Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 360

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I.

12

1. . . . . . . . .

15

1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.
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1.2.
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1.3.
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1.4.
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2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.
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2.2.
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2.3.
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3. . . . . .
3.1.
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3.2.
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3.3.
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3.4.
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4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.
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4.2.
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4.3.
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4.4.
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5. . . . . .
5.1.
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5.2.
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5.3.
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5.4.
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20
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24
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32

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6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.
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6.2.
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6.3.
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6.4.
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7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.
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7.2.
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7.3.
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7.4.
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8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1.
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8.2.
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8.3.
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8.4.
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32
32
33
33
34
35
35
35
36
38
38
38
39
40
41

2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

1. . ,
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1.1.
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1.2.
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1.3.
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1.4.
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2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.
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2.2.
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2.3.
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2.4.
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3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.
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3.2.
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3.3.
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3.4.
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4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.
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4.2.
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4.3.
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4.4.
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5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.
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5.2.
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5.3.
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5.4.
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42
42
43
44
45
46
46
47
47
50
50
50
51
51
53
53
53
54
54
55
55
55
56
57
59

6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.
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6.2.
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6.3.
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6.4.
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7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.
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7.2.
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7.3.
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7.4.
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8. . e . . . . . . . . .
8.1.
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8.2.
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8.3.
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8.4.
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9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.
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9.2.
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9.3.
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9.4.
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3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. ( ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.
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1.2.
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1.3.
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1.4.
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2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.
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2.2.
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2.3.
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2.4.
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3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.
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3.2.
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3.3.
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3.4.
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4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.
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4.2.
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4.3.
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4.4.
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59
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70
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80
81
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84
84
84
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86
89
90
90
90
91
94

5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.
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5.2.
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5.3.
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5.4.
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6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.
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6.2.
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6.3.
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6.4.
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7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.
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7.2.
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7.3.
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7.4.
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8. ( ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1.
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8.2.
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8.3.
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8.4.
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9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.
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9.2.
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9.3.
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9.4.
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10. . . . . .
10.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12. , . . . . . . . .
12.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95
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101
102
102
104
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105
106
106
107
108
111
112
112
113
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118
119
119
121
121
125
126
126
127
128
132
133
133
134
134
136

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1.
2. . . . . . .
3. .

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137
137
137
138

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1. K 139
2. K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

II.

1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.
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1.2.
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1.3.
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1.4.
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2. . .
2.1.
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2.2.
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2.3.
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2.4.
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3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.
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3.2.
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3.3.
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3.4.
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4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.
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4.2.
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4.3.
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4.4.
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5. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.
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5.2.
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5.3.
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5.4.
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149
149
149
150
150
153
154
154
156
156
161
162
162
162
162
166
166
166
167
168
170
171
171
172
173
176

6. , . . . . . .
6.1.
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6.2.
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6.3.
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6.4.
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7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.
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7.2.
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7.3.
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7.4.
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176
176
177
178
179
179
179
181
181
183

2. . . . . . . .
1. . . . . .
1.1.
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1.2.
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1.3.
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1.4.
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2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.
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2.2.
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2.3.
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2.4.
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3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.
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3.2.
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3.3.
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3.4.
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184
184
184
185
186
188
189
189
190
191
196
196
196
198
199
208

3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.
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1.2.
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1.3.
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1.4.
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2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.
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2.2.
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2.3.
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2.4.
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3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.
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3.2.
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3.3.
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210
210
210
210
211
215
216
216
217
218
221
221
221
223
223

3.4.
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4. . . . . . . . .
4.1.
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4.2.
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4.3.
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4.4.
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5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.
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5.2.
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5.3.
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227
227
227
229
229
233
233
233
234
241

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1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

III.

1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
1. . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.
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1.2.
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1.3.
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1.4.
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2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.
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2.2.
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2.3.
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2.4.
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3. . .
3.1.
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3.2.
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3.3.
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3.4.
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253
253
255
256
260
260
260
261
262
276
277
277
278
278
283

10

2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. .
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1.1.
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1.2.
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1.3.
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1.4.
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2. . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.
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2.2.
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2.3.
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2.4.
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3. . . . . .
3.1.
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3.2.
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3.3.
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3.4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .

284

3. . . . . . . . .
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.
. . . . . . . . . . .
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.
. . . . . . . . . . .
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.
. . . . . . . . . . .
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.
. . . . . . . . . . .

301
301
301
302
302
305
306
306
307
307
310
310
310
312
312
314
315
315
316
316
320

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
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.

.
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.

284
284
286
287
289
290
290
290
291
295
296
296
296
297
299

4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321

11

1.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.
. . . . . . . . . . .
2. . . . .
2.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.
. . . . . . . . . . .
3. .
3.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.
. . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .
1. .
2. . . .
3.
4. .

........
........
........

........

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
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.

.
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.

.
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.
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.

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.

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.

.
.
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.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

321
324
325
330
330
330
332
332
337
337
337
338
339
341

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

342
342
345
347
350

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
1. : . . 351
2. :
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360



- . :
, .
,
, .
, ,
, .
,
. 3 : , , .
,

. , . ( , , ).
,
, , , ,
.
,
. , ( ,
), ;
,
, , ; .

, ;

.
.

1.
1.1. . : N ; Z ; Q ; R
.
,
A B , A B B

A.
, .
R:

[a, b] = {x R | a  x  b} ;
(a, b) = {x R | a < x < b} ;
[a, b) = {x R | a  x < b},
(a, b] = {x R | a < x  b} ;
[a, +) = {x R | x  a},
(a, +) = {x R | x > a},
(, b] = {x R | x  b},
(, b) = {x R | x < b} , ;
(a , a + ) = {x R | a < x < a + } -
a ( > 0).
, a , |a|

16

. 1.

|a| =

a,
a,

a  0;
a < 0.

(x, y) x y (x, y) = |x y|.


.
1. a R :
1)

|a|  0;

2)

|a| = | a|;

3)

|a|  a  |a|.

2. a, b R :
1)
2)
1.2.

|a + b|  |a| + |b| ;


 |a| |b|   |a b|.

1). , a, b R :
 
 a  |a|
2)   =
b = 0;
1) |ab| = |a||b|;
b
|b|
3) |a| |b|  |a b|  |a| + |b|.
2). : > 0, |x|   x 
.
3). ,

1.3.

a2 = |a| a R.

1.1. |x a|  , a, R
.

 |x a|  0 x R.
, < 0,
x R.  0. x a  0 |x a| 
x a  . x  a + .
x a < 0, |x a|  a x  ,
x  a . , < 0,
R;  0,
(; a ) (a + ; +).


17

2.

1.2.

|x| < < x < , > 0.


 1). |x| < . x  0, , |x| = x,
0  x < < x < . x < 0, |x| = x,
x < ,
x > . < x < 0 , ,
< x < .
2). < x < . , x < x > ,
x < . |x| x,

x, |x| < .
1.4.

.
:

1.1. |2x + 3| = x2 ;
1.3. |x2 5x + 6| = (x2 5x + 6);

1.2. |x| = x2 6;


x 1 x 1
1.4. 
.
=
x+1

x+1

:


x
 x 
;
1.6. |x2 5x 6|  x2 5x 6;
1.5. 
>
x
+
1
x
+
1


1.7.
x2 + 6x + 9 + x2 6x + 9 > 6.

2.
2.1. . () P (n) (, , )
n. , . . P (n)
n N, :
1) P (1) ;
2) , P (k),
k , ,
P (k + 1).
2

18

. 1.

.
P (n)
n :
1. P (1);
2. , P (k) ;
3. P (k + 1).
, P (n) n N.
2.1 ( ).
a, b R n N

(a + b)n = an + Cn1 an1 b + Cn2 an2 b2 + + Cnn1 abn1 + bn ,

Cnk =

n(n 1) (n (k 1))
, k = 1, 2, . . . , n 1.
k!

(a + b)n >

2.2.

n(n 1) n2 2
a b a > 0, b > 0.
2

(2.1)

2.1. :
12 + 22 + + n2 =

n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
,
6

n N.

 P (n), . .
1 2 (2 + 1)

.
1. P (1) , 12 =
6
2. , P (k) , . .
k(k + 1)(2k + 1)
.
12 + 22 + + k 2 =
6

3. (k + 1)2 ,
12 + 22 + + k 2 + (k + 1)2 =

k(k + 1)(2k + 1)
+ (k + 1)2 .
6

19

2.

:
k(k + 1)(2k + 1)
k+1
+ (k + 1)2 =
(2 k 2 + 7 k + 6 ) =
6
6
(k + 1)(k + 2)(2k + 3)
=
.
6

,
12 + 22 + + k 2 + (k + 1)2 =

(k + 1)((k + 1) + 1)(2(k + 1) + 1)
.
6

, P (k + 1) . , , n = k ,
n = k + 1. ,

n N.
2.2. :

4n > n2 ,

n N.

 1. P (1) , 4 > 12 .
2. , P (k) , . . 4k > k 2 .
4, 4k+1 > 4k 2 .
3. , 4k 2  (k + 1)2 k  1. 3k 2
2k 1  0, (, 1/3]
[1, +). k  1 4k 2  (k + 1)2
. , P (k + 1) .
, 4n > n2 n N. 
2.3. :

(1 + )n  1 + n, > 1, n N.
 1. P (1) ,
1 +  1 + .
2. , P (k) , . . (1 + )k  1 + k.
3. 1 + .
, > 1 1 + > 0,
(1 + )k+1  (1 + k)(1 + )  1 + (k + 1) + k2 .
k2  0, (1 + )k+1  1 + (k + 1).
, n = k ,
n = k + 1. ,

.
2*

20

. 1.

2.3.

.
:

2.1. 1 + 3 + 5 + + (2n 1) = n2 ;
1
1
1
n
+
+ +
=
;
12
23
n(n + 1)
n+1
2a + d(n 1)
n
2.3. a + (a + d) + + (a + d(n 1)) =
2

2.2.

n ;
2.4. a + aq + + aq n1 =

a(q n 1)
q1

(q = 1)

n ;
 n(n + 1) 2
.
2.5. 13 + 23 + + n3 =
2

:
2.6.
2.7.
2.8.
2.9.

(n + 3)! > 2n+3 ;

1
1
n  1 + +  2 n;
2

|x1 + x2 + + xn |  |x1 | + |x2 | + + |xn |,


x1 , x2 , , xn R;
(1 + x1 )(1 + x2 ) (1 + xn )  1 + x1 + x2 + + xn ,
x1 , x2 , , xn ,
xi > 1 i = 1, 2, . . . , n.

3. .

3.1. . () X x0 X x  x0 (x  x0 ).
, x X
max X min X .
. , , , , .
X R. X , M > 0 , x X |x|  M .

3. .

21

X (),
M R , x X x  M (x  M ).
M ,
() X .
(, ) .
() ,
, () , . =,

() .
, , ()
:
1) X ,

M > 0 x X |x|  M ;
2) X ,

M R x X x  M ;
3) X ,

M R x X x  M.
X
, ;
sup X . X
, , inf X .
X , sup X =
= +; , X , inf X = .
3.1. R X , :
1) x X x  ; 2) < x X , x > .
3.2. R X , :
1) x X x  ; 2) > x X , x < .
3.3. 1). , .

22

. 1.

2). ,
.
3.2.

:
1). X X .
2). X R, Y R, x X y Y x  y .
X , Y sup X  inf Y .
3). X R X = {x| x X}. sup (X ) = inf X ,
inf (X ) = sup X .
4). X R, Y R, x X y Y x < y .
sup X  sup Y .
5). , , : ) ; ) ; ) .

3.3.

X , , .


1
3.1. X = x = , n N .
n

 0 <  1 n N. ,
n
M = 1, , x X
|x|  M , . . X .



1
3.2. X = x = n + , n N .
n
1
 n + > 0 n N. ,
n

X , M = 0 ,
. , X .

3. .

23

, : M R x X x > M .
M R n, n > M .
1
n xn = n + > M , , X
n
.

3.3. :
1) X ,
sup X = max X ;
2) X ,
inf X = min X .

 x0 = max X . ,
x X x  x0 X ,
x0 , . , x0 . ,
, X ,
x X x  x0  . , ,
sup X = x0 = max X .
.

X , ( ).
3.4. X = (0, 1].

 x (0, 1] 0  x  1, . . X
3.3 . 1 X , ,
3.3, sup X = max X = 1. , inf X = 0. :
1) x X x  0; 2)
> 0 x = /2 , x X x < .
, 3.2, inf X = 0. ,

, min X .
3.5. X = [2, +).

 x [2, +) x  2, . . X
3.3 .
2 X , min X = 2 inf X = min X = 2.
X , M R x
X , x > M . x
M < 2 x = 2, M  2 x = M + 1.

, sup X = +, max X .

24

. 1.

3.4.

X , , .
3.1. X = (5, +);

3.2. X = (3, 1) (2, 4);


n

3.3. X = {x = (1) n2 , n N};




2
3.4. X = x = 3 + n , n N .
9

X sup X , inf X , max X , min X :


3.5. X = {x = ((1)n + 1)n2 , n N};


1
,nN .
3.6. X = x =
2n

4.
4.1. . X R Y R
. , f , X
Y , x X y Y . X . y0 Y ,
x0 X , x0 ,
f (x0 ).
:
1) f : X Y , 2) y = f (x), x X .
: y = f (x),
f . , , . . y = f (x)
y = y(x). D(f ). y Y ,
x X , y = f (x),
f , E(f ).

.
:
1.
X Y
(). -

4.

25

.
,
.
2. X Y
. .
3. X Y
.
.
1. x:

1 x > 0,
0 x = 0,
f (x) = sgn x =

1 x < 0;
2. x: f (x) = [x], [x]
x, . . , x;
3. x: f (x) = {x}, {x} = x [x].
y = f (x), x X , XOY
(x, f (x)), x X .
y = g (x)

y = f (x).
y = g (x)

y = f (x)

y = f (x) + c

OY c

y = f (x c)

OX c

y = f (x)

OY

y = f (x)

OX

y = af (x)

( a > 1) ( 0 < a < 1)


OY
( 0 < a < 1) ( a > 1)
OX

y = f (ax)

f g , D(f ) = D(g )
f (x) = g (x) . A D(f ) D(g ),
f g A. ,

26

. 1.

, ,
f = const, f C .
4.2.

1). , , : )
R \ {1, 1, 2
}; ) (2, 2) (3, 5); )
{ 2}; ) {3, 0, 3}.
2). , , : )
R \ {1}; ) (2, 2); ) {3, 3}.

4.3.

4.1.

x+2
f (x) = 5 2
.
4
x

 4
x , x  0. x = 0 x = 1
x2 4 x . x+2
a = 2
x 4x

x > 0, x = 1. 5 a
a R. : D(f ) = (0, 1) (1, +).

4.2.
1
x
1
f (x) = x +
 2,
x

f (x) = x + , x (0, +).


(x 1)2

x +

1
2 =
x

 0
x > 0. ,
=
x
E(f ) [2, +). , [2, +) E(f ).
1
y [2, +). x + = y x = 0
x

x2 xy + 1 = 0,

x =

y2 1
. y  2,
2

27

4.

D(f ). ,
y [2, +) x D(f ) , y = f (x), . .
[2, +) E(f ). , , E(f ) = [2, +).


4.4.

:
4.1. f =


1/ cos2 3x 1
5x 1


x2 + 2x 1
.
4.3. f =
cos x

4.2. f = log5 (2 sin x + 1);

:

x1
4.5. f =
;
4.4. f = 1 4x2 ;
x+1

1
;
4.6. f = 2
x +3

4.7. f = 9x + 3x .

4.8. f (x) =

4.9. f (x) =

2x 1, 0  x  1;
1 , x > 1.
x
|x + 1| + |x 3|, x  2;

4.10. f (x) = sgn x;

|x|
, x < 2.
x

4.11. f (x) = [x];

4.12. f (x) = {x}.

: f (x), f (x), f (x), f (x),


f (x) 2, f (x 2), :
4.13. f (x) = 3x + 1;

4.14. f (x) = 2x x2 ;

4.15. f (x) =

1
.
x

28

. 1.

: f (x), |f (x)|, f (|x|), :


4.16. f (x) = 3x 1;
4.18. f (x) =

4.17. f (x) = x2 x 2;

1
.
x1

:

x 

1

4.19. f = 2 + 3 sin

;
4.20. f = tg 3x +
;
3
6
2
+ 5;
4.21. f =
(x + 2)3



x
.
4.23. f = 1 + 2 arctg 1

3
2x 1
4.22. f = arcsin
;
3

5. .

5.1. . X R. X ,
x (x). f , D(f ) x D(f ) c
f (x) = f (x). f ,
D(f )
x D(f ) c f (x) = f (x).
, .
() A D(f ), x1 , x2 A x1 < x2 f (x1 )  f (x2 ) (f (x1 )  f (x2 )).
( ) A D(f ), x1 , x2 A
x1 < x2 f (x1 ) < f (x2 )
(f (x1 ) > f (x2 )). ,
.

5. .

5.2.

29

:
1). a)
;
b)
.
2).
,
.
3). a) y = sin x
[/2; /2];
b) y = cos x [0; ];
c) ()
().
4). f (x) A , 1/f (x) A.
5). a) f (x) (a, b),
f (x) (b, a);
b) f (x) (a, b),
f (x) (b, a).
6). : f (x) (a, b) (b, c), a < b < c, f (x) (a, c)?
7). :
:
) ; ) ; ) ?
8). () ,
:
) ;
) ?
9). , f (x) = [x] ,
.

30

. 1.

5.3.

,
.
5.1. f =

x sin x
.
x2 + 1

 D(f ) = R,
. y = sin x, x R
f (x) =

(x) sin(x)
x sin x
= 2
= f (x).
2
(x) + 1
x +1

, .
5.2. f = |x + 2|.

 D(f ) = R. . f (x) f (x) x = 2.


f (2) = | 2 + 2| = 0, f (2) = |2 + 2| = 4. ,
f (2) = f (2), f (2) = f (2). ,

, .
5.3. f = ln

1x
.
1+x

 ,

1x
> 0. x,
1+x

|x| < 1. D(f ) = (1, 1);


, x D(f ) :
 1 x 1
1+x
1x
f (x) = ln
= ln
= ln
= f (x).
1x

1+x

, .

1+x

1
5.4. f = 2
.
x 3x + 2

 x,
, x2 3x + 2 = 0.
: x = 1 x = 2, ,
D(f ) = R \ {1, 2}. D(f ) ,

, .
5.5. , f = ax2 + bx + c: a)
a > 0 (, b/2a]
[b/2a, +); ) a < 0 (, b/2a]
[b/2a, +).

31

5. .



b 2
b2
 f (x) = ax2 + bx + c = a x +
+c ,
2a

f (x2 ) f (x1 ) = a



b
x2 +
2a

2

4a

 

b 2
=
x1 +
2a



b
.
= a(x2 x1 ) x1 + x2 +
a

a). a > 0. x1 < x2


f (x2 )
 b 
f (x1 ) x1 + x2 + .
a
x1 , x2 (, b/2a],
 b
b
b
= ; x1 + x2 + < 0,
x1 + x2 < 2
2a

f (x2 ) f (x1 ) < 0. , f (x)


(, b/2a]. x1 , x2 [b/2a, +)
x1 + x2 + b/a > 0, f (x2 ) f (x1 ) > 0, . .
f (x) [b/2a, +).
). a < 0, . 
5.6.

f (x) =

1
x.
x

 D(f ) = R \ {0}, f (x) ,


D(f )
f (x) =

1
+ x = f (x)
x

x D(f ).

f (x) (0, +),

f (x2 ) f (x1 ) =

x1 x2
+ (x1 x2 ) < 0 0 < x1 < x2 .
x1 x2

f (x), (. . . 5,

. 5.2) , f (x) (, 0).

32

. 1.

5.4.

,
:

5.2. f = 1 x2 ;
5.1. f = (x 1)2 ;

tg 4x
5.4. f =
;
5.3. f = x;
x

(x + 2)3
;
5.6. f = ln(x + x2 + 1).
5.5. f =
4
(x 1)

:
5.7. f = x6 + 8x4 + 1;
5.9. f =

1
;
4x2 + 4x + 3

5.8. f = x3 x;
5.10. f =

1
.
8 x3

6.
6.1. . f
A D(f ), M > 0
, x A
|f (x)|  M . f () A D(f ),
M R , x A f (x)  M
(f (x)  M ).
() f A
D(f ) () {y
R | y = f (x), x A}.
() sup f (x), sup f
xA

( inf f (x), inf f ).


xA

xA

xA

x0 A (A D(f )) , x A
f (x)  f (x0 ) (f (x)  f (x0 )), f (x0 ) () f A.
f (x0 ) max f (x), max f
xA

xA

(min f (x), min f ). f xA

xA

A, sup f = max f . ,
xA

min f , inf f = min f .


xA

xA

xA

xA

33

6.

A = D(f ), A .
6.2.

1). , .
2). , ,
: ) ; )
; ) .
3). , y = ax2 + bx + c:
a) a > 0 ;
) a < 0 .

6.3.

f (x).
6.1. f =

x
.
x2 + 1



 x 
 = |x| .
|f (x)| =  2
x + 1
|x|2 + 1

(|x| 1)2  0, |x|2 + 1  2|x|


1

|x|
1

2
2
|x| + 1

x R. , M = ,
2
x R |f (x)|  M , . . f (x) .

6.2. f = x3 x,

A = (2, 3].

 f (x) R ( 5.8).
: f (2) > f (x)  f (3), . . 10 > f (x)  30
x A. , x A |f (x)|  30, . . f (x)
A.

1

6.3. , f (x) =
x5
, .

 f
E(f ). ,
3

34

. 1.

y =
x
x5
y = 0. E(f ) = (, 0) (0, +),

, .
sup f (x), inf f (x), max f (x), min f (x).
xA

xA

6.4. f =

xA

xA

1
, A = R.
x +1
2

 Y = {y R | y = f (x), x
A}. , Y = (0, 1]. x R
1
0< 2
 1, Y (0, 1]. y (0, 1]
x +1

1
y = 2
x = 1/y 1, (0, 1] Y .
x +1

, Y = (0, 1]. Y = (0, 1]


( 3.4):
sup Y = max Y = 1, inf Y = 0, min Y . :
sup f (x) = sup Y = 1, max f (x) = max Y = 1 = f (0),
xA

inf f (x) = inf Y = 0,

xA

6.5. f =

xA

min f (x) .
xA

x+1
, A = (0, +).
x

 Y = {y R | y = f (x), x A}.
4.2 , Y = [2, +). Y
( 3.5):
inf Y = min Y = 2, sup Y = +,
max Y .
:
inf f (x) = inf Y = 2, min f (x) = min Y = 2 = f (1),
xA

xA

sup f (x) = sup Y = +, max f (x) .


xA

xA

6.4.

:
6.1. f = x2 x 1, A = [1, 4];
6.3. f =

x3
;
x4 + 1

1
, A = [0, 3];
x5
2x + 3
6.4. f =
.
|2x + 3|

6.2. f =

35

7.

,
, :
6.5. f = (x 1)2 ;
6.7. f =

6.6. f = 

x + 2, A = (1, 10);

sup f (x),
xA

inf f (x),

6.11. f =

x2
,
x4 + 2

A = R;

1 x2

A = (1, 1);

6.8. f =

1
.
x4

max f (x), min f (x).

xA

6.9. f = x2 + 2x, A = [3, 0];

xA

xA

x2
, A = R;
x2 + 1
x3
6.12. f =
, A = (, 0).
|x|

6.10. f =

7.
7.1. . X T (T = 0), x X ,
x + T X x T X . f T , D(f )
T x D(f ) c
f (x + T ) = f (x). , T ,
T .
7.2.

:
1). f (x) T , f (ax + b), a = 0, T /a.

2). T f , (T )
.
3). T1 , T2 f , (T1 + T2 )
.

3*

36

. 1.

4). T f , n Z n = 0
nT f .
5). ,

1, x ,
D(x) =
0, x .
.
6). , f (x) = {x} ,
, .
7). : )
, ; ) |f (x)| , f (x) ?
8). , R,
?
9). : ) ; ) R(x) =
= P (x)/Q(x), P (x), Q(x) , .

7.3.

, .
7.1. f = tg

3x
+ 4.
2

 y = tg x x R
, x = /2 + k , k Z. 3x

= + k , k Z,
x,
2
. .

2

2
D(f ) = x R| x = + k , k Z .
3

7.

37

2
. ,
3

2
=
x D(f ) f x +
3

D(f ) T =

= f (x).

3(x + 2/3)
3x
3x
+ 4 = tg
+ + 4 = tg
+ 4.
2
2
2
2
, ,
.
3

tg

7.2. f = cos x.


, . . D(f ) = [0, +). D(f )
, T > 0 T D(f ),
/ D(f ). T

.
7.3. f = ln sin x.

 x, sin x > 0, . .
D(f ) = {x R | 2n < x < (2n + 1), n Z}.
y = sin x 2 . ,
f (x) . D(f )
T = 2 . , x D(f ). ,
k Z x
2k < x < (2k + 1). x + 2 .
2 , 2k + 2 < x + 2 <
< (2k + 1) + 2 , 2(k + 1) < x + 2 < (2(k + 1) + 1),
. e. 2k1 < x + 2 < (2k1 + 1), e k1 = k + 1. , (x + 2) D(f ). ,
(x 2) D(f ). , x D(f ) c f (x + 2) = f (x).
f (x + 2) = ln sin(x + 2) = ln sin x = f (x). , 
T = 2 .
7.4. f = (x + 1)2 .

 D(f ) = R,
. ,
. ,
,
T < 0 , (T ) . .

38

. 1.

, T > 0 , . .
x R (x + T + 1)2 = (x + 1)2 . ,
x = 0, . . (T + 1)2 = 1,
T > 0.

, . . .
7.4.

, .
7.1. f = sin(5x + 1);

7.2. f = | cos x|;

x
3

7.4. f = sin x + cos ;


7.7. f =

1
;
tg 2x

7.5. f =

1
;
2
x +1

7.8. f = sin |x|;

7.3. f =

1
;
x

7.6. f = e

7.9. f = cos2 (x 1).

8. .
8.1. . f (x)
g (y) , E(f ) f
D(g ) g , . .
E(f ) D(g ).
z = g f , D(f ) z(x) = g (f (x)). ,
g f f g .
: , , , ,
. ,
.

y = f (x), x D(f ),

(8.1)

: x1 , x2 D(f )
x1 = x2 f (x1 ) = f (x2 ).
y E(f ) x D(f ) , f (x) = y .

8. .

39

, f : D(f ) E(f ) .
, f , ,
E(f ) : y E(f )
x D(f ) , f (x) = y .
f 1 . , , .
,
f : D(f ) E(f ) .
f , y = y0 , y0 =
= f (x0 ), x0 D(f ), f
(x0 , y0 ).
: D(f 1 ) = E(f ),
E(f 1 ) = D(f ), . .
. f f 1 : y = f (x), x = f 1 (y).
: y = y(x), x = x(y). ,
, x,
y .

y = f 1 (x), x D(f 1 ).

(8.2)

(8.2)
(8.1) y = x.
8.2.

1). : ) ; ) ?
2). ?
? .
3). : , .
4). , - f (x) =
= (ax + b)/(cx + d), c = 0 ad = bc, ,
-.
5). , .

40

. 1.

8.3.

8.1. f = x2 1. f f , .

 f x, x2 1  0.


2
f f =
x2 1 1 = x2 2.
f f
x2 1  0 x2 2  0. D(f f ) =

= (, 2] [ 2, +).
8.2. f = | cos3 (5x 1)|
.


 , |a| = a2 , f = cos6 (5x 1).
f f = g (t) = t
t = cos6 (5x 1). , t = cos6 (5x 1) t = h(u) = u6 ,
u = cos(5x 1). , u = p(v) = cos v , v = q(x)
= 5x 1.
, f = g h p q , g = t, h = u6 ,
p = cos v , g = 5x 1.

8.3. , f (x) = 3x + 5 .
.

 D(f ) = R, E(f ) = R. f (x) R, f (x2 ) f (x1 ) = 3(x2 x1 ) > 0 x1 < x2 .


, x1 , x2 D(f ) x1 = x2 f (x1 ) = f (x2 ), . . f : D(f ) E(f ) . f , D(f 1 ) = E(f ) = R.
f 1 .
y5

. x y = 3x + 5. x =
3
x,

f 1 (x) =

x5
.
3

8.4. : 1) f (x) = x2 4x + 2, x R, ; 2) f (x) = x2 4x + 2, x (; 2], ,


.

 1). x1 = 0, x2 = 4. x1 = x2 ,
f (x2 ) = f (x1 ) = 2, f : D(f ) E(f ) . f (x) .

8. .

41

2). f D(f ) = (; 2], f (x) = (x 2)2 2, E(f ) = [2, +). , f


. f (x2 ) f (x1 ) = x22 x21 4(x2 x1 ) =
= (x2 x1 )(x2 + x1 4). x1 , x2 (; 2] x1 < x2 ,
x2 x1 > 0, x2 + x1 4 < 0
f (x2 ) f (x1 ) < 0, . . f . ,
D(f 1 ) = E(f ) = [2, +),
f (x) .

1
E(f ) = D(f ) = (; 2]. f 1
, 
x y = (x 2)2 2. E(f 1 ) = (; 2] x = 2 y + 2. 

x = 2 y + 2.
f 1 (x) = 2 x + 2, x [2, +).

8.4.

f g f g , g f , .
8.1. f = |x|, g = 1 x;

8.3. f = log2 x, g = x;

8.2. f = x5 , g = 3 + x;
8.4. f = ln x2 , g = sin x.

f
:

5
8.6. f = cos 2x;
8.5. f = (1 4x)10 ;


8.8. f = tg 5sin x .
8.7. f = ln sin log3 x;
, f ; ,
,
.
8.9. f =

1
;
x+1

8.11. f = x + 2 x, x  0;

8.13. f = 4 x2 ;

8.15. f = x + 2;

8.10. f = sin 2x, x [0, ];


8.12. f = x3 ;
8.14. f = |x 1|;
8.16. f =

x
.
1+x

1. . ,

1.1. .
,
N . xn , n xn . {xn }. xn = f (n), xn n.
.
, . . , (n + 1)-
.

.
{an }, an+1 = an + d, n N, a1 ,
d ; d a .
n

Sn =

a1 + an
2a + d(n 1)
n= 1
n.
2
2


{bn }, bn+1 = bn q , n N, b1 , q
, ; q .
n

Sn =

b1 bn q
1 qn
= b1
,
1q
1q



q = 1.

1.

43

{xn } , M > 0 , n N
|xn |  M . {xn }
( ), M R ,
n N xn  M (xn  M ).
(), n N
xn  xn+1 (xn  xn+1 ).
( ) n N
xn < xn+1 (xn > xn+1 ).
,
.
1.2.

1). ,
, , .
2). : {xn }, {yn } , {xn yn }, {xn + yn },
, R.
3). : {xn }, {yn } , yn = 0 n N, {xn /yn }
?
4).
an = a1 + (n 1)d bn = b1 q n1 .
5). () :
) ; ) ?



1 n+1
6). , 1 +
n
.

44

. 2.

1.3.

{xn } .
(1)n n + 3

1.1. xn = 

2n2 + 5

 ,
|3 + (1)n n|  3 + |(1)n n| = 3 + n,



2n2 + 5 > 2n2 > n.

n N:
|3 + (1)n n|

|xn | = 

2n2

+5

3+n
3
= + 1  4.
n
n

, M = 4 , n N
|xn |  M . , {xn } .

1.2. xn =

n
, a > 1.
an

 ( 2.3, 1)
, a 1 > 0, n N:
an

an = (1 + a 1)n  1 + n(a 1)  n(a 1) =


 a 1 > 0 =
n
 
n
1
1
n
=  n  
.
= 0 < n 

a1
a
a1
1
, M =
, n N
a1
a

|xn |  M , . . {xn } .
1.3. xn =

n
3n(1) .

 : {xn } , M > 0 n N ,
|xn | > M . ,
n
n
{3n(1) }. , n |xn | = 3n(1) = 3n .
M > 0 n, n > log3 M . n |xn | = 3n >
> 3log3 M = M > 0, . . |xn | > M . , {xn } .
n
, {xn } , xn = 3n(1) > 0

n N.
{xn } .
1.4. xn =

n
.
2n 1

45

1.

 n N
xn+1 xn =

n+1
n
1

=
< 0.
2(n + 1) 1
2n 1
(2n + 1)(2n 1)

: xn > xn+1 , . . {xn } .


2n
1.5. xn =
.
(n + 1)!

 n N xn > 0
xn+1
2n+1 (n + 1)!
2
= n
=
< 1.
xn
2 (n + 2)!
n+2

: xn > xn+1 , . . {xn } .




1 n
1.6. xn = 1 +
.



n + 2 n+1
xn+1
(n + 2)n+1 nn
= n + 1 n =
=
n+1
xn
(n + 1)n+1 (n + 1)n


=

n2 + 2n
(n + 1)2

n+1

n+1

=
n

1
1
(n + 1)2

n+1

n+1
n

( 2.3, 1) n N


n+1
1
n+1
n
1
>1
=
.
2
2
(n + 1)

(n + 1)

n+1

n N
xn+1
n+1
n
>

= 1,
xn
n
n+1

. .
.
1.4.

xn+1 > xn , , {xn } 

{xn } ,
, .
1.1. xn =

2n3 1
;
2 n3

1.3. xn = n4 2n;

1n
;
n
1 + (1)n+1
1.4. xn =
.
n

1.2. xn =

46

. 2.

{xn } .

2n2
;
1.6. xn = n + 2 n + 1;
1.5. xn = 2
n +3

1.7. xn =

1
n
sin ;
n
2

1.8. xn = (1)n .

2.
2.1. . a {xn }, > 0 N , n > N
|xn a| < . : lim xn = a,
n
xn a n .
:
lim xn = a > 0 N N n > N |xn a| < .
n
- a, . . U (a) =
= (a , a + ). ,
.
a {xn }, - U (a) a N , ,
N , . : a {xn }, a
, .
:

lim xn = a > 0 N N n > N

xn U (a).

,
. , , .
2.1 ( ).
lim xn = a lim xn = b, a = b.
n

47

2.

2.2 ( ,
). lim xn = a, {xn } n
.
2.2.

:
1). xn = c = const, lim xn = c.
n

2). a) lim xn = a - U (a) a


n
{xn } ,
, ;
) lim xn = a - U (a) a
n
, {xn };
)
.
3). , lim xn = a, lim |xn | = |a|. n
n
a, ?
4). : ?

2.3.

, .
2.1. lim

2n
= 2.
n+1

 :
> 0 N N n > N

|xn (2)| < .

 


  2 
 2n
|xn (2)| = 
+ 2 = 
=
n+1

n+1

2
.
n+1

(2.1)

48

. 2.

> 0. N
2

, n > N
< .
n+1
N n.
2

n > 1. , N
, 2

N > 1. (2.1) n > N

|xn (2)| < . 


, lim xn = 2.
n

2.2. lim

7n 1
= 0.
(n + 2)4n



 7n 1 
7n 1
7
7


|xn 0| = 
,
n =
n < n <
(n + 2)4
(n + 2)4
4
n

(2.2)

7n 1
< 7, 4n > n n N. n+2
7
<
> 0. N
n
7
N . n > . (2.2) ,

N , 7
N > . , :

> 0 N N (N > ) n > N


. . lim xn = 0.

|xn 0| < ,


2.3. : lim xn = a > 0

n
n N xn  0; lim xn = a.
n

 n N


 ( xn a)(xn + a) 

|x a|

 = |xn a|

< n
| xn a| = 
.


xn + a
xn + a
a
(2.3)
> 0. lim xn = a. ,
n

1 = a, :
N N , n > N

2.

|xn a| < 1 = |xn a| < a =

= | xn a| < (2.3).

, lim xn = a.
n

49

, {xn } .
2.4. xn = (1)n .

 : a {xn },
a, {xn }.
, a R
{xn }. , a R |a| = 1. xn = 1 n xn = 1
n. r = min(|a 1|, |a + 1|)
Ur (a) a.
xn . , a
xn . a = 1 U1 (1)
, . . (0, 2). xn = 1 n,
(0, 2). ,
U1 (1) {xn }, a = 1
. , a = 1

{xn }. , {xn } .
2.5. xn =

n2 3
.
100n


{xn } 2.2 . , {xn } . |xn |  xn =
=

n2 3
n3

, n2 3 > n 3, 100n > 100
100n
100

n N. M > 0 n, n3
> M , . . n > 100M + 3. n

100
|xn | > M , {xn } ,

.
4

50

2.4.

. 2.

, :
3 2n
2
= ;
n 2 + 3n
3
1
2.3. lim p = 0, p N;
n n

2.1.

lim

2.2.
2.4.

lim

lim

1
3n 1

= 0;

1
= 0, a > 1.
an

:
2
n

2.5. xn = 1 + ; 2.6. xn = 4 +

(1)n
n3 4n
; 2.7. xn = 5
.
n
n +1

:
2.8. xn = (1)n+1 2; 2.9. xn = n2 cos

n
n
; 2.10. xn = cos .
2
2

3.
3.1.

3.1 ( ). {xn }, {yn }, {zn } :


1) lim xn = lim yn = a;
n
n
2) n N xn  zn  yn .
lim zn = 0.
n

3.2. lim xn = a, lim yn = b, a < b.


n
n
N N , n > N
xn < yn .
3.3. :
1) lim xn = a, lim yn = b;
n
n
2) n N xn > yn
(xn  yn ).
a  b.
3.1 3.3 ,
, 2,
n, .

3.

3.2.

51

:
1). lim xn = 0 xn = 0 n N, n
yn = 1/xn .
2). lim xn = a N N ,
n
n > N xn > b (xn  b). a  b.

3.3.

.
(sin n)2
= 0.
n
n

3.1. lim

 n N 0  (sin n)2  1,
0

(sin n)2
1
 .
n
n

xn = 0, yn =

1
,
n

zn =

(sin n)2
.
n

lim xn = 0, lim yn = 0 ( 2.3), n


n
{xn }, {yn }, {zn } 3.1.

(sin n)2
lim zn = lim
= 0.

n

6n
= 0.
n nn

3.2. lim

 n  12 6/n  1/2,
 6 n  1 n

.
0
n

xn = 0, yn =

( 1 /2 ) n ,

zn = (6/n)n .

lim xn = 0, lim yn = 0

n
4*

52

. 2.

( 2.4), {xn }, {yn }, {zn } 3.1 (


n  12). ,
6n
= 0.
n nn

lim zn = lim

3n
= 0.
n n!

3.3. lim

 , n  6
3/n  1/2,
 1 n5 243 32  1 n
3n
35 3 3
243
=

.
0<
5!

n!

lim

6 n

 1 n

3n
= 0.
lim
n n!

120

120

= 0 ( 2.4), 3.1 ,


3.4. lim

n
a = 1, a > 1.

 n = n a 1. n  0 n = (1 + n )n .
( 2.3, 1),
a = (1 + n )n  1 + nn  nn .
, 0 < n  a/n 1 <
< 1 + n  1 + a/n. lim (1 + a/n) = 1,
n

xn = 1, yn = 1 + n , zn = 1 + a/n
3.1, , lim (1 + n ) = 1. n
,

lim n a = lim (1 + n ) = 1.

n

3.5. lim

n
n = 1.

 n = n n 1. n  0 n = (1 + n )n .
(2.1), 1,
n = (1 + n )n 

n(n 1) 2
n .
2

53

4.

n  2 n 1  n/2

n

n(n 1) 2
n2
n  n 2 ,
2
4

0  n  2/ n,

1  1 + n  1 + 2/ n.

lim (1 + 2/ n) = 1, 3.1 lim (1 +


n
n
+ n ) = 1. ,

lim n n = lim (1 + n ) = 1.

n

3.4.

.
:
 2000 n
= 0;
3.1. lim
n
n
 n + 2 n
= 0.
3.3. lim
n

3.2.

lim

 3n + 4 n

n2

= 0;

4n 1

4.
4.1. .
{xn } , lim xn = 0.
n

4.1. {xn }
, {yn } .
{xn yn } .
4.2. .
4.3. lim xn = a n =
n
= xn a .

54

. 2.

4.2.

:
1). .
2). {n } ,
xn = 0.
lim xn = a = 0, n N
n
n = n /xn .
3). lim xn = 0 , lim |xn | = 0.
n

4). n N xn  0, lim xn = 0, p N.
n

lim p xn = 0.
n

4.3.

, {xn } .
4.1. xn = q n , |q| < 1.

 q = 0, q n = 0 n N
lim q n = 0. 0 < |q| < 1. , n
{q n } , . .
> 0 N N n > N |q n | < . > 0.
N |q n | < n.
n > log|q| . , :
> 0 N N (N > log|q| ) n > N
. . lim q n = 0.

|q n | < ,


4.2. xn =

sin n

3n 1

.
1

 xn = sin n
. {sin n}

 3n 1
1
,
( 2.2). 3n 1

5.

55

4.1 , {xn } .

4.4.

, {xn } .
3 2n
;
10n + 7
n+8
;
4.3. xn =
n2
cos n
4.5. xn = p , p N;
n

4.1. xn =

(1)n
;
n
qn
4.4. xn = , |q|  1;
n
 3 n (1)n
4.6. xn =
+
.
4
n

4.2. xn =
3

5.
5.1. .
{xn } ,

A > 0 N N n > N

|xn | > A.

: lim xn = .
n
{xn }
,

A > 0 N N n > N

xn > A.

: lim xn = +.
n
{xn }
,

A > 0 N N n > N

xn < A.

: lim xn = .
n
, {xn } ,
, +, .

.

56

. 2.

5.1. 1). n N xn = 0, lim xn =


n

1
= 0.
= . lim
n xn

2). n N

xn = 0, lim xn = 0.

1
= .
n xn

lim

3). n N xn > 0 (xn < 0), lim xn = 0.


n
lim 1/xn = +
n


lim 1/xn = .
n

5.2 ( , ). 1). n N xn  yn , lim yn = +.


n
lim xn = +.
n

2). n N xn  yn , lim xn = . lim yn =


n
n
= .
5.3. lim xn = +.
n
1) lim yn = +, lim (xn + yn ) = +.
n
n
2) lim yn = , lim (yn xn ) = .
n

5.4. lim xn = +.
n
1) lim yn = b > 0, lim (xn yn ) = +.
n
n
2) lim yn = b < 0, lim (xn yn ) = .
n
n
3) lim yn = b = 0, b R, lim (xn + yn ) = +,
n
n
lim (yn xn ) = .

5.2.

:
1). lim xn = + lim |xn | = +.
n

|xn |  |yn | n N, lim yn = .


2).
n
lim xn = .
n

3). lim xn = + = lim (xn ) = .


n

57

5.

4). lim xn = = lim (xn ) = +.


n

5). lim xn = , lim yn = = lim (xn yn ) = .


n

6).
.
7).
.
8). xn  0 n N, lim xn = +, p N.
n

lim p xn = +.
n

9). : 1) ; 2) ?

5.3.

.
5.1.

lim an = +, a > 1.

 , {an }
, . .
A > 0 N N n > N

an > A.

A > 0. N n an > A. n > loga A.


N ,
N > loga A. ,

A > 0 N N (N > loga A) n > N


. . lim an = +.
n

an > A,


58

. 2.

5.2. lim (1)n n2 = .


n

 c . A > 0.
|xn | = |(1)n n2 | = n2 , |xn | > A

n2 > A,


n > A. , A > 0 N N (N > A) n > N

|(1)n n2 | > A, . . lim ((1)n n2 ) = .
n

5.3. lim
n

n2
= .
n+8
n2

 , n N
n8
n+8

n2
 8 n.
n+8

(5.1)

5.4 ( 3) , lim (8 n) = , n
lim (n) = +. (5.1), 5.2 ( 2)
n

lim
n

n2
= .
n+8

5.4. , xn = n(1)
, .

 ). , {xn } . M > 0.
n xn = n, |xn | > M n > M . , n
n > M , |xn | > M . , {xn } .
). , {xn } . :
A > 0 N N n > N

|xn |  A.

, |xn | = |1/n|  1 n. ,
A = 1 N N n > N ( n
n > N ) , |xn |  A.

, {xn } .

6. 59

5.4.

.
:

5.1.
5.3.
5.5.

5.2. 5.2. lim np = +, p  1;

lim n! = +;

lim q = , |q| > 1;

1
= ;
n 1 n n

lim

5.4.
5.6.

lim (5 2n3 ) = ;

7n
= +.
n n2

lim

, {xn } ,
:
5.7. xn = n2 sin

n
;
2

5.8. xn = n(1 + (1)n ).

6.

6.1.

6.1 ( , ).

lim xn = a, lim yn = b.
n

{xn + yn },
{xn yn },

lim (xn + yn ) = a + b,

lim (xn yn ) = a b,

lim (xn yn ) = a b.

6.2 ( ).

lim xn = a,

lim yn = b = 0.

yn = 0 n N.
{xn /yn },
lim (xn /yn ) = a/b.

, , -
, 6.1 6.2 . ,

60

. 2.

. , zn = xn /yn . lim xn = lim yn = 0, n


n
, {xn /yn } n
0/0.
x
lim n , .
n

yn

/, 0/, .
6.2.

1). {xn } {yn } ,


lim xn = lim yn = 0
n

xn
= 0;
n yn
xn
) lim
= ;
n yn

a) lim

xn
= 1;
n yn
xn
) lim
.
n yn

) lim

2). {xn } , {yn } . , :


a) {xn + yn }; ) {xn yn }?
3). : {xn } , , a
{yn } , {xn yn } .
4). : {xn } {yn }
, {xn yn } ?
5). : lim (xn yn ) = 0,
n
{xn }, {yn } ?

6.3.

lim xn .
n

6.1. xn =

5n5
.
n +1
4

6. 61

 lim (5n5 ) = , lim (n4 + 1) = ,


n
n
/. xn :
xn =

5n5
5n4
5
=
n

=n
.
4
4
1
n +1
n +1
1+ 4

1

,
n4
6.1 6.2,

lim

5
1
1+ 4
n

,
lim 5

1
lim (1 + 4 )
n
n

5
1
1 + lim 4
n n

5
= 5 > 0.
1

lim n = +, 5.4
n
lim xn = +.

n

6.2. xn =

3n + 2n
.
5 + 3n+1

 /. xn , 3n : xn =

1 + (2/3)n
.
5/3n + 1/3

6.1 6.2.
4.1, :

lim xn =

1 + lim (2/3)n
n

lim 5/3n + 3

1+0
1
= .
0+3
3


n2 + n + 2 + n
6.3. xn =
.
n2 + 3n

 /. xn , n2 :

n2 + n + 2 + n
xn =
=
n2 + 3n

1+

+
3
n

2
1
+
4
n
n

62

. 2.

 1   1   2  1
,
,
,
,
4
2
3
n

2.3 . 2.2,
6.1 6.2,

lim xn =

lim

n2

n3

2
n4

1
n

3
n n

1 + lim

6.4. xn =

0+0
0
=
= = 0.
1+0
1

2n2 + n n 2.


xn ,
.

( 2n2 + n + n 2):




( 2n2 + n n 2)( 2n2 + n + n 2)



xn =
=

2n2 + n + n 2
2n2 + n 2n2
n
=
= 
.
2n2 + n + n 2
2n2 + n + n 2

/, 6.3.
2.3,

lim xn = lim

1
2+ + 2

2+0+

1
= .
2
2 2

6.4.

.
lim xn :
n

1
1
+ + n ;
3
3
n2 3n + 2
;
6.3. xn = 2
2n + 3n 2

6.1. xn = 1 +

6.5. xn =

n2n
;
n+2
1 + 2 + + n
6.4. xn =
;
n3 + 1

6.2. xn =

(n + 5)3 n(n + 6)2


;
n2

1
1
1
+
+ +
;
6.6. xn =
12
23
n (n + 1)

(1)n +

6.7. xn = 1

n2

1
n ;

(1)n

63

7. .

3n
n1
sin
;
2
n+1
3n + 1

n
6.10. xn =
;
n+1+ n

6.8. xn =

6.9. xn =
6.11. xn =

n2 + 2n


n2 2n;

2n + 1 n 1;


n2 + n 1 n2 n + 1;



6.13. xn = n2 n n2 + 1 .

6.12. xn =

7. .
7.1. . {xn } , {kn } . {xn }
, {kn }:
xk1 , xk2 , . . . , xkn , . . .. {xkn } {xn }.
7.1.
1) lim xn = a, a R + ;
n
2) {xkn } {xn }.
lim xkn = a.
n

7.2 (). .

, .
7.3. , .
.
7.4.
,
.

64

. 2.

7.2.

:
1). a R {xn }
, - a
{xn }.
2). .
3). , .
4).
.
5). {x2k }, {x2k1 } {xn }, {x2k } a, a {x2k1 }
b, a, b R. a b
{xn }.
6).
.
7).
.
8). , .

9). :
) ;
) ;
) .
10). :
) ;

7. .

65

)
, ?
11). , ?

7.3.

7.1. , xn = cos n
.

 : x2k = cos 2k x2k1 = cos(2k 1) , k N.


lim x2k = 1, lim x2k1 = 1. , -

{cos n} : 1 1. 7.3 , ,
.

7.2. ,

.

 {xn }
{xkn } . :
A > 0 N N n > N

|xn | > A.

kn  n, n > N
kn > N |xkn | > A. , {xkn }

.
7.3. , .

 .
{xn } a R
. {xn } {xkn } , lim xkn = a. n
, {xkn } , ( 7.2)
. {xkn } . 
, {xn } .
5

66

. 2.

7.4.

{xn }:


1
n n + 1
;
7.2. xn = 2 + cos

;
7.1. xn = (1)n 2 +
2

7.3. xn = n((1)n + 1).

{xn }:



1
7.5. xn = (1)n 1 +
;

(1)n
;
n+1
3
n
;
7.6. xn = 2
n +1
3n + 1
;
7.8. xn = (1)n
2n

7.4. xn =

n
7.7. xn = cos ;
3

7.9. xn = (1)n + 4.

8. .
e
8.1.

8.1. 1). {xn }


, {xn } ,

lim xn = sup{xn }.

2). {xn }
, {xn } , lim xn = inf{xn }.
n



1 n
.
8.2. xn = 1 +
n

,
e, . .


1 n
e = lim 1 +
.
n

e .

8. . e

8.2.

67

:
1). () (), , .
2). () , ().
3). .
4). {xn } ()
(), lim xn = + ( lim xn = ).
n

8.3.

8.1.
n

1
wn = 1 +
.
n+5



wn = 1 +

n
1
n+5


n+5
1
1+
n+5
=
5 .
1
1+
n+5

. ,
n+5

1
yn = 1 +
n+5 

1 n
. xn = 1 +
n
7.1 8.2, lim yn = lim xn = e. n
 n 1 5
.
zn = 1 +
n+5

, lim zn = (1 + 0)5 = 1.
n
, ,

lim wn =

n
5*

lim yn

lim zn

e
= e.
1

68

. 2.

n3

8.2. , xn = n
10
.

 {xn } , xn > 0
n. , {xn } .

 n + 1 3 1

xn+1
(n + 1)3 10n
1
1 3
=
=

=
1+
.
n+1
3
xn

10

10

10

n  1 (1 + 1/n)3 < 8, xn+1 /xn <


< 8/10 < 1. , {xn } . 8.2
, {xn } . L = lim xn .
n 1 3
1
1+
xn , n xn+1 =
10
n



1
1 3
lim xn+1 =
lim 1 +
lim xn .
n

L =

1
L,
10

10 n

L = 0, . . lim xn = 0.

{xn },
8.3. ,

x1 = 2, xn+1 = 2 + xn , , .

 , {xn } .
. , 1 < x1 < 2.
1 < xk < 2,


1 < 2 + xk < 2 + 2 = 2 = 1 < xk+1 < 2.


, 1 < xn < 2 n N.
, {xn } . x2n+1 x2n = 2 + xn x2n .

xn+1 xn =

(2 xn )(xn + 1)
> 0,
xn+1 + xn

. . xn+1 > xn . , {xn } , 8.1


lim xn = a. x2n+1 = 2 + xn
n
n . {xn+1 } {xn }, lim xn+1 = a.
n

a a2 = 2 + a,
a = 1 a = 2. , n N xn > 1
a  1. , a = 2. 

69

8. . e

xn =

8.4. ,

1 n
, .
= 1
n

 , n N

1
1
=
.
n+1
1+ 1
n

{xn+1 }
{xn }.
n+1

1
1
1
xn+1 = 1
=
n 
.
n+1 = 
n+1

1+

1
n

1
n

1+

1
n

1

 = .
1
e
lim 1 +

1+

1
n

lim xn+1 =

lim

1+

1
n

{xn }
{xn+1 } . (. . . 2) . 2.2)

lim xn = lim xn+1 = e1 .

8.5. , a > 1
n
= n = 0.
a

lim xn =

 {xn } , xn > 0
n. , , , {xn }
.


xn+1
(n + 1) a
1
1
.
= n+1
= 1+
xn
a
n
a
n


1
1
n
1+
< 1,
a
n
1
1
n>
. C, n R n >
a1
a1
xn+1
< 1. ,

xn
 1 
+ 1, {xn } . n=
a1

, 1 .
8.2, , {xn } . L = lim xn .
n



1
1
xn+1 = 1 +
xn .
a

70

. 2.

L =

8.4.

1
L, . . L = lim xn = 0.
n
a

.
{xn }:
8.1.
8.2.

1
1
1
+ 2 + + 2 ;
2
2
3
n
1
1
1
xn =
+
+ ;
n+1
n+2
2n

xn = 1 +

{xn }:


 4n + 1 4n
1 3n
; 8.4. xn =
;
8.3. xn = 1 +
n 
4n



n
1 n
n
; 8.6. xn =
.
8.5. xn = 1 +
n+1

2n

, {xn }
.

2n
n2
8.7. xn = ; 8.8. xn = n ; 8.9. x1 = 0, xn+1 = 6 + xn .
n!

8.10. , a > 1

lim xn =

an
= 0.
n!

9.
9.1. .
{xn } ,
: > 0
N N , n > N m > N

|xn xm | < .
:

> 0 N N n > N

m > N

|xn xm | < .

71

9.

> 0 N N ,
n > N p

|xn+p xn | < .
:

> 0 N N n > N

p N |xn+p xn | < .

9.1 ( ).
{xn }
, {xn }
.
9.2.

:
1). .
2). {xn } , .
3). {xn }
, {xn } .
4). .
5). .

9.3.

9.1. {xn },

sin 1
sin 2
sin n
xn =
+ 2 + + n .
2

72

. 2.

 , {xn }
.


sin(n + p) 
 sin(n + 1)
|xn+p xn | = 
+

+

n+p
n+1
2

1
2n+1

+ +

1
2n+p

1
2n+1

1
2p
1
1
2

<

1
.
2n

, lim 1/2n = 0, : > 0 n


N N , n > N p N

|xn+p xn | < 1/2n < .


, {xn } .

9.2.
{xn },

xn = 1 +

1
1
+ + .
2
n

 , {xn }
,
> 0 N

n > N

m > N

|xn xm |  .

|x2n xn |.

|x2n xn | =

1
1
1
n
1
+
+ +

=
n+1
n+2
2n
2n
2

n N. = 1/2 k N
n = k + 1 m = 2(k + 1).
1
2

|xm xn | = |x2(k+1) xk+1 |  .


, {xn } 
, .

73

9.

9.4.

.
{xn }:
1
1
1
+ + +
;
2!
3!
(n + 1)!
1
1
(1)n1

+ +
.
9.2. xn =
12
23
n (n + 1)

9.1. xn =

{xn }:
1

1
n

9.3. xn = 1 + + + + ;

3
2
1
2
n
.
9.4. xn = 2 + 2 + +
2
3
(n + 1)2

1. ( )
1.1.

, - U (a) a R x R, |x a| < ( > 0), . .


(a , a + ).
, -

U (a) a x R, 0 < |x a| < ( > 0), . .


(a , a) (a, a + ).
b f (x) a (
x a), > 0 > 0 ,

x U (a) |f (x) b| < .


: b = lim f (x).
xa

U (a + 0) a x R,
0 < x a < ( > 0), . . (a, a + ).
b f (x) a
( x a + 0), > 0 > 0 ,

x U (a + 0) |f (x)
b| < . : b = lim f (x) = f (a + 0) a = 0 b =
xa+0

= lim f (x) = f (0 + 0) a = 0.
x+0

U (a 0) a x R, < x a <
< 0 ( > 0), . . (a , a).

1. ( )

75

b f (x) a
( x a 0), > 0 > 0 ,

x U (a 0) |f (x)
b| < . : b = lim f (x) = f (a 0) a = 0 b =
xa0

= lim f (x) = f (0 0) a = 0.
x0

f (x) x a + 0 x a 0
.
, -

U () x R, |x| > 1/
( > 0), . . (, 1/) (1/ , +).
b f (x) x ,
> 0 > 0 ,

x U () |f (x) b| < . :
b = lim f (x).
x

U ()
x R,
x < 1/ ( > 0), . . (, 1/).
b f (x) x ,
> 0 > 0 ,

x U () |f (x) b| < . : b = lim f (x).


x

U (+)
x R,
x > 1/ ( > 0), . . (1/ , + ).
b f (x) x +,
> 0 > 0 ,

x U (+) |f (x) b| < . : b = lim f (x).


x+
f (x) x +, x x
,
x + x .
, |f (x) b| <
f (x) U (b).

76

. 3.

w {a, a + 0, a 0, , +, }
(a R). .
b f (x) x w,
> 0 > 0 ,

x U (w) f (x) U (b). :


b = lim f (x).
xw

1.1 ( ).
lim f (x) = b1 lim f (x) = b2 , b1 = b2 .

xw

xw

1.2 ( ,
). lim f (x) = b, > 0 ,

xw

U (w)

1.2.

f (x) .

1). , lim f (x) = b, lim |f (x)| = |b|.


xw
xw
?
2). w {a, a + 0, a 0} (a R).
, > 0, > 0 ,

x U (w) |f (x) b|  |x a|,


lim f (x) = b.
xw

3). , lim f (x),


xw

> 0 > 0 , x1 , x2 U (w) |f (x1 ) f (x2 )| < (


).

1.3.

, .
1.1. lim c (a, c R).
xa

77

1. ( )

 > 0. f (x) = c , x R
|f (x) c| = |c c| = 0 < . > 0, ,
, , = 1. ,

x U (a) |f (x)  | < . 


, lim c = c (a, c R).
xa

1.2. lim x (a R).


xa

 f (x) = x > 0.
x R
f (x) f (a) x a,

> 0 = . x U (a)
|f (x) f (a)| = |x a| < . , lim x = a
xa
(a R).

1.3. lim |x| ( > 0).
x0

 , lim |x| = 0 ( > 0).


x0

> 0. > 0, x U (0), . .


|x| < |f (x)| = |x| < .
|x| < . :

|x| < e ln |x| < eln ln |x| < ln


ln |x| <

ln
|x| < 1/a .

,
= 1/a . ,
y = ex y = ln x . , 
, lim |x| = 0 ( > 0).
x0

1.4. lim c/x (c = 0).


x

 f (x) = c/x. , x
f (x) . ,
lim c/x = 0. . x
> 0. > 0,

x U (), . . |x| > 1/

78

. 3.

|f (x)| = |c/x| < . |c/x| < . :


 
|c|
|c|
c
< |x| > .
  <
|x|

,
= /|c|. , , lim 1/x = 0.

x

1.5. lim ln x.
x+0

 f (x) = ln x. , > 0
ln x (0, ), . .

U (+0) x = 0. ,

M > 0 x U (+0) ,
|f (x)| > M . , , < 1. , ln x < 0 x (0, 1),
| ln x| = ln x. :

ln x > M ln x < M 0 < x < eM .

, x U (+0), x < eM , |f (x)| > M . , ,


> 0 y = ln x

U (+0). , , , lim ln x
x+0

.
1.6. lim (|x|/x).
x0

|x|




: f (x) =
=
x
1 x > 0,
=
, 1 x < 0.
( 1.3) .
, = 1. > 0 x1 > 0,

x2 < 0, x1 , x2 U (0), |f (x1 ) f (x2 )| = 2 > . ,


, , ,
lim (|x|/x) .

x0

79

1. ( )

.
1
= 1.
x0 1 + x

1.7. lim

 f (x) = 1/(1 + x)
x = 1, f (x)
(1, 1). ,
, > 0

 > 0, |x| <
 1


1 < . 1+x
, < 1.
 ,
 1

1 < = 1/2, ,

1+x

, = 1. . :


 1

1 <


1+x
1
1
<
1 < 1 <
< 1 +
1+x
 1+x

1+x>

1/(1 + )

1+x<

1/(1 )


,
,

<x<
.
1+
1


<
,
,
1+
1
1+ 1+
1+ 1

, , x ( , ) e
=
1
+


1
 1


1 < . , lim
= 1.

1+x
x0 1 + x
1
1.8. lim
= 1.
1
+
|x|
x0

 f (x) b. :


 1

|x|

|f (x) b| = 
1 =
 |x|.
1 + |x|
1 + |x|
, 2
1
= 1.

. 1.2, , lim
x0

1 + |x|

|x|
= 0.
x0 x

1.9. lim

|x|3

 f (x) =
x
R \ {0}, - x = 0

80

. 3.

f (x) = x2 , |x| < 1


|f (x)|  |x|. |x|3
= 0.
x0 x

2, . 1.2, , lim
1.10. lim

xa

x = a (a > 0).

 f (x) b = x a
,

x + a. :
(x) =

( x a)( x + a)
xa

.
x a=
=
x+

x+

, x  0

x  0,
x a. :


 x a  |x a|


  .
| x a| = 
x+

, lim (x) = 0 (. .
xa

. 2, . 1.2).

1.4.

, .
lim c (c R);
1.2.
lim (x + 3);
1.1.
x

1.3.
1.5.

1
lim
;
x+ ln x
2
lim
;
x1 x 1

x10

1.4.
1.6.

2
;
x x 1

lim

lim (|x a|/(x a)).

xa

, :
1.7.
1.9.

|x|
= 0 ( > 1);
x0 x
x
lim
= 1;
x 1 + x

lim

|x 1|3
= 0;
x1 (x 1)
1
1
1.10.
lim
= ( > 0).
a
x0 a + |x|

1.8.

lim

81

2.

2.
2.1.

2.1 ( ). f (x), h(x)

g (x) U (w), > 0, w


{a, a + 0, a 0, , +, } (a R), :
a) lim f (x) = lim g (x) = b,
xw

xw

b) x U (w)

f (x)  h(x)  g (x).


lim h(x) lim h(x) = b.
xw

xw

2.2. f (x) g (x)

U 0 (w), 0 > 0, w
{a, a + 0, a 0, , +, } (a R), :
a) lim f (x) = a;
xw

b) lim g (x) = b;
xw

c) a < b.

> 0 , x U (w)
f (x) < g (x).
2.3. f (x) g (x)

U 0 (w), 0 > 0, w
{a, a + 0, a 0, , +, } (a R), :
a) lim f (x) = a;
xw

b) lim g (x) = b;
xw

c) > 0

, x U (w)
f (x)  g (x).
a  b.
2.2.

f (x) U 0 (w),
0 > 0, w {a, a + 0, a
0, , +, } (a R). , :
6

82

. 3.

1). lim f (x) = a < b (a, b R), > 0 ,


xw

x U (w) f (x) < b;


2). lim f (x) = a > b (a, b R), > 0 ,
xw

x U (w) f (x) > b;


3). lim f (x) = a > 0 ,

xw

x U (w) f (x)  b, a  b;
4). lim f (x) = a > 0 ,

xw

x U (w) f (x)  b, a  b.
:
5). lim f (x) = a > 0 ,

xw

x U (w) f (x) < b, a < b;


6). lim f (x) = a > 0 ,

xw

x U (w) f (x) > b, a > b.


7). lim f (x) = a = 0, > 0 , xw

g (x) = 1/f (x) U (w).

2.3.

.
|x|
= 0 ( > 0).
x0 1 + x2

2.1. lim

 , x R
0<

|x|
< |x| .
1 + x2

83

2.

f (x) = 0, h(x) =

|x|
, g (x) = |x| .
1 + x2

lim f (x) = 0; lim g (x) = 0 ( 1.1 1.3), f (x),

x0

x0

h(x) g (x) .
, ,
|x|
= 0 ( > 0).
x0 1 + x2

lim

2.2. lim

x+

1
= 0.
1+x

 , x > 0
0<

1
1
< .
1+x
x
1

f (x) = 0,
h(x) =
,
g (x) = .
1+x
x
lim f (x) = 0; lim g (x) = 0 ( 1.4), f (x),
x+

x+

h(x) g (x) 2.1 . , ,


1
= 0.
x+ 1 + x

lim

2.3. lim ( x2 + 1 x) = 0.
x+

 , ,

( x2 + 1 + x).
h(x) =

x2



( x2 + 1 x)( x2 + 1 + x)
1

+1x=
=
.
x2 + 1 + x
x2 + 1 + x

x > 0 

x2

+1+x

1
.
x

f (x) = 0 g (x) = 1/x. f (x), h(x) g (x)


f (x)  h(x)  g (x) lim 1/x = 0,
x+
,

lim ( x2 + 1 x) = 0.

x+

6*

84

. 3.

2.4. lim 
x0

1 + x2

= 1.
1

 h(x) = 

1 + x2

. , h(x) = 

1 + x2

x R. h(x) :

h(x) = 

1+

x2

1 + 2|x| + x2

(1 + |x|)2

1

1
1 + |x|

x R.
f (x) = 1/(1 + |x|), g (x) = 1.
f (x), h(x) g (x) f (x)  h(x)  g (x)
lim 1/(1 + |x|) = 1, ,
x0

lim 
x0

2.4.

1 + x2

= 1.

, :
2.1.
2.2.
2.3.
2.5.
2.6.

x
= 0 ( > 0);
1 + x
1
1
lim 
=
(a > 0);
a
x0
a 2 + x2
1
1
lim 
= 0;
2.4.
lim
= 1;
x
x0 1 + x
1 + x2
x
lim 
= 1;
x+
2
x + 1


lim

x+0

lim 2x

x+

x2 + 1 x = 1.

3.
3.1. . f (x) x w, w
{a, a + 0, a 0, , +, } (a R), lim f (x) = 0.
xw

3.1 ( ). (x)

3.

85

x w, f (x)

U (w) ( > 0). (x) = (x) f (x)


x w.
3.2 ( ). (x) (x) x w. (x) (x), (x) (x)
(x) ( R)
x w.
3.3 ( ). f (x) a x w
, (x) = f (x) a x w.
3.2.

.
1). (x) x w
, > 0 > 0 ,

x U (w) |(x)| <


( ).
2). (x) x w
, (x) = |(x)|
x w.
3).
x w x w.
4). (x) x w,
lim f (x) = a = 0. (x) = (x)/f (x) xw
x w.
5). R(x) = Pn (x)/Qm (x), Pn (x) Qm (x) , n < m. R(x) x .

86

. 3.

3.3.

, , .

3.1. f (x) = x x +0.

 > 0. > 0,

x U (+0), . . 0 < x <


|f (x)| = x < . x < .

x < 0 < x < 2 .

= 1/a , , x U (+0
)

|f (x)| < . , , lim x = 0.
x+0

3.2. f (x) =

1/x

( > 0) x +.

 > 0. > 0,

x U (+), . . x > 1/
|f (x)| = 1/x < . 1/x < . 1/x > 0

1/x < x > 1/ x > (1/)1/ .

= (1/)2 , , x U (+) |f (x)| < . , , lim 1/x = 0.


x+

3.3. f (x) = ax (a > 1) x .

 > 0. > 0,

x U (), . . x < 1/
ax < . , , a > 1 f (x) = ax
.
ax < ax < aloga x < loga .
< 1. , ax < = 1/2, , ,
 1. a > 1 loga < 0. = 1/(loga ),

, x U () ax < .

, , lim ax = 0 a > 1.
x

87

3.

3.4. f (x) = sin x x 0.

 > 0.

| sin x|  |x| = , , x U (0) | sin x|  |x| < . ,


lim sin x = 0, , f (x) = sin x x0
.

, ,
.
3.5. f (x) = 4(1 x)2 x 1.

 (x) = 1 x. (x) x 1, > 0

|(x)| = |x 1| < x U (1), = .


(x) = (x) (x)
, f (x) (x)
= 4 ( 3.2).

3.6. f (x) =

sin x
x +.
x

 3.1 f (x) = sin x/x y = sin x


(x) = 1/x, x + (
3.2).
3.7. f (x) = xn (n N) x +0.

 f (x) = xn (n N)
x 0

(x) = x (. . . 3, . 3.2).
3.8. f (x) = tg x x 0.

 , lim cos x = 1.
x0
cos x 1 ,
| sin x|  |x|.
| cos x 1| = 2 sin2

x
x2
x2
2
= .
2
4
2

, |x| < 1
| cos x 1|  |x|/2.
2 . 3.2, , lim cos x = 1.
x0

88

. 3.

, lim tg x = 0. , tg x
x0
y = sin x,
x 0 ( 3.4), y = cos x,
x 0 .
4 . 3.2, , y = tg x

x 0.
, , :
3.9. lim xn = an (n N, a > 0).
xa

 (x) = xn an , (x)
x a.
(x),
tn 1 = (t 1)(1 + t + t2 + . . . + tn1 ) t = x/a.

 n



x
x2
xn1
n x
n x
(x) = a
1 =a
1 1 + + 2 + . . . + n1 =
an
a
a
a
a


2
x
x
xn1
n1
= a (x a) 1 + + 2 + . . . + n1 .
a

(x) = an1 (x a), (x) = 1 +

x
x2
xn1
+ 2 + . . . + n1 .
a
a
a

(x) = (x) (x). = a/2 , (x)


U (a), . e. (a/2, 3a/2).
, (|x|/a)k  (3/2)k  (3/2)n (0  k  n) |(x)|  n (3/2)n . (x)
x a
x a an1 . 3.1 (x)

(x) (x).

3.10. lim 1/xn = 1/an (n N, a > 0).
xa

 (x) = 1/xn 1/an ,


(x) x a.
(x), ,
(a/2, 3a/2):
|(x)| =

|an xn |
|an xn |

.
a n xn
an (a/2)n

3.

89

f (x) = 0, h(x) = |(x)|, g (x) =

|an xn |
.
an (a/2)n

f (x)  h(x)  g (x).


lim xn = an ( 3.9), 3.3 xn an
xa
x a. 2 . 3.2 3.2 (), ,
lim g (x) = 0. ,
xa
lim h(x) = 0. lim (x) = 0 (. . . 2, . 3.2)
xa
xa
3.2 () . 
3.11. lim sin x = sin a.
xa

 3.3, ,
f (x) = sin x sin a x a. :
f (x) = sin x sin a = 2 cos

x+a
xa
sin
.
2
2

| cos x|  1 | sin x|  |x|, f (x) :






x+a
x a

x a
|f (x)| = 2 cos
sin
  2
 = |x a|.
2

> 0. = , ,

x U (a) |f (x)|  |x a| < .


, lim (sin x sin a) = 0, ,
xa
lim sin x = sin a.

xa

3.4.

, , :

3.1. f (x) = x a x a + 0;
3.2. f (x) = x ( > 0) x +0;
3.3. f (x) = ax (a < 1) x +;
, , :

90

. 3.

3.4. f (x) = 1/xn (n N) x +;


3.5. f (x) = x sin 1/x x 0;
3.6. f (x) = (x2 + 5x)ex x 0;
3.7. f (x) = ctg x x /2.
, , :

3.9. lim xn = 1 (n N);


3.8. lim 3 x = 2 (a > 0);
x1

x8

3.10. lim cos x = cos .


x

4. .

4.1.

4.1 ( ).

f (x) g (x) U (w) ( > 0).


lim f (x) = a, lim g (x) = b,
xw

xw

1) lim (f (x) + g (x)) = a + b,

2) lim f (x) g (x) = a b.

xw

xw

4.2 ( ). f (x) g (x)

U (w) ( > 0).

lim f (x) = a, lim g (x) = b = 0, lim

xw

xw

xw

f (x)
a
= .
g (x)
b

4.3 (1- ).

sin x
lim
= 1.
x0

4.2.

, :
1). lim f (x) = a, lim g (x) = b, lim (f (x) g (x)) = a b
xw
xw
xw
( );

91

4.

2). lim f (x) = a, R, lim f (x) = a ( xw


xw
);
3). Pn (x) = a0 xn + a1 xn1 + . . . + an
n, lim Pn (x) = Pn (a);
xa

4). R(x) =

Pn (x)
, Pn (x) Qm (x) , Qm (x)

Q(a) = 0, lim R(x) = R(a).


xa

4.3.

- .
4.1. f (x) =

x2 5x + 6
x3

a) x 1; b) x 3.

 f (x) (x) =
= x2 5x + 6 (x) = x 3. ,

.
, , ,
.
a).
x 1, 4.1
1 2 . 4.2. :
lim (x) = lim (x2 5x + 6) = lim x lim x 5 lim x + 6 =

x1

x1

x1

x1

x1

= 1 1 5 1 + 6 = 2;

lim (x) = lim (x 3) = 1 3 = 2.

x1

x1

, 4.1 : , . ,
lim (x2 5x + 6)
x2 5x + 6
2
x1
lim
=
=
= 1.
x3
lim (x 3)
2
x1
x1

b).
x 3. :

92

. 3.

lim (x) = lim (x2 5x + 6) = lim x lim x 5 lim x + 6 =

x3

x3

x3

x3

x3

= 3 3 5 3 + 6 = 0;

lim (x) = lim (x 3) = 0.

x3

x3

, .
f (x), : (x2 5x +
+ 6)/(x 3) = (x 2)(x 3)/(x 3). , x = 3, . . x = 3
f (x) = x 2. ,

lim f (x) = lim (x 2) = lim x 2 = 3 2 = 1.

x3

x3

4.2. f (x) =

x3

x2 5x + 6
2x2 6x + 4

a) x 2; b) x .

 a).
x 2, , :
lim (x2 5x + 6) = lim x lim x 5 lim x + 6 =

x2

x2

x2

x2

= 2 2 5 2 + 6 = 0;

lim (2x 6x + 4) = 2 2 6 2 + 4 = 0.
2

x2

,
. f (x), :
x2 5x + 6
(x 2)(x 3)
=
.
2(x 1)(x 2)
2x2 6x + 4

x D(f ) = (, 1) (1, 2) (2, +) f (x) =

x3
. , 2(x 1)

x U (2) < 1.
,
. :

lim (x 3) = 1;

x2

lim 2(x 1) = 2 (2 1) = 2.

x2

, 4.2 , lim f (x) = 1/2.


x2

93

4.

b). ,
x . ,
(x) = x2 5x + 6 (x) = 2x2 6x + 4

U () > 0. 1.2 , , ,
(x) (x) x .
(x):

|(x)| = |x2 5x + 6| = |(x 5/2)2 1/4| 


 (x 5/2)2 1/4 = |x 5/2|2 1/4.
M > 0
|x 5/2|2 1/4 > M . :

|x 5/2|2 1/4 > M |x 5/2|2 > M + 1/4



|x 5/2| > M + 1/4 x AM ,


AM = (, 5/2 M + 1/4) (5/2 + M + 1/4, +).

> 0 AM U ()
. , M > 0

U () x , |(x)| > M .

, (x) U ()
d > 0 . (x). , f (x) x
4.1,
. .
x2 x2 .

x = 0, . . x U ().

f (x) =

x2 5x + 6
x2 (1 5/x + 6/x2 )
1 5/x + 6/x2
=
=
.
2x2 6x + 4
x2 (2 6/x + 4/x2 )
2 6/x + 4/x2

,
, , lim c/x = 0 c = 0 ( 1.4):
x

lim (1 5/x + 6/x ) = 1;


2

lim (2 6/x + 4/x2 ) = 2.

, 
4.1 , lim f (x) = 1/2.
x

94

. 3.

.
4.3. lim

x0

sin 2x
.
x

 , 1-
, y = cos x :

 sin x
sin 2x
2 sin x cos x
lim
= lim
= lim 2
cos x = 2 1 1 = 1.
x
x
x
x0
x0
x0

tg x
.
x0 x

4.4. lim

 ,
tg x, y = cos x 1- :
tg x
1
sin x
1
sin x
= lim

= lim
lim
=
x
x0 x
x0 cos x
x0 cos x x0 x
1
sin x
=
lim
= 1. 
cos 0 x0 x

lim

1 cos 2x
.
x0
x2

4.5. lim

 , , :
 sin x 2
1 cos 2x
2 sin2 x
=
=
2

.
2
2
x

1-
,
 sin x 2
1 cos 2x
lim
=
lim
2

= 2 12 = 2.

2
x0

4.4.

x0

- :
x2 13x + 12
x1
2
2x + 10x + 12
4.2. f (x) =
x2 + 2x 3

4.1. f (x) =

a) x 1;

b) x 3;

a) x 3;

b) x ;

5.

95

4.3. ,

Pn (x) = a0 xn + a1 xn1 + . . . + an ,
Qn (x) = b0 xn + b1 xn1 + . . . + bn
n, lim

Pn (x)
a
= 0 .
Qn (x)
b0

:
4.4. lim x ctg x;
x0

4.6.

sin x cos x
;
x/4 1 tg3 x

lim

tg 2x sin 2x
;
x0
x3
1 cos3 2x
4.7. lim
.
x0 x (x sin 2x)

4.5. lim

5.
5.1. . f (x) a,
U (a) a lim f (x) = f (a).
xa

5.1 (
). f (x) g (x) a.

1) f (x) + g (x), f (x) g (x) a;


2) f (x) g (x) a;
3) g (a) = 0, f (x)/g (x) a.
5.2 ( ). f (x)
U (a) a, a.
5.2.

.
1). f (x) x = a , > 0 > 0
, x (a , a + )
|f (x) f (a)| < (
).

96

. 3.

2). ( .) f (x) a,
> 0 , U (a) f (x) .
3). ( .)
f (x) a f (a) > 0 (f (a) < 0),
> 0 , x U (a)
f (x) > 0 (f (x) < 0).
4). a R.
5). f (x) =

Pn (x)
, Pn (x) Qm (x) ,
Qm (x)

Qm (a) = 0, f (x) a.

5.3.

f (x) x = a.
5.1. f (x) = 1/(x a)

a R.

 f (x) = 1/(x a)
x = a,

.
5.2. f (x) = sgn x

a = 0.

 f (x) = sgn x

1
0
f (x) = sgn x =

x > 0,
x = 0,
x < 0.

f (x) = sgn x
x = 0. , lim sgn x , xa
(. . . 3, . 1.2). = 1.

> 0, x1 > 0, x2 < 0, x1 , x2 U (0),


|f (x1 ) f (x2 )| = 2 > . , ,
. , f (x)
x 0 x = 0.


97

5.

5.3. f (x) =

x a a R.

 f (x) = x a [a, +). ,


x = a, f (x) .

f (x) x = a.
f (x) .
5.4. f (x) = (x 2)/(x2 4).

 f (x) = (x 2)/(x2 4) .
x2 4 x = 2.
x = 2 f (x) (. . . 5,
. 5.2), x = 2 ,

.
5.5. f (x) = ln x.

 f (x) = ln x . D(f ) = (0, +). , ,


. . y = ln x . 5.2
, y = ln x

(0, +).

5.4.

f (x) x = a:

x1
, a = 1;
5.2. f (x) = ln |x|, a = 0;
5.1. f (x) =
x
1
x sin 1 x = 0,
x
a = 0.
5.3. f (x) =

x = 0;

f (x) :
5.4. f (x) = [x];
7

5.5. f (x) =

x1
;
x3 3x + 2

5.6. f (x) =

1
.
cos x

98

. 3.

6. .

6.1.

6.1 ( ). f (x) a R
, :
1) lim f (x) = f (a + 0);
xa+0

2) lim f (x) = f (a 0);


xa0

3) f (a + 0) = f (a 0).
f (x) a ,
[a, a + ) lim f (x) =
xa+0

= f (a + 0) = f (a).
f (x) a ,
(a , a] lim f (x) =
xa0

= f (a 0) = f (a).
6.2 ( ). f (x) a R
, a
.
6.3 ( ).
f (x) a R
, :
1) lim f (x) = f (a + 0);
xa+0

2) lim f (x) = f (a 0);


xa0

3) f (a + 0) = f (a 0) = f (a).
6.4 ( ).
f (x) ()
(a, b), a R a = , b R b = +.
:

lim f (x) = inf f (x);

xa+0

x(a, b)

lim f (x) = sup f (x);

xa+0

x(a, b)

lim f (x) = sup f (x).

xb0

x(a, b)

lim f (x) = inf f (x).

xb0

x(a, b)

(6.1)


(6.2)

99

6.

6.5 ( ).
f (x) (a, b),
a R a = , b R b = +, c (a, b).
1) lim f (x) = f (c + 0); 2) lim f (x) = f (c 0).
xc+0

6.2.

xc0

.
1). f (x) x ,
:
1) lim f (x) = b1 ; 2) lim f (x) = b2 ; 3) b1 = b2 .
x+

2). f (x) a , > 0 , [a, a + ) f (x)


.
3). f (x) a , > 0 , (a , a] f (x)
.
4). f (x) a f (a) > 0
(f (a) < 0), > 0 , x
[a, a + ) f (x) > 0 (f (x) < 0).
5). f (x) a f (a) > 0
(f (a) < 0), > 0 , x
(a , a] f (x) > 0 (f (x) < 0).

6.3.

6.1. f (x) =

x +0, x 0, x 0.
 y = sgn x

1/(1 + x ) x > 0,
f (x) =
0
x = 0,

2
1/(1 + x ) x < 0.
7*

sgn x
1 + x2

100

. 3.

x U (+0) f (x) = 1/(1 + x2 )


1/(1 + x2 ) x = 0 ,
1
1
1
= lim
=
= 1.
2
2
x+0 1 + x
x0 1 + x
1 + 02

f (+0) = lim f (x) = lim


x+0

x U (0) f (x) = 1/(1 + x2 ) 1/(1 + x2 ) x = 0 ,



1
=
f (0) = lim f (x) = lim
x0
x0
1 + x2


1
1
= lim
=
= 1.
2
2
x0

1+x

1+0

, f (+0) = f (0). C, 6.1 lim f (x)


x0

.
f (x) x = a.

2x + 3 x  1,
a = 1.
6.2. f (x) =
3x 5 x > 1;

 x U (1 0) f (x) = 2x + 3 2x + 3 x = 1 ,
f (1 0) = lim f (x) = lim (2x + 3) = 1.
x10

x1

x = 1 f (x)
f (x) = 2x + 3, f (1) = 2 1 + 3 = 1 = f (1 0) ,

, f (x) . x U (1 + 0)
f (x) = 3x 5
3x 5 x = 1 ,

f (1 + 0) = lim f (x) = lim (3x 5) = 2.


x1+0

x1

, f (1 + 0) = f (1). C, f (x) x = 1 6.2



.

101

6.

6.3. f (x) = |x 2|; a = 2.


 ,


x 2 x  2,
f (x) =
2 x x > 2.
f (x) x = 2
( 6.3). :

lim f (x) = lim


x 2 = 0;
lim f (x) = lim
2 x = 0.
x2+0

x2+0

x20

x20

f (2 + 0) = f (2 0) = f (2) = 0 6.3 , x = 2 ,
, , .

6.4. f (x) = [x] = n x [n, n + 1) x;
a = n (n Z).

 = 1/2. x U (n + 0) [x] = n
, ,
f (n + 0) = lim f (x) = n = f (n).
xn+0

, [x] x = n .

x U (n 0) [x] = n 1 , ,

f (n 0) = lim f (x) = n 1 = f (n).


xn0

,
x = n . C, 6.2 [x]
x = n n Z.

6.4.

f (x) = x a + 0, x a 0,
x a:
x2 1
; a = 1;
|x 1|
1
; a = 1;
6.2. f (x) = 3 +
1 + 71/(1x)

6.1. f (x) =

6.3. f (x) = cos(/x); a = 0;

6.4. f (x) =

5
; a = 2.
(x 2)3

102

. 3.


f (x) x = a.

e1/x x < 0,
a = 0;
6.5. f (x) =
x
x  0;
6.6. f (x) = sgn x; a = 0;

|x + 1| x 1 x = 1,
x+1
a = 1;
6.7. f (x) =
1
x = 1;
6.8. f (x) = {x} = x [x] x; a = n (n Z).
6.9. , b

4 3x
x < 0,
f (x) =
2b + x x  0
x = 0.

7.
7.1. . f (x) x w, w {a, a + 0, a 0, , +, } (a R),

U 0 (w) M > 0

> 0 , x U (w)

|f (x)| > M , . . f (x) U 1/M (). : lim f (x) = .


xw
f (x) x w, w {a, a + 0, a
0, , +, } (a R),

U 0 (w) M > 0 > 0 ,

x U (w) f (x) > M , . .

f (x) U 1/M (+). : lim f (x) = +.


xw
f (x) x w, w {a, a + 0, a
0, , +, } (a R), -

103

7.

U 0 (w) M > 0 > 0 ,

x U (w) f (x) < M , . .

f (x) U 1/M (). : lim f (x) = .


xw

7.1 (
). 1). f (x)

x w > 0 , f (x) = 0 x U (w),


g (x) = 1/f (x) x w.
2). f (x) x w,
g (x) = 1/f (x) x w.
7.2 ( , ). f (x) g (x)

U (w), > 0, x U (w) |f (x)|  |g (x)|. lim f (x) = ,


xw
lim g (x) = .
xw

7.3 ( ). f (x)

x w, g (x) U (w).
1) lim f (x) g (x)) = ;
xw
2) lim (g (x)/f (x)) = 0;
xw

3) g (x) = 0 x U (w), lim (f (x)/g (x)) = .


xw

7.4 (,
). lim f (x) = .
xw
1) lim g (x) = b = 0, lim f (x) g (x) = ;
xw
xw
2) lim g (x) = , lim f (x) g (x) = .
xw

xw

7.5 ( ).
lim f (x) = +.
xw
1) lim g (x) = +, lim (f (x) + g (x)) = +;
xw
xw
2) lim g (x) = , lim (g (x) f (x)) = .
xw

xw

104

. 3.

7.2.

1). ,
,
.
2). , .
:
3). lim f (x) = +, lim (f (x)) = ;
xw

xw

4). lim f (x) = , lim |f (x)| = +.


xw

xw

5). f (x) g (x) U (w), > 0,

x U (w) f (x)  g (x).


lim g (x) = , lim g (x) = .
xw

xw

6). g (x) U (w).


lim f (x) = , lim (f (x) g (x)) = .
xw

xw

7). lim f (x) = +. lim g (x) = b > 0,


xw
xw
lim f (x) g (x) = +.
xw

7.3.

.
7.1. lim cx = (c = 0).
x

 M > 0 > 0 ,

x U () |cx| > M .
,

|cx| > M |c||x| > M |x| > M/|c|.

= |c|/M . x U () 
|cx| > M . , lim cx = .
x

7.

105

7.2. lim ax = + (a > 1).


x+

 M > 1 > 0 ,

x U (+) ax > M .
M > 1 , ax > M M > 1, , ,
0 < M  1. , ,
ax a > 1 R. :

ax > M ax > aloga M x > loga M.


= 1/ loga M . M > 1, a > 1 ,

> 0 x U () ax > M .

, lim ax = +.
x+

7.3. lim c/x = (c = 0).


x0

 (x) = x x 0.
1/x x 0
( 7.1). . 1 7.4 ,
f (x) = c/x x 0.

7.4.

:
7.1.

lim

x+0

c
= + (c > 0); 7.2.
x

lim

x0

lim ax = + (a < 1);



+ a > 1,
7.4. lim loga x =
x+
a < 1;

a > 1,
7.5. lim loga x =
x+0
+ a < 1.
7.3.

c
= (c > 0);
x

7.6. , Pn (x) n > 0,

a) lim Pn (x) = ; b) lim 1/Pn (x) = 0.


x

Pn (x) = a0 xn + a1 xn1 + . . . + an , Qm (x) = b0 xm +


+ b1 xm1 + . . . + bm n m, m > 0.

106

. 3.

:
7.7. n > m,
a) lim Pn (x)/Qm (x) = ;
x

b)

lim Qm (x)/Pn (x) = 0;

7.8. n > m, a0 > 0, b0 > 0,


a) lim Pn (x)/Qm (x) = +;
x+

+ m + n = 2k ,
b) lim Pn (x)/Qm (x) =
x
m + n = 2k + 1.
7.9. Qm (a) = 0 (m > 0), Pn (a) = 0, lim

xa

Pn (x)
= .
Qm (x)

8. ( ).

8.1. . {xn } . ,
xn a , lim xn = a
n
n0 N , n > n0
xn  a. : lim xn = a 0 a = 0 lim xn = 0
n
n
a = 0.
, xn
a , lim xn = a n0 N
n
, n > n0 xn  a.
: lim xn = a + 0 a = 0 lim xn = +0
n
n
a = 0.
8.1 ( ).
b f (x) x w
, {xn },
:

1) > 0, xn U (w), 2) lim xn = w, w


n
{a, a + 0, a 0, , +, } (a R),
lim f (xn ) = b.
n

8.2 ( ).
2 {xn } {yn },
:

107

8.

1) lim xn = w; 2) lim yn = w;
n
n
4) lim f (yn ) = b2 ; 5) b1 = b2 .
n
lim f (x) .

3)

lim f (xn ) = b1 ;

8.3 ( ). f (x) a lim xn =


n
= a.
lim f (xn ) = f ( lim xn ) = f (a).
n

8.4 (2- ).



1 x
lim (1 + x)1/x = lim 1 +
= e.
x0

8.2.

.
1). xn  0 n N,

p
lim p xn = a, p N.

lim xn = a.

2). xn a
, > 0 n0 N ,

n > n0 xn U (a 0).
3). xn a
, > 0 n0 N ,

n > n0 xn U (a + 0).
4). (
). f (x) x w ,
{xn }, :

1) > 0, xn U (w),
2) lim xn = w, w {a, a + 0, a
n
0, , +, } (a R),
f (xn )
x w.

108

. 3.

8.3.

.
8.1. lim

2n
= 2 0.
n+1

 , .
xn =

2n
(2n + 2) 2
2
=
=2
< 2.
n+1
n+1
n+1

, lim xn = 2 n N
n
xn < 2. , lim xn = 2 0.

n



1 n+1
8.2. lim xn = 1 +
= e + 0.
n



1 n+1
 xn = 1 +
(. .
n
. 6, . 1.2, . 2) , xn  1. , xn
, lim xn = inf xn , . . xn n

.






1 n+1
1 n
1
= e.
lim 1 +
= lim 1 +
lim 1 +
n

lim

1+


1 n+1
= e + 0.
n

8.3. ,
lim sin(t/n) = 0 t < 0.

lim sin(t/n) = +0 t > 0

 , lim sin(t/n) = 0, n
.
: y = sin x
t
x = 0 lim = 0 t.
n n


t
t
lim sin = sin lim
= sin 0 = 0.
n

t > 0, n0 ,
t/n0 < /2. n0
n0 > 2t/ .

109

8.

t/n t > 0 , n > n0 t (0, /2) ,


, sin(t/n) > 0. , t > 0
xn = sin(t/n) > 0 .
t < 0, n0 ,
t/n0 > /2: n0 n0 > 2|t|/ . t/n t < 0 , n > n0
t (/2, 0) , sin(t/n) < 0. , t < 0
xn = sin(t/n) > 0 .

8.4. , xn = 1 +

(1)n
, .
n

 xn lim xn = 1. ,
n

1 + 1/n n = 2k ;
xn =
1 1/n n = 2k 1.
, , ,
. ,
, .

1

8.5. , f (x) = sin


x
x 0.


. :
xn = 1/(n); yn = 1/(/2 + 2n).
:


1
1
sin
= sin n = 0; sin
= sin
+ 2n = 1.
xn

yn

lim sin

1
= 0;
xn

lim sin

1
= 1.
yn


1
, lim sin
n
x

( 8.2).

110

. 3.

{xn }, .

1
8
8.6. xn = 3 27 + 2 3 .
n

1
8
xn = 3 yn , yn = 27 + 2 3
n

lim xn , f (x) =
n

= 3 x
.

3
lim yn = 27 = lim 3 yn = 3 lim yn = 27 = 3.

n

t
n

8.7. xn = n sin .


xn = t

sin yn
, yn = t/n.
yn

lim yn = 0, 1- n
8.1

lim t

sin yn
sin x
= t lim
= t.
yn
x0 x

8.8. xn = n(ln(n + 1) ln n).






1
1 n
= ln 1 +
xn = n(ln(n + 1) ln n) = n ln 1 +
= ln yn ,
n
n


1 n
, lim xn ,
yn = 1 +
n
n
f (x) = ln x .


lim yn = e = lim ln yn = ln lim yn = ln e = 1.

n

111

8.



1 n
8.9. xn = 1
.
3n



 


1 n
1 3n 1/3
xn = 1
= 1
= yn1/3 ,


yn = 1

3n


1 3n
3n

3n

8.1 2- ,


1 3n
lim yn = lim 1
= e,
lim


1

3n

3n

= 0. lim xn ,
n

f (x) = x1/3 x = e
.

1/3
1
lim yn = e = lim (yn )1/3 = lim yn
=
.

3
n

8.4.

:
8.1.
8.3.

3n

lim =
= 3 + 0;
 n 11n
lim 1 +
= e 0.

n
n

8.2.

lim = cos

t
= 1 0;
n

, {xn } , :
8.4. xn =

cos(n/2)
.
n

{xn }, :


n2 + 1 + n
3

8.6. xn = 1 n3 + n;
8.5. xn = 4
.
n3 + n

112

. 3.

lim n(ln(n + 3) ln n);


n


5 n
8.9. lim 1
;
n
n


4 n+3
;
8.11. lim 1 +
8.7.

8.8.

lim

8.10.
8.12.



2 3n
1+
;
n

lim n(ln n ln(n + 2));


 n 3 n/2
lim
.

n
n

, :
8.13. lim cos
x1

1
;
x1

8.14. lim 21/x ;


x0

8.15.

lim sin x.

9.
9.1. . ,
f (x) b x w,

lim f (x) = b > 0 , x U (w)


xw
f (x)  b. : lim f (x) = b 0.
xw
, f (x)
b x w, lim f (x) = b > 0

xw

, x U (w) f (x)  b.
: lim f (x) = b + 0.
xw

9.1 ( ).
f (x) g (y) :
1) E(f ) D(g ); 2) lim f (x) = w2 ; 3) lim g (y) = w;
xw1

yw2

4) w2 {b, b + 0, b 0},

> 0 , x U (w1 )
f (x) = b.
lim g (f (x)) = lim g (y) = w.
xw1

yw2



, . 3 .

9.

113

9.2 ( ).
f (x) g (y) :
1) E(f ) D(g );
2) g (y) y0 ;
3) lim f (x) = y0 .
xw

lim g (f (x)) = g ( lim f (x)) = g (y0 ).


xw

xw

9.3 ( ).
f (x) g (y) :
1) E(f ) D(g );
2) f (x) x0 ;
3) g (y) y0 = f (x0 ).
g (f (x)) x0 .
9.4 ( ).
f (x) U (a)
a, a.
9.2.

.
1). f (x) b
, > 0 > 0 ,

x U (w) f (x) U (b 0).


2). f (x) b
, > 0 > 0 ,

x U (w) f (x) U (b + 0).

9.3.

x w , .
9.1. f (x) = 2x x +0.

 f (x) = 2x R, f (x) = 2x , , , , x = 0.
8

114

. 3.

, lim 2x = lim 2x = 20 = 1.
x+0

x0

y = ax a > 1 , 2x > 20 = 1 x > 0, . .

x U (+0). , lim 2x = 1 + 0.
x+0

9.2. f (x) = 2x x 0.
 y = ax a > 1
, 2x > 20 = 1 x > 0 2x < 20 = 1
x < 0. , f (x) = 2x
, 1 x 0,
, .

x
9.3. f (x) = 2 x .
 f (x) = 2x 
lim 2x = 0 ( 3.3), lim 2x = +0.
x

9.4. f (x) = 1

 1

x2

x2

x 0.

< 1 x R lim (1 x2 ) = 1,
x0

f (x) = 1 x2 . 
.
1
.
x
2
1
x+0

9.5. lim

 o
, .
y = 2x
h(x), , x, : h(x) = g (f (x)), f (x) = 2x , x > 0,
g (y) = 1/(y 1). , f (x) g () 9.1:
1) E(f ) = (1, +); D(g ) = R \ {1} = E(f ) D(g );
2) w1 = +0; w2 = lim 2x = 1 + 0 ( 9.1);
x+0

1
= +;
3) lim
y1+0 y 1

4) 2x = 1 x U (+0) > 0.
9.1,
1
1
= lim
= +.
x+0 2 1
y1+0 y 1

lim

115

9.

sin 2 x
9.6. lim
.
x
x0

 1- ,
. y =

= 2 x = x = y/ 2 h(x),
, x, :

sin 2 x
2 sin y
= g (f (x)), f (x) = 2 x, x = 0, g (y) =
.
x

, f (x) g ()
9.1:
1) E(f ) = R \ {0}; D(g ) = R \ {0} = E(f ) D(g );

2) w1 = 0; w2 = lim 2 x = 0;

x0

2 sin y
sin y
= 2 lim
= 2 (1- );
3) lim
y
y0
y0 y

4) f (x) =

2 x = 0 x U /2 (0).

9.1,

sin 2x
2 sin y
lim
= lim
= 2.
x
y
x0
y0

9.7. lim

x+

1+


1 7x
.
x

 2- 
1 x
,
. y = 1 +
x
x (, 1) (0, +) h(x),
, :



 
1 7x
1 x 7
h(x) = 1 +
= 1+
= g (f (x)),
x
x


1 x
, g (y) = y 7 .
f (x) = 1 +
x

h(x) 9.2
:
1) E(f ) (0, +); D(g ) = R = E(f ) D(g );
2) g (y) = y 7 y0 = e;
8*

116

. 3.

3 ) w = ;

lim

1+


1 x
= e (2- ).
x

9.2,

 

 

1 x 7
1 x 7
lim
1+
= lim 1 +
= e7 .
x

9.8. lim

 1 + x 1/(1+x)

x+

2+x

 h(x), ,
-, . . h(x) = f (x)g (x) . - , ,
h(x) = eg (x) ln f (x) , ex ,
:
lim g (x) ln f (x)

lim h(x) = lim eg (x) ln f (x) = exw

xw

xw


1+x
1
;
, g (x) =
2+x
1+ x


1
1+x
ln
lim h(x) = eL , L = lim
.
x+
x+ 1 + x
2+x

h(x) = f (x)g (x) , f (x) =

y = ln x 9.2,


1+x
1+x
= ln 1 = 0.
lim ln
= ln lim
x+

,
L:

2+x

x+

2+x

1
= 0
x+ 1 + x

lim

L = lim

x+

1
1+x
lim ln
= 0.
x+
2+x
1+ x

: lim h(x) = e0 = 1.
x+

9.

117

1- .
9.9. lim arcsin x/x = 1.
x0

 y = arcsin x = x = sin y :
w1 = 0; w2 = lim arcsin x = 0;
x0

arcsin x
y
1
1
1
lim
= lim
= lim sin y =
= = 1.
sin y
x
1
x0
y0 sin y
y0
lim
y

y0

2- .
9.10. lim

x0

ln(1 + x)
= 1.
x

 h(x) =
:
h(x) =

ln(1 + x)
, x

ln(1 + x)
= ln(1 + x)1/x .
x

y = (1 + x)1/x , w = lim (1 + x)1/x = e x0

y = ln x. 9.2,

ln(1 + x)
lim
= lim ln y = 1.

x

x0

ye

ex 1
= 1.
x
x0

9.11. lim

 y = ex 1 =
= x = ln(y + 1). ex :
w = lim (ex 1) = e0 1 = 0.
x0

, 9.10,
ex 1
y
1
1
= lim
=
= = 1.
ln(y + 1)
x
1
x0
y0 ln(y + 1)
lim

lim

y0

118

. 3.

.
9.12. lim

sin x
.
x

 y = x = x = y +
1- . :
lim

sin x
sin(y + )
sin y
= lim
= lim
= 1.
x
y
y0
y0 y

ln x 1
.
x1 x e

9.13. lim

 , , , 9.10:
ln x 1
ln x ln e
ln(x/e)
ln(x/e 1 + 1)
=
=
=
.
xe
xe
e(x/e 1)
e(x/e 1)

y = x/e 1. w = lim y = 0.
xe
,
ln x 1
ln(1 + y)
1
ln(1 + y)
1
= lim
= lim
= .
x

e
ey
e
y
e
x1
y0
y0

lim

ex e
.
x1 x 1

9.14. lim

 , , , 9.11,
y = x 1.
ex e
ex e
e(ex1 1)
ey 1
= lim
= lim
= e lim
= e. 
x1
y
x1 x 1
x1 x 1
x1
y0

lim

9.4.

x w , :
9.1. f (x) = 2x x 0;

9.2. f (x) = cos x x ;

9.3. f (x) = x + 2x + 3 x 1;
2

9.4. f (x) = 3x x .
2

119

10. .

:
1
;
1

3 2
x 23x+1
;
9.7. lim
x1
(x 1)2

9.5.

lim
x 2x

9.6. lim

x0

9.8.

tg 100x
;
x

lim

2x2 + 3
2x2 + 5

8x2 +3
.

1- :
9.9. lim

x0

arctg x
= 1.
x

9.10. lim

x0

1 cos x
= 1 /2 .
x2

2- :
ax 1
(1 + x)p 1
= ln a;
9.12. lim
= p (p R);
x
x
x0
x0

n
1+x1
1
= (n N);
9.13. lim
x
n
x0
loga (1 + x)
1
=
;
9.14. lim
x
ln a
x0

n
xp 1
x1
1
= p (p R); 9.16. lim
= (n N).
9.15. lim
n
x1 x 1
x1 x 1

9.11. lim

:
9.17.
9.19.

lim (/2 x) tg x;

9.18. lim (1 x) tg

lim x(e1/x 1);

9.20. lim

x/2
x

ln x ln a
(a > 0);
xa
xa

9.21. lim

x1

x
;
2

2x 4
;
x2 x 2

9.22.

lim x (ln(x + a) ln x) .

x+

10. .

10.1. . (x), (x)
x w, w
{a, a + 0, a 0, , +, } (a R). , (x)

120

. 3.

(1) , (x) x w,

lim

xw

(x)
= 0,
(x)

(: (x) = o ((x)));
(2) (x) x w,

lim

xw

(x)
= L = 0;
(x)

(3) (x) x w,

lim

xw

(x)
= 1,
(x)

(: (x) (x)).
, (x) n-
x w, w {a, a + 0, a 0} (a R),
lim ((x)/(x a)n ) = L = 0.
xw

10.1 ( ).
1) (x), 1 (x), (x), 1 (x) x w
1 , 1 , lim ((x)/(x)) = lim (1 (x)/1 (x))
xw
xw
.
2) (x), 1 (x) x w 1 ,
lim ((x) f (x)) = lim (1 (x) f (x))
xw
xw
.

(x) x w
1. sin (x) (x);
3. 1 cos (x)

2. arcsin (x) (x);


2

((x))
;
2

5. arctg (x) (x);


7. a(x) 1 (x) ln a (a > 0),
8. (1 + (x))p 1 p(x),

4. tg (x) (x);
6. ln (1 + (x)) (x);
7a. e(x) 1 (x);

(x)
8a. n 1 + (x) 1
.
n

f (x), g (x) x w. ,
f (x)
(1) , g (x) x w,

lim (f (x)/g (x)) = ;

xw

10. .

121

(2) g (x) x w,

lim (f (x)/g (x)) = L = 0;

xw

(3) g (x) x w,

lim (f (x)/g (x)) = 1,

xw

(: f (x) g (x)).
, f (x) n-
x w, w {, +, },
lim (f (x)/xn ) = L = 0.
xw

10.2.

.
1). (x), (x) x w.
(x) (x) x w ,
= (x) (x)
(x) x w.
2). (x) x w, lim f (x) = k = 0,
xw
f (x)(x) k(x).
3). (x), 1 (x), (x), 1 (x)
x w 1 x w, 1 , lim ((x)/(x)) =
xw
= lim (1 (x)/1 (x)) .
xw

4). (x), 1 (x) x w 1


x w, lim ((x) f (x)) = lim (1 (x) f (x))
xw
xw
.

10.3.

10.1. , =

2x2
= x2
1+x


x 0.

 x 0.
,

122

. 3.

2x2
= 0;
x0 1 + x

lim

lim x2 = 0.

x0

lim

2x2
1+x

x0

x2

2x2
1
= 2 lim
= 2 = 0
2
x0 x (1 + x)
x0 x + 1

= lim

0,
.

10.2. , =
, = x2 x 0.

x2 sin x
3x


x 0. :
lim

x0

x2 sin x
3x

x2

x2 sin x
sin x
= lim
= 0.
2
x0 x (3 x)
x0 3 x

= lim

0, =

x2 sin x
=
,
3x

= x2 .

10.3. = tg x sin x
= x x 0.

 = tg x sin x
n N, lim ((x)/xn ) = c = 0.
x0

sin x sin2
tg x sin x
sin x(1 cos x)
2
lim
=
lim
=
2
lim
n =
xn
cos x xn
x0
x0
x0 cos x x
x
x
sin
sin x sin
1
1

=2 lim

x0

lim

x0

xn3

0
1
=

n3

lim

2 x0 x

1
n3

n < 3;
n = 3;
n > 3.

, = tg x sin x

n = 3 x x 0.

10. .

123

10.4.
1
= x x 0.
= 1
1+x

 :
1 1/(1 + x)
1+x1
1
= lim
= lim
= 1.
x
(
1
+
x)x
1
+
x
x0
x0
x0

lim

1, 1
x
1+x
x 0.

10.5.

3
y = x3 + 9 g = x x .

 :



3

3 3
x
1 + 9/x3
x +9
lim
= lim
= lim 3 1 + 9/x3 = 1.
x
x
x
x
x

1,

.
, .
sin(x 3)
.
x3 x2 4x + 3

10.6. lim

 = x 3 x 3 ,
sin(x 3) x 3

lim

x3

sin(x 3)
(x 3)
1
1
= lim
= lim
= .
2
(x

3
)(x

1
)
x

1
2
x
3
x
3
x 4x + 3

eax ebx
.
x0 sin ax sin bx

10.7. lim

 f (x), .
ex ,
.
f (x) =

eax ebx
ebx (e(ab)x 1)
=
.
(a + b)x
(a b)x
sin ax sin bx
2 cos
sin
2

124

. 3.

, (x) = (a b)x, (x) = (a b)x/2, (x) =


= (a + b)x/2 x 0, ,
7 1 ,

e(x) 1 (x);

sin (x) (x);

lim cos (x) = 1.

x0

, :
ebx (a b)x

lim f (x) = lim

x0

x0

10.8. lim

x0

2 cos

(a + b)x (a b)x
2
2

= lim

x0

ebx

cos

(a + b)x
2

= 1.

ln cos x
.
x2

 , cos x = 1 + (x), (x) = cos x 1 0


x 0, 6 3 x2

. ln cos x cos x 1 .
2
,
x2

ln cos x
2 = 1.
lim
=
lim
2
2
2
x0
x0 x
x

10.9. lim x(a1/x 1).


x

 x 1/x .
ln a
7 a1/x 1
x
:
lim x(a1/x 1) = lim

10.10. lim

cos

m
x

x

ln a
x = ln a.
x

 -

 2
cos

m
x

= ex

ln(cos(m/x))

:




m
m
= lim x2 cos 1 =
L = lim x2 ln cos
x

= lim x2
x

m2
m2
=

.
2
2x2

10. .

125

x :


m
m
m
m2
cos 1;
ln cos
1 cos 2 .
x

2x



 2
2
m x
lim cos
= eL = em /2 .
x

sin x + x2 x5
.
x0
3x x4

10.11. lim

 , sin x + x2 x5 sin x x 0,
(sin x + x2 x5 ) sin x = x2 x5
sin x (. . . 1,
. 10.2). , 3x2 x4 3x.
,
sin x + x2 x5
sin x
1
= lim
= .
4
3
x0
x0 3x
3x x

lim

10.4.

10.1. , =

1x
= 1 x
1+x


x 1.

10.2. ,
= tg x ,
= 3 x x 0.
10.3. = cos x cos 2x = x x 0.
10.4. = e2x ex = sin 2x sin x x 0.

.
10.5

3
f (x) = x2 + 1 g (x) = 3 x x .

126

. 3.

,
:
sin(x + 2)
;
x2 4x + 8
sin(x /3)
10.8. lim
;
x/3 1 2 cos x

10.6.

lim

10.10.

ln(1 + 3x )
;
x+ ln(1 + 2x )

10.12.

lim

lim (sin x)tg x ;

x/2

1 sin(x/2)
;
x
x
ln(1 + 3x )
10.9. lim
;
x ln(1 + 2x )

10.7. lim

ax ax
;
x0 sin bx

5
32x5 x8
10.13. lim
;
x0
e5x 1

10.11. lim

sin2 x tg4 x
.
x0 3x2 + 5x4

10.14. lim

11. .
11.1. . x = a
f (x),
(1) f a,
(2) a.
.
x = a f (x).
(1) , lim f (x) = b;
xa
(2) 1- ,

lim f (x) = b1 , lim f (x) = b2 , b2 = b1


xa0

xa+0

( b2 b1 a);
(3) 2- , ,
, :
lim f (x),
lim f (x).
xa0

xa+0

11.1 ( ).
f (x), (a, b), a R
a = , b R b = +,
c (a, b). c 1- .

127

11. .

x = a f (x), lim f (x)


lim f (x) + .

xa0

xa+0

y = kx + b y = f (x) x + ( ), f (x) = kx + b +
+ (x), (x) 0 x +.

x ( ).
11.2 ( ). y = kx + b
y = f (x) x + (x )
,
f (x)
= k;
x

f (x)
= k;
lim
x x

lim

x+

lim (f (x) kx) = b



lim (f (x) kx) = b .

x+

(11.1)
(11.2)

() k = 0, ()
.
11.2.

.
1). f (x) (a, b)
c (a, b), c 1- .
2).
, , , OY .
3). ,
.
4).
, , -

128

. 3.

, .
5).
, ,
.
6). ,
.

11.3.

, .
, . 1- .
11.1. f =

sin x
.
x

 R \ 0. y =
= sin x/x
sin x x , , 5.2
, . . x = 0.
x = 0 ,
sin x
= 1,
. lim
x0 x
.

11.2. f =

1
.
cos2 x

 5.2
x , cos2 x = 0, . . x = /2 + n.
lim

x/2+n

1
= + n N, x = /2 + n
cos2 x

(n Z) 2- 
11.3. f = arctg

1
.
x5

 , 1
, y = arctg x g =
x5
,
x = 5. 9.4 ,

129

11. .

x = 5.
.
1
t=
:
x5

= lim arctg t = ;
t+
x5
2
x5+
1

L2 = lim arctg
= lim arctg t = .
t
x5
2
x5

L1 = lim arctg

(11.3)
(11.4)

, x = 5
, . ,
x =5 1- . C L1 L2 =

=
= .

2

11.4. f =

1
.
2 21/x

 ,
. 2 21/x = 0, x = 1. , x = 0,
1
.
x
. .
x = 0.
. t =

1
:
x

lim 2t = 0.

lim 2t = +,

t+

1
1
= lim
= 0;
1/x
t+
2

2t
22
1
1
1
L2 = lim
= lim
= .
t
1
/x
t 2 2
2
x0 2 2

L1 = lim

x0+

(11.5)
(11.6)

, x +0 x 0
. , x = 0 1-
. C L1 L2 = 1/2.
x = 0. x 1 2 21/x 0 , , f (x) . , x = 0

2- .
9

130

. 3.

1
x

11.5. f = sin .

 x = 0,
1/x. ,
1
x

lim sin . -

x0

xn =

1
1
yn =
. f (xn ) = sin n = 0,
n
/2 + 2n

f (yn ) = sin(/2 + 2n) = 1, lim f (x) , x0

, x = 0 2- .
11.6. f = x +

x+2
.
|x + 2|

 x = 2, .
. e

x+2

x +
= x + 1 x > 2;
x+2
f (x) =

x x + 2 = x 1 x < 2.
x+2

L1 = lim f (x) = lim (x + 1) = 1;


x2+

x2+

x2

x2

L2 = lim f (x) = lim (x 1) = 3.


, x = 2
. ,
1- . C L1 L2 =

= 1 (3) = 2.
.
11.7. f =

3x2 + 3x 1
.
x1

 x = 1,
3x2 + 3x 1
= ;
x1
x1

lim

3x2 + 3x 1
= +.
x1
x1+

lim

131

11. .

, x = 1 .
. (11.1)
:

k1 = lim

3x2 + 3x 1
x1

3x2 + 3x 1

= lim
= 3;
x+
x+
x
x(x 1)
 2

3x + 3x 1
6x 1
b1 = lim
3x = lim
= 6.
x+

x1

x+

x1

, y = 3x + 6
.
:

k2 = lim

3x2 + 3x 1
x1

3x2 + 3x 1

= lim
= 3;
x
x
x
x(x 1)

 2
3x + 3x 1
6x 1
b2 = lim
3x = lim
= 6.
x

x1

x1

, y = 3x + 6 ,

.
11.8. f = x arctg x.


. .
:
x arctg x

= lim arctg x = ;
x+
x+
2
 x




=
b1 = lim x arctg x x = lim x arctg x
x+
x+
2
2



k1 = lim

 t = arctg x /2; x = ctg t 


 = lim t ctg t =
= 

x + = t 0
t0
= lim

t0

t cos t
= 1.
sin t

, y = x/2 1 . f = x arctg x ,
OY . ,
, OY , . .
y = x/2 1.
9*

132

. 3.

ex
.
x
2

11.9. f =


. .
:

 x2
2
ex
e
k1 = lim
= 0;
b1 = lim
0 x = 0.
2
x+

x+

,
2
y = 0. f = ex /x , .
,
,
. , y = 0 ,
.

11.4.

, .
, . 1- .
sin2 x
;
x
|2x 3|
;
11.4. f =
2x 3
1
;
11.7. f =
1 + 21/x

11.1. f =

4
;
x2 2x + 1
sin2 x
11.5. f =
;
1
cos x
1+xx
11.8. f =
;
x2

11.2. f =

tg x
;
x2
| sin x|
11.6. f =
;
sin x
2|x 1|
11.9. f = 2
.
x x3

11.3. f =

:
11.10. f =

x
;
2
x +1

11.12. f = e1/(x1)(3x) ;

11.14. f = 2 4 + x2 ;

11.11. f =

x2 6x + 3
;
x3

11.13. f = ln(4 x2 );

1
11.15. f = 1 + x2 sin .
x

12. ,

133

12. ,
12.1. . f (x) (a, b), a R a = ,
b R b = +,
.
f (x) [a, b]
(a, b R), (a, b),
a , b .
f (x)
[a, b), a R, b R b = +,
(a, b) a .
f (x) (a, b],
a R a = , b R,
(a, b) b .
:

f (X) = {y R | y = f (x), x X D(f )}.


12.1 (). f (x) [a, b],
.
12.2 (). f (x) [a, b], C ,
f (a) f (b), c [a, b],
f (c) = C .
12.3 ( ). f (x)
X f (X) , f (x) X .
12.4 ( ).
f (x) X Y = f (X).
x = f 1 (y);
Y .
12.5. f (x)
X , f (X) .

134

12.2.

. 3.

.
1). f (x) [a, b] f (a) f (b) < 0.
c [a, b] , f (c) = 0.
2). f (x) [a, b], m =
= min f (x), M = max f (x). f ([a, b]) = [m, M ].
x[a, b]

x[a, b]

3). f (x)
X = [a, b), a R, b R b = +, . f (X) = [A, B), A = f (a), B = lim f (x).
xb0

4). f (x)
X = (a, b], a R a = , b R, . f (X) = [A, B), A = lim f (x), B = f (b).
xa+0

5). .
6).
, ,
.
7). , , ,
12.4, , . . , ,
.

12.3.

12.1. ,

sin x = x 1.
 f (x) = sin x x + 1.

. , f (0) = 1 > 0, f () = 1 < 0. -

12. ,

135

,
, [0, ] .

12.2. , f (x) = 0
[1, 1],

x2 + 1, x [1, 0);
f (x) =
(x2 + 2), x [0, 1].

 f (x) : f (1) = 1; f (1) = 2.


,
f (x) = (x2 + 2) < 0 x  0 f (x) = x2 + 2 > 0
x > 0. ,
f (x) x = 0.

12.3. , f (x) = {x}
:
) [n, n + 1/2]; ) [n, n + 3/2].

 ). [n, n + 1/2] f (x) = {x} ,


,
:
min

x[n, n+1/2]

f (x) = f (n) = 0;

min

x[n, n+1/2]

f (x) = f (n + 1/2) = 1/2.

). f (x) = {x} [0, 1). [n, n + 3/2] lim


=1
f (n) = 0.
f (x) < 1,

sup

x[n, n+3/2]

x(n+1)

f (x) = 1. , f (x) = 1 -

x. , f (x)
[n, n + 3/2] .
, f (x) = {x}
x = n + 1 .

12.4. , f (x) = (3x + 1)/x
(0, +). .

 , .
3x + 1
1
f (x) =
=3+ .
x

h = 1/x (0, +), f (x) -

136

. 3.

. 12.4 , f (x) (0, +) . . y = 3 + 1/x. y 3 = 1/x


x = 1/(y 3)
y . x,
, g (x) = 1/(x 3). 
12.4.

12.1. ,

x5 18x3 + 333 = 0?
12.2. , x3 3x + 1 = 0
[1, 2] 0,01.
12.3. ,

x + 1 x  0;
f (x) =
x
x > 0

[1, 1].
12.4. ,

x  1;

x
2
y= x
1  x  4;

x
x > 4
2
(, +). .

1.
1.1. x = 1, x = 3. 1.2. x = 3, x = 3. 1.3. x (2, 3). 1.4. x (, 1)
[1, +). 1.5. x (1, 0). 1.6. x (, 1] [6, +). 1.7. |x| > 3.
3.1. . 3.2. . 3.3. ,
. 3.4. . 3.5. sup X = +, max X , inf X = min X = 0.
3.6. sup X = max X = 1/2, inf X = 0, min X .
4.1. D(f ) = R \ {k,k Z}. 4.2. D(f ) = {/6 + 2k < x < 7/6 + 2k,k
Z}. 4.3. D(f ) = {1}. 4.4. E(f ) = [0, 1]. 4.5. E(f ) = R \ {1}. 4.6. E(f ) =
= (0, 1/3]. 4.7. E(f ) = (0, +).
5.1. , . 5.2. . 5.3.
, . 5.4. . 5.5. , .
5.6. . 5.7. x  0, x  0. 5.8.
R. 5.9. x  1/2, x  1/2. 5.10.
x < 2 x > 2.
6.5. . 6.6. . 6.7. . 6.8. . 6.9. sup f = max f = 3, inf f = min f = 1.
6.10. sup f = 1, max f , inf f = min f = 0. 6.11. sup f = max f = 1/6,
inf f = min f = 0. 6.12. sup f = 0, inf f = , max f , min f .
7.1. T = 2/5. 7.2. T = . 7.3. T . 7.4. T = 6 . 7.5. T . 7.6. T . 7.7. T =
= /2. 7.8. T . 7.9. T = .
8.1. f g (x) = |1 x|, x R; g f (x) = 1 |x|, x R. 8.2. f g (x) =

= (3 + x)5 , x R;g f (x) = 3 + x5 , x R. 8.3. f g (x) = log2 x,


2
x > 0; g f (x) = log2 x, x  1. 8.4. f g (x) = ln sin x, x = n, n Z;
g f
(x) = sin ln x2 , x = 0. 8.5. f = g h, g = x10 , h = 1 4x. 8.6. f = g h q ,
g = 5 x, h = cos x, q = 2x. 8.7. f = g h q , g = ln x, h = sin x, q = log3 x.
8.8. f = g h q , g = tg x, h= 5x , q = sin x. 8.9. f 1 = 1/x 1, x = 0.
8.10. f 1 . 8.11. f 1 = x 2 1 + x + 2, x  0. 8.12. f 1 = 3 x, x R.
8.13. f 1 . 8.14. f 1 . 8.15. f 1 = x2 2, x R. 8.16. f 1 = x/(1 x),
x = 1.

2.
1.1. . 1.2. . 1.3. . 1.4. . 1.5. . 1.6. . 1.7. . 1.8. .
3.1. 2000/n  1/2, n  4000 3.1.
3.2. (3n + 4)/n2  7/n  1/2, n  1 -

138

3.1. 3.3. (n + 2)/(4n 1)  1/2, n  3


3.1.
4.1. .

4.2. .

4.3. . 4.4. .

4.5. .

4.6. .

6.1. 3/2. 6.2. 0. 6.3. 1/2. 6.4. 0. 6.5. 3. 6.6. 1. 6.7. 1. 6.8. 0.
6.9. 2. 6.10. 1/2. 6.11. +. 6.12. 1. 6.13. 0.
.
7.4. 0.

7.5. 1.

8.3. e .

8.4. e.

7.6. . 7.7. 1, 1/2. 7.8. 3/2. 7.9. 3, 5.

8.5. e. 8.6. e1 . 8.7. 0. 8.8. 0. 8.9. 3.

3.
1.1. c. 1.2. 4. 1.3. 0. 1.4. 0. 1.5. . 1.6. .
4.1. a) 11; b) 9. 4.2. a) 1/2; b) 2. 4.4. 1; 4.5. 4; 4.6. 1/3; 4.7. 6.
5.1. . 5.2. . 5.3. .

5.4. x
/ Z. 5.5. x = 1, x = 2.
5.6. x = (2n 1)/2,n Z.
6.1. 2, 2, . 6.2. 3, 4, . 6.3. , , . 6.4. , , . 6.5. . 6.6.
, . 6.7.
, . 6.8. ; . 6.9. 2.
8.1. 3+. 8.2. 1. 8.3. e. . 1.5 2.1. 8.4. 0; , . 8.5. +.
x - . 8.6. 0.

. 8.7. 3. 8.8. e6 . 8.9. 1/e5 8.10. 2. 8.11. e4 . 8.12. 1/(e e).


9.1. 1; , . 9.2. 1
+. 9.3. 2+.
9.4. 0+. 9.5. 1. 9.6. 100. 9.7. 0. y = 3 x. 9.8. e8 .
. 9.17. 1. 9.18. 2/ . 9.19. 1. 9.20.
4 ln 2.
t = x 2 9.11. 9.21.
4 ln 2.
t = x/a 1 9.10. 9.22. a.
10.4. 2. 10.4. f (x)
, g (x). 10.6. 1/4.
10.7. 0. 10.8. 1/ 3. 10.9. 0. ln(1 +
+ ax ) ax (a >1) x
 10.10. ln 3/ ln 2.
ln(1 + ax ) = ln ax (1 + ax ) . 10.11. 2a/b. 10.12. 1. 10.13. 2/5. 10.14. 1/3.
11.1. x = 0. 11.2. 2- x = 1.
11.3. 2- x = 0. 11.4. 1- x = 3/2.
2. 11.5. x = 2k. 11.6.
1- x = k. 2. 11.7. 1-
x = 0. 1. 11.8. 2- x = 0. 11.9.
2- x = 0, 1- x = 1. 4.
11.10. y = 0. 11.11. x = 0; y = x 2. 11.12. x = 1, x = 3. 11.13. x = 2;
x = 2. 11.14. y = 2x x +; y = 2x x . 11.15. y = 1;
y = 1.
12.1. . 12.2.
1,53. 12.3. .

y
< y  1;

12.4. x =
y
1 < y  16;

log2 y 16 < y < +.

1. K

:
I.


2n3
sin n
+ 2
;
1. lim
3

n 2
n +1
2n+1 + 3n+1
;
3. lim
n
2n + 3n
n

2. lim

4. lim

(n + 2)! + (n + 1)!
;
(n + 3)!



n2 + 1 +


n2 1 n.

II.
3n2 + 2n cos n
;
n
4n2 1
2n 5n+1
;
3. lim n+1
n 2
+ 5n+2

1. lim

(n + 2)! + (n + 1)!
;
n (n + 2)! (n + 1)!

2. lim
4. lim



n(n 2) +



n2 3 n.

III.


2 3n2
n
(n + 4)! (n + 2)!
+ n sin
; 2. lim
;
1. lim
n 4 + 5n2
n
2
(n + 3)!



3n 2n
2
;
4. lim
n 3n + 2 n .
3. lim n1
n
n

+2

IV.
5n2 + 3n cos n
;
n
2n + 1
2n + 7n
;
3. lim n1
n 7
2n

1. lim

(2n + 1)! + (2n + 2)!


;
n
(2n + 3)!

2. lim
4. lim




n n(n 1) .

140

V.
n3 10n + 1
;
n 100n3 + 15n
7n + (2)n
3. lim n1
;
n 7
2n

1. lim

2. lim

4. lim

(n)! + (n + 2)!
;
(n 1)! + (n + 2)!




n n n(n + 1)(n + 2) .

VI.

(n + 1)(n + 2)(n + 3)
;
n
n3
5n+1 + (2)n
;
3. lim n+1
n 5
+ 2n+1

1. lim

VII.

(n + 1)(n + 2)
;
n
2n2
3n+1 + (2)n+1
;
3. lim
n
3n + 2n

1. lim

(3n 1)! + (3n + 1)!


;
n
(3n)!(n 1)

2. lim
4. lim




n(n + 5) n .

(2n + 1)! + (2n + 2)!


;
n (2n 1)! + (2n + 2)!

2. lim
4. lim


n
n+2 n1 .

VIII.
(2n + 1)2 (n + 1)2
;
n
n2 + n + 1
5n + (2)n
3. lim n+1
;
n 5
2n+1

1. lim

2. lim

4. lim

(3n)! (3n 1)!


;
(3n + 1)!

2n + 3


n1 .

IX.
(3 n)2
(n + 2)! (n + 1)!
;
2. lim
;
n (n + 1)2 (n + 1)3
n
(n)!



5n
2+n1
2n+1 .
;
4
.
lim
n
n
3. lim n
n 2 + 10n
n

1. lim

X.
(n + 2)2 (n 2)2
;
n
(n + 3)2
1 + 2 + ... + n
;
3. lim
n n n2 + 3

1. lim

2. lim

(n)! (n 1)!
;
(n + 1)! + (n)!




4. lim n2 n n2 + 1 .
n

2. K 141

2. K

I.
1. -

f (x) =

x2 5x + 6
x3

a) x 2; b) x 3; c) x .
:

2. lim ( x2 + 4 x);

3. lim (x /2) tg x;

x/2


3
1 + x2 1
;
4. lim 
x0
1 + 3x2 1

5. lim

x2 + 1
x2

2x2
.

6.
1
x

f (x) = x sin .
II.
1. -

f (x) =
a) x +;

x100 + x99
x101 x100

b) x ;

:

2. lim (x x2 + x + 1);
x

4. lim 
x0

sin2 3x
1 3x2 1

c) x 0.
tg 5x
;
sin
7x
x0
 2x + 3 x+1
5. lim
.
x 2x + 1

3. lim

6.

f (x) = arctg 1/x.

142

III.
1. -

f (x) =
a) y +;

y4 y2 + y 1
y1

b) y ;

:

2. lim ( 1 + x2 x);

tg 2x
;
sin
4x
x/2

3. lim

x+

4. lim
5
x0

1+x1

1 + 2x 1

c) y 1.

5.

lim

 2 + x x

x+

3+x

6.

f (x) =

ex 1
.
x

IV.
1. -

f (x) =

1
4
+ 2
x+2
x 4

a) x 2; b) x 2; c) x .
:

2. lim ( x2 + 4 x);
x+

tg x sin x
;
x0
x3

3. lim

4x 7x
x
x;
x0 3 10

4. lim

5. lim

x3 + 1
x3 + 8

2/(x+1)

6.

f (x) =

sin2 x
.
1 cos x

2. K 143

V.
1. -

f (x) =

x2 x 2
x3 + 1

a) x 1; b) x 1; c) x .
:

2. lim (x x2 + x + 1);
x+

e5x e2x
;
x
x0

4. lim

1 cos 2x
;
x0 x sin 3x


4 x+3
5. lim 1 +
.
x
x

3. lim

6.

x + 2,
x < 2;
f=
2
x 1, x  2.
VI.
1. -

f (x) =

x2 7x + 6
(1 x)(x + 2)

a) x 1; b) x 2; c) x .
:

2. lim ( x2 3 + 5x);
x

5x 55
;
x5 arctg(x 5)

4. lim

x tg 5x
;
1 cos x
 3x 1 x
5. lim
.
x 3x 6

3. lim

x0

6.

f (x) =

5x2 3x
.
2x

144

VII.
1. -

f (x) =

(x2 + 1)2
(x + 1)4

a) x 1; b) x 1; c) x .
:

2. lim ( x2 + 4 x);

3. lim (x + 2)/ tg x;

x2

tg 2x sin 2x
;
4. lim 
x0 3 1 + x3 1

5. lim

 2x + 1 4x3

2x 1

6.

x,
x  1;
f=
2 , x > 1.
x1

VIII.
1. -

f (x) =
a) x +;

2x3 + 6x2
6 x + 2x2 + x3

b) x ;

:

2. lim (x x2 + x + 1);
x

4x2 1
;
x2 3x2 1

4. lim

c) x 3.

1 x2
;
x1 sin x

3. lim

5. lim

 2 + x x2
2x 1

6.

f (x) =

sin x
.
1 cos x

2. K 145

IX.
1. -

f (x) =

x3
x2
+
3x + 2
3x2 4

a) x 1; b) x 2/3; c) x .
:

2. lim ( x2 3 + 5x);

1 sin(x/2)
;
x
x

3. lim

x+

x4/5 1
;
x1 x3/2 1

4. lim

5. lim

3x2 + 1
3x2 1

x+1

6.

f (x) =

2|x 1|
.
x2 x3

X.
1. -

f (x) =
a) x 1;

x3 3x 2
x + x2

b) x 0; c) x .


4x2 + 1 x
2. lim
;
x+
3x + 5
4x 64
;
4. lim
x0 x 3

tg 3x
;
x/2 tg x
ln(log2 x)
5. lim
.
x2 x 2

3. lim

6.

f (x) =

10

ln |x|
.
x1

II

10*

1.
1.1. . f (x)
(a, b), x0 , x (a, b), x = x0 .
x = x x0 , f = f (x0 + x) f (x0 ).
x , f
x0 .
f (x) x0
f
.
x0 x

lim

f  (x0 ),

f  (x)|x=x0 ,

df (x0 )
.
dx

f  (x0 ) = lim

x0

f
f (x0 + x) f (x0 )
f (x) f (x0 )
= lim
= lim
.
xx0
x
x
x x0
x0

, ,
.
1.1 ( ).
f (x) x0 .
f (x) x0

f (x0 + x) f (x0 ) = f  (x0 )x + (x)x, lim (x) = 0.


x0
(1.1)
f (x) (a, b), df
.
(a, b). : f  (x), fx , f  ,
dx

150

. 1.

1.2.

1). :
, ?
2). :
1)
.
2)
.
3)
.

1.3.

f  (x0 ), .
1.1. f = 5x2 , x0 = 1.

 f (x) = 5x2 x0 = 1,
x:
f = f (1 + x) f (1) = 5(1 + x)2 5 = 10x + 5(x)2 .
:
f
10x + 5(x)2
=
= 10 + 5x.
x

x 0, :

lim

x0

f
= lim (10 + 5x) = 10.
x
x0

, f  (1) = 10.

1.2. f = x, x0 = 5.


f = f (5 + x) f (5) =

5 + x

5.

151

1.

( 5 + x)2 ( 5)2
5 + x 5
=
=

x
x( 5 + x + 5)
5 + x 5
1
=
.
=

x( 5 + x + 5)
5 + x + 5

f
=
x

,
f
1
1
= .
= lim
x
x0
x0 5 + x + 5
2 5
1
, f  (5) = .
2 5

lim

1.3. f =

x2 , x0 = 0.

 f = f (0 + x) f (0) =

3

f
=
x

(x)2
x

(x2 ) 0 =


3

(x2 );

f
1
= lim
= .
3
x0 x
x x0 x

=
3


3

; lim

, x0 = 0 .

f  (x), . .
1.4. f = C .

 x x
f = f (x + x) f (x) = C C = 0;


f (x) = lim
,

x0 x
(C) = 0.

= lim

x0

0
= lim 0 = 0.
x
x0

1.5. f = x.

 f = (x + x) x = x;
f  (x) = lim

x0

f
x
= lim
= lim 1 = 1,
x
x0 x
x0

. . (x) = 1 x R.

1.6. f = sin x.

 f = sin(x + x) sin x.

152

. 1.



x
x
, f = 2 sin
cos x +
.
2
2



x
x
2 sin
cos x +
f
2
2
= lim
x
x0 x
x0

lim

x
x

, . .
2
2
x
x

. ,
sin
2
2


x
x
2
cos x +
f
x
2
2
lim
= lim
= lim cos(x +
) = cos x.
x
2
x0 x
x0
x0

x 0 sin

, x R (sin x) = cos x.

1.7. f = ex .

 f = ex+x ex = ex (ex 1);


 x
 e 1 x
f
ex (ex 1)
lim
= lim
= 
x
x 0
x0 x
x0



 =

x
= ex .
x0 x

= ex lim
, x R (ex ) = ex .

1.8. f = ln x.

 :


 x + x 
x
= ln 1 +
f = ln(x + x) ln x = ln
;
x



x
x
x
ln(
1
+
)
 ln(1 +
)
f
x
x
x
lim
= lim
= 
x
x0 x
x0
x 0





 =



= lim

x0

, x > 0 (ln x) =

1
.
x

x
x

1
x

= .


153

1.

1.9. f = x , x > 0, R.


f = (x + x) x = x

 (x + x)
x


1 =
= x

f
=
x0 x



x
x 1 +
1



1+

x
x


1 .

lim

= lim

x0

=x

lim

x0

x
x

 


x
x
 1+
1

x
x
= 
x 0





 =



= x1 .
x0 x

= x lim

, x > 0 R (x ) = x1 .

1.4.

f  (x0 ), .
1.1. f = 3x, x0 = 2;

1.2. f = 2|x 1|, x0 = 1;

1
, x0 = 0;
1.3. f = 2
x 3

1.4. f = tg x, x0 =

1.5. f = arcsin x, x0 = 0;

;
4

1.6. f = x , > 0, x0 = 0.

f  (x), .
.
1
;
x +1

1.7. f = x3 2x;

1.8. f =

1.10. f = cos x;

1.11. f = ax ;

1.9. f =

5
;
1 3x

1.12. f = loga x.

154

. 1.

2. .

2.1.

2.1. f (x) g (x) x0 . f (x) g (x), f (x) g (x), f (x)


( R), f (x)/g (x) ( g (x0 ) = 0) x0 , x0
:

(f g ) = f  g  ,
(f g ) = f  g + f g  ,

(f ) = f  ,
 
f
f g f g 
=
.
2
g

(2.1)
(2.2)

(2.1) .
f (x) g (y) ,
E(f ) f D(g ) g , . . E(f ) D(g ).
z = g f , D(f ) z(x) = g (f (x)).
2.2 ( ).
f (x) x0 ,
g (y) y0 = f (x0 ).
z(x) = g (f (x)) x0

z  (x0 ) = g  (y0 ) f  (x0 ).


y = f (x), x D(f ), ,
x1 , x2 D(f ) x1 = x2 f (x1 ) = f (x2 ).
y E(f )
x D(f ) , f (x) = y .
, : y E(f ) x D(f ) ,
f (x) = y , f
f 1 . , f 1 , f . f f 1 .
: y = y(x), x = x(y).
2.3 ( ). y =
= y(x) () -

2. .

155

X . y(X)
x = x(y), ()
.
2.4 ( ).
y(x) :
1. y = y(x) X ;
2. x = x(y), E(y);
3. x0 X y  (x0 ), y  (x0 ) = 0.
x = x(y) y0 = y(x0 )

1
x (y0 ) = 
.
y (x0 )


I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.

C = 0
(x ) = x1
(ax ) = ax ln a, (ex ) = ex
1
1
(loga x) =
, (ln x) =
x
ln
a
x
(sin x) = cos x
(cos x) = sin x
1
(tg x) =
2

VIII.

(ctg x) =

IX.
X.
XI.
XII.

cos x
1
sin2 x
1
(arcsin x) = 
1 x2
1

(arccos x) = 
1 x2
1

(arctg x) =
1 + x2
1

(arcctg x) =
1 + x2

x, .

156

2.2.

. 1.

1). :
1) (f g h) = f  g h + f g  h + f g h ; 2) (f (ax + b)) = af  (ax + b).

2). , h(x) = f (x)g (x)


x = x0 , :
1) f (x) x0 ,
g (x) .
2) f (x) g (x) x0 .
:
1) f (x) = x; g (x) = |x|; 2) f (x) = |x|; g (x) = |x|.
3). , h(x) = f (x) + g (x)
x = x0 , :
1) f (x) x0 ,
g (x) ?
2) f (x) g (x) x0 ?
4). f (x) .
- : ) f  (0) > 0;
) f  (0) < 0; ) f  (0) = 0?
5). : f (x) < g (x), f  (x) < g  (x)?

2.3.

, .

2.1. f = 7 + 4x4 6x.

 . ,
:

f  (x) = ( 7 + 4x4 6x) = ( 7) + 4(x4 ) 6(x) .

2. .

157

(I) ,
(II) = 4 = 1:

f  (x) = 0 + 4 4x3 6x0 = 16x3 6.

2.2. f = 5x cos x.

 .
(III) (IV), :
f  (x) = (5x cos x) = (5x ) cos x + 5x (cos x) =
= 5x ln 5 cos x + 5x ( sin x) = 5x (ln 5 cos x sin x).
2.3. f =

log3 x
.
sin x

 .
(IV) (V). :
 log x  (log x) sin x log x(sin x)
3
3
3
f  (x) =
=
2
sin x

sin x
log3 x cos x
x ln 3

(sin x)

2.4. f =

(sin x)

sin x x ln 3 log3 x cos x


.
x(sin x)2 ln 3

1
x ln x 4
1
5
3 2
+

x + 3.
x
2
x
x
x

 . ,
:

3
1
x ln x 4
1
5
f (x) = x +
x2 + 3 =
2
x
x
x

3 2
1
4
1
5
= x + ln x x + 3 =
2
x
x
x
 1 x
=
+ ln x 4x1 x2/3 x1/2 + 5x3 .
2

,
(III) a = 1/2 -

158

. 1.

(II) = 1, 1, 2/3, 1/2,


3 :
 1 x 1 1
 1
2
f  (x) =
ln + 4(1)x2 x1/3 x3/2 +
2

+ 5(3)x4

3
2
ln 2
1
4
2
1
15
= x + + 2
+ 4.
3
2
x
2x x
x
3 x
x

2.5. f = (x2 1)(x2 4)(x2 9).

 . ,


f  (x) = (x2 1)(x2 4)(x2 9) =




= (x2 1)(x2 4) (x2 9) + (x2 1)(x2 4) x2 9 =


= (x2 1) (x2 4) + (x2 1)(x2 4)
(x2 9) + (x2 1)(x2 4)2x =


= 2x(x2 4) + (x2 1)2x (x2 9) + 2x(x2 1)(x2 4) =
= 2x(3x4 28x2 + 49).

, .

2.6. z = 3 4 + 7 cos x.

 z(x)
z(x) =

= g (f (x)), f (x) = 4 + 7 cos x g (y) = 3 y ,


1

f  (x) = 7 sin x, g  (y) = 


.
3
3

y2

( 2.2)



1




z (x) = g (y)f (x) = 

(
7
sin
x)
=

3 3 y2
y=4+7 cos x

7 sin x

3 3 (4 + 7 cos x)2

. 

2.7. u = arctg(x4 + 1)5 .


, , -

2. .

159

.
u = arctg(x4 + 1)5 g = arctg y . u(x) u(x) = g (f (x)),
g (y) = arctg y f (x) = (x4 + 1)5 . :


1



4
5 
u (x) = (arctg y) f (x) =
((x + 1) ) 
=
2
1+y

y=(x4 +1)5

((x4 + 1)5 )
.
1 + (x4 + 1)10

z(x) = (x4 + 1)5 . z(x) = h(p(x)), h(y) = y 5 p(x) = x4 + 1. ,

z  (x) = h (y) p (x) = (y 5 ) ((x4 + 1)5 ) =


= 5(x4 + 1)4 4x3 = 20x3 (x4 + 1)4 .

u (x) =

20x3 (x4 + 1)4


.
1 + (x4 + 1)10

.
2.8. (arctg x) =

1
, x R.
1 + x2

 y = arctg x, x R, ,
x = tg y , y (/2, /2). x = tg y (/2, /2). 2.3 y = arctg x,
(, +). x = tg y
x (y) =

1
, x (y) = 0 y (/2, /2).
cos2 y

x = tg y , y (/2, /2)
, , y = arctg x
(, +) y  (x) = (arctg x) =

1
= cos2 y . y  (x)
x (y)


160

. 1.

x cos2 y x, 1 + tg2 y =
cos2 y =

1
1
=
.
1 + tg2 y
1 + x2

(arctg x) =
2.9. (arcsin x) = 

1
.
cos2 y

1
, x R.
1 + x2

1 x2

, 1 < x < 1.

 y = arcsin x, x (/2, /2) , x = sin y , y (1, 1). x = sin y


(/2, /2). 2.3 y = arcsin x, (1, 1). x = sin y x (y) = cos y , x (y) = 0 y (/2, /2).
, ,
y = arcsin x (1, 1) 1
1
=
. cos y y  (x) = (arcsin x) = 
cos y
x (y)

x: cos y > 0 |y| < /2, cos y = 1 sin2 x.
:
(arcsin x) =

1
1
1
=
=
,
cos y
1 x2
1 sin2 y

x (1, 1). 

2.10.

f = x ln 1 + e2x + ex arcctg ex .

 ,

 
 

f  = (x) ln 1 + e2x + ex arcctg ex .
,
(II), (III), (IV) (XII),


1 + e2x


f = 1 
+ ex arcctg ex + ex (arcctg ex ) =
1 + e2x
1
2e2x
=1 

+ (ex )(1) arcctg ex +
1 + e2x 2 1 + e2x

2. .

+ ex

1
1 + (ex )2

e2x
arcctg ex

ex
1 + e2x
arcctg ex
=
.
ex

161

ex = 1

1
1 + e2x

2.4.

, .

ln 5
3
e3 + 5 x;
2.2. f = 7x8 + 2 + x2 x;
2.1. f =
x

f = (x 7x + 8)e ;
2

2.3.

x
sin x + cos x
f=
.
cos x sin x

2.4.

,
.


3
2.6. f = ln(x + x2 + );
2.5. f = 2x 1;
2.7.

f = 2x

3 +3x

2.9.

f = sin

2x +

2.8.
;

2.10.

f =e

1cos 2x

f = log3 log5 log7 (x2 + 4).

, .
2.11.
2.12.
2.13.

1
, x R;
1 + x2
1
(arccos x) = 
, 1 < x < 1;
1 x2

x
( n x) =
, x R, x = 0, n = 2m + 1, m N.
nx

(arcctg x) =

:
2.14. f = tg2 2x + ln cos x;
 

1
x
x 9 x2 + 9 arcsin
;
2.15. f =
2
x
;
2.16. f = 
4 + x2

2.18. f =
11

2x + 1
;
3x + 4

2.17. f = sin cos2 x cos sin2 x;


2.19. f =

1
x+
x

12
.

162

. 1.

3.
3.1. . f (x)
[x0 , x0 + ), > 0. f (x) x0

lim

x+0

f (x0 + x) f (x0 )
.
x

f  (x0 + 0) x0 = 0
f  (+0) x0 = 0.
x0 , f  (x0 0) x0 = 0 f  (0)
x0 = 0. .
3.1. f (x) x0
,
.
, f (x) x0
() ,
f (x0 + x) f (x0 )
= +
x
f (x0 + x) f (x0 )
( lim
= ).
x
x+0

lim

x+0

()
.
3.2.

1). , .
2). :
,
?

3.3.

163

3.

3.1. f = |x|, x0 = 0.

 ,

|x + 0| |0|
x
= lim
= 1;
x
x0+ x
|x|
x
f  (0) = lim
= lim
= 1.
x0 x
x0 x

f  (+0) = lim

x+0

3.2. f =


3

(|x| + x)2 , x0 = 0.

 , f


3
4x2 , x  0,
f=
x < 0.
0,

f  (+0) = lim


3
4(x)2 0
x

x+0

3
4 lim

x+0

1
= +.

3
x

,
00
= lim 0 = 0.
x0 x
x0

f  (0) = lim
3.3. f =


x2 ,
2 x,

x1
x < 1,

x0 = 1.

 , . , . f :
f1 = x2 f2 = 2 x (x0 = 1 ).
f1 x, c, f1 (1) 3.1 f1 (1 + 0),

f1 (1 + 0) = f1 (1) = (x2 ) x=1 = 2.
f1 f x  1 x0 = 1, . . f  (1 + 0) = f1 (1 + 0) = 2.
,

f  (1 0) = f2 (1 0) = f2 (1) = (2 x) |x=1 = 1.


11*

164

. 1.

3.4. f = | sin 3x|, x0 =

.
3


3.3. f (x) = | sin 3x| (0, 2/3). x0 = /3
x0 = /3 sin 3x > 0,
sin 3x < 0.
f

sin 3x, 0 < x  /3,
f=
sin 3x, /3 < x < 2/3.
, f f1 = sin 3x
f2 = sin 3x, f = f1 0 < x  /3 f = f2
/3 < x < 2/3. f1 , f2 3.1,





= (sin 3x) |x= =
f
0 = f1
0 = f1
3

= (3 cos 3x)|x= = 3 cos = 3;


3




 



f
+ 0 = f2
+ 0 = f2
= ( sin 3x) |x= =
3

= (3 cos 3x)|x= = 3 cos = 3. 


3

3.5. f = arcsin x, x0 = 1.

 f = arcsin x
[1, 1]. x0 = 1 , , . .

f  (1 0) = lim

x0

arcsin(1 + x) arcsin 1
=
x

= lim

arcsin(1 + x)
x

x0

2.

t = arcsin(1 + x) . x
2
0, t 0. ,


x = sin
+ t 1 = cos t 1,
2

165

3.

lim

x0

arcsin(1 + x)
x

= lim

t0

t
.
cos t 1

1 cos t t2 /2
t 0,
t
t
1
= lim 2 = lim
= +.
t0 cos t 1
t0 t
t0 t

lim

, f  (1 0) = +, . . x0 = 1
. 
.
3.6. f = (x + 1)|x + 1|, x0 = 1.

 ,


(x + 1)2 , x  1
f=
(x + 1)2 , x > 1.
f , 3.3. f1 = (x + 1)2 ,
f2 = (x + 1)2 .

f1 (1 0) = f1 (1) = ((x + 1)2 ) x=1 = 2(x + 1)|x=1 = 0;

f  (1 + 0) = f  (1) = ((x + 1)2 ) 
= 2(x + 1)|
= 0.
2

x=1

x=1

, f = f1 , x  1, f = f2 , x  1,

f  (1 0) = f1 (1) = 0; f  (1 + 0) = f2 (1 + 0) = 0.


, f  (1 0) = f  (1 + 0) = 0. 3.1 , f x = 1

f  (1) = 0.

x arctg 1 , x = 0
x
3.7. f =
x0 = 0.
0,
x = 0,

166

. 1.

 , :
x arctg

f (0) = lim

1
0
x

x0


= lim arctg
x0

f (+0) = lim arctg


x+0

= ;
x
2

= .
x
2

x0 = 0 . 
3.1 .
3.4.

3
3.1. f = e|2x| , x0 = 0; 3.2. f = x + 5, x0 = 5;



3
3.3. f = x2 , x0 = 0; 3.4. f = x2 + x x, x0 = 0;

(x + 1)2 , x  1,
x0 = 1;
3.5. f =
(x + 1)3 , x < 1,
1
x

3.6. f = arccos , x0 = 1.

.
3.7. f = (x + 2)2/3 , x0 = 2;
1
2

3.8. f = |x 1|2 , x0 = 1;
3.9. f = |x2 4x + 3|, x0 = 3.

4.
4.1. .
f (x) ,
. , M (x0 , f (x0 ))
P (x0 + x, f (x0 + x)),

y=

f
(x x0 ) + f (x0 ), f = f (x0 + x) f (x0 ).
x

4.

167

f (x) x0 . f (x) M (x0 , f (x0 ))


,

y = f  (x0 )(x x0 ) + f (x0 ).


f (x) x0 , .
f
x0

x
, + .
M (x0 , f (x0 ))
x = x0 .
: f  (x0 )
f (x) x0 x 0
f

f (x)

x
M (x0 , f (x0 )), , , f  (x0 )
f (x) M (x0 , f (x0 )).
4.2.

1).
:
1) f = |x a| + |x + b|; 2) f = |ax2 + bx + c|.
2). , a,
b c
y = ax2 + bx + c
OX ?
3). , p
q

y = x3 + px + q
OX ?
4). f (x) f (x) > 0. ,

y = f (x) y = f (x) sin ax


( ).

168

4.3.

. 1.

4.1.

f = |x 1| 3 x + 2 x0 = 6.

 . x > 1
|x 1| =
= x 1, f (x) =
= (x 1) 3 x + 2.



1
3
3
f  (x) = (x 1) x + 2 = x + 2 + (x 1) (x + 2)2/3 =
3
3(x + 2) + x 1
4x + 5

=
=
.
3 3 (x + 2)2
3 3 (x + 2)2

x0 = 6 :

29
29
3
f (6) = 5 8 = 10, f  (6) =
= .
3 3 (8)2

12

29
(x 6) + 10.
12
29
9
, y = x . 
12
2

y =

4.2.
f = sin 3x x0 = 2/3?

 f = sin 3x R,
x0 y =
= f  (x0 )(x x0 ) + f (x0 ). OX .
tg = f  (x0 ). ,
f  = 3 cos 3x f  (2/3) = 3 cos 2 = 3,
tg = 3. = arctg 3.

4.3. , f = x2 y = 2x + 1.

 f = x2 x R. . x0
.
: f  (x0 ) = 2x0 . y = 2x + 1.
2,
, 2x0 = 2,

. . x0 = 1. , (1, 1).

4.

169

4.4. ,


f1 = 2 sin x f2 = 2 cos x
(
).


xk
2 cos x

f1 = 2 sin x f2 =

2 sin x = 2 cos x. xk = + k , k Z. 4
:




k 2
yk = 2 sin
+ k = 2(1)
= (1)k .
4
2


,
+ k , (1)k ,
4
k Z.
k1 k2
.






k 2
k1 = f1
+ k = 2 cos
+ k = 2(1)
= (1)k ;
4
4
2





k2 = f2
+ k = 2 sin
+ k =
4
4

2
= (1)k+1 .
= 2(1)k
2

k1 k2 = (1)k (1)k+1 = 1. ,

, . . /2.

4.5. f = sin x
?

 f = sin x OX x = n, k Z. n , . . n = 2k , x = 2k
y  (2k) = cos 2k = 1. x = 2k tg = 1. ,
OX = /4. n
, . . n = 2k + 1,
x = (2k + 1) , y  ((2k + 1)) = cos((2k + 1)) = 1.
tg = 1, x = (2k + 1)

OX = 3/4.
f
x0 ? f
x0 ?

170

. 1.

4.6. f =

sin x, x0 = 0.

 f (x) x0 (

, 3 y ).

3
f (0)
=
x

sin x 0
=
x

sin x
1

+,
x
3
(x)2

sin x
1
1,
+ x 0.
x
3
(x)2

, x0 ,


(0, 0) , x = 0.

(x + 1)2 , x < 1,
4.7. f =
x0 = 1.
(x + 1)3 , x  1,


f x = 1 , 3.3. f f1 = (x + 1)2
f2 = (x + 1)3 .
f  (1 0) = f1 (x + 1) = 2(x + 1)|x=1 = 0,

f  (1 + 0) = f2 (x + 1) = 3(x + 1)2 x=1 = 0,
f  (1 0) = f  (1 + 0) = 0.

, f  (1) = 0, . . f (x)
x = 1
(1, 0) y = 0.

4.4.

f
x0 .

4.2. f = arctg 2x, x0 = 0.
4.1. f = 5 x2 , x0 = 1;
f x0 .
4.3. f = ln x,

x0 = 1;

4.4. f = x2 + 4x 17, x0 = 2, 5.

5. .

171

, f .
4.5. f = 2 + x x2 ,

y = 0;

4.7. f = (3 x2 )ex ,

y = 0.

4.6. f = x3 13x, y = x;

, f1 f2 :

1
4.8. f1 = x x3 , f2 = 5x; 4.9. f1 = , f2 = x.
x

f
x0 ? f x0 ?

4.11. f = 3 x, x0 = 0;
4.10. f = |3x + 2|, x0 = 2/3;
 x
x  0,
e ,
x0 = 0;
4.12. f =
2
x + x 1/4, x < 0,

4.13. f = |x2 1|, x0 = 1.
? .

3
4.14. f = x 5;

4.15. f = f = |x + 1|.

5. .
5.1. . f (x)
(a, b ). f  (x) . f  (x)
x0 ,
:

f  (x0 ), f (2) (x0 ),

d2 f (x0 )
.
dx2

(n 1)- f (x)
x0 , n-
, n- f (x) x0 ,
f (n) (x0 )

dn f (x0 )
. , dxn

172

. 1.




(n1)
(n)
f (x) = f
(x) . ( ,
).
n-

(f + g )(n) = f (n) + g (n) ;


(f )

(n)

= f

(n)

(f (x + ))(n)

(5.1)

, R;



= n f (n) (t)

t=x+

(5.2)

(5.3)

n-

(ax )(n) = ax lnn a (a > 0); (ex )(n) = ex ;





(sin x)(n) = sin x + n


;
2 


(cos x)(n) = cos x + n


;

(5.4)

(x )(n) = ( 1) . . . ( n + 1)xn ;

(5.7)

(ln x)(n)

(5.8)

5.2.

(1)n1 (n 1)!
=
.
xn

1). :
1) m N,
(xm )(m) = m!;
2) Pn (x) n,

Pn(k) (x) 0 k > n.


2). f (n) , :

f (x) =

ax + b
cx + d

(ad = cd).

(5.5)
(5.6)

173

5. .

5.3.

.
5.1. f = 3x2 4x + 1,

f (3) .

f (1) , f (2) , f (3) :


 2

= 3x 4x + 1 = 6x 4, f (2) = (6x 4) = 6, f (3) = 6 = 0.


f (1)

5.2. f = sin 5x, f (4) .

 (5.3)



f (4) = (sin 5x)(4) = 54 (sin t)(4) 

t=5x

(5.5) n- sin t
n = 4,



= sin t.
(sin t)(4) = sin t + 4
2

, ,

f (4)

= 625 sin 5x.




.
5.3. (sin x)(n) = sin x + n
2

 
.


(1)
, . . n = 1 f = cos x = sin x +
2

. ,
n = k , . . (sin x)(k) =



.
= sin x + k
2
 


(sin x)(k+1) = sin x + k
=
2







= cos x + k
= sin x + k +
= sin x + (k + 1) .
2

, n = k + 1. ,

n.
5.4. (x )(n) = ( 1) . . . ( n + 1)xn .

 . n = 1 f (1) = x1 , . .
. , n = k , . .
(x )(k) = ( 1) . . . ( k + 1)xk .

174

. 1.

, ,


(x )(k+1) = ( 1) . . . ( k + 1)xk =

= ( 1) . . . ( k + 1)( k)xk1 =
= ( 1) . . . ( k)x(k+1) .


, .

f (n) , n- .
5.5. f = ln(1 + x).

 (5.3) (5.8) n- y = ln x,

(1)n1 (n 1)!

(ln(1 + x))(n) = (ln t)(n) 
=
.

n
(1 + x)

t=1+x

5.6. f =

1 x.


t = 1 x

n- t, (5.7)
= 1/2:
 1
 1

 (n)  1/2 (n) 1  1
t
= t
=
1
2 . . . n + 1 t1/2n =
 12  23   2 2n 3  2
1
=
...
t1/2n =
2

= (1)

n1 1 3 . . . (2n 3) 1/2n

2n

(5.3) c = 1,

(n) 
(n)

n
1/2

1x
= (1) t
=

t=1x

1 3 . . . (2n 3)
(1 x)1/2n .
2n

5.7. ,

1 x2 , 1 < x  0,
f (x) =
x > 0,
1,
x = 0 ,
.

175

5. .

 x = 0 :

 


x


2

f (0) =
1x 
= 
= 0;

x=0

f (+0) = (1) = 0.

1 x2 x=0

, x = 0
1- , f  (0) = f  (+0) = 0. 3.1 , f (x) x = 0
f  (0) = 0. T 2-
:


 


x
1


f  (0) = 
=

= 1;




3
/
2
2

1 x2
1x
x=0

f  (+0) = 0.

x=0

, f  (0) = f  (+0). , f  (0) . 


5.8. ,
f (x) = |x|3 x = 0.

 f  (0) :
f (0 + x) f (0)
|x|3
= lim
= lim (x|x|) = 0.
x
x0
x0 x
x0

f  (0) = lim

, 1-
x = 0. x > 0, f (x) = x3 f  (x) = 3x2 ; x < 0,
f (x) = x3 f  (x) = 3x2 . , f (x)
1- x R,

3x2 , x  0

f (x) =
3x2 , x < 0.
f  (0).

f  (0 + x) f  (0)
3(x)2
= lim
= 0;
x
x+0
x+0 x
f  (0 + x) f  (0)
3(x)2
f  (0) = lim
= lim
= 0.
x
x
x0
x0

f  (+0) = lim

, f  (+0) = f  (0) = 0. f  (x)


x = 0 3.1,
,
f  (0) =

 0. 2




2

x > 0, f (x) = 3x = 6x; x < 0, f (x) = 3x =
= 6x. , f (x) 2-

176

. 1.

x R, f  (x) = 6|x|.
g = |x| , f  (x)
, . . f (3) (0) . ,
f (x) x = 0 2-

.
5.4.

f (3) ;

5.1. f = x5 ln x,

5.2. f = x2 e2x , f (4) .




;
5.3. (cos x)(n) = cos x + n

5.4. (ln x)(n)

2
(1)n1 (n 1)!
=
.
xn

f (n) , n- :
5.5. f = (1 + x) ;

5.6. f = loga x;

5.7. f =

1+x
.
1x

:
5.8. m N, (xm )(m) = m!;
(k)

5.9. Pn (x) n, Pn (x) 0


k > n.

6. ,
6.1.

x = (t), y = (t),
T t,
.
X Y , . . X = E(), Y = E().
t T x = (t)
y = (t). x X
y Y , f : X Y .
, .

177

6. ,

6.1. :
1) x = (t), y = (t) T ;
2) (t) (t) T ;
3)  (t) T .
(6.1)
f : X Y , x X

 (t)
f  (x) =  .
(t)

6.2. :
1) x = (t), y = (t) T ;
2) (t) (t)
T ;
3)  (t) T .
(6.1)
f : X Y , x X
, :


f  (x) =

 (t)
 (t)



 (t)


(t) (t)  (t)  (t)
f  (x) =
.
( (t))3

6.2.

(6.1)
(6.2)

1). ,

x = a cos t, y = a sin t, t (0, )


a c
.
M (x(t),y(t)).
2). ,

x = a cos t, y = b sin t, t (0, )


a
b . M (x(t),y(t)).

12

178

. 1.

3). ,

x = a(t sin t), y = a(1 cos t),


,
. () ,
?
4). , c > 0

x = cet 2t + 2, y = c(1 + t)et t2 + 2, t R


t
y = (1 + y  )x + (y  )2 .

6.3.

f  (x) f  (x) y = f (x), .


6.1. x = t sin t, y = 1 cos t,

0 < t < 2 .

 (t) = t sin t, (t) = 1 cos t


T :  (t) = 1 cos t,  (t) = sin t. ,  (t) > 0
sin t
.
(0, 2). (6.1) : f  (x) =
1 cos t

f (x) (6.2). :  (t),  (t) t R,  (t) = sin t;  (t) = cos t.
t (0, 2)  (t) > 0.
(6.2)
cos t(1 cos t) sin t sin t
=
(1 cos t)3
cos t (sin2 t + cos2 t)
cos t 1
1
=
=
=
.
3
3
(1 cos t)
(1 cos t)
(1 cos t)2

f  (x) =

6.2. x = a cos3 t, y = a sin3 t,

0<t<

.
2

179

7.

 f  (x) (6.1). :
(t) = a cos3 t,
 (t) = 3a cos2 t sin t,

(t) = a sin3 t;
 (t) = 3a sin2 t cos t < 0
 
0,
.
2

(6.1)

f  (x) =

 (t)
3a sin2 t cos t
=
= tg t.
 (t)
3a cos2 t sin t

f  (x). 6.1 ,
 t R
 (t)  (t) 


(t) < 0 0,
. f  (x)
(6.1):

f  (x) =

( tg t)
1
=
.
2
3a sin t cos4 t
3a cos t sin t

, (6.1) 
 (t)  (t) .

6.4.

f  (x) f  (x) y = f (x),


.
6.1. x = a cos t, y = a sin t,

0 < t < ;

6.2. x = et cos t, y = et sin t,

5
<t< .
4
4

7.
7.1. . f (x)
x0 . f (x)
x0 x, df (x0 )

df (x0 ) = f  (x0 ) x.
12*

(7.1)

180

. 1.

f (x) = x
df (x0 ) = 1 x = x. x = dx (7.1)

df (x0 ) = f  (x0 ) dx.
,
. , ,
, .
7.1. f (x)
x,

f (x + x) f (x) = df (x) + o(x).



f (x + x) x

f (x + x) f (x) + df (x).

= |f (x + x) f (x) df (x)| = |f (x) df (x)|,


7.1 , = o(x).
.
f g
:

d(f g ) = df dg ,

d( f ) = df ( R),
 
f
df g f dg
d(f g ) = df g + f dg , d
(g =
 0).
=
2
g

f  (x) dx

df (x) =
, x , ,
x .
( ) .
M (x0 , f (x0 )) P (x0 + x, f (x0 + x))
f (x). M y = f  (x0 )(x x0 ) +
+ f (x0 ). ,
x,

y(x0 + x) y(x0 ) = f  (x0 ) dx = df (x0 ).

181

7.

:
f (x) x0
M (x0 , f (x0 )).
7.2.

1). .
2). :

x
+ o(x) (a > 0).
a2 + x = a +
2a

3). :

an + x = a +

7.3.

x
+ o(x)
nan1

(a > 0, n N).

7.1. f (x) = ctg 3x


x0 = /9.

 :

3
=
f  (x) = 2 ; f 
sin 3x

3
= 4.
sin (/3)
2

(7.1) df (/9) = f  (/9) dx = 4 dx.

7.2. f = 5x2 , f (2 + x) x = 1,
x = 0,1, x = 0,001. .


f (2 + x) x
f (2 + x) f (2) + df (2).
x = 2: f (2) = 20,
x = 2. f  (x) = 10x, df (2) = f  (2)x = 20x.

182

. 1.

f (2 + x)
f (2 + x) f (2) + df (2) x:
x = 1,
x = 0,1,
x = 0,001,

df (2) = 20 1 = 20,
f (2 + 1) 20 + 20 = 40;
df (2) = 20 0,1 = 2,
f (2 + 0,1) 20 + 2 = 22;
df (2) = 20 0,001 = 0,02,
f (2 + 0,001) 20 + 0,02 = 20,02.

= |f (2) df (2)|:

f (2) = f (2 + x) f (2) = 5(2 + x)2 20 = 5(4x + (x)2 );


x = 1,

f (2) = 5(4 1 + 12 ) = 25,


= |25 20| = 5;

x = 0,1,

f (2) = 5(4 0,1 + (0,1)2 ) = 2,05,


= |2,05 2| = 0,05;

x = 0,001,

f (2) = 5(4 0,001 +(0,001)2 ) = 0,020005,


= |0,020005 0,02| = 0,000005.

, 
x.
7.3. ,

3 7,99.

 f (x
+ x) f (x) + df (x). 3 7,99
3 x x = 7,99.

x
f (x) = 3 x. df (x) = f  (x) x =

3
3 x2

x
3
x + x 3 x +
.
3
3 x2

x = 8, x = 0,01,


3

7,99 =


3

8 0,01

0,01
3
8
=
3
3 82

=2

1
= 2 0,001 = 1,999. 
1200

183

7.

7.4. ,
sin(30 + )
( ).

 f (x) = sin x, x = /6, x = /180 (


). :

 

3
= cos
x =
df (x) = cos x x; df
x;
2
  6   61
= sin
= ;
f
6  2

 6 
f
+ x = sin
+ x = sin(30 + ).
6

f (x + x) f (x) + df (x),

1
3
sin(30 + ) +
.
2
360

7.4.

f (x) x0 :
ln x
, x0 = e;
7.1. f = arctg
x

7.2. f = 

x2

, x0 =

3
.
2

7.3. f = x3 2x + 1 , f (1 + x) x = 1,
x = 0,1, x = 0,01. .
7.4. , lg 11.
7.5. , cos(120 + )
( ).

1.
1.1.

1.1 ( ).
,
.
1.2 (). f (x)
:
1) f (x) (a, b), x0 (a, b);
2) (a, b) f (x0 )  f (x) [f (x0 )  f (x)];
3) f  (x0 ).
f  (x0 ) = 0.
1.3 (). f (x)
:
1) f (x) [a, b];
2) f (x) (a, b);
3) f (a) = f (b).
c (a, b), f  () = 0.
1.4 (). f (x), g (x) :
1) f (x), g (x) [a, b];
2) f (x), g (x) (a, b),
g  (x) = 0 (a, b).
c (a, b) ,
f (b) f (a)
f  (c)
= 
.
g (b) g (a)
g (c)

1.5 (). f (x) :

185

1.

1) f (x) [a, b];


2) f (x) (a, b).
c (a, b) ,

f (b) f (a) = f  (c)(b a) .



g (x) = x. a = x0 , b a = x, c =
= x0 + x, (0, 1),

f (x0 + x) f (x) = f  (x0 + x)x,

(1.1)

.
1.2.

1). f (x) :
) f (x) [a, b];
) f (x) (a, b);
) f (a) = f  (a) = 0; f (b) = 0.
, c (a, b) ,

f  (c) = 0.
2). f (x) g (x) :
) f (x) g (x) x  x0 ;
) f (x0 ) = g (x0 );
) f  (x) > g  (x) x > x0 .
, f (x) > g (x) x > x0 .
3). , ,
:
) f (a) = f (b); ) f (x) [a, b].
.
4). :
.
5). f (x) = 1/(x p)
[a, b] ?

186

. 2.

6). ,

P (x) = (x + a)(x a)(x b),


0 < a < b, . , .

1.3.

1.1. , ?

 . , ,
f (x) = |x|. x R,
x = 0 f  (0) = 1, f  (+0) =
= 1 ( 3.1, 1), f  (0) = f  (+0). 3.1 ,

x = 0.
1.2. : f g
, f + g .

 f g x0 .
1.1 . ,
x0 f + g (

).
1.3. : f (x) = x(x + 1)
(x + 2)(x + 3), f  (x) = 0
.

 f (x) , , R. , f (x)
3, 2, 1, 0,
. , f  (x) = 0
[3, 2]. f (x) : f (x)
[3, 2], (3, 2), f (3) = f (2). c (3, 2),
f  () = 0. , :
(2, 1), (1, 0).


1.

187

1.4. , x3 + 3x 6 = 0
.

 f (x) = x3 + 3x 6.
R, f  (x) = 3x2 + 3.
, f (x) = 0
. : f (x) [a, b] f (a)f (b) < 0, c (a, b),
f () = 0. f (x) : f (1) = 2 < 0,
f (2) = 8 > 0. [1, 2] c,
f (c) = 0, , . ,
. :
x1 x2 (x1 < x2 ). [x1 , x2 ]
f (x) .
x1 x2 t, f  (t) = 0.
, f  (x) = 3x2 + 3 = 0. ,

f (x) = 0 .
1.5. ,
| cos x cos y|  |x y|, x, y R.

 , , x < y .
f (z) = cos z [x, y] : f (z) [x, y] (x, y), f  (z) = sin z .

cos y cos x = f  (t)(y x), t (x, y).


, |f  (t)| = | sin t|  1
t,

| cos y cos x| = | sin t||y x|  |y x|.

1.6. , f (x)
[a, b], f  (x) = 0 (a, b), f (x)
[a, b].

 x (a, b]. f (x) [a, x] .


f (x) f (a) = f  (t)(x a), t (a, x).

188

. 2.

, f  (t) = 0, f (x)
f (a) = 0, . . f (x) = f (a) x [a, b]. ,

f (x) [a, b].
1.7. ,

arcsin x + arccos x = /2 |x|  1.


 f (x) = arcsin x + arccos x.
[1, 1],
(1, 1)


f  (x) = 

1 x2

+ 

1 x2

= 0.

, 1.6, f (x) = C
x [1, 1]. C
x = 0 f (0).

f (0) = arcsin 0 + arccos 0 =

+ 0 = f (0 ) = ;
2
2

, C = /2. , 
.
1.8. ex > 1 + x x > 0.

 f (x) = ex (1 + x). : f  (x) = ex 1. x > 0 [0, x]


f (x) . ,
f (x) f (0) = f  (t) x, t (0, x).
x > 0 f  (t) = et 1 > 0 t > 0, ,
f (x) f (0) > 0. ,

f (0) = e0 (1 + 0) = 1 1 = 0,
ex (1 + x) > 0, . .

ex > 1 + x.
1.4.

1.1. : f , g , f g f /g
?

189

2.

1.2. : f1 (x) = |x|, f2 (x) = x. [1, 1] ,


.
?
1.3. , 3x5 + 15x 8 = 0
.
1.4.

ex x 1 = 0 .
1.5. f (x) = 1/x
[a, b], a) ab < 0; b) ab > 0.
f (x) , , A
B , :
1.6. f = x(x2 1), A(0; 0), B(1; 0);
1.7. f = x3 + 3x + 1, A(1; 3), B(1; 5).
:
1.8. | arctg x arctg y|  |x y|, x, y R;
1.9. ex > ex, x R, x > 1.
:
1.10. arctg x + arcctg x =

,
2

x R;

1
2

1.11. sin2 x = (1 cos 2x), x R.

2.
2.1.

2.1 ( ). f (x), g (x)


:

1) U (x0 ) x0 f (x) g (x)


g  (x) = 0;

190

. 2.

2) lim f (x) = lim g (x) = 0


xx0

lim f (x) = lim g (x) = ;

xx0

xx0

f  (x)
= L, L R L = .
3) lim 
xx0 g (x)
f (x)
lim
= L.

xx0 g (x)

xx0

[] x0 , []
f (x)

x0 .

g (x)
x , x +, x .

.
2.2 ( ).
w {a, a + 0, a 0, , +, }
(a R). f (x), g (x) :

1) U (w) f (x) g (x) g  (x) = 0;




2) lim f (x) = lim g (x) = 0 lim f (x) = lim g (x) = ,
xw

xw

xw

f  (x)
= L, L R L = ,
3) lim 
xw g (x)
f (x)
= L.
lim
xw g (x)

xw


lim f (x) = lim g (x) = ,
xw
xw
xw
xw
 
f (x)
0

, lim
lim f (x) = lim g (x) = 0

xw

g (x)

.
2.2.

1). 1)-3)

f  (x)
lim  .
xw

g (x)

lim

xw

f (x)
?
g (x)

191

2.

2). , :
xn
= 0 n N;
x ex
ln x
2) lim a = 0 a > 0;
x x

1) lim

3) lim xa ln x = 0 a > 1;
x+0

4) lim xa ln x = + 0 < a < 1.


x+0

2.3.

.
2.1. lim

x0

x arctg x
.
x3


x = 0,
lim f (x) = lim (x arctg x) = 0; lim g (x) = lim x3 = 0.

x0

x0

x0

x0

,
, f  (x) = 1

0
.
0

1
g  (x) = 3x2 1 + x2

x = 0, g  (x) = 0 x = 0. ,
f  (x)
lim 
= lim
x0 g (x)
x0

1
1 + x2

3x

1
1
= .
2
3
x0 3(1 + x )

= lim

, :
x arctg x
lim
= lim
x0
x0
x3

1
1 + x2

3x2

1
3

= .

, .

192

. 2.

, , .
arcsin(x 1)

2.2. lim 
x1+0

x2 + x 2


arcsin(x 1)

lim 

x1+0

0
.
0

(arcsin(x 1))
 =
x2 + x 2

= lim 

x1+0
x2 + x 2

2 x2 + x 2
0

=
= 0.
= lim
3
1
x1+0
(2x + 1) 1 (x 1)2

2.3. lim x ln x.
x+0

 f (x) g (x),
f (x) = x; g (x) = ln x. lim x = 0; lim ln x = .
x+0

x+0

0 .
:

lim x ln x = lim

x+0

x+0

ln x
1/x
= lim
= lim x = 0.
1/x
x+0 1/x2
x+0

x10 10x + 9
.
x1 x5 5x + 4

2.4. lim

0
. :
0

x10 10x + 9
10x9 10
2(x9 1)
=
lim
=
lim
.
x1 x5 5x + 4
x1 5x4 5
x1 x4 1

L = lim

. 0
:

L = lim 2
x1

x9 1
9x8
9
9
=
lim
2

=2 = .
4
3
4
2
x1
x 1
4x

193

2.

x3
.
x+ ex

2.5. lim

 lim x3 = lim ex = +, x+

x+

. ,

x3
3x2
6x
6
=
lim
= 0.
x
x = lim
x = lim
x+ e
x+ e
x+ e
x+ ex

lim

sin x x cos x
x0
x2 sin x

2.6. lim

 . 0

sin x x x 0 x2 sin x
x3 . :
sin x x cos x
sin x x cos x
= lim
=
2
x0
x0
x sin x
x3
cos x cos x + x sin x
1
sin x
1
= lim
= lim
= .
3 x0 x
3
x0
3x2

lim



1
2.7. lim ctg x
.
x

x0

 , 1

x 0: lim ctg x = , lim = .


x0
x0 x
.
, , ctg x tg x
:

ctg x

1
x tg x
=
.
x
x tg x
0

. 0
tg x x x 0,
:


1
x tg x
x tg x
= lim
lim ctg x
= lim
=
2
x

x0

= lim

x0

13

cos2 x

2x

x0

x tg x

x0

cos2 x 1
sin2 x
= lim
=
2
x0 2x cos x
x0 2x cos2 x

= lim

194

. 2.

1
2 x0

= lim sin x lim

x0

2.8. lim

x+

sin x
1
1
lim
= 0 1 1 = 0.
x
2
x0 cos2 x

x sin x
.
x + sin x

 .
,
(x sin x)
1 cos x
 =
(x + sin x)

1 + cos x

x +. ,
:
sin x

1
x
x sin x
lim
= lim
= 1.
x+ x + sin x
x+
sin x
1+
x

, ,
, .

.
.
2.9. f = 3x + ex .


. , .
. .
k y = kx + b
:
k = lim

x+

f (x)
.
x

3x + ex
3x
ex
= lim
+ lim
.
x+
x+ x
x+ x
x

k = lim

3,

:
ex
(ex )
ex
lim
= lim
= +.
 = lim
x+

x+

x+

195

2.

, . :
3x + ex
3x
ex
= lim
+ lim
=
x
x x
x x
x

k = lim

= 3 + lim ex . lim
x

1
= 3 + 0 = 3.
x

, k = 3. b :

b = lim (f (x) kx) .


x

b = lim (3x + ex 3x) = lim ex = 0.


x

, y = 3x 
.
2.10. f = xe1/x .

 x = 0. :
et
= +;
t+ t

lim xe1/x = lim

x+0

et
= 0.
t t

lim xe1/x = lim

x0

+,
x = 0 , x =
= 0 2- . .
(11.1), 1, 3
xe1/x
= lim e1/x = e0 = 1;
x+ x
x+


e1/x 1
et 1
b1 = lim xe1/x x = lim
= lim
= 1.
x+
x+
1/x
t
t+0

k1 = lim

, y = x + 1
x +. ,
y = x + 1 x .

13*

196

2.4.

. 2.

.
x5 1
;
x1 2x3 x 1
x sin x
2.3. lim
;
x0
x3

tg x x
;
x0 x sin x
2 arctg x
2.4. lim
;
x+ ln(1 + 1/x)
x3 3x
2.6. lim
;
x+
ex
ln sin x
2.8. lim
;
x+0 ln x
esin x ex
2.10. lim
;
x0 sin x x

2.1. lim

2.5. lim

x+0

2.2. lim

x ln x;

ln(x2 8)
;
x3 x2 + 2x 15
ex + ex 2
2.9. lim
;
x0 x sin x

5x3 x 2x
;
2.11. lim

5 2
x1
x 1

2.7. lim

2.12.

2.13. f = x2 e1/x ;
2.15. f = x +

lim 

x10

ln(2 x)

x2 4x + 3

2.14. f = x3 ln x;

ln x
.
x

3.
3.1. . f (x)
x0 n.
f (x) x0

Tn (x) = f (x0 ) +

n

f (k) (x0 )
k=1

k!

(x x0 )k .

3.1. f (x) x0 n, x0 ,

f (x) = Tn (x) + o ((x x0 )n ), lim

xx0

o ((x x0 )n )
= 0.
(x x0 )n

(3.1)

(3.1) n-
x0 . n = 1 (3.1) (1.1) .

3.

197

3.2. f (x) n + 1 x0 , ,

f (x) = Tn (x) +

f (n+1) (x0 + (x x0 ))
(x x0 )(n+1) , (0, 1).
(n + 1)!

(3.2)
n = 0 (3.2) (1.1)
.
rn (x) = f (x) Tn (x) n .

rn (x) = o ((x x0 )n )
, (3.1)
.
f (n+1) (x0 + (x x0 ))
(x x0 )(n+1)
(n + 1)!

rn (x) =

, (3.2)
.
.
f (x)
x0

f (x) = f (x0 ) +

n

f (k) (x0 )
k=1

k!

(x x0 )k + rn (x),

rn (x)
.
x0 = 0
.
3.3 ( ). x0 f (x)

f (x) =

n


ck (x x0 )k + o ((x x0 )n ),

k=0


f (x).

n

k=0

ck (x x0 )k -

198

. 2.

(3.1) f (x)
(x x0 ) n- .

,
.

x2
xn
+ ... +
+ rn (x)
2!
n!
x3
x2n1
sin x = x
+ . . . + (1)n1
+ r2n (x)
3!
(2n 1)!
x2
x2n
cos x = 1
+ . . . + (1)n
+ r2n+1 (x)
2!
(2n)!
x2
xn
ln(1 + x) = x
+ . . . + (1)n1 + rn (x)
2
n
( 1) 2

(1 + x) = 1 + x +
x + ... +
2!
( 1) . . . ( n + 1) n
+
x + rn (x)
n!

ex = 1 + x +

(3.3)
(3.4)
(3.5)
(3.6)
(3.7)

, y = sin x y = cos x

, (3.4)
x, (3.5) x
.
3.2.

1). , f  (a),
f (a + h) f (a h
= f  (a).
2h
h0

lim

2). , f  (a),
f (a + h) 2f (a) + f (a h)
= f  (a).
h0
h2

lim

199

3.

3). :
h2
h3
sin x cos x + o(h4 );
2!
3!
h2
h3
cos x + sin x + o(h4 ).
2) cos(x + h) = cos x h sin x
2!
3!

1) sin(x + h) = sin x + h cos x

3.3.

3.1. f (x) = tg x x0 = 0 .

 f (x) = tg x
:
f  (x) =

1
= cos2 x;
cos2 x

f  (x) = 2 cos3 x sin x;


f  (x) = 6 cos4 x sin2 x + 2 cos2 x.
x0 = 0:

f (0) = tg 0 = 0;
f  (0) = cos2 0 = 1;
f  (0) = 2 cos3 0 sin 0 = 0;
f  (0) = 6 cos4 0 sin2 0 + 2 cos2 0 = 2.
(3.1) x0 = 0

tg x = x +

2x3
x3
+ o(x3 ) = x +
+ o(x3 ).
3!
3

3.2. f (x) = x2 ex x0 = 0 .

 x2 ex x4 ,
ex x2
x2 . (3.3) ex ,
n = 2 , x2 o(x2 ) = o(x4 ).


x2
x4
2
2
f (x) = x 1 + x +
+ o(x ) = x2 + x3 +
+ o(x4 ).
2!

200

. 2.

3.3 .

3.3. f (x) = sin2 x
x0 = 0.

 sin2 x =
= (1 cos 2x)/2 t = 2x.
f (t) = (1 cos t)/2. x = 0
t = 0.
(3.5),


2n
1
1
t2
n t
f (t) =
1 + . . . + (1)
+ r2n+1 (t) =
2

2!

(2n)!

2n

t
t
+ . . . + (1)n+1
+ r2n+1 (t).
2 2!
2 (2n)!

x:

sin2 x =
=

(2x)2
(2x)2n
+ . . . + (1)n+1
+ r2n+1 (x) =
2 2!
2 (2n)!

n

22n1 x2n
(1)n+1
+ r2n+1 (x).
k=1

(2n)!


.
3.4.

f (x) =

1 + x + x2
1 x + x2

x = 0 x4 .
f (4) (0).


:
f1 = 1 + x + x2 f2 =

1
.
1 x + x2

f1 .
f x4 , f2 x4 ;
f1 ,
xk k > 4 o(x4 ). t = x + x2

201

3.

(1 + t) = 1
t4 .
1
= 1 t + t2 t3 + t4 + o(t4 ).
1+t

x ,
xk k  4:
1
= 1 + x x2 + (x x2 )2 + (x x2 )3 +
1 x + x2

+ (x x2 )4 + o(x4 ) = 1 + x x2 + x2 2x3 + x4 + x3
3x4 + x4 + o(x4 ) = 1 + x x3 x4 + o(x4 ).

f1 ,
4- o(x4 ):

(1 + x x3 x4 + o(x4 ))(1 + x + x2 ) =
= 1 + 2x + 2x2 2x4 + o(x4 ).

an =

2 =

f (n) (0)
n = 4,
n!

f (4) (0)
= f (4) (0) = 48.
4!

3.5. 3 x
x0 = 1 x3 .


 : 3 x = 3 1 + (x 1
). t = x 1, f (t) = 3 1 + t.
- x = 1 - t = 0. (3.7)
c = 1/3 n = 3,
1 1

(1 + t)

1/3

1 1

( 1)
( 1)( 2)
1
3
=1 + t + 3 3
t2 + 3 3
t3 + rn (t) =
3
2!
3!
1
12 2
125 3
=1 + t 2
t + 3
t + r3 (t) =
3
3 2!
3 3!
1
1
5 3
t + r3 (t).
= 1 + t t2 +
3
9
81

202

. 2.

x:

x=1+

1
1
5
(x 1) (x 1)2 +
(x 1)3 + r3 (x).
3
9
81

.
C

0
f (x)
, . . lim
,
xx0 g (x)
0

lim f (x) = lim g (x) = 0. xx0


x x0 .
,
.
xx0

3
1 + 3x 1 + 2x
.
3.6. lim
x0
x2

 x2 ,
2- . (3.7),
:

1 + 3x = (1 + 3x)

1/3

(3x)2
 
1
= 1 + 3x 3 3
+ o x2 =
3
2!
 
= 1 + x x2 + o x2 ;

1
1 + 2x = (1 + 2x)1/2 = 1 + 2x
2

1 1
(2x)2
2 2

2!

 
+ o x2 =

 
1
= 1 + x x2 + o x2 .
2

 2
 2

,
,

o
x

o
x =
 
= o x2 .

3
1 + 3x 1 + 2x =
  
 
 
1
x2
= 1 + x x2 + o x2 1 + x x2 + o x2 = + o x2 .
2

203

3.

lim

x0

1 + 3x
x2

1 + 2x

= lim

 
1
x2 + o x 2
2

x2

x0

= lim

x2

x0

cos x ex
x0
x4

3.7. lim

1
2

x2

 
o x2
1
= . 
+
2
2
x

/2

 4- ,
x4 . (3.5),
 
 
x2
x4
x2
x4
cos x = 1
+
+ o x4 = 1
+
+ o x4 .
2!

4!

24

2
ex /2 ,

y =
t = x2 /2 (3.3) n = 2:
 
t2
et = 1 + t + + o t 2 .
2!

x,
2
y = ex /2 4- :


x2 /2

x2
=1
+
2

2

x2
2

2!

 2 2 
 
x
x2
x4
+o
+
+ o x4 .
=1
2

:


 4
 4
x2
x4
x2
x4
x2 /2
cos x e
=1
+
+o x 1
+
+o x
=
2

24

 
 
x
x
1

+ o x4 = x4 + o x4
24
8
12
4

, , :
cos x ex
lim
x0
x4

/2

= lim

x0

 
1 4
x + o x4
12
x

1
.
12

, . , , ,

( ) .

204

. 2.

, - f g
x0 ( 2.2).

3.8. lim x3/2 ( x + 1 + x 1 2 x).


x+

 x2 ,
1
t = , (3.7):
x

lim x3/2 ( x + 1 + x 1 2 x) =
x+




= lim x2
t+

1+

= lim

1
+
x

1+

1
2
x

1+t+

t0+

t
t2
t
t2
+ 1 2 + o(t2 )
2
8
2
8

t2

t0+

3.9. lim

= lim

1t2

1
4

= .

=





1
x x2 ln 1 +
.
x



1
t = , (3.6):
x


1



1
1
= lim x2
=
lim x x2 ln 1 +
ln 1 +
x2 ,

t ln(1 + t)
= lim
t0
t0
t2

= lim

t2
t t + + o(t2 )
2

1
2

= .

3.10. 9- ,
f (x) = ln(1 + x) x = 0,2. .

 (3.6) c n = 9,
ln(1 + x) 9-
x0 = 0:
ln(1 + x) = x

x2
x3
x9
+
... +
+ r9 (x).
2
3
9

ln 1,2

ln(1 + x) x

x2
x3
x9
+
... + ,
2
3
9

205

3.

x = 0,2.

ln(1,2) 0,2

0,22
0,23
0,29
+
... +
0,1823215.
2
3
9

r9 (x) =

f (10) (x0 + (x x0 ))
(x x0 )(10)
(10)!

(0 < < 1).

(5.8) n- y = ln x
( 1, 5.5), ln(10) (1 + x)) = (1)9
x0 = 0, x = 0,2, :

r9 (x) =

(9)!
.
(1 + x)10

f (10) (x) 10
9!
x =
x10 =
(10)!
10!(1 + x)10

x10
0,210
=

10(1 + x)10
10(1 + 0,2)10

(0 < < 1).

1 + 0,2 1, < 1
,

|r9 (x)| =

0,210
210
< 11 = 1,024 108 < 107 .
10
10
10(1 + 0,2)

, < 107 .

3.11. :

sin x x

x3
6

1
2

|x|  .





, . . sin x x

x3
. 6

3-
y = sin x.
4- , (3.4)
. ,
4- . y = sin x

206

. 2.

rn (x) =

xn+1
sin(n+1) (x). (5.5), 1,
(n + 1)!

sin(n) (x)



5
= cos x
sin(5) (x) = sin x +
2

, n = 4, r4 (x) =
1

x5
cos(x). ,
5!

| cos x|  1 |x|  ,
2
:
= max |r4 (x)| 
|x|1/2

(0,5)5
1
=
< 2,7 104 .
5!
3840

3.12.
ex , ,
[1, 1] 103 ?

 (3.3)
ex 1 + x +

x2
xn
+ ... + .
2!
n!

rn (x) =

e(n+1) (x) n+1


xn+1 ex
x
=
(n + 1)!
(n + 1)!

(0 < < 1).

, |x|  1, 1  x  1, ex  e , ,
e
3

<
.
(n + 1)!

(n + 1)!

n, 103 ,

3
< 103 , . .
(n + 1)!

(n + 1)! > 3000. n : 1! = 1,


2! = 2, 3! = 6, 4! = 24, 5! = 120, 6! = 720, 7! = 5040 > 3000. , n + 1 = 7. ,

6 .

4
3.13. o 83
106 .

 , 4 81 = 3,

:

4
4
83 = 81 + 2 = 3 4 1 + 2/81.

207

3.


(3.7) 4 1 + 2/81.
, . (5.7), 1 n-
(1 + x) =
1/4,
4 1 + x:

 1
 (1 + x)1/4n1 xn+1
1 1
rn (x) =
1 ...
n
=
4

4
(n + 1)!
3 7 . . . (4n 1)xn+1

= (1)n

4n+1 (n + 1)!(1 + x)n+11/4

, (1 + x)n+11/4 > 1 x > 0, > 0, n N,


x = 2/81

= |rn (x)| <

 2 n+1 3 7 . . . (4n 1)
3 7 . . . (4n 1)

=
.
n+1
n+1
81

(n + 1)!

162

(n + 1)!

n = 1, 2, . . . 106 :
37

1 =
= 5 105 ; 2 =
= 8 107 , . . 2 < 106 .
1622 2
1623 6
, ,
2-
.



1
3
4
3,018347.
83 3 1 +


2
162

162 2

3.14. :

x2
< ln(1 + x) < x
2

(x > 0).

 (3.6)
n = 1
ln(1 + x) = x

x2
2(1 + x)2

(0 < < 1).

n = 2

ln(1 + x) = x

x2
x3
+
2
3(1 + 1 x)3

(0 < 1 < 1).

208

. 2.

, x > 0 > 0, 1 > 0


:
x2
> 0,
2(1 + x)2

x3
> 0.
3(1 + 1 x)3

C, 1- 2-
x > 0 , ,
ln(1 + x). , .


3.4.

f (x)
x0 = 0 n.

3.1. f (x) = x 1 x2 , n = 5; 3.2. f (x) = cos x ln(1 + x), n = 4.
f (x)
x0 = 0.
3.3. f (x) = ex ;

3.4. f (x) = ln(1 x2 );

3.5. f (x) =

1
x
sin .
x
2

f (x)
x0 = 1 n.

3.6. f (x) = x x, n = 3; 3.7. f (x) = sin(x/2), n = 4.


:
3.8. lim

x0

3.10.


1 + x2 cos x
;
tg4 x

lim (

x+

x(1 + x) ex sin x
;
x0
x3

3.9. lim



6 6
6
x + x5 x6 x5 ).

2- ,
f (x) x = a.
.
3.11. f (x) = arctg x, a = 0,8;

3.12. f (x) = arcsin x, a = 0,45.

209

3.

e
:

x3
|x|  0,1;
3

x
x2
x (0, 1);
3.14. 1 + x 1 +
2
8
x2
x4
+
|x|  0,5.
3.15. cos x 1
2
24

3.13. tg x x +

e o :

3
3.16. 25, = 103 ;
3.17. ln 1,1, = 103 ;
3.18. e0, 2 , = 105 ;

3.19. cos 5 , = 105 .

:
x3

0 < x < ;
3
2

x
x2
x
3.21. 1 +
< 1+x<1+
0 < x < +.
2
8
2

3.20. tg x > x +

:
3.22. f = x7 ex ; f (5) (0) =?
2

14

3.23. f = (1 x) tg 2x; f (4) (0) =?

1.
1.1. .
[] A D(f ),
x1 , x2 A x1 < x2 f (x1 )  f (x2 ) [f (x1 )  f (x2 )].
[ ] A D(f ),
x1 , x2 A x1 < x2 f (x1 ) < f (x2 ) [f (x1 ) > f (x2 )]. ,
.
1.1 ( ). f (x), (a, b), [] ,
x (a, b) f  (x)  0 [f  (x)  0].
, (a, b)
(, b), (a, +) (, +).
1.2 ( ).
(a, b) x (a, b) f  (x) > 0
[f  (x) < 0], f (x) []
[a, b].
,
[a, b] (, b],
[a, +) (, +).
1.2.

1). [a, b).


, [a, b]?

1.

211

2).
[a, b). ,
[a, b]? , ?
3). : f (x) (a, b)
f  (x) > 0 (a, b), , f (x)
.
4). a c,

f (x) = ax3 + cx
1) R;
2) R.
5). a,
1) f (x) = sin x + ax R.
2) f (x) = cos x + ax R.
3) f (x) = 3 sin x + 4 cos x + ax R.
6). : ,
?

1.3.

, f (x) D(f ).
1.1. f (x) = x5 + 4x.

 f (x) = x5 + 4x R f  (x) =
= 5x4 + 4 > 0 x (, +). 1.2
, . 
1.2. f (x) = x3 .

 f  (x) = 3x2  0 x
(, +). 1.1 ,
x (, +). , f (x) = x3
. [0, + )
14*

212

. 3.

f (x) = x3 x (0, + ) f  (x) = 3x2 > 0. 1.2 , [0, + )


. , f (x) = x3
(, 0]. ,
x1 ,x2 R f (x1 ) < f (x2 ).
x1  0 x2  0 ( x1  0 x2  0),

[0, + ) ((, 0]). x1 < 0, x2 > 0,
f (x1 ) < f (0) < f (x2 ).

.

1.3. f (x) = 3 x.
1

 f  (x) =
> 0
3
3 x2

x = 0. f (x) = 3 x
1.1 1.2, x = 0 .
[0, + ) (, 0] 1.2.
,
.

1.4. f (x) = 1/x.

 f  (x) =
1

1
< 0
x2

x (, +) x = 0. f (x) =
x
1.1 1.2, x = 0
. (0, +) (, 0)
1.2 . ,
1
f (x) = ,
x

, , f (1) = 1 < f (1) = 1.
1.5. f (x) = sin x x.

 f (x) = sin x x R f  (x) =


= cos x 1  0 x (, +). 1.1 , f (x) R. cos x 1 = 0, , f  (x) = 0 x = 2k .
1.2 , f (x) [2k , 2(k + 1)], k Z. , f (x)
. x1 < x2 f (x1 ) = f (x2 ).
f (x) , f (x1 ) f (x2 )
[x1 , x2 ].

1.

213

2k . ,
f (x) = sin x x .

.

f (x) ,
f  (x) .
f (x) ,

.
1.6. f (x) = 2x2 ln x.

 f (x) = 2x2 ln x x > 0.


: f  (x) = 4x 1/x. : 4x 1/x = 0; 4x2 1 = 0, x = 1/2 ( x = 1/2
). x = 1/2 x > 0
: (0, 1/2) (1/2, +). (0, 1/2)
4x 1/x < 0, . . , , , 1.2 .
(1/2, +) 4x 1/x > 0,
1.2

.
1.7. f (x) = x2 (1 x)3 .

 . ee :
f  (x) = 2x(1 x)3 3x2 (1 x)2 =
= x(1 x)2 (2 5x) = x(x 1)2 (x 2/5).
0, 1, 2/5, f  (x) =
= 0 .

f  (x) > 0 x (0, 2/5);


f  (x) < 0 x (, 0) (2/5, 1) (1, +).
1.2 , (0, 2/5)
(, 0), (2/5, 1], [1, +). 1.2,
,
(, 0) (2/5, +). 

214

. 3.

1.8. f (x) = 3 3 x 5 5 x.



 f  (x) = x2/3 x4/5 = x4/5 x2/15 1 . x = 0
 4
. , x4/5 = 1/ 5 x > 0
x = 0, :
f  (x) > 0 x (, 1) (1, +);
f  (x) < 0 x (1, 0) (0, 1).
, 1.2 (1, 1) (, 1)
(1, +).

1.9. f (x) = sin x + cos x.

 :



f (x) = sin x + cos x = sin x + sin
x =


 2


= 2 sin cos
x = 2 cos
x .
4

f  (x) =




2 sin
x .
4

:



sin
x > 0 2k < x < + 2k
4

+ 2k < x < + 2k , k Z.
4
4



x < 0 + 2k < x < 2 + 2k


sin
4
4

5
+ 2k < x <
+ 2k , k Z.

4
4

(/4 + 2k , 5/4 + 2k), k Z


(3/4 + 2k , /4 + 2k), k Z
.
1.10. arctg x < x x3 /6, 0 < x  1.

215

1.

 f (x) = arctg x x + x3 /6.


:
f  (x) =

1
x2
x2 (x2 1)
1+
=
.
2
2
1+x
2(1 + x2 )

f (x) [0, 1] f  (x) < 0 (0, 1). 1.2 , f (x)


[0, 1]. , x (0, 1]
f (x) < f (0) = 0, . . arctg x x + x3 /6 < 0,

.
1.11. (1 + x)p  1 + xp 0 < p  1, x  0.


f (x) = 1 + xp (1 + x)p ; x  0; p (0, 1).
:


f (x) = px

p1

p(1 + x)

p1


=p

x1p

(1 + x)1p


.

1 p > 0 x  0, ,
f  (x) > 0 x (0, +). 1.2, 1, , f (x) [0, +),
, , x > 0
f (x) > f (0) = 0, . .
1 + xp (1 + x)p > 0.
x = 0 . ,
x  0, p (0, 1). ,
p = 1 .


1.4.

x (, +):

5
1.2. f (x) = 2 x + 1;
1.1. f (x) = x5 + 6x3 ;
1.3. f (x) =

x1
;
2x + 1

1.4. f (x) = cos x + x + 1.

216

. 3.

:

1.5. f (x) = ln 1 + x2 ;
1.6. f (x) =

x2 + 1
;
(x 1)2

1.7. f (x) = 2x3 9x2 24x + 7;


1.8. f (x) = 2 cos x 1.
:
1.9. arcsin x > x, 0 < x < 1;
1.10. ln(1 + x) >

x
, x > 0;
x+1

1.11. arctg x > x x3 /3, 0 < x  1;


1.12. (1 + x)p  1 + xp p  1, x  0.

2.
2.1. . f (x)
x0 . x0
[ ] f (x),
x0 ,
f (x) > f (x0 ) [f (x) < f (x0 )].
f (x0 ) [ ] f (x).
.
, , .
2.1 ( ). x0
f (x), f  (x) = 0 .
, , (1.2), 2.
K f (x) , 0
. , x0
f (x) + , -
x0 , f (x) > 0 x (x0 , x0 )

2.

217

f (x) < 0 x (x0 , x0 + ).


, +
x0 .
2.2 ( ). x0
f (x).
1) f  (x) x0 +
, x0 ;
2) f  (x) x0
+, x0 ;
3) f  (x) x0 ,
x0 .
2.3 ( ).
f (x) :
1) x0 (a, b) f (n) ;
2) f (k) (x0 ) = 0 k = 1, 2, . . . ,n 1;
3) f (n) (x0 ) = 0.

(a) n = 2m f (n) (x0 ) > 0, x0 ;


(b) n = 2m f (n) (x0 ) < 0, x0 ;
(c) n = 2m + 1, x0 .
2.2.

1). b c,

f (x) = x3 + bx2 + cx + 1
1) x = 0 ;
2) x = 0 .
2). a, b c

f (x) = x3 + ax2 + bx + c
x = m, x = n,
m < n.
3). , ,
, ?

218

. 3.

4). ?
? ?
5). , , ?

2.3.

.
2.1. f (x) = x4 8x3 + 22x2 24x + 12.


, .
:
f  (x) = 4x3 24x2 + 44x 24 = 4(x3 6x2 + 11x 6) = 0.
x = 1.
x3 6x2 + 11x 6 x 1.

f  (x) = 4(x 1)(x2 5x + 6) = 4(x 1)(x 2)(x 3).


, x1 = 1, x2 = 2, x3 = 3 .

f  (x) > 0 x (1, 2) (3, +);


f  (x) < 0 x (, 1) (2, 3).
, x1 = 1 x3 = 3
+, x2 = 2
+ . , 2.2 x1 = 1
x3 = 3 f (1) = 3 f (3) = 1, x2 = 2

f (2) = 4.
2.2. f (x) = (x + 1)10 ex .


, .
. f  (x) = (x + 1)9 (x 9)ex .
: x1 = 1, x2 = 9. x1 = 1
+,
x2 = 9 + . 2.2

2.

219

x1 = 1 f (1) = 0, x2 = 9
f (9 ) =

1010
.
e9

3
2.3. f (x) = 3 x2 x2 .
 .
:
f  (x) = 2(x1/3 x) = 2x1/3 (1 x4/3 ).
(1 x4/3 ) = 0 x1 = 1,
x2 = 1. x3 = 0, .
: f  (x) > 0
x (, 1) (0, 1) f  (x) < 0 x (1, 0) (1, +).
x1 = 1, x2 = 1
+ , x3 = 0
+. , : f (1) = 2

f (1) = 2 f (0) = 0.
1
x

2.4. f (x) = x + .

 x = 0.
: f  (x) = 1 1/x2 . : x1 = 1,
x2 = 1. x = 0 ,
. .

f  (x) = 2x3 ; f  (1) = 2 < 0; f  (1) = 2 > 0.


, 2- () . , 2.3 .
f  (1) < 0, x1 = 1 f (1) = 2. f  (1) > 0 , x2 = 1

f (1) = 2.
2.5. f (x) = sin2 x 2 cos x.

 ,
[0, 2). :
f  (x) = 2 sin x cos x + 2 sin x = 2 sin x(cos x + 1).

220

. 3.

2 sin x(cos x + 1) = 0
x = 0, x = .
.

f  (x) = (2 sin x cos x + 2 sin x) =


= (sin 2x + 2 sin x) = 2 cos 2x + 2 cos x.
:
f  (0) = 4 > 0, f  () = 0. 2.3 ,
x1 = 0 f (0) = 2. f  () = 0,
x2 = :

f  (x) = 4 sin 2x 2 sin x;

f  () = 0;

f (4) (x) = 8 cos 2x 2 cos x;

f (4) () = 6 < 0.

,
x2 = 4, . . . 2.3
, f () = 2.
: x = 2k ,
k Z, , 2, x = + 2k , k Z
, 2.

x = 0.
2.6. f (x) = 1 + cos x +

x2
x3
.
2
3


x = 0. . f  (x) = sin x + x x2 ;
f  (0) = 0. f  (x) = cos x + 1 2x; f  (0) = 0. ,
f  (x) = sin x 2; f  (0) = 2 = 0. , x = 0 3, . .
. 2.3 ,

.
2.7. f (x) = ex + sin x

x2
x3
+ .
2
3


. 3- y1 = ex y2 = sin x:
ex = 1 x +

x2
x3
x4

+
+ o1 (x4 );
2!
3!
4!

sin x = x

x3
+ o2 (x4 ).
3!

221

3.

f (x):

f (x) = 1 x +

x2
x3
x4
x3

+
+ o1 (x4 ) + x
+ o2 (x4 )
2!
3!
4!
3!
x2
x3
x4
+
=1+
+ o(x4 ).

2
3
4!
f (n) (0)

xn
,
n!
,
4, . .
1
,
. x4
4!

, f (4) (0) = 1 > 0. 2.3 ,



x = 0 f (0) = 1.

2.4.

:
2.1. f (x) = x3 6x2 + 9x 4;

3
2.3. f (x) = x x 1;
2.5. f (x) =

2.2. f (x) = cos x +


2.4. f (x) = xex ;

1
cos 2x;
2

ln2 x
.
x

x = 0:
2.6. f (x) = cos x 1 +

x2
;
2

2.8. f (x) = sin x x +

x3
x4
.
6
12

2.7. f (x) = sin x x +

x3
;
3

3.
3.1. . f (x)
(a, b), x0 (a, b).
(x0 , f (x0 ))
y = f  (x0 )(x x0 ) + f (x0 ). f (x)

222

. 3.

[] x0 ,
,

f (x)  f  (x0 )(x x0 ) + f (x0 ) [f (x)  f  (x0 )(x x0 ) + f (x0 )].


(3.1)
,
[] x0 . x = x0 (3.1) ,
.
f (x) []
(a, b), []
.
3.1 ( ).
1.
f (x) []
(a, b) , f  (x)
[] .
2. f (x)
[] (a, b) ,
f  (x) [ ] .
3.2 ( ).

x (a, b) f  (x)  0 [f  (x)  0],


f (x) [] (a, b).
f (x) x0 , x0 x0 . x0
f (x), - x0
, (x0 , x0 ) (x0 , x0 + )
.
3.3 ( ).
f (x) (a, b) x0 (a, b)
, f  (x0 ) = 0 .
3.4 ( ).
f (x) :
1) f (x) (a, b);
2) f  (x) x0 (a, b),
x0 .
3.5 ( ).
f (x) x0 (a, b)
:

3.

223

1) f (n) (x0 ) ;
2) f (k) (x0 ) = 0 k = 2, 3, . . . ,n 1;
3) f (n) (x0 ) = 0.

(a) n = 2m + 1, x0 ;
(b) n = 2m, x0 .
3.2.

1). a,

3
f (x) = x4 + ax3 + x2 + 1
2

() .
2). a b,

1) f (x) = ax3 + bx2 + x + 1 R;


2) f (x) = ax3 + bx2 + x + 1 R.
3). a,

1) f (x) = sin x + ax2 R;


2) f (x) = cos x + ax2 R.
4). , a b
A(1, 3) f (x) = ax3 +
+ bx2 .
5). :
1)
;
2) .

3.3.

, .

224

. 3.

3.1. f (x) = 3x4 4x3 + 1.

 f  (x).
f  (x) = 12x3 12x2 ; f  (x) = 36x2 24x = 36x(x 2/3).
f  (x) = 0, 2

: x1 = 0, x2 = .
3
f  (x) .
,
2

f  (x) > 0 x (, 0) , + ,
3
 2

.
f (x) < 0 x 0,
3

, 3.2, , f (x) x (, 0)
x (2/3, +), x (0, 2/3) . 3.4 , x1 = 0, x2 = 2/3

.

3.2. f (x) = 2 + 3 x 4.


1
3

2
9

f  (x) = (x 4)2/3 ; f  (x) = (x 4)5/3 =


9

(x 4)5

x = 4 , , , .
1- . ,

3
y = 2 + x 4 (4, 2)
. , f  (x) > 0 x < 4 f  (x) < 0 x > 4.
, f (x) x < 4
x > 4. , f (x) x = 4
. , x = 4

.
1
x

3.3. f (x) = x2 + .

 x = 0.
f  (x) = 2x

1
2
2(1 + x3 )
; f  (x) = 2 + 3 =
.
2
x
x
x3

3.

225

f  (x) = 0, x = 1. f  (x):

f  (x) > 0 x (, 1) (0, +),


f  (x) < 0 x (1, 0).
, f (x) x
(1, 0) (, 1) (0, +);
x = 1 . T x = 0
, . 
(0, f (0)).
3.4. f (x) = ex + cos x.

 x = 0:
f (0) = e0 + cos 0 = 2; f  (x) = ex sin x; f  (0) = 1.

(0, f (0)): y = 2 x.

f  (x) = ex cos x; f  (0) = 0.


, x = 0 . f  (0):

f  (x) = ex + sin x; f  (0) = 1.


3.5 , x = 0, , . . f  (x) > 0,
| cos x|  1, ex > 1 x < 0. 3.2
, x < 0 ,
. . . x = 0
, x > 0
, . . . 
3.5. f (x) = sin x +

x3
.
6

 .
y = sin x ,
f (x) = sin x +
15

x3
x3
x5
x3
x5
=x
+
+ o(x4 ) +
=x+
+ o(x4 ).
6
6
5!
6
5!

226

. 3.

y = x.
xk k = 2, 3, 4
. ,

f  (0) = f  (0) = f (4) (0) = 0,


xn
x5 f (x)

f (n) (0)
.
n!

1
, 5!

, f (5) (0) = 1 = 0. 3.5 , x = 0


. f (x) x - x = 0
, x5 /5!. , x < 0
(x5 < 0), x > 0 (x5 > 0)

y = x.
3.6. f (x) = ex

x
2


+ 1 sin x.

 , y1 = ex y2 = sin x
.
x2

x3

x4

f (x) = 1 x +

+
+ o(x4 )
2
6
24 


x
x3
+1 x
+ o(x4 ) =

=1x+

x
x
x
x
x3
x4

x+
+
+ o(x4 ) =
2
6
24
2
6
12
x4
+ o(x4 ).
= 1 2x +
8

y =
= 1 2x. xk
k = 2, 3 . , f  (0) = f  (0) = 0.
x4 f (x) 1/8 , , f (4) (0) = 0. 3.5 , x = 0
. f (x) (1 2x) x = 0 , x4 /8. ,
x = 0

y = 1 2x.

227

4.

3.4.

, :
3.1. f (x) = x + 36x2 2x3 x4 ;

1
1
3.2. f (x) = x 5 (x 3)2 ; 3.3. f (x) = x3 .
3


(0, f (0)).
x = 0.
3.4. f (x) = ex

x2
;
2

3.5. f (x) = sin x x;


2

x
;
2
x2
+ x3 ;
3.8. f (x) = cos x + x
2

3.6. f (x) = cos x + x +

3.7. f (x) = xex + x2 ;


3.9. f (x) = ex

2 /2

cos x.

4.
4.1. . f (x0 ) [] f A D(f ), x0 A ,
x A f (x)  f (x0 ) [f (x)  f (x0 )].
f (x0 ) max f (x), max f [min f (x),
xA

min f ].

xA

xA

xA

4.1 (). f (x)


,
.
4.2. f (x) :
1) f (x) [a, b];
2) x (a, b) f  (x)  0 [f  (x)  0].

max f (x) = f (b);

x[a, b]

max f (x) = f (a);

x[a, b]
15*

min f (x) = f (a),



min f (x) = f (b) ,

x[a, b]

x[a, b]

228

. 3.

4.3. f (x) :
1) f (x) [a, b];
2) f (x) (a, b);
3) xk (a, b)
(1  k  n) , f  (xk ) = 0.

max f (x) =

x[a, b]

max {f (xk )};

min f (x) =

0kn+1

x[a, b]

min {f (xk )},

0kn+1

x0 = a, xn+1 = b.
4.4. f (x) :
1) f (x) X a b, a,
b , +;
2) f (x) (a, b);
3) x0 (a, b) ,
f  (x0 ) = 0.

(a) x0 ,

min f (x) = f (x0 );


xX

(b) x0 ,

max f (x) = f (x0 ).


xX

4.5. f (x) :
1) f (x) X a b, a,
b , +;
2) f (x) (a, b);
3) , xk
(a, b) (1  k  n) , f  (xk ) = 0.
4) M = max {Mk }, Mk = f (xk ), k = 1,2, . . . , n;
0kn+1

M0 = lim f (x); Mn+1 = lim f (x).


xa+

xb

(a) M = Mk , 1  k  n, max f (x) = f (xk );


xX

(b) M = M0 < +, a > , a X , max f (x) = f (a);


xX

(c) M = Mn+1 < +, b < +, b X , max f (x) = f (b).


xX

(d) max f (x) .


xX

4.

4.2.

229

1). , ,
, ?
2). , - :
1) [a, b]
, (a, b).
2) [a, b]
,
[a, b].
1

3). , y =
xa
[0, 1]:
1) ;
2) ;
3) .

4.3.

f (x)
.
4.1. f (x) = x2 1; x [1, 3].

 [1, 3] 4.1
. . f  (x) = 2x > 0 x (1, 3).
C, 4.2 ,

: max f (x) = f (3) = 8; min f (x) = f (1) = 0.
x[1, 3]

x[1, 3]

4.2. f (x) = x3 3x; x [0, 3].

 [0, 3] 4.1 . : f  (x) = 3x2 3. 3x2 3 = 0,


: x = 1, x = 1. x = 1
, [0, 3].
, 4.3, -

230

. 3.

x1 = 1 [0, 3] 3
: x0 = 0, x1 = 1, x2 = 3. : f (0) = 0; f (1) = 2; f (3) = 18.
, 4.3: max f (x) = f (3) = 18;
x[0, 3]

min f (x) = f (1) = 2.

x[0, 3]

4.3. f (x) = x4 8x2 9; x [1, 3].

 [1, 3] , ,
.
.
f  (x) = 4x3 16x = 0; x1 = 0, x2, 3 = 2, c x = 2, [1, 3]. , :
x0 = 1, x1 = 0, x2 = 2, x3 = 3.
: f (1) = 16, f (0) = 9; f (2) = 25; f (3) = 0.
,
max f (x) = f (3) = 0;

x[1, 3]

min f (x) = f (2) = 25.

x[1, 3]

f (x)
, .
1
1
4.4. f (x) = 2 ; x (0, 3].
x

 (0, 3] , ,
4.1 . :
f  (x) =

1
2
2x
+ 3 = 3 = 0.
2
x
x
x

f  (x) = 0 x = 2,
f  (x) > 0 x (0, 2) f  (x) < 0 x (2, 3). , x = 2 .
4.4 ,
1
max f (x) = f (2) = . 4

x(0, 3)

x 0.
1

1
x1
lim
2 = lim 2 = .
x0

x0

, , , , 
(0, 3] .

4.

231

4.5. f (x) = x2 ex ; x (1, +).

 . :
f  (x) = 2xex x2 ex = x(2 x)ex .
: x1 = 0, x2 = 2. 4.5.
: M1 = f (0) = 0; M2 = f (2) = (2/e)2 .
:

M0 = lim x2 ex = e; M3 = lim x2 ex = 0.
x+

x1

max Mk = M0 = e;

min Mk = M1 = M3 = 0.

0k3

0k3

4.5,

min

x(1, +)

f (x) = f (0) = 0.

, x = 1 , (d) 4.5,
max f (x) .

x(1, +)

4.6. f (x) = x +

x; x (0, 4).
1

 : f  (x) = 1 + . 2 x

[0, +) f  (x) > 0 x (0, +),


4.5 c
n = 0. x = 0 x = 4
, , (d) 4.5, ,

.
4.7. f (x) =

x+1
; x (, +).
x2 + 2x + 5

 , . :
f  (x) =

x2 + 2x + 5 2(x + 1)2
x2 2x + 3
=
.
(x2 + 2x + 5)2
(x2 + 2x + 5)2

232

. 3.

: x1 = 3, x2 = 1. x , x +:
x+1
= 0;
x + 2x + 5
1
1
M1 = f (3) = ; M2 = f (1) = ;
4
4
x+1
M3 = lim 2
= 0.
x+ x + 2x + 5

M0 = lim

,
1
4

max Mk = M2 = ;

0k3

1
4

min Mk = M1 = .

0k3

4.5,

max

x(, +)

1
4

f (x) = f (1) = ;

min

x(, +)

1
4

f (x) = f (3) = . 

4.8. f (x) = 2 cos x sin2 x; x (, +).

 2 ,
[0, 2]. :
f  (x) = 2 sin x 2 sin x cos x = 2 sin x(1 + cos x).
: x1 = 0, x2 = , x3 = 2 .
:

f (0) = f (2) = 2; f () = 2.
4.3 ,

max f (x) = f (0) = f (2) = 2;

x[0, 2]

min f (x) = f () = 2.

x[0, 2]

max

x(,+)

min

x(,+)

f (x) = f (2n) = 2;

f (x) = f ( + 2n) = 2.

5.

4.4.

233

f (x)
:
4.1. f (x) = x2 ln x; x [1, e];
4.2. f (x) = 1 x2 ; x [1, 2];
4.3. f (x) = 2x3 3x2 12x + 1; x [2, 5/2].
f (x)
, :
4.4. f (x) =
4.5.
4.6.
4.7.
4.8.

1
; x (0, 2];
x

f (x) = 2 tg x tg2 x; x [0, /2);

f (x) = x x; x (0, 4);


f (x) = xex ; x (, +);
f (x) = x ln x; x (0, +);

4.9. f (x) =

1x
; x (, +);
x + 2x + 13
2

4.10. f (x) = cos2 x 2 sin x; x (, +).

5.
5.1.

I. .
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. ; .
5. :
.
6.
( ).
7. x + x
:
(a)
x + ( );

234

. 3.

(b) , , x + ;
(c) , , x
+ .
(d) x .
8. , . . f (x) = 0;
.
II. .
1. f  (x). f  (x) = 0; .
2. :
, ; .
III. .
1. f  (x). P f  (x) = 0;

.
2.
, .
3. .
5.2.

.

x1
.
5.1. f = 3
x2

 I. .
1. D(f ) = R \ 2.
2. , , .
3. , .
4. x = 2.
5. :


lim

x2+0

x1
= +
x2

lim

x20

x1
= .
x2

, x = 2 2- .

235

5.

6. x = 2
.
7. x :



1
3 x1
= 1 + 0.
lim
= lim 3 1 +
x2

x+

lim

x2

x+

x1
= lim
x
x2


3

1+

1
x2

= 1 0.

, y = 1
.
lim f (x) = 1 + 0, x + x+

y = 1 . , lim f (x) = 1 0, x
x
y = 1 .
8.

3

x1
=0
x2

x = 1.
,

y=

x1
.
x2

, ,

f (x) > 0 x (; 1) (2; + ); f (x) < 0 x (1; 2).


II. .
1. .


f  (x) = (x 1)1/3 (x 2)1/3 =
1
1
3
3
1
2/3
4/3
(x 2)
((x 2) (x 1)) =
= (x 1)
3
1
=
.
3
(x 1)2 (x 2)4

= (x 1)2/3 (x 2)1/3 (x 1)1/3 (x 2)4/3 =

f  (x) < 0 x = 1, 2.

236

. 3.

, x = 2 , ,
(; 2) (2; +), . x = 1
. f  (1 + 0) = f  (1 0) =
= , x = 1 x = 1.
2. x = 1 ,

.
III. .
1. f  (x):

 1
f  (x) = (x 1)2/3 (x 2)4/3 =
3
2
4
5/3
(x 2)4/3 + (x 1)2/3 (x 2)7/3 =
= (x 1)
9
9
2
5/3
7/3
(x 2)
((x 2) + 2(x 1)) =
= (x 1)
9
2(x 4/3)
.
=
3
3(x 1)5 (x 2)7

f  (x) = 0 x = 4/3. f  (x) :

f  (x) > 0 x (1; 4/3) (2; + );


f (x) < 0 x (; 1) (4/3; 2).
, y = f (x) (1; 4/3), (2; + )
(; 1), (4/3; 2).
2 : x = 1 x = 4/3.
2. .
x = 1. f (1) = 0.
f  (1 + 0) = f  (1 0) = , (1, 0)
.
x = 4/3. :

f (4/3) = 0,79; f  (4/3) = 1,19.


(4/3; 0,79):

y = 1,19(x 4/3) 0,79 = y = 1,19x + 0,8.


3. .

5.

237

5.1

5.2. f = arcsin

4x
.
4 + x2

 I. .
1. D(arctg x) = [1, 1],

4x
1 
 1.
2
1+x

, x R.
4 + x2 .

(4 + x2 )  4x  4 + x2 (x + 2)2  0  (x 2)2 .
x. D(f ) = R.
2. .
. f (x),
y = arcsin x:


4x
4x
= f (x).
f (x) = arcsin
=
arcsin

2
2
4 + (x)

4+x

, .
3. , (. ).
4. R
.
5. .
6. .
7. x +.

238

. 3.

8. x +. y = k1 x + b1 :
arcsin

k1 = lim

x+

4x
4 + (x)2

arcsin

= lim

x+

4x
4 + (x)2

:
4x
=
4 + (x)2
4x
= arcsin lim
= arcsin 0 = +0.
x+ 4 + (x)2

lim arcsin

x+

, k1 = 0 x + : f (x) 1/x. b1 :

b1 = lim arcsin
x+

4x
0 x = +0.
4 + (x)2

, y = 0 . lim f (x) =
x+

= +0, x +
y = 0 .
9.
x . x .
y = k2 x + b2 . , k2 = 0, b2 = 0. , y = 0
. lim f (x) = 0,
x
x + y = 0 .
10. . f (x) = 0, , y = arcsin x x = 0:
arcsin

4x
4x
= 0
= 0 x = 0.
2
4 + (x)
4 + (x)2

f (x) > 0 x (; 0); f (x) < 0 x (0; + ).


II. .

5.

239

1. f  (x):
1


f  (x) =
1

2

4x

4(4 + x2 ) 2x 4x
=
( 4 + x2 ) 2

4 + x2

4(4 x2 )

( 4 x2 ) 2 ( 4 + x2 ) 2

4(4 x2 )
.
|4 x2 |(4 + x2 )

|x| = 2. |x| = 2 :

|x| < 2;

2
f = 4 + x

4
|x| > 2.
2
4+x

f  (x)

= 0 . :

f  (x) < 0 x (; 2) (2; + );


f  (x) > 0 x (2; 2).
: (; 2) (2; + )
(2; 2).
x = 2 x = 2, .
2. . x = 2. . ,
x = 2 .
:

fmin = f (2) = arcsin

4 (2)

= arcsin(1) = .
2
2
4 + (2)

:
4
1
= ;
2
2
x20 4 + x
4
1
f  (2 + 0) = lim
= .
2
x2+0 4 + x2

f  (2 0) =

lim

, x = 2 , . x = 2.
-

240

. 3.

. , x = 2 .
:

fmax = f (2) = arcsin

42

= arcsin 1 = .
2
2
4+2

:
4
1
= ;
2
2
x20 4 + x
4
1

f (2 + 0) = lim
= .
2
x2+0 4 + x2

f  (2 0) = lim

,
.
III. .
1. f  (x):

8x

|x| < 2;

(
4
+
x2 ) 2

f =
8x

|x| > 2.

2 2
(4 + x )

f  (x) = 0 x = 0. f  (x):

f  (x) < 0 x (; 2) (0; 2);


f  (x) > 0 x (2; 0) (2; + ).
,
(2; 0), (2; +) (; 2), (0; 2).
2, 0,2. x = 2 x = 2
,
; x = 0 .
2. :

f (0) = 0; f  (0) = 1 = y = x.
3. .

241

5.

5.2

5.3.

:

1
5.1. f = 1 + x2 + 2x;
5.2. f = 




5.3. f = ln x + 1 + x2 ;
5.5. f =

16

ex (x 1)2/3
.
x

1 x2
1 x2
5.4. f = arcsin
;
1 + x2

1.
1.1. 3. 1.2. 2. 1.3. 0.



1.4. 2. sin x cos x = 2 sin x


4
.
1.5. 1. C t = arcsin x
.
1
2x
15
.
; R. 1.9.
;R\
1.6. 0. 1.7. 3x2 2; R. 1.8. 2
2
2
(x + 1)

(3x 1)

1.10. sin x; R.
+

sin
.
2
2

cos cos = 2 sin

1.11. ax ln a; R. ax = ex ln a .
1
ln x
; x > 0. loga x =
.
1.12.
x ln a
ln 5

ln a
1 4 / 5
6
5 3/ 2
7
2
x
.
2.2.
56
x

+
x
.
2.3.
(x

5
x
+ 1)ex .
5
2
x2
x3
2
2
1
. 2.5.
. 2.6. 
.
2.4.
2
2
3
(cos x sin x)
x +
3 (2x 1)2

3
sin 2x
e 1cos 2x . 2.9. 2 cos 4x.
2.7. 3 ln 2(x2 + 1)2x +3x . 2.8. 
1 cos 2x
2x
4 tg 2x

2.1.

. 2.14.
tg x.
ln 3(x2 + 4) ln(x2 + 4) ln log7 (x2 + 4)
cos2 2x

2 3 / 2
2
. 2.17.
2.15. 9 x . 2.16. 4(4 + x )
 sin 2x cos(cos
11 2x).
5
6(x 1)
1
. 2.19.
x+
.

2.18.
2.10.

4 4 (2x + 1)3 (3x + 4)5




x x

3.1. f (0) = 2, f (+0) = 2. 3.2. f (5 0) = +; f  (5 + 0) = +.


3.3. f  (0) = ; f  (+0) = +. 3.4. f  (0) ; f  (+0) = 1.
3.5. f  (1 0) = f  (1 + 0) = 0.
3.6. f  (1 0) ; f  (1 + 0) = +.
1
t = arccos
.
1 + x

3.7. f  (2) : f  (2 0) = , f  (2 + 0) = +. 3.8. , f  (1) = 0.


3.9. f  (3) : f  (3 0) = 2, f  (3 + 0) = 2.
3.3.
4.1. y = x/2 + 5/2. 4.2. y = 2x. 4.3. /4. 4.4. 3/4. 4.5. (1/2, 5/4).
4.6. (2, 18), (2, 18). 4.7. (1, 2e), (3, 6e3 ). 4.8. (0, 0), arctg(2/3).
4.9. (1, 1), arctg 3.
4.10. , .
4.11. x = 0, .

2.

243

4.12. y = x + 1, f  (0) = 1. 3.3.


4.13. x = 1, . ,
x = 1 . 4.14. x = 5. 4.15. x = 1.
5.1. x2 (60 ln x + 47). 5.2. 16e2x (x2 + 4x + 3).
5.3. .
5.4. .
5.5. 3.5.
ln x
(5.8).
5.6. loga x =
ln a
1+x
2
= 1
(5.7).
1x
x1
1
sin
t
+
cos
t 
2
=
. 6.2. f  =
,f = t
.
3
cos
t

sin
t
a sin t
e (cos t sin t)3

5.7.
6.1. f  = ctg t, f 

7.1. 0. 7.2. 8 dx. 7.3. f 1, = 4; f 0, 1,


= 0, 031; f 0, 01, = 0, 000301.
1
2

7.4. 1, 043. 7.5. cos(150 + )

3
.
360

2.
). ; ). . 1.3. 1.4.
O x = 0. 1.4.
).H;
0, 1). .
).
 .
 1.6. (

3
2 3
3 2 3

. .
1.7.
,
,

1.1.
1.4.
1.5.

1.8. 1.5.
1.9. 1.6 f (x) =
= ex ex [1, x].
1.10. 1.7.
1.11. 1.7.
2.1. 1. 2.2. 2. 2.3. 1/6. 2.4. 2. 2.5. 0. 2.6. 0. 2.7. 3/4. 2.8. 1.
2.9. . 2 .


2.10. 1. esin x ex = ex esin xx 1

esin xx 1
. 2.11. 15/4. 2.12. 0. 2.13. x = 0. 2.14.
sin x x
x3
x5
x2
. 2.15. x = 0; y = x. 3.1. x

+ o(x5 ). 3.2. x

2
8
2
3
x
+ o(x4 ).

6
x2
xn
3.3. 1 x +
. . . + (1)n
+ rn (x).
2!
n!
4
2n
x
x
...
+ rn (x).
3.4. x2
2
n
2
1
x
x2n
3
+ . . . + (1)n 2n+1
+ r2n+1 (x).
3.5.
2
2 3!
2
(2n + 1)!


3
3
1
3.6. 1 + (x 1) + (x 1)2 (x 1)3 + o (x 1)3 .
2
8
16

y = x 1 (3.7) = 3/2.


2
4
3.7. 1 (x 1)2 +
(x 1)4 + o (x 1)5 . y = x 1
8

16*

384

244

(3.5) cos

x.
2

3.8. 1/3. 3.9. 1/3. 3.10. 1/3. 3.11. 0, 67474. 3.12. 0, 46676.
3.13. < 7 106 . 3.14. < 0, 0625. 3.15. < 0, 00003.

2
3
3.16. 2,924. 25 = 3 3 1 .
3.17.
3.20.
3.21.
3.22.
3.23.

0, 095. 3.18. 1, 22140. 3.19. 0, 99619.


r3 (x).
r2 (x) r3 (x).
f (5) (0) = 0.
f (4) (0) = 64.

27

3.
1.1. R. 1.2. R.
1.3. R. (, 1/2),
(1/2, +).
1.4. R.
1.5. (, 0), (0, +).
1.6. (, 1) (1, +), (1, 1).
1.7. (, 1) (4, +), (1, 4).
1.8. (2n, + 2n), ( + 2n, 2n).
1.9. f (x) = arcsin x x 0 < x < 1
3.13. 1.10.
x
f (x) = ln(1 + x)
x > 0 3.13.
x+1

1.11. f (x) = arctg x x + x3 /3 0 <


< x  1 3.13.
1.12. 3.14.
2.1. fmax = f (1) = 0; fmin = f (3) = 4.
)k + 1/2, k Z; fmin = f (2/3 + 2k) = 3/4.
2.2. fmax = f (k) = (1
3
2.3. fmin = f (3/4) = 3 2/8. 2.4. fmax = f (1) = e1 .
2.5. fmin = f (1) = 0; fmax = f (e2 ) = 4/e2 .
2.6. fmin = f (0) = 0. 2.7. . . 2.8. fmax = f (0) = 0.
3.1. x (3, 2), x (, 3) (2, +),
x = 3, x = 2.
3.2. (, 3) (3, +), ,
x = 3 .
3.3. x (1, 0) (1, +), x (, 1)
(0, 1), x = 1.
3.4. y = x + 1 x > 0, x < 0,
x = 0 .
3.5. y = 0 x < 0, x > 0,
x = 0 . :
f (x) = x3 /6 + o(x4 ).
3.6. y = x + 1, x = 0 .
:
f (x) = 1 + x + x4 /24 + o(x5 ).
3.7. y = x x > 0, x < 0,
x = 0 . :
f (x) = x + x3 /2 + o(x3 ).
3.8. y = x 1 x > 0, x < 0,

3.

245

x = 0 . :
f (x) = 1 + x + x3 + o(x3 ).
3.9. y = 0.
: f (x) = x4 /12 + o(x3 ).
4.1. max f = f (e) = e2 ; min f = f (1) = 0.
4.2. max f = f (0) = 1; min f = f (2) = 3.
4.3. max f = f (1) = 8; min f = f (2) = 19.
4.4. max f ; min f = f (2) = 1/2.
4.5. max f = f (/4) = 1; min f .
4.6. max f ; min f = f (1/4) = 1/2.
4.7. max f = f (1) = 1/e; min f .
4.8. max f ; min f = f (1/e) = 1/e.
4.9. max f = f (3) = 1/4; min f = f (5) = 1/12.
4.10. max f = f (/2 + 2k) = 2; min f = f (/2 + 2k) = 2.
5.1. R, , ; y = 3x,
y = x.
5.2. (1, 1), , x = 1, x = 1; ymin =
= y(0) = 1, .
5.3. R, , ,
(0; + ), (; 0), x = 0 .

5.4. R, , , y = ,
2 


(0; + ), (; 0), ymax = y(0) = , 0;

2
2
.
5.5. R \ 0, x = 0, y = 0, ymin =
= y(1) = 0, (1, 0) ; x1 = 0,76, x2 = 1,37
.

1. :

y = e1/x ;

y = arcsin x;

y = cos 2 x;

y = ln5 x;

y = arcctg ;

I. y = sin(2x2 + 1);

1
x

II. y = ex ;
2

y = arctg

1
;
x3

y = ctg( x + 1);

III. y = sin x;
y = etg x ;
y = arcctg2 x;

IV. y = 1 + 3x;



1 5
y = 2x +
;
x

y = arccos ex ;
y=

1 + 2x
.
1 2x

y = sin x4 + cos x4 ; y = (1 + sin x)5 ;

y = arcsin2 x;
y = ln(x + x + 1);
 1 + x 3

y = cos x;
y=
.
1x

y = ln cos x;

y = sin x3 ;

y=

y=

ex + ex
;
2
1
y = arcsin ;
2x

y = sin(2x + 1);

x2

y = cos2 x.
x
2

y = arcsin ;

y = log3 (1 + x2 );

y = cos ;

x
3

y = ctg(8 + x3 );

y = arccos x2 ;

y=2

y = arcctg3 x.

y = arccos x + 1;

V. y = arcctg ;
3

y = ctg(8 + 3 x);
2

x
x2

y=2 ;

y = arcsin ;
x

VI. y = arcctg x;

y = tg x;

y = tg x2 );

y = x arcsin

y = ln(1 + x);

VII. y = 1 x2 ;

y = ln(1 + x5 );

x
y = sin
+ x2 .

y = x cos 3x;

y=5

(1+x)2

1
x

y = arccos ;

x;

y=

(1 + x)100
;
x
e

y = arctg(2x );

y = cos 2x +

y = sin3 x;

y = arccos ex ;

.
24

247

y = tg(x2 + 3);

y = x2 sin 3x;

x
y = arcsin ;
3

e2x
y=
;
x

VIII. y =

x+

x;

1
y = ctg 2
;
x +3

y = arccos2 x;

1
4
IX. y =
x+ ;
x

y = tg(x2 + 2x);

y = ex ;

y = ln tg x;

y = arctg 1 2x.
x 2
y = sin
+
;

y = ln(x + 5x);

y = cos 8x ;

x
y=
;
log2 x

y = x2 arctg 3x.

y = 0,5x ;

y = ctg

x5 + 1

y=


3

x2 + 1;

y = cos x;

y = lg sin x;

y = arccos ;
y=
;
x
(x + 1)5


X. y = x5 + 6x + 3; y = 2 x ;
x
y = tg ;
y = log3 cos x;
y = arctg(ln x);

x2
;
ex

y = x3 arcsin 2x.

y = arcsin x2 + 1;
y = cos(3x + 4);
y = (x + 1)3 sin 2x.

2.
f (x) : a) (x0 , f (x0 )); b) (x(t0 ), y(t0 )).
4x x2
; x0 = 0;
I. a) f (x) =
4

II. a) f (x) = x2 + 8 x 32;


x0 = 4;

III. a) f (x) = x + x3 ; x0 = 1;
IV. a) f (x) =

1+ x
; x0 = 4;
1 x


b)

b)

b)

b)

V. a) f (x) = 2x + 1/x; x0 = 1; b)

x = sin3 t;
y = cos3 t; t0 = /3.

x = 3 cos t;
y = sin t; t0 = /3.
x = t sin t;
y = 1 cos t; t0 = /3.
x = 2t t2 ;
y = 3t t3 ; t0 = 1.
x = sin2 t;
y = cos2 t; t0 = /6.

248

2x
VI. a) f (x) = 2
; x0 = 2;
x +1

VII. a) f (x) =

x5 + 1
; x0 = 1;
x4 + 1

1
VIII. a) f (x) =
; x = 2;
3x + 2 0

IX. a) f (x) =

1 + 3x2
; x0 = 1;
3 + x2

x3 + 2
X. a) f (x) = 3
; x0 = 2;
x 2

b)

b)

b)

b)

b)

x = 3t cos t;
y = 3t sin t; t0 = /2.
x = t(1 sin t);
y = t cos t; t0 = 0.
x = t t4 ;
y = t2 t3 ; t0 = 1.
x = sin t;
y = 5t ; t0 = 0.
x = 2 et ;
y = et ; t0 = 0.

3. , :

I. y = x; x = 16,08.

3
II. y = x3 + 7x; x = 1,012.

III. y = (x + 5 x2 )/2; x = 0,98.
IV. y = arcsin x; x = 0,08.
V. y = x11 ; x = 1,021.

VI. y = 4x 1; x = 2,56.

VII. y = 1/ 2x2 + x + 1; x = 1,016.

VIII. y = 1 + x + sin x; x = 0,01.

3
IX. y = 3x + cos x; x = 0,01.

X. y = 1/ 2x + 1; x = 1,58.
4. y (n) (x), :
I. y = e3x ; .
III. y = lg(5x + 2);
V. y = 4/x;

II. y = sin 2x + cos(x + 1);

IV. y = x;
VI. y = 75x ;
x

;
VII. y = sin(3x + 1) + cos 5x; VIII. y =
x+1

1+x
X. y =
.
IX. y = e3x+1 ;
1x

249

5. :
2 (ex + ex ) cos x
;
x0
x4
/2 arctg x

x2 1 + ln x
.
ex e
x1
x(ex + 1) 2(ex 1)
b) lim
.
x0
x3

I. a) lim
II. a)

lim

1
x1
ln
2
x+1

x+;

b) lim

x arctg x
;
x0
x3
ln(x 1)
IV. a) lim
;
x1 ctg x

tg x

1 cos x2
.
x0 x2 sin x2

1 1 + x2 cos x
b) lim
.
x0
x4

III. a) lim

V. a) lim

x1

ln(x 1)

b) lim

VI. a) lim (x 1) tg x;
x1

b)

tg x x
;
x0 x sin x

b)

ln(1 + 1/x2 )
;
x+ 2 arctg x

b)

VII. a) lim
VIII. a)

lim

2 arctg x
;
e3/x 1
arcsin 2x 2 arcsin x
X. a) lim
;
x0
x3

IX. a)

ln(cos x + x2 /2)
.
x0 x(sin x x)
1
1
lim x
.
e 1
x0 x
x2
ex 1 + x
2 .
lim
3
x0
ex 1
2x 1 x ln 2
lim
.
x0 (1 x)3 1 + 3x
ln(1 x) + x2
lim
.
x0 (1 + x)5 1 + x2
1 + x sin x cos 2x
lim
.
x0
sin2 x

b) lim

lim

b)

x+

b)

6. :
I. y = 12x x3 ;
II. y = x2/3 (1 x);
III. y =

x2 + 1
;
x

IV. y = (1 x)ex ;
V. y =

2x 1
;
(x 1)2

VI. y = x(x 1)2/3 ;

2
ln(x 1)
; y=
.
ex (x + 3)
(x 1)2
x2 + 1
= x3 ex ;
y=
.
x
ex
=
; y = x ln x.
4(1 x)
x
x4
=
;
y=
.
ln x
(1 + x)3
ex
= ;
y = x + arctg x.
x

y=
y
y
y
y

y = xex

2 /2

y = x arctg 2x.

250

VII. y =
VIII. y =
IX. y =

(x + 1)2
;
x2 + 2x


x2 + 1 +

x2 1; y =

x
;
x 4
2

(x 1)2
;
x2 + 1

y = x3 ex ;

x2
;
x2 1

y = x2 e1/x ;

X. y = 1 +
XI. y =

y = x2 ex ;

(x 1)2 ;

XII. y = x + 2 x;

y=

3 2x
;
(x 2)2

y = x2 ex ;
2

y = x ln2 x.
y = x2 ln2 x.
y = x ln x.
y = xex/2 .
1 + ln x
.
x
x3
y=
.
1 x2

y=

III

1.
1.1. . F (x) f (x) X ,
F (x) F  (x) = f (x)
x X .
.
1.1. F1 (x) F2 (x)
f (x) X , x X

F1 (x) F2 (x) = C , C = const.


f (x) X f (x)
.


f (x) dx,

, f (x) , x
, f (x) dx .
. F (x)
f (x) X ,

f (x) dx = { F (x) + C | C R}.
:

f (x) dx = F (x) + C.

254

. 1.

C .
.


I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
XII.




0 dx = C

x dx =

x+1
+C
+1

dx
= ln |x| + C
 x
ax
ax dx =
+C
ln a










( = 1)

( a > 0, a = 1 )

ex dx = ex + C

sin x dx = cos x + C
cos x dx = sin x + C
dx
= tg x + C
cos2 x
dx
= ctg x + C
sin2 x
dx
= arctg x + C
2
x +1
dx

= arcsin x + C
1 x2



dx



= ln x + x2 +  + C
2
x +

( = 0)

,
. , (III) ,
x, . (XII)
.
. 1.2
2.

1.




f (x) dx = f (x)
x



(f (x) + g (x)) dx = f (x) dx + g (x) dx


kf (x) dx = k f (x) dx
( k = 0 )

255

(1.1)
(1.2)
(1.3)

(1.2) (1.3)
.
.
, e ,
:

 

n
n

i fi (x) dx =
i fi (x) dx.
i=1

1.2.

i=1

1). : ? :

1,
x > 0,
f (x) =
2, x  0.
2). , f (x) x = 5
10.
x = 11?
3). :

1, x > 0,
f (x) =
0, x = a,

2, x < a,

a R
, x = a,
, x = a.

256

. 1.

4). :



dx



= ln x + x2 +  + C.
2
x +

5). ,
.
6). ,
.

1.3.

,
.

3 2
x dx.
1.1.


(II) c = 2/3:


3 2
x2/3+1
3
x dx = x2/3 dx =
= x5/3 + C.

2
+1
3

1.2.

dx
.
x2

 (II) c = 2:


dx
x2+1
1
=
x2 dx =
= + C.

2
2 + 1

1.3.

dx
.
2x
1


( 2
(1.3)) (III) ( = 1 (II)
):


dx
1 dx
1
=
= ln |x| + C.

2x

1.

1.4.

dx
.
3x


1
= :
3

dx
=
3x

1.5.

  x
1
3

dx =

1
=
3x

 1 x

1
ln
3

 1 x

257

(IV)

+C =

1
+ C.
3x ln 3

dx

.
1 + 2x2

 (XII) x2 - :


dx
dx


=
.

1 + 2x2

1
+ x2
2

, (XII) c =

1

= ln x +
2
2
1 + 2x

dx

1
+ x2
2

1
2


+ C.

, .


3
7
+
1.6.
sin x 
dx.
1 x2

2x


(VI), (XI) (III),


3
7
sin x 
dx =
+
2x
2
1x



dx
7 dx
= sin x dx 3 
+
=
1 x2

= cos x 3 arcsin x +

17

7
ln |x| + C.
2

258

. 1.

1.7.

5x
dx.
x

 :




5x
5
x
dx =

dx = (5x1/2 x1/2 ) dx.
x

1
1
(II) = = ,
2
2



x1/2
x3/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
(5 x
x ) dx = 5x
dx x1/2 dx = 5

+ C.
1/2

3/2

5x
2
dx = 10 x x x + C.

1.8.

x2 + 4
dx.
x2 + 1

 :

 2



x +4
3
dx
dx
=
1
+
3
.
dx
=
dx
+
2
2
2
x +1

x +1

x +1

(II) (X),
 2
x +4
dx = x + 3 arctg x + C.
2
x +1

1.9. (x2 + 1)3 dx.

 :



 2
3

x + 1 dx = x6 + 3x4 + 3x2 + 1 dx =




6
4
2
= x dx + 3 x dx + 3 x dx + dx =
=

1 7
3
x + x5 + x3 + x + C.
7
5

259

1.

1.10. (3x 4x )2 dx.

 , :




x
x 2
(3 4 ) dx = (3x )2 2 3x 4x + (4x )2 dx =



= (32 )x 2 (3 4)x + (42 )x dx =



= 9x dx 2 12x dx + 16x dx.
(IV) a = 9; a = 12 a = 16,
:



9x
12x
16x
x
x
9 dx 2 12 dx + 16x dx =
2
+
+ C. 
ln 9

1.11.

ln 12

ln 16

dx
.
sin x cos2 x
2

 , (1 = sin2 x + cos2 x) .

 2


dx
sin x + cos2 x
1
1
=
dx
=
+
dx.
2
2
2
2
2
2
sin x cos x

sin x cos x

cos x

sin x


(VIII) (IX):




1
1
dx
dx
dx =
+ 2
+
= tg x ctg x + C.
2
2
2
cos x

cos x

sin x

sin x

tg x ctg x + C =

sin x
cos x
sin2 x cos2 x

+C =
+C =
cos x
sin x
sin x cos x
2 cos 2x
+ C = 2 ctg 2x + C.
=
sin 2x

dx
= 2 ctg 2x + C.
sin2 x cos2 x

:
17*

260

. 1.

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

;
;
;
.

1.4.

1.2. (3x + 52x ) dx;

(x 2e ) dx;

1.1.


1.3.

8
4
2
2+
3
3
x
x


1.5.


1.7.
1.9.

1.4. (sin x +

dx;


1
3
+
cos x
3
x
sin2 x


dx; 1.6.

dx

x4

+

1 x2

1 4 + 4x2
dx;
4 + 4x2



x) dx;

dx
;
5x2 + 5

1.8. (x + 1)(3x 4) dx;


;
7 + 9x2

 

1.11.


dx;


5 2
2x2
+
x dx;
1.13.
2
x +1


1 + x2 + 2 1 x2

1.15.
dx;
1 x4

1.10.

t3 + t2

dt;
3t

1 sin3 x
dx;
sin2 x

 
3
x(x + 1)
5x
1.14.
+ x dx;

3
3
x+1

1.12.

1.16.

cos2

x
dx.
2

2.
2.1.

2.1. t = t(x) X T X -

2.

261

. f (t) T .






.
(2.1)
f (t(x))t (x) dx = f (t) dt
t=t(x)

(2.1)
.
(2.1) , .

f (t(x))t (x)
(2.2)

 f (t) , . , f (t) dt,
t = t(x) . f (t) t(x)

- . (2.1)
. ,
-
,
, (2.1) .
, t
x, x
t .
2.2.

1).
c R:


dx
dx
;
2)
;
1) 
2
1
+
cx2
1
+
cx


x dx
dx
;
4) 
;
3) 
2
2
 1 + cx
 c+x
x dx
x dx
(n N);
6)
(n N).
5)
2 n
2 n
(c + x )

(1 + cx )

262

. 1.

2). XIIIXVI ( , . 282).


3).

dx
ax + bx + c
2

D . : 1) D > 0; 2) D < 0; 3) D = 0.
4).



dx

ax2

+ bx + c

a, b c
.
5). , a, b R (a2 + b2 = 0)
:

 

dx
1



=
ln tg
+
,
a sin x + b cos x

a2 + b2

a
b
, sin =
.
cos =
a2 + b2
a2 + b2
2.3. .
.
.

2.1. (x + 1)9 dx.

 (2.2) f (t) = t9
t = x + 1.



t10
9
9

(x + 1) dx = (x + 1) (x + 1) dx t9 dt =
+ C.
10

x, t = x + 1:
t10
(x + 1)10
+C =
+ C.
10
10

263

2.



(x + 1)10
(x + 1)9 dx =
+ C.

10

2.2.

sin 5x dx.

 (2.2)
f (t) = sin t t = 5x.



1
1
1
sin 5x dx =
sin 5x(5x) dx =
sin t dt = cos t + C.
5

x,

1
sin 5x dx = cos 5x + C.
5

2.3.

e2x+3 dx.

 (2.2)
f (t) = et t = 2x + 3.


1
2x+3
dx =
e
e2x+3 (2x + 3) dx =
2

1
1
1
et dt = et + C = e2x+3 + C. 
=
2

2.4.

x dx
.
(x + 1)2
2

 , (x2 + 1) = 2x, (2.2)


t = x2 + 1.


x dx
1 (x2 + 1) dx
=
=
2
2
2
(x2 + 1)2
 (x + 1)
1 2
1
1
+ C.

t dt = t1 + C = 2
=
2

2(x + 1)

264

. 1.

2.5.

arcsin x

dx.
1 x2
1

 , (arcsin x) = 

1 x2

, -

t = arcsin x.


arcsin x dx

= arcsin x (arcsin x) dx =
2
1 x
t2
1
= t dt = + C = arcsin2 x + C.
2

2.6.

ln2 x
dx.
x

 t = ln x:

 2
ln x
t3
1
dx = t2 dt = + C = ln3 x + C.
3

2.12.3 , 2.42.6 .

.
2.7.

dx
.
x +4
2

 (X).
, ,
 x 2

1: x2 + 4 = 4
+ 1 .
t =

1
2

2
x
(X).
2


dx
1
dx
=
=


2
4
x 2
x +4
+1

 
x
2

 2
x
2

+1

dx =

1
2

dt
1
x
= arctg + C.
2
2
t2 + 1

(XIII)
(. 282).

265

2.

2.8.

dx
.
x + 4x + 5
2


2- ( (X)(XII)).
,
, . x2 + 4x + 5 = (x + 2)2 + 1.
t = t = x + 2 (X):


dx
dx
=
=
x2 + 4x + 5
(x + 2)2 + 1

dt
= arctg t + C = arctg(x + 2) + C.

= 2
t +1

2.9.

dx

.
0,25 x2

 (XI). (
, x2 ,
(XI) (XII)). , :



0,25 x2 = 0,5

 x 2
0,5


1 (2x)2
2

t = 2x (XI).


dx
2 dx

=
=


=

0, 25 x2

1 (2x)2

dt

= arcsin t + C = arcsin 2x + C.
1 t2

(XIV) (. 282).

266

. 1.

2.10.

dx

.
2
x + 6x + 1

 :
x2 + 6x + 1 = (x + 3)2 8. t = x + 3
(XII). :



dx
dx
dx

=
= 
=
x2 + 6x + 1

= ln |t +

2.11.

(x + 3)2 8

t2 8| + C = ln |x + 3 +

t2 8

x2 + 6x + 1| + C.

dx
.
(x + 5)(x 4)

 ,
 1

1
1
1
=

(x + 5)(x 4)

x4

x+5

( ).





dx
1
dx
dx
=

=
(x + 5)(x 4)
9
x4
x+5


1
1 x 4

= (ln |x 4| ln |x + 5|) = ln 
 + C.
9

2.12.

x+5

dx
.
x 9
2

 (X) ( ).
,
:





dx
dx
1
dx
dx
=
=

=
(x 3)(x + 3)
6
x3
x+3
x2 9


1
1 x 3
= (ln |x 3| ln |x + 3|) = ln 
 + C. 
6

x+3

(XV)
(. 282).

267

2.

2.13.

(2x + 3) dx
.
(x2 + 3x + 2)

 ,
.
t = x2 + 3x + 2:
 2

(2x + 3) dx
(x + 3x + 2) dx
=
=
2
x + 3x + 2
x2 +
 3x + 2


dt
=
= ln |t| + C = ln x2 + 3x + 2 + C. 
t

2.14.

(2x + 1) dx
.
(x2 + 3x + 2)


:
(2x + 1) = 2x + 3 2 = (x2 + 3x + 2) 2.

:


 2
(2x + 1) dx
(x + 3x + 2) dx
dx
=
2 2
.
2
2
x + 3x + 2

x + 3x + 2

x + 3x + 2


. t = x2 +
+ 3x + 2, :
 2
 2

(x + 3x + 2) dx
x + 3x + 2 + C.
=
ln
2
x + 3x + 2

, , , :




 1 2
3 2
1
3 2
x2 + 3x + 2 = x +
= x+

.
2

dx
(x + 1,5) dx
=
= | t = x + 1,5 | =
x2 + 3x + 2
x2 + 3x + 2




dt
1
x + 1
 t 0,5 
=
ln 
= 2
 + C = ln 
 + C. 
2 0,5
t + 0,5
x+2
t (0,5)2

268

. 1.


.
2.15.

x dx

.
2x + 3



x.

x dx
x dx

=
.
2x + 3
2x2 + 3x

.
:

(2x2 + 3x) = 4x + 3
:

x=

1
1
3
1
3
(4x + 3 3) = (4x + 3) = (2x2 + 3x) .
4
4
4
4
4





x dx
1 (2x2 + 3x) dx
3
dx



=

2x + 3

2x2 + 3x

2x2 + 3x

.
t = 2x2 + 3x.



1
1
(2x2 + 3x) dx

= t 2 dt = 2t 2 + C = 2 2x2 + 3x + C.
2x2 + 3x

. :





3 2
9
3 2
9
.
=2 x+

2x2 + 3x = 2 x +
4

16

t = x + .
4


dx
1
dt


=
=
2x2 + 3x


1
= ln t +
2




t2

9
16

9
1
3

t2  = ln x + +
16
4

2




3 
x2 + x + C.
2 

2.

269

,






x dx
1 2
3
3
3


2

=
2x + 3x ln x + + x + x + C.
2
4
2
2


4 2
2x + 3x

 3
2.16. sin x dx.

 e , :
sin3 x = (1 cos2 x) sin x.
t = cos x, t = sin x.






3
2
2
2
sin x dx = (1 cos x) sin x dx = (1 t ) dt = t dt dt =
t3
cos3 x
t+C =
cos x + C.
3
3

=
2.17.

sin4 x dx.

 ,
:
sin2 x =

1
1
(1 cos 2x); cos2 x = (1 + cos 2x).
2
2

sin4 x =

1
1
1
1
(1 cos 2x)2 = cos 2x + cos2 2x.
4
4
2
4

:
1
1
1
1
1
1
cos 2x + cos2 2x = cos 2x + (1 + cos 4x) =
4
2
4
4
2
8
3
1
1
= cos 2x + cos 4x.
8
2
8

:




3
1
1
4
sin x dx =
dx
cos 2x dx +
cos 4x dx =
2
8
8

3
1
(2x)
1
(4x)
dx +
dx =
cos 2x
cos 4x
= x
8

2
8
4
3
1
1
sin 4x + C.
= x sin 2x +
8
4
32

270

2.18.

. 1.

sin 3x cos x dx.

 sin 3x cos x
sin a cos b =

1
(sin(a + b) + sin(a b)).
2

sin 3x cos x =

1
(sin 4x + sin 2x).
2

:



1
1
sin 3x cos x dx =
sin 4x dx +
sin 2x dx =
2
2


1
(4x)
1
(2x)
dx +
dx =
sin 4x
sin 2x
=
2

4
2
2
1
1
= cos 4x cos 2x + C.
8
4

.

.
,
. ,
.
:

4 t2 .
2.19.


 
t = 2 sin x, x ,
,
2 2

1 sin2 x = cos2 x
. ,



4 t2 = 4 4 sin2 x = 2 cos2 x = 2| cos x|.
 
, cos x  0 x ,
,
2 2

4 t2 = 2 cos x.

271

2.

(2.1) ,
:



4 t2 dt = 2 cos x(2 sin x) dx = 4 cos2 x dx =



= 2 (1 + cos 2x) dx = 2 dx + cos 2x(2x) dx = 2x + sin 2x + C.
t
sin 2x t. sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x,



t2
1
t
2
cos x = 1 sin x = 1 =
4 t2 sin 2x =
4 t2 .
4

, t = 2 sin x x = arcsin , 2
:

t
t
4 t2 dt = 2 arcsin +
4 t2 + C.

2

(XVI)
(. 282).
2.20.

dt
.
(t + 1)3/2
2

 
t = tg x, x ,
,
2 2

1
, :
tg2 x + 1 =
cos2 x
1

= cos3 x.
(t2 + 1)3

(2.1)



dt
3

= cos x(tg x) dx = cos x dx = sin x + C.
2
3/2
(t + 1)

t sin x t:


1
t
2
sin x = 1 cos x = 1
= 
.
2
1+t

1 + t2

272

. 1.

 
+, ,
sin x 2 2
tg x.

dt
t
=
+ C.

2
3/2
(t + 1)

2.21.

1 + t2

dt
.
(t 1)3/2
2


   
1
cos x
t=
, t = 2 , x , 0 0,
.
sin x

sin x

1
1 = ctg2 x
2
sin x
1
=
.
| ctg x|3

(t 1)3/2
2

dt
=
2
(t 1)3/2

cos x dx

 =
sin2 x ctg3 x

| sin x| dx
=
cos2 x

cos x sin2 x |sin x| dx


=
cos3 x sin2 x


1/ cos x + C ,
1/ cos x + C ,

x (0, /2)
x (/2, 0).

t cos x t:

1
12
sin x = ; cos x = 1 sin2 x =
t 1.
|t|

, t
:

1/ cos x, x (0, /2)
F (x) =
1/ cos x,
x (/2, 0)
(0, /2) (/2, 0).

dt
t
= 
+ C.
2
3/2
(t 1)

t2 1

2
2
2
2
a x , x a , .

273

2.

1.

2.

3.

a2 x2

x = a sin t

(x = a cos t)

x2 + a2

x = a tg t

(x = a ctg t)

x2 a2

a
x=
sin t

(x =

a
)
cos t

, sin x cos x,
x
t = tg .
2
. :

sin x =

2 tg

x
2

1 + tg x
2
2

, cos x =

x
2,
1 + tg2 x
2

1 tg2

x = 2 arctg t, x =

2
.
1 + t2

.
2.22.

dx
.
sin x
x

 t = tg . (2.1) 2
:


2t






 sin x =

2 
dx
dt

 x
1
+
t
= 
= ln |t| = ln tg  + C. 
 =
2
sin x
t
2



 x =
2
1+t

2.23.

dx
.
1 + sin x + cos x

 :


dx
=
1 + sin x + cos x




2 dt

1+

1 + t2
2t
1 t2
1 + t2

1 + t2

=


dt
x

= ln |1 + t| + C = ln 1 + tg  + C. 
1+t
2

.
, .
18

274

. 1.

2.24.

x+5

dx.
x+3


,

t = x + 3. , ,
(2.2),
(2.1) . x t
xt . x = t2 3, x = 2t
(2.1)



 2
x+5
t 3+5

dx =
2t dt = 2 t2 dt + 4 dt =
t
x+3

2 3
2
(x + 3)3 + 4 x + 3 + C =
= t + 4t + C =
3
3

2

= (x + 9) x + 3 + C.
3


1 + x2
2.25.
dx.
x

 ,

2
. z = 1 + x . x = z 2 1
z
. ,
(x  0), x = 
z2 1

, . ,



1 + x2
z
z
z2
dx = 

dz =
dz =
x
z2 1
z 2 1 z 2 1


 2
z 1+1
1
dz =
1+ 2
dz =
=
z2 1
z 1






 1 + x2 1 
1 z 1
2

 + C.

+
C
=
= z + ln 
1
+
x
+
ln



z+1

2.26.

1 + x2 + 1

1 + e2x dx.

 ,

 ,

. z = 1 + e2x . x
1
z
z : x = ln(z 2 1) : x = 2
.

z 1



1 + e2x dx = z

z
dz =
z2 1

z2
dz.
z 1
2

2.

275


.
z = 1 + e2x , :



z2
z 1
dz
=
z
+
ln
+C =

z+1
z2 1



1  1 + e2x 1 
2
x
= 1 + e + ln  
 + C. 
2

2.27.



1+

1 + e2x + 1

x dx.

t = 1 + x, x = (t2 1)2
:





2 2
4
1 + x dx = 4 t (t 1) dt = 4 t dt 4 t2 dt =

2.28.


4 5
4
4 3 2
t t3 + C =
t 3t 5 + C =
5
3
15

3



4
=
1+ x
3 x 2 + C.
15
 x
e +1

ex 1

dx.

 . :
ex + 1
2
=1+ x
,
x
e 1

e 1

ex .
1
ex
=
.
e 1
1 ex
x

t = ex 1. (2.1) :


 x


e +1
2
1
dx = dx + 2 x
dx =
1+ x
dx =
x
e 1
e 1
e 1

ex
dx = x + 2 ln |ex 1| + C.

= x + 2 x
e

18*

276

. 1.

2.4.

,
:


10
2.2.
10 x dx;
2.1. (x + 3) dx;


x dx
arctg x
;
2.5.
dx;
2.4.
2
x +3
1 + x2


x dx
2.8. 
;
2.7. sin3 x cos x dx;

2.10. x2 x3 7 dx;

cos x
dx;
2.13.
sin2 x 2

2.16. tg x dx;

cos5 x
dx;
2.19.
sin2 x
 x
2 dx
;
2.22.
x
1+4


2.11.

2.14.


2.17.


2.20.
2.23.

9 x2

cos x

dx;
x
x dx

;
9 x4
x+1

dx;
4x2 + 1
x(1 x2 )
dx;
1 + x4

2x
dx;
2+x


2.3. sin(3x + 1) dx;

2
2.6. xex dx;
 3
ln x
2.9.
dx;
x

2.12.

 cos 1
x
2
 x2

dx;

x dx

2.15. 
;
x6 + 7
 3x
e 1
2.18.
dx;
ex

dx
2.21. x
;
e +2

dx
2.24. 
.
x4 x2


:
 4

x dx
dx
2.25.
;
2.26
.
;
2
(x + 1)(2x 3)
x
+
6


dx
2x dx
;
2.28
.
;
2.27.
2
2
x

7
x
+
10
4
x
+ 4x + 5


dx
2x + 3
; 2.30. 
dx;
2.29. 
2
2
8

6
x

9
x
4
x

3
+
x


2.32. ex 1 ex dx;
2.31. cos2 4,5x dx;


x dx
;
2.34. cos 1,5x sin 8x dx;
2.33.
3
 2x + 3

dx

2.36.
;
2.35. x 4 + x dx;
x 3x + 1

3.

dx

;
2+x+1
x
x

dx
;
2.39.
e2x + ex 2

dx
;
2.41.

4
 5x+ 5x
dx
2.43.
;
3 + 5 cos x

2.37.

277

x3 dx
;
x2 + x + 0,5

dx
2.40. 
;
2
x
x+1
e
+
e


2.38.

2.42.
2.44.

cos4 x sin 2x dx;


dx

.
3 2
( x + 3 x)2

3.

3.1.

3.1. u(x), v(x)


X ,
:



u(x)v (x) dx = u(x)v(x) v(x)u (x) dx.
(3.1)
:


uv  dx = uv vu dx,


u dv = uv v du.

.
u(x), v  (x) ,
 uv  dx
(3.1),

 
vu dx.
:
1).
: ln ax, arcsin ax, arccos ax, arctg ax.
u(x) .
2). : P (x) cos ax,
P (x) sin ax P (x)eax , P (x)

278

. 1.

x. u(x) P (x). .
3). : eax sin bx,
eax cos bx, sin(ln x) cos(ln x).
.
3.2.

1).

a2 + x2 ;



a2 x2

: . .
2).


dx
1
 2
 = 2 
2 3
4a

x +a

x2 + a 2


2 + 3

dx

 2
2
x + a2

3.3.

, .

3.1. (x2 3x) ln x dx.

 ln x. 1), ,
u(x) ln x, v  (x) .




 = x2 3x
 u = ln x,

v


(x2 3x) ln x dx = 
 =
1
3
1
3
2

 u = , v= x x 
3
2
 x
1


3 2
1 3
3 2 1
3
=
x x ln x
x x
dx =
3
2
3
2
x

1
3
1
3
=
x3 x2 ln x x3 + x2 + C.

3

3.

3.2.

279

arcsin 2x dx.

 2), u(x) = arcsin 2x. :







 u = arcsin 2x , v  = 1 


arcsin 2x dx = 
 =
 u =  2
v=x 


1 4x2



x
= x arcsin 2x 2 
dx =  t = 1 4x2 , t = 8x  =
1 4x2
1 dt
1
= x arcsin 2x +
t+C =
= x arcsin 2x +
4
2
t
1
= x arcsin 2x +
1 4x2 + C.

2

3.3.

x2 e3x dx.

 2- ex . 2), u(x) = x2 . ,
:




 u = x2 , v  = e3x 
1 3x 2
2


2 3x
x e dx =  
xe3x dx =
 = e x
3
3
 u = 2x , v = 1 e3x 

 3



 u = x , v  = e3x 
x2 e3x
2 xe3x
1


3x
=  

e dx =
 =
3
3
3
3
 u = 1 , v = 1 e3x 
3
x2 e3x
2
2 3x
xe3x +
e + C.
=
3
9
27

, , 2), .
, . , 1), , ,

, (ln x,
arctg x) (arcsin x) .

3.4. ex sin 4x dx.

 3).
, ,
(ex sin x,

280

. 1.

). ,
:



 u = ex ,

 = sin 4x
v


ex sin 4x dx =  
 =
1
x
 u = e , v = cos 4x 
4


 u = ex , v  = cos 4x
1
1

= ex cos 4x +
ex cos 4x dx =  
4
4
 u = ex , v = 1 sin 4x
4 


1 x
1 1 x
1
= e cos 4x +
e sin 4x
ex sin 4x dx .
4




 =


ex sin 4x dx = I ,

1
4

1 x
1
e sin 4x
I =
16
16
sin 4x 4 cos 4x
I = ex
.
17

I = ex cos 4x +

3.5.

x3 (x2 1)50 dx.

 , ( )
, ( ) , . 100-
(x2 1)50 x2 1:
x3 (x2 1)50 =

x2
2x(x2 1)50 .
2

:


x2


2
50

u
=
, v = 2x(x 1)
2
x3 (x2 1)50 dx = 
2
51
(x 1)
 u = x ,
v=
51

x2 (x2 1)51
x(x2 1)51
=

dx =

x (x 1)
102
2

51




 =



102
51
2
52
2
(x 1)
(x 1)51 (51x2 + 1)

=
+ C.
2 51 52
5304

3.

281


3.6.
1 + x2 dx.

 x = tg t,
:







2
 u= 1+x v =1 
2

 =
1 + x dx =  
x
v = x 
 u =
1 + x2




2
x
1 + x2 1
= x 1 + x2 
dx = x 1 + x2 
dx =
2
1 + x2 
1
+
x



x2 + 1
1
2

dx =
=x 1+x

1 + x2
1
+ x2




dx
= x 1 + x2
1 + x2 dx + 
=
2
1
+
x







1 + x2 dx + ln x + 1 + x2  .
= x 1 + x2



:

x
1 


I=
1 + x2 + ln x + 1 + x2  + C.
2

(XVII)
(. 282).
3.7.

dx
.
cos3 x

 u v 
:




1
1




 u=
, v =
2
dx
1
dx

cos x
cos x  =
I=
=

=

cos x cos2 x
 u = sin x , v = tg x 
cos3 x


2
cos
 2
 x
sin x
sin x dx
sin x
1 cos2 x
=

=
3
3
cos2 x
cos
cos2 x
cos
 x
 x
sin x
dx
dx
sin x
dx

+
=
I
.
=
2
3
2
cos x

cos x

cos x

sin (x + /2)

cos x

2.22.
:
 

sin x
x


tg
I=

I
+
ln
+
 + C.

2
cos x

282

. 1.

I=
3.8.



sin x
1 
x

+ ln tg
+
 + C.
2
2
2
4
2 cos x

dx
.
(x + 1)2
2

 x2 :

 2

dx
x + 1 x2
x dx
=
dx = arctg x x 2
=
2
2
2
2
(x + 1)
(x + 1)2

 (x + 1)


x

 u = x, v  =


2 2


dx
x dx
(1 + x )


= 
 = ( 1 + x2 ) x ( 1 + x2 ) 2 =
1

 u = 1, v =

2(1 + x2 ) 

x
1
dx
1
x
= arctg x +

= arctg x +
+ C.
2
2
2 (1 + x )
2
2(1 + x )
2(1 + x2 )



dx
1
x
= arctg + C
XIII.
a
a
x2 + a 2

dx
x

XIV.
= arcsin + C
a
2
2
a x




dx
dx
1
x a
XV.
=
=
ln
+C

(x a)(x + a)
2a
x+a
x2 a 2

x 2
a2
x
XVI.
a2 x2 dx =
a x2 + arcsin + C
2
2
a


x
XVII.
x2 + a2 dx =
x2 + a2 +
2



a2 

+ ln x + x2 + a2  + C
2

x 2
XVIII.
x2 a2 dx =
x a2
2



a2 

ln x + x2 a2  + C
2

3.

3.4.

283

, :


ln x
3.2. dx;
3.1. xex dx;
x


arcsin x dx;

3.3.


3.5.

xe

2x


dx;

3.6.



3.9.


3.11.


x sin x dx;
2

arccos x
dx;
x2

3.12.

e


x2 sin2 x dx; 3.15.




3.17.

3.10.


3.14.

arctg 3x dx;


3.8. (3x + 1)4x dx;

x cos(4 2x);

3.7.

ln(2 x) dx;

3.4.

dx;

x dx
arctg x + 1 dx; 3.16.
;
2
sin x


cos(ln x) dx; 3.18.

(1 x2 ) ln x dx;


ln x 2
3.13.
dx;

dx
;
sin3 x


3.19.

x2 dx

.
x2 + 1

1. .

1.1. . f (x)
[a, b].
T [a, b]
x0 , x1 , . . ., xn , a = x0 < x1 < x2 < . . . < xn = b.
xi = xi xi1 . (T ) = max (xi ) 1in

. [xi , xi1 ]
i . {1 , 2 , . . . , n } ,
(T , ).
f (x), (T , ),

(T , ) =

n


f (i )xi .

i=1

f (x) [a, b],


lim (T , ) = I , (T )0

i .
I f (x)
[a, b]
b
a

f (x) dx.

1. . 285


b

a

f (x) dx = f (x) dx, a > b;

a

(1.1)

f (x) dx = 0.

(1.2)

1.1. f (x)
[a, b], .
.
.
b
b
b
1. (f (x) + g (x)) dx = f (x) dx + g (x) dx.
a

b

2.
a
c

3.

b

kf (x) dx = k f (x) dx, k R.


b

b

f (x) dx + f (x) dx = f (x) dx, c [a, b].

b

b

4. x [a, b] f (x)  g (x), f (x) dx  g (x) dx.


b

5. x [a, b] f (x)  0, f (x) dx  0.


a

6. f (x) [a, b], x [a, b] f (x)  0


b

f (x) dx = 0, f (x) 0 [a, b].


a

7. f (x) [a, a],

a
a

8. f (x) [a, a],


a
a

a

f (x) dx = 2 f (x) dx.


0

f (x) dx = 0.

286

. 2.

1 2 , 3 .


x

F (x) = f (t) dt, t [a, b],


a

f (x) [a, b]. F (x)


[a, b]
.
1.2. f (x)
[a, b], F (x) f (x)
.
1.3. f (x)
[a, b], , , f (x).
.
1.4. f (x)
[a, b] F (x) f (x)
[a, b], :
b

b

f (x) dx = F (b) F (a) = F (x) .
a

1.2.

1). ,

b
f (x) dx  0.
a

, f (x)  0 x [a, b]?


.
2). ,

b

b
f (x) dx  g (x) dx.

1. . 287

, f (x)  g (x) x [a, b]? .

1.3.

1 
3
6x + 2

1.1.

1
x+2

x +1


dx.


1

1

I = 6 x dx + 3
0

1
dx
2
x +1

1

1
dx.
x+2

x,
1

1
1
,
x
+
2
x +1
2

x2 , arctg x, ln |x + 2|.
2
,
1
1
1

x2 


I = 6  + 3 arctg x ln |x + 2| =
2 0
0
0
1

=6
0 + 3 (arctg 1 arctg 0) (ln 3 ln 2) =
2

=3+

1.2.

1/2
0

3
3
ln .
4
2

x2 dx
.
x2 1

 ,
:
x2
(x2 1) + 1
x2 1
1
1
=
=
+ 2
=1+ 2
.
2
2
2
x 1
x 1
x 1
x 1
x 1
1
1,

2
x 1


1 x 1
x
ln 
. , 1.1, 2
x+1

288

. 2.


,
1/2 

I=
0

1
1+ 2
x 1

1/2

dx =



1/2

dx +
0

dx
=
x 1
2

 

1  x 1 1/2
1
1
 1
1/2
= x|0 + ln 
0 +
ln   ln |1| =
 =
2
x+1 0
2
2
3
 1
 1
1
1
ln ln 1 = (1 ln 3).
= +

2
2
3
2

1.3.

/
3
/6

cos 2x
dx.
cos2 x sin2 x

 :
cos 2x
cos2 x sin2 x
1
1
=
= 2
.
cos2 x
cos2 x sin2 x
cos2 x sin2 x
sin x

 1

sin2 x

1
cos2 x

( ctg x tg x).


/
3

I=

 1
sin2 x

/6

1
cos2 x

/3

dx = ( ctg x tg x)|/6 =

= ctg /3 + ctg /6 tg /3 + tg /6 = 0.
1.4.

2

|1 x| dx.

1 x, x  1,
|1 x| =

x 1, x > 1.
,

1. . 289

[0, 1], [1, 2] ( ).


.
1

2

1

2

I = |1 x| dx + |1 x| dx = (1 x) dx + (x 1) dx =
1

2

x2 x  =
2
1
 

1
1
+ 2 2 + 1 = 1. 
= 1


1
1
x x2  +
2
0

1

1.5.

sin x3 dx.

 y = sin x3
[ , ], x :
sin(x)3 = sin x3 . , 7 
, I = 0.
2
3 2
1.6.
x dx.
2


[2, 2]. 6 .

I =2

2 
3

x2 dx = 2

3
5

2 6 
 12

3
x5/3  =
25/3 0 =
4.
0

1.4.

:
/
4

1.1.
0

1 
1.3.
1
19

1 

1
0, 5 sin x +
+ 2x
cos2 x
1 + x2 1
dx;
1 + x2

dx; 1.2.
0
1/2

1.4.
0

5
2
+ 3x
x +1

dx

;
3 3x2


dx;

290

. 2.
/
2

cos
d;
2
2

1.5.
0
/
3

1.8.
/6

/
4

4
tg x dx; 1.7.
2

1.6.
0

2

dx
; 1.9.
2
cos x sin2 x

dx

;
x+5 x

1
|sin x| dx; 1.10.

x tg x2 dx.
1

2.
2.1.

2.1. t = t(x)
[a, b] [, ], = t(a), = t(b), t (x)
[a, b]. f (t)
[, ].

b

f (t(x))t (x) dx = f (t) dt,


a

(2.1)

.

. , , , , ,
,
.
2.2.

1). :

a

1) f (x) [a, a],


2) f (x) [a, a],
a
a
f (x) dx = 2 f (x) dx.
a

f (x) dx = 0.
a

291

2.

b
2). , a f (x) dx = S . :
b
1) f (x a b) dx, f (x) .
a

2)

b

f (x a b) dx, f (x) .

a
a


3)

f (x) dx, f (x) a) ; b)

2.3.

2
2.1. (2x 3)10 dx.
1

 t = 2x 3.
[, ], t(x) = 2x 3
[1, 2]. , [1, 2],
= t(1) = 1, = t(2) = 1. ,
= 1, = 1. (2.1)

2
I=
1



t = 2x 3, t = 2
1
 =
(2x 3)10 2 dx = 
2
1  x  2 = 1  t  1 
1
=
2

2.2.

/
3
/4

1

1
t

10

t11 
1
dt =
= .

2 11 1
11




dx.
sin 3x
4

 ,
:
19*

292

. 2.
/
3

I=

sin 3x
3
4




3x
dx =
4

/4



t = 3x /4, t = 3
= 
/4  x  /3 = /2  t  3/4

3/

4

1
 =
sin t dt =

3

/2

3/4

 2
1
1
3


=
= cos
cos
.
= cos t
3

2.3.

/2

3/
2

sin4 x cos3 x dx.

 , 2.16 1, , t = sin x,
.
, .
.
I=

3/
2

sin x cos x cos x dx =


4

3/
2

sin4 x(1 sin2 x) cos x dx =



t = sin x, t = cos x
= 
 x  3/2 = 0  t  1
0
=

(t6 t4 ) dt =
1

2.4.

4
3

1
7

t7


1

 = t4 (1 t2 ) dt =

0



1 5 0
2
t  = .
5
35
1

dt

.
t 25 t2

 . 1
1
=
. - t. 
t 25 t2

t2

(5/t)2 1

x = 5/t.

293

2.

4
I=
3

4

dt


=
t 25 t2

dt

=
t2 (5/t)2 1



x = 5/t, x = 5/t2
= 
3  t  4 = 5/3  x  5/4

5/4


1
dx
 =


5
2
5/3

x 1

5/3


1
1
3


2
= ln x + x 1 = ln .
5

2.5.

5/4

=


arctg(cos x) dx.

 , . -.
f (x) = cos x
g (x) = arctg x. ,
, :
I=

/
2

arctg(cos x) dx +

arctg(cos x) dx = I1 + I2 .

/2

, I1 = I2 . I2
x = t:





 = 1
x
=

t
,
x


I2 =
arctg(cos x) dx = 
 =


 x  =
t0 
2

/2

0

arctg(cos( t)) dt =

/2

/
2

arctg(cos( t)) dt.

cos( t) = cos t y = arctg x,

I2 =

/
2
0

arctg( cos t) dt =

/
2

arctg(cos t) dt.

I1 . I1 = I2 I = I1 I1 = 0. 

294

. 2.

, . y = arctg(cos x) [0, ]
(/2, 0).
2.6.

3
3

x2 9 x2 dx.


[3, 3]. 8 ,
3

I = 2 x2

9 x2 dx = 2I1 .

I1 x = 3 sin t, x = 3 cos t, t [0, /2],


.
( 2.192.21, 1).
,

. :

f (x(t))x (t) = 9 sin t 9 9 sin2 t 3 cos t = 81 sin2 t cos2 t =

81
81
sin2 t =
(1 cos 4t).
4
8

I1 :

3
I1 = x2


 x = 3 sin t, x = 3 cos t

9 x2 dx = 

 0  x  3 = 0  t 

81
8

/
2

(1 cos 4t) dt =




 =




81
sin 4t /2
81
t
=
.

8
4
16
0

I = 2I1 =

81
.
8

295

2.

2.4.

2
2.1.

x+1
dx;
x + 2x + 3

2.2.

x3
dx;
x4 + 8

2.5.

1
2.4.
0

1
2.7.

3/2

0
tg 3x dx;

2.3.

/12

3


1/2

3

x dx
;
(x + 1)2

2.8.

1

dx
;
x ln x

2.9.

9
2.10.
4

1

/2

/
2

0
2.14.

sin5 x cos4 x dx;

2.16.

0, 5

2.19.
1

dx
sin x ;

2 /4

dx
;
4x + 8x + 3

/
2

cos x cos3 x dx;

/2

3 
0
0

2.12.

1/4

2.17.

2

sin x
dx;
ecos x


;
8 + 2x x2

2.13.

2.15.

2.11.

dx

(ex 1) ex dx;

0
2

dx;
x1

arctg t
dt;
t2 + 1

x2 sin x3 dx; 2.6.


3

arcsin x

dx;
1 x2

3/2

x2 dx;

2+x
dx;
2x

2.18.
0

1

2.20.
2

dx

;
(x + 1) x2 + 1

1
3 1+x
dx.
(1 x)2 1 x

296

. 2.

3.

3.1.

3.1. u(x), v(x)


[a, b], :

b b

u(x)v  (x) dx = u(x)v(x) v(x)u (x) dx,

b

(3.1)

3.2.

1). :
b
b
1) f (x) dx = S . xf  (x) dx, f  (x)
a

f (a) = f (b) = 0.


2) f (x) cos x dx = S . f  (x) sin x dx, f  (x)
0

.
/
2
f (x) sin x dx = S .
3)
/2
f  (x)

/
2
/2

f  (x) cos x dx,

2). , f  (x) ,

b
a

xf  (x) dx = bf  (b) f (b) (af  (a) f (a)).

297

3.

3.3.

.
3.1.

1/4
0

arcsin 2x

dx.
1 + 2x


1

u(x) = arcsin 2x, v  (x) =

1 + 2x

u (x) = 

1 4x2

, v=

dx

= 1 + 2x.
1 + 2x

u(x) v(x) 3.1,

u (x) = 

1 4x2

v  (x) =

1 + 2x

[0, 1/4]. (3.1)






1/4
 u = arcsin 2x, v  = 1



arcsin 2x
1
+
2
x

 =

I=
dx = 


2
1 + 2x
 u = 
, v = 1 + 2x 

0
1 4x2


1/4


= arcsin 2x 1 + 2x 

1/4

2
1 + 2x 

0
1/4

3
1
arcsin 2
2
2

1 4x2

dx =

dx

=
1 2x


1/4 6
6
2 1 2x  =
+ 2 2.
=
12
12
0

298

. 2.

3.2.

e

ln2 x dx.

 :


e
 u = ln2 x; v  = 1 



2 e
I= 
 = x ln x 1 2 ln x dx =
 u = 2 ln x 1 ; v = x 
x

e
= e 2 ln x dx.
1

(3.1) , I1 =
e

= ln x dx:
1


 u = ln x; v  = 1

I1 = 
 u = 1 ; v = x
x


e


e
 = x ln x|1 dx =

1

e

= e dx = e x|e1 = 1.
1

I = e 2I1 = e 2.
3.3.

x sin x
dx.
1 + cos2 x


[ , ],


x sin x




u = x; v =


x sin x
2
 =

1 + cos x
I=2
dx = 

2

1 + cos x
 u = 1; v = arctg(cos x) 
0

= 2x arctg(cos x)|0 + 2 arctg(cos x) dx.


0

0 ( 2.5).

I = 2 x arctg(cos x)|0 = 2 arctg(cos ) = 2 arctg(1) =

2
.
2

3.

3.4.

/
3

299

ex cos 3x dx.

 , 1.3 1
3.4 .
:




 u = ex ; v  = cos 3x 
 =
I = 
1

 u = ex ; v = sin 3x 
3

1 x
/3 1
e sin 3x
3
3
0

/
3

ex sin 3x dx =

1 /3
1
e sin e0 sin 0
=
3
3



 u = ex ; v  = sin 3x
= 
1
 u = ex ; v = cos 3x
3

1
9

/
3

ex cos 3x dx =

/
3

ex sin 3x dx =

 0

/3

 = 1 ex cos 3x

9
0



1 /3
1
e + 1 I.
9
9

, , 

1
e/3 + 1 . 
. , I =
10

3.4.

.
/
3

3.1.

x cos x dx;

1

3.2.

arccos x dx;

/4

/
2

1/2

sin 2 d; 3.5.

3.4.
0

ln 2

3.3.
0

2x

0

(2x + 1)e dx; 3.6.


0

xex dx;

x arctg x

dx;
1 + x2

300

. 2.

2

2e

x log2 x dx;

3.7.

ln 2x dx;

3.8.
e

1

ln x
dx;
x3

3.9.
1/2

/
4

3.11.
0

3

3.13.

x dx
;
cos2 x

arctg x dx;

e
1



ln x2 + 1 dx;

3.10.
1

3

3.12.

sin(ln x) dx;

2
1/2

3.14.

(x2 + 1)e2x dx;

1/2

/
5

3.15.

(x2 + 2x) cos 2x dx;

/4

3/2

3.17.

2/2

1

3.19.
0

3.16.

e3x cos 5x dx;

arcsin x
dx;
x2

arccos2 x dx.

e

3.18.
1/e

|ln x| dx;

1.
1.1. .
. . . x = a x = b,
a < b. ,
OY , l(x), [a, b].

b

S = l(x) dx.

(1.1)

, .

= {(x, y) | 0  y  y(x), x [a, b]} ,


x = a, x = b, y = 0
y(x), [a, b].
1.1.
b

S = y(x) dx.
a

= {(r, ) | 0  r  r(), [, ]} ,

(1.2)

302

. 3.

,
, r = r(), r() [, ].
1.2.
1
S=
2

1.2.


r2 () d.

(1.3)

1). , :
1) y = 0, y = sin 2nx, 0  x  2 ;
2) y = 0, x = 0, x = 2 , y = cos 2nx;
3) y = 0, y = | sin 2nx|, 0  x  ;
4) y = 0, x = 0, x = 2 , y = | cos 2nx|;
5) y = 1, x = 0, y = cos 2nx, 0  x  2 .
2). ,
y = x2 + a2 , M (a; 2a2 )
OY .
3). ,
y = x2 + 2a2 , M (a; a)
OX .
4). ,
y = x2 + a2 ,
.

1.3.

1.1. , y = 2x y = 0, x = 1, x = 2.

 1. .
y = 0, x = 1, x = 2 y = 2x .
(. ).

1.

303

2. (1.2):

2
S=
1

2x 2
7
2 dx =
.
 =
ln 2 1
2 ln 2
x

1.2. , y = x,
1
y = 2 , y = 0, x = 3.
x

1.1

;;

 1.
y = x y = 1/x2 . .
x = 1/x2 , : x = 1.
, x = 0, x = 3, y = 0

x,
0  x < 1,
f (x) =

1/x2 , 1  x  3,

1.2

[0, 3] (. ).
2. (1.2). , [0, 1] [1, 3]
, ,

1

3

S = f (x) dx = x dx +
0

1 1
= x2  +
2
0

dx
=
x2

 1 3 7

 = . 
x

1.3.
, x = 0, y =
2
y = arcsin x.

;
;

3

1.3

 1. . OX . -

304

. 3.

OY ,
y = 0, y = x = sin y ,
2

y = arcsin x [0, 1] (. ).
2. , (1.2) (
y ):

S=

/
2

/2

sin y dy = cos y 
= 1.

1.4. , 1
1
, y = x2 .
y =
2
1+x

 1. .
1
1
, y = x2 . y =
2
1+x

1
1
= x2 .
2
x +1
2

;
;

x4 + x2 2 = 0
1.4
x = 1, x = 1. , (. ).
2. . , .
x = 1 x = 1.
, OY ,

l(x) =

1
1
x2 , [1, 1].
2
2
1+x

1 
S=
1

1
1
x2
2
2
1+x

1 
dx = 2
0

1
1
x2
2
2
1+x


dx =

1
. 
2
3

1.5. , r = sin 2.

 1. .
, r  0.





sin 2  0 [0, 2], 0,


r = 0 = 0,

3
,
,
2
2

3
, ,
. sin 2
2
2

305

1.

;;
;;
;
;

T = , r() = r( + ).
, . , y = x.




r
= r(). 2  


= sin 2. sin 2
2

, ,
1.5
, , . y = x (. ).
2. .


 
= (r, ) | 0  r  sin 2, 0,
,
4

S1 (1.3):
/
/
4
4
1
1
1 cos 4

2
S1 =
sin 2 d =
d = .
2

S = 4S1 =

1.4.

16

.
4

, :
1.1. y = ln x; y = 0; x = e.
1.2. y = e2x ; y = 0; x = 1; x = 2.
1.3. y 2 = 4x; x = 2.
1.4. y = x3 ; y = 8; x = 0.
1.5. y = sin 2x; y = cos 2x,0  x  /8; x = 0.
1.6. y = 1/(x 1); y = 5 2x.
1.7. y =
1.8. x =
20

2
cos x; y = tg x; x = 0.
3

2y ; y =

x; y = 8 .

306

. 3.

1.9. y = cos x; y = ctg x; x = /6; x = 3/4.


x2
y2
+
= 1.
a2
b2
 x

x 2
1.11. y = sin + cos
; x = 0; x = /2; y = 0.
2
2

 4 x2 

1.10.

1.12. y =

1.13. y = 4

; y = 7 |x|.

6
; y = |2 x|.1.14. = a cos 2, a > 0.
|x + 1|

1.15. = 4 sin2 .
1.16. , y = x2 /2
x2 + y 2  8.

2.

2.1. . . x = a
x = b, a < b. , Y OZ , S(x), [a, b].

b

V = S(x) dx.

(2.1)

, .
2.1.
OX

= {(x, y) | 0  y  y(x), x [a, b]}


, ,
b

V = y 2 (x) dx.
a

(2.2)

307

2.

2.2.

1). ,
1) y = sin 2nx, x [0, 2] OX ;
2) y = cos 2nx, x [0, 2] OX .

2.3.

2.1. , OX , y = 0, x = 0,
x = /2 y = cos 2x.

 1. . ,
 
,0 .

4
O


 
= (x, y) | 0  y  cos 2x, x 0,
,
4

OX (.
2.1
).
2.
.
. (2.2):

V1 =

cos 2x dx =
2

/
4

(1 + cos 4x) dx =

V = 2V1 = . 
4
2.2. , OY
, y = 8,
x = 0 y = x3 .

 1. .
y = x3 y = 8
(2, 8).
,
OX , OY .
20*

2
.
8

;
;

/
4

2.2

308

. 3.

y = 8, x = 0 x = 3 y ,
y = x3 [0, 2] (. ).

= {(x, y) | 0  x  3 y , y [0, 8]} .


2. .
OY , (2.2) (y
).

8

2
96
V = ( 3 y) dy =
.

2.3. , OX , y = x2
y 2 = x.

;
;

 1. .

,
x2 = x. x = 0
x = 1. , (. ):
!
"

= (x, y) | x2  y  x, x [0, 1] .

2.3

2.
2.1
.
x = 0 x = 1. , , Y OZ ,

x2 x.
 
 2 
2
S(x) =
x x2
= (x x4 ).

S(x) [0,1]. (2.1)



1
1
3
V = S(x) dx = (x x4 ) dx = .

10

2.4. , OY , y = 0, x = e,
y = ln x.

 1. .
y = ln x y = 0 x = 1,
x = e y = 1. (2.2):
= {(x, y) | 0  y  ln x,
x [1, e]}.

;
;

2.

309

2.4

2. .
OY , 2.1 . .
y = 0 y = 1. , XOZ ,
.


2
y 2
S(y) = e (e ) , x = ey , y = ln x [1, e]. (2.1)
:
1
1



V = S(y) dy = e2 e2y dy = (e2 + 1).



2

2.5. h,
a b.

 ,
2.1.
. ,
z
. , . x y ;
S(z) z . ,
, , ,
z
k = .
h

a b ab (. 1.10).
.
S(z) = k 2 ab =

z2
ab.
h2

310

. 3.

(2.1)

h
V =
0

2.4.

ab
S(z) dz = 2
h

h
z 2 dz =

1
abh.
3

,
, .
2.1. y = sin x; y = 0; x = 0; x = ; OX.
2.2. y =

ex + ex
; y = 0; x = 1; x = 1;
2

OX.

2.3.
2.4.
2.5.
2.6.

xy = 4; y = 0; x = 1; x = 4; OX.
y = cos x; y = 2 cos x; x = /2; x = /2; OX.
y = 4 x2 , x  0; y = 3x; y = 0; OX.
y 2 = 4 x; x = 0; OY.

2.7.

x2
y2
+
= 1; y = 0;
25
16

OX OY.

2.8. y = 2x x2 ; y = 0; OY.
2.9. y = xex ; y = 0 x = 1; OX.
2.10. y 2 = (x + 4)3 ; x = 0; OY.
2.11. y = arcsin x; x = 0; x = 1; y = 0; OX.
2.12. y = ex 1; y = 2; x = 0; OY.
2.13. r, R H .
2.14. , x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 9 x = 1, x = 2.
2.15. R
. .

3.
3.1. . (x, y),

311

3.

x = x(t), y = y(t), x = x(t), y = y(t)


[, ], ,
:
L = {(x, y) | x = x(t), y = y(t), t [, ]} ;

(3.1)

t .
(3.1) ,
x (t), y  (t) [, ].
. T
[, ] = t0 < t1 < . . . < tn =
(T ) . ti [, ]
Ai (x(ti ), y(ti )) L. L
Ai , i = 0, 1, . . . , n. li
Ai1 Ai , l(T )
n

li .
, . . l(T ) =
i=1

L ,
lim l(T ) = l. l L.

(T )0

3.1. (3.1) ,

l=

(x (t))2 + (y  (t))2 dt.

(3.2)

y = y(x), x [a, b],


, :
L = {(x, y) | x = t, y = y(t), t [a, b]} .
(3.3)
t x.
(3.2)

l=

b

1 + (y  (x))2 dx.

(3.4)

r = r(), [, ],

L = {(x, y) | x = r() cos , y = r() sin , [, ]} .

(3.5)

312

. 3.


, .


l=
r2 () + (r ())2 d.
(3.6)

3.2.

= b sin t
1). , x = a cos t; y
x
y = c sin , c = a2 b2 .
b

2). , y =

x2
, 2p

0  x  a, = p,
0   a.

3.3.

3.1.
y = 2x3/2 , x = 0 x = 11.

 y = 2x3/2 , x [0, 11].


(3.4). . y  (x) = 3x1/2 .
[0, 11] (3.4).
2
: 1 + (y  (x)) = 1 + 9x. ,
:
11


l=

11

2
2
222

1 + 9x dx =
(1 + 9x)3/2  = (1003/2 1) =
. 
27

27

3.2. x = 2 cos3 t, y = 2 sin3 t,


0  t  2 .

 ,
.

 
L1 = (x, y) | x = x(t), y = y(t), t 0,
.
2

313

3.

1- ,
. , ,
2-


, , L1 OY .

2
 
 
t1 = t, t1 , ,
t 0,
2

, x(t1 ) = x(t) y(t1 ) = y(t).

x(t1 ) = 2 cos3 ( t) = 2 cos3 t = x(t);


y(t1 ) = 2 sin3 ( t) = 2 sin3 t = y(t).
, , L2
, [0, ],
2- . ,
, t [ , 2], L2 OX . t [0, ]
t1 = 2 t , 3.2
, x(2 t) = x(t)
y(2 t) = y(t),
OX (. ).
, , , ,
. L1 ,
(3.2).
x(t), y(t):

x (t) = 6 cos2 t sin t; y  (t) = 6 sin2 t cos t.


, :

(x )2 + (y  )2 = 36 sin2 t cos2 t (sin2 t + cos2 t) =


= 36 sin2 t cos2 t = 9 sin2 2t.
: l1 = 3
l = 4l1 = 12.

/
2
0

sin 2t dt = 3. 

314

. 3.

3.3. r = a(1 + cos ).

 , .
r(2 ) = r(). : a(1 + cos(2
)) = a(1 + cos ).
,
0
(. ). 3.3 (3.6).


r2 + (r )2 = a2 1 + cos )2 + sin2 =

= 2a2 (1 + cos ) = 4a2 cos2 .


:






l1 =
4a2 cos2 d = 2a2 cos d = 4a sin  = 4a.
2

2 0

, : l = 2l1 = 8a.

3.4.

5
3.1. y = ln , 3  x  8.

2x
ex + ex
3.2. y =
, 1  x  1.
2
4
3.3. y = x5/4 , 0  x  9.
5



3.4. y = ln x2 1 , 2  x  5.

2
3.5. x =
(y 1)3 , 0  x  2 3.
3

ln 3

ln 8

3.6. y = 2 ex ,
x
.
2
2

7
3.7. y = 1 x2 + arcsin x, 0  x  .
9

315

4.

3.8. y = ln sin x,
3.9. y =

2
x .
3
3

x2
ln x

, 1  x  3.
4
2

3.10. y =

x
x + 12, 11  x  3.
6

3.11. x = 3(t sin t), y = 3(1 cos t), 0  t  2.


3.12. r = 5, 0   2.
3.13. 5y 3 = x2 , x2 + y 2 = 6.
3.14. 2y = x2 2 OX .
3.15. r = sin3

.
3

3.16. r =

, ||  .
1 + cos
2

, :
3.17. x2 = (y + 1)3 y = 4. 3.18. y 2 = 6x 2x = 3.

4.
4.1. . P , OX

L = {(x, y) | x = x(t), y = y(t), t [, ]} .

(4.1)

T [, ] = t0 < t1 < . . .
. . . < tn = , (T ) . L
Ai (x(ti ), y(ti )), i = 0, 1, . . . , n. OX P (T ),
.

S(P (T )) =

n


(y(ti1 ) + y(ti )) li ,

i=1

li i- .

316

. 3.

S = lim S(P (T )).


(T )0

4.1. P
(4.1) OX , x (t), y  (t)
[, ].



l = 2 |y(t)| (x (t))2 + (y  (t))2 dt.
(4.2)

OX .


b
S = 2 |y(x)| 1 + (y  (x))2 dx.
(4.3)
a


, (4.2)


S = 2 r() r2 () + (r ())2 |sin | d.

(4.4)

4.2.

1). ,
.
2).
OY .

4.3.

4.1. ,

OX y = 2x + 1, x = 1 x = 7.

317

4.


OX y = 2x + 1, x [1, 7] (. ). (4.3). :
y  (x) = (2x + 1)1/2 .
4.1
:
2 2(x + 1)

2
.
1 + (y  (x)) = 1 + (2x + 1)1/2 =
2x + 1

, :
7

7

2(x + 1)
S = 2
2x + 1
dx = 2 2
x + 1 dx =
2x + 1

7
2
112

= 2 2 (x + 1)3/2  =
.

4.2. , OX

x = t sin t, y = 1 cos t.
 ,
OX t = 2k , k Z.
,
OX , . ,
t [0, 2],
L = {(x, y) | x = t sin t, y = 1 cos t, t [0, 2]} .
.

OX 2k , x(t + 2k) = x(t) +
+ 2k , y(t + 2k) = y(t). ,
OX ,
. ,
4.2
OX
(. ). ,
(4.2).

318

. 3.

x = 1 cos t, y  = sin t;
(x )2 + (y  )2 = (1 cos t)2 + sin2 t = 2(1 cos t).
t

, 1 cos t = 2 sin2 .
2

2

S = 2

2

(1 cos t) 2(1 cos t) dt = 8


0

sin3

t
dt.
2

z =

t
2.16, . 1:
2


S = 16 sin3 z dz = 16

1
3

 64

cos3 z cos z  = .
0

4.3. , OX y 2 = x + 4, 4  x  2.

 ,
OX
(. ).
OX ,
,
OX , . ,

4.3
OX , y = x + 4,
x [4, 2],
(4.3).
1
x = 4, y  (x) =
2 x+4

(4.3) . :


L = (x, y) | x = t2 4, y = t, t [0, 6] ,

t
]. x (t) = 2t y  (t) = 1
y = x + 4, x [4, 2
[0, 6].
(4.2).

319

4.

6

S = 2

6

t 4t2 + 1 dt = 2
0


1
(4t2 + 1) 4t2 + 1 dt =
8



z =
4t2 + 1, z  = 8t
= 
0  t  6 = 1  z  25

25




62
 =
z dz =
. 

4
3
1

4.4. , r = 10 sin .

 ,
sin  0, . . [0, ].
, . r; r2 = r sin 2.
: x = r cos , y = r sin . , r2 = x2 + y 2 ,
x2 + y 2 = 10y , x2 + (y 5)2 = 52 . ,
(0, 5)
5 (. ).
[0, /2] [/2, ] ,
.
OY ,
, ,
.
,
L1 , . L1
L1 = {(r, ) | r = 10 sin , [0, /2]} ,

4.4

, r () = 10 cos
[0, /2]. S1 , L1 , (4.4):

S1 = 2

/
2

10 sin

100 sin2 + 100 cos2 sin d =

= 2 100

/
2
0

sin d = 100
2

/
2

(1 cos 2) d =

320

. 3.


/2
1

= 100 sin 2 
= 50 2 .
2

, : S = 2S1 = 100 2 .
4.4.

,
:
4.1. ABC : A(1, 5); B(6, 2), C(1, 2); OX.
ex + ex
, 0  x  1; OX.
2
4x 1
y=
, 1  x  9; OX.
2
3
x
y = , 0  x  3; OX.
3
x2
y = , 0  y  1, 5; OY
2
1 2
1
x = y ln y , 1  y  e; OX.
4
2
x2
y2
+
= 1; OX OY.
25
16

y = tg x, 0  x  ; OX.
4

4.2. y =
4.3.
4.4.
4.5.
4.6.
4.7.
4.8.

4.9. x = 4 cos3 t, y = 4 sin3 t; OX .


4.10. r = 1 + cos ; .

1.
1.1. . f (x)
[a, +)
[a, b] b (b > a).
b

lim

b+

f (x) dx,

(1.1)

f (x)
[a, +)
+


f (x) dx,

(1.2)

(1.2) .
(1.1) , , .
:
b

f (x) dx = lim

b

f (x) dx.

(1.3)

(1.2) (1.3) .
f (x) [a, b), [a, b ] > 0
b.
b
a
21

f (x) dx

(1.4)

322

. 4.



b

f (x) dx = lim

+0

b


f (x) dx.

(1.5)

(1.5) , (1.4)
, .
(a, b].
w {b, +} (b R)

.
f (x) [a, w) [a, b] [a, w).

b

lim f (x) dx,

bw

(1.6)

f (x)
[a,w)
w


f (x) dx.

(1.7)

(w, b], w
{a, } (a R) .
[a, w).
(w, b].
:
; , .
f (x) [a, +).

= {(x, y) : a  x < +, 0  y  f (x)},

(1.8)

.
+


f (x) dx ,

323

1.

S=

+


f (x) dx.

(1.9)

,
OX

V =

+


f 2 (x) dx.

(1.10)

L = {(x, y) : y = f (x), f (x)  0, a  x < +},


OX ,
+


S = 2
f (x) 1 + (f  (x))2 dx.

(1.11)

(1.10), (1.11), (1.9),


.
.
w


1.
a
w


2.
a


w


w


(f (x) + g (x)) dx = f (x) dx + g (x) dx.


w


kf (x) dx = k f (x) dx, k R.


a

3. c [a, w)

w

a

c

w


f (x) dx = f (x) dx + f (x) dx.

1 2 , 3 .
1.1 ( ). :
1)
x(t) [, )
[a, w), a = x() x() w 0.
21*

324

. 4.

2) f (x) [a, w).

w


f (x) dx

f (x(t))x (t) dt

, .

w


f (x) dx = f (x(t))x (t) dt.

(1.12)

1.2 (
). u(x) v(x) [a, w] lim u(x)v(x).
xw

w


w


u(x)v (x) dx

u (x)v(x) dx

, .

w


u(x)v (x) dx =

u(x)v(x)|w
a

w


u (x)v(x) dx,

u(x)v(x)|w
a = lim u(x)v(x) u(a)v(a).
xw

1.2.

1). ,
+


f (x) dx
a

b > a,

+


f (x) dx
b

(1.13)

1.


+


b

+


f (x) dx = f (x) dx +
a

325

f (x) dx.
b

2). ,
+


f (x) dx
a

+


lim

f (x) dx = 0.

b+

3). p,

+


epx dx.

1.3.


.
1.1.

+

1

dx
.
x2

 :
+


dx
= lim
a+
x2

a
1

dx
1
= lim 1
2
a+
a
x

= 1.

, .

326

. 4.

1.2.

+

1

dx
.
x



+


dx
= lim
a+
x

a
1

dx
= lim 2( a 1) = +.
a+
x

, .
1.3.

0

ex dx.



0

0

ex dx = lim

ex dx = lim (e0 ea ) = lim (1 ea ) = 1.


a

, 1.
1.4.

+

1

dx
x

> 0.

 , . .
1). = 1.
+


dx
= lim
a+
x

a
1

a

dx
x+1 
a1 1
=
lim
=
lim
=
a+ 1 
a+ 1
x
1

1/( 1),

+,

> 1,
< 1.

2). = 1.
+


dx
= lim
a+
x

a
1

dx
= lim ln |x||a1 = lim ln a = +.
a+
a+
x

327

1.
+


,
1

0 <  1.
1.5.

dx
> 1
x

1
0

dx

.
1 x2

 ,
1

f (x) = 
1 x2

x = 1 lim f (x) = +. x10

1
0

1

dx


= lim
+0
1 x2

dx

=
1 x2

= lim (arcsin (1 ) arcsin 0) = lim arcsin (1 ) =


+0

+0

1.6.

1
0

dx
x

.
2

.
2

> 0.
1

 f (x) = x
. . .
1). = 1.

1
0

dx
= lim
x
+0

1

1

dx
x+1 
1 +1
=
lim
=
lim
=
x
1
+0 1 
+0

1/(1 ),

+,

< 1,
> 1.

328

. 4.

2). = 1.

1

dx
= lim
x
+0

1
,

1

dx
= lim ln x|1 = lim ln = +.
x
+0
+0

dx
0 < < 1
x

 1.
1.7.

+

2


ln x dx
.
x2


:



1 
+


+
 u = ln x, u =
ln x dx

x  = ln x 
=
+



x 1
 v = 1 , v = 1 
x2

2
1
x 
+


+
1

dx
=
x2

1.8.

 ln x 1 
 ln x 1 +

1 = 1. 

+
= lim
+

x

3
0

x+

x2 dx

.
9 x2

 ,
f (x) = 

x2

9 x2

x = 3 lim f (x) = +. x30

. x = 3 sin t.

3
0

x2 dx

=
9 x2

/
2

9 sin2 t 3 cos t dt
=9
3 cos t


9
2

/
2

1 + cos 2t
dt =
2


sin 2t /2
9
t+
= .

2

,

.

329

1.

1.9. ,
y = xex y = 0 (x  0).

 f (x) = xex [0, +). (1.8).


(1.9):
+


S=

xex dx.

(1.13) . u(x) = x, v  (x) = ex .


u (x) = 1, v = ex . u(x) v(x) [0, +)

lim u(x)v(x) = lim xex = 0.

x+

x+

(1.13)

S=
=

+


xe

0

x +
xe 0

+
xex 0

dx =


+
ex 0

= lim

x+

+


ex

ex dx =


ex + 1 = 1.

1.10. , OX ,
1
f (x) =
x = 1, x = 2, y = 0.
4
x1

 f (x) =
4

x1

(1, 2] ,
lim f (x) = +.
x1+0

2 
V =

4
1

2

x1

=
1

, V = 2 .

2

x1

2 
dx =

4
1

dx = 2

x1

2
dx =

2
x 11 = 2.


330

. 4.

1.4.


.
+


1.1.

2
dx;

1.2.

dx
;
(x 2)2

1.3.

x sin x dx; 1.5.

b
ctg x dx;

dx
;
x (x + 1)
2

0
/
4

+


1.4.

+


1.6.
a

dx
; p > 0.
(b x)p

, y = f (x) :
1.7. f (x) =

1
, x  0;
1 + x2

1.8. f (x) = ex/3 , x  0.

,
OX , y = f (x)
OX :
x
e

1.9. f (x) = x , x  0;

1.10. f (x) = xex , x  0.

1.11. , OX y = ex , x  0.

2.

2.1.

.
w


2.1.
a

f (x) dx -

f (x) ,
b

F (b) = f (x) dx .
a

2.

331

2.2 (1- c). f (x)


g (x) [a, w),
[a, b] [a, w)
0  f (x)  g (x) x [a, w).

w


1.
w


g (x) dx , -

f (x) dx,

w


2.
w


(2.1)

w


w


f (x) dx  g (x) dx;

f (x) dx ,

g (x) dx.

2.3 (2- c). f (x)


g (x) [a, w),
[a, b] [a, w), f (x)  0, g (x) > 0
x [a, w)

lim

xw

f (x)
= c = 0.
g (x)


w


f (x) dx

w


g (x) dx

, .
w


f (x) dx -

w


|f (x)| dx.

2.4 ( ). ,
.
,
, .

332

. 4.

2.2.

1). , :
+
+
+



dx
x dx
x2 dx
,
2
)
,
3
)
.
1)
2
2
2
2
2
2
c +x

c +x

c +x

2). Pn (x) Qm (x) n m . , Qm (x) > 0 x > a,


+

a

Pn (x)
dx
Qm (x)

n m > 1 .
3). Pn (x) Qm (x) n m . , Qm (x) > 0 x > a,
+

a

Pn (x)
sin x dx
Qm (x)

n m > 1.

2.3.

.
2.1.

+

1

xdx

.
1 + x4

 .

1- .

, 1 + x4  x4 = x2 x  1.
x [1, + )

x
1
 2 = 3/2 .
0 
x
x
1 + x4
x

333

2.

f (x) = 

1 + x4
+


, g (x) =

3/2

. 2.2 -

dx
( 1.4, = 3/2) ,
x3/2

.

2-
. f (x) = 

1 + x4

, g (x) =

f (x)  0, g (x) > 0 x [1, +)

3/2

f (x)
x x3/2
= lim 
= 1 = 0.
x+ g (x)
x+
1 + x4

lim

+


2.3 ,
1

2.2.

+

2

x dx

.
1 + x4

dx
.
ln x

 x  2 0 < ln x  x , ,
1
1
x [2, +) 0 < 
.
x
ln x
1
1
f (x) = , g (x) =
x
ln x
+


dx
( 1.4, = 1), 2.2 ,
x
+


dx
.
ln x

2.3.

+


ex dx.
2

 x  1 x  x2 ,
2
0 < ex  ex . ,
+

2

ex dx ( 1.3),

2.2 , . 

334

. 4.

2.4.

1
0

sin x dx
.
x x

 2- .
, x +0
sin x
x
1
= .
x x
x x
x
sin x
x x

1
x

f (x) = , g (x) = . f (x)  0, g (x) > 0


x (0, 1]

f (x)
sin x x
sin x

lim
= lim
= lim
= 1 = 0.
x x
x+0 g (x)
x+0
x+0 x

1

dx
( 1.6, = 1/2),
x

2.3 ,

.
2.5.

/
2

ln sin x dx.

 ,
. , ln sin x ln x
x 0. ,
ln sin x
x cos x
= lim
= 1.
x0 ln x
x0 sin x

lim

2- ,

/
2

ln x dx.

(2.2)

,
/
2
0

/2

ln x dx = (x ln x x)|0

= /2(ln(/2) 1) lim (x ln x x).


x0

335

2.

lim x ln x = 0, (2.2) x0

. , 2-

.

.
2.6.

+

1

cos x
dx.
x2

 . x  1



1
 cos x 
|f (x)| =  2   2 .
x

+


dx
2-
x2
+


|f (x)| dx. -

, 
, , , 2.4 .
2.7.

+

1

sin x
dx.
x

 1). .
(1.13) :


+
1
1




u
=
,
u
=



sin x dx
2
 =
x
x
= 

x
 v  = sin x, v = cos x 
1

cos x +
=
+

x 1

+


cos x dx
=
x2

+


 cos x
 +
cos x dx
cos x dx
= lim
+ cos 1 +
=
0
+
cos
1
+
.
2
2
x+

336

. 4.
+


cos x dx
( 2.6)
x2

, .
2). .
x R | sin x|  sin2 x =
a > 1

1 cos 2x
.
2

a 
a
a
 a
|sin x| dx
1 dx
1 cos 2x dx
 sin x dx 


.

=
x

a
,

lim

a+

dx
= +. ,
x

+


, . .

(2.3)

a
lim

a+

cos 2x dx
x

cos 2x dx
.
x

:
+



1
1

u = , u = 2

cos 2x dx

x
x
= 
x
 v  = cos 2x, v = sin 2x



sin 2x + 1
=


2x 1
2

+


sin 2x dx
sin 2
1
=

2
2
2
x
+


+






 =


sin 2x dx
.
x2

sin 2x dx
( x2
+


2.6) ,

cos 2x dx
.
x

a 

 sin x 
(2.3) , lim 
 dx =
a+

= +. ,
. , 
.

3.

2.4.

337

.
+


2.1.
0
+


2.3.

1

e2

2.5.
0

1
2.8.

+


x13 dx
;
(x5 + x + 1)3

2.2.

dx
;
x ln ln x

2.4.

0
0

x arctg x dx

;
3
1 + x4
x dx
;
(x2 + 1)2

1

cos x
dx;
x2

2.6.

dx
;
x
e cos x

2.9.

0
1


.
+


2.10.
/2
+


2.12.
0

dx
x

1
;

2.7.
0

x2 dx
( 1 x2 ) 5

+


sin x
dx;
x2

2.11.

sin(x2 ) dx;

2.13.

x dx
;
e
1
sin x

/2
+


cos x
dx;
x

x cos(x4 ) dx.
0

3.

3.1. . ,
.
22

338

. 4.

,
w2

c

f (x) dx =

w1

f (x) dx +

w2

w1

f (x) dx,

(3.1)

c (w1 , w2 ).
, (3.1), ,
.
.
f (x) w (, ),

w


f (x) dx = f (x) dx + f (x) dx.

(3.2)

, , (3.2),
,
; , .
3.2.

1). , f (x)
+
+


f (x) dx ,
f (x) dx

+


f (x) dx = 2

+


f (x) dx.

2). , f (x)
+
+


f (x) dx ,
f (x) dx

+


f (x) dx = 0.

3.

339

3).

b
a

dx

.
(x a)(b x)

4). , p q

b
dx
p
q.
a

3.3.

(x a) (b x)


.
3.1.

+

0

dx
, > 0.
x
+


dx
: x =
x

= 0
,
. > 0
+
1

dx
dx

( 1.6, 1.4).
x

, (3.1), .
3.2.

1
1

dx

.
1 x2

 : 1
x = 1 x = 1
f (x) = 
1 x2

22*

340

. 4.

.
(3.2):

1

0

dx


=
1 x2

1

dx


+
1 x2

dx

=
1 x2

= arcsin x|01 + arcsin x|10 = /2 + /2 = .


, .
3.3.

+

0

arctg x
dx, > 0.
x

 : ,
.
+


arctg x
dx =
x

1

arctg x
dx +
x

+


arctg x
dx.
x

.
1
arctg x
dx.
1).

2- . .
lim x +0 arctg x x,
arctg x
x
1
= 1 .
x
x
x

,
1
1
dx. 0 < 1 < 1, . .

1
0

0 < < 2,  2.
1
arctg x
dx :
2.3 ,

1 < < 2  2.

341

3.
+


2).

lim

 arctg x

x+

arctg x
dx.
x

1
:
x

= lim arctg x = /2.


x+

+


1
dx,
x

> 1  1.
: ,
(3.3),
1 < < 2. 0 <  1

+

1

1

arctg x
dx. ,
x

+


arctg x
dx
x

1 < < 2.
3.4.

arctg x
dx, > 1
x


.
+


3.1.

2
3.4.
0

2x dx
;
x2 + 1

+


3.2.

dx
; 3.5.
2
x 4x + 3

1
1

dx
;
2
x + 2x + 2

1
3.3.

ln(2 + 3 x)
dx; 3.6.

3
x

1
0

x+1
dx;

5 3
x

e1/x
dx.
x3

2
3.7.
0

dx
; 3.8.
ln x

1
1

dx

; 3.9.
(2 x) 1 x2

2
0

ln x
dx.
1 x2

1.
x
2ex . ; (II) = 1 (V).
2
3x
1
1
1.2.
x
. ; (IV) a = 3 a = .
ln 3
25 ln 25
25
4
4
2
1.3. 2 + + x. ; (II) = 3, = 2 = 0.
x
3
x

2x x
1
. ; (VI), (II) = .
1.4. cos x +
3
2

3
9 x2
1
1.5. ctg x +
sin x. ; (IX), (II) = ; (VII).
2
3
1
1.6. arctg x. 5 ; (X).
5 


1
7
. 3 - ; (XII)
1.7. ln x + x2 +
3
9
7
= .
9
x2
1.8. x3
4x. .
2

3 3 7
4
x + 5 arcsin x. ; (II) = ; (XI).
1.9.
7
3
2
2
1.10. t7/2 + t5/2 . ;
7 3
5 3
5
3
; (II) = = .
2
2



1
1
1.11.
arctg x ln x + x2 + 1 .
4
2

1.1.

; (X) (XII) = 1.
1.12. ctg x + cos x. ; (IX) (VI).
5
1.13. 2x 2 arctg x + x7/5 .
7

; (X) (II) a =
1.14.

2
.
5

x2
3
3
5x
x5/3 + x4/3 + x
. (x +
2
5
4
3 (ln 5 ln 3)

3
+ 1) = ( 3 x) + 1 , . 2 1
5
; (II) = 1, , , (IV) a = .
3 
3
3


1.15. arcsin x + 2 ln x + x2 + 1 . 1 x4 .
; (XI) (XII).

1.

343

1
1
x
x + sin x. : 2 cos2 =
2
2
2

1.16.

= 1 + cos x; (II) = 0; (VII).


1
2.1.
(x + 3)11 . t = x + 3.
2.2.
2.3.
2.4.
2.5.
2.6.
2.7.

11
2
(10 x)3/2 . t = 10 x.
3
1
cos(3x + 1). t = 3x + 1.
3
1
ln(x2 + 3). t = x2 + 3.
2
1
arctg2 x. t = arctg x.
2
1 x2
e . t = x2 .
2
1
sin4 x. t = sin x.
4

2.8. 9 x2 . t = 9 x2 .
1 4
ln x. t = ln x.
2.9.
4

2.10.

2 3
(x 7)3/2 . t = x3 7.
9

2.11. 2 sin x. t = x.
1
1
2.12. sin . t = .
x
x

 sin x 2 
1
. t = sin x.
2.13. ln 
2 2
sin x + 2

1
x2
arcsin . t = x2 .
2 
3

1  3  6

2.15.
ln x + x + 7. t = x3 .
3

1 3
x
2.25.
x 6x + 6 6 arctg . .
3 
6

1  2x 3 
2.26. ln 
. :
5
x+1 

1
1
1
1
.
=

(x + 1)(2x 3)
5 x 1,5
x+1


1 x 5
2.27.
ln 
. :
3
x 2

1
1
1
1
.
=

2
3 x5
x2
x 7x + 10


1
1
1
. 2.28. ln(4x2 + 4x + 5) arctg x +
4
4
2

2.14.

.


1
1
. .
arcsin x +
2.29.
3

t = x + .
3


2.30. 2 4x 3 + x2 ln(x + 2 + 4x 3 + x2 ). e
.
1
1
2.31.
x+
sin 9x. :
2

18

2 cos2 x = 1 + cos 2x.

344

2
2.32. (1 ex ) 1 ex . t = 1 ex .
3


3 3
9
3
(2x + 3)5 3 (2x + 3)2 . t = 2x + 3.
2.33.
20

8
1
1
cos 6,5x
cos 9,5x. 13
19
1
: sin cos = (sin( + ) + sin( )).
2

2.34.

2.16. ln |cos x|.




 t = cos x.

1 2
1 
1
4x + 1 + ln x + x2 + . .
2.17.

2.18.
2.19.
2.20.
2.21.
1
ex + 2

2.22.
2.23.
2.24.
2.35.
2.36.
2.37.

4
2
4
1 2x
e + ex . .
2
1
1

2 sin x + sin3 x. t = sin x.


sin x

3
1
1
arctg x2 ln x4 + 1 . t = x2 .
2
4

1 
ln 2ex + 1 .
2
ex
= x
. t = ex .
2e
+1



1
ln 2x + 1 + 4x . t = 2x .
ln 2


x
2 arcsin + 4 x2 . 2 x.
2
1
1
arcsin . t = .
x
x

2
8
(4 + x)5
(4 + x)3 . t = 4 + x.
5 
3

 3x + 1 1 
. t = 3x + 1.
ln  

 3x + 1 + 1

x
1
. t = .

ln
2
x
x+2+2 x +x+1
1
1
1
(x 1)2 + ln(x2 + x + 0, 5) + arctg(2x + 1).
2
4
2

2.38.
.


1  3x
 x
ln e 3ex + 2 .
2.39.
6
2


1
1
1
1
.
=

x
x
e2x + ex 2  3 e 1  e + 2

x
2.40. x ln 2 + e + 2 e2x + ex + 1 . - ex .  
2




4
4
5 x 4 ln 1 + 5 x . t = 4 5 x.
2.41. 2
1

2.42. cos6 x. t = cos x.


3 

1  2 + tg(x/2) 
x
. t = tg .
2.43.
ln 
4
2 tg(x/2) 
2

3
3
2.44.
. t = x.
3
x+1

3.1. (x 1)ex ; u = x, v  = ex .

1
3.2. 2 x ln x 4 x; u = ln x, v  = .
x

345

2.


3.3. x arcsin x + 1 x2 ; u = arcsin x, v  = 1.


3.4. x ln(2 x) x 2 ln |x 2|; u = ln(2 x), v  = 1.
1
3.5. (2x + 1)e2x ; u = x, v  = e2x .
4

1
ln(1 + 9x2 ); u = arctg 3x, v  = 1.
6
x
1
3.7.
sin(2x 4) + cos(2x 4); u = x, v  = cos(2x 4).
2
4
3x + 1 x
3
4 2 4x ; u = 3x + 1, v  = 4x .
3.8.
ln 4
ln 4
x2
2
2
3.9. cos 3x + x sin 3x +
cos 3x. : 1- u = x2 ,
3
9
27



3.6. x arctg 3x

v = sin 3x,  u = x, v = cos 3x.


1
1
3.10. x x3 ln x x + x3 ; u = ln x, v  = 1 x2 .
3
9




1
1
1
; u = arccos x, v  = x2 .

1
3.11. arccos x + ln  +

2
x
x
x


 x

3.12. 2 x 1 e . t = x,
. 

1
1
3.13.
ln2 x + 2 ln x + 2 . : 1- u = ln2 x, v  = 2 .
x
x


x3
1
1
2x2 1 sin 2x x cos 2x.

3.14.
6

.
:2 sin2 x = 1 cos 2x;

3.15. x + 1 + (2 + x) arctg x + 1. t = x + 1,
.
1
3.16. x ctg x + ln |sin x|; u = x, v  =
.
2
3.17.

x
(sin(ln x) + cos(ln x)).
2


sin x

1-

u = cos(ln x), v = 1, 2- u = sin(ln x), v = 1;


 .

cos x
1  x
1
1
+ ln tg ; u =
, v = 2 .
3.18.
2
2
2
sin
x
2 sin
x
sin
x
 



1
3.19.
x x2 + 1 ln x + x2 + 1 . ,
2

u = x, v  = 
.

1 + x2

2.

1
5
2
2+1

1.1.
( 2 + 24 4 2). 1.2.
+
. 1.3. ln
.
16
4
ln 3
2
21

1.4. . 3 - .

6 3
1
1 + cos
( + 2). cos2 (/2) =
.
4
2

sin x
2
2
, cos x = 1 sin x.
1.6. 1 ; tg x =
4
cos x

1
1.7. (14 2 5). , 3

1.5.

346
1.8.

2.

4 3/3. sin2 x + cos2 x = 1

.
1.9. 4. .
1.10. 0. .
1
11
1
ln ; t = x2 + 2x + 3. 2.2. ln 2; t = cos 3x.
2.1.
2
6
6
2
1
9
2
; t = arcsin x. 2.4.
ln ; t = x4 + 8. 2.5. ; t = x3 .
24 
4
8
3

2
1
1

2.6.
; x = arctg t.
3
8
3 3
1
2
2.7. ; t = x + 1.
4 

ln 3
; t = ln x.
2.8. ln
ln 2
2
(e 1)
2.9.
; t = ex .
2



7
; t = x 1.
2.10. 2 ln 2 +
2
1
2.11.
1; t = cos x.
e

2.3.

2.12. 2; t = x.

2.13. . ; t = x 1.
2.14.

2.15.
2.16.
2.17.
2.18.
2.19.
2.20.

6
1
5
ln . ; t = x + 1.
4
3
8
; t = cos x.
315
4
. C 8; t = cos x.
3
9
; x = 3 sin t.
4

1
5(1 + 2)
1
ln
;t=
.
x
+
1
26 1
2

2+x
2+x
2 + 3.
= 
.
3
2x
4 x2

1
1+x

;t= 3
.
3
1x
8 3



3.1. 4 3 3 2 /24 + (1 2)/2. u = x, v  = cos x.

3.2. 1; u = arccos x, v = 1.
3.3. (1 ln 2)/2. u = x, v  = ex .

3.4. . u = , v  = sin 2.

4
e
. u = 2x + 1, v  = e2x .
2


1
x
2 + ln
2 1 . u = arctg x, v  = 
.
3.6.
4
x2 + 1
3
ln x
3.7. 2
. log2 x =
; u = ln x, v  = x.
4 ln 2
ln
2


3.5.

3.8. 3e ln 2. u = ln 2x, v = 1.
3
1
3.9.
2 ln 2. u = ln x, v  = 3 .
4

3.
347



. u = ln(x2 +
3.10. (e 1) ln(e2 2e + 2) ln 2 2 e 2 arctg(e 1) +
4

+ 1), v = 1.

1
ln 2; u = x, v  =
.
3.11.
2
4
cos
x


.
3.12. sin (ln 3 /4) 2 sin ln 2
4


;
sin

cos

=
2 sin
( /4).




4
4
3 + 1 arctg 3 3 + 1. u = arctg x, v  = 1;
3.13.
2

t = x.

5e2 9
. .
8e
+3
2
3.15.
. .
4  32

3
e3/5 + 1 . 3.16.
34

3.14.


.



1
ln
6 3 . u = arcsin x, v  = 2 ;
3.17.
24

t =
e1

1
.
x

3.18. 2
. e
.
3.19. 2.
.

3.
1.1. 1. (1.2), x .
1
1.2. (e4 e2 ). (1.2), x .
2
16
1.3.
2. OX ; (1.2), x 3
.
1.4. 12. (1.2), y .
1
1.5. ( 2 1). (1.1), x .

2
3
ln 2. (1.1), x .
4
1
1
+ ln 3 ln 2. (1.1), x .
1.7.
3
2
450
1.8.
. (1.1), y .
3
 3 

1
2
(3 ln 2 + 2 3).
,
1.9.
2
6 4
 
 3 
ctg x > cos x, x
ctg x < cos x, x
.
,
,
6 2
2 4

1.6.

1.10. ab.
OX OY .


x
x 2
1.11.
+ 1. sin + cos
= 1 + sin x.
2

348

3.

1.12. 32. OY ;
4 x2 .
1.13. 11 6 ln 3. x + 1 2 x.
1
1.14.
a2 . 1.5.
4

1.15. 6 . 1.5.
4
4
1.16. 2 + 6 . OY .

3
3
2
2.1.
.
2


e2 e2 + 4 . Y OZ .
2.2.
4

2.3. 12 .
2.4.

3 2
. (2.1) 2

Y OZ .
98
2.5.
.

15
512
2.6.
. (2.1), y .
15
320
400
2.7.

.
3
3
8
. (2.1), y .
2.8.
3 


2.9.
e2 1 .
4
2048
. (2.1), y .
2.10.
35
 2


2.11.
2 .
 4


2.12. 3 ln2 3 6 ln 3 + 4 . (2.2), y .




1
H R2 + r2 + rR . ,
2.13.
3

OX , x = 0, x = H , y =

Rr
x + r.
H

2.14. 24 . , OX ,

x = 2, x = 1, y = 9 x2 .
3
2.15. 16R /3. , , 1

. 3.1. 1 + ln . (3.4);
2
2

t = x2 + 1.
1
e

3.2. e .

232
. (3.4); t = x + 1.
15
1
3.4. 3 + ln 2.
2
14
3.5.
. (3.4), y .
3

1
3
3.6. 1 + ln . (3.4); t = e2x + 1.
2
2
3.3.

3.

2 2
3.7.
.
3

349

x
2

3.8. ln 3. (3.4); t = tg .

3.9. 2 +
3.10.

1
ln 3.
2

25
.
3

t
3.11. 24. (3.4), 1 cos t = 2 sin , t [0, 2].
2
 



1
3.12. 5 4 2 + 1 + ln 2 + 4 2 + 1 . (3.6), (XVII).
2

134

3.13.
. (3.4), y ;
27

 OY
.
6 + ln
2 + 3 .
3.14.
OY ; (XVII).
3
. (3.6), OX
3.15.
2

OY .


3.16.
2 + ln 1 + 2 . ; 3.7, . 1.
 67 
+ 5 .
3.17. 10

 27

3.18. 3 2 + 2 + ln 1 + 2 . OY ; (XVII).


3
28

4.1. 20 + 7 34 . (4.3), y = x +
5
5
AB .



4.2.
e2 e2 + 4 . (4.3).

4
104
. (4.3).
3


4.4.
82 82 1 . (4.3).
9

14
t2
4.5.
. : y = t, x = , t [0, 3] 3
2

4.3.


(4.2).


4.6.
e2 + 3e 4 . :

3
t2
1
x = ln t, y = t, t [1, e] (4.2).
4
2 

25
3
arcsin . (4.2),
4.7. 1) 8 4 +
3
5

,
5
cos t = sin ;
3


16
ln 2 . (4.2) (XVII).
2) 10 5 +
4.8.

2
2+1

5 2 + ln
. (4.3),

1 +

cos x
4

5+1

= z2 .

350

4.

192
. (4.2).
5
32
. ,
4.10.
5

4.9.

(4.4), t = cos .

4.
1.1. e. 1.2. . 1.3. 1 ln 2. 1.4. . 1.5. .
p  1. 1.7. /2. 1.8. 3.
1.6. (b 1)1p /(1 p) 0< p < 1, .

1.9. 2 . 1.10. /4. 1.11. ( 2 + ln(1 + 2)).


2.1. . 2.2. . 2.3. . 2.4. . 2.5. . 2.6. . 2.7. . 2.8. . 2.9. .
2.10. . 2.11. . 2.12. .
2.13. .
3.1. . 3.2. . 3.3. 10/7. 3.4. . 3.5. 6 9 ln 3/2.
3.6. 1. 3.7. . 3.8. .

1. :

:
I.

x dx
1.
1 + 4x2

dx
2.
7x2 8
 x
8 1
3. x
dx
 2 1
4. sin 3x cos x dx

5. x cos 4x dx

e3x
6. 
dx
e3x + 2

x+6
7.
dx
x1

dx
8.
4
cos x

 IV.
dx

1. 
2
 2 + 3x
3
2.
dx
2
2
+
3
x

3. ex 3 4ex dx

4. sin3 6x cos 6x dx

II.

arctg 2x dx
1.
1 + 4x2

dx
2.
3x2 + 5

3 x+1
3.
dx
x

4. cos x cos 4x dx

5. x 3x dx

7. x(2x + 3)12 dx

dx

8.
 3 x4
9. cos4 x dx

 V.
dx

1. 
2
 72+ 8x
x
2.
dx
6
1
+
x

ex
3. x
dx
e 1

4. (tg x + ctg 2x) dx

III.

dx
1.
3
 x (ln x)
dx
2.
7 5x2
 x
(2 3x )2
3.
dx
x
x
 2 3
4. sin2 3x dx

5. x arctg 2x dx

x
6.
dx
x(x + 1)

dx
7.
2
2
 sin x cos x
1 sin x
8.
dx
x + cos x

 VI.
dx

1. 
2
 7 8x
x
2.
dx
2
2
x
+
3

2 5x 1
3.
dx
x
 25 +1
x
3x
4. sin sin
dx
2

352

5. arccos 3x dx

x
6.
dx
x

1

ex dx
7. 
x
2x
 1+e +e
8. tg2 5x dx

5. arctg 3x dx

dx

6.
5

x

cos x dx
7.
sin2 x 6 sin x

8. ctg3 x dx

ln x
dx
(1 + x)2


2x 7
6.
dx
x+1

dx
7.
2 + cos x

5.


sin x cos x
8. 
dx
2 sin4 x

2. :


I.
1. :
 2
x + 5x
dx.
x+3

2. :


a)

x
sin2 dx;
2

3 
b) x 9 + x2 dx;

0
c)

x2 ex/2 dx.

3. , :

y = x + 1, y = cos x, y = 0 (y  0).
4. ,
OX :

y = x + 3, 3  x  6.
5.
:
1
dx
.
2
1

x 1

II.
1. :

x

dx.
1 x2

2. :

353

2. :

e

a)
1

2 

dx

;
x 1 ln x

x sin 2x dx;

b)

1 + x2
dx.
x

c)
1

3. ,
OX , :

y = x2 + 8, y = x2 .
4. :
1
1
ln 3  x  ln 8.
2
2

y = 2 ex ,

5.
:
/
2

ctg x dx.

III.
1. :

2
ex/2 + ex/2 dx.
2. :
1/2

a)
1/2

x2 + 1
dx;
x2 1

/
2

2
sin x cos x dx;
2

b)

ln2 x dx.

c)
1

3. , :
1

y = tg x, y = , x = 0.
3

4. ,
OX :

y 2 = 2 x, 0  x 
23

3
.
2

354

5.
:
2
dx
.
1

IV.
1. :

3x + 1
dx.
2
x 9

2. :
2

a)
2 /9

1

cos x

dx;
x

b)

1 
c)
4 x2 dx.

x 2x dx;

3. ,
OY , :

y =2

x2
, x + y = 2.
2

4. :

y = ln 7 ln x,

3x

8.

5.
:
+

arctg x
dx.
2
0

x +1

V.
1. :

sin x cos 3x dx.
2. :

1
a)
0

dx
;
x
e + ex

1

3
x arctg x dx;

b)
0

x2

c)
0

9 x2 dx.

2. :

355

3. , :

y = 1 (x 1)2 , y = x.
4. ,
OX :
x
4

y = cos ,  x  .
5.
:
+


sin x dx.

VI.
1. :

3x
dx.
2
x 5x + 6

2. :
1/2

a)
0


e
1 x2 1
cos ln x
dx; b)
dx; c)
2
x
1x
1

1/4

arccos 2x dx.
1/4

3. ,
OX , :

y = sin 2x, y = 0; x = 0; x =

.
2

4. :

y=

ex + ex
+ 3, 0  x  1.
2

5.
:
3
dx
.
2
0

(x 1)

VII.
1. :

dx
.
4+

23*

356

2. :
3/2

a)
1/2

dx
; b)
2
4x 4x + 5

4
0

dx

; c)
1 + 2x + 1

2
ln2 (3x + 2) dx.
1

3. , :

y = 2x , y = 2x x2 , x = 0, x = 2.
4. ,
OX :

y = sin 3x, 0  x 

.
3

5.
:
+

dx
.
2

x +1

VIII.
1. :

x
dx.
2
(x + 1)

2. :

1/3

a)
2/3

x dx
; b)
e3x

/
2

dx
; c)
sin x + cos x

2
x ctg(x2 + 1) dx.
1

3. ,
OX , :

y = x(3 x), y = x.
4. :

y = ln(x + 1), 0  x  1.
5.
:
+

0

dx.

357

2. :

IX.
1. :


cos5 x dx.

2. :

5
a)
4

/
2

dx
;
2
x +x2

/
4

(x + 3) sin x dx;

b)

c)
/6

dx
.
sin 2x

3. , :

xy = 6, x + y 7 = 0.
4. ,
OX :

x = cos t 3, y = sin t, t [0, 1].


5.
.
+

dx
.
2
3

(x 2)

X.
1. :

ex

dx.
e2x 2

2. :

1
a)
1

x dx

;
5 4x

1

1
x(2 x ) dx; c)

x arctg

b)
0

1/ 3

1
dx.
x

3. ,
OY , :

y = 1 x2 , y = 0; x = 0; x = 1 (x  0).
4. :

y=

1 ex ex
, 0  x  3.
2

358

5.
:
3
dx

.
x1

XI.
1. :


x arcsin 3x dx.

2. :

2
a)
1

dx
;
2
x + 2x

9
b) x 3 1 x dx;

1
c)

1/ 3

dx

.
x 1 + x2
2

3. , :
1
2

y = e2x , y = e, x = .
4. ,
OX :

y = 3 x, 0  x  1 .
5.
.
e
dx
.
x ln x

XII.
1. :
 4
x + x2 + 1
dx.
x1

2. :

1
a)
0

x dx


3 ;
1 + x2

/
4

3
ln(x + 2) dx;

b)
0

tg3 x dx.

c)
0

2. :

359

3. ,
OX , :

y 2 = 4x, x2 = 4y.
4. :
1
4

y = ln(1 x2 ), 0  x  .
5.
:
e
dx
.
2
0

x ln x

1. . . T. I. .: , 1975.
2. . . . . I. .: , 2002.
3. . ., . . . .:
, 2002.
4. . . . .: , 2002.
5. . . . .: , 1952.
6. . . . .: , 2001.
7. . . . . I, II. .: , 2006.
8. . . . .
.: , 2002.

9. . ., . ., . ., . . . .: , 2002.
10. . ., . ., . . . .: , 2001.
11. . ., . ., . ., . .
// . . . .: , 2003.
12. . ., . ., . ., . .
. . . .: ,
2003.
13. . .
. .: , 1970.
14. . . . .:
, 2005.
15. . . ( ). .: , 2003.
16. . ., . .
. .: , 1985.

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