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Last Home Coming and Trial

Last Home Coming

October 8, 1896- Rizal learned that the Madrid
papers were full of stories regarding the
revolutions in the Philippines and he was blamed
from it.
October 11, 1896- Rizal’s diary was confiscated
during his way to Port Said, his cabin was
searched nothing significant was found. On
November 11, 1896 his diary was returned.
Unsuccessful Rescue in
Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor and Sixto Lopez dispatch
telegrams to an English lawyer in Singapore named
Hugh Fort to rescue Rizal when his arrive, by means of
writ of habeas corpus
When the Spanish steamer arrived Atty. Fort instituted
proceedings at the Singapore Court for the immediate
removal of Rizal from the said steamer.
Chief Justice Loinel Cox denied the writ of habeas
corpus on the ground because the steamer carry
Spanish troops hence it is a warship of foreign power
which under the international law was beyond the
jurisdiction of Singapore Authorities
Arrival in Manila
November 3, 1896- Rizal arrived at Manila
Spanish authorities gather evidence
against Rizal while Deodato Arellano, Dr,
Pio Valenzuela, Moises Salvador, Jose
Dizon, Domingo Franco, Temoteo Paez, and
Pedro Serrano Laktaw were brutally
tortured to implicate Rizal
Rizal owned brother was also arrested and
tortured but never said anything against his
younger brother.
First Investigation
November 20, 1896- preliminary investigation
was conducted.
Rizal as the accused appeared before Judge
Advocate, Colonel Francisco Olive. He was
subjected to a 5 day investigation, Rizal was
informed about his charges and been given the
chance to answer the questions they have on
him though he was never permitted to confront
those people who testified against him.
Two Evidences presented against him, namely
documentary an d testimonial.
Documentary Evidences:
A letter from Antonio to Mariano Ponce dated Madrid
October 16, 1888, showing Rizal connection with the
Filipino reform campaign in Spain.
A letter of Rizal to his family, dated Madrid, August 20,
1890, stating that the deportations are good for they
will encourage the people to hate tyranny.
A letter from Marcelo H. del Pilar to Deodato Arellano,
dated Madrid, January 7, 1889, implicating Rizal in the
propaganda movement campaign in Spain.
A poem entitled Kundiman , allegedly written by Rizal
in Manila on September 12, 1891
 A letter from Carlos Oliver to an unidentified person, dated
Barcelona, September 18, 1891, describing Rizal as the man to
free the Philippines from Spanish oppression.
 A masonic lodge document, dated Manila, February 9, 1892,
honoring Rizal for his patriotic services.
A letter signed Dimasalang ( Rizal’s pseudonym) to Tenlunz
(Juan Zulueta’s pseudonym), dated Hongkong, May 24, 1892,
stating that he was preparing a safe refuge for Filipinos who
may persecuted by the Spanish authorities.
A letter to Dimasalang to an unidentified committee, dated
Hongkong, June 1, 1892, soliciting the aid of the committee in
the “patriotic work”
Am anonymous and undated letter to the Editor of
Hongkong Telegraph, censuring the banishment of Rizal to
A letter to Ildefonso Laurel to Rizal, dated Manila,
informing an unidentified correspondent of the arrest and
the banishment of Doroteo Cortes and Ambrosio Salvador.
A letter to Marcelo H. del Pilar to Don Juan A. Tenluz (Juan
Zulueta), dated Madrid, June 1, 1893 recommending the
establishment of a special organization, independent of
Masonry, to help the cause of the Filipino people.
Transcript of a speech of Pingkian (Emilio Jacinto) in a
reunion to a Katipunan on July 23, 1893, in which the
following cry uttered “Long Live the Philippines! Long Live
Liberty!lOng live Dr. Rizal Unity!”
Transcript of speech of Tik-Tik (Jose Turiano
Santiago) in the same Katipunan reunion where
in the katipuneros shouted “ Long Live the
eminent Dr. Jose Rizal! Death to the oppressor
A poem by Laong Laan (Jose Rizal) entitled
Talisay, in which the author makes Dapitan
schoolboys sing that they know how to fight of
their rights.
The testimonial evidence consisted of the oral testimonies of
Martin Constantino, Aguedo del Rosario, Jose Reyes, Moises
Salvador Jose Dizon, Domingo Franco, Deodato Arellano,
Ambrosio Salvador, Pedro Serrano Laktaw, Dr. Pio Valenzuela,
Antonio Salazar, Francisco Quison, and Temoteo Paez
November 6, 1896- after the investigation, Col. Olive
transmitted the records of the case to Gov. Gen. Ramon
Blanco, and the letter appointed Capt. Rafael Dominguez as
special Judge advocate to institute the corresponding action
against Rizal.
Dominguez made a brief resume of the charges and returned
the papers to the Governor General, who thereupon
transmitted them to the Judge Advocate General Don
Nicholas de la Peña for an opinion.
Peña submitted the following reccomendations:
The accused should be immediately brought to
He should be kept in prison
An order of attachment be issued against his
property to the amount one million pesos as an
indemnity, and
He should be defended in court by an army
officer, not by a civilian officer.
Rizal’s defender:
Rizal chooses a defense council which is
the only right given to him by the Spanish
December 8, 1896 100 first and second
lieutenants in the Spanish Army was
presented to Rizal
Lt. Taviel de Andrade chosen by Rizal to be
his defense, he was the brother of Jose
Taviel de Andrade his previous bodyguard.
Charges to the accused
He was accused of being ‘ the principal
organizer and the living soul of the
Filipino insurrection, the founder of
societies, periodicals and books
dedicated to fomenting and propagating
ideas of rebellion’
He pleaded not guilty to the crime of
Manifesto to Some Filipinos
Submitted on Dec 15
To inform the people that he condemned the
rebellion because he wanted their liberties to
be attained through education and lacked
the participation of ‘those from above’
Was not published because it did not
condemn the rebellion in its totality but only
in two aspects: lack of participation and
Trial of Rizal
Prosecution (Alcocer) asked for death
sentence; if pardon, permanent
disqualification and subjection to
surveillance of authority, indemnity of 20,
000 pesos
De Andrade in defense, delivered an
impressive speech and claimed that the
guilt of Rizal has not been legally
Rizal supplemented his defender’s points in
Polavieja signs Rizal’s
Same afternoon (Dec 26), death
sentence was passed with the same
condition except that indemnity was
raised to 100,000pesos
On Dec 28, Gov. Gen Polavieja approved
the sentence, ordering Rizal be
executed by firing squad two days later
at 7 a.m. Luneta
 Coates, A. 1968. Rizal: Philippine Nationalist
and Martyr. Oxford Press. Hong Kong
 Vaño, M. 1997. Jose Rizal :Champion of the
Nation’s Redemption. Giraffe Books . Quezon
 Zaide, G. F. and S. M. Zaide. 1994. Jose Rizal:
Life, Works, and Writings of a Genius, Writer,
Scientist, and National Hero. All-Nations
Publishing Co., Inc. Quezon City