was a very creative idea.
In the first sentence, the adverb highly emphasizes the action recommend, and the
adverb very in the second sentence emphasizes the state of being creative.
An adverb can modify a verb, an adject ive, another adverb, a phrase, a
clause, or a whole sentence. An adverb indicates manner, time, place,
cause, or degree, and answers questions with how, when, where, why,
how much, how often.
Modifying a verb
Modifying an adjective
Modifying another adverb
Modifying a phrase
He carefully dug under the tree.
The sandwiches were really delicious.
She likes this novel very much.
Ally left shortly before 9:00 p.m.
Modifying a clause I arrived long after the party began.
Modifying a whole sentence Usually, he works Monday to Friday.
An adverb is usually formed by adding the suffix -ly to an adjective.
Most adverbs end in -ly, such as calmly, completely, entirely, heavily, temporarily.
However, some adverbs do not end in -ly, such as ahead, just, only, still , well.
Bear in mind that costly, elderly, friendly, silly, ugly, and worldly are adjectives, not
She smiled in a friendly way.
162 - Hackers TOEIC Reading www.nhantriviet.com
01 Functions and Positions of Adverbs
0 When an adverb modifies a verb:
It comes before or after verb + object. It cannot come between verb and object.
Mr. Fields promptly informed his supervisor of the accident.
It is necessary to filter individual ly each customer complaint individually.
It usual ly comes between or after auxiliary /modal verb+ main verb.
They are still arranging the office to accommodate the new workers.
Mr. Walker's retirement has been indefinitely postponed.
The new assistant is adjusting nicely to the corporate life.
@ When an adverb modifies an adjective, another adverb, or a phrase, it comes right before the
adjective, adverb, or phrase.
He gave an exceptionally profound speech at the gathering.
The following is the list of the most frequently asked questions.
She speaks English very well.
The service operates only on the dates listed below.
Note: An adverb may also ptecede a quanttfier.
Approxtmate (- Approxtmately) 10,000 workers wtll be latd off next term.
------- ----,
@) When an adverb modifies a clause, it comes at the beginning of the clause. When modifying a
whole sentence, it stands at the beginning or at the end of the sentence.
Children are admitted only if they are accompanied by an adult.
Unfortunately, I won't be able to attend the meeting.
They will finish the survey tomorrow.
e Adjectives cannot come in the position of an adverb.
Expense accounts for traveling salesmen have been cut substantial.
~ o modify the verb cut, the adverb substantially, not the adjective substantial , is used.
Whether or not you quit is efttire up to you.
~ o modify the phrase up to you, the adverb entirely, not the adjective entire, is used.
l. "-l' ' .
Note: Careful attentton should be patd to the correct use of ad]ecttves and adverbs tn the companson of equality (as+ adjective/
( adverb + as) ,' I '
My computer was as slowly as a snatl. (X) - My computer was slowly (- slow).
You'd better eat as slow as posstble. (X) - You'd better eat slow (- slowly) .
.i I ' ~ I I
Decide which of the choices - (A) , (B), (C), or (D) -
best completes the sentence.
1. A surveyor's inspection shows that it may be
impossible to lay the foundation for
the memorial on the suggested site.
(A) technically (B) technician
(C) technicality (D) technical
2. Recent advances in telephony have made it possible
for mobile phone owners to transmit
clear and sharp images to other users.
(A) easy (B) easier
(C) easiest (D) easily
3. He was fired after getting into a heated
debate with the manager about appropriate office
(A) short
(C) shortly
(B) shorter
(D) shorten
Answers: p. 550

"' <0
02 Confusing Adverbs
0 Some adverbs are derived from the same root but have different meanings.
Employees that work hard will be rewarded with bonuses.
That was hardly enough time for lunch.
Her work has piled up high on her desk.
Admittedly, I think highly of our company's founder.
Private schooling is a highly lucrative industry in South Korea.
You really have done great this year in terms of sales.
In spite of a lack of practice, her writing has greatly improved.
The company president is scheduled to arrive late Friday evening.
Mark has been missing the feedback sessions lately.
The lack of coordination at the office annoys me most.
My co-workers are mostly energetic and bright college graduates.
The final day for registration drew near.
I was nearly finished when the phone rang.
TOEtC Questions
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
2. Sales of compact disc players have gone down
15 percent this fiscal year.
1. The manager sent a memo complaining
about the timeliness of report submissions
and mentioned that monthly reports are
being submitted one or two days
(A) lately (B) later
(C) lateness (D) late
164 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(A) nearly (B) near
(C) quite (D) very
3. Kurt Drew works , his communication
skills are exemplary, and I have no doubt he will
be an asset to your company.
(A) hardly (B) harden
(C) hard (D) hardened
Answers: p. 550
03 Adverbs of Time
0 Already/still/yet
Already is used in affirmative sentences, implying that something has been done.
She has already typed the report you left on her desk.
Still is used in affirmative, negative, and interrogative sentences, implying that something is continuing.
The house is still up for sale.
Yet is mostly used in interrogative and negative sentences to talk or ask about something that has not
happened or is not true at a particular time but will probably happen or be true in the future.
Have the reports been filed yet?
@ Ever I ago I once
Ever is used in negative and interrogative sentences, implying that something happened in the past
without a specific time.
They hardly ever received encouragement from their parents.
Ago follows a word or an expression referring to a period of time to say how long before the present time
something happened.
Mrs. Baker joined our team here at ESCO three years ago.
Once is used to say that a particular situation existed at a time in the past but does not exist any longer.
It can also modify adjectives.
He once managed this store.
Formerly a main source of fish, the area had many once thriving fish markets.
TOEIC Questions
Decide which of the choices - (A),
(B), (C), or (D) - best completes the
1. The traffic was so heavy that by the time
we arrived at the theater, the award-
winning play had started.
(A) yet (B) already
(C) once (D) still
2. Although infrastructure contracts should be awarded
through open bids, the administration has not
devised a policy that would allow for it.
(A) yet
(C) never
(B) still
(D) already
3. Union leaders have been negotiating with management
representatives ever since most of the company's
workers went on strike about two weeks
(A) already
(C) ago
(B) once
(D) yet
Answers: p. 550

" <0
04 Adverbs of Frequency
0 An adverb of frequency shows how often an action takes place. It usually comes before an ordin-
ary verb, between an auxiliary or a modal verb and a main verb, after the main verb be, or at
the beginning or at the end of a sentence.
always almost often frequently
once / twice / three times + a day/ week / month / year sometimes
hardly I rarely I seldom I scarcely I barely never
She often tries to help me.
She is so tired that she can hardly keep awake.
He is usually very cheerful.
Sometimes I go to work by bus.
The board meeting takes place once a year.
Notes: 1. Hardly ever means almost never.
She hardly ever lies.
2. Usually and often can come at the beginning or at the end of a sentence, but always cannot.
Always (- Usually), the pizza delivery boy arrives within fifteen minutes of receiving our order.
I go there always (- often).
3. An adverb of time cannot come in the position of an adverb of frequency.
Passengers with small children a r e ~ - usually) given priority seating on planes.
4. Barely means almost not.
The rairi had barely stopped before it came down in a torrential downpour.
' _. _,.,,,.,_."'''- .:- -.... .. _;,.,..: .... ;._._,_ ~ - ~ ,_. __ ._; i .. .. ,: ... ;. :-.
@ The adverbs hardly, rarely, seldom, scarcely, barely, and never already contain a negative
meaning, thus they do not go with not or another negative word.
I had hardly fte\fef taken lunch outside of the office.
-.. Hardly already incl udes a negative meaning, so it cannot go with the negative word never.
Note: When the negative adverbs come at the beginning of a sentence, an 1nvers1on of the subject and verb
must be applied.
Never was the work at the plant harder than when demand peaked.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B) , (C) , or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. At Calvin's Outlet Store, evaluations of team
leaders are done at the end of every
three-month quarter.
(A) yet
(C) once
(B) ever
(D) usually
2. We have the production laborers change
schedules to prevent laziness from
too much routine.
(A) soon
(C) shortly
(B) often
(D) hardly
have I seen such an eager and
enthusiastic recruit with so much experience
in the workforce.
(A) Ever
(C) Hardly
(B) Although
(D) Even
Answers: p. 550
05 Connecting Adverbs
0 Connecting adverbs are often used to show the relationship between the ideas expressed
in two successive clauses, sentences, or paragraphs. Below are some common connecting
(or) else
meantime I meanwhile
Knowing he was going to be fired, he consequently didn't put effort into his work.
Say sorry to her; then, you' ll receive her smile again.
All applicants must register by May 2 or else they will be disqualified.
@ Connecting adverbs usually follow the semicolon (;) when they connect two clauses.
It is too late besides you are tired. (X)
It is too late; besides, you are tired. (0)
- The adverb besides connects the two clauses, so the semicolon (;) is added before it.
@) When a conjunction of an adverb clause is already used, a connecting adverb is no longer
Although we were tired and we kept on walking.
- The conjunction Although already expresses a full meaning. Hence, the adverb nevertheless is redundant.
Note: Exceptionally, the adverb then can go with the conjunction if.
If you had known this all you could have told me.
; :
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B) , (C) , or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Employee suggestions are always accepted
by management; , most suggestions
are usually not acted upon until after the
board meetings are held.
(A) therefore (B) otherwise
(C) instead (D) however
2. Unless indicated, all the information
in this set of records is up to date as of June
(A) instead
(C) also
(B) otherwise
(D) else
3. Mr. Johnson expressed interest in a marketing
job; , the previous positions on his
resume were exclusively in accounting.
(A) moreover (B) however
(C) therefore (D) otherwise
Answers: p. 550
Chapter 15 Adverbs - 167

"' a.
06 Emphasizing Adverbs (1)
0 Just and right come before and emphasize the adverbs of time before and after.
Get in touch with the secretary just (= right) before coming to the office.
Notes: 1. Just enough means as much as necessary.
I have time to eat lunch before my next class.
2. When just modifies a verb, 1! means very recently.
Sage Entertainment just announced the leadmg male actor for its upcoming epic film.
@ Only and just come before and emphasize a prepositional phrase or a noun phrase.
They hold barbecue parties only during the summer.
It's just a simple manager-employee misunderstanding.
@) Well emphasizes a prepositional phrase, meaning very much.
Stock prices are well over market value this week.
as the adverb of good means in a good way.
his job well . .

.... .. "'"
- .,
e Even comes before and emphasizes a noun I noun phrase or a verb.
Even the anthropology professor thought the speech was boring.
We will even provide you with complimentary mints on your pillow .
..- When emphasizing a verb, even comes between the modal verb and the main verb.
(3 Quite comes before and emphasizes the structure a/an+ noun, meaning a little/a lot but not
The new archiving system was quite a success.
!1Uite means not completely.
take the next step.
adjective, or an adverb, quite means completely or considerably.
- .
0 For emphasis, nearly, almost, and just are used in the comparison of equality; much, even,
still, far, a lot, and by far are used in the comparative; by far and quite are used in the
She's just as intelligent and good-looking as her brothers and sisters.
There is a much better store around the corner.
Joel Rivera is by far the most forceful of all the speakers at the convention.
TOEIC Questions
Decide which of the choices - (A) , (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. This business visa allows you to travel to
your destination on the days listed
at the bottom of the paper.
(A) also (B) only
(C) even (D) however
168 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
2. Parmalac sold its lmCione stocks at a price that was
below the market value at that time.
(A) very
(C) well
(B) so
(D) such
3. The company decided that a more
aggressive approach to advertising was needed to
pull ahead of the competition.
(A) so (B) very
(C) much (D) really
Answers: p. 550
07 Emphasizing Adverbs (2)
0 So is an adverb modifying an adjective or an adverb; such is a determiner modifying a noun or
a noun phrase. They both mean very.
The store was sttefl busy that it had to hire additional part-time workers.
Sales items sold out sttefl quickly that the shop had to close early.
Such cannot modify the adjective busy and the adverb quickly. Hence, the adverb so must be used.
It's amazing that one company can have se dedicated employees.
So cannot modify the noun employees. Hence, the determiner such must be used.
Note: When such modifies a singular noun, it precedes the article a/an.
He had never dealt with such an experienced negotiator before.
' ------.,
t ... - '
8 So and very have the same meaning, but unlike so, very cannot be used with a that-clause in
complex sentences.
The explanation in the book is very clear.
The staff was very argumentative that it took time before decisions were made.
8 Unlike so/very, too expresses a negative meaning.
The report was too long to read all at once.
structure too ... to ... conveys the negative meaning we cannot read the report all at once because it
was so long.
cf . The walk was very long, but the fresh air felt good.
very emphasizes the characteristic of something, while too implies a negative opinion.
Notes: 1. The structure too + adjective/ adverb +to-infinitive indicates an improbable situation because of
the preceding condition.
This is too com licated for the students to understand .
.._ .. The subject of the verb understand is the students, which is included in the structure for +
somebody and comes between too+ adjective and the to-infinitive phrase.
2. Too much I many + noun is used to emphasize that there is I are a lot more of thing(s).
They had eaten too much food to go jogging in the park.
3. Much too+ adjective/adverb is used to emphasize that there is a lot more of a particular quality
than wanted or than is right.
This study is much too comprehensive for Carlos Sanchez to handle.
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B), (C) , or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. The chess championships at the school are
popular events that the auditorium is
always packed on tournament days.
(A) so (B) huge
(C) such (D) too
2. Considering that the job was done in a rush, the
director was
(A) too
(C) far
satisfied with the results.
(B) such
(D) very
3. Relative to the average gross revenue, taxes in
the area are heavy for the smaller
businesses to handle.
(A) much too
(C) so
(B) such
(D) much
Answers: p. 550

"' a.
08 Other Adverbs
0 Also/too/as well/either
Also comes at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence, not at the end.
1 have shares in Amsun, Eurotech, and also Taiba.
Each character represents a syllable of spoken Chinese and also has a meaning.
Too and as well come at the end of a sentence.
There will be workshops offered next month too.
Mary wants to apply for the position as well .
Either is used in a negative sentence after another negative sentence has been mentioned, meaning the
same as also / too.
Luis won't be going to the dinner party; Pedro won't be going either.
8 Later /thereafter I since
Later means after the time mentioned or at some time in the future/ after now.
He was questioned about the scandal five months later.
Why don't we talk this over later?
Thereafter is formally used, meaning from a specific time onward, or simply, after that.
Sally left and her package was delivered shortly fatef.
Without a time unit, later means at some time in the future, which does not correspond with the context.
Since means from a particular time in the past until a later time.
Anne Keating was promoted and has since worked as head accountant.
@) Forward expresses the state of something, while ahead expresses directions.
The director is working hard to push the company aftea6.
Push something forward means to continue with an activity in a determined way, especially when it is difficult.
They all knew that the days forward would be tiresome.
The days ahead means the days in the future.
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Ms. Peters thought the designs were
marvelous, but she needs to
see what they would look like in a display
(A) not only
(C) also
(B) either
(D) as well
2. The plane will take off at about 3:15 p.m., and
a light snack will be served to the passengers
(A) later
(C) already
(B) thereafter
(D) suddenly
3. When Bernal became the CEO, we considered
it a great step because a woman was
finally guaranteed formal say in company policy.
(A) ahead (B) forward
(C) towards (D) backward
Answers: p. 550

Choose a correct option for each sentence.
01 The design department has not (still/yet) finished constructing the model for the client's proposed
building project.
02 Acting as the vice president of such a large company was (so/such) stressful that she retired early.
03 They prepared (much too / too much) food, believing that many people would be participating.
04 Fax the billing information to headquarters by 5 p.m.; (otherwise/however) , we won't receive the
payment on time.
05 Mrs. Jensen was (such / very) pleased with her new high-rise office on 5th Avenue.
06 Evans Construction is a leading contracting company that provides bidding, contracting, and (also/
as well) architectural support.
07 She was called away for an emergency meeting (ever I right) before the performance was about to start.
Decide whether each of the sentences below is correct or incorrect. If it is correct, write
"correct"; if it is incorrect, point out the mistake(s) and provide (a) correction(s).
08 Cocoa is exported wide to nearly every part of the world.
09 The actual annual report figures came closely to this year's production estimates.
10 Investors want the company to be sufficiently strong before they consider putting money into it.
11 The Christmas bonus, based on the company's yearly net profit, was divided impartiality between
laborers and supervisors.
12 Mr. Jenkins final agreed to holding the meeting in the Grand Hotel.
13 The three-stage interview process helps administrators decide exactly which applicant is right for
which position.
14 Morale among the staff has been raised substantial by the new espresso machine in the lounge.
Answers: p. 550
"' ..
Part 5
01 Mrs. Dorsey is being considered for
a promotion to the position of head manager
for the company's technology division.
(A) present (B) presently
(C) presenter (D) presentation
02 The new PowerPoint software is the most
advanced presentation program on
the market today.
(A) high
(C) highly
(B) higher
(D) highest
03 The drafting programs available at our firm
are too advanced for the trainees to
(A) well
(C) far
(B) quite
(D) pretty
04 Anonymous Writers is less expensive than
the Writers ' Consortium, and its work is
as dependable.
(A) as well (B) very
(C) just (D) while
05 Electric service will be restored as
as possible after the power outage problem
on the second floor has been resolved.
(A) quick
(C) quicken
(B) quickly
(D) quickness
06 Two multimillion-dollar corporations are
attempting to reach an agreement
over the sale of one of the country's biggest
(A) still (B) once
(C) besides (D) any more
07 Mr. Richards is such a dedicated supervisor
that he works night and day and
ever takes time to relax.
(A) quite
(C) nearly
(B) just
(D) hardly
(9 Time limit: 11 minutes
08 Although the restaurant is new, it
has already been praised by Food Review
and most of other restaurant rating services.
(A) relatively (B) related
(C) relative (D) relatedly
09 Consumer views are becoming an
important factor in determining the way a
product is presented and packaged.
(A) increase (B) increased
(C) increasing (D) increasingly
1 0 We cannot always guarantee that everything
in our catalog is in stock at our outlets, so
please call to make sure.
(A) ahead (B) before
(C) if (D) advance
11 A number of large investment projects have
sprung up in rural areas where
agriculture is the main industry.
(A) lateness (B) late

12 To register for your online account,
proceed to the website and click on the 'sign
up' button.
(A) simply
(C) simplify
(B) simple
(D) simplicity
13 Sales of the new vacuum cleaner have gone
beyond our initial estimate and we have
decided to increase production.
(A) therefore (B) however
(C) although (D) in contrast
14 All purchases made on the company credit
card should be listed on the monthly
(A) direct
(C) directed
(B) directly
(D) directing
15 Drivers are constantly reminded by the head
office to pull over as as necessary to
rest during long shifts.
(A) almost (B) often
(C) well (D) always
16 Copies of the popular children's book had
been placed on bookstore shelves for not
several hours when they sold out.
(A) quite (B) many
(C) still (D) only
17 The task force spent an entire day selecting
applications that most matched the
requirements of the positions being offered.
(A) closer (B) closest
(C) closely (D) close
Part 6
Questions 21-23 refer to the following letter.
Marsha Berger
Medical Supplies Division
Tyrrell Manufacturing
Dear Ms. Berger,
18 Had the profits been shared among
the leading salesmen, there wouldn't be the
fuss that there is now.
(A) equal
(C) equality
(B) equally
(D) equalize
19 serving as president of the Board of
the Gillmore Corporation, Mr. Bennett also
works as a consultant to a few medium-size
(A) Else
(C) As long as
(B) Because
(D) Besides
20 The fat content of food products sold in super-
markets should be labeled much more
to allow people to make informed decisions.
(A) clear (B) clearly
(C) clearing (D) clearness
I am writing to inform you that I will be unable to attend the conference in New Jersey, as our
company is currently undergoing restructuring, making it impossible for me to leave Portland. I am
eager your proposals for incorporating your products into our own line of merchandise.
21 (A) discussing (B) discuss
(C) to discuss (D) discussion
, you will be attending the next conference in July in Austin, allowing us to get together
22 (A) Almost (B) Already
(C) Mostly (D) Presumably
and discuss our prospects . I believe both companies are headed in the same direction
23 (A) soon (B) nearly
(C) usually (D) often
and a joint venture would be highly beneficial. Therefore, I look forward to the opportunity to meet
with you at the next conference, unless otherwise informed.
Justin White
Garnet Distribution
Answers: p. 550

"' ..
" <C
Basic Points
Most often, prepositions come before nouns. Based on their meanings,
they are divided into prepositions of time, place, reason, purpose,
manner, etc.
We had dinner at a Korean restaurant.
The city hosts a jazz festival in the summer.
It is usually colder on the beach because of the breeze.
At , in, and because of in the above sentences are prepositions of place, time, and
reason respectively.
Prepositions can take nouns, pronouns, gerunds, or noun clauses as their objects.
The structure preposition + object is cal led a prepositional phrase.
I bought a gift for you. (Preposition + pronoun)
I am going to work late tonight instead of working this weekend. (Preposition + gerund)
He told the story to whomever he met. (Preposition + noun clause)
As an adjective, a prepositional phrase modifies a noun, and as an
adverb, it modifies a verb.
The box on the table is empty.
+ I
I exercise in the evening.
+ I
As an adjective, the prepositional phrase on the table modifies the noun the box, and
as an adverb, the prepositional phrase in the evening modifies the verb exercise.
174 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
01 Preposition In I At/On
0 Preposition of time in I at I on
Prepositions Usage Examples
in months, years, seasons, centuries, in August in 2008
periods of time, parts of day in winter in the 21st century
(morning, afternoon, evening) in three days in the morning/afternoon/evening
at specific times, times of day (noon, at 7 o'clock at noon/night/midnight
night, midnight, midday) , points of at the beginning/end of the month
on days, dates, special holidays on August 15 on Friday on Christmas Day
8 Preposition of place in/at/on
Usage Prepositions
an enclosed space I area
a specific location
in the world/country
at the intersection
in the city/room/town
at the bus stop
at the station at Franklin Street
on a flat surface on the table on the Han River
on the first floor I level on the wall
Note: In means inside a place or an area, while at refers to the whole place/building/area.
I the shop when he came in.
I the shop on the way home.
@) Common expressions with in I at I on
The preposition in/at/on is used to refer to not only a time or place but also a state, condition, rate, etc.
Below are some common expressions with in/at/on.
Prepositions Expressions

in in time
in place
in a campaign
at at once
at times
at least
at the latest
at regular intervals
on on time
on a regular basis
in a sales event
in the sales department
experience in a relevant field
at a good pace
at high speed
at a low price
at 60 miles an hour
at your earliest convenience
on the waiting list
on the recommendation of
in the coming year
in the foreseeable future
at the rate of
at the age of
at a charge of
at one's expense
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
2. If our new low-fat potato chip becomes a hot
seller in Springfield, we are going to test-market
1. The interchange with the real estate
consultant is expected to take place
tomorrow afternoon 4:00.
(A) on (B) at
(C) to (D) for
it 25 major cities across the US.
(A) on (B) in
(C) against (D) to
3. All of the drilling machines are place
and ready to begin oil production at the command
of the chief executive.
(A) at
(C) in
(B) on
(D) for
Answers: p. 550
Chapter 16 Prepositions - 175

02 Prepositions of Time
0 Prepositions that show a point of time
from . + a point of time (3 o'clock, July, Friday morning, etc.)
before I pnor to
The project team leader would like to see us before 5:00 p.m.
Notes: 1. Until means up to a particular time or event; by means not later than.
The library will be open until 7.
{.' This sentence means the library will stay open up to 7 o'clock.
You should submit the report by 7.
1 This sentence means the report should be submitted not later than 7 o'clock.
2. Below are some common expressions expressing a point of time.
three weeks from now three weeks prior to the date
8 Prepositions that show a period of time or a duration
for / during
from 3 o'clock onward(s)
over/through/throughout + a period of time (three years, a decade, holiday, process, etc.)
She has been using English for ten years.
Pete guided the employees through the training process.
Notes: 1. For expresses how long something has lasted; during indicates when something happens,
meaning from the beginning to the end of a particular period.
The mechanic has been working on the project for two years.
Countless.foreigners travel to Italy during the Christmas season.
2. In can also precede a period of time, meaning no more than/within.
Your application for membership will be processed i.!! two days.
@) Identifying a point of time or a duration to use prepositions correctly
I will have this done wi#tffl the end of the month.
end of the month is a point of time, so by is used.
We have been married sffiee two years.
years is a period of time, so for is used.
TOEIC Questions
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C) , or (D) -
best completes the sentence.
1. Because fewer than five people have registered
for the Computer Graphics Workshop to be held
two weeks now, the training department
manager has decided to cancel the event.
(A) until (B) before
(C) from (D) for
7 - rlmn
2. The rental deposit must be transferred to
the landlord's bank account at least fifteen
days the moving-in date.
(A) by (B) until
(C) prior to (D) due to
3. To have any broken parts replaced without
charge, the registration form must be
mailed to the company one month
of product purchase.
(A) from
(C) until
(B) within
(D) by
Answers: p. 550
03 Prepositions of Place
0 Prepositions of place
Prepositions Examples
below I under
beside I next to
between I among
He lifted his hands above/over his head.
Look in the cupboard below I under the sink.
I sat down beside/next to my wife.
There is a park right behind the building.
There's a table between a chair and a bookshelf.
The midday meal was served between 2 and 4 o'clock.
They walked among the crowds.
I'd like to sit near a window.
All staff should be aware of activitfes within the company.
The profit of this year increased within 5 percentage points of its competitors.
around Some of the travelers wanted to walk around the night market.
Notes: 1. Between is used when there are two people/things/places, while among is used when there are
more than two of them.
2. Besides indicating a position/location, above / over also means more than and below/ under
means less than.
You have to be over 18 to see this film.
You can't see this film if y o u ~ e under 18.
8 Common expressions with over/under/between/within/around
In addition to showing a place, the preposition over/under/between/within/around can be used to refer
to a state, connection, relationship, etc. Below are some common expressions with these prepositions.
Prepositions Expressions
~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - ~
over have the edge over
under under new management
under close supervision
under current contract
under control
under pressure
a difference/gap between A and B
within a radius of
around the world
Decide which of the choices - (A), (8), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. A recent study mentions that prescription drug
use has steadily increased people
aged 45 years and above over the past two
(A) among
(C) between
. L_._,.__ . . _.._ --
(B) within
(D) around
under investigation
under review
under consideration
under discussion
under development
within the organization
around the corner
2. The annex to the office building on Lester
Avenue will be construction until April.
(A) in
(C) on
(B) by
(D) under
3. Last summer's heavy precipitation levels
caused sales of beachwear to fall 20 percent
(A) after
(C) behind
(B) below
(D) around
Answers: p. 551

'" c..
" <0
04 Prepositions of Direction
0 Prepositions of direction
Prepositions _____________ -1
from The copy can be obtained from the office.
to They will send the package to your client.
out of
We walked across the ice.
1 walked through the woods.
Newman walked along the street.
I'm leaving for Susan.
She walked toward me.
We moved all the luggage into the room.
I took the key out of my pocket.
8 Common expressions with from/to/along/across/out of
Besides indicating direction, from also shows who gave the opinion, to refers to a state, out of is used
with the meaning without I beyond the range or limit of, etc. Below are some common expressions with
from I to I along I across I out of.
from from one's viewpoint
to to the relief of
to one's satisfaction
along along the shore
across across the street
out of out of date
out of room
out of season
out of paper
TOEIC Questions
to a great extent
to your heart's content
along the side of
across from the post office
out of reach
out of print
out of control

to my knowledge
out of order
out of stock
out of town
2. The new highway, which will run the
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Subscribers to the online newsletter were
informed that their names would be removed
mountains, is expected to cause irreversible
damage to wildlife and the ecosystem.
the list if they did not reply to the
e-mail asking if they wished to be retained.
(A) to (B) from
(C) for (D) of
178 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(A) through (B) during
(C) out (D) against
3. This product should be kept reach of
children as it contains many toxic agents.
(A) away with (B) out of
(C) up until (D) without
Answers: p. 551
05 Prepositions of Reason, Concession, Purpose, Exception,
and Addition
0 Prepositions of reason, concession, and purpose
Prepositions Examples
because of
due to
owing to
on account of
in spite of
with all
l We were late because of the rain.
Due to the rise in the cost of fuel , all living expenses will increase.
Despite a poor economy, the shop has been doing well.
The club is hosting a party for all its members.
Note: Below are some common expressions w1th the prepos1t1on for.
for your convenience for future use for safety reasons
for further information articles for sale money for supplies
acoupon for every $100 . - -
., " .v d.,.t,,.,."' ... J 1"' .t _ _. ,, . -.;:,_{.,._t."'"" "'"'
@ Prepositions of exception and addition
Prepositions Examples
except (for) I cleaned all the rooms except (for) the bathroom.
aside from
apart from
but for
instead of
We should arrive at 1 0 o'clock, barring any unexpected delays.
I would have been in real trouble but for your help.
Use graphics instead of words.
in addition to
apart from
In addition to the new offices, the building has a coffee house on the fi rst floor.
Besides writing summaries, she proofreads all of the professor's work.
Note: When except precedes a clause, there is no preposition for after it.
1 don't know anything about wme, except for that (- except that) I like it.
i> That I like it is a clause, so ther,e is no preposition for after except.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C),
or (D)- best completes the sentence.
1. The staff is planning to hold a farewell
gathering an employee who
served the company for over twenty years.
(A) by (B) for
(C) to (D) from
2. The manager said that any changes, the
proposal would be presented at a special meeting
of sustainable development organizations.
(A) except (B) barring
(C) unless (D) because
3. Interest rates are falling a governmental
push to raise all mortgage rates for middle-class
(A) in spite of
(C) even though
(B) according
(D) in addition to
Answers: p. 551


06 Preposition Of and Others
0 The structure A of B
Usage ________ __________________ -1
A is a noun, B is its implied subject. the development of the company
consent of the parent
the retirement of our colleague
A is a noun, B is its implied object. showing of his new movie
the marketing of luxury brands
the shipment of wine
the utilization of health care services
A and Bare appositives. a chance of meeting someone new
the idea of producing handbooks
a balance of 1 00 dollars
A is part of B. this area of the city
the end of the month
the employees of the branch
8 Prepositions for drawing people's attention to a particular subject
as to
with I in regard to
as for
with respect to
with/in reference to
The following are frequently asked questions concerning the internship program.
We take pride in complying with all regulations with regard to food safety.
TOEIC Questions
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C),
or (D) - best completes the sentence.
2. Dr. Wilson will attend the workshop to moderate
1. The independent audit of the company
is expected to be concluded by the end
this month.
(A) in
(C) of
180 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(B) by
(D) on
a panel discussion
(A) by
(C) on
ethics of new medical
(B) to
(D) with
3. A dispute workers' rights has caused
union members employed at the factory to walk
out in a week-long strike.
(A) over (B) above
(C) of (D) along
Answers: p. 551
07 Other Prepositions
0 Other prepositions
by Authenticated access is obtained by providing a valid name and password.
through Competence is achieved through training.
throughout Heavy rains have increased the water level behind dams throughout the country.
with The children will discuss it with their teacher.
without Headphones will enable you to listen to the music without disturbing anyone.
He had served as a section director at the Ministry of Education.
- -
Like jogging, walking should have a steady and continuous motion.
Swimming, unlike jogging, is ideal for any age or physical ability.
Some consumers have campaigned against the use of furs in luxury clothing.
Its functions go beyond what is necessary for an MP3 player.
Following the conference, the banquet for the delegation will be held.
The newly launched mobile phone has all the same features plus digital
music capabilities.
@ Common expressions with by/through/with/without/against/beyond
Prepositions Expressions

by by telephone / fax/ mail by cash / check/ credit card
by land by law
through the use of through cooperation
with no doubt with no exception
with the aim of without paying
against the law act against one' s will
beyond repair beyond one's capacity
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B) , (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
2. Companies can save hundreds on airfares
computer linkups which allow for
international meetings without leaving the office.
1. Dayton Electronics recommends that all
customers keep their receipts
proof of payment.
(A) as
(C) on
(B) except
(D) into
(A) above (B) through

3. Employees expressed content with their salaries
and working hours the exception of
those in packing, who requested a pay increase.
(A) like (B) by
(C) for (D) with
Answers: p. 551

"' Cl.
" <D
08 Common Expressions Formed by Verb I Adjective I Noun +
0 Verb + preposition
account for
add to
comply with
consist of
contribute to
depend on (= rely on = count on)
sympathize with
associate A with 8
congratulate A on 8
direct A to 8
wait for
keep track of
employ A as 8
return A to 8
transfer A to 8
They have only a few days left to comply with new regulations on factory safety.
The public associates the company name with trust and reliability.
@ Adjective + preposition
absent from
responsible for
equivalent to
comparable to/ with
identical to
similar to
consistent with
contrary to
Projects conducted by like organizations are similar to each other.
@) Noun + preposition
access to exposure to an advocate for I of
a cause I reason for
permission from
concern about/for/over a lack of
a problem with a dispute about/over
an effect/ impact/ influence on
respect for
a question about I concerning I regarding
a decrease I an increase I a rise I a drop in
a solution to
The client has a question regarding the arrangements for the trip.
9 Fixed expressions of more than one preposition
by means of
in honor of
in place of
in violation of
in charge of
in observance of
in respect of
on behalf of
Fred Sumner will be giving the speech in place of Mr. Trent, who is down with the flu.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (8) , (C) , or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Management has decided to transfer
certain responsibilities formerly held by
the administrative division the
accounting department.
(A) at (B) by
(C) to (D) of
182 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
2. Education for Children, Inc. has always been
an advocate effective early education
through home- and school-based programs.
(A) to (B) by
(C) for (D) over
3. Ms. Turner asked us to use the original design
for the product display the one submit-
ted by the team.
(A) because
(C) despite
(B) instead of
(D) when
Answers: p. 551

Choose a correct option for each sentence.
01 The country has suffered from little investment (over I until) the past year as a result of political
02 (Due to I Except for) rising oil prices, import prices went up by 16 percent in August.

03 In recent years, private investors have become increasingly attracted to this area (on/of) the city.
04 Requests for assistance via e-mail or live Internet support are only monitored (since/during)
regular hours of operation.
05 (At/ Despite) a looming fiscal crisis, the country's economy has bounced back from a slump.
06 Workshops are offered (before/throughout) the year on a variety of job search tools and skills
including resume writing.
07 (Aside from/Long since) the acquisition costs, the manager anticipated additional costs for
operational and restructuring expenses.
Decide whether each of the sentences below is correct or incorrect. If it is correct, write
"correct"; if it is incorrect, point out the mistake{s) and provide {a) correction{s).
08 A recent report said consumer prices could exceed 4 percent on the end of the year.
09 Professionals on the academic community frequently immigrate to places where their skills earn a
better reward.
10 Guests can put their valuables in the hotel 's safety deposit boxes for safekeeping.
11 Until approximately twenty years, the national debt is forecast to jump to four trillion dollars.
12 In observance for Labor Day, all US exchanges will be closed on Monday, September 6.
13 All documentation on local cost payments, including tender documents, must be retained to the future.
14 The expansion project will be completed since December 15 and will be eligible for sales tax
Answers: p. 551

Part 5
01 The company anniversary party will take
place August 26, so please mark the
date on your calendars.
(A) in
(C) on
(B) at
(D) for
02 The innovative website allows a traveler to
search and find locations of interest that lie
a fifty-mile radius of the city.
(A) among (B) within
(C) into (D) through
03 We need not remind everyone here today that
mobile phones and pagers should be turned
off while the symposium is progress.
(A) at (B) on
(C) over (D) in
04 The BCN Company will not accept applica-
tions for transfers to overseas branches
the first of the month.
(A) by
(C) until
(B) when
(D) through
05 The Travel Holiday Group offers some of the
best horseback tours the coast of
the Eastern Mediterranean basin.
(A) into
(C) under
(B) along
(D) among
06 The workshop teaches managers and em-
ployees how to dispute someone else's ideas
being disagreeable.
(A) except (B) without
(C) whereas (D) otherwise
07 The director wants all of the items shipped by
the end of the week, of the cost.
(A) regardless (B) regard
(C) regarding (D) regarded
184 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(9 Time limit: 11 minutes
08 The data will be posted on a secure password-
protected server that is accessible exclusively
authorized staff members.
(A) for
(C) to
(B) within
(D) over
09 Country Air offered free tickets to every pas-
senger that missed their flight a
malfunction in the plane's engine.
(A) owed to (B) thanks for
(C) resulting in (D) because of
10 Employees who are planning to extend holi-
day vacations with unused leave days must
inform their supervisors October 31.
(A) at
(C) by
(B) for
(D) until
11 Human resources personnel are trained to tell
the differences a resolvable conflict
and an irresolvable confrontation.
(A) upon
(C) during
(B) about
(D) between
12 We are holding a dinner this evening to con-
gratulate Mr. Brian Banks his thirty
years with the Meyers Cold Cuts Company.
(A) to (B) of
(C) on (D) from
13 the last ten years, professional and
business services comprised 38 percent of
the total job growth in the Washington region.
(A) In (B) On
(C) Since (D) While
14 As always, we here at Gray Consulting look
forward assisting you with your
future legal needs.
(A) up
(C) to
(B) in
(D) on
15 The company's payroll office is located
the corner of Faribault and 23rd
Streets, across from the Trade Center.
(A) at (B) in
(C) of (D) to
16 Wageworks Corporation is planning to lay off
as many as 1 ,000 employees the
next two years.
(A) at
(C) until
(B) by
(D) over
17 Whatever your security needs, Armed Guard
provides 24 hours constant protection
and service to our cl ients.
(A) around
(C) over
Part 6
(B) of
(D) through
18 It would be better for business if we were
at the embassy.
(A) to
(C) with
some of the trade officers
(B) on
(D) for
19 Teen magazine is offering a special promo-
tion, which entitles subscribers gift
certificates at top clothing boutiques.
(A) in (B) on
(C) to (D) at
20 The manager hopes to increase production
introducing bonuses for all employees
who improve their production quota.
(A) by (B) from
(C) since (D) about
Questions 21-23 refer to the following advertisement.
PACIFIC Air Reaching for the Clouds
As long-distance travel becomes more commonplace
21 (A) as to
improved living standards, airl ines
(B) due to
(C) in spite of (D) in place of
are taking action to attract customers, offering them a wide range of options. PACIFIC Air wi th thei r
spectacular project are focusing on speed, safety and innovation to increase revenue.
22 (A) expansion (B) existence
(C) exception (D) experience
They have purchased five more double-deck jets and have refurbished their existing carriers with
sofas, personal computers with DVD and game playing functions. Extra security measures
23 (A) comforted (B) comfortable
(C) comfortableness (D) comfortably
include buttons under armrests which report directly to security officers in the cockpit , and a
personal phone system to make calls and speak with the flight staff. PACIFIC Air aims to attract
families and groups of four or more through these added features.
Answers: p. 551

lAI\AilA, . . . . h ~ ........... :.,;,.... .. ..-..-. ..........
Section 5
Conjunctions and Clauses
Chapter 17 - Coordinating Conjunctions, Correlative
Chapter 18 - Noun Clauses
Chapter 19 - Relative Clauses
Chapter 20 - Adverb Clauses
Chapter 17 : ~ : A
-- -------------- : .."i;)1:t;t;-J . -------- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ ------------------ -----
Coordinating Conjl1rction,
Correlati\74 ConjunlCtions
Basic Points
Coordinating conjunctions, also known as coordinators, are used to join
two sentences or two parts of a sentence that are grammatically equal.
The two parts may be words, phrases, or clauses.
Use fruits and vegetables that are ripe.
The editor is responsible for collecting articles and publishing newsletters.
It was raining, so I put on my raincoat.
Repeated words in the phrases or clauses connected by a coordinating conjunction may
be omitted.
The only way to get (customers) and (to) keep customers is through service.
They painted the wall and (they) fixed the window.
Correlative conjunctions always come in fixed pairs formed by a certain
word with a coordinating conjunction, joining sentence elements that are
grammatically equal.
Tuna is sold as both steaks and fillets.
You can make your payment either in person or by mail.
It depends on neither who you are nor what you know.
188 - Hackers TOEJC Reading www.nhantriviet.com
01 Coordinating Conjunctions
0 Below are the coordinating conjunctions in English.
and or but yet so for nor
Eating should be healthful and enjoyable.
I will go camping or canoeing this weekend.
There will be a party tonight, for he is retiring this week.
Notes: 1. So and for join clauses only. They cannot join words or phrases.
I had to stay home, for it was too cold. {0)
His designs are bold so original. (X)
2. When we combine two independent clauses, a connecting adverb (however, therefore, instead) or
an ordinary adverb (also) cannot come in the position of a coordinating conjunction.
1 wanted to clear my thoughts, therefore (- so) I went for a walk.
3. And so/and yet/and then is the combination of the coordinating conjunction and with an adverb
to make the meaning much clearer.
She hates horror films and yet she went to see one anyway.
@ Coordinating conjunctions must be in line with the context.
I will have a sandwich bttt a Diet Coke.
context requires an addition, not a contrast, so and is the suitable coordinating conjunction.
She wants to see the play, se he prefers to watch soccer on television.
He and she have different interests, so the coordinating conjunction but or yet expressing a contrast is
suitable in this context .
@ When the subjects in a sentence are joined by and, a plural verb is used. When the subjects
are joined by or, their verb must agree with the subject nearest to it.
My boyfriend and I are going to the concert.
subjects My boyfriend and I are connected by and, so the verb is in the plural form (are) .
I doubt that we or our teacher !_ going to solve the problem.
The subjects we and our teacher are connected by or, and our teacher is singular, so the verb is in the
singular form (i s).
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. The corporation's portfolio of clients consisted
of representatives from 13 of the American
states 25 countries worldwide.
(A) in
(C) by
(B) and
(D) both
2. Your promotion offer is very appealing,
I' m afraid that I can' t sacrifice my
family life for my career.
(A) so (B) but
(C) besides (D) therefore
3. Mark Melendy Scott Drake is going
to represent Balmar Associates at the branch
meeting on Friday.
(A) but
(C) either
(B) and
(D) or
Answers: p. 551


02 Correlative Conjunctions
0 Below are the correlative conjunctions in English.
either A orB
both A and B
neither A nor B
not A but B = B but not A (= (only) B, not A)
not only A but (also) B (= B as well as A)
Payroll is located not on the first floor but near the elevator in the basement.
The gift shop not only offered discounts but also gave away small souvenirs.
@ Every correlative conjunction must correctly be paired.
The papers are either in my briefcase 8:1"1"6 under the books on my desk.
... or ... go together as a pair.
Jack ei#let knows her nor wants to get to know her.
neither -
Neither ... nor ... go together as a pair.
@) The subjects connected by correlative conjunctions and the verbs in sentences must agree in
Verbs will agree with B not A but B either A or B neither A nor B not only A but (also) B
Verbs will take the plural form j both A and B
Either bus or taxi available from the airport .
In the pair either ... or ... , the verb must agree with the subject nearest to it. Taxi is a singular noun, so the
verb is in the singular form (i s).
Both coffee and tea have long and historic pasts.
pair both ... and ... requires a plural verb (have).
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C),
or (D) - best completes the sentence.
1. You can purchase a copy of his latest
adventure novel either at a bookstore
through popular bookstore
(A) or
(C) and
(B) nor
(D) also
2. Information will be presented on the means
of global communication, but on
presentation technology or sales marketing.
(A) for (B) nor
(C) so (D) not
3. The director complained that the report
submitted by the supervisor was too
lengthy but also too detailed.
(A) only (B) not
(C) not only (D) either
Answers: p. 551

Choose a correct option for each sentence.
01 Brent tossed (but/ and) turned all night over whether or not to quit his job.
02 She tried to reserve the hotel's conference room, (but/however) someone had already booked it.
03 Online customers can now use the website's order form (or I nor) fax for their order.
04 As coworkers, we see each other every day (and yet/therefore) we still find something to talk about.
05 John left for work early, (instead/for) he didn't want to risk being late again.
06 There are two receptionists, one by the elevator (so/ and) the other next to the entrance.
07 Andrea received an excellent evaluation this year (and so/ also) she is going to be given a raise.
Correct the mistakes in the following underlined parts.
08 The company lounge is open to not only administrative staff and workers.
09 I'd advise you neither to approach these clients too eagerly but rather cautiously.
10 The goal is not only to triumph and also to demoralize the competing corporations.
11 It is both you or me that has to fly to Tokyo to negotiate the contract.
12 The manager is neither receiving or returning calls this afternoon, as it's his day off.
13 If it were up to me, the office's entrance sign would be both red brown.
14 Your salary can be either directly deposited also picked up at the payroll office.
Answers: p. 551

"' a.
Part 5
01 The Maxwell Byrd Company prides itself on
having established modern efficient
procedures unmatched in the industry.
(A) either (B) so
(C) and (D) too
02 All examinees should bring a driver's
license or passport and a pencil to the testing
(A) or
(C) both
(B) and
(D) either
03 To prevent electricity outages in areas where
service is not readily available, use major
appliances before noon after 7 p.m.
(A) neither (B) nor
(C) either (D) or
04 If you placed an order, have not
received your package, please wait two
months from the day it was shipped before
making an inquiry.
(A) but
(C) then
(B) also
(D) even
05 The training staff was instructed neither to
give handouts before the sessions to
distribute the manuals until after the seminar
had ended.
(A) also
(C) or
(B) nor
(D) and
06 All of the workers were warned about wearing
masks in the laboratory, half of them
ignored the advisory and got sick.
(A) yet (B) by
(C) so (D) both
07 The new interior design of the office has both
increased employee productivity
drawn many positive remarks from the clients.
(A) or (B) yet
(C) like (D) and
1 92 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
G Time limit: 11 minutes
08 The chief executive is trying to decide whether
to assign an individual an entire team
to evaluate last week's event.
(A) so
(C) or
(B) but
(D) nor
09 Better product advertising is needed that not
only grabs the viewer's attention
stimulates consumer desire to spend money.
(A) or (B) but
(C) and (D) therefore
1 0 Candidates will be considered on the basis of
their prior experience on their level
of dedication and loyalty.
(A) although (B) based on
(C) as well as (D) in addition
11 Your participation in support of our
charity benefit will help feed the thousands of
starving children our company sponsors.
(A) and (B) so
(C) because (D) however
12 The severance request has been processed by
the head office, not by the accounting
department as of yet.
(A) also (B) or
(C) but (D) unless
13 At the end of Sarah's first month of employ-
ment, the company evaluated her
daily performance and her total month's
(A) either
(C) plus
(B) both
(D) so
14 This project began almost five months ago
is expected to be finished in
(A) or
(C) and
(B) so
(D) but
15 Our store will be refinanced, to save
on long-term interest rates and to ensure a
solid credit rating.
(A) either
(C) neither
(B) both
(D) not only
16 The company will have performance reviews
over the next few weeks, the
manager is going to inform all employees
of the review process.
(A) since
(C) or
(B) but
(D) so
17 The restaurant critic advised patronizing
the newly opened Greek restaurant
nor the 20-year-old grilled food eatery.
(A) and (B) either
(C) with (D) neither
Part 6
18 Make sure that not only the agenda
the annual report have been put into the
envelopes for each of the directors as well.
(A) and (B) or
(C) but (D) so
19 You can either submit your application by
e-mail send the needed information
by post.
(A) or
(C) nor
(B) and
(D) also
20 All new computer technicians should receive
and up-to-date training in the use and
maintenance of state-of-the-art equipment.
(A) adequacy (B) adequate
(C) adequateness (D) adequately
Questions 21-23 refer to the following announcement.
The Asia-Market Builders Association, Asia's oldest construction worker sourcing agency, is happy
to announce that it is . With foreign investments in China and other Asian countries
21 (A) closing (B) exceeding
(C) expanding (D) lifting
increasing, the agency is actively seeking permanent carpenters, ironworkers, and electricians.
The workers being sought, according to Mr. Hwang Wei , would be of the highest competence,
professionally and personal ly. Mr. Wei also said that the likelihood that these workers
22 (A) not only (B) with
(C) as well as (D) both
may be placed in other countries once the present projects are completed is very high. In fact , con-
struction demand over the next five years in Asia will require as many as 10,000 well-trained builders.
As such, it is preferred that the workers who apply be very in their particular trade.
23 (A) skills (B) skillful ly
(C) skilled (D) skill
Answers: p. 551

"' c..
Basic Points
In a sentence, a noun clause can come in the position of the subject,
object, or complement.
What she read was a story by E.B. White.
I know that he is innocent.
My question is whether he is telling the truth.
What she read comes in the position of the subject of the first sentence. In the second
sentence, that he is innocent comes in the position of the object of the verb know. In
the last sentence, whether he is telling the truth comes in the position of the subject
A noun clause is formed by noun clause conjunction ( + subject) +
I can't tell whether you are bored or entertained.
What makes him happy is the desire for art.
Whether you are bored or entertained is the object of the verb tell. It is formed by the
noun clause conjunction (whether) + subject (you) + verb (are).
What makes him happy comes in the position of the subject of the sentence. It is
formed by the noun clause conjunction (what) + verb (makes).
Noun clause conjunctions include that , if / whether, interrogative words who, what ,
which, when, where, how, why, and compound relative pronouns whoever, what-
ever, whichever, etc.
194 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
www .n hantriviet.com
01 Positions of Noun Clauses
0 In a sentence, a noun clause -just like a noun - can come in the position of the subject,
object, or complement.
Subject Whether we have to work or not is unclear.
Object of a verb Daniel said that you had the file.
Object of a preposition The group talked about how the accident occurred.
Complement The problem is who will bring a car for tomorrow's trip.
Note: A that-clause may also come 1n the position of the direct object of trans1t1ve verbs 1n Structure 4.
The landlord informed the tenant that the rent would have to be paid immediately.
1-,. Informed is a transitive verb in Structure 4. Its Indirect object is the tenant, and its d1rect object is
the that-clause.
' i
@ Prepositions and object pronouns cannot come in the position of a noun clause conjunction.
The committee agreed oo the next meeting would take place in Geneva.
The preposition on cannot introduce the noun clause the next meeting would take place in Geneva. The
noun clause starting with that must be used.
He explained it the contract must be approved at this meeting.
The object pronoun it cannot introduce the noun clause the contract must be approved at this meeting.
The noun clause starting with that must be used.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B) , (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. The company's press relations officer
confirmed Selectric, Inc. would
no longer be manufacturing pagers.
(A) about (B) of
(C) that (D) it
2. The banking industry reported
past year saw a 1 0 percent increase in
international wire transfers.
(A) about
(C) on
(B) this
(D) that
3. Please submit your picks for employee of
the month so that our manager can decide
will be given the award.
(A) those (B) them
(C) who (D) while
Answers: p. 551
2 .

"' 0>

02 Noun Clauses Introduced by That
0 A noun clause introduced by that can come in the position of the subject, object of a verb
complement, or appositive in a sentence. '
That he won the first prize is hardly surprising.
I know that you didn't lie.
Object of a verb
The best thing about this guitar is that it stays in tune.
The claim that he stole the car is true. [the claim = he stole the car]
8 Adjectives preceding a that-clause
be aware that
be sorry that
be glad I happy that
be convinced that
The applicant is aware that the director is not in today.
The librarian is sure that the book was stolen.
@) Nouns preceding a that-clause as an appositive
be sure that
be afraid that
fact that
news that
rumor that
statement that
report that
claim that
opinion that
idea that
confirmation that
truth that
(re)assurance that
The radio commentator announced the news that oil prices would increase.
The entire company was surprised by the report that their factory would have to shut down.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Alice Diaz was willing to work over
the weekends to ensure the success of the
ceremony is evidence of her devotion to her
(A) That
(C) Since
196 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(B) But
(D) After
2. Mr. Forster was convinced his decision
to sell his shares had been the right one when
the value of the stock plunged the next day.
(A) which (B) that
(C) about (D) of
3. During the meeting, the manager referred to
the rumor
(A) then
(C) which
the business was losing
(B) that
(D) how
Answers: p. 551
03 Noun Clauses Introduced by If/Whether
0 Both the conjunctions if and whether (or not) are used when the noun clause is formed from
a Yes/No question. In a sentence, a noun clause introduced by if/whether can come in the
position of the subject, object, or complement.
Subject Whether we succeed is not important.
I will check if the movie is playing. Object of a verb
Object of a preposition
I can't answer the question of whether or not computers can think.
The question is whether this is true.
Notes: 1. The clause starting with Whether can also function as an adverb clause. meaning it is not important
if ...
Whether you like it or not, I'm coming to see you.
2. In conditional sentences. the conjunction if cannot be replaced by whether because in this case the
if-clause is an adverb clause, meaning under the condition that ... , not a noun clause.
They will send you a catalog whether (- if) you ask.
:: They will send you a catalog under the condition that you ask for it. This is a conditional sentence,
so if must be used.
@ The fixed phrase whether A orB/whether or not is commonly used. If cannot replace whether .
I don't know if she likes me or hates me.
~ If cannot replace whet her.
I can't tell if or not an e-mail message is spam.
~ If cannot replace whet her.
@) An if-clause can come neither in the position of a subject nor after a preposition.
+f we succeed is not important.
~ The if-clause cannot come in the position of the subject, so If must be changed to Whether.
I' m confused about if we should invite everyone in the class.
~ h e if-clause cannot come after the preposition, so if must be changed to whether.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C),
or (D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Ms. Owen still isn't sure she will
open a production plant in South America
to cut down the cost of labor.
(A) if
(C) however
(B) though
(D) while
2. She is still thinking about whether to
boost the office's computer systems with the
latest software programs.
(A) or (B) or not
(C) and (D) and not
3. The committee is still deciding about
to allocate funds for monthly training sessions
for employees.
(A) if
(C) whether
(B) that
(D) which
Answers: p. 552
2 .

"' c.
04 Noun Clauses Introduced by an Interrogative Word
0 A noun clause may be introduced by the interrogative pronoun who, whose, what, or which
that is the subject or object of the noun clause. Hence, the interrogative pronoun starts an
incomplete clause.
I don't know who typed the letter.
What he said was unclear.
I don't know which is better.
8 A noun clause may be introduced by the interrogative adjective whose, what, or which both
modifying the noun following it and starting the noun clause that comes in the position of
the subject or object of the sentence. Hence, the interrogative adjective starts an incomplete
I don't know whose car it is.
What clubs you are in is not important.
The discussion should be about which plan is better.
@) A noun clause may be introduced by the interrogative adverb when, where, how, or why. A
complete clause follows an interrogative adverb.
The child will ask when she can start piano lessons.
Where I found the book is a secret.
You need to practice how you should handle client complaints.
The shoppers wondered why the book was so expensive.
Note: How go1ng with an adverb or ad1ect1ve starts a noun clause.
The clerk w1ll tell me how much money I have to pay.
Can you tell me o w ~ eat vegetables?
- . ~ 'I ~
e The noun clause interrogative word + subject + should + verb may be changed to
interrogative word+ to-infinitive (phrase).
1 have to decide what to do (= what I should do} first.
They don't know when to stop (= when they should stop) .
Note: Whether may also come in the position of the interrogative word in front of the to-infinitive (phrase).
The director hasn't decided whether to release the report.
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B) , (C),
or (D) - best completes the sentence.
1. The manager wants to know
prepared the employee profiles for the
company website, as he finds them
unprofessional and inappropriate.
(A} how (B) that
(C) which (0} who
198 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
2. To make preparations for the event, the
caterer asked many people would be
present at the dinner.
(A} about
(C) how
(B) concerning
(D) what
3. The company's lawyer will know to do
in this situation, so let's make an appointment
to see him.
(A) what
(C) which
(B) that
(D) where
Answers: p. 552
05 Noun Clauses Introduced by a Compound Relative Pronoun
0 A noun clause may be introduced by a compound relative pronoun coming in the position of the sub-
ject or object of a sentence. A compound relative pronoun has a double function: it acts as the
subject/object in its own clause and it also acts as a conjunction joining its clause to the rest of the
sentence. Note that compound relative pronouns usually have no expressed antecedents.
whoever(= anyone who)
whatever (= anything that)
whomever (= anyone whom)
whichever (= anything that, anyone who)
Whoever(= Anyone who) answered the phone was very polite.
You can select whatever (= anything that) you want.
@ The compound relative pronoun is the subject or object of a noun clause, so an incomplete clause
follows the compound relative pronoun.
Whoever visits my website is asked for a username.
Please choose whichever theme you like.
@ The context is the factor that decides whether an interrogative pronoun or a compound relative pro-
noun must be used.
Wfte did it was not an amateur.
~ h e sentence refers to anyone who did it, not someone in particular, so whoever is more suitable.
Whoever did it was not important.
~ h e sentence refers to someone in particular, so who is more suitable.
I'll take wftieft side you' re not using.
~ h e sentence refers to any side that the other person is not using, so whichever is more suitable.
I have finally decided on whichever side I should choose.
~ h e sentence means among several sides, I have chosen one specific side, so which is more suitable.
Decide which of the choices- (A), (8), (C), or (D) 2. The supervisor reminded us that needed
- best completes the sentence.
1. is said at this very private meeting is
confidential and should not leave the room for
any reason.
(A) Whichever
(C) Whenever
(B) Whatever
(D) However
a certificate of employment for personal reasons
should ask for Ms. Simon's assistance.
(A) who (B) whenever
(C) whoever (D) whomever
3. team of sales representatives has sold
the highest number of units will receive the Team
of the Month award.
(A) Which
(C) Whichever
(B) Some
(D) These
Answers: p. 552
Chapter 18 Noun Clauses 199


06 Distinguishing between What and That
0 A clause introduced by what functions as a noun clause, while a that-clause may function as a
noun clause, an adjective clause, or an adverb clause in a sentence.
It's hard to decide what is right to do.
~ h e what-clause is a noun clause which comes in the position of the object of the verb decide.
I knew that there was a shortage of ink cartridges.
~ h e that-clause is a noun clause which comes in the position of the object of the verb know.
I have a plan that will help you stop smoking.
~ h e that-clause modifies the noun plan, so it is an adjective clause.
The movie was so funny that I watched it twice.
~ h e that-clause following so/ such is an adverb clause.
8 When a what-clause and a that-clause function as a noun clause, what starts an incomplete
clause and that starts a complete clause.
I want to know what makes you happy.
~ W h a t itself is the subject of the noun clause, so it starts an incomplete clause.
That you need more money is obvious.
~ h a t starts a noun clause, so following it is a complete clause.
TOEIC Questions
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C),
or (D) - best completes the sentence.
1. As an advertiser, it is absolutely vital to
understand most customers
expect and want from manufacturers.
(A) how (B) that
(C) what (D) whether
2. lmplementers understand they cannot
use company funds earmarked for project
expenses on rest and recreation.
(A) about (B) it
(C) what (D) that
3. New computer programs have made it so much
easier to store information in databases
even a novice can compile one from a given set
of data.
(A) that
(C) what
(B) there
(D) when
Answers: p. 552
Hackers Skill What cannot start an adjective clause (also known as a relative clause) or an adverb
I'm listening to a CD what (- that) came out last week.
It was such a lovely day what (- that) it was a pity to get up.
200 - Hackers TOEIC Reading www.nhantriviet.com

Choose a correct option for each sentence.
01 It is definite (that/what) she will commence with the presentation tomorrow.
02 It is not certain (whose/which) of the representatives will be sent to one of our important clients.
03 Investors are afraid (that/what) the war on terror will cause stock shares to plummet.
04 They questioned her regarding her skills instead of (if /whether) she had the appropriate experience.
05 (Who/Whoever) has an interest in the position of field manager should send a resume to the main
06 It is difficult to know (that/what) to expect on the first day of a job.
07 He was of the opinion (that/which) the marketing team needed a new leader.
Identify the noun clause and state its position in each sentence.
08 Suppliers will have to decide when the time is right to make a change.
09 How the company manages to stay afloat with all its debt is a mystery.
1 0 The motorists were concerned about what roads had been blocked due to the accident.
11 New office chairs are what the receptionists have requested numerous times.
12 The company was founded on the idea that quality service should be provided to everyone.
13 The accountant doesn't understand why 1 0 percent of profit must go to pension funds.
14 The fact is that some exports will have to be cut back because of inventory shortages.
Answers: p. 552

Part 5
01 the holiday is only going to last three
days is a disappointment to the entire staff.
(A) What (B) That
(C) Although (D) So
02 Our supervisor wants to know the
final revisions will be made to the contract.
(A) on
(C) which
(B) about
(D) when
03 At 6:00, club members joining the
special clambake at the beach should be at
the entrance of the Lakeside Center.
(A) all
(C) when
(B) somewhat
(D) whichever
04 The major issue we face is the fact
within the next month our spending will
exceed the budget.
(A) that
(C) rather than
(B) coming from
(D) what
05 As the manager of the hotel, I can assure you
that room you choose will be of the
highest standards.
(A) these
(C) whose
(B) some
(D) whichever
06 The tailor shop is requesting the customer
to return the expensive suits were
mistakenly packed with his purchase.
(A) what (B) whoever
(C) this (D) that
Doctor William will give a speech at
the Remand Hotel remains undecided.
(A) About
(C) Whether
(B) Before
(D) It
202 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
C? Time limit: 11 minutes
08 When questioned as to he was planning
to work for the competition, Mr. Graham said
he would always be loyal to Sanford and Sons.
(A) whenever (B) while
(C) whether (D) whereas
09 We want all staff to be aware security
codes will be changed on the following
(A) concerning
(C) that
(B) of
(D) which
10 Please remember the vacation policy
has been changed this year.
(A) that (B) when
(C) if (D) what
11 Next week's workshop will focus on
to be an effective and trustworthy leader in
the corporate world.
(A) which
(C) what
(B) how
(D) that
12 A key to closing a deal is to realize
knowing how to negotiate means having a
sense of how people think and feel.
(A) so that (B) in that
(C) and that (D) that
13 Employees are reminded they should
limit their use of office supplies, as budget
cuts will be taking effect immediately.
(A) if (B) that
(C) still (D) yet
14 Although staff members have some leeway
when it comes to daily activities, the supervisor
determines tasks get done by whom.
(A) when
(C) what
(B) whoever
(D) whose
15 The new employees wondered 18 The chairman of Rochelle Petrochemicals is of
they would be given health care and some
(A) whom
(C) that
(B) if
(D) what
the opinion the new manufacturing plant
will not significantly affect the environment.
(A) then (B) that
(C) how (D) when
16 Martin's job is so demanding he 19 We will be holding a meeting this afternoon to
takes occasional three-day leave to get away
from the pressures of office work.
(A) that (B) there
(C) what (D) where
leaves the office last will be required
to make sure all the lights are off and lock all
doors behind them.
(A) Who
(C) Whose
(B) Whom
(D) Whoever
decide needs to be revised before the
report goes to print.
(A) what
(C) whether
(B) those
(D) there
20 For those who have made an investment,
happens during the first year is an
important indicator of how successful the
company will be.
(A) that
(C) what
(B) as
(D) how
Part 6
Questions 21-23 refer to the following letter.
This is in reply to your letter of complaint dated September 25. We credited your account for the
amount which you disputed in your communication. However, one of our employees later gave you
another credit for the same situation. Could you check you have the correct amount in
21 (A) where (B) though
(C) whereas (D) whether
your account? To remedy the problem, we have the extra amount. The adjustment should
22 (A) withdrawn (B) ret reated
(C) aboli shed (D) foregone
be reflected in your October account statement , which was sent out yesterday.
We apologize for our mistake and any difficulty it may have caused.
23 (A) sincerity (B) most sincere
(C) sincere (D) sincerely
Senior Accountant
Answers: p. 552
2 .


Basic Points
A relative clause functions as an adjective and modifies a preceding
noun (also known as an antecedent).
The woman who lives next door is ki nd.
I found a shop where I can get a discount.
Who lives next door and where I can get a discount function as an adjective modifying
their antecedents (the woman and a shop). These relative clauses are also called adjec-
tive clauses.
Relative clauses are divided into two types: defining and non-defining.
A defining relative clause is used to clearly define who or what is being referred to.
Without this information, it would be difficult to know who or what is being mentioned.
A non-defining relative clause provides additional information which is not essential to
understanding the meaning of a sentence.
Defining relative clause I have two sisters who are teachers.
Non-defining rel ative clause I have two sisters, who are teachers.
In the first sentence, the defining clause who are teachers defines the two sisters. It can
be inferred that besides these two sisters, the speaker may also have other sisters who
are not teachers.
In the second one, the non-defining clause who are teachers adds more information to
the two sisters. It can be understood that the speaker has only two sisters and they are
both teachers.
A non-defining relative clause may modify the whole sentence before it .
Charlie became a lawyer, which surprised his friends.
A relative clause is formed by relative pronoun (subject) + verb or
relative adverb + subject + verb.
The reporter met the designer, who is now the company's president.
The bookstore has a cafe where you can enjoy classical music.
In the first sentence, the antecedent designer is modified by the relative clause formed by
the relative pronoun (who) + verb (is). Who could be seen as conjunction + pronoun (and
he/ she).
In the second sentence, the antecedent a cafe is modifi ed by the relative clause formed
by the relative adverb {where) + subject (you) + verb (can enjoy). Where could be seen as
conjunction + adverb (and there).
Relative pronouns include who, whom, whose, which, that ; relative adverbs are when,
where, why, how.
204 - Hackers TOEIC Reading www .n hantriviet.com
01 Positions and Functions of Relative Clauses
0 A relative clause can come between the subject and verb or at the end of a sentence.
The tourists whom Eric guided were from Germany.
I can't find the book which was on the desk.
Note: Unlike adverb clauses, relat1ve clauses cannot come before and mod1fy the whole sentence.
the library is comfortable for reading. (X)
. .
8 Other adverbs or pronouns cannot be used in place of relative adverbs or pronouns which start
a relative clause.
Fill out the application forms, tftese are available online.
pronoun those cannot start the relative clause. The relative pronoun which must be used.
We often go to a restaurant tftere we can eat hearty meals.
adverb there cannot start the relative clause. The relative adverb where must be used.
@ It is important to use relative pronouns correctly. Do not confuse a relative pronoun starting a
relative clause and a conjunction starting a noun clause.
I know the boy wftat broke this fence.
sentence needs a relative clause to modify the noun the boy, so the relative pronoun who must be
I know whe the boy did to the fence.
sentence needs a noun clause to be the object of the verb know, so the noun clause conjunction
what must be used.
e Only a finite verb (a verb that is conjugated) can be used in a relative clause.
The company will reply only to those who meeting our requirements.
-- meet
the finite verb meet , not the gerund meeting, can be the verb of the relative clause.
Decide which of the choices- (A) , (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Most of the products and goods are
traded online are sold directly by the owner.
(A) they (B) those
(C) that (D) these
2. Recently the director released the list of
engineers have been nominated to lead
the bridge project.
(A) which
(C) who
(B) what
(D) they
3. Dietary supplements come from plants
are generally known to be safe, but some may
interfere with a wound's capacity to heal.
(A) whatever (B) what
(C) whichever (D) which
Answers: p.552



"' a.
02 Relative Pronouns
0 When the antecedent is a person, the relative pronoun who(m) is used. When the antecedent is
a thing or an animal, the relative pronoun which is used.
We are looking for someone wftieft is intelligent and dedicated.
relative pronoun who is used because the antecedent refers to a human (someone).
The files wlw are stacked on his desk are due next week.
relat ive pronoun which is used because the antecedent refers to things (The files) .
.., r '
Note: The relat1ve pronoun that can come in the position of the subject or object of relative clauses,
regardless of the antecedents. However, it cannot come after a preposition or a comma (.).
The baker, that (- who) IS French, opened a new store in the area.
The person with that (-with whom) I talked last week is my lawyer.
.,._,. ..... ... -t.:.: -
8 There are three kinds of relative pronouns: subject relative pronouns, object relative pronouns,
and possessive relative pronouns.
People who
Things I animals which
People and things/animals that
I know the person who is standing in line.
The car which is in the garage is Steve' s.
Object Possession
whom, who whose
which whose, of which
relative pronoun who / which comes in the position of the subject of the relative clause. Hence, the
finite verb is follows who/ which.
The girl (whom/ who) I met yesterday is my best friend.
He took the medicine (which) the doctor prescribed.
relative pronoun whom/ who/ which comes in the position of the object of the relative clause. Hence, a
subject (1/ the doctor) and a finite verb (met/prescribed) follow whom/who/which. In this case, the object
relative pronoun whom/ who/ which can be omitted.
I had to meet with my neighbor, whose dog I have been watching.
The students are writing a report , the topic of which is Korean history.
possessive relative pronoun whose modifies the noun dog. If the antecedent is a thing (a report), of
which can replace whose and be put after the noun it modifies.
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B) , (C),
or (D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Any contract is not signed by the
members of the Board of Directors would
have no legal power even though its terms
may have already been executed.
(A) who (B) which
(C) whom (D) of which
206 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
2. Gecko is an organization mission is to
provide financial relief to families left homeless by
natural disasters.
(A) which
(C) whom
(B) that
(D) whose
3. Job candidates are presently unemployed
or are studying to obtain a degree must furnish
this information on their application forms.
(A) who (B) which
(C) whom (D) whose
Answers: p. 552
03 Usage of Relative Pronouns
0 Preposition + relative pronoun
When the noun in the first sentence and the object of the preposition in the second sentence refer to
the same person/thing, the two sentences may be joined into a complex sentence using the structure
preposition + relative pronoun.
I ran into a woman. + I had worked with her.
- I ran into a woman whom I had worked with.
- I ran into a woman with whom I had worked.
An appropriate preposition will be used depending on the meaning of the antecedent or the verb in the
relative clause.
I had a holiday during which I was able to see my family. (::> during the holiday)
This is the book about which we talked yesterday. (::> talk about)
A complete clause follows the structure preposition + relative pronoun.
You have a sponsor to whom you must submit a report.
@ Indefinite pronoun + of + relative pronoun
many I much I most . .
half/the rest +of+ relative pronoun (whom/which/whose+ noun)
The program enrolls 20 students. + All of the students are women.
- The program enrolls 20 students, and ~ of them are women.
- The program enrolls 20 students, ~ of whom are women.
8 Omitting subject relative pronouns
The subject relative pronoun in the structure subject relative pronoun + be may be omitted.
The place (which was) chosen for the reception is beautiful.
I want to know the person (who is) responsible for this mess.
The park (which is) around my house is open for day use only.
~ n the above relative clauses, which was, who is, which is may be omitted. Only the key words - the past
participle chosen, the adjective responsible, and the prepositional phrase around my house - remain.
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B), (C) , or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Electronic delivery methods such as e-mail
and fax are the most common ways
which international communications are made
these days.
(A) to
(C) by
(B) for
(D) of
2. There were more than 1 00 graduate students
in attendance at our internship fair, many of
had prior work experience.
(A) who
(C) them
(B) whom
(D) that
3. Of the three applicants for appointment
to a managerial position, two have worked in
an international setting.
(A) eligibility (B) eligible
(C) eligibly (D) eligibleness
Answers: p. 552
04 Relative Adverbs
0 Different relative adverbs are used depending on the antecedents.
Antecedents Relative adverbs
Time [day, year, time] when
Reason [the reason] why
Place [place, building] where
Thursday is the last day when classes meet.
The place where I had lunch has a great salad bar.
The article explains the reason why customers are so indecisive.
Note: When how 1s used, there is no antecedent (e.g. the way, the method).
I tried to figure out the way I how the machine works.
-:.ro ~ ~
8 Relative adverbs may be replaced by the structure preposition+ relative pronoun.
The conditions where (= in which} the laborers work are unacceptable.
The day when (=on which} he proposed to me was the best day of my life.
@) A complete clause follows a relative adverb; an incomplete clause follows a relative pronoun.
Tomorrow is the last time when we will be able to see each other before you go.
~ h e complete clause follows the relative adverb when.
That is the boy who broke my window.
~ The incomplete clause follows the relative pronoun who.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Any person would like to visit the
exhibition must have a written statement of
permission from administration.
(A) who (B) when
(C) which (D) whose
208 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
2. The new shuttle service, has been
operating since last year, serves all of the
city's main stopping points.
(A) who (B) which
(C) what (D) where
3. She applied to the company she had
previously worked when just out of university.
(A) which (B) when
(C) of which (D) where
Answers: p. 552

Choose a correct option for each sentence.
01 Mr. Gomez is familiar with Asian culture, (which/they) will help him as the liaison for Hong Kong.
02 All applicants (which / who) are waiting in line must have their documents ready.
03 Any staff writer (whose / that) proposal is selected for funding will receive an all-paid vacation.
04 The company purchased mobile communication devices (those/that) serve both as phones and
e-mail portals.
05 Customers (who / they) wish to sign up for a store membership may stop by the information desk.
06 Working for the firm allows you to purchase stock options (which/who) are offered as incentives .
07 People (whom/whose) names are on the waiting list must call again tomorrow.
Decide whether each of the sentences below is correct or incorrect. If it is correct, write
"correct"; if it is incorrect, point out the mistake(s) and provide (a) correction(s).
08 On your desk is the receipt for the airline tickets where must be picked up tomorrow.
09 The number of entertainment programs that is directed at young adults is steadily increasing.
10 The upcoming workshop is the first one that the company having organized.
11 Miscommunication between coworkers is a problem when has caused a lot of tension in the office.
12 The main building, that houses the superior officers, has an electronically monitored gate.
13 The company manufactures diet pills and sleeping tablets, both of them are top sellers.
14 The surroundings where the employees work are pleasant.
Answers: p. 552
www.nhantriviPt rom
2 .


"' ..
Part 5
01 The director developed a list of criteria for
development, he feels will boost the
company's prestige.
(A) which
(C) what
(B) that
(D) who
02 A conference to discuss the terms of the
settlement will be held at a time and place
to both parties involved.
(A) acceptance (B) acceptingly
(C) accept (D) acceptable
03 lnterpid Travel employed eight certified
agents, all of were trained at the
same institute in Manhattan.
(A) what
(C) this
(B) whom
(D) their
04 Conference attendees confirm their
attendance early will be eligible for pre-
assigned seating.
(A) whose
(C) who
(B) what
(D) whom
05 At a meeting yesterday, we studied the most
recent budget proposal , the board
thinks will help pull the corporation out of debt.
(A) whether (B) where
(C) which (D) that
06 Changes in our organizational structure
have created ways for employees to explore
opportunities were previously not
(A) what
(C) that
(B) those
(D) there
07 People entering business administration need
a broad knowledge of the culture in
they will eventually put their professional
training to work.
(A) which
(C) whom
210 - Hackers TOEI C Readi ng
(B) that
(D) whose
(9 Time limit: 11 minutes
08 Mr. Thompson collected a list of employees
were unable to attend the official
company picnic.
(A) whose
(C) whom
(B) who
(D) whoever
09 Enclosed with this letter is a pre-addressed,
stamped envelope to mail your
application for membership to our club.
(A) which (B) in which
(C) what (D) whenever
10 The company is requesting that high-level
executives complete a survey details
what their main tasks consist of.
(A) who
(C) which
11 The package
(B) why
(D) where
was sent to Mr. Jones
was returned to us when the mail carrier
could not locate the address on the shipping
(A) when
(C) what
(B) who
(D) that
12 GasCo sells more than 8 million gallons of oil
a year, half of is consumed in the
United States alone.
(A) many
(C) each
(B) which
(D) whose
13 Please tell the person in charge to let us
know the assessment forms have
been completed by the participants.
(A) when (B) that
(C) what (D) whatever
14 A dinner will take place next Friday to honor
Richard Perkins, has been a great
asset to this bank for over thirty years.
(A) who (B) which
(C) whose (D) of which
15 When the director asked respon-
sibility the project was, he was told that it was
the CEO's.
(A) who
(C) whose
(B) which
(D) that
16 Mr. McKenzie has been working on
the campaign longer than anyone else will
take charge of the project.
(A) whom (B) whose
(C) who (D) which
17 Only Speedy Shipping offers a variety of
delivery options utilize both air and
sea transportation.
(A) why
(C) where
Part 6
(B) that
(D) what
Questions 21-23 refer to the following e-mail.
Date: December 8
From: lcollins@squaresystems.com
To: rafael@squaresystems.com
Re: Press conference
Rafael ,
18 The Mother Nature Garden Show,
annually demonstrates the newest technology
in horticulture, draws over 5,000 attendees
during its week-long run.
(A) when (B) which
(C) where (D) whose
19 We are currently seeking a partner firm
marketing principles are similar to
our own.
(A) who
(C) whose
(B) which
(D) where
20 An employee performance during
a specified period is satisfactory is entitled
to a wage increase based on current pay
(A) who
(C) whose
(B) whom
(D) in which
The correct date for the press conference is on December 16. In my last communication, I
21 (A) consequently (B) properly
(C) mistakenly (D) substantially
told you that it would be on December 12. I got the date mixed up with an appointment I have with
a reporter from Business Week. You probably already know that Alan and I arranged for
22 (A) have (B) to have
(C) having had (D) would have
special bus service between the hotel where the conference will be held and our offices. This is to
facilitate the transport of staff, guests and equipment to the hotel. I'm trying to verify the names of
the delegates will be using the service to make certain that we have a sufficient number
23 (A) whose (B) whom
(C) which (D) who
of seats. Could you send me this list as soon as possible?
Answers: p. 552


Basic Points
An adverb clause is a dependent clause functioning as an adverb in a
sentence. It indicates time, place, condition, etc.
Please call me before you leave.
If he falls, he will get hurt.
Before you leave and If he falls are adverb clauses of time and condition. Without
them, the sentences are still complete and make sense.
An adverb clause is formed by adverb clause conjunction + subject +
Once you have time, pay a visit to your grandmother.
The adverb clause in the sentence is formed by the adverb clause conjunction (once) +
subject (you) + verb (have).
Conjunctions that start an adverb clause include once, when, if, although, because,
whatever, etc.
In case the verb in the adverb clause is be, subject+ be may be omitted.
I would like to get it done today if (it is) possible.
01 Positions and Functions of Adverb Clauses
0 An adverb clause is a dependent clause that comes before or after the main clause.
In case we don't get in touch next week, I' ll see you after the holidays.
I like to have a cup of coffee while I'm getting ready in the morning.
8 An adverb clause functions as an adverb, which cannot be confused with a noun clause func-
tioning as a noun.
Adverb clause I will lend you money if you pay me back tomorrow.
Noun clause I demand that you pay me back.
adverb clause functions as an adverb of condition, while the noun clause functions as a noun coming
in the positi on of the obj ect of the verb demand.
@ An adverb clause cannot be confused with a relative clause modifying a noun.
Adverb clause She began cleaning when she learned that visitors were coming.
Relative clause Our home is a warm place where we can enjoy each other's company in safety.
adverb clause does not modify any noun, while the relative clause modifies the antecedent a warm
e An adverb clause conjunction may also start a participial phrase (V-ing, p.p.).
After buying food at the market, he prepared himself a delicious meal.
The oil will burn quickly unless placed on a low flame.
adverb clause conjunction after / unless starts the participial phrase buying food at the market / placed
on a low flame.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C),
or (D) - best completes the sentence.
1. the marketing head transfers to
Singapore, there will be an open position
at the main office.
(A) So
(C) If
(B) Wherever
(D) Whom
2. the minimum wage has increased in
some countries over the past few years, it is
still below poverty level in many places.
(A) However (B) That
(C) Whereas (D) Despite
3. Customers who hear music on an open tele-
phone line placed on hold are less
likely to hang up.
(A) to
(C) nearby
(B) as
(D) while
Answers: p. 552
Jn Anw>rh ><<>< - .,, ,
2 .


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02 Conjunctions in Adverb Clauses of Time
0 Below are some common conjunctions in adverb clauses of time.
He was not allowed to play until he had done his homework.
They lit the candles before they turned out the lights.
When the doctor made the diagnosis, the patient was shocked.
While waiting for her son, Mrs. Cosby read a magazine.
even as
{) When is used to indicate the time of which an event starts; while is used when
as soon as
(= immediately after)
two actions happen simultaneously for some time.
I haven't eaten anything since I got home last night.
They left the theater after the singer gave an encore.
We will send your shipment once we confirm payment.
They stopped working as soon as dusk settled in.
Notes: 1. As/since also means because used to state a reason; while is also used when comparing things,
situations, or people and showing how they are different.
Her doctor ordered her to go on a diet since she had gained thirty pounds in two months.
Some people like to take one long vacation, while others prefer many shorter trips.
2. Two adverb clause conjunctions cannot go together, except until after.
Please stay here and wait until after I'm done with my meeting.
' .- ._; ....-)._;lf"j..,;,,:>.- I
8 In adverb clauses of time, the present simple tense is used instead of the future simple tense.
They hope to finish the report before the library wi ll close.
-- closes
present simple tense (closes) , not the future simple tense (will close) , is used in the adverb clause of
Note: The past s1mple tense is used 1n the adverb clause starting w1th since, and the present perfect tense is
used in the main clause.
The postman has delivered mail to community residents since he was in his twent1es.
: " ... ... -" -".i.P" ''"-d ,.,__._ - ' ( - '.. I l '
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. all of the appropriate paperwork has
been filed, you will be officially registered as
an accountant at this firm.
(A) Whether
(C) As if
214 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(B) Once
(D) Yet
2. Staff members have reported hundreds of
phone calls the promotion was aired
on television and radio a few hours ago.
(A) by (B) before
(C) past (D) since
3. Patrons who arrive more than twenty minutes
the opera begins should wait in the
lobby until the doors to the main hall are
(A) before
(C) during
(B) when
(D) while
Answers: p. 553
03 Conjunctions in Adverb Clauses of Condition and Concession
0 Below are some common conjunctions in adverb clauses of condition.
unless (= if - not)
as long as
providing I provided (that)
on condition that
only if
in case (that)
in the event (that)
If you would like a confirmation call, please include your phone number.
Let's go to the movies tomorrow, unless you have other plans.
You can use my car as long as you take good care of it.
You will get a discount providing you purchase two sets.
Refunds are offered only if purchases are returned within two weeks.
We have a back-up speaker in case Mr. Sanchez arrives late.
Call a customer representative immediately in the event that your credit
card is stolen.
<f> In case (that) and in the event (that) are used for saying what will happen
in a particular situation.
8 Below are some common conjunctions in adverb clauses of concession.
Conjunctions Examples
~ ~ ~
although, though, even if, Although he promised to come early, he was late again.
even though
whereas, while The manager is aggressive, whereas his assistant is soft-spoken .
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B) , (C) , or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. The value of the dollar will continue to drop
the American economy undergoes a
dramatic revival.
(A) unl ess
(C) even
(B) whether
(D) or
2. The CEO has decided to bring Perry James
along on his business trip he is
inexperienced and underqualified.
(A) if (B) so
(C) although (D) because
3. Please refer to the enclosed manual or call one
of our technicians
fine-tune your device.
(A) unless
(C) whether
you are unable to
(B) while
(D) if
Answers: p. 553
"" )>

04 Conjunctions in Adverb Clauses of Reason, Purpose, Result,
Exception and Others
0 Below are some common conjunctions in adverb clauses of reason, purpose, and result.
because, as, since
now that
You should ask Mr. Carter since he is the expert.
Now that we are all here, let's begin the meeting.
in that We are different in that you prefer to keep your opinions to yourself.
so that, in order that He made changes in the presentation so that it could be more easily understood.
so/ such - that Miguel was so tired from studying that he fell asleep in the library.
It was such a clear day that we could see the far-off mountains.
8 Except that, but that
I have no problem with Daniel except that he never shows up on time.
8 As if, as though, (just) as
It seemed as though there was something wrong with Jeff today.
9 Given that, considering (that)
It is surprising how well Michael is doing, considering that he only got out of the hospital last week.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. A gathering of all the company's senior
managers has been arranged we
can discuss problems involving customer
(A) in order
(C) because
216 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(B) so that
(D) such
2. A number of our staff were late coming to the
office today the eastbound A-train got
stuck on the tracks.
(A) if
(C) that
(B) because
(D) unless
that exports have failed to recover
the economy, the government is appealing to
corporate entities for help.
(A) Considering (B) Even so
(C) In case (D) Unless
Answers: p. 553
www .n hantriviet.com
05 Compound Relative Adverbs/ Pronouns
0 An adverb clause may also be introduced by a compound relative adverb.
whenever(= at any time when, no matter when)
wherever (=at any place where, no matter where)
however ( = by whatever means, no matter how)
We were greeted with smiles wherever (= at any place where) we went in that small town.
You can visit our office whenever (= no matter when) you want.
However (= No matter how) much that house is, I' m willing to pay the price.
~ n case however means no matter how, it can be replaced by the structure however+ adjective/adverb+
subject + verb.
8 The compound relative pronouns whoever, whatever, whichever may also start an adverb
whoever (= no matter who)
whatever ( = no matter what)
whichever ( = no matter which)
Whoever(= No matter who) calls on the phone, tell them I'm coming back from my trip tomorrow.
cf. Whatever we have to do is alright with me.
~ In this sentence, whatever starts the noun clause as the subject of the sentence. Compound relative
pronouns are presented in Chapter 18 - Noun Clauses.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C) , or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. We at Grayson Automot ive would appreciate
it if you would fill out this service evaluation
it is convenient for you.
(A) whichever (B) whoever
(C) whenever (D) whatever
2. much your company is paying you, I
can guarantee twice that salary if you work for
(A) Whatever
(C) Whichever
(B) However
(D) Whenever
3. Electronic communications make it possible
to do business you are in the world,
whether in or out of the country.
(A) whenever (B) whomever
(C) wherever (D) whatever
Answers: p. 553
2 .

06 Adverb Clause Conjunctions vs. Prepositions
0 Below are some adverb clause conjunctions and prepositions that may easily cause confusion.
Adverb clause conjunctions
Time when
in, at
by the time, until
by, until
after, before
following, after, before
once, as soon as
on/upon + V-ing
Condition unless
in case (that), in the event (that)
in case of, in the event of
Concession although, even though, while
despite, in spite of
Reason because, as, since because of, due to
Purpose so that, in order that
so as to /in order to + V
Exception except that, but that except (for), but (for)
Others given that, considering (that) given, considering
whether regardless of
as if, as though like
as as
8 An adverb clause conjunction starts a clause, while a preposition comes before a noun or
noun phrase.
The meeting was postponed because Mr. Stanley had urgent business to attend to.
The meeting was postponed because of urgent matters.
~ h e adverb clause conjunction because starts the clause, while the preposition because of comes before
the noun phrase urgent matters.
Note: A connecting adverb cannot start an adverb clause, but an adverb clause conjunction can.
We will lose this client otherwise (- unless) we can get the shipment in on t1me.
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Our office can begin filling out the order
the completed request form and
instructions are sent via fax.
(A) once
(C) upon
(B) just
(D) still
2. Housing prices stabilized interest
rates on mortgages rose sharply due to the
overall economic fluctuation.
(A) during
(C) while
(B) in addition
(D) meantime
3. the company has been selling the
same product for thirty years, it is still popular
with consumers all over the country.
(A) In spite of (B) Nevertheless
(C) Therefore (D) Although
Answers: p. 553

Choose a correct option for each sentence.
01 (As/ For) my car broke down, I missed the meeting.
02 (Also/ Although) his opportunities are wide open, he'd like to stay with the small company.
03 We can't confirm your order (until/while) you provide a transaction receipt.
04 (Even though/In spite of) the restaurant is always crowded, people still wait in line to be able to
get a table.
05 Please provide an e-mail address with unlimited storage (therefore/in case) we have to send large
06 The library will be open to the public by February (so/if) the remodeling is completed before the
second week of January.
07 Mr. Anderson has been given his own office (so that/hence) he can work in peace.
Decide whether each of the sentences below is correct or incorrect. If it is correct, write
"correct"; if it is incorrect, point out the mistake(s) and provide (a) correction(s).
08 They moved into the office even the electricity had not been turned on yet.
09 Despite the director retired last week, nobody has taken his place as of yet.
10 Total profit rose by 20 percent during Mr. Jameson acted as president of the company.
11 The assembly line was stopped although a machine broke down.
12 The hostess will mail out the invitations as soon they arrive from the printing shop.
13 We have to postpone the picnic while the weather forecaster said it would rain.
14 Nobody will be permitted inside this building unless when accompanied by a security guard.
Answers: p. 553
2 .


"' a.
" <0
Part 5
01 The telephone information service is available
round the clock it is a special holiday.
(A) regardless (B) whether
(C) despite (D) even if
02 The new work schedule cuts back on extra
hours improving employee efficiency
with longer lunch breaks.
(A) while (B) but
(C) after (D) since
03 At this company, quarterly bonuses are
awarded, all of the sales goals
are met.
(A) so as
(C) rather than
(B) depending on
(D) provided that
04 The loan agency has been closed for inves-
tigation claims were made that the
owner dipped into overhead funds.
(A) when (B) due to
(C) in spite of (D) since
05 We will hold a workshop more than
ten employees register.
(A) while (B) before
(C) if (D) because
06 The club is so exclusive that visitors are
not permitted to use its services
accompanied by a member.
(A) without (B) otherwise
(C) but (D) unless
07 Some of the suggestions proposed by
the assistant manager had to be declined
they did not reflect the company's
approach to employee relations.
(A) unless (B) rather than
(C) because (D) anyway
220 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(9 Time limit: 11 minutes
08 The company decided to change its policy
regarding holiday breaks the labor
union initiated a strike.
(A) while
(C) when
(B) where
(D) whether
09 Frank prefers having a quick meal at
his desk, Carl would rather have a leisurely
lunch at a good restaurant.
(A) As soon as (B) While
(C) Because of (D) However
10 Mr. Gonzales should inform his assistant
about his schedule he is planning
a business trip to Tokyo with the rest of the
marketing team.
(A) so
(C) that
(B) if
(D) due to
11 deciding whether or not to purchase
an investment property, it is important to
consider the terms of investment and the
ongoing costs.
(A) Whatever
(C) Whichever
(B) However
(D) Whenever
12 Harold Grist became the company's top senior
manager successfully leading the firm
through a period of near bankruptcy.
(A) with (B) in
(C) after (D) like
13 Employees are being asked to pull overtime
the current project has been
(A) while
(C) during
(B) until
(D) upon
14 you sign the document, you should
carefully review the details of the contract.
(A) Because (B) Since
(C) Before (D) While
15 This color copier will last beyond its warranty
the machine is periodically maintained
and worn-out parts are replaced.
(A) whereas (B) in case
(C) unless (D) as long as
16 accompanied by an adult, children
under the age of twelve are admitted free into
the museum.
(A) With
(C) Only
(B) When
(D) By
17 An additional 78,000 job opening is available
for entry-level workers increasing
foreign investments have spurred companies
to establish new factories.
(A) that
(C) as
Part 6
(B) if
(D) which
Questions 21-23 refer to the following e-mail.
Date: August 9
From: bpitt@pantheonfurniture.com
To: fdylan@pantheonfurniture.com
Re: Pol icy change
Hi Frank,
18 the bank approves his application for
a small business loan, Gary intends to open
his shop by the end of the year.
(A) Providing (B) Nevertheless
(C) The fact what (D) Until
19 Included in this month's subscription is a
coupon for a discounted year membership
you can introduce our magazine to
your friends.
(A) in order
(C) in addition to
(B) so that
(D) such as
20 the raw material needs of the
company, we have had to explore other
means to obtain the supplies we require.
(A) Consider (B) Considered
(C) Considering (D) Consideration
Pl ease note that beginni ng August 15, Pantheon Furni ture a pol icy change ensuring our
21 (A) implements (B) have implemented
(C) will implement (D) implemented
customers that any item they buy from our warehouse is of excellent quali ty. From that date, most
merchandise can be returned within three months. A full refund will be guaranteed, the
22 (A) provided (B) once
(C) while (D) though
item being returned does not show any sign of damage or overuse. We have written up specific
gui delines as to what merchandise is covered by the poli cy adjustment. We request all supervisors
to inform thei r staff of the policy and take steps to ensure that it will be complied with.
23 (A) close (B) modern
(C) new (D) nearest
Answers: p. 553
A 0 ~ __ . . _ _ : , . ~ _ ... --
2 .

"' ..
www .n hantriviet.com
Section 6
Special Structures
Chapter 21 -Comparison
Chapter 22 - Parallelism, Inversion
Basic Points
Comparison is used to say how things or people are similar and how
they are different. There are three types of comparison.
The comparison of equality is used to compare two people or things that are equal in
quantity or characteristics.
Peter is as old as John.
The comparative is used to compare two people or things that are not equal in quantity
or characteristics.
Peter is older than John.
The superlative is used to indicate that one person or thing has the highest degree of
quantity or characteristics when compared with the whole group.
Peter is the oldest man in the band.
In these examples, different structures with the adjective old are shown. Generally,
adjectives and adverbs can be used in comparison.
An adjective or adverb has different forms in the comparison of equality,
the comparative, and the superlative.
For an adjective/adverb that consists of only one syllable, or two syllables ending in -er,
-y, -ow, -some, the comparisons are as follows.
Comparison of equality
(adjective I adverb + -er)
(the + adjective I adverb + -est)
the oldest
the cleverest
For an adjective/adverb that consists of two syllables ending in -able, -ful, -ous, -ive,
or more than two syllables, the comparisons are as follows.
Comparison of equality
(more + adjective I adverb)
more useful
more important
(the+ most+ adjective/adverb)
the most useful
the most important
Below are some irregular adjectives / adverbs in comparison.
Comparison of equality Comparative Superlative
good/well better the best
bad/badly worse the worst
many / much more the most
little less the least
late later I latter the latest/last
01 Comparison of Equality
0 The comparison of equality is used to compare two people or things that are equal in quantity
or characteristics. The structure is as+ adjective/adverb+ as.
Her hair was as black as coal.
The order was shipped as quickly as possible to the customer.
@ A quantifier must be used in the comparison of equality in the structure as+ many/much/few/
little + noun + as.
I ate chips as you did.
Please complete as possible.
+- The quantifier many I much must be used before the nouns in the comparison of equality because the
structure as + noun + as is incorrect.
@) Another form of the comparison of equality is the structure the same (+ noun) + as.
Nelly has the same dress as I do.
Nelly's dress is the same as mine.
e Some adverbs that can modify adjectives or adverbs in the comparison of equality are nearly,
almost, just.
The book, the second in a series, is nearly as exciting as the first.
TOEIC Questions
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B) , (C), or (D)
- best completes the sentence.
1. Management has decided to rotate workers to
keep the assembly line running as as
(A) efficiency
(C) more efficient
(B) efficiently
(D) efficient
2. Studies have proven that laborers work
twice hours on average as skilled
professionals in any field.
(A) much (B) more
(C) as many (D) more than
3. In order to serve you best, we ask that you
take the time to fill out our questionnaire in
detail as possible.
(A) as
(C) as much
(B) more
(D) many
Answers: p. 553
"' )>

02 Comparative
0 The comparative is used when two people or things are compared. The structure is compara-
tive form of adjective/adverb+ than.
Last month's test was harder than this one is.
She acted more cleverly than usual.
cf. The lesson we took up in class today was ftaft:ief.
there is only one person or thing, the comparative cannot be used.
:r' , parflCular quafity in one person:or thing as in another. or not as much
ti'' .. j::-<' .... ' 'K ' I
. .
less '+ adjective I adverb + than is used.
first one you showed 0 _. 0
... o: .. , .. ' t ' t 'j
@ For referring to an amount or a number that is larger/smaller than another, larger/smaller than
before, or larger/smaller than expected, the structure more/fewer/less+ noun+ than is used.
More participants than last year came to the convention.
@) The definite article the is not used in the comparative, but it must be used in the following
The + comparative, the + comparative
The more you you will become.
This structure is known as double comparative. There must be the and the comparative form of the
adjective. If not, the sentence will be wrong.
The + comparative + of the two
Daniel intelligent of the two.
the two people, Daniel is more intelligent. There must be the and the comparative form of
the adjective. If not, the sentence will be wrong.
9 The adverbs much, even, still, far, a lot, by far are added to emphasize the comparative
The effort you spent on achieving your dreams is much more valuable than the dream itself.
TOEIC Questions
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Unfortunately the shipment will be delayed,
as our factory is experiencing more
technical problems we anticipated.
(A) or (B) while
(C) whether (D) than
2. we put off finishing these cases, the
more work there will be to do over the weekend.
(A) Longer
(C) The long
(B) Longest
(D) The longer
3. Sending the memos by fax is far than
attempting to deliver them by express mail.
(A) quickest (B) quickly
(C) quicker (D) quick
Answers: p. 553
Hackers Skill If there is than in a sentence, the adjective must be in the comparative form, and if there
is the comparative form in a sentence, than, not any other words, must be used.
This apple is sweet (- sweeter) than the one I ate yesterday.
We spent more money when/as(- than) expected on travel.
226 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
03 Superlative
0 The superlative is used when more than two people or things are compared. The structure is
superlative form of adjective/adverb+ noun+ of -/in -/that-clause.
He is the funniest boy of all the children.
It is the thickest book in the world.
It is the most informative documentary {that) I've ever seen.
cf. The quiclwst responses of the interviewee made the manager skeptical.
When the phrase starting with of does not refer to a group of comparative people or things, the superlative
cannot be used.
8 The superlative adjective is always preceded by the, or sometimes, a possessive adjective.
Snoopy favorite cartoon character when I was a kid.
the/ my
is needed before the superlative adjective.
Note: To show the rank1ng of the comparison, an ordinal number IS added before the superlative adjeCtive.
United Airlines is the second largest airline in the United States.
8 By far and quite are the adverbs used to emphasize the superlative adjective/adverb.
He was by far the worst roommate.
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B), (C), or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Of the many laborers at this plant, the
highly skilled will be transferred
to a newly opened facility.
(A) so (B) most
(C) such (D) much
2. Although less popular than the phonograph, the
projection box was the of the home
viewing devices available in the early 1900s.
(A) success (B) successful
(C) most success (D) most successful
3. Erickson Brands offers customers the
variety of cellular phone accessories in the
(A) wider
(C) most widely
(B) more widely
(D) widest
Answers: p. 553
Hackers Skill When there is of-, in - , or that-clause referring to a whole group, the superlative
form is expected in the sentence.
Bill is the slower (- slowest) of all the typists.
This building is the tall (- tallest) that I have ever seen.
www.nhantriviet.com Chapter 21 Comparison - 227

04 Other Structures of Comparison
0 Other comparative structures
more than + noun
less than + noun
no later than
no longer
no sooner - than
other than
There are more than 10,000 books in the library.
Less than five percent of the subscribers chose not to renew.
More than and less than also come before an adjective to emphasize it.
The meal he had at the cafeteria left him more than satisfied.
The supervisor expects us to come in to work no later than 7:00.
Mary no longer uses make-up.
No sooner did Pete put the phone down than it rang again.
Other than cornflakes, crispy bacon is her favorite breakfast food.
rather than
would rather - than
The demonstrator stood his ground rather than run away like the others.
I would rather read a book at home than watch a movie at the theater.
@ The comparison of equality and the comparative may also be used to replace the superlative
Comparative + than any other -
This show is the funniest than any other sitcom on TV.
~ h i s sentence is equivalent to This show is the funniest among all sitcoms on TV.
Have + never I hardly I rarely + been + comparative
Herbs have never been more popular than they are now.
No other - I nothing + as + adjective + as
No other -I nothing + comparative + than
No other sitcom is as funny as this show.
When it comes to investing, nothing is more important than experience.
TOEIC Questions
Decide which of the choices- (A), (B) , (C) ,
or (D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Customers wanting refunds must bring in
the product and its receipt one
week after the date of purchase.
(A) no more than (B) no later than
(C) no later as (D) no more as
228 Hackers TOEIC Reading
2. I would rather make the reservation now
risk not getting a ticket down the road.
(A) than (B) else
(C) whereas (D) rather
3. Garson's Manufacturing boasts in its advertise-
ment that it can produce steel rods than
any other producer in the business.
(A) fast (B) faster
(C) fastest (D) the fastest
Answers: p. 553

Choose a correct option for each sentence.
01 Due to flight cancellations, the convention will be held tomorrow rather (as/than) today.
02 Second-hand car parts were obtained (easiest/more easily) in the past than they are now.
03 Club members are allowed to join the raffle contest as (often/more often) as they wish.
04 (Hardly I No sooner) had the package arrived than we received a call from the sender.
05 Mr. Hanson's proposals are (by far / far) the most far-sighted and well-balanced of all the propositions
06 Purchasing the entire program is less costly (than / rather) buying and installing components
07 I believe Mr. Smith would be (much/just) as competent as the other candidate.
Decide whether each of the sentences below is correct or incorrect. If it is correct, write
"correct"; if it is incorrect, point out the mistake(s) and provide (a) correction(s).
08 The nearer you live to a major transportation facility, more costly your home will be.
09 Although the building had been remodeled, the windows were the same style to the previous ones.
10 Martha is the more talented designer that I have ever encountered.
11 Buying commodities in bulk is more economically than making several trips to get the same item.
12 The turnout for the grand opening was even greater when anticipated.
13 Please bring as much samples as you can to the interview.
14 The number of people interested in world affairs is much high than it was three years ago.
Answers: p. 553

Part 5
01 Improving our customer outreach program
is important than reorganizing our
office system right now.
(A) better (B) more
(C) well (D) greater
02 Recent changes in the regulations and
procedures at the American embassy have
made it to get a visa in a timely
(A) such difficult
(C) fewer difficult
(B) not difficult
(D) more difficult
03 A meeting sometime after the project deadline
fits for my schedule than trying to
have one this week.
(A) better (B) good
(C) any better (D) any good
04 At this firm, young, motivated candidates who
show enthusiasm have value as
experienced professionals.
(A) a lot (B) also
(C) as much (D) so many
05 It is the company's position that moving into a
market with competition will result in
greater gains.
(A) a few
(C) often
(B) least
(D) less
06 did the manager leave on vacation
than the most important client walked in
seeking an urgent consultation.
(A) Sooner (B) No sooner
(C) The sooner (D) Any sooner
07 The company is currently much
it was five years ago.
(A) weaker (B) weakest
(C) weak (D) weakness
(9 Time limit: 11 minutes
08 Due to the alleged scandal , the corporation
was receiving more attention that
which was good for business.
(A) so (B) such
(C) too (D) than
09 In the field of industrial arts and applied
sciences, there are positions open
for entry-level candidates.
(A) lesser (B) fewer
(C) sort of (D) much
10 Piles of old newspapers must be stacked
and tied as as possible before being
loaded into the truck and brought to the plant.
(A) tight (B) tighter
(C) tightly (D) tightest
11 Bringing all of the brochure and website
information up to date is the task the
office team has ever faced.
(A) challenged (B) challenging
(C) more challenged (D) most challenging
12 The senior officers have decided that the
current computers are adequate for
what the staff must accomplish daily.
(A) enough poorly (B) too much
(C) more than (D) such
13 Of the two machine operators, the
qualified will be the one to run t.he new
equipment in the factory.
(A) much (B) lot
(C) better (D) so
14 Installing a new blower for an air ventilation
system may seem expensive but actually
costs in the long run than repairing
an existing one.
(A) less
(C) lessen
(B) lesser
(D) least
.... . .... _._ __ ...__: .. :_ .... ---
15 The more a camera is, the more
the customers are willing to spend on the
features that it provides.
(A) sophisticate (B) sophisticated
(C) sophisticating (D) sophistication
16 Commercial businesses are pleased that with
the current state government, taxes have
been lower than they are now.
(A) quite (B) none
(C) anything (D) never
17 In determining whether to close a bank branch,
the impact on the majority of community
members is the important factor.
(A) very (B) most
(C) much (D) mostly
Part 6
Questions 21-23 refer to the following e-mail.
Date: August 12
From: lrobinson@softhome.com
To: wmanalang@softhome.com
Re: Your trip to Spain
18 Orders are filtered to separate departments
when they arrive given to the
shipping personnel right away.
(A) than (B) rather
(C) rather as (D) rather than
19 This is to remind you that employees are
required to submit personal information
changes to the administrative department
than December 20.
(A) no more (B) no less
(C) no later (D) no longer
20 All persons who wish to register for the Skills
in Marketing Workshop must sign up at the
main office possible.
(A) as soon as (B) as long as
(C) as much as (D) as many as
I am really sorry that it has taken me such a long time to finalize the details of your planned trip to
Spain. I am expecting word from our branch in Spain on our activities for the week that
21 (A) receiving (B) to receive
(C) received (D) receives
you will be there. For the time being, here is an unconfirmed
22 (A) date
(C) ticket
(B) procedure
(D) schedule
August 22: Scott Beal will pick you up at the Madrid Barajas Airport and bring you to your hotel.
August 23: The Administrative Department is planning a tour of the branch in Toledo, Spain.
I will send you an updated itinerary no than the end of this week.
23 (A) lateness (B) latest
(C) later (D) lately
Louise Robinson
Answers: p. 553
"' )>

Basic Points
Parallel ism is the usage of two or more words, phrases, or clauses that
are similar in grammatical form.
The interview was brief and informal.
Lectures will be held either in English or in French.
In the first sentence, brief and informal are joined by the coordinating conjunction and,
and parallelism is formed since they are both adjectives.
In the second sentence, in English and in French are joined by the correlative conjunc-
tion either ... or ... , and parallelism is formed since they are both prepositional phrases.
Inversion is the reversal of the normal order of the subject and the verb
in a sentence. It is often used in formal speech to put emphasis on a
certain part of a sentence.
Paula was never angrier than when she lost her ring.

Never was Paula angrier than when she lost her ring.
To form inversion, the modal verb, the auxi liary verb have/ be, or the main verb be is put
before the subject. For ordinary verbs, the auxiliary verb do/ does / did is added before
the subject, and the main verb is changed to a bare infinitive.
You can get a newspaper only in the morning. (Subject+ modal verb)
Only in the morning can you get a newspaper.
She has been thinking only lately about her future career. (Subject + have)
Only lately has she been thinking about her future career.
The students were never so scared of the teacher. (Subject + be)
Never were the students so scared of the teacher.
Richard rarely steps out of the house on weekends. (Subject + ordinary verb)
Rarely does Richard step out of the house on weekends.
232 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
01 Parallelism
0 In parallelism, there must be a correct combination of words having the same parts of speech,
for example, nouns with nouns, verbs with verbs, etc.
His patience and intelligence made him a great leader.
The researcher will collect and analyze the data.
The hostess at the party served hot and hearty food.
The motorist in the left lane was driving recklessly and dangerously.
~ t e In case of parallelism between verbs, the verbs 1n the sentence must agree in number and tense.
: If she finishes the project and clean (- cleans) up her work area, she may leave early today.
, J1mmy Atkins sent out a dozen resumes and wait (- waited) for a company to call him.
' " . - - ~ '
@ In parallelism, there must be a correct combination of phrases or clauses of similar structures,
for example, gerunds with gerunds, noun clauses with noun clauses, etc.
Gerund phrases
To-Infinitive phrases
Prepositional phrases
Noun clauses
Filling out applications and interviewing for jobs can be tiresome.
I need to fix the ceiling and (to) paint it.
Decorations hanging on the wall and from the ceiling were taken down.
He wanted to tell me what he did and how he felt.
l '
' Note: In the parallel structure of to-infinitives, from the second to-infinitive phrase onward, to may be omitted.
. 1 . -. . . '.. ... . .
TOEIC Questions
Decide which of the choices - (A) , (B) , (C) , or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1, For many companies, liaison offices
have proven effective and when
establishing international connections in
numerous countries.
(A) profits
(C) profiting
(B) profitably
(D) profitable
2. Mr. Muir has been working on the assignment
for the past three months and to
complete it by next week.
(A) plan (B) plans
(C) to plan (D) planned
3. The responsibilities of a representative include
the company's sales goals and
managing the special requests of customers.
(A) to achieve (B) achieving
(C) achieved (D) achievement
Answers: p. 553
Hackers Skill When there is a coordinating conjunction or correlative conjunction in the sentence, all
the components involved must be parallel in grammatical form.
For a middle-aged man, he is witty and energy (- energetic).
The program includes both to cook (-cooking) a meal with a group and preparing a dish individually.


02 Inversion
0 In conditional sentences, inversion is used in formal contexts in which if or other conditional
words are omitted and the sentence starts with Should for (conditional) type 1, Were for (con-
ditional) type 2, and Had for (conditional) type 3.
Type 1 Should + subject + bare infinitive, subject + will + bare infinitive
Type 2 Were + subject -, subject + would + bare infinitive
Type 3 Had + subject + p.p. , subject + would have + p.p.
Should you wish to visit, Mrs. Cameron will schedule a tour. (:1 If you should wish -)
Were it not for my wife, I would be completely disorganized. (:. If it were -)
Had he started cooking earlier, we would have eaten our meal on time. (:1 If he had started -)
@ Inversion must be used in a sentence beginning with a negative word, such as never, neither,
nor, hardly, seldom, rarely, little, etc.
Never had he seen such an efficiently run business. (:. He had never seen -)
Hardly had he fallen asleep when the alarm went off. (:.He had hardly fallen -)
@) Inversion must be used in a sentence beginning with only + adverb I adverb phrase I adverb
Only recently has Sharon begun to make her home look tidy. (:1 Sharon has only recently begun -)
Decide which of the choices - (A), (B), (C) , or
(D) - best completes the sentence.
1. Had we
that the event would not be
a popular one with our customers, we would
have dropped the plan in its early stages.
(A) realize (B) realized
(C) been realized (D) realizes
234 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
2. Never did Mr. Lerner's penchant for details
with his capacity to see the whole
picture when making management decisions.
(A) interfered (B) to interfere
(C) interfering (D) interfere
3. Only after a consensus was taken did the
general manager to forego having his
employees do mandatory overtime work.
(A) decide (B) decides
(C) decided (D) deciding
Answers: p. 554

Choose a correct option for each sentence.
01 Tungsten Company's razor-sharp knives are designed to be {durable/duration) and slip-free.
02 (Ever I Seldom) does the team get into arguments about tasks.
03 Walking and (stretching/stretch) are two of the top suggested methods of daily stress relief.
04 The printing department will create and (distributing/distribute) company business cards to all staff.
05 (Should / Whether) you want more information on the subject, please call Ms. Terrell.
06 Only now does Kelly (understand/understood) the importance of organization.
07 Buston usually manufactures safe and (reliably/reliable) kitchen products.
Decide whether each of the sentences below is correct or incorrect. If it is correct, write
"correct"; if it is incorrect, point out the mistake(s) and provide (a) correction(s).
08 Mr. Richardson is giving hope and encourage to our staff.
09 Motorists must stay on the right side of the road and in single file.
10 Have Annie prepared better, she could have given an excellent presentation.
11 Both technical train and on-site experience are required for this position.
12 Henry often stops outside his door and turn around to get his briefcase.
13 The company promises incomparable customer support and satisfactory for all its products.
14 Mr. Lang's team works more diligently than Mr. Ford's team does.
Answers: p. 554
www nhantriviet.com Chapter 22 Parallelism, Inversion - 235
Part 5
01 Companies looking for and competent
staff may find it difficult to do so, especially
when economic expansion leaves only the less
qualified job seekers.
(A) experience (B) experienced
(C) experiences (D) experiencing
02 Patricia Wells applied for a transfer as soon
as the branch in Honolulu opened,
did some of her co-workers.
(A) as
(C) also
(B) too
(D) thus
03 Please sign the last page of the rental
agreement and all the other pages.
(A) initiate (B) initialize
(C) initial (D) initiation
04 Applications that do not have the required
documents will not be considered, and
will those that lack a clear career
(A) also
(C) neither
(B) however
(D) only
05 We are seeking applicants whose ideas
regarding design and layout are both creative
(A) originally
(C) origin
(B) originality
(D) original
06 has the price of gasoline been
higher than it is now.
(A) Ever (B) Either
(C) Neither (D) Rarely
07 The resume workshop teaches young
professionals how to display their
and skills using sophisticated language and
attractive formatting.
(A) educate
(C) education
236 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(B) educated
(D) educational
(9 Time limit: 11 minutes
08 Had the synopsis earlier, we might
have been able to include Mr. Roberson's
proposal in our evaluation.
(A) deliver (B) delivered
(C) be delivered (D) been delivered
09 The department store has put out an
advertisement announcing that it will hold a
one-week sale on and business
(A) leisure
(C) leisured
(B) leisurely
(D) at leisure
1 0 The plan will be redesigned both to shorten
project duration and implementation.
(A) simplified (B) to simplify
(C) simplifies (D) simplifying
11 Thanks to the Internet, digital music has
not only become popular but is also
across the globe.
(A) profits
(C) profit
(B) profitably
(D) profitable
have department stores seen such
a decrease in sales of swimwear during the
long hot months of July and August.
(A) Ever (B) Even
(C) Although (D) Seldom
13 Make sure to call the office immediately should
have any problems accessing your
bank account.
(A) you
(C) yours
(B) your
(D) yourself
14 The manufacturer is not responsible for
injuries or harm caused by wrong use of the
product, will they replace products
broken by misuse.
(A) or
(C) and
(B) nor
(D) but
15 Without sufficient contacts, finding an ideal
location and a good apartment can
be a time-consuming effort .
(A) to rent (B) rent
(C) renting (D) rented
16 If you want to register to become one of our
subscribers, fill in this and simple
information form.
(A) quick
(C) quicker
17 Only lately
(B) quickly
(D) quickest
sales figures begun to
show some growth in comparison to last
month's total revenue.
(A) has
(C) have
Part 6
(B) been
(D) are
Questions 21-23 refer to the following e-mail.
To: Donna Reynolds
From: Tim Shaw
Subject: Mentoring System
18 The Entrepreneur's Dream Internet cafe has
the collection of information available
on how to start your own business.
(A) wide (B) widely
(C) more widely (D) widest
19 More and more individuals are turning
to alternative therapies to treat a host of
ailments and
(A) relieve
(C) relieved
(B) relieves
(D) relieving
20 With the marketing manager's impending
resignation, an opening for a highly
and financially driven individual is now being
(A) motivate
(C) motivating
(B) motivation
(D) motivated
I am sure you have heard something about the company's mentoring system for employees who
need guidance and assistance. The other managers and I have been selecting mentors, and we
would like you to be a participant in the program for new hires. As you may be aware, the program
is designed to accelerate the process. Those who partake in the project must be willing
21 (A) interviewing (B) training
(C) hiring (D) application
to set aside time for the employees assigned to them. Mentors will be assigned to new employees
in their respective departments so that it will be easier for them to provide information, assistance
22 (A) suggest (B) suggesting
(C) to suggest (D) suggestions
We certainly hope that you will be willing to take part in this new system. By volunteering, you will
be giving valuable help your co-workers.
23 (A) on (B) from
(C) to (D) along
Answers: p. 554
www.rhantriviet.com Chapter 22 Parallelism, Inversion 237
"' )>

o Business-related vocabulary
TOEIC is an English test which measures the everyday English skills of non-native people working
in an international environment. Therefore, TOEIC questions center round business, commerce, and
industry. Vocabulary items in the TOEIC test also involve business-related settings and situations.
o Meaning and usage
Questions on vocabulary in the TOEIC test not only check lexical meanings but also grammatical
usage of lexis. It is, hence, important for examinees to understand not only the meaning but also the
usage of business-oriented English vocabulary.
Testing Points
Questions on vocabulary in the TOEIC test may be divided into three major types: collocations, con-
tent words, and content words with similar meaning. In this book, these types have been categorized
and lists of lexical items that are frequently tested are provided.
Collocations: There are gap-fill questions in which one part of words that often go together, known
as collocations or word partnership, is missing. Examinees are required to select one of the given
options which best completes the gap to form a correct collocation.
Content words of the same part of speech: There are also gap-fill questions in which gapped state-
ments together with the four words of the same part of speech are given. Examinees are required to
select one of the given options which best completes the gap, based on the meaning of the option in
the statement.
Content words with similar or different meanings: There are also gap-fill questions in which gapped
statements together with the four options are given. Examinees are required to select one of the given
options which best completes the gap, based on the meanings of content words.
Question Percentage
Below are the two pie charts showing the percentage of TOEIC questions, based on vocabulary
aspects of meaning and parts of speech.
Content words with
similar meanings 74%
Content words with different
meanings 6%
ocations 20%
[Based on aspects of meaning]
Adverbs 17%
Adjectives 25%

Verbs 30%
[Based on parts of speech]

Test-Taking Strategies
Step 1: Look at the four options given to see whether it is a vocabulary question.
A certain question may contain four options of the same part of speech but different in meaning, for
example: respective, innovative, impressive, noble (adjecti ves). Looking at these four opt ions, you
can conclude that this is a vocabulary questi on.
Step 2: Select the correct answer choice by looking at the words around the gap and
understanding the meaning of the whole statement or the whole text.
If one part of a collocation is missing, just select the missing part from the four options given.
In case the question does not involve a collocation, find out the meaning of the statement by
translation in order to be able to select the most appropriate answer choice. Once more than one
possible option have been identified, decide the correct option by looking for the key words in the
For the text completion questions in Part 6, you should not only look for the key words around the
gaps but also understand the meaning of the whole text to be able to select the best options.
Part 5: Example
Before installing any programs, computer technicians should
check the installation guide to see whether it is with the
computer' s system.
(A) undeniable (B) amenable
Part 6: Example
Dear Bryan Seacrest,
Thank you for filling out our survey during your recent
(A) appointment.
(B) travel
(C) stay
(D) break
with us. We value all of our customers' comments and sugges-
lions. We also consider them necessary for helping us to improve
our accommodation.
Step 1: Look at the four options given and
decide this is a vocabulary question.
The four options are all adjectives but they differ
in meaning.
Step 2: Select the correct answer choice by
looking at the words around the gap and under-
standing the meaning of the whole statement.
As there is the preposition with after the gap,
so compatible is the best option to form the
Step 1: Look at the four options given and
decide this is a vocabulary question.
The four options are all nouns but they differ in
Step 2: Select the correct answer choice by
looking at the words around the gap and under-
standing the meaning of the whole statement or
the whole text.
As this does not involve a collocation, you need
to resort to translation to understand the mean-
ing of the whole text. Skimming through the
text, you can identify our accommodation as
the key words, so stay must be the correct
answer choice.
Section 1
Chapter 01 -Collocations with Prepositions
Chapter 02 - Collocations with Adjectives
Chapter 03 - Collocations with Verbs (1)
Chapter 04 - Collocations with Verbs (2)
Chapter 05 - Collocations with Nouns
Chapter 06 - Other Collocations
A collocation is a combination of two or more words that often go together. Native speakers
of English often use them to make their language more natural and more easily understood.
It is essential for you to treat collocations as single blocks of language and learn them in
chunks. You could learn them by topic, such as time, number, weather, money, family, etc.,
or by a particular word, e.g. take action, take a chance, take an exam. In this way, you can
easily choose the right answers to questions of vocabulary in the TOEIC test.
Question Type and Useful Tips
This type of question requires examinees to choose either a preposition or a noun to form a
correct collocation.
1. First, look for the preposition or noun given before or after the gap. Then, choose an option
that forms a collocation.
2. Next, put it into the whole sentence to see if it suits the context and the meaning of the
sentence. Last, decide the answer choice.
Requests for vacation time must be submitted
(A) at (B) of (C) in (D) on
request [rikwestl I submit [sabmit] I in advance
Answer: (C)
writing at least two weeks in advance.
Morris Marina, the head of the small business software division, will be traveling to New
Mexico tomorrow to attend a conference. As he will be gone for the whole of next week, he
has designated his next in , Hillman Avenger, to be in charge of the division's business
(A) order (B) command
(C) demand (D) advance
during his absence.
division [divi3anll in command I absence I<Ebsans]
Answer: (B)
244 Hackers TOEIC Reading www.nhantnviet.com
Common Collocations
01 in reply
In spite of sending several e-mails of complaint to
the customer service department, the customer
still hasn't received a single message in reply.
02 of one's choice
of one' s choice = of one' s own choice
Payments can automatically be deducted from the
bank account of your choice.
o3 in preparation for
All computer equipment should be put in boxes in
preparation for our move to the new office space.
04 in advance
Reservations must be cancelled at least two
weeks in advance to be eligible for a full refund.
os in an effort to
in an effort to + bare infinitive
In an effort to promote the new line of products,
Edu-toys created a television advertising
o6 in a timely manner
in a timely manner = in a timely fashion
As the human resources department has received
many resumes, all applicants will be contacted in
a timely manner.
01 on arrival
on arrival = upon arrival
On arrival, all passengers are required to go
through immigration and passport control.
os in combination with
This tablet, when taken in combination with
aspirin, will lower blood pressure and strengthen
immunity to infections.
og to the point
to the point: relevant and worth paying attention to
come to the point: reach the focus point
keep to the point: not digress from the focus point
The guest speaker's presentation on office man-
agement was informative and to the point.
10 out of print
out of print = be discontinued (If a book, magazine, etc. is
out of print, it is no longer being published.)
This book is currently out of print; however, there
might be some used copies available online.
11 in celebration of
The department store is offering a 30 percent
discount this week in celebration of their 3oth
12 above one's expectations
above one's expectations = beyond one's expectations
Product sales last month were above our
13 subsequent to
subsequent to = following
Subsequent to the introduction of cost-cutting
measures, expense accounts are being
14 as a result of
Many factories had to close as a result of new
li censing regulations.
"' -<

1s in exchange for
The company offered workers higher salaries in
exchange for reduced health benefits.
16 out of one's reach
out of one' s reach: away from the distance that can be
Ensure that blades for this razor are stored out of
the reach of children.
11 to capacity
be filled to capacity = be completely full
The theater was filled to capacity every night of
the week-long performance.
1s at the latest
at the earliest , at the best
In order to reserve a tennis court at the Fairfield
Fitness Centre, you should register by next week
at the latest.
19 in search of
in search of = in the search for
Mr. Smith is in search of talented and innovative
246 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
20 at one's earliest convenience
at one' s earliest convenience: as soon as one can (com-
monly used in business contexts)
Send some samples of your writing at your earli-
est convenience.
21 to an absolute minimum
to an absolute minimum: to the smallest in amount or degree
The new microphone system keeps background
noise to an absolute minimum.
22 until further notice
until further notice: until another official announcement is
without notice: without warning or announcement
The prices listed in the catalog are effective until
further notice.
23 with the exception of
with the exception of = except
No one is allowed beyond this point, with the
exception of authorized security personnel.
24 in one's absence
in one' s absence = during one' s absence
The staff will hold a meeting in the director's

Tick a correct option for each phrase or sentence.
0 by
be made
with hand
02 in conjunction the Lyons Community Center
03 New procedures will be in
04 in with last year's performance
o companson
05 write checks in $5,000
. o above all,
Be reliable, and,
foremost honest.
. o observance
07 m
observatory of Independence Day
08 The economy is fnn the wane.
09 a banquet i n of the mayor
1 0 Wear safety goggles all times.
11 give an estimate free
12 Visitors prefer outdoor cafes.
13 Check the website for details.
14 payment delivery
15 M L d
during th ff"
r. ee s IS
out of e o 1ce.
16 be available upon request
o respect
o from
into home
18 the aim of increasing sales
19 the recommendation of the board
20 Open 24 hours for our
Y o promptness.
Answers: p. 554
"' c
"" -<

"' ..
Part 5
01 Staff members are requested to send in
reports on equipment malfunctions at their
(A) requirement
(B) decision
(C) explanation
(D) convenience
02 All prices listed on the company website are
effective until further
(A) notice
(B) mark
(C) bulletin
(D) statement
03 All attendees to the International Trade Law
Conference are requested to register for the
event advance at the convention
center's website.
(A) at
(B) to
(C) in
(D) near
04 The manufacturing contract awarded to
Centrum was valued in excess ten
million dollars.
(A) to
(B) than
(C) of
(D) over
05 All household chemicals, such as cleaners
or polishes, should be kept reach of
small children.
(A) out of
(B) away with
(C) up until
(D) without
248 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(9 Time limit: 7 minutes
06 High school students were paid on an hourly
basis to distribute the company's promotional
flyers hand.
(A) through
(B) with
(C) by
(D) in
07 Payment for Internet services provided by
Westcom can be paid for with the credit card
of your
(A) election
(B) choice
(C) referral
(D) option
08 The department store offers the latest fashion
apparel in a of colors, ranging from
light tints to dark shades.
(A) crowd
(B) type
(C) pack
(D) variety
09 Sales figures for agricultural products went
up by 5 percent as a result growth
in the domestic and export markets.
(A) as
(B) about
(C) beyond
(D) of
1 0 Those attending the Community Service
Awards Ceremony are asked to bring their
invitations as they will be asked to present
(A) for
(B) from
(C) on
(D) out
arrival at the hotel.
Part 6
Questions 11-13 refer to the following notice.
Notice to Employees
Due to recent changes in occupational safety laws, Chubb Industries employees must agree to
comply with the safety regulations described below. It has been noticed that certain employees
are reporting to work without their safety gear. Protection goggles and the proper helmets must be
worn all times while working on the assembly line. When substituting for another employee
11 (A) of
(B) at
(C) by
(D) on
during their absence, please make sure to operate the machinery in order to avoid injury,
12 (A) cautiously
(B) happily
or seek assistance from a manager before using the machines.
(C) preventively
(D) pessimistically
Aside from safety issues, occasional equipment malfunctions have forced us to adopt biweekly
inspections and maintenance procedures the aim of ensuring that machinery is running
13 (A) from
(B) in
(C) to
(D) with
at optimum efficiency. Be sure to allow the technicians full access to your workstation so that they
can complete their work. In the event of any other unexpected issues that may delay productivity,
report them immediately to the supervisor.
Answers: p. 554
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"' a.
Question Type and Useful Tips
This type of question requires examinees to choose either a preposition or an adjective to
form a correct collocation.
1. First, look for the preposition or adjective given before or after the gap. Then, choose an
option that forms a collocation.
2. Next, put it into the whole sentence to see if it suits the context and the meaning of the
sentence. Last, decide the answer choice.
The company is looking for someone who is
paced environment and under time constraints.
of making important decisions in a fast-
(A) liable (B) capable (C) eligible
look for I fast-paced [frestpeist] I under time constraints
Answer: (B)
(D) subject
Please extend a warm welcome to Thomas Little, the new vice president and general manager
of our product development unit. He comes to us from Believe Inc., a Canadian computer
graphics technology company, where he was for all aspects of product design,
(A) knowledgeable (B) independent
(C) responsible (D) subject
operations, and software processes.
extend [ikstend] I vice president I operation [apareiJan] I process [proses]
Answer: (C)
250 - Hackers TOEIC Reading www.nhantriviet.com
Common Collocations
01 be native to
be nati ve to + noun phrase/ region
The company is searching for a sales staff that is
native to the local community.
02 be responsible for
be responsible for = be in charge of
The recent storm damage to the Northgate Bridge
is partly responsible for the terrible traffic problems
in the city center.
o3 be honored for
Mr. Jones was honored for his generous contribu-
tions to local charities at the awards ceremony
last night.
04 be suitable for
The majority of films recently produced by Lime-
light studios are suitable for children of all ages.
os be exempt from
Employees attending the Chicago Trade Fair are
exempt from turning in receipts for their travel
o6 be known for
be known for + reason
The Ace Motors dealership is known for its excel-
lent after-sales service.
01 be superior to
To, not than, must follow superior.
Because of Sackhoff Supplies' high standards
for product quality, its product is superior to other
competitors' in the market.
oa be known to A as B
The recipient of a piece of information follows to; a title/
position follows as.
Mr. Caison is known to the staff as a highly
motivated CEO.
og be familiar with
Benson and Associates' security department
requested that all staff be familiar with the new
office security regulations.
1 o be contingent on
A is contingent on B = A depends on B
Funding for the project is contingent on the Board
of Directors' decision.
11 be reliant on
be reliant on = rely on
Felicity Clothing is increasingly reliant on manu-
facturers of textiles and printed fabrics from
Southeast Asia.
12 be cognizant of
be cognizant of = be aware of
Physicians must be cognizant of medical regula-
tions in the state where they practice.
13 be reflective of
be reflective of = reflect
Market conditions are often reflective of the current
political state.
14 be comparable to
To is followed by what is compared.
The size of the city is comparable to that of
Chapter 02 Collocations with Adjectives - 251
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"' -<

1s be responsive to
be responsive to + noun
The health club staff is responsive to its members'
16 make checks payable to A
This expression is commonly used in the US where people
use personal checks.
Make your checks payable to Squibb, Inc.
11 be compatible with
be compatible with: work well together
Our software programs are compatible with the
computer's hardware system.
1s be noted for
be noted for = be famous for = be well known for
The company is noted for the quality of its
19 be uncertain about
be uncertain about = be uncertain of
The committee said it is uncertain about the
results of the study.
252 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
20 be concerned about/over
be concerned about I over = be worried about
The organizers are concerned about the seating
capacity of the room.
21 be critical of
Of is followed by what is criticized; the adverb highly may
be added to modify critical.
Human Resources managers should not be critical
of employee suggestions.
22 be concerned with
The article is concerned with the effects of a con-
sumer boycott on unsafe food products.
23 be accustomed to
be accustomed to + noun
Our regular customers are accustomed to consist-
ently outstanding levels of service.
24 be subject to
be subject to + noun
Building foundations are subject to damage from
water and wind.
Sick leave applications are subject to company
www.nhantrivi et.com

Tick a correct option for each phrase or sentence.
01 be aware the circumstances
02 be
to pursuing a banki ng career
o ded1cated
03 The effect was opposite what we intended.
4 remarks that are
to the s b'ect
0 Irrelevant u l
05 prices comparable those of competitors
06 The new model is to the previous one.
07 be consistent the company's code of ethics
. o made
08 pillows
selected of 100 percent cotton
0 from
09 be absent
to the company gathering
10 be full expectations
11 be ideal
with young teens
o for
12 be interested product quality
Answers: p. 554
"" c:
"" -<

" <0
Part 5
01 Before downloading and installing any
program, staff members should check with
the company technician whether it is
with the existing system.
(A) undeniable
(B) amenable
(C) favorable
(D) compatible
02 The majority of Comstar's newly hired branch
managers are to the regions they
are responsible for.
(A) predicted
(B) native
(C) corresponding
(D) existent
03 The company is committed to developing an
excellent customer service department that
is responsive patrons' needs and
(A) on
(B) of
(C) to
(D) with
04 Individuals interested in establishing
a business should be of the
regulations on company filing set down by
the Securities and Exchange Commission.
(A) cognizant
(B) ambitious
(C) oblivious
(D) reticent
05 Each year, Manu-Corp chooses a team
to be honored their outstanding
achievements in product development.
(A) for
(B) to
(C) with
(D) at
254 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(9 Time limit: 7 minutes
06 The formation of a new team of representatives
is on how well the existing teams do
by the end of the quarter.
(A) speculative
(B) contingent
(C) hopeful
(D) eventual
07 The new bank rules state that approval of a
client's loan application is
verification and credit approval.
(A) necessary
(B) subject
(C) exposed
(D) internal
to income
08 When ordering products from our mail-order
catalogue, please ensure that all checks are
made payable Gillian Sanders.
(A) from
(B) in
(C) of
(D) to
09 The production manager at the Detroit plant
is very about meeting the deadline
scheduled for this sales quarter.
(A) satisfied
(B) tired
(C) concerned
(D) confused
1 0 The staff at Blue Ribbon Corporation is
to providing consistent, timely and
quality service to company customers.
(A) pledged
(B) concentrated
(C) offered
(D) dedicated
Part 6
Questions 11-13 refer to the foll owing memo.
From: Richard Garfield, Vice President
To: All marketing employees
According to the latest statistics, sales figures for the past quarter were subject to a negative trend
caused by the ongoing national economic slump. The growth that we had been to over the
11 (A) familiar
(B) accustomed
(C) friendly
(D) acquainted
past two years has come to an abrupt end, with the public already reacting by curbing their spend-
ing on high-end goods and services. The recent decline in our sales figures is of this
conservative consumer behavior.
12 (A) manageable
(B) thoughtful
(C) possible
(D) reflective
Senior management staff has therefore decided to significantly reduce our production targets in the
company's three-year development plan. We' ll be making a presentation giving information
13 (A) absolute
(B) insecure
(C) detailed
(D) constant
about the new plan, which all marketing department employees will be required to attend, as the
revisions will affect our advertising strategy. Check the website noticeboard for the date, time, and
venue of the presentation.
Answers: p. 554
"" -<

"' 0.
Chapter 03

Collocations with

(j? ';;"; ..
Question Type and Useful Tips
This type of question requires examinees to choose either a verb or a preposition to form a
correct collocation.
1. First, look for the verb or preposition given before or after the gap. Then, choose an option
that forms a collocation.
2. Next, put it into the whole sentence to see if it suits the context and the meaning of the
sentence. Last, decide the answer choice.
Although the director wants his staff to minimize mistakes, he also knows his employees can
benefit such experiences.
(A) from (B) with (C) to (D) of
Answer: (A)
There are a number of commonly used psychological management techniques that can help
achieve a successful outcome when dealing with difficult employees. For example, while they
are speaking, you should
(A) pay
(C) assist
carefully to their arguments to let them know you value their
(B) consider
(D) listen
opinions before firmly raising the issues which need to be addressed.
psychological [saikal6djikal ] I outcome [autk.\m] I value [va'!lj u: ] I address [adres]
Answer: (D)
256 Hackers TOEIC Reading www.nhantnviet.com
Common Collocations
01 commit oneself to
commit A to 8 = give A to 8
We have committed ourselves to maintaining a
high level of customer service within the hospital-
ity industry.
02 be divided into
Divide is used in the passive form.
Because of the large number of participants at the
workshop, attendees were divided into smaller
o3 qualify for
qualify for = be eligible for
Applicants must possess at least three years'
experience in accounting to qualify for a job
04 collaborate on something
collaborate with someone: work with someone on
The two firms want to collaborate on a landmark
research project on DNA sequencing.
os discourage A from 8
Office regulations discourage employees from
making personal telephone calls during office
o6 A is aimed at 8
Aim is mostly used in the passive form.
The new F-series sports car is aimed at young
business executives.
01 respond to
respond to + noun
The client responded positively to our proposal for
the new advertising campaign.
os compensate A for 8
compensate A for 8 : pay A money because he/she has
suffered B (injury, loss or damage)
The broadcaster compensated Dr. Bland for the
damage caused by the report.
og replace A with 8
replace A with 8 = replace A by 8
If any of our products are damaged during ship-
ment, we will replace them immediately with new
10 be submitted to
submit something to someone = hand in something to
All registration forms which are submitted to our
clinic will be kept on file for two years from the
date of receipt.
11 interfere with
Chronic stress can interfere with the function of
the immune system.
12 come complete with
The new office facilities come complete with a
staff lounge and parking spaces.
13 attribute A to 8
attribute A to 8 = A is attributed to 8
Analysts attribute the current market boom to an
increase in individual investors.
14 contend with
contend with: deal with a difficult or unpleasant situation
Do not confuse it with be content with which means be
happy or satisfied with.
Bakery companies have to contend with a
decreasing demand for baked products.
"' c

"' a.
1s charge something to somewhere/something
charge an amount of money for something
Please charge the repairs to my credit card.
16 restrict something to a particular group
A is restricted to B
Access is restricted to authorized personnel only.
11 result from
result from + cause
result in + result
The manufacturer will not be accountable for
damage resulting from misuse.
1s be faced with
be faced with a situation = face I deal with a situation
Faced with a large debt, the company declared
19 dispose of
When disposing of expired credit cards, it is wise
to cut them in half.
258 Hackers TOEIC Reading
20 associate with
associate with somebody = spend time with somebody
The company's consultant closely associated with
a competing firm.
21 contribute to
Factors contributing to globalization include
technological innovation and world economic
22 check A for B
It is recommended that consumers check their
credit reports for errors at least once a year.
23 congratulate someone on something
We want to congratulate Mr. Grant on his recent
24 comply with+ rule/regulation
Tenants are asked to comply with the building's
rules and regulations.
Tick a correct option for each phrase or sentence.
01 be accompanied g a cover letter
02 prohibit customers g smoking
03 experiment g feasible alternatives
04 Fill this out and g it to the front desk.
05 Price increases depend g the cost of gasoline.
06 The complex consists g two-bedroom houses.
D in d. .
engage D to a ISCUSSIOn
08 The merger could lead g layoffs.
D along .
for a promot1on
10 Lockers will be
assigned t II t ff
D assumed
a s a
11 E I
D entailed .
mp oyees are
entitled to overt1me pay.
12 regard the decision g a mistake
13 be subjected g high temperatures
D for
onuses are related
to performance.
15 cars equipped g an anti-theft device
D throw .
drape the table wrth a cloth
17 b
I d D at
e mvo ve
in corporate finance

Answers: p. 554
"' -<
"" c.
Part 5
01 Semiconductor companies around the world
have had to with increasingly lower
demand and plummeting values on the stock
(A) replace
(B) contend
(C) group
(D) reward
02 Software Mode and a top Japanese
electronics manufacturer will collaborate
the design and production of a
new hand-held device.
(A) for
(B) by
(C) with
(D) on
03 We usually contend the pressures of
work at the end of each month.
(A) with
(B) to
(C) about
(D) for
04 Wynonna Goldstein has committed herself
increasing sales for the housewares
department by 5 percent for this year.
(A) for
(B) at
(C) in
(D) to
05 After returning from his trip to Asia, the
president the branch heads on the
agreement entered into by the firm.
(A) communicated
(B) told
(C) briefed
(D) explained
260 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(9 Time limit: 7 minutes
06 Admittance to the special showing is
to members of the club and their guests.
(A) conscripted
(B) restricted
(C) denied
(D) released
07 All interested applicants must provide their
bank account information and a salary
statement from their employer in order to
for a bank loan.
(A) submit
(B) qualify
(C) request
(D) reserve
08 All visitors to the San Diego Zoo are kindly
requested to refrain feeding the
(A) from
(B) with
(C) to
(D) of
09 The sudden increase in sales of Superslim
mobile phones is to their appearance
in a popular television drama series which is
currently showing on NATV.
(A) prohibited
(B) attributed
(C) contributed
(D) distributed
10 The human resources director sent out a
memo in an effort to employees
from taking lunch breaks exceeding one hour.
(A) imply
(B) detain
(C) relieve
(D) discourage
Part 6
Questions 11-13 refer to the following letter.
Hi -Net Cable Internet
James Walter, Customer Service Representative
867 East Valley Trail NW
Great Falls, Montana 68750
Dear Mr. Walter,
This letter is to notify you of an amount which appears on the billing statement for my
11 (A) ultimate
(B) effective
(C) incorrect
(D) unclaimed
new account. I signed up for Internet service last week, which I was told costs only $35 per month.
However, I've discovered that an amount of $50 has been charged my first bill. It seems
12 (A) of
(B) at
(C) to
(D) by
that when I applied, the clerk mistakenly registered me for a high-speed connection, although I
clearly asked for standard. I called my bank this morning to alter the automatic payment on this
account, but the first transaction had already gone through and apparently cannot be reversed.
Please reply as soon as possible to confirm that future bills will be correct , and also to let me
know whether I am to a refund for this month's inaccurate charges.
Eleanor Briggs
13 (A) entailed
(B) entertained
(C) entitled
(D) entered
Answers: p. 555
"' c:
"' -<

Question Types and Useful Tips
These types of questions require examinees to choose either a verb or a preposition /noun I
adjective to form a correct collocation.
1. First , look for the verb or preposition /noun I adjective given before or after the gap. Then,
choose an option that forms a collocation.
2. Next, put it into the whole sentence to see if it suits the context and the meaning of the
sentence. Last , decide the answer choice.
Allan Parker got the required interviews and then waited a month before the company
finally got in touch with him.
(A) about (B) despite (C) above (D) through
require [rikwaiar] I get in touch with
Answer: (D)
Every time you begin and end a shift, you'll need to have your card swiped by the attendant at
the staff entrance. If you lose your card during your shift, report it to security, where you will be
able to apply for a new one and out manually before leaving the building.
(A) block (B) fill
(C) sign (D) phase
shift [fiftl I swipe [swaip] I apply for I manually [mrenjuali]
Answer: (C)
Common Collocations
01 call for
Mosaic Tech. provides more than 120 call centers
around the world to help its customers when they
call for technical support while using its software.
02 take over
Ms. Sedaris will take over as vice president of
sales when Mr. Fey retires next month.
o3 turn in
turn in = submit
Those wishing to take time off for summer vac-
ation must turn in their requests by the end of May.
04 take - into account
take something into account = take account of something:
consider something
John took the past year's market conditions into
account when writing the annual report.
os keep records of
The marketing department implemented a daily
report system to keep better records of the pro-
gress of projects.
06 look over something
The manager looked over the documents before
making a decision.
01 keep in touch with
Richard Gates, the vice president of the legal firm,
keeps in touch with many of his employees at
other branches by videophone.
oslook into
look into = examine/investigate
The finance division has looked into the errors
and corrected them.
og keep track of
keep track of: keep oneself updated
This software allows users to easily keep track of
10 look for
look for = search for
The article gives advice on what to look for when
buying a camera.
11 run the risk of
All assembly line workers should wear safety
helmets, or they run the risk of injury.
121ook upon A as B
The company looks upon Asia as a potential mar-
ket for its products.
13 draw on+ technique/experience
This collocation means use information or your knowledge of
something to help you do something.
When starting your own business, draw on your
experience as a customer.
14 defy description
defy description = be beyond description
This collocation is used to express something that you can-
not describe accurately because of its great size, quality, or
The subtle flavor of the soup of the day defies
"" c
"' -<

1s hold back
This collocation means not do something, often because of
Please don't hold back your opinions on the new
product design.
16 bring A to a halt
A loss of power will never bring operations to a
halt because the manufacturing plant has two
11 account for
Benefits account for only 20 percent of payroll
The recent increase in the cost of raw materials
accounts for the rise in prices of our products.
1a make sense
After the expansion of the computer software de-
partment, it made sense to hire another full-time
19 have A in common
The quality control inspector has determined that
the assembly line errors made this morning had
nothing in common.
264 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
20 go through
Due to increased competition in the food industry,
Hills Natural Foods went through a difficult time
21 have every intention of V-ing
have no intention of V- ing
The landlord has every intention of making
improvements to the building.
22 check in
This coll ocation means give one's personal details to the
person working at the reception desk at an airport or in a
Guests are required to check in before 10 a.m.
23 place A on standby
This collocation is used mainly at the airport when custom-
ers are put on a waiting list for a flight.
The passenger was placed on standby for the
next possible flight.
24 stand in for
This col location means take somebody's job temporarily.
As Patrick Chang is sick, Tracy Morgan will be
standing in for him today.
www .nhantriviet.com

Tick a correct option for each phrase or sentence.
01 Office supplies are running g
o advantage .
benefit of the lower pnces
03 The bill comes in July.
o in for .
04 put
back in a two-week vacat1on
05 take of the customer's complaint
06 check at the airport
07 The debate came an end.
08 for full-time work
09 Spring sales helped make for a slow winter.
1 0 care a family
11 follow to the promise to raise salaries
do one's o innermost
o utmost
Answers: p. 555
"' -<

Part 5
01 The factory manager brings the assembly line
to a if a defective auto part is found.
(A) block
(B) quit
(C) stay
(D) halt
02 Mayflower Bank recommends that all their
customers keep of their account
deposits and withdrawals in case of a
technical error.
(A) points
(B) requirements
(C) grades
(D) records
03 With the loss of 10 percent of their customer
base over the past six months, the company
is now some major changes.
(A) pulling in
(B) going through
(C) looking over
(D) laying off
04 Following his pledge to improve the
company's working environment, Mr. Lawson
has had the entire office renovated and
equipped with up-to-date machines.
(A) out in
(B) throughout
(C) up on
(D) across with
05 The supplies at the photo developing shop
were running , prompting Mr. Lark
to send his assistant out to buy what was
(A) deep
(B) long
(C) fast
(D) short
266 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(9 Time limit: 7 minutes
06 Please be reminded that all electronic
equipment must be packaged carefully or
else it runs the risk damage during
(A) to
(B) for
(C) of
(D) by
07 The factory owner production on
standby when it became impossible to meet
product demand due to insufficient raw
(A) placed
(B) viewed
(C) emitted
(D) occupied
08 Upon arrival at the airport, passengers must
check at any one of the designated
(A) on
(B) off
(C) in
(D) up
09 The recent increase in Enderby Manufacturing's
market share for their decision to
build a new factory near Minneapolis.
(A) accounts
(B) changes
(C) explains
(D) requires
10 Meeting attendees are requested not to hold
opinions which may contribute to the
fulfillment of project goals.
(A) away
(B) from
(C) back
(D) at
Part 6
Questions 11-13 refer to the following article.
LA y
As bank interest rates for savings accounts continue to decline, building up a retirement fund isn't
as easy today as it used to be thirty years ago. Extensive financial knowledge is a highly beneficial
when dealing with today's multitude of ways in which to develop personal investments.
11 (A) draft
(B) evaluation
(C) asset
(D) margin
Due to the complicated nature of the field, most people choose to enlist the services of an
experienced broker. However, personal investors are increasingly relying on their own resources
when handling their finances. They on media such as online forums, business journals,
12 (A) seek
(B) select
(C) refer
(D) draw
and periodicals, where they read up on companies' stability and profitability in order to improve
their own expertise, rather than depending on a third party to do it for them. After having
13 (A) seen
(B) looked
(C) viewed
(D) watched
over the vast amount of online and published information available, investors then use their newly
gained knowledge of the market to safely decide where to invest their capital.
Answers: p. 555
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Question Type and Useful Tips
This type of question requires examinees to choose either a noun or a preposition to form a
correct collocation.
1. First , look for the noun or preposition given before or after the gap. Then, choose an option
that forms a collocation.
2. Next, put it into the whole sentence to see if it suits the context and the meaning of the
sentence. Last, decide the answer choice.
Because of accumulated stress at work, many of our staff members choose to have more
vacation time rather than a pay
(A) growth (B) lift (C) increase (D) climb
Answer: (C)
Today's Business Line column focuses on how to calculate your tax properly under the newly
introduced corporate tax system. It is written by Jan Delpratt, a senior executive of Merchant
Associates, the nation' s largest accounting firm, and a regular to The National
Business Review.
focus on I corporate tax I accounting [akauntil)]
Answer: (B)
(A) winner (B) contributor
(C) participant (D) contestant
\A/\AI\AI rnm
Common Collocations
01 technical description
The report is a technical description of the new
equipment needed for our research laboratory.
02 apology for
Please accept our apologies for the delay, and we
hope you have a pleasant flight.
o3 signs of wear
signs of wear = signs of damage
The hotel facilities were out of date and had
started to show signs of wear.
o4 contribution to
Ms. Milson is very involved with community pro-
grams and makes frequent contributions to
local charities.
os accounts payable department
This collocation refers to the department which takes care of
unpaid debts.
accounts payable
accounts receivable
Reimbursements for travel expenses will be paid
out by the accounts payable department.
OG compliance with + rule/law/ regulation
The company operates in full compliance with
current export laws.
01 discussion on
The public relations officer arranged for a press
conference and discussion on the company's new
medical breakthrough.
os office efficiency
fuel efficiency
production efficiency
Providing a comfortable environment will improve
office efficiency.
og preference for
Recent studies showed customers' preference for
booking air tickets online.
1 o media coverage
This collocation implies the reporting of a particular event or
piece of news.
Media coverage of the new product launch helped
raise the brand's profile.
11 obligation to
have no obligation to
Guests have no obligation to pay for their bill until
the final day of their stay at the hotel.
12 attendance records
Employees' attendance records are confirmed
each month before paychecks are issued.
13 mastermind behind
Mastermind behind something refers to the person who
comes up with all strategies/details/plans for an important
Mr. Grieves is the mastermind behind the candi-
date's new campaign strategy.
14 problem with
The staff is having a problem with their computers'
operating system.
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1s safety precautions
Safety precautions refers to actions that are done to keep
safety. Precaution is a count noun, so the indefinite article a
is used if it is in the singular form (a safety precaution). An-
other common collocation is fire precautions which refers
to actions that are done to prevent fire.
Construction workers were reminded to follow
safety precautions at all times.
16 baggage allowance
This collocation means the weight of suitcases or bags that
you are allowed to take onto an aircraft.
Beginning in January, the carry-on baggage
allowance for all international flights will be twelve
11 performance appraisal
Performance appraisal indicates a meeting between a
worker and their manager in order tq discuss how well they
are doing in their work.
The manager has to carry out monthly perform-
ance appraisals.
1s time constraints
Due to time constraints, the staff will continue the
discussion tomorrow.
270 - H
A form of identification may be a driving licence, an iden-
tity card, or a passport.
A form of identification is necessary to collect the
package at the post office.
20 taxes on
The Revenue Department decided not to impose
extra taxes on rice imports.
21 system failures
system failures: system malfunctions or breakdowns
Due to repeated system failures, the current
computer operating system will be changed.
22 confidence in
have confidence in somebody
I have every confidence in Mrs. Foster's ability to
manage the project successfully.
23 commitment to
commitment to + noun
We have an abiding commitment to providing
individualized service to customers.
labor productivity
The bestselling book talks about innovative ways
to improve staff productivity.

Tick a correct option for each phrase or sentence.
01 exposure to moisture
o enclosure
02 Check the
o overlaid
o of t' f t'
with sa IS ac 1on
04 D Con!idential security will be enforced.
o Max1mum
05 the written consent the patient
. o for
06 a keen mterest
in suburban development
o participants
07 conference
08 taxes luxury goods
. o for
09 have little regard
of the safety of employees
o of h . ht
an advocate
by uman ng s
11 a dispute
above wheat prices
12 t
concerning shipping charges
ques 1ons
Answers: p. 555
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Part 5
01 Because of time , Mr. Pelham sched-
uled a second meeting to discuss items that
were not taken up on the agenda.
(A) inhibitions
(B) necessities
(C) obstacles
(D) constraints
02 The store's website charges local sales tax
all items purchased by individuals
living in the state of Indiana.
(A) on
(B) by
(C) at
(D) in
03 Beginning next week, the bank will require
two of identification when cashing
checks and making withdrawals.
(A) terms
(B) marks
(C) forms
(D) prints
04 The office furniture at Solar Company
established ten years ago has recently
begun to show signs of and age.
(A) wear
(B) limit
(C) failure
(D) form
05 Even for domestic flights, baggage
is three pieces of checked luggage as long
as the largest bag does not exceed 62 inches
in length.
(A) permission
(B) allowance
(C) estimation
(D) weight
272 Hackers TOEIC Reading
(9 Time limit: 7 minutes
06 Attendees to the product demonstration are
under no
(A) requirement
(B) guarantee
(C) obl igation
(D) reservation
to make any purchase.
07 The instruction manual for Xenith's PD-320
laser printer is a description of how
the machine operates and also shows the
installation procedure.
(A) periodic
(B) informative
(C) technical
(D) careful
08 Before your flight takes off, make sure the
compartments have been securely
(A) overlaid
(B) overhead
(C) overdue
(D) overpowered
09 The museum director has full confidence
the new curator's ability to organize
and display the exhibits.
(A) by
(B) with
(C) on
(D) in
10 Indira Masilimony will lead a discussion at
the International Commerce Conference
the emerging marketplaces in China
and India.
(A) at
(B) by
(C) on
(D) out
Part 6
Questions 11-13 refer to the following article.
Security Chip Set to Reduce Fraud
In our rapidly modernizing world, more and more shoppers prefer to purchase everyday items by
credit card more than any other method. As a result, credit card consumers have become increas-
ingly vulnerable to fraudulent transactions. But due to the efforts and innovative vision of Monica
Hynde, the mastermind a new, remarkably secure identification chip, shoppers will soon
11 (A) below
(B) among
(C) behind
(D) about
be able to make easier and safer purchases.
Her team of top researchers took two years to develop the technology, based on a small chip
which contains the cardholder's personal information. Strict standards were followed in developing
this unit, to ensure with the government's privacy regulations. The mechanism identifies
12 (A) tolerance
(B) compliance
(C) application
(D) reliance
purchasers, confirms their identity and minimizes potential consumer risks when making transac-
tions. Manufacturers anticipate that the new security chip system will be by most major
credit card companies by the end of next year.
13 (A) implemented
(B) interpreted
(C) noti fied
(D) fulfilled
Answers: p. 555
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Question Types and Useful Tips
These types of questions require examinees to choose a missing part of a collocation which
is a combination of adjective + noun, verb + noun, adverb + adjective. For example, broad
knowledge, raise a question, readily available, etc.
1. First , look at the words right before or after the gap. Then, choose an option that forms a
chunk or combination.
2. Next, put it into the whole sentence to see if it suits the context and the meaning of the
sentence. Last , decide the answer choice.
Applicants unable to
of time.
(A) meet (B) come
ahead of I keep an appoi ntment
Answer: (D)
their appointment with the interviewer must call one day ahead
(C) carry (D) keep
The city branch of Warehouse Office Products Ltd. is open for business between the hours of
9 a.m. and 5 p.m. Monday through Saturday. Parking is available in the lot on the corner of
7th and East Jefferson Streets in spots only, so take care to ensure that you do not
park in a tow-away area.
lot [lot] I spot [spat] I tow-away
Answer: (A)
274 - Hackers TOEJC Reading
(A) designated (B) located
(C) replaced (D) received
Common Collocations
01 deliver a presentation
deliver a presentation = make a presentation
The director of marketing delivered a short pre-
sentation on the plans for product expansion.
02 standard price
The standard price of our copiers is a bit higher
than that of our competitors, but the quality of our
after-service is much better.
o3 conduct a survey
DPI Telecom will conduct a survey to determine
customers' telephone habit for developing a new
phone plan.
o4 display a parking permit
display = show
All staff must display a parking permit on the front
window of their vehicles.
os fulfill orders
fulfill an order I orders: provide what customers have
CIT Technology shipping department is respon-
sible for fulfilling orders for their machinery.
oG superb attention to detail
superb: of the highest quality
The accountant's superb attention to detail has
made him a valuable employee.
o1 accept an application
Omniphone is now accepting applications for four
regional sales manager positions.
os to better serve customers
Better is a comparative adverb modifying serve.
Verizon Enterprises set up an Internet-based
helpline on their website to better serve their
og win one's award
Dr. Peters won his excellence award from the
Faculty of Environmental Studies for his research
on renewable energy sources.
1 o established company
UK Tools is an established company with a repu-
tation for providing quality products.
11 fiscal year
This collocation refers to a financial year which is a period of
twelve months (not always January to December) for which
a business plans its management of money.
The financial outlook for the next fiscal year is
12 do business with
The company is going to do business with a sup-
plier in Southeast Asia.
13 return to normal
After unusually cold weather, the temperature
should return to normal by Friday.
14 surrounding cities
surrounding cities: the cities around/nearby
Tourism officials hope visitors from surrounding
cities will attend the centennial celebration.
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1s strictly limited
Strict ly is used to emphasize that something is exactly or
only a particular type of thing.
Strictly speaking is used to show that somebody is trying
to be accurate.
The number of rebates is strictly limited to one per
16 economic forecast
forecast: prediction
The newly released economic forecast predicts a
rise in interest rates.
11 make a call
make progress: improve
make a request/ requests: request
When making an out-of-office call, remem,ber to
dial 9 first.
1s prospective employee
prospective: potential
prospective buyer
Prospective employees are required to make a
five-minute presentation.
19 readily available
readily available: easily found
Applications are readily available at the adminis-
trative office.
276 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
20 highly qualified
highly: of high level, very
Highly is often found in highly successful or highly unlikely.
The company is seeking a highly qualified candi-
date to fill the position.
21 work extended hours
work extended hours = work overtime
To meet the increasing demands, factory empl oy-
ees will have to work extended hours.
22 in the foreseeable future
This collocation means for as far in the future as can be
determined, based on what is known now.
The company does not expect a lag in demand in
the foreseeable future.
23 heavily discounted
heavily: in large amounts
Heavily is also found in rain heavily.
High-performance computers have been heavily
discounted after a slump in sales.
24 combined experience
Combined is a past participle used as an adjective, which
refers to something formed by adding things together.
The team's combined experience is a plus for the
www .n hantriviet.com

Tick a correct option for each phrase or sentence.
01 recognizable brand
. o soundly
take customer pnvacy
03 earn a
o pay
. 0 uncontrolled .
04 The car lease agreement 1ncludes
unlimited m1les.
. o offers
05 promot1onal
06 extremely successful
o exactly
7 decision
an 0 mformed
08 catch one's attention
0 apprehend
. o extreme
09 Handle the crystal w1th
steep care.
1 0 b o optimistic
e o caut1ously
o ability
1 a vested o interest
12 th
e o fm1shed
o visual aids
o observed
14 risky business
an o msmcerely
15 t
, o accountability
mee one s
0 high .
16 reach one's
full potential
17 the
upcoming election
o hereafter
18 public awareness
o ra1se
Answers: p. 555
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"' ..
Part 5
01 The director has every confidence that the
qualified trainers will design a
program that will meet the needs of the new
(A) highly
(B) acutely
(C) severely
(D) blandly
02 Browder Electronics' research department is
going to a survey to find out about
customer satisfaction with their line of kitchen
(A) meet
(B) conduct
(C) predict
(D) mention
03 Many low-income full-time workers must take
up a second job to
(A) catch
(B) win
(C) gain
(D) earn
a decent wage.
04 Virginia Hey, our production manager, will
a presentation on the feasibility of
the equipment upgrade.
(A) deliver
(B) proceed
(C) obtain
(D) agree
employees must have a valid
driver's license and two years' experience in
transporting dangerous chemicals.
(A) Probable
(B) Disgruntled
(C) Prospective
(D) Eventual
278 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(9 Time limit: 7 minutes
06 The packaging of a product is the first thing
shoppers see, so it must be attractive enough
to their attention.
(A) decide
(B) bring
(C) catch
(D) notice
07 Farscape Manufacturing will need to increase
their production staff by 2 percent if they
want to all orders by the end of the
(A) affect
(B) fulfill
(C) restrain
(D) notify
08 With market demand at an all-time low, the
manager does not think he will be hiring any
new workers in the
(A) ongoing
(B) foreseeable
(C) surfacing
(D) prevalent
09 Unions and factory employees have actively
involved themselves in the mayoral
(A) forward
(B) prepared
(C) upcoming
(D) prospective
10 About half of the employees have volunteered
to work hours to meet consumer
demand for the busy holiday season.
(A) potential
(B) fortified
(C) extended
(D) previous
Part 6
Questi ons 11-13 refer to the following advertisement.
Bargain Book Bazaar!
Novel Ideas Bookstore will be holding its annual clearance sale between 9 a.m. and 4 p.m. this
Saturday, offering enormous discounts on all novels, periodicals, and travel guides. And why stop
at reading just for pleasure when you can your knowledge by upgrading your business
11 (A) multiply
(B) broaden
(C) dilate
(D) impress
etiquette, learning gourmet cooking, trekking around the world, or refreshing your knowledge of
world history?
All extra stock will be discounted, with prices 50 to 80 percent off the original cost!
12 (A) busily
(B) safely
(C) solely
(D) heavily
As we only hold this closeout sale once a year , purchases will be limited to eight books
per person so that everyone gets a fair share of the bargains.
13 (A) strictly
(B) tensely
(C) densely
(D) compactly
Answers: p. 555
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Section 2
Content Words
Chapter 07 - Verbs
Chapter 08 - Nouns
Chapter 09 - Adjectives
Chapter 10 -Adverbs
Question Type and Useful Tips
This type of question requires examinees to choose a verb that is appropriate for the context.
1. You should look for the key word(s) in the sentence to be able to select a correct option.
2. Then, for transitive verbs, you should pay attention to nouns that can be the direct objects
collocating with certain transitive verbs. You should also pay attention to subject-verb
agreement in the passive voice.
The popularity of low-carbohydrate diets has been declining, so food companies have decided
to their production of low-carbohydrate products.
(A) discontinue (B) disallow (C) disband (D) disengage
popularity [papjulierati] I carbohydrate [ka:rbouhiidreit] I diet [daiat] I product [prodAkt]
Answer: (A)
Workers are reminded to ensure that each workstation is clean and each machine is running up
to code before signing out this evening. The annual inspection, which is scheduled for tomor-
row afternoon, will be by government-designated inspectors to ensure that factories
(A) alerted (B) conducted
(C) protected (D) engaged
are operating according to safety standards.
workstation [wa:rksteiJan] I up to code I annual inspection I safety standards
Answer: (B)
282 - Hackers TOEIC Reading www.nhantriviet.com
Common Verbs
01 hold [houldl
Every three months the marketing department
holds seminars to keep the staff updated on sales
02 reject frid3ektJ
reject: not agree to an offer I proposal I request/ suggestion I
Because we couldn't think of a cheaper method of
production, the director rejected our proposal for
the new line of motorcycles.
o3 assure [aftiar]
assure someone+ that- clause
The chairman assured the investors that the
merger would not affect the value of their
company shares.
04 shrink [friiJk]
shrink: become smaller in size or quantity
The opening of the Kryton Superstore is one of
the major reasons that sales in small local busi-
nesses started to shrink.
os reserve
reserve = book
Those attending the packaging and promotions
.conference must arrange their own flights and
reserve their own hotel accommodations.
06 forward
forward A to B
The vice president has asked his secretary to for-
ward all his calls to the hotel in Stockholm where
he's attending the medical conference.
01 exceed [iksi:dl
Airline policy states that carry-on baggage on all
domestic flights must not exceed a weight of ten
os address [adres]
Labor Union officials will address concerns about
the recent changes to employee benefits
og appoint
appoint somebody
appoint someone as + title / position
The company appoints a new financial officer
annually to oversee the cost of production.
10 last [lrestl
The ink cartridges for our printers are guaranteed
to last longer than those of our competitors.
11 peak [pi:k]
The cost of renting office space in the financial
district peaked in September, forcing Aston
Accounting to look for workspace in other areas.
12 inaugurate [in5:gjureitl
A new direct air route between Geneva and
Bangkok was officially inaugurated yesterday.
lona Yang was inaugurated Wednesday as the 5th
president of the board of directors.
n distract [distrrektl
This verb is commonly used in the passive form (distracted),
which means be unable to concentrate because somebody
is worried about something.
Conference participants were continuously dis-
tracted by noise from the construction site.
Chapter 07 Verbs - 283
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14 represent [reprizent]
These figures represent a significant increase in
profits, especially in the South American market.
1s retain [ritein]
The city council will not issue new building
permits unless developers promise to retain the
historical beauty of the neighborhood.
16 hesitate [hezateit]
Do not hesitate to + bare infinitive
Do not hesitate to contact one of our representa-
tives if you need any further information.
17 verify [verafai]
~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~
verify = confirm
Please include the original receipt in order to
verify the date of purchase.
1s rush [rAJ]
rush to + bare infinitive
The product development team rushed to com-
plete the new design before the deadline.
19 violate [vaialeitl
Restaurateurs must be careful not to violate any
health regulations.
20 alter [5:ltar], ___ - - - - - - _ _ J
alter = change
Because the content had been altered signifi-
cantly, the editor suggested that the writer also
change the title of the article.
284 Hackers TOEJC Reading
21 convene [kanvi:n)
The board of directors will convene next Monday
to discuss the proposed expansion.
22 coordinate [kou:S:rdaneit)
The ideal applicant for this marketing position will
be able to coordinate the activities of buyers and
sellers in the retail industry.
23 relocate [ri:loukeit]
- - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~
relocate = move
Valentia announced plans to relocate its manufac-
turing plant to China.
24 curb [ka:rb] _______ - - -
curb = restrain
Higher energy costs will likely curb fuel and elec-
tricity usage.
2s delegate [deligeitl
Supervisors are expected to delegate responsibil-
ities in a timely and efficient manner.
26 accommodate [akamadeitl
The luxurious beachfront rooms can easily
accommodate up to seven guests.
21 broaden [br:S:dnl
The grant allows us to broaden our research into
several different areas.
Travel broadens the mind.
28 implement [implament]

implement = carry out
Sun Telecom has implemented a new policy on
long-distance rates.
29 indicate [indikeitl

indicate + that-clause
Studies indicate that employee performance is
linked to job satisfaction.
30 patronize [peitranaiz]
Younger people are more likely to patroni ze mod-
ern health facilities than the elderly.
31 obstruct [abstr.Akt]
Before driving, adjust the rear view mirror so that
nothing obstructs your view.
32 alleviate [ali:vieitJ
alleviate = reduce, relieve
In an effort to alleviate traffic congestion, the city
introduced new bus lanes.
33 supplement [s.Aplament]
Although he earns a competitive wage as a
research analyst, Mr. Evans supplements his
income by working as second job on Saturdays.
34 acquire [akwaiar]

acquire = get , gain
The developers wish to acquire land for a new
industrial park.
35 emerge [ima:rd3l
PharmaMed has emerged as a new force in the
pharmaceutical market.
36 deposit [dipa='
deposit money
deposit checks
Payments must be deposited into our bank
account by the last day of each month.
Chapter 07 Verbs - 285
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'" 0.
Common Expressions with Verbs
01 anticipate a decrease in sales
02 justify the time spent
03 gauge the applicants' abilities
04 solicit bids
05 release funds
06 The merger will help the company diversify.
07 curb the economic recovery
08 inspect product quality
09 authorize a second printing
1 0 terminate the agreement
11 automate computer tasks
12 utilize a new method
13 taste some local dishes
14 supply training handouts
15 prevent construction accidents
16 His skills match the job responsibilities.
17 a bus bearing a large advertisement
18 The name is engraved in gold.
19 redesign the display window
20 devise a new plan
21 reveal the company's plan
22 allocate funds for improvements
23 Audits are regularly scheduled.
24 prohibit smoking indoors
25 The work was proceeding as planned.
26 attract bargain hunters
27 Your expertise benefits the company.
286 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
28 be reprimanded for procrastinating
29 renew the contract
30 affix the stamp to the envelope
31 need to obtain a license
32 prescribe diabetes medication
33 handle the packages with care
34 detach the last section of the form
35 order a new edition
36 adopt a new strategy
37 review the year-end report
38 reward one's efforts
39 Growth is not expected to abate.
40 dilute the concentrate with water
41 bill guests for room service
42 in order for the rebate to apply
43 oversee operations in Asia
44 refuse damaged goods
45 confirm the reservation
46 present an official I D card
47 submit photocopies
48 The bar graph illustrates the dip in sales.
49 follow the directions
50 The report asserts that reorganization is needed.
51 forfeit one's driver's license
52 consolidate their market standing
53 The message should be conveyed to new staff .
54 require more information
Chapter 07 Verbs 287
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Tick a correct verb in each phrase or sentence.
01 Revenue estimates to be optimistic.
02 one's thoughts
o orgamze
03 release a decline in sales
o cause
04 visit the head office
o travel
05 It is that the CEO will resign.
06 the current market value
0 thmk
send a reliable delivery company
08 The airfare.
09 The analyst
predicts that stock prices will rise.
o prepares
1 0 the invitation
o decline
11 the paperwork
o not1fy
. o declared.
12 A new product w1ll be
13 o examine the files
o look
14 o incline market share
o expand
15 o labor outdoors
0 employ
16 a production slowdown
o avo1d
o reminded that S + v
17 Employees are
. 0 wear
18 The sh1rt does not
fit the customer.
19 offer patrons a better deal
o control
20 D the disk into the computer
o msert
288 - Hackers TOEIC Reading

Answers: p. 555
Part 5
01 Those wishing to a room at the hotel
for the Asian Export Conference are urged to
contact the travel agent as soon as possible.
(A) appoint
(B) require
(C) reserve
(D) attach
02 Some supervisors are reluctant to
responsibilities because they know they will
be held accountable if something goes wrong.
(A) ask
(B) delegate
(C) encourage
(D) share
03 The building owner generally does not
tenants to make renovations in their units.
(A) permit
(B) commit
(C) transmit
(D) submit
04 A group of environmentalists concerns
about recent drastic environmental change
including temperature increases in Northern
Canada and Russia.
(A) requested
(B) left
(C) understood
(D) addressed
05 In order to traffic on the roads,
the Ministry of Transportation has begun a
campaign to encourage individuals to use
public transportation.
(A) alleviate
(B) assist
(C) deteriorate
(D) remove
C Time lim1t: 12 m1nutes
06 Diners are more likely to restaurants
that serve excellent food and provide friendly
(A) encourage
(B) promote
(C) patronize
(D) nurture
07 A number of studies that allowing
employees greater leeway to make decisions
gives them a greater sense of responsibility
at the workplace.
(A) interpret
(B) indulge
(C) indicate
(D) induce
08 The annual office equipment convention will
be on May 7 in Barcelona, so those
wishing to attend must file a request with the
office manager.
(A) held
(B) offered
(C) stayed
(D) referred
09 Residents can the permit by
downloading the form from the website and
submitting the completed form to City Hall.
(A) tear
(B) enhance
(C) restore
(D) obtain
10 Your subscription to any of our online news-
letters can be at any time simply by
submitting a request for cancellation by e-mail.
(A) terminated
(B) exterminated
(C) eliminated
(D) finished
Chapter 07 Verbs - 289
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11 The clinic will you the results of your
medical exam once it has received them from
the laboratory.
(A) retain
(B) forward
(C) submit
(D) develop
12 The shareholders will this afternoon
to finalize resolutions on the use of the
company's net income and the payment of
year-end dividends.
(A) accompany
(B) confide
(C) convene
(D) facilitate
13 To a larger percent of the market
share in cellular phones, OneWorld is
attempting to appeal to a wider audience.
(A) produce
(B) inflate
(C) spread
(D) acquire
14 All companies wishing to set up displays at
the trade fair in Milan must make sure their
exhibits do not
(A) exist
(B) prevent
(C) delay
(D) exceed
the size of a standard
15 I am writing to my attendance at the
Symposium on Medical Technologies to be
held next weekend.
(A) contact
(B) confront
(C) confirm
(D) contend
290 - Hackers TOEIC Readi ng
16 The client was satisfied with the new curtains,
but she requested that the length be
so that they would not touch the floor.
(A) qualified
(B) diversified
(C) widened
(D) altered
17 Our financial adviser that investments
in new projects will increase as a result of
lower bank interest rates.
(A) predicts
(B) ponders
(C) questions
(D) releases
18 The installation of the new security software
was delayed because of a technical problem
that while technicians were testing
the system.
(A) revealed
(B) emerged
(C) acted
(D) occupied
19 Please do not the first part of the
form from the second, or it will be invalid.
(A) correspond
(B) write
(C) detach
(D) withdraw
20 You need to enough money to cover
the balance of the bills to pay your bills through
your account.
(A) amount
(B) deposit
(C) coin
(D) lend
Part 6
Questions 21-23 refer to the following notice.
Chicago Classical Music Hall
Additional Information Regarding Ticketing
This year we have added ten additional shows to the classical concert series. There has been an
overwhelming demand for tickets, and with only limited seating capacity available for each perform-
ance, those interested are urged to make reservations in advance.
Tickets may be picked up at the box office prior to each show. Proper identification, such as a
driver's license, must be presented with your credit card when you pay for your tickets. This
21 (A) simultaneously
(B) extraneously
(C) stringently
(D) concisely
procedure is necessary in order to your identity so that others cannot use your tickets.
22 (A) rearrange
(B) complicate
(C) discount
(D) verify
Also, if the original receipt has been , buyers can receive a free concert T-shirt at the box
23 (A) contracted
(B) collected
(C) gauged
(D) retained
office. For any inquiries, please call 1500-555-1588 to speak with one of our customer
Answers: p. 556
"' c:
"' -<
"' "-
Question Type and Useful Tips
This type of question requires examinees to choose a noun that is appropriate for the context.
You should look for the preposition and key word(s) in the sentence to be able to select a
correct option.
Having a large directory of business
(A) tactics (B) combinations
directory [direktari] I plus [plt.s]
Answer: (C)
can be a plus for anyone in the travel industry.
(C) contacts (D) indications
At only a fraction of the normal registration price, joining has never been easier or more advan-
tageous. Not only will you have access to all of our online services, but as an added of
(A) petition (B) course
(C) possibility (D) benefit
membership, Info-Mate now provides full networking opportunities for other members in all its
at a fraction of I registration [red3istreiJanJ I membership [membar.flp] I chapter [tJ!Eptar]
Answer: (D)
292 - Hackers TOEIC Reading www.nhantriviet.com
Common Nouns
01 challenge [tfffilind3l
One of the most difficult challenges faced by pub-
lishing editors is to meet deadlines yet maintain a
level of high-quality writing.
02 shortage [f5:rtid3l
As the urban population increases, local residents
have begun to face a shortage of affordable hous-
ing in the downtown area.
03 receipt [risi:t]
All tax forms submitted to the accounting office
will be kept on file for five years from the date of
04 brochure [broufU.rl
Delvian Industries launched a direct-mail advertis-
ing campaign which includes colorful brochures of
their new kitchen appliances.
os issue [ifu:]
The interview with Velorek Corporation's CEO
will be printed in the next issue of the financial
o6 delegation [deligeifanl
We are expecting a delegation of officials from
our European branch at the trade fair on June 27.
01 review [rivjti:]
The food critic from the local newspaper gave
Bonjour, the new French restaurant in the city's
financial district, an excellent review.
--'---.6.-:- ._ .... -
os supervision [su:parvi3an]
The product development department has been
under the supervision of Joanne for the past five
og subscriber [sabsk.raibar]
Challenger International is a well-known economic
publication with subscribers in more than eighty
countries around the world.
10 precaution [prik5:.fanl
take precautions to + bare infinitive
Although we take every precaution to make sure
that all deliveries arrive in good condition, acci-
dents occasionally occur.
11 itinerary [aitlnereri]
it inerary = schedule / timetable
The itinerary for Dr. Black's trip includes visits to
both Shanghai and Osaka.
12 hospitality [haspatrelatil
~ ~ ~ ~
extend hospitality to
I'd like to thank you for the hospitality extended to
me during my visit.
13 stance [stams]
~ ~
stance = position
The spokesperson announced the company's
stance on outsourcing.
14 method [meSad]
Customers may choose from several convenient
methods of payment.
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Despite widespread speculation about its finan-
cial difficulties, the company has offered no price
reductions on their products.
16 assurance [a uarans]
assurance = guarantee
Completion of a university degree carries no
assurance of earning a high salary.
17 alternative [:>:lta:rnativ]
Taking two or more part-time jobs is a valid alter-
native to full-time employment.
18 cultivation [k.Altaveifan]
Experts recommend the cultivation of plants as a
good means of relieving stress.
Our business depends largely on the cultivation of
a diverse network of clients.
Medical studies have shown that vitamin C is
effective in reducing the duration of colds and flu.
20 atmosphere
elegant atmosphere
One of the benefits of working at Clean Cuts Hair
Salon is the comfortable atmosphere.
21 effort [efart]
in an effort to + bare infinitive
In an effort to increase output, management intro-
duced production bonuses.
294 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
Advantage refers to a greater chance of success.
Profit refers to money.
Benefit refers to social welfare.
Having a broad knowledge of the computer indus-
try is an advantage in this firm.
Ms. Flick challenged the perception that a CEO
needs to be over the age of forty.
The forecaster said there's a 20 percent chance
of rain in the late afternoon.
2s force [f:>:rs]
force: a group of people organized and trained
Although the company is relatively new, it has
become a force to contend with.
Employees need to provide written notification of
their intention to take leave.
21 function [fA. k an]
function: an official ceremony or a formal social event, such
as a party or a special meal, at which a lot of people are
The hotel provides various facilities for social and
business functions.
28 expertise [ekspa:rtf:z]
Our consulting team is ready to provide expertise
in Internet broadcasting technology.
momentum: the force that keeps an object moving or
developing after it has started
The shift toward the use of environmental tech-
nologies is gaining momentum.
The conference aims to help farmers generate
large net profits from alternative crops.
31 morale [marffil]
By improving the morale of the players, the new
coach was successful in leading the team all the
way to the national championships.
32 negotiation [nigoufieifan]
Planning for the next stage of negotiations is cur-
rently underway in New York.
33 reimbursement [ri:imM:rsmant]
reimbursement: the advance money someone pays for
business issues and gets returned later by the company
Traveling salesmen receive reimbursement for
expenses incurred while on the road.
Clearnet lost its monopoly on Internet services
with the privatization of the telecommunications
35 revenue [revan u:]
It is correct to use large/ high revenue, but not large/ high /
small money.
Portable MP3 players earn the largest revenue in
the music player market.
36 asset [ffisetl
We here at EB Creative Services consider our
staff to be our most valuable asset.
"' c


"' 0.
Common Expressions with Nouns
01 The CD player is under warranty.
02 in the closing stage of negotiations
03 his unwillingness to invest a large sum
04 a characteristic of a good manager
05 speak to the manager for clarification
06 make revisions to the hard copy
07 oversee the coordination of all projects
08 feedback from a survey
09 a budget of one million dollars
10 a paper on refinancing loans
11 pay dividends on its preferred stock
12 The CEO is calling for proposals.
13 The bank statement showed inconsistencies.
14 The contractor's main concern was the timetable.
15 excellent examples of modern architecture
16 Success depends on the p"articipation of members.
17 ensure the long-term stability of the program
18 attach a letter of reference
19 the general consensus
20 select some candidates for the award
21 after the close of bidding
22 Competition increased overnight.
23 reliable analysis of the balance sheet
24 receive an award
296 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
25 expand the capacity of the communication network
26 The second floor will be closed for renovation.
27 meet with company representatives
28 fill out a complaint form
29 a large gap between supply and demand
30 An education serves as the foundation for a career.
31 agreement with the proposal
32 Some studies suggest that S + V.
33 the demand for medical personnel
34 progress toward a safer workplace
35 requests for grant proposals
36 an important step in gaining equality
37 offer financial incentives to qualified patients
38 delays in shipping
39 They all belong to the union.
40 use extreme caution
41 Attendees must register today.
42 an airtight container to store food
43 violation of office rules
44 Plastic is resistant to corrosion.
45 begin another expansion project
46 The menu includes a selection of wines.
47 the purpose of the meeting
Chapter 08 Nouns - 297
"' c:

"' c..

Tick a correct noun in each phrase or sentence.
o digits .
o developments In technology
02 seek from a stockbroker
, o applause
express one s o appreciation
04 P f
o attire .
ro ess o a
ambivalence IS necessary.
05 International has increased.
06 The fire caused widespread
. o environment
7 the f1rst stage of
08 An might be made.
o mstance
. o lecture
09 attend a public
. , o apparel
10 manufacture lad1es
o responsibility.
11 Meals are your
. o envelope
12 put the form 1n the
. o establishment.
13 There 1s room for
. o inclination.
14 We apolog1ze for the
. . o decadence
15 a spec1es 1n danger of
16 I
o of artwork
a arge o connect1on
o slowdown .
17 expect a gradual
rundown 1n March
0 bit
18 a
minimum of two years' experience
19 His g was in dispute.
298 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
Answers: p. 556
Part 5
01 One of the great of working for
Seal Corporation is its excellent treatment
of employees.
(A) courtesies
(B) advantages
(C) profits
(D) favors
02 The new executive officer brings with him
in the areas of policy making,
strategy formulation and business
(A) inquiry
(B) conversion
(C) jurisdiction
(D) expertise
03 The project manager gave Claudia Goddard
an outstanding performance for her
excellent work on the advertising promotion.
(A) standard
(B) review
(C) statement
(D) request
04 Clarkson and Sons is in the last of
the study and will soon submit a report on its
(A) paths
(B) drafts
(C) ways
(D) stages
05 The weather forecaster has announced that
there is a
(A) speculation
(B) fate
(C) chance
(D) prospect
of showers later in the
(9 Time limit: 12 minutes
06 Stratos Airways takes every to ensure
that your check-in baggage arrives at its final
(A) idea
(B) regulation
(C) precaution
(D) offer
07 The local government has a total of
ten million dollars for job skills training for
unemployed people.
(A) book
(B) budget
(C) profit
(D) wallet
08 The risks in investing in Data-Tech are high,
but it could bring substantial in the
(A) rewards
(B) cash
(C) payments
(D) expenses
09 The next of Starburst Magazine will
contain a report from our manufacturing plant
in Indonesia.
(A) cost
(B) issue
(C) guarantee
(D) state
1 0 During the economic crisis, the company
generated the smallest in the history
of its operation.
(A) finances
(B) charges
(C) money
(D) revenue
"' c:
"' -<

"' c..
"' <.C
11 The PR Department of the Merrill Power
Corporation issued a press release
making clear the firm's on current
environmental issues.
(A) circumstance
(B) stance
(C) composition
(D) substitution
12 The most successful general managers
assert that human resources are the most
(A) worth
in any establishment.
(B) benefit
(C) asset
(D) personal
13 The firm has a total on the apparatus
because it is the only company authorized to
produce it.
(A) monologue
(B) monograph
(C) monotone
(D) monopoly
14 All products ordered from the YTV website
are shipped within one week from the
of an order.
(A) receipt
(B) admission
(C) permission
(D) ownership
15 A spokesperson from FutureNet Ltd. reported
that there had recently been a number of
innovative in the networking industry.
(A) digits
(B) developments
(C) repetitions
(D) decisions
300 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
16 The financial of the shipping industry
is dependent on the continued growth and
improvement of the country's fleet of cargo
(A) stability
(B) allocation
(C) donation
(D) statement
17 The of being a fashion designer is
creating clothing that is both attractive and
comfortable for the consumer.
(A) introduction
(B) orientation
(C) challenge
(D) submission
18 The deadline for submission of for
the river cleaning project has been extended
to the end of the month.
(A) intentions
(B) advice
(C) indications
(D) proposals
19 The restaurant is undergoing in
hopes of attracting more business-class
(A) formation
(B) magnification
(C) renovation
(D) boost
20 All workers at the Argo Chemicals production
plant are under the direct of the
facility manager.
(A) participation
(B) supervision
(C) view
(D) provision
Part 6
Questions 21-23 refer to the following memo.
From: Warren Reynolds, PR Department
To: All staff
We would like to inform all employees at Burrows Design Ltd. that a new quality program
21 (A) acceptance
(B) assurance
(C) location
(D) confidence
will be implemented starting next month. Strict qual ity regulation procedures will be introduced
to guarantee that our reputation for excellence in design is maintained. While working on new
projects, staff will be required to keep an online record of their work to confirm that the new quality
specifications are met. On completion, the record will then be submitted to the management office
for , after which feedback will be provided.
22 (A) evaluation
(B) reservation
(C) expectation
(D) implication
A special full-day introductory seminar has been scheduled for Saturday, February 19 in Conference
Room 101 , at which the new quality specifications will be explained in detail. It is that all
staff members attend, and overtime will be paid accordingly.
VJ\ 1 rnrn
23 (A) decisive
(B) wi ll ing
(C) resourceful
(D) imperative
Answers: p. 556
"' c:
"' -<

Question Type and Useful Tips
This type of question requires examinees to choose an adjective that is appropriate for the
1. For an adjective that modifies a noun, you should choose the one that appropriately goes
with that noun.
2. You should look for the preposition and key word(s) in the sentence to be able to select a
correct option.
Information technology and computer networks have provided offices and homes with
gains in efficiency and productivity.
(A} overpowering (B) noble (C) affected
gain [gein] I efficiency [ifiJansi] I productivity [proudaktivati]
Answer: (D)
(D) impressive
We have carefully considered each of our valuable and talented employees for this award, but
only one could be selected. It took much deliberation, but we have reached consensus that out
of the hundreds of ideas to emerge over the past year, Brian Lee's have been the most
(A) respective (B) interested
(C) innovative (D) attracted
talented [trelantid] I deliberation [dillbareifan] l reach consensus I emerge [ima:rd3l
Answer: (C)
302 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
Common Adjectives
01 definitive [difinativ]
The Keiko Ono Corporation is considered to be
the definitive source for fashion trends in East
02 exceptional [iksepfanll
The Alamo Convention Center provides state-of-
the-art facilities and equipment and exceptional
o3latest [leiti st]
latest = up-to-date
Marco Textiles had to reprint their latest catalogs
because of a few minor errors.
04 confidential [kanfadenfal]
~ ~ ~
confidential = secret
Please remind all employees to keep confidential
documents in a secure location.
os temporary [tempareri]
temporary: not lasting for a long time
a temporary office
Dr. Bell is hiring a temporary replacement for his
nurse who will be on vacation for a month.
o6 key [ki:J
key elements
key issues
Following the presentation on key corporate tax
laws, there will be a question and answer period.
01 subsequent [s.Absikwant]
Business was slow during the first year of the
restaurant, but it attracted more customers in
subsequent years.
os incidental [insadentll
incidental expenses
Please make sure to report major issues at the
meeting only and do not bring up incidental details
that are off topic.
o91imited [limitid]
limited resources
For a limited time only, Leavitt Furniture is offering
all stock at a significant discount.
10 incorrect [inkarekt]
~ ~
incorrect = false
The phone number the applicant listed on the form
was incorrect, so there was no way to contact him.
11 partial [p6:rfal]
We are sending only a partial order, as the head-
phones you requested have been discontinued.
12 valued [vrelju:d]
Ms. Lopez has been a valued advisor in the area
of South American market research for more than
twenty years.
13 unprecedented [.An{>resad(mtidl
~ ~ ~
unprecedented event
unprecedented disaster
Record sales by such a small firm are
14 promising [pramisiiJ]
a promising youth
Job opportunities for new graduates will be more
promising than before.
Chapter 09 Adjectives - 303
"' c:
"' -<

"' a.
15 tentative [t entativ]
tentative = provisional : not certain
The release date for the new product is still con-
sidered tentative.
16 respective [rispektiv]
respective: relating or belonging separately to each of the
people or things you have just mentioned
Do not confuse it with respectful , which means having
admiration for someone/ something.
All images on this web page are the property of
their respective illustrators.
11 defective [difektivl
This adjective describes something that has a fault or does
not work correctl y.
Store owners are offering refunds on all defective
18 insecure [insikjuarJ
Department store sales have decreased, as shop-
pers feel insecure about the current economy.
19 illegible [iled3ahl_,_ l ______
illegible handwriting
Because of a printing mistake, the documents are
20 enviable [enviabl]
Mr. Brown has not only enviable sales record but
more than twenty years of marketing experience.
21 alert
alert = attentive
be alert to + bare infinitive
Our team supervisor was alert enough to spot the
errors in the report.
304 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
22 affordable [af5:rdabll
Affordable does not refer to a high or low price but the
price at which people can be able to buy.
Today's personal computers are affordable and
accessible to most people.
23 annual
annual report
annual salary
Those interested should register for the annual
conference by next week.
24 available [aveilabll
A (a product) is available to B (a user).
Savings options are available to all customers of
the American First Bank.
25 consecutive [kansekjutivl
for the + ordinal number + consecutive year: during a
period of time without interruption
ATLP announced that its stock value had risen for
the fifth consecutive year.
26 unwavering [.\nweivari!Jl
Ecolife has joined local environmental groups to
declare their unwavering commitment to protect-
ing the river from illegal waste disposal.
21 diverse [diva:r.:::. s_,__ l _________ _...
diverse = various
Recent hires reflected the company's goal to have
a diverse workforce.
28 substantial [sabstrenJal]
substantial : large in size I value I importance
The company has invested a substantial amount
of capital into its new projects.
29 liable [laiabll
be liable to + bare infinitive = be likely to + bare infinitive
During an economic crisis, many small businesses
are liable to fail.
30 chronological lkranal6d3ikal]
The newspaper listed the events in chronological
31 overdue [ouvardju:]
overdue: not done when expected
a period of time + overdue
The books he had borrowed were two days
32 unanimous [ju:nrenamas]
be unanimous for: fully agree with
Do not confuse unanimous with anonymous, which means
made or done by someone whose name is not known.
The proposal to cut costs obtained unanimous
shareholder approval.
33 unclaimed [A.nkleimd]
Unclaimed refers to things / objects that nobody has
claimed as belonging to them.
The airport introduced new security procedures
for unclaimed baggage.
34 durable [djuarabl]
All Playtoy products are strong and durable and
are made out of non-toxic materials for your
child's protection.
35 eligible [elid3ahll
be eligible to + bare infinitive/ be eligible for + noun
Donors are eligible to become members of the
Gold Star Club.
Workers are eligibl e for compensation.
36 additional [adifanll
~ ~ ~
additional = extra
additional charge
The accounting department is looking for
additional ways to save money on the cost of
packaging and handling.
"' c
"' -<


"' 0..
Common Expressions with Adjectives
01 the overall effectiveness of the program
02 The supervisor is extremely demanding on the staff.
03 The office is in a desirable location.
04 mounting pressure
05 technical problems
06 reliable employees
07 an authorized car repair center
08 a diversified line of products
09 an unbiased opinion
10 an active program to support small companies
11 accurate data
12 detailed information
13 required application documents
14 a totally independent agency
15 a strategic location
16 ensure the efficient processing of complaints
17 The slide projector was unavailable.
18 get regular check-ups
306 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
19 delicate issues involving civil rights
20 at a rapid pace
21 a comprehensive physical examination
22 differing opinion
23 on a clear day
24 the reserved room
25 It is imperative that you go to the meeting.
26 Security has been lax.
27 a powerful engine
28 might be especially beneficial
29 make the manual accessible to users
30 The company is not progressive.
31 be compensated for unused leave days
32 the medicinal uses of aloe vera
33 past findings
34 incompetent employees
35 feel apprehensive during the interview
"' c
"' -<


Tick a correct adjective in each phrase or sentence.
01 manage an I a
amount of work
0 cult1vatmg
o popular
eat at a
solicited restaurant
03 The food was g the long wait.
o condensed t s
at o reasonable ra e
. o damp
w1th a
confident manner
o unexpected
an o unqualified result
. th 0 year
In e o commg
M' lk . o perishable food
IS a o perceptible
9 h
, o existing systems
0 revamp t e company s
o pleased h t f 1
10 The sponsors were d that t e even was success u .
o accustome
11 h o breakfast
ave a o complimentary
source of petroleum
a o rrch
308 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
Answers: p. 556
Part 5
01 The city council is considering the construction
of an subway line to solve some of
the local traffic problems.
(A) optional
(B) incidental
(C) intentional
(D) additional
02 Although stock options were previously
offered only to management, the rank and file
are now to purchase options.
(A) appropriate
(B) eligible
(C) available
(D) befitting
03 Documents containing information
about company employees cannot be
released to anyone without the human
resources director's written permission.
(A) accidental
(B) confidential
(C) deliberate
(D) careful
04 If you have any problems using the cellular
phone, take it to any service center
for repairs.
(A) limited
(B) authorized
(C) permissive
(D) sufficient
05 When delivering food, delivery
companies use special refrigerated trucks
and insulating materials to prevent the food
from spoiling.
(A) perishable
(B) spoiled
(C) fragile
(D) durable
All I .... "' .... . ,;
0 Time limit: 12 minutes
06 Attendance to the first electronics trade fair in
Dallas was low, but events drew a
larger number of visitors.
(A) previous
(B) late
(C) after
(D) subsequent
07 Although all members of the discount club
may order items from the website, rebates
are only to those members who
have kept their accounts active.
(A) creditable
(B) considerable
(C) approachable
(D) available
08 Media Creators, producer of family-oriented
fast food restaurant advertisements, has won
the coveted Advertising Award for the third
(A) connected
(B) associated
(C) consecutive
(D) continuous
09 Synertex's factories use the technol-
ogy and equipment to produce their medical
(A) longest
(B) latest
(C) instant
(D) conclusive
10 The shop specializes in furniture and table
accessories that are to low- and
medium-income households.
(A) curable
(B) believed
(C) excessive
(D) affordable
"' c:
"' -<

11 The manual was written in such a manner
as to be readily to laymen and
(A) acknowledgeable
(B) expressible
(C) familiar
(D) accessible
12 Chang and Nobel legal firm provides
medical coverage to its part-time employees.
(A) minor
(B) restrained
(C) limited
(D) confined
13 Plans for the consul 's visit to the company
are still considered , but our
representative will call you once the
arrangements are fixed.
(A) vigilant
(B) tentative
(C) contemporary
(D) infinite
14 For those who want to work as a business
analyst, experience in market research is a
highly attribute.
(A) beneficial
(B) repetitive
(C) superficial
(D) expensive
15 Consumer Institute representative Debbie
Dorday gave an speech on digital
cameras and what to look for when
purchasing one.
(A) indicative
(B) excited
(C) informative
(D) interested
16 Advertising is the element in
maintaining high levels of sales in the
competitive beauty product market.
(A) key
(B) convenient
(C) marginal
(D) complete
17 Camping gear such as tents, sleeping bags,
and backpacks is made from exceptionally
materials such as nylon or canvas.
(A) justifiable
(B) durable
(C) legible
(D) reversible
18 Despite the growing popularity of the Internet,
television advertising remains one of the most
ways to promote products.
(A) satisfied
(B) reluctant
(C) dependent
(D) effective
19 The job requirements are much too
even for staff who have the necessary skills
and experience.
(A) demanding
(B) exciting
(C) revolting
(D) compelling
20 Few people would be to relocate to
areas that do not provide sufficient transporta-
tion facilities.
(A) convincing
(B) wishing
(C) willing
(D) starting
Part 6
Questions 21-23 refer to the following letter.
Norman Lord
246 Kandahar Crescent
Boulder, CO 80301
Dear Mr. Lord,
As you may have heard, lnfinicorp Ltd. has posted a record profit for the past business year . Earn-
ings came in at 837 million dollars, representing an turnaround since the company's huge
21 (A) impenetrable
(B) immovable
(C) unprecedented
(D) insubordinate
loss two years ago. At that time, the corporation made a considerable loss of 342 mil lion
22 (A) justly
(B) nearly
(C) mostly
(D) fluently
doll ars. The company's rise has been largely attributed to the notable talents of CEO,
23 (A) unlimited
(B) impressed
(C) forbidden
(D) incredible
Mr. Richard Baker, who was inaugurated only two years ago. This profit translates into benefits for
all shareholders, and I am delighted to announce that lnfinicorp will be turning this profit into a spe-
cial dividend of forty cents per share. I would like to thank you for remaining one of our most loyal
and valued shareholders.
Artimus Bertwhistle
Executive Director, lnfinicorp Ltd.
Answers: p. 556

"' a.
" <0
Question Type and Useful Tips
This type of question requires examinees to choose an adverb that is appropriate for the
1. You should look for the key word(s) in the sentence to be able to select a correct option.
2. Sometimes, you do not need to read the whole sentence but just look at the part of speech
that the adverb modifies in order to choose a correct option.
All individuals who use their credit card frequently should
history to verify that no errors have been made.
(A) periodically (B) precisely (C) incidentally
check [tfek] I transaction history I verify [verafai]
Answer: (A)
check their transaction
(D) indefinitely
In the past year, Threestar Automotive' s automobile exports increased by 12.6 percent, bring-
ing in gross profits of around $500 million. The relatively new company has grown in
(A) eagerly (B) immediately
(C) recently (D) rapidly
the five years since its inauguration, and considering the company's planned diversification
into the pharmaceutical sector, the future looks bright indeed.
bring in 1 gross profit I inauguration [in:,:gjareifan] I diversification [diva:rsafikeifan]
Answer: (D)
312 - Hackers TOEIC Reading www.nhantriviet.com
Common Adverbs
01 dramatically
dramatically: suddenly, obviously
This adverb often refers to an increase or a decrease.
The Unigue-Co's stock shares rose dramatically
during the sale season in the summer months.
o2 fully [fulil
fully = completely
fully booked
The business community did not fully appreciate
the marketing potential of the Internet.
03 personally [pa:rsanali)
All advertisements in the C/overfield Times must
be personally approved by the editor-in-chief
before they are submitted for publication.
04 exclusively [iksklu:sivli)
The Fisher Investment Company has created a
new department to concentrate exclusively on
emerging markets in South-East Asia.
os occasionally [akei3<malil

occasionally = sometimes
Hewes and Associates' department heads meet
occasionally to discuss new clients or projects.
o6 ahead [abed)
ahead of: early I before
Be sure to call ahead for a reservation to avoid
excessive delays.
01 regularly [regjularli)
In order to keep up to date with office schedules,
employees are required to regularly check the
office message board.
oa densely [densli]
Heavy industry has been steadily moving out of
densely populated areas.
09 unbearably [,\nbearablil
The unbearably low temperatures this week have
led to record sales increases in winter clothing at
local department stores.
10 virtually [va:rtfualil

virtually = practically
The offices at Decatur Bio-research are virtually
empty during the month of August when most
employees go on vacation.
11 relatively [relativliJ
The increased crop yield was attributed to the
past winter's relatively warm weather.
12 mutually [mju:tfualil
The beverage manufacturer formed a partnership
with the restaurant chain that was expecting to
provide sales opportunities mutually for both
13 enthusiastically [ineju:zirestikaliJ
enthusiastically = ardently
The staff enthusiastically applauded the CEO's
decision to increase wages.
14 otherwise [..\oarwaiz]
Do not confuse otherwise which means differently with
otherwise which means if not that is used after a suggestion
to show what the result will be if you do not follow it.
You will continue to receive these weekly newslet-
ters unless otherwise requested.
"' -<

1s radically [nedikaliJ
radically = fundamentally
In an attempt to attract younger consumers, the
ad campaign was radically changed.
16 consistently [kansistantli]
Lewis' Law Firm has consistently provided quality
services at affordable prices.
11 solely [s6ulli)
~ ~
solely = only
The firm relied solely on word-of-mouth
1a significantly [si nifikantli]
New drilling technologies are expected to signifi-
cantly boost oil production capacity.
19 directly [direktlil
directly: without anyone / anything else being involved or in
If you have any questions or comments, please
contact me directly.
20 currently [ka:rantlil
The fifth floor of this building is currently open for
public tours.
314 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
This adverb can stand on its own or be used in the structure
immediately upon V-ing / immediately after + adverb
Employees are instructed to punch in immediately
upon arriving at work.
22 simultaneous! [saimalteiniasli]
~ ~ ~ ~
simultaneously = at the same time
Do not confuse it with spontaneously, which means hap-
pening in a sudden and natural way.
Training sessions given by the company are
simultaneously funny and informative.
23 minimally [minimali]
Construction work on lanes 3 and 4 will affect the
flow of traffic only minimally and should be com-
pleted by early afternoon.
The broken equipment at the plant must be
repaired promptly.
The staff knows that Mr. Rich wants meetings to
begin promptly at 8:00 a.m.
Common Expressions with Adverbs
01 a fairly simple method
02 accidentally discover a confidential document
03 r e o ~ d expenses accurately
04 carelessly broke the rules
05 On May 1, the store will officially open.
06 choose randomly
07 has consistently arrived on time
08 Customers repeatedly use the service.
09 Prices increased markedly.
10 Lateness will be severely penalized.
11 Visitors are routinely asked to show their IDs.
12 an unusually high profit return
13 voluntarily work overtime
14 His experience was exclusively in sales.
15 Doctors were previously unable to cure the disease.
16 Regrettably, we have to close our doors.
17 He will undoubtedly take the position.
18 The equipment operates properly.
"' -<
'" a.
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19 The partners worked cooperatively.
20 be adequately wrapped to avoid damage
21 talk to patrons politely
22 Our office has recently moved.
23 deal with problems appropriately
24 expand substantially
25 cost significantly less
26 follow the directions carefully
27 The plant operates efficiently.
28 be temporarily out of stock
29 The hotel is conveniently located near the shopping district.
30 The network system will eventually need upgrading.
316 - Hackers TOEIC Reading

Tick a correct adverb in each phrase or sentence.
01 The restaurant stays open
02 Th b
.d . o extremely d t t'
e n ge 1s
presently un er cons rue 1on.
. o scarcely .
cut spending,
especially on recreation
o closely
pay o separately
05 He
resisted the change.
0 Initially
06 frequently depend on donations
o shortly
07 Presumably, h left the building
o Almost, e
o thickly
fasten the strap
09 the famous celebrity
10 The product line will be launched.
11 Tourists visit throughout the year.
12 Nearly, she lost the original.
D Apparently,
13 The book is read g by both boys and girls.
14 do one's job
D well
15 be
0 Widely
\AI\1\1\N rnm
Answers: p. 556
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"' ..
Part 5
01 Staff functions for workers in the city council
department are usually held in the office
lounge, but special events are
hosted in restaurants or hotels.
(A) early
(B) occasionally
(C) remotely
(D) consistently
02 Effective , the company will no longer
accept applications for medical or sick leave
without a certificate from a physician.
(A) financially
(B) immediately
(C) concurrently
(D) repeatedly
03 The use of alternative medicine among
professionals in the city and suburbs is
(A) directly
(B) quickly
(C) likely
(D) fairly
04 The menu at Luau Grill is
recommended by Martha Childs, a food
critic for the Boston Courier for its innovative
selection of dishes.
(A) personally
(B) relevantly
(C) richly
(D) factually
05 The company misled investors by not
reporting the losses it incurred in the first
(A) assuredly
(B) remarkably
(C) accurately
(D) deductively
318 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(9 Time limit: 7 minutes
06 The gift shop on Baker Street is popular with
customers because it is conveniently located,
and its products are
(A) nearly
(B) hardly
(C) relatively
(D) scarcely
07 Cell phone users who
send text
messages should take advantage of the new
plan being offered by the wireless carrier.
(A) totally
(B) greatly
(C) hugely
(D) frequently
08 Recent sales of Dual-Electronics' computer
monitors have increased , mainly
due to their new contract with the Brightman
Insurance Corporation.
(A) eagerly
(B) intentionally
(C) fortunately
(D) dramatically
09 Because the first speaker has another
appointment, the convention must begin
at 9:00a.m.
(A) assertively
(B) cordially
(C) promptly
(D) especially
10 The company has hired some new
staff, so we will be holding a gathering at the
cafeteria to introduce them.
(A) recently
(B) usually
(C) commonly
(D) freshly
Part 6
Questions 11-13 refer to the following article.
Downtown Finance Center Renovations
The downtown Finance Center is about to undergo extensive modernization renovations, including
a restoration of the building's facade and lobby. The aim of the work is to give the Finance Center
a competitive edge in attracting high-end corporate tenants for its office space.
After completion, the building will appear different from now due to the addition of a
11 (A) formerly
(B) radically
(C) allegedly
(D) primarily
mirrored glass exterior which changes color based on the time of day. Also, upgraded seating
areas in the lobby will more people than before, with special attention given to comfort
12 (A) appreciate
(B) articulate
(C) alienate
(D) accommodate
and space. In an unusual move, developers decided not to employ an entire design team to work
on the new project but to allow freelance architect Janice Pana, designer of the New York Arts
Center, to create the new look for the Finance Center. Because the Finance Center
13 (A) recently
(B) nearly
(C) solely
(D) surely
building will have to undergo such extensive remodeling, minimum costs for the project are
expected to be around 1.5 million dollars.
Answers: p. 556
www.nhantriviet.com Chapter 10 Adverbs - 319
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"' -<

Section 3 Content Words
with Similar Meaning
Chapter 11 - Verbs with Similar Meaning
Chapter 12 - Nouns with Similar Meaning
Chapter 13- Adjectives, Adverbs with Similar Meaning
In the TOEIC test, some questions require examinees to fully understand not only the mean-
ing nuance but also the usage of English verbs given so as to be able to choose the correct
answer choices.
A few bank cash machines can
half that amount.
(A) possess (B) hold
bank cash machine I carry [kreri]
Answer: (B)
(C) occupy
as much as 30,000 dollars, but most carry less than
(D) grasp
Steel Works Inc. has just announced plans to move their operations from the Michigan Steel
Mill to a new location near Los Angeles. The company has officially staff that the cur-
(A) explained (B) informed
(C) expressed (D) inquired
rent plant will be closing at the end of year, but jobs will be available for employees prepared
to relocate.
announce [amiuns] I operation [apareifan] I officially [afiJali] I current [ka:rant] I plant [plamt) I relocate
[ri :loukeit]
Answer: (B)
322 - Hackers TOEIC Reading www.nhantriviet.com
Confusing Verbs
01 advise vs. recommend
advise [redvaiz]
advise somebody+ that-clause
The lawyer advised the owner that filing for bank-
ruptcy was his only option.
recommend [rekamend]
recommend + that-clause
The stockbroker recommended that shares of the
offering be purchased immediately.
o2 enroll vs. subscribe vs. apply vs. register
enroll [inr6ul]
enroll in
All trainees are required to enroll in the software
course by the end of the week.
subscribe [sabskniib]
subscribe to/for
We subscribe to several medical journals to keep
up to date on advances in the world of medicine.
apply [aplai]
apply for
Catherine Mannheim expects a lot of people to
apply for the legal assistant position at the law
register [red3istar l
register for
The city library reported that more than three hun-
dred people register for library cards each year.
o3 affect vs. effect
affect [afektl
The new security rules will affect all employees at
the main headquarters.
effect [ifektl
The company cannot effect a change without
closely examining its systems.
04 attend vs. participate in
attend [atend]
attend something
The director is requiring all new employees to
attend the session on insurance.
participate in
participate in something
Our employer has asked us to participate in the
company's open house event.
os postpone vs. reschedule
postpone [poustp6un]
Because of the construction delay, the opening
of the new factory will be postponed until next
reschedule [ri:sked3u:l]
Customers wishing to reschedule their appoint-
ments are requested to notify the office one week
in advance.
o6 condense vs. minimize vs. decrease
condense [kandens]
The CEO has asked us to condense an hour-long
presentation into twenty minutes.
minimize [minamaiz]
Having a diversified portfolio can help investors
minimize risk.
decrease [dikri:s]
The company has decided to decrease production
of electric appliances.
Chapter 11 Verbs with Similar Meaning - 323
"' -<

"' ..
01 lend vs. loan vs. borrow vs. rent
lend [lend]
lend: give something / money to someone for a period of
time, expecting it to be given back
The library does not lend books to individuals who
have no borrower's card.
loan [loun]
loan (commonly used in the bank): lend money I capital
Brooke bank agreed to loan the Macro Software
Inc. some money for the merger.
borrow [b6rou]
borrow: receive something / money from someone with the
intention of giving it back after a period of time
A small businessman cannot borrow money from
a bank without collateral.
rent [rent]
rent: pay a fixed amount of money regularly for the use of a
room, house, car, etc. that someone else owns
The company rented several cars for the over-
seas representatives to use.
oa foster vs. enlarge
foster [f5:star l
foster: encourage the development or growth of something
The new agreement fostered exports between the
two nations.
enlarge [inl6:rd3l
enlarge: make something bigger, usually a space / area/
The board plans to enlarge the sports complex by
the end of the year.
og contact vs. connect
contact [k6ntrekt]
contact : communicate with someone by telephone, letter,
e-mail, etc.
Please contact Ms. Brooks for any questions
regarding your application.
connect [kanekt]
connect A with / to B: make it possible for A to speak to B
by telephone
Can you connect me to the Bookman Publishing
Company, please?
10 demonstrate vs. display
demonstrate [demanstreit]
demonstrate: show something and explain how it works
The talk show guest demonstrated how to dress
for success.
display [displei]
display: arrange something in public so that it can be seen
The latest styles of shoes are displayed in the
11 note vs. notify vs. announce
note [nout]
note + that-clause
The clerk told the customers to note that the store
would be closed for two days.
notify [n6utafai]
notify someone of something
The company notified its shareholders of the
proposed merger.
announce [anauns]
announce (to someone) something I that -clause
The chairman announced to the board that the
CEO had tendered his resignation.
12 speak vs. tell vs. say vs. express
speak [spi:k]
speak (to someone) about something
Mr. Tokuyama will speak to management about
production cuts.
tell [tell
tell someone+ that -cl ause / about something
We had to tell the client that we would be unable
to meet the deadline.
say [sei]
say (to someone) + that-clause
The secretary said to Mr. Wills that the meeting
had been postponed.
express [ikspres]
express something
The buyer has expressed interest in purchasing
the unused lot.
\AHAJ\At nh-:)nf"riuiC\t- r....,.......,
13 expire vs. invalidate
expire [ikspaiar]
The contract expired a few days ago and will not
be renewed.
invalidate [invffilideit]
The contract was invalidated because the com-
pany failed to comply with the terms of the
14 evaluate vs. estimate
evaluate [ivffiljueit]
The feasibility of the projects has not been
estimate [estameitl
Mr. Turner estimates that the non-stop flight to
Switzerland will take fourteen hours.
"' c:

Part 5
01 The contract stipulates that tenants must
the landlord of any major structural
changes they wish to make to their apartment.
(A) forward
(B) announce
(C) notify
(D) arrange
02 In line with company policy, all new
employees must first a safety
briefing before attempting to operate
factory machinery.
(A) participate
(B) register
(C) attend
(D) go
03 Any agreements that have are,
without exception, placed in the company
(A) invalidated
(B) expired
(C) violated
(D) submitted
04 A supeNisor is expected to a close
relationship between his subordinates and
(A) enlarge
(B) gain
(C) foster
(D) arise
05 I will leave a number with my assistant in
case anyone needs to me while I' m
away on business.
(A) convey
(B) conform
(C) connect
(D) contact
326 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(9 Time limit: 7 minutes
06 The Bank of Rhode Island has established
a special program to funds at low
interest to those who develop local business
(A) lend
(B) lease
(C) borrow
(D) rent
07 Gen-Track's vice president plans to
some structural changes in the company's
management system at the staff meeting next
(A) disagree
(B) interpret
(C) announce
(D) acquire
08 All accounting staff can in the online
training course at the human resources office
starting next month.
(A) enroll
(B) apply
(C) submit
(D) interview
09 The shipping and transport seminar scheduled
for next Monday has been until the
following week.
(A) appointed
(B) postponed
(C) scheduled
(D) previewed
10 Dow and Johnson's chief programming team
will the functions of their newest
accounting software at the financial technology
trade fair.
(A) expose
(B) encourage
(C) surprise
(D) demonstrate
Part 6
Questions 11-13 refer to the following information.
Top Researcher to Speak on Solar Power
At the National Conference on Renewable Energy in Atlanta next month, Sunbeam Resources' top
researcher, Dr. Robert Flack, will about recent technological developments in solar power.
11 (A) note
(B) speak
(C) say
(D) express
To provide the most up-to-date information to consumers, he has his essential research
12 (A) multiplied
(B) condensed
(C) minimized
(D) decreased
data into a two-hour presentation. He will explain how solar energy can help preserve the global
environment, and why people should convert to it. Dr. Flack will illustrate solar power's efficiency
and competitiveness through charts and diagrams. He will also demonstrate how solar energy has
evolved into the most suitable to hydroelectric or nuclear energy, and how it is a self-
13 (A) alternative
(B) difference
(C) distinction
(D) demonstration
sustaining source of power. The conference will take place at the Sunseeker Hotel on Saturday,
November 17. Online registrations are being accepted at www.ncre.org until the November 15.
Answers: p. 557
.... ..... ~ 1 . _ ... _: .. :_ ... ---
"' -<

"' c.
In the TOEIC test , some questions require examinees to ful ly understand both the meaning
nuance and usage of English nouns given so as to be able to choose the correct answer
One of the of the campaign is to let the elderly know of various services available to
them at community centers.
(A) aims (B) beliefs (C) reasons
the elderly
Answer: (A)
(D) foundations
Now into her second year as Mayor of Detroit, Francine Menendez outlined pending improve-
ments to the city's infrastructure. First on her list is the urban of the Lakeside Precinct,
(A) refreshment (B) progress
(C) renewal (D) structure
which includes the conversion of an abandoned dock area into recreational parkland, and a
two-mile long pedestrian boardwalk with cafes and restaurants.
outline [autlain] I pending [pendiiJ] I infrastructure [infrastr}.ktfar] I precinct [pri:siiJkt] I conversion [kanva:r:3anl I
abandoned [abffindandJ I dock [dak] I parkland [p6:rklffind] I pedestrian [padestrian]
Answer: (C)
328 - Hackers TOEIC Reading www.nhantriviet.com
Confusing Nouns
01 proportion vs. size
proportion [prap5:rfan]
proportion: the number, amount or level of one thing when
compared to the whole
I spend a large proportion of my salary on renting
an apartment.
size [saiz]
size: how large or small a thing is
The cost of construction was high due to the
large size of the new facilities.
02 access vs. approach
access [rekses]
access (non-count noun): the method of getting near to a
person I thing I place
have access to
Members have unlimited access to the maga-
zine's online archives.
The path behind the house has direct access to a
hidden garden.
approach [apr6utfl
approach (count noun): the method of getting near to
a person / thing / place; the method of understanding
something, e.g. an approach to a subject
The software developer has a new approach to
business software.
The narrow alley is a little-used approach to the
office building.
o3 area vs. site
area [earia]
There is only one caterer in the area that offers
kosher food.
site [sait]
The site for the memorial was changed several
times due to a lack of support .
04 choice vs. option vs. preference
choice [tf:>is]
The restaurant gives you a choice of appetizers
when you order a main.
option [6pfan]
Subscribers have the option of canceling their
subscriptions at any time.
preference [prefarans]
The new restaurant caters to diners with a prefer-
ence for Italian food.
os description vs. information
description [diskripfan]
description (count noun): explanation or instruction
a description of
For a more detailed description of the courses,
please see our website.
information [infarmeifan]
information (non-count noun): facts about a person I event/
information about/ on
For more information about this promotion, please
call this number.
o6 division vs. category vs. faction
division [divi3an]
The corporation has considered closing the un-
profitable automobile division.
category [kretag:ui]
The poetry in the book was divided into several
faction [frekfanl
The presidential candidate's goal was to unite the
factions within his political party.
"' -<

01 fine vs. tariff vs. x ~ n s
fine [fain]
Drivers who park in no-parking areas are subject
to steep fines.
tariff [ tffi rif]
The government charges a tariff for luxury goods
imported into the country.
expense [ikspens]
It's well worth the expense to invest in top-of-the-
range equipment.
os habit vs. convention
habit [hrebitJ
make it a habit + to + bare infinitive
The staff should make it a habit to submit reports
on time.
convention [kenvenfan]
It is still the convention in this country for men to
pay for dinner on a date.
og fare vs. fee
fare [fear]
taxi fare
Can you estimate the cab fare from 5th Avenue to
42nd Street?
fee [fi:J
an admission fee
The admission fee for children under eight years
of age is half price.
330 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
10 indication vs. show
indication [indikeifan]
indication of /that-clause: a sign that something exists, is
true, or is likely to happen
There are clear indications that the economy is
beginning to turn around.
show [Jou]
show: an action / way of behaving to express a particular
idea or feeling
The striking workers gathered at the company
headquarters in a show of solidarity.
11 brochure vs. catalog
brochure [brouflir]
brochure: a small magazine that contains pictures and
information on a product / service or a company
travel brochure
Refer to the enclosed brochure when selecting a
suite for the duration of your stay.
catalog [kretal:'>:g]
catalog: a book with a list of all the items that you can buy
or look at
The admission ticket included a catalog of all the
works shown in the exhibition.
survey [sa:rvei]
survey: an examination of opinions / behavior made by
asking people questions
The magazine conducted a survey to obtain
reader feedback.
research [risa:rtJ]
research: a detailed study of a subject in order to discover
The latest advertising strategy took into account
the most recent market research findings.
\A/\Ail .,..l.---L
13 material vs. ingredient - - ~ ~ - - - -
material [matiarial]
A commonly used material in power transmission
lines is aluminum.
ingredient [ingri:diant]
the ingredients of a cake
There are only five ingredients in this simple
recipe for soup.
tour: a short visit to a place when travelling, or a visit to a
factory, a public place when studying
give A a tour of 8
New employees will be given a tour of the com-
pany offices this afternoon.
trip [trip]
The meeting was called to discuss the results of
Ms. Black's business trip.
1s residence vs. venue
residence [rezadans]
Delegates are invited to visit the official residence
of the Prime Minister.
venue [venju:]
venue: the place where an event or meeting takes place
Event coordinators selected the Greyson Exhib-
ition Hall as the official venue.
value [vffilju:]
value: the amount of money which can be received for
Store credit will be issued on returned items for
the value of the purchase.
worth [wa:r8]
Worth means value. It also means the amount of money
which something can be sold for. It can be used in the
structure price (possessive case) + worth of + object.
A thousand dollars' worth of merchandise was
stolen from the gift shop.
"' c
"" -<

Part 5
01 A(n) conducted by a research center
revealed that the majority of online shoppers
are educated and have an annual household
income of $50,000.
(A) survey
(B) summary
(C) addition
(D) copy
02 The International Chamber of Commerce
recently announced that there was an
increasing for online payment
services among consumers.
(A) choice
(B) preference
(C) promotion
(D) reaction
03 Mr. Powell, the new researcher, has requested
to the company's archives to retrieve
the information he needs for a feasibility study.
(A) entrance
(B) pass
(C) access
(D) approach
04 The laboratory's findings showed
that the new line of cosmetics for Dawson
Beauty Products were environmentally
(A) survey
(B) question
(C) response
(D) research
05 The customer services staff at Radcliffe
Department Store spends a large of
its time dealing with customers' complaints.
(A) size
(B) section
(C) proportion
(D) number
332 Hackers TOEIC Reading
(9 Time limit: 7 minutes
06 To prevent loss of information, staff members
make it a to copy all important
(A) tradition
(B) hobby
(C) habit
(D) convention
07 A more detailed of our new office
machines is available in our product catalog.
(A) conf irmation
(B) description
(C) inquiry
(D) information
08 The driver of the blue sedan received a heavy
for deliberately driving through a red
(A) fee
(B) fine
(C) damage
(D) dismissal
09 The owner purchased ten thousand dollars'
of party favors for the grand opening
of his posh new restaurant.
(A) much
(B) value
(C) cost
(D) worth
1 0 Market trends are a good that this
will be an ideal year for investments in all
sectors of the market.
(A) record
(B) show
(C) indication
(D) specification
Part 6
Questions 11 -13 refer to the following letter.
Mark Walter
52 Southern Avenue
Great Falls, Montana 86503
Dear Mr. Walter,
I am writing to inform you that we have been having problems with defective air-conditioning units
in our office. I contacted Coolair Corporation two weeks ago and they sent over a technician.
According to the technician, the units were not installed, so the company would not take
11 (A) properly
(B) urgently
(C) exclusively
(D) valuably
responsibility for any defects in their product.
As a result of the improper installation, several mechanisms in each unit were damaged and had to
be replaced at considerable . The work was completed just yesterday. The total cost of
12 (A) fare
(B) fine
(C) expense
(D) quantity
repair came to 785 dollars, with 365 dollars for and 420 dollars for labor, as the enclosed
13 (A) ingredients
(B) stationery
(C) patterns
(D) materials
invoice shows. I would appreciate it if I could be reimbursed as soon as possible for the full repair
Molly Davison
Answers: p. 557
"' c:

"' 0..
Chapter 13
Adjectives, Adverbs. with Similar
Meaning _,>
In the TOEIC test, some questions require examinees to fully understand both the meaning
nuance and usage of Engl ish adjectives or adverbs given so as to be able to choose the
correct answer choices.
It is clearly stated in the airline's policy that
the company.
(A) wounded (B) damaged (C) spoiled
Answer: (B)
luggage is in no way the responsibility of
(D) injured
Washington D.C. tourist transit buses regularly dep.art from the East Side Bus Depot for major
monuments, museums, and art galleries. The bus for the Jefferson Memorial leaves hourly
from 8:00a.m. , and the one for the Smithsonian Institution shortly , from 8:10a.m.
transit [trrensit] I regularly [regjularlil/ depart [dip6:rt]/ depot [di:pou]
Answer: (D)
334 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
(A) later (B) already
(C) suddenly (D) thereafter
Confusing Adjectives and Adverbs
01 attached vs. connected
attached [atretftl
attached: added into something
attached file
The attached schedule may be subject to last-
minute changes.
connected [kanektid]
connected: joined together or related to each other
The technician said that all the computers in the
room are connected.
02 earl}' vs. previous
early [a:rlil
early: happening before or sooner than the expected time
The company offers early retirement incentives.
previous [pri:vias]
previous: happening before something else
Information from the previous events is available
on the following pages.
o3 following vs. next
following [falouiiJ]
This adjective is used in the structure the following + noun.
When it is a preposition, there is no article the before it.
An open discussion on recent development pre-
sentation will be held on the following week.
next [nekst]
next : being the first one after the present one or after the
one just mentioned
The new contract states that Musso Texti les will
supply fabric to our company next month.
The structure be likely to + bare infinitive is used to
describe something that will probably happen.
The report is likely to be released within the next
possible [pasabll
It is possible to + bare infinitive: able to be done or
It is possible to protect sensitive information by
installing the latest security software.
os extensive vs. s acious
extensive [ikstensiv]
extensive: covering a large area or having a great range
(esp. about knowledge or products)
We guarantee the most extensive selection of
quality wines in the city.
spacious [speifas]
spacious = roomy
The company provides each executive with a spa-
cious office that overlooks the harbor.
oG apparent vs. visible
apparent [aprerantl
apparent : (a situation, fact, quality, emotion) seeming to
exist but may not be real
In spite of the apparent recession, sales of auto-
mobiles rose this year.
visible [vizabl]
visible: clear, obvious, or noticeable
The company decided to show their soft drink in
the movie in order to make their product more
visible to the general public.
"' c

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01 outstanding vs. evident
outstanding [autstffindiiJ]
outstanding: extremely good or impressive
(It also refers to debts that are not yet paid, e.g.
outstanding debts.)
The marketing plan was so outstanding that it was
immediately approved.
evident [evadant]
evident = obvious: easily seen or understood
The participants reacted to the news with evident
os recent vs. current vs. modern vs. new
recent [ri :snt]
recent: happening or starting a short time ago
recent event , recent address
The recent promotion of Mr. Cummings was
completely unexpected.
current [ka:rant]
current: happening or existing now
current news, current employees
Duray Inc. is considering an expansion of its
current facilities to increase productivity.
modern [madarn]
modern: using new styles that are very different from the
styles of the past
The staff was more than happy to move into the
modern headquarters.
new [nju:]
new: recently created, built, invented, or planned
The CEO urged his copywriters to come up with
new advertising ideas.
og prevalent vs. leading
prevalent [prevalant]
prevalent = common: very popular in a particular place or
among a particular group
Lawsuits have become more prevalent in today's
leading [li:diiJ]
leading: (someone/ something) outstanding in a particular
The keynote speaker for the engineering confer-
ence is a leading figure in robotic research.
10 reserved vs. preserved
reserved [riza:rvd]
reserved = booked: (a seat, hotel room, etc.) available to
be used only by a particular person or group
Call the travel agent to confirm or change a
reserved seat.
preserved [priza:rvd]
preserved: (something) kept from being damaged
The area contains some excellently preserved
examples of Gothic architecture.
11 unoccupied vs. discarded
unoccupied [Anakjupaid]
unoccupied = empty: (a room, building, seat, etc.) not
being used by anyone
Although the building has been renovated, it
continues to remain unoccupied.
discarded [disk6:rdid]
discarded: (something) thrown away or got rid of
The discarded programs littered the floor of the
main hall after the event.
12 away vs. far
away [awei]
A unit of distance may be put before this adverb.
1 00 miles away from
The City Hall is located one kilometer away from
the Metro Station.
far [fa:r]
A unit of distance cannot be put before far, e.g. be located
10 miles far from the airport is wrongly used.
The company's factory is located far from the
n primarily vs. firstly
primarily [praimeralil
primarily = mainly = chiefly
The new laptop computers are primarily marketed
for business users.
firstly [fa:rstli]
firstly = in the first place (used to list things)
Firstly, Mr. Moore will give a few remarks before
we proceed with the agenda.
14 continually vs. lastingly
continually [kantinjuali]
continually: happening repeatedly /without stopping
The new manager is continually giving orders to
the staff.
lastingly [lffistiiJlil
lastingly: continuing for a long time or forever
Research is being conducted to find a lastingly
effective treatment for the disease.
1s prominently vs. markedly
prominently [pr6manantli]
Prominently: used to describe something that is in a
position in which it is easily seen
Exit signs must be prominently placed on all
markedly [ma:rkidlil
Markedly: used to describe a change or difference that is
very obvious or noticeable
change markedly
be markedly different
Recent consumer trends are markedly different
from those of the previous generation.
16 dramatically vs. numerously
dramatically [dramffitikali]
Dramatically: used to describe a sudden change
It is commonly used with such verbs as increase, climb,
grow, etc.
Sales are expected to increase dramatically once
prices go down.
numerously [nju:marasli]
numerously: in a large number or quantity
The jazz concert is expected to be numerously
11 strongly vs. stringently
strongly [str5:IJlil
strongly: in a serious way
The foreman strongly recommends that the
structure's flooring be removed.
stringently [strind3antlil
Stringently: used to describe a regulation / law that is
carried out strictly
Because of the accident, safety rules will likely be
enforced more stringently.
"" -<

"' ..
Part 5
01 The parking spaces at the front of the office
building are for the president and
other executives.
(A) controlled
(B) reformed
(C) preserved
(D) reserved
02 The tenth floor office was vacated some two
years ago and has remained ever
(A) unoccupied
(B) concealed
(C) suppressed
(D) discarded
03 Trendy coffee shops are replacing many of the
fast-food spots that were once so in
this town.
(A) leading
(B) prevalent
(C) habitual
(D) foremost
04 The security system allows almost every part
of the building to be monitored by
personnel at a surveillance center.
(A) timelessly
(B) lastingly
(C) continually
(D) movingly
05 Due to an unexpected illness, the executive
officer was forced to submit a letter announc-
ing his retirement.
(A) mature
(B) early
(C) ready
(D) previous
338 - Hackers TOEIC Reading
C9 Time limit: 7 minutes
06 All vehicles manufactured by Corona Motors
are inspected before they are
released for sale on the open market.
(A) stringently
(B) strongly
(C) impartially
(D) equally
07 A downturn in the company's financial
situation forced management to contemplate
carrying out mass employee layoffs.
(A) stable
(B) modern
(C) recent
(D) casual
08 Jerry Mathers, the personnel director at Cleaver
Financial Group, will conduct interviews for
the accounting position week.
(A) following
(B) next
(C) before
(D) later
09 For the past six months, Mr. Patrick has been
working on the accounts of foreign
(A) firstly
(B) originally
(C) primarily
(D) categorically
1 0 As soon as it became that Ms.
Billingsley would be joining the company
in Los Angeles, human resources started
interviewing applicants to be her personal
(A) apparent
(B) visible
(C) notable
(D) substantial
Part 6
Questions 11-13 refer to the following memo.
From: Human Resources
To: All Staff
Subject: New Health Care Scheme
The human resources department is pleased to announce that in an to better
11 (A) objection
(B) effort
(C) opinion
(D) influence
accommodate all employees' medical welfare needs, a new health care scheme has been devised,
taking effect from August 1.
After and thorough research, we have put together our most comprehensive package,
12 (A) spacious
(B) distracted
(C) extensive
(D) occasional
which includes optical and dental care benefits as well as additional regular health services. For
more information, please refer to the new employee manual.
13 (A) attached
(B) joined
(C) connected
(D) matched
Any suggestions or objections should be sent to Zoe Nelson in human resources within the next
two weeks, who will then pass them on to senior management for consideration. If you have any
other questions regarding this matter, do not hesitate to contact the human resources department.
Answers: p. 557
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. '
o Business-related reading comprehension
TOEIC is an English test which measures the everyday English skills of non-native people work-
ing in an international environment. Therefore, TOEIC reading passages involve business-related
settings and situations. All reading passages are generally in the form of business letters, e-mails,
announcements, articles, advertisements, etc.
o Reading comprehension skills
Questions in Part 7 of the TOEIC test aim at testing examinees' skills of reading. Examinees are
required to skim for understanding global ideas and scan for specific information in the reading
passages given. In addition, an ability to draw inferences is also necessary for doing the test of this
kind. You should daily practice to enhance your skills of reading, using not only general English
reading passages but also business-related texts.
Testing Points
Questions on the reading comprehension in the TOEIC test may be divided into five types of ques-
tions which will be presented in Section 1 of this part, and forms of reading passages which will be
presented in Sections 2 and 3 of this part.
Types of questions
Questions in Part 7 of the TOEIC test include such types of questions as overview, information, NOT I
TRUE, inference, and synonym questions.
Forms of passages
Single Passages
Most of the single passages given in Part 7 are short. These reading passages are of different text
types, such as business letters, e-mails, announcements, articles, advertisements, etc.
Double Passages
The last four reading passages in Part 7 are theme-related "paired readings" often known as "double
passages", for example, a business letter and an e-mail, an article and a letter, an advertisement and an
application form, etc.
Question Percentage
The two pie charts below show the percentage of questions on different forms of reading passages.
Instructions 8%
Memorandums 5%
Articles &
Reports 19V

, Non-prose readings 7%
E-mails/ Letters 29%
readings 12%
readings 22%
E-mail I Letter -related
readings 42%
Notices &
Announcements 15%
readings --'- 16.:...: o/c ..:... o __
[Single Passage] [Double Passage]
342 www.nnantriviet.com
Test-Taking Strategies ,
Step 1: Preview the introductory sentence to identify the form of the passage.
Read the introductory sentence Questions ... refer to the following ... at the beginning of each reading
passage to know what type of reading it is. If there are headings and sub-headings in the passage,
preview them so that you can get an overview of the whole passage.
For double passages, also read the introductory sentence Questions ... refer to the following (passage
1) and (passage 2) to see how the paired readings are related.
Step 2: Read the questions about the passage(s) to decide what types of questions
they are.
By skimming through the questions, you can identify whether they are overview, information, NOT I
TRUE, inference, or synonym questions.
For double passages, also skim through the questions to identify not only which types of questions
they are but which passage each of them refers to.
Step 3: Apply appropriate strategies to deal with each particular type of question.
For an overview question, choose the answer that focuses on the global idea or the gist of the reading
passage(s). For information, NOT /TRUE, inference questions, scan the reading passage(s) to find out
relevant information. For a synonym question, locate the statement where there is the item asked to
choose the correct answer.
For double passages, remember that you must look at both readings to find the answer for at least one
of the questions.
In the TOEIC test , possible answers may use paraphrasing, i. e. a restatement using other words. For
example, reorganize may be rephrased as restructure; zero tolerance for defects may be rephrased
as high-quality standard; e-mail address may be rephrased as contact information. You, thus, should
practice paraphrasing so that you can easily deal with possible questions in the TOEIC Reading test.
Part 7: Example - Singl e Passages
Question 1 refers to the following article. - -----------,
Famed author Dean Forest is well known for his insightful and
humorous stories about international relations. Mr. Forest has
received rave reviews from many prominent literature journals and
has also had three of his books appear on the New York Times
Best Seller List. Mr. Forest will do a reading from his latest collec-
lion of short stories entitled The Bengali in Platforms on Thursday,
June 16 at 7:30 p.m. in the Midland University English department
lounge. For a complete timetable of Dean Forest's appearances,
you can visit his website at www.deforest.com.
01 . According to the article, what information is available
at Mr. Forest's website?
(A) Book prices
(B) Writing tips
(C) Schedule of appearances
(D) List of best-selling books
Step 1: Preview the introductory sentence I
to identify the form of the passage.
n Step 3: Apply appropriate strategies to deal I
with each particular type of question.
i Step 2: Read the question about the pas-
sage to decide what type of question it is.
Part 7: Example - Double Passages
Question 1 refers to the following announcement and e-mail. ~
We have had an increase in sales at Papyri Inc. over the past few
months. As a result , the volume of calls and e-mails to our de-
partment has also risen. To address this problem, we will be hir-
ing another operator (Joe Martin) and assigning team members
with specific duties. Below is a list of each member and the types
of calls and e-mails they will be dealing with:
Brian Chretien Shipping delays/ shipping status
Kimberley Clark Product complaints
Joe Martin Order errors
John Campbell New orders
- --
We hope this will make your jobs easier. Should you have any
questions, call George Mulroney at extension 219.
To: <customerservice@papyri.com>
From: Julia Brockovich <julbrock@ boohoo.com>
Subject: Shipment
I placed an order for 200 binders with our company logo on April
20. The binders were meant for clients at a trade fair I am attend-
Step 1 : Preview the introductory sentence
to identify the form of the passages and
their relation.
I Step 3-2: Apply appropriate strategies to
I deal with each particular type of question.
ing at on May 6. Your company said we would receive the ship- Y Step 3-1: Apply appropriate strategies to I
ment within one week, but it still hasn't arrived. I deal with each particular type of question.
I am leaving for the trade fair on May 5 and urgently need these
binders before I leave. Please contact me as soon as possible to
let me know the status of our shipment and when I can expect it
to arrive.
Julia Brockovich
01 . Who wil l most likely deal with Ms. Brockovich' s complaint? - ---1 Step 2: Read the question about the pas-
( A) Kimberley Clark sages to decide what type of question it is
and which passage it refers to.
(B) Brian Chretien
(C) Joe Martin
(D) John Campbell
Section 1
Types of Questions
Chapter 01 - Overview Questions
Chapter 02 - Information Questions
Chapter 03 - NOT /TRUE Questions
Chapter 04 - Inference Questions
Chapter 05 - Synonym Questions
Overview questions, also known as gist questions, test examinees' ability to identify the main
idea or purpose of a passage. The main idea or purpose is usually found at the beginning of
the passage, and the supporting ideas or details follow it .
Typical Questions and Useful Tips
Typical Questions
Main idea What is the main topic of the notice?
What does the article mainly discuss?
What is the information about?
Purpose What is the purpose of the letter?
What is the main purpose of this notice?
Why was this memo written?
Why does Ms. Carter write this letter?
Useful Tips
To answer an overview question correctly, you need an overall understanding of the reading passage.
Most reading passages usually start with a topic sentence which states the main idea. You, therefore,
should read the first sentence. Occasionally, the topic sentence may be found in the middle or even at
the end of the passage. In this case, you have to skim through the passage to find out the key point.
=:J Topic
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ] t i l
Q: What is the purpose of this article? A: To announce a hiring decision
Q: Why was this letter written? A: To confirm hotel arrangements
348 - Hackers TOEIC Reading www .nha ntriviet.com

Reading Practice
Read the following passages and choose the best answer to each question given.
Yesterday our office received the package of book covers you sent on November 3. The order came
to us complete and earl ier than expected. After reviewing the designs, one of our staff will contact
your office to let you know of our choice.
Q. What is the main purpose of this letter?
(A) To select the appropriate cover design
(B) To confirm the receipt of a shipment
(C) To place an order for book covers
Anyone who has ever been to Greece knows that if there is one thing you can always find there, it is
sun. And now the country's Department of Natural Resources is suggesting the nation turn almost en-
tirely to solar power to avoid the economic pitfalls of high oil prices. Recent rises in costs of barrels of
crude oil have left many less developed nations in a state of energy crisis. While some countries lack
the natural energy sources to make up for the loss, Greece is fortunate to be able to utilize its almost
year-round solar power.
L , '
Q. What is the purpose of this article?
(A) To explain Greece's response to the energy crisis
(B) To explore energy options for poor nations
(C) To indicate the benefits of solar energy
Recently I saw your advertisement in the paper for a receptionist at your main office. I would like some
more information regarding the opportunity to work for your company. Please send any pertinent infor-
mation to the address at the top of this letter.
Q. Why was this letter written?
(A) To advertise a job opening
(B) To inquire about employment
(C) To apply for the position
Please be aware that the clean-up we announced last week will take place on the evening of May 1
for Building A. All interior and exterior glass as well as floors, walls and carpets will be cleaned with
toxic chemical agents. Individuals should prepare by putting all their materials into the drawers of their
desks and bringing home any important documents or valuable personal items. Cleaning personnel
are only allowed to move office furniture and appliances. Rest assured that the office will be de-fumi-
gated before anyone is permitted back into the building.
Q. What is the purpose of this memo?
(A) To announce the replacement of old carpets
(B) To remind occupants of moving-in procedures
(C) To ask for cooperation regarding the cleaning
tAI\AI\111 ..... h ........ + ... :,,: ,..+ ,.... ,... ..........

" <0

Paraphrasing Practice
Choose a correct rephrased statement for each reading passage.
Melrose Bank recently discovered that some clients who signed up for our special banking service
have been paying an additional ATM fee. The second ATM fee will be reimbursed to our clients' ac-
counts next week.
' ' I ' I
(A) Customers of the bank will no longer pay any ATM fees.
(B) The bank will pay cl ients through their bank accounts.
Protect-It zipper-lock plastic bags are effective at protecting anything from the elements. Ordinary
plastic bags cannot keep water out, but Protect-It bags have a patented closure and material design
that prevents moisture from entering the bag.
(A) Protect-It bags can hold large amounts of water.
(B) Protect-It bags are made of water resistant material.
Capital Alliance, Inc. is looking for a degreed accountant or a CPA. The ideal candidate should have
three to five years auditing and accounting experience.
(A) Knowledge of the newest accounting principles is required.
(B) A university diploma is a requirement for the job.
The top two car companies are planning to trim production as the increasing cost of gasoline has
caused a prolonged slump in sales of trucks and cars. Faced with an inventory pile-up, Ace Motors
and Townsend Cars will be cutting production by 15 percent over the next two quarters.
(A) Poor sales are causing top automobile manufacturers to cut production. ;
(B) Reduced production can offset increasing gas prices.
350 - Hackers TOEIC Reading www.nhantriviet.com


~ o make your stay at the Paradise !Beach Resort a pleasant one, please pay strict attention to our
;rules on cleanliness. Because it is costly and difficult to remove debris and spilled liquids, guests who
'leave their huts dirty will forfeit the $
100 key deposit for use of a hut.
I l
(A) Customers will have to put down a deposit in case of damage to the room.
(B) The deposit will not be refunded if the hut is not left clean.
The W