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2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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1.

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2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. J - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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b|a

215
216
221
224
230

a|b

5. P
P
231
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
7. . . . . . . . 237
11.
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1.
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2.
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12. -
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1.
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2. . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. , . .
6.

240
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244

245
246
249
254
255
258
265

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267


1.

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L2 -, Q = L2 (R3 )
P = L2 (R3 ), = Q P :

(x) = (q(x), p(x)).


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2 () = 2 d(),

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f  = f (q , p) d(q , p),

= (q , p) ( ,
), f : R .

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1.

15

f A = f  (0) ( f ).
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.

(, p = 0,95).
(q = 0,05),
. .

2.

17


.

f (x) = 0,
(2.1)
x . f :
) (2.1) ;
) x (2.1) ( ).
, () n, (, n
f ). () ( n)
1).
f (x) (2.1) . ( , , )
( n
). ,
. (
) (2.1),

.

.

, .
, x(1) , . . . , x(m) , ,
, .

, T = (n) n , d n
(n)  nd .
1)

18

,
.
.

, ( ) , , ,
.

,
(
n )
T = O(n), n .

2/ 3
1/ 2
T = O(2cn log n ), n .
, O((n)), n , ,
M > 0,

|O ( (n))|  M | (n)|
n.
. ,
.

.
,
. .
f (x1 , . . . , xn ), xj = 0, 1,
, ( - ), f , . .
= (1 , . . . , n ), f (x1 , . . . , xn ) = f (y1 , . . . , yn )
y = x , .
.
T = O(2n/2 ) , . .
.
T = O(n) ( ,
).

(),

, -

2.

19

. ,
. (2.1)
f (x1 , . . . , xn ), xj = 0, 1, . .
T = 2n ( x),
T = 2n/2 . , n
.
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U (t, x),
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( ; , (2.1)). ( )
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20

.
A,
.
(t) = Ut 0 ,
(s) k ,
s , k A, .
[15]. ,

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,

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H
,
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2.

21

A , A, . . ,
:

A ,  =  , A.

(2.2)

, A
, . . 1 , . . . , n , . . . 1 , . . . , n , . . . , An = n n ,
n = 0, H :

= c1 1 + . . . + cn n + . . . ,

(2.3)

cj =  , j  C. C .
,
n , . . c1 = . . . = cn1 = cn+1 = . . . = 0,
cn = 1, , A = n
: A = n .
(2.3) {n }
n=1 ,
, .
A = 1 , . . . , n , . . . .

P (A = j ) = |cj |2 = | , j |2 .

(2.4)

.
. - .
, ,
.
,
. , (2.4), ,
. A, N ,

N (n ) =

m (n )
,
N

(2.5)

m (n ) , A = n . , (2.4).

22

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0 1).

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f

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1)

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2.

23

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( )
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24

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26

. 1.


. - .
,
. ,
, , , .

1.

ma = f ,

(1.1)

m , a f , . , ( ) . ,

. 19

R3.

. : q = (x, y , z),
x, y , z , v = q =
a = q =

dq
dt

dv
.
dt

q(t), , :

m
q = f (q),
q(t
0 ) = v0 ,
q(t0 ) = q0 .

(1.2)


, f
( , , f C 1, ), (1.2) .
.
, (q0 , v0 )

2.

27

t = t0 ,
.

.
, ,
,

.
, ! , f (q) (
), ( - ), (1.2), ,
. (q0 , v0 )
.
, , z0 .
. ( ) , ,
,

z(t) = (q(t), v(t)) t.

2.
, : p = mv = mq.
= (q , p).
.
.
,
() :

q =

p
.
m

(2.1)

, f (q) , V (q), R3,



V
f (q) =
(q).
(2.2)
q

28

. 1.

p =

V
.
q

(2.3)

H(q , p) =

p2
+ V (q),
2m

(2.4)

. (2.1), (2.2)

q =

H
,
p

p =

H
.
q

(2.5)

,
:

H(q(t), p(t)) = H(q0 , p0 ).


,

(2.6)

d
H(q(t), p(t)) = 0. dt


(2.5).
.
,
.
, N qj pj . N
, V (q1 , . . . , qN ),

N

p2j
H(q , p) =
+ V (q1 , . . . , qN ),
(2.7)
j=1

2mj

q = (q1 , . . . , qN ), p = (p1 , . . . , pN ). , N ,

qj =

H
,
pj

pj =

H
.
qj

(2.8)

V (q1 , . . . , qN )
, , q1 q2 , q1 q2 q3 , q1 q2 . . . qN .
, :

V (q1 , . . . , qN ) = V1 (q1 ) + . . . + VN (qN ),

(2.9)

3.

29

Vj C 1.

qj =

pj
,
mj

pj =

Vj
.
qj

(2.10)

N .
, . .
, ( )
.
( :
V 0), , , .
, j = (qj , pj ),
.

3.
, M , (2.8)
. ,
.
,
, , , .

- W .
, R3 R3
= (q , p).   : (q , p)  0
(q , p) dq dp = 1.
, W ,

P ( W ) =



(q , p) dq dp.
W

(3.1)

30

. 1.

, (t, q , p). :
(t, q , p)
= {H(q , p), (t, q , p)},
t

(3.2)

(t0 , q , p) = 0 (q , p).

(3.3)

{H, } :

N 

H
H
{H, } =

.
j=1

qj pj

pj qj

,
0 (q , p), ( )
.
, .

4.
19 , 1).
,
,
. . .
.
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,
.

4.

31

1). , (
).
.
, ,
( ).
(!!!) .
.
. - t
,
. , , , ,
: !. t = 0 (
),
.
,
.
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, ,
(
).
, . . 2).
,
- : - .
, . :
1)

, , .
. ( ).
2)
, . .
.

32

. 1.

(, , ). ,

.

() . t (t, x) = (E(t, x), B(t, x)), E(t, x) = (E1 (t, x),
E2 (t, x), E3 (t, x)) B(t, x) = (B1 (t, x), B2 (t, x), B3 (t, x)) , :
d
(t, x) = L()(t, x),
dt

(t0 , x) = 0 (x).

(4.1)

L
(

, j = 1, 2, 3, x1 = x, x2 = y , x3 = z ), xj

. ,

1
c
1
c

E
= B,
t
B
= E.
t

(4.2)
(4.3)

(, E) = (, B) = 0.
(4.4)


,
,
-,
=
x1 x2 x3
, c .
, (4.2), (4.3)
.
, q(x) E(x),
, p(x) B(x),



q = c p,

p = c q.

(4.5)

(4.5) (2.5),
, ( ) ,
. :

H(q , p) =

c
[( p, p) + ( q , q)],
2

5.

33

- g(x) f (x)

3 

(g, f ) =
gj (x)fj (x) dx.
j=1 R3

H(q , p) p

H(q , p)
= c p,
p

H(q , p)
= c q.
q

, (4.5) .
() .
:


E() =

(E 2 (x) + B 2 (x)) dx < .

R3

, q(x) p(x) . ,
= L2 L2 ,
(4.6)
L2 , . ,
: = q + ip (,
: (x) = E(x) + iB(x)). ,

, . .

5.

,
.
.
, ,
2 . .

34

. 1.

.
.
, ( !!!), ,
, . .
. . :
E = h.
(5.1)
h
1
. , h
T

. () . h :
h 6,626 069 3(11) 1034 .
(5.2)

. ,
, ,
,
. , - .
, 2, . . . , n, . . .
,
,
. ,
. h

, 1905 .,
,
.
h. , ,
, .
.
, 1).
1)
.
. .

5.

35


.
.
.
,
( ) .
.
, , , . , - ,
, 1 , . . . , N , . . . . :
E1 = E(1 ), . . . , EN = E(N ), . . .
.
,
. , .
,
.
.
:

p dq = nh.
(5.3)
, . :

L = nh = n

h
,
2

(5.4)

n = 1, 2, 3, . . . .
, ,
,

.
2*

36

. 1.

,
.
. -, , , .
. . -,
. , ,

.
, , 20 ,
- . , . ,
, , [166, 167,
185, 207]. , . . ,
. h. [197], . . 6.
.


, . 5
, .

, , -,
,


.
. , ,
, ( ).
,
(q0 , p0 ) .
, , . , , ,
, .
.
, ( ) .

1.
(t, q , p) . ,

38

. 2.

(t, q) =

(t, q , p) dp.

(1.1)

R3

(t, q)
, (t, q , p) . (t, q) ,
(t, q , p). , , (1.1)
(t, q)
R3 :

P (q(t) W ) =

(t, q) dq.

(1.2)

, , p(t)
t.
p(t0 ) t0 .

(t, q , p) . , q(t) ,

. (
),
(t, q).

.
, ,
, .
, ,
. .
q(t): q(t) ,

.
v(t) = q(t)

(t, q):

(t, q) =

2t

q2

2t

(1.3)

( ). .
, ,
. (1.3) -

1.

39

(t, q) :

 q2

1
1
q2

+ 2 e 2t ,
(t, q) =
t

2t

2t

2t

 q  q2

e 2t,
(t, q) =
q
t
2t


2
2
1
1
q 2 q2t
(t, q) =
+ 2 e .
2
q

2t

1 2
(t, q) =
(t, q),
t
2 q 2

(1.4)

(t0 , q) = 0 (q).
. , . .
0 (q) ( , ). , (1.4) .

(t, q) .
-
, ? ,
.

.

dq(t) = a(t, q(t)) dt + b(t, q(t)) dw(t),

(1.5)

a(t, q) b(t, q) . w(t) . , : w(t, ). , w(t, ) (, ). , q(t) , , , ,


:

q(t0 , ) = q0 ().

(1.6)

40

. 2.

0 . , w(t, )
:

P ( : w(t, ) ) = 0.

(1.7)

dw(t, ) . (1.5) :
s

s

q(s, ) = q0 () + a(t, q(t, )) dt + b(t, q(t, )) dw(t, )


t0

(1.8)

t0

(. . (1.5) ). , w(t, ) :

P ( : w(t, ) ) = 1.

(1.9)

t q(t, ) (
). ( a(t, q))
. .
.
( ):

N () =

N


z(tk , )(w(tk+1 , ) w(tk , )).

(1.10)

k=0

z(t, ) = b(t, q(t, )), t0 < t1 < . . . < tN +1 = s


[t0 , s].
, ,
= max tk 0 (N ).
k

s

N () ,

z(t, ) dw(t, ),
t0

, (
). N ()
( ) .
.
, ,
R3, R3 R3 . -

2.

41

. ,
, - . ,
q(t, )
q0 () . , .
() : . ,
.

2.
,  (t, q). P (q(t) W ) =
= (t, q) dq W

W .
, q(t). , 30- ,
40- .

, , , , . . .
,
, .
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
. , , ,
( ) .
- . , ,
,
.
, ,
, .
(t, q) ,
. (t, q)

42

. 2.


W. dq

P (t, q) = (t, q) dq.


(2.1)
(, ) .
, .
(t, q) .
, (t, q)

(t, q) = |(t, q)|2 ,

(2.2)

(t, q) ,
. .
(t, q), (t, q):

ih

h2
(t, q) =
(t, q) + V (t, q)(t, q),
t
2m

(2.3)

m , V (t, q) .
.
3

2
=
(2.4)
2
j=1

qj

. (2.3)

(t0 , q) = 0 (q),

(2.5)

. , (2.3), (2.4) . ,
t0 ( , 0 (q) = |0 (q)|2 ), (t, q)
t,
(t, q), . (2.2).
( ,
) , 0 (q) (t, q).
(t, q)

(t, q) = (t, q) eiS(t,q),
(2.6)

2.

43

S(t, q) (t, q),


. , 0 (q),
0 (q), S0 (q).
:
q(t, ), ,
(t, q) (2.2)?
20-
,
.

. - ,
, ,
- ( , ).
. (2.2), ,
,
q R3.
. , ,
1). ,

R3.
, .
(q) .
. (t, q) ,
(t, q) = |(t, q)|2 ( ) .
,
,
:
. ,
, ,
1)
, , , , . . .

44

. 2.

, , . . x, y , z
,
, , . . (, ,
) . . . t,
, ,
. . (, ,
x, y , z t).
, . [16, . 105106].
, ,
() :
(t, q) = |(t, q)|2 . , ,
q R3, .
, . ,
, , , , ,
60- [244] . ,

q(t, ), , .
.
(). . (t, q) (t, q) = |(t, q)|2 ,
(t, q) , . [84]
[78, 9094].

3.
. ,

. -

45

3.

, ,
,
. ,
.
,
.

.
, ,
R3.
.
, ,

,
R3.
, , , .
, , .
: = (x1 , y1 , z1 , x2 , y2 , z2 )
:

ih

(t, x1 , y1 , z1 , x2 , y2 , z2 ) =
t


 2

 2

h2

2
2
h2

2
2
=
+ 2+ 2
+ 2+ 2 +
2
2
2m1

x1

y1

z1

2m2

x2

y2

z2


+ V (t, x1 , y1 , z1 , x2 , y2 , z2 ) (t, x1 , y1 , z1 , x2 , y2 , z2 ). (3.1)

= (t0 , x1 , y1 , z1 , x2 , y2 , z2 ) = 0 (x1 , y1 , z1 , x2 , y2 , z2 ).
V 0,

0 = 0 (x1 , y1 , z1 )g0 (x2 , y2 , z2 )

(3.2)

46

. 2.


.
, 0 , (3.1), (3.2)
R3 :

ih

1
h2
(t, x, y , z) =
1 (t, x, y , z),
t
2m1

(3.3)

ih

2
h2
(t, x, y , z) =
2 (t, x, y , z),
t
2m2

(3.4)

1 (t0 , x, y , z) = 0 (x, y , z),


2 (t0 , x, y , z) = g0 (x, y , z).

(3.5)

, (3.3)
(3.4), 1 (x, y , z) 2 (x, y , z),
(x1 , y1 , z1 , x2 , y2 , z2 ) = 1 (x1 , y1 , z1 )2 (x2 , y2 , z2 ),
(3.1) ( V 0) 0 , 0 g0 .
(3.1), (3.2)
. , ,

0 (x1 , y1 , z1 , x2 , y2 , z2 ) = 0 (x1 , y1 , z1 )g0 (x2 , y2 , z2 ) +


+ g0 (x1 , y1 , z1 )0 (x2 , y2 , z2 ). (3.6)
, , V 0,
.
.
.
R3.
, , . ,
.
, ( )
R3.
,
R3.
. , , .
R26 [118] , , R6. ,

47

3.

, .
[13]. . , , ,
, . [13].
,
, . [289, 290, 11] p-
.
, , ,
. ,
:

0 (x1 , y1 , z1 , x2 , y2 , z2 ) = |0 (x1 , y1 , z1 , x2 , y2 , z2 )|2 =


= |0 (x1 , y1 , z1 )g0 (x2 , y2 , z2 ) + g0 (x1 , y1 , z1 )0 (x2 , y2 , z2 )|2 . (3.7)
, , . .

0 (x1 , y1 , z1 , x2 , y2 , z2 ) = 10 (x1 , y1 , z1 )20 (x2 , y2 , z2 ).

(3.8)


. , 01 () R3 02 () R3 ,
, . ,
, . . 1 (t, ) 2 (t, ), , ,
0 (t, x1 , y1 , z1 , x2 , y2 , z2 ) .
, , 0
:

0 (u) =

12 (B 1 u,u)

(3.9)

(2)6 det B

u = (x1 , y1 , z1 , x2 , y2 , z2 ), B (6 6)-,
.

(u, v) =
uj vj
(3.10)
j

. B

48

. 2.


B1 0
B=
,
0 B2

(3.11)

B1 , B2 (3 3)-, 0 (u) .
,
. ,
.

4.
(t, q) , .
,
1). ()
.
). . , . .
, R3.
). . , , , ,
, ,
. ,
. ,
.
,
, , , ,
R3.

. .
). -. , ,
, , ., , [4446, 226, 227], , 1)
, ,
.
( , ) . ,
, . ,
.

4.

49

, . 12 . (t, q)
(t, q) = |(t, q)|2 . (t, q) , , , q R3.
. , ,
,
(,
).
-
. , . .
,
, , 1).
[13, 172,
173], . . 9. ,
(
), . ,
, .
- ( ), , . [10, 154158], . . 5.
,
- .
. (
, ) ( ).
1)

,
-,
.

50

. 2.

, . ? , ,
1).
, ,
(, ),
, R3. .
. 80
, ., , [22, 23] .

. ,
, .
, ,
,
( ).
, ,
-. , .
,
, . [15],
. , ,
. ., ,
-.

, ( 1)

,
. , , .
,
-.

4.

51

(t, q)). , ,

, . . , , . [15].

,
, , 1).
). (
). - ( ) (
).
, .
, , ,
.
,
. , . .
, : ,
. ,

. .
2). , ,
1)

,
. ,
, - - .
. , , ,
-, :
, ,
, , ,
, [16, . 142].
2)
, ,

.

52

. 2.


,
.

5.

,
. ,
. , , .
. S. , S.
A. A
, B , .

.
E12 : 1 2.
E1 : 1.
E2 : 2.
S
A, A B. B ,

. B , , ,
: , ,
, B.
, S

, (,
) . B ,
1, 2.
, , ,
B E12 ,
,
E1 E2 .

. , S -

53

5.

B , N12 , N1 , N2 . , , E12 , E1 E2 ,
. ,
N1 = M1 , N2 = M2 ,
(5.1)
M1 M2 ,
1 2 E12 (. .
).
, M1 M2 , , E12 .
n12 , n1 , n2 , E12 , E1 , E2 .
E12 m1 m2 ,
1 2, .
:
B.

n1 = m1 , n2 = m2 ,
(5.2)
, :
(5.3)

n12 = m1 + m2 = n1 + n2 .

E12 . :

PE12 (+)

n12
m + m2
m M
m M
= 1
= 1 1 + 2 2.
N
N
M1 N
M2 N

p(+ | 1) p(+ | 2) 1
2,
: p1 p2 .

p1

M1
,
N

p2

M2
,
N

p(+ | 1)

m1
,
M1

p(+ | 2)

m2
.
M2

PE12 (+) = p1 p(+ | 1) + p2 p(+ | 2).


.

(5.4)

54

. 2.

E1 E2 :

PE1 (+)

n1
,
N1

PE2 (+)

n2
.
N

(5.1) (5.2) ,

PE1 (+) = p(+ | 1),


p 1 = p1 ,
p 1

N1
,
N

PE2 (+) = p(+ | 2),

(5.5)

p 2 = p2 ,

(5.6)

p 2

N2
.
N

(5.7)

(5.4)

PE12 (+) = p 1 PE1 (+) + p 2 PE2 (+).

(5.8)

, , (5.4),
, E12 .
,
. M1 ,
M2 m1 , m2 , , p1 , p2 , p(+ | 1), p(+
+ | 2), .
, , E12 , E1 , E2 ,
N n12 , M1 n1 , M2 n2 , ,
PE12 (+), PE1 (+), PE2 (+) p 1 , p 2 .
(5.8) !
, , (5.8) !
, ,
, , .
. (5.8) .
.
. , B

.

5.

55

, (5.8).
,
. [226, 227].
, ,
(5.8) , . B
.
. , , , A,
B ? , S , A .
S , A, B , , A,
[166, 167, 185], ,
,
.
, B ( , ) . (5.8).
, , (5.8) , , E12 , E1 , E2 .

. ,
, , .
,
, . ., -, , , .
. B. , ,
, E12
- B
E1 E2 . (5.8).
,
.

56

. 2.

, [106] (5.8)
.
.
-,
[226, 227], [225], -, . ,
, .
,
. ,
:
.
(, ,
). - ,
.
, -,
.
-, . , . ,
.
. ,
: .
, .
.
, E12 , .
B . .
, . , .
: .
. ,
E1 - E2 -, , E1

5.

57

E2 ,
E1 E2 E12 .
, ,
. -,
, .
, -, -
.
? ,
? ! ,
[225], ,
, ,
. , (. . ,
),
, n = hn, n = 1, 2, . . . (n- ) , , ,
,
. - ,
1
.
, , .
.

.
, !
, (5.4) . M1 , M2 , m1 ,
m2 . ,
,
M1 , M2 : N/2,
B ,
! (5.8).
, (5.4) (5.8) (.
[106]), , , (5.8) (5.4).
, (5.2):
, E12
j , ,

58

. 2.

Ej .
! , ,
! ,
, (5.2) , . .

1 = n1 m1 ,

2 = n2 m2

N ,
(5.8) .
.
: .
, .

1.
(q)
(. . ),
:

(q) = |(q)|2 .
, :


(q) dq = |(q)|2 dq = 1.
R3

R3

, (q) :


|(q)|2 dq < .

R3

, ,

, L2 R3 , , 1). :

1 , 2  =

1 (q) 2 (q) dq ,
R3

1)

(q)
( ), ( ). .
.

60 . 3.

= u + iv = u
iv.


 =  ,  =
|(q)|2 dq .
R3


.

L2 R3
C.

.

2.
H . ,
.
. , + = + , , ( + ) + = + ( + ). ,
,

: c ( + ) = c + c , c C,
, H. : 1 = , 1
C. H ,
. .
. () = 0.
( )
+ 0 = H .
n C: Hn = C . . .
. . . C = Cn.
= (1 , . . . , n ), j C. : = (1 1 , . . . , n n ),
: c (c1 , . . . , cn ).
H = L2 R3 . Hn
. .

61

2.

, 1 , . . .
. . . , n H

cj C.

= c1 1 + . . . + cn n ,

1 , . . . , n , =
= 0 c1 = c2 = . . . = cn = 0. H
{ej }n ,
H
:

n


cj ej ,

cj C.

j=1

, c1 , . . . , cm . {ej }nj=1 . H
, dim H = n 1).
Hn



1

0
1
0



e1 = .. , e2 = .. , . . . , en = .. .
.
.
.
. , H2

f1 =
. .

e1 + e2
,
2

1
f1 =
2

 

1
,
1

f2 =

e1 e2
,
2

1
f2 =
2

1
.
1

Hn
. n = 2 . H2 :

Ae1 = cos e1 + sin e2 ,


Ae2 = sin e1 + cos e2 .
1)
,
.

62 . 3.

A=

cos sin
.
sin cos

H
, . . H ,
H.
() H.
, {ej }
j=1 , , {e }A ,
A (, A = R).

() .
. .
,
, .
,
H A : H H ,
:

A (1 1 + 2 2 ) = 1 A1 + 2 A2 ,
1 , 2 C, 1 , 2 H.
H {ej }nj=1 H ,

n


cj ej ,

cj C.

j=1

a11 . . . a1n

A = a21 . . . a2n .
an1 . . . ann

Ae1 = a11 e1 + a21 e2 + . . . + an1 en , . . .


. . . , Aen = a1n e1 + a2n e2 + . . . + ann en .
,

A : H (1) H (2) ,

3.

63

H (j) .
H (2) = C.
A : H C H.


A : H (1) H (2) L H (1) , H (2) .
,

(A1 + A2 ) = A1 + A2 ,

(cA) = cA.

, . H
( L (H , C)).
dim H < , H H .
H {ej }nj=1 H - Hn =
n

cj ej . u H .
= Cn , j () = (c1 , . . . , cn ), =

j=1

 

n
n
u () = u
cj ej =
cj u (ej ).
j=1

j=1


Hn (-),
i (u) = (u1 , . . . , un ), uj = u (ej ).
(. . - )
:
W = j 1 i : H H ,
j 1 : Cn H , j .
, H ,
, H.
, H H .
, . 6.
H
.

3.
() H
, 1 , 2 , :

64 . 3.

 , c1 1 + c2 2  = c1  , 1  + c2  , 2 .
c1 , c2 C, , 1 , 2 H ;
)  ,  = , ;
) :  ,  = 0 = 0;
) :  ,   0, H .
, () () ,

c1 1 + c2 2 ,  = c1 1 ,  + c2 2 , .

:  =  ,  . :
| , |   .
,
.
3.1. H
.
3.2. A : H H ,

A1 2  = 1 , A2 
1 , 2 H.
, {ej }nj=1
H ,

1, i = j ,
ei , ej  = ij =
0, i = j.
A : H H

aij = ei , Aej .


A = (aij ),
aij = ei , Aej  = Aei , ej  = ej , Aei  = aji , . . A = A T,
T : B T = bTij = bji .
, A = A T, .

4.

65

, A, ,
A = , = 0.
3.1. A : H H .
, ,
, .
3.2.
A : H H
.

4.
, X r(x1 , x2 ),
:
r1)

r(x1 , x2 ) = r(x2 , x1 ) ;
r2)

r(x, x) = 0 x = 0;
r3)

r(x, x)  0;
r4)

r(x1 , x2 )  r(x1 , x3 ) + r(x3 , x2 )


x1 , x2 , x3 X.
(X , r) .
r X.
{x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , . . . } X
a X , r(xn , a) 0, n . xn a.
X = R r(x, y) = |x y|,
.
{xn }
n=1 , xn X , ( 3 . .

66 . 3.

), r(xn , xm ) 0, n, m . n, m .
, xn a,
.
r,

r(xn , xm )  r(xn , a) + r(a, xm ) 0,

n, m .

. X Q (. . x = n/m,
n, m m = 0). X
r(x, y) = |x y|.


1 n
.
xn = 1 +
n

, |xn xm | 0, n, m , . .
Q.
a.
4.1. (X , r) ,
X.
(X = R, r(x, y) = |x y|) . (X = Q, r(x, y) = |x y|) . R ,
Q.
, R Q
.
.
,
R3 .
. ,

x = n , . . . , 0 , 1 , . . . , m ,
( ) j = 0, 1, . . . , 9. (, ).
(p-) [289, 290, 11], [13].

67

5.

,
. , .

5.
,
.
H . ,
:

 +    + ,
. , r(, ) =   .
(r4) ( ). , (H , r)
. H ,
, H Cn.
,
(C ,
C = R R). H , H
.
,

(q) = p (q) eq ,
2

p(q) . ,

|(q)|2 dq < ,

eq , .


PL2 R3 .
,

L2 R3 .
. ,

(1 , 2 ) =
|1 (q) 2 (q)|2 dq .
2

R3



, PL2 R3 L2 R3 , . . L2 R3 3*

68 . 3.


n PL2 R3 .

3
L
,

R
2

PL2 R3 ( R Q).
:
. ,
.
( )
.
.
5.1. H .
,
. , . . Hn = Cn
.

, H = L2 R3 . , ,
() :
,

(q) = (q),


. ,

L2 R3 ,
. , .
(q) = 0 ,
2

 =

|(q)|2 dq = 0.

R3


, (Q) = 0, ,
3
, L2 R ( Q) 1).
.
H .
(
1)


L2 R3 .

5.

69

) {ej }
j=1 , :

cj ej ,

cj C,

j=1

cj .


N




N = 
cj ej 
 0, N .
j=1

{ej }
j=1 : ei , ej  =
= ij . cj H
cj = ej , .
() H.



N =
|cj |2 =
|ej , |2 .
j=N +1

j=N +1

cj ej ,

j=1

|cj |2 . , -

j=1

. ,

SN =

N


cj ej ,

j=1

cj ej .

j=1

,





2
l2 = x = (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , . . . ) : xj C,
|xj | <
j=1

x, y =


j=1

xj yj .

70 . 3.

6.
A : H H . ,
,
: aij = ei , Aej .
H
A : H H . A
, : n , n , An A
n  0 An A 0.
:

n  0 An  0.
.
.
6.1. A : H H ,
:
) sup Ax < ;
x1

) sup Ax < ;


x=1

) sup
x=0

Ax
< ,
x

, ()(), ,
A A.
()

A  A ,

H.

,
.
,
{ej }nj=1 A = A , A  =

=  ,  .
A : H H . , A,

6.

71

, .
,
H , .
, E H
( H ), H E : n n , n E.
E H A : E
H , . . n (n , E), An A.
A A : H
H. , H ,  E. n ,
n , n E.
Unm = n m 0, n, m .
AUnm 0, n, m . , An Am  0,
n, m . , {An } H.
H . , lim An ,
n
A. , A
H . ,
A : H H .

(), H. .
6.1 ( ).
H = L2 (R3 ) (j = 1, 2, 3):

qj () (q) = qj (q),


pj () (q) =

h
(q).
i qj

, j - qj
qj , pj (
)
qj . ,
.

L2 R3 . . ,


3  2
2
D (
qj ) = L2 R :
qj |(q)| dq < ;
R3

72 . 3.



D (
pj ) = L2 R3 :


R3



2


(q) dq < .

qj

qj : D (
qj ) H , pj : D (
pj ) H .

.
, ,
.
, .
U (qj ) qj .
AU = U (
qj ),

AU () (q) = U (qj ) (q),



L2 R3 :

AU  =
|U (qj ) (q)|2 dq  sup |U (qj )| .
R3

qj R

AU   sup U (qj ).


qj R

x, x [N , N ],


UN (x) =
0, x  N 1 , N + 1
N

( (N 1/N , N ) (N , N + 1/N )
, , ).
lim UN (qj ) = qj qj , N

qj )
() AUN UN (
qj .

7.
H .
H. H . H 
, H
H. , U H ,
) U (c1 1 + c2 2 ) = c1 U (1 ) + c2 U (2 ), cj C, i H ,
) U (n ) 0 n 0, n , H.

73

7.

6.1
u: H C,
|U ()|
= U  < .
=0 

sup |U ()| = sup

1

, H = H  , . . (, H =
= L2 (R3 )).

, H
U H ,

U () = , ,

H.

()  , .
:

|U ()|   .
, U  = .

|, |
 .
=0 

U = sup

, = , ,

|U ()|
|, |
=
=



= .
, : H H , () = U .
:  () =  ().
.
7.1 (). : (H) = H .
, H ,
U H , . , -.
(1 ) = (2 ), 1 = 2 . ,
, 1 2 ,  = 0 H. = 1 2 ,

1 2 2 = 1 2 , 1 2  = 0.

74 . 3.

H H  . ,
, : H H  ,
:
(c1 1 + c2 2 ) = c1 (1 ) + c2 (2 ).
:

(c1 1 + c2 2 ) () = c1 1 + c2 2 ,  = c1 1 ,  + c2 2 ,  =
= c1 (1 ) () + c2 (2 ) ().

8.
. A : H H , H.
V () =  , A 1).
, () y H :
(y ) = V .
y ,  =  , A. ,
V y :

yc1 1 +c2 2 ,  = c1 1 + c2 2 , A = c1 1 , A + c2 2 , A =


= c1 y1 ,  + c2 y2 ,  = c1 y1 + c2 y2 , .
, y .
():

y  = sup
=0

|y , |
| , A|
A
= sup
  sup
= A .


=0
=0 

A : H H , y A .
A   A. , A  = A:
A 
|A , |
| , A|
= sup sup
= sup sup
=



=0
=0 =0
=0 =0  

A  = sup

1
|A, |
A
sup
= sup
= A.

=0  =0
=0 

= sup

1)
, A : H
H , U : H C.

8.

75

x H : (x) = sup
y=0

|x, y|
(. . y

).
A : H H , A = A . ,

A ,  =  , A,

, H ,

. . , .
, A : D(A) H.
A H ,
 , A, D(A)
(
D(A)) . ,
( )
H.
(. 6.1), D(A ),
u = A . ,
A : D(A ) H .
A , A A, . . A
A:

D(A ) D(A).

 , A = A , 
D(A) D(A ). , A ,
D(A) D(A )

 , A = A , 

(8.1)

, D(A).
A , A = A, . .
D(A ) = D(A), (8.1) .

76 . 3.

9.


, L2 R3
:  ,  = (x) (x) dx.
R3

,
(
L2 R3 )


A()(x)(x) dx =
R3

(x) A()(x) dx.


R3



K(x, y) L2 R3 R3 . K(x, y):


K(x, y)(y) dy.

A(x) =

(9.1)

R3

9.1. (9.1)
L2 R3 .
. -, , A
L2 -:
2

A =


2


 K(x, y)(y) dy  dx 



R3 R3

 

|K(x, y)|2 dy dx

R3 R3

|(y)|2 dy.

R3

.
2

A 

|K(x, y)|2 dx dy.

R6

, .
9.2. K L2 (R6 , R) (. . ). .

10. .

77

10. .


.
. , A (), ( )
, .
3.2. .
H dim H = n.
A : H H , A = A .
,
. 3.2
{j }nj=1 ,
. 3.1 ,
, .
,
1 , 2 , . . . , n ; j = j (
).
! j
j : j () = j , j .
, . ,
()

n

A=
j j .
j=1

.
.
A , . . (i)
, i = 1, . . . , n .
n = dim H , H ,
(i)
{ }ni=1 .

(i)
(i)
 ,  .
H , () =

78 . 3.

A

A=
j j .

(10.1)

.
.
3.1 . ,
, ,
.
, (10.1) .
, . .
()
,


A : L2 R3 L2 R3 , (10.1).

11. : , ,
.
A. , C , A = = 0.
, A I , I : H H ,
-.

(A I)(H) = H ,

C : H H.
, C
:

Ker C = { H : C = 0},

Im C = { H : = C , H}.
, Ker C , Im C H.

11. : , ,

79

11.1. C : H
H , dim H < ,

dim Ker C + dim Im C = dim H.

(11.1)

, A, (A I) . , ,
R = (A I)1 : H H . ,
dim H < , :
1) A = (. .
) R ;
2) R .
(2) .
:
3) R = (A I)1 (
Im (A I)), . . A = , R .
,
( ).
A H

R = (A I)1
. , A H . A D(A) H.

. ,
(A I) -
H , R = (A I)1
, .
Ker (A I) = 0, Im (A I) H , .
11.1.
A : H H C, ||  A.
, R H
, A.

80 . 3.

A.
, A
. A = , = 0, (A I) = 0 .
.
,
(. . n
= lim n , ),
n
.
11.2. A H.
.
.

A : D(A) H ,
:

R : H D(A).
R

R (A I) = ID(A) ,

(A I)R = I ,

ID(A) D(A)
A. A I : D(A)
H .

12.

12.1 ( ). A D(A).
, < < +, :
1)  < (. . :  ,  
  , );
2) (. . = lim );
0

3) = lim = 0, + = lim = I ;

4) B = B , B ,
A;

13.

5) D(A)

+


81

2 d ,  < ,

+


A =

(12.1)

A =
2

+


2 d , .

(12.2)

. B
A,
D(A) B D(A) AB = BA.
[a, b]
:
b

n



 f ()d
f (k )k 

 0, n ,
k=1

k ,
[a, b], k k ; k = k+1 k .
:
+


N


f () d = lim

f () d .
N

, f () =
D(A).
f
A:
+


f (A) =

f ()d .

13.
A : D(A) H ( D(A)). H ,
A, ,

82 . 3.

. ,

.
j A
, j
. A , :

A =
j j , D(A),
(13.1)
j

:

A = lim
j j .
N

D(A)

N j N

2j j 2

< .

A
sup |j | < .
j

13.1. {en }
n=1
1

H. Aen = en .
n

,
H. 0 = 0 = lim

1
A (
n

), 0 = 0
.


A =
en , en
n=1

H.
A, Aen = nen .


A =
nen , en
n=1


n=1

n2 |en , |2 < .

14.

83

14.

H (1) , . . . , H (n)
, j , j = 1, . . . , n. " #Nj
: ejk k=1 ,
j = 1, . . . , n. Nj  H (j). :

em = e(m1)1 e(m2)2 . . . e(n)


mn ,
. ,

H H (1) H (2) . . . H (n),


{em }, m = (m1 , . . . , mn ), mj = 1, . . . , Nj .
C- H

=
cm em ,
m

cm C

|cm |2 < .

H , em . m = (m1 , . . . , mn ) k =
= (k1 , . . . , kn )

em , ek  = em1 , ek1 1 em2 , ek2 2 . . . emn , ekn n .


, Nj < , H

dim H = N1 N2 . . . Nn .
n (
Nj > 1). , Nj = 2, j = 1, . . . , n, :
dim H = 2n.
, H (1) H (2).
j H (j), j = 1, 2. 1 2 em = e1m1 e2m2 :

84 . 3.

= 1 2 =




c m1 e m1

m1




c m2 e m2

m2



c m1 c m2 e m1 e m2 .

m1 m2



|cm1 cm2 |2 =

m1 m2



|cm1 |2

 

m1


|cm2 |2 < ,

m2

1 H (1) 2 H (2). ,
H (1) H (2) 1 2 .
:
(c1 u + c2 v) = c1 u + c2 v ,

(c1 + c2 ) u = c1 u + c2 u.
:

(H (1) H (2) ) H (3) = H (1) (H (2) H (3) ) = H (1) H (2) H (3),


, ,

( ) u = ( u) = u.

1 1 , 2 2  = 1 , 2 1 1 , 2 2 .
A1 : H (1) H (1) A2 : H (2) H (2) .

A A1 A2 = A1 A2
( H (1) H (2) ).
14.1. H (1) = L2 (RM1 ) H (2) = L2 (RM2 ).
L2 - :

{fk (x)}
k=1 {gi (y)}i=1 (, , ), x = (x1 , . . . , xM1 ) RM1 y = (y1 , . . . , yM2 )
RM2. H = H (1) H (2) L2 (RM1 ) L2 (RM2 )

Fki = fk gi .

14.

85

,
:

Fki (x, y) = fk (x)gi (y).


, H
. ,
H
:

(x, y) =
cki Fki (x, y).
ki

L2 (RM ), M = M1 + M2 (

|cki |2 <

ki

< ). , L2 -
. ,
L2 (RM1 ) L2 (RM2 ) = L2 (RM1 +M2 ).
-, .

1.
1. H :
H ,  = 1. : = c, c C, |c| = 1,
.
H . , Hn = Cn.
, x R3,
. - , .
, , .
( ),
. , , [6]. H = L2 (R3 ). ,
R3 .
1 .
1. H = L2 (Rn , Cm )
: Rn Cm .
- , .
n = 3 ( R3 ).
1 .
1. H ,  =
= 1, .

1.

87

, 1 1
:

SH = { H :  = 1},
SH , : =
= ei . 1
. ,
.
,
, . . 1
(
).
, L2 - , .
. -,  = 1,
.
1.1 ( ). H . ,
.
, .
H.
. , , .
,
.
.
, 1 1.
.
( ). 1 , . . . , N H ,
j  = 1.

= c1 1 + . . . + cN N ,

cj C.

H. H.

88

. 4.

, , H ,
. , , .
. ,
,

. . 6
, .
(x) L2 (R3 ),
(
= ).
2. H.
3. , A, .
, , ,
j .
1.2 ( ).
, . , ?
, H , SH (
). ( ) A : H H
SH . ,

, . . 7.
1.3 (). , ?
. , ,
.
. .

1.

89

; , A = 1, i, 1,
3

i, = 0, , , . 2
2

, . . 7.

.
4. H ,
A :

A=
j j , j R.
j

j ,
A,
:
P (A = j ) j 2.
, A,
, j , . . (
c = ei ) j ,
P (A = j ) = |j , |2.
{j } ,

A:
= c1 1 + . . . + cn n + . . .
cj C , cj = j , ,

|c1 |2 + . . . + |cn |2 + . . . = 2 = 1.


, |cj |2 j
, A.
 A = d .
R

4. H A. ,
R, :

P (A ) = || ||2,
.

90

. 4.

4
. . ,
.
. ,
.
3 4 .
5. ,
:

A=
j j , i = j , i = j.
j

A- k ,
( )
k :
k .
5 .
. ,
: .
,
()
. . 5 ()
, .
5. ,
:

A=
j j .
j

A- k ,
( )

j
=
.
j 

1.

j 

91

, j SH .
, ,
A = k
() k . , k A- !
.
6. , t (t),
:

ih

= H ,
t

H , h

, h h =
2
.


itH
it
Ut = e h e h d ,
H =

d , R

Ut+ = Ut U ,

Ut1 = Ut , U0 = I.

, Ut  = , . . Ut : SH SH .
:
. .
1.4 ( ). , , (-, ) .
. (-, )
. . - . , , -

92

. 4.



.
. ,
-, , . [209], .

. , t 1018 ,
.
15
. .
7. m
s1 , . . . , sm , ( ) H (1) , . . . , H (m) . s, s1 , . . . , sm ,

H = H (1) . . . H (m) .
,
.
s1 s2 1 = R2n1 2 = R2n2, s
s1 s2 = 1 2 = R2n1 R2n2 = R2(n1 +n2 ) .
(q1 , p1 ) (q2 , p2 ) s1 s2 ( ), s (p, q),
q = (q1 , q2 ) p = (p1 , p2 ). ,
:
H
(q , q , p , p ),
p1 1 2 1 2
H
p1 =
(q , q , p , p ),
q1 1 2 1 2

q1 =

p2

p2

H
(q , q , p , p ),
p2 1 2 1 2
H
p2 =
(q , q , p , p ),
q2 1 2 1 2

q2 =

H(q1 , q2 , p1 , p2 ) = 1 + 2 + V (q1 , q2 ) 2m1


2m2
s.
s1 , s2
, .

1.

93

, L2 (R3 ).
.
m V

h2
H = + V (q),
2m

n


, q = (q1 , . . . , qn ).
qj2
j=1

, s1 s2 ,
:

ih

1
h2
(t, q1 ) =
q 1 (t, q1 ) + V1 (q1 )1 (t, q1 ),
t
2m1 1

ih

2
h2
(t, q1 ) =
q (t, q2 ) + V2 (q2 )2 (t, q2 ).
t
2m2 2 2

, , ,
s s1 , s2 (t, q1 , q2 ) = (1 (t, q1 ), 2 (t, q2 )). ,
s1 , s2 .
V (q1 , q2 ).
. s
L2 (R3 ) L2 (R3 ),
L2 (R3 ) L2 (R3 ) L2 (R3 R3 ) =
= L2 (R6 ):



h2
h2
ih
(t, q1 , q2 ) =
q1
q2 (t, q1 , q2 ) +
t

2m1

2m2

+ V (q1 , q2 )(t, q1 , q2 ).


. . m
,
H2 = C2. m H2m = C2 . . . C2.
dim H2m = 2m ,
2m.

94

. 4.

2.
,
, ,
.
4. ,
A1 , . . . , An , ,
.
, 1 , . . . , n ,
A1
An 2
P (A1 1 , . . . , An n ) = 
. . .
 ,
n
1

(2.1)

A A.

( , , ).
. ,
,
, .
, (2.1) , .
,
.
, ,
(,
), ,


, ,
.

3.
. -

3.

95

.
.
( ) .

( , , ),
, ,
, . ,
( ) .
, 1 2 .
S , 1 2
p1 , p2 , pj > 0 p1 + p2 = 1.
,

= p1 1 + p2 2 ,
j j .

- . j Cj , j = 1, 2,
Sj ,
Cj 1). ,
S , S1 S2 p1 p2 .
1 2 .
4, .
, ,

j j . ,
: A =

P (A = j ) = p1 j 1 2 + p2 j 2 2 .

P (A = j ) = Tr j .
1)

(3.1)

, j Oj
R3 ( O1 O2 = ); Cj
Oj ; Sj .

96

. 4.

, .
8 ( ).

, :
) , = ;
) , Tr < ( , );
) Tr = 1;
)  ,   0 .
A j (3.1).
, (
)
:

=
j j ,
j

j [0, 1]

Tr =
j dim j (H) = 1,
j

. ), ). j (H) (
j )

H : {j }, , j ,

j j ,

(3.2)

j=1

j = 1 .

j=1

H H H. 1 2
A 1 2 ,
:
A = 2 , 1 ,

4.

97

ck,m fk gm , fk , gm H , :

k,m

A =

ckm gm , fk .

k,m

,

= .
(3.2)


j=1

j j j ,

j = 1 .

j=1

, :

= .

,
. - ( ) ( ). ,
H.
?
. 7.

4.

[6] ( L2 (R3 ), 1 1). ,
.
H
( ). - | . 4 . .

98

. 4.

, H .
- |1  |2  c1 , c2 ,
-:

| = c1 |1  + c2 |2 .
: , 1) -. , ,
, - - .
.
() . , , . [6]
.
.

[6] .
, . ,
, ,
,
2). ,
,
.
.
. , , ?
-, . ( ). ,
, ( ) 1)

.
, .
.
2)

4.

99

.
.
,
. .

.
. , , ,
, . .
, ,
; ,
; ,
sin2 .
[6], , ,
. , ,
.
- |+. , , ; |.

. +1 (), 1 ( ).
. , . ,
. 0 = (t0 ).
= (t), t  t0 . 0
() (T )
, . T
.
. , ,
, .
4*

100

. 4.

, , . ,


.

, , .
. -, ,
(t)?
. . ,
,
. . -,


,
.
. ,
, ,
, ,
.
, , 1).
( ).
,
sin2
, . , .
,
.
1)
.
.
. .

4.

101

. , ,
.
. .
. , ? ,
, . , ,
. ,
.
.
,

, .
, .
. ,
( , ). ,
, ,
, , ,
, , .
, , ,
, , ,
( |+, |) ,
.
, . . , -

.
- ,
.

102

. 4.


. ,
. , |+,
|.
|+ |
. ,
.
.
( ).
, m,
V (q), :

h2
ih
=
+ V .
t

2m

: = (t). , ,
, A (
). ,

. , .
,
[49].
, .
.
. , .
.
, -.
- () 1). , , . , {|+, |},
.
1)

, -.
, .

103

4.

.
, , . :
, , : |u ,
|u.

c1 |u + c2 |u = (c1 + c2 )|u.


, - (c1 + c2 )|u
, - |u. , c1 + c2 = 0 .
(nothing at all).
. , ,
-, , , ,
- .
[6] ,
.
, , , ,
. - ,
.

.
,

| = c1 |1  + c2 |2 .
, 1 2 . |

c| = (cc1 )|1  + (cc2 )|2 ,

c = 0,

104

. 4.

, . | R1 = |c1 |2, R2 = |c2 |2


R1 = |c|2 R1 , R2 = |c|2 R2 .
. ,

. ,
,
. , . . 7,
.

: ( )
.
(
). ,
.
.
1 2
, , 1
2 . , :

P(1 ) =

|c1 |2
,
|c1 |2 + |c2 |2

P(2 ) =

|c2 |2
.
|c1 |2 + |c2 |2

(4.1)

,

. , .
.
(4.1).
, .
c1 + c2 = 0. , | = c1 |1  + c2 |2 
|1  |2 ,
|1  = |2  = |u c1 + c2 = 0 ,
|u .
H.
H -,
[6] H .

105

4.

: H C. H : (1 + 2 )() = 1 () +
+ 2 (), 1 , 2 H H , (c)() = c().
. H - |.
| |
| ( ()). ,

|(|1  + |2 ) = |1  + |2 ,

|(c|) = c|.

|. , - |: | = 0,


- | = 0. |.
H :

(1 | + 2 |)  = 1 | + 2 |,
(c|)| = c|.
- H.

H H .
. 3, 7 , . 7.1,
H : H H ,
(H) = H . H  H .

(c1 1 + c2 2 ) = c1 (1 ) + c2 (2 ).
, : 1), H 
H , . ,
.
,
-. , 1)
, ,
x x, :
) x  0, ) x = 0 x = 0, ) cx = |c|x, c C, ) x + y  x
+ y.
, x = x, x .
.

106

. 4.

,
( H = H  ). 1)
[6] , -, -, |1  + |2  , -,
|1  |2 , -, (c|), c -, |.

-
-. , -, |, |.
H |

|c1 1 + c2 2  = c1 |1  + c2 |2 ,


c1 1 + c2 2 ,  = c1 1 | + c2 2 |.
,

| = |

,   0,

| = 0.
.
. A : H H ; | = A|
A - |; : A(c1 |1  +
+ c2 |2 ) = c1 A|1  + c2 A|2 .

(A + B)| = A| + B|

(cA)| = c(A|).
1)
, , E -
E  -. ,
, .

4.

107

|A|
, A.
||

A|u = |u|.
, || |:

(||)|u = |u|.
| A

A| = |.

1.

- - . . ,
. 1 |+ ( , ) 0
| ( , ).

, 0, 1.
0, 1
:
| = c1 |0 + c2 |1,
c1 , c2 C |c1 |2 + |c2 |2 = 1. ,

{| = c| : c C} -,
| SH . , ei.
, | .
. . 7 ,
. ,
. F2 = {0, 1}
( 2),
. F2 ,

1.

109

. .
.
,
. , .

. . . ,
, ,
.
, n .
n . 0
|0 1 |1. ,
|0 |, |1 |+. H2 = C2, n: H2n = C2 . . . C2 .
H2 j = 1, . . . , n
|xj , x = 0, 1, H2n :

|x1 1 . . . |xn n .
- ,
|x1  . . . |xn ,

|x = |x1 . . . xn ,

xj = 0, 1.

-

| =
cx |x,
cx C,

|2

|cx = 1.

x = x1 + x2 2 + . . . + xn 2n1 ,

xj = 0, 1.

x = 0, 1, . . . , 2n 1.
, 2n. F2n .

110

. 5.

n F2n .

| =

n 1
2

cx |x.

x=0

2.
, , 0, 1 (, )
|0, |1 ( ),
(, , )
() () .
( , quantum gates).
, . .
:
NOT:


0 1
, NOT : |0  |1; |1  |0;
NOT =
1 0
:

UH
1

1
=
2


1 1
,
1 1
1

UH : |0  (|0 + |1); |1  (|0 |1).


2

:
CNOT
, 2
:
CNOT : |x, y  |x, x + y mod 2,
CNOT : |0 |0  |0 |0; |0 |1  |0 |1,
CNOT : |1 |0  |1 |1; |1 |1  |1 |0;

2.

00, 01, 10, 11:

1 0
0 1
CNOT =
0 0
0 0

0
0
0
1

111

0
0
;
1
0

:
( 1) 11 :

B : |0 |0  |0 |0;


B : |1 |0  |1 |0;

1 0
0 1
B=
0 0
0 0

|0 |1  |0 |1,


|1 |1  |1 |1,

0 0
0 0
.
1 0
0 1

:
CNOT = 1 UH B 1 UH ;
SWAP
SWAP : |0 |0  |0 |0;
SWAP : |1 |0  |0 |1;

1 0
0 0
SWAP =
0 1
0 0

|0 |1  |1 |0,


|1 |1  |1 |1;

0 0
1 0
.
0 0
0 1

:
(8-) ,
.

a, b ,
:
c  ab + c,

2.
L L :
L

C2 =

L
$1
i=0

C2 .

112

. 5.

: L

W =

L
$1

UH .

i=0

3.

N 1
 2ikx 
1 
.
|k exp
QFT : |x 
N
N k=0


QFT : |x0 , . . . , xL1  
1

(|0 + e2ix2

L+1

|1) (|0 + e2ix2

|1) . . .
1

. . . (|0 + e2ix2 |1).


, L .

4.
f (x),
x = 0, 1 . ,
f (x1 , . . . , xn ), n
, n.
,
.
, f (x) , f (0) = f (1). :
1) f (0) = f (1) = 0; 2) f (0) = f (1) = 1, :
1) f (0) = 0, f (1) = 1; 2) f (0) = 1, f (1) = 0.
: , f (x) .
. f
, x = 0, 1, f (0) f (1). ,
f.

4.

113

. f
.
) :

0 = |0|1.

(4.1)

) , UH UH :

0 1 =

1
1
(|0 + |1)(|0 |1) = (|00 + |10 |01 |11).
2
2

) . , ()
Uf , f ( ):
Uf |x|y = |x|y f (x).
(4.2)
, :
1
(|0|0 f (0) + |10 f (1)
2
1
|0|1 f (0) |1|1 f (1) = (|0(|0 f (0)
2
1
|1 f (0)) + |1(|0 f (1) |1 f (1)).
2

out = Uf 1 =

|0 f (x) |1 f (x) = (1)f (x) (|0 |1),


(1)f (1) = (1)2f (0)f (1) ,

2f (0) f (1) (2f (0)) f (1).

out =

1
((1)f (0) |0 + (1)f (1) |1) (|0 |1) =
2
1
= (1)f (0) (|0 + (1)f (0)f (1) |1)
2

(|0 |1).

) . f (0) = f (1),

|0 + |1

,
2
|0|1
f (0 ) =
 f (1) (. . f ), = .
2

+ =

114

. 5.

,
(f (x) x = 0 x = 1) ( Uf )
. n , T = 2n
f (x) 2n ,
f (x) (, Uf ).

5.
,
50- 1).
-29 12 . .
.
, .
,
-29 .
.
.
, ,
,
2).
( -29,

) .
, , . ,
. -,
( ).
1)

. , ,
- .
2)
.

6.

115

6.
: , f (x1 , . . . , xn ) . .
, f =
= (1 , . . . , n ),

f (x) = f (y) y = x .

(6.1)


) :

0 = |00 . . . 0.

(6.2)

) :

0 1 =

1 

n/2

|x.


x = (x1 , . . . , xn ).
) f. n , ,
n f : |z = |z1 . . . zn . Uf :
 

|x |z
(|x|z f (x).
(6.3)
x

, |z f (x)
|f (x), ( ).
1 |00 . . . 0
1 
2 = n/2
|x|f (x).
2

1 )

( n -

):

out =

1 
(1)xy |y|f (x).
2n
x

) (
|y, |f (x)).

116

. 5.

|y|f (x)
2
1 
P = 2n (1)xy + (1)(x+)y 
2

(, f ). , P =

1
2(n1)

( , y) = 0, P = 0, ( , y) = 0. ,
y , .
P y. , y . n 1 , y1 , . . . , yn1 , .
, (,
).
, ()(), y . ,
. , ,
:
y1 (), . . . , yn1 () (
!) , .
1
e

Pn1 P ( : y1 (), . . . , yn1 () )  ,


e = 2,718 281 828 .. .
, n 1
:

Pn1  0,354.
, ,
. . [9, 146, 147]. .
().
, out . , , x- f -.
) y , y . ()() m(n 1) ,


1 m
1
 .
e

7.

117

1 n 1
, ,
.

7.

. .
F q = Z/qZ q , q .
0, 1, . . . , q 1. q , . .
x y
q :
x + y (mod q).
q. q , ( ).
. ()
.
a > b > 0. a b :

a = q1 b + r1 ,

0  r1 < b.

, b, r1 a, b:

b = q2 r1 + r2 ,

0  r2 < r1 .

, ( ,
ri
).

rk = qk+2 rk+1 + rk+2 ,

rk+1 = qk+3 rk+2 .

rk+2 = d.
, rk
. b = r0 , a = r1 ,
, , d a b.
, c a b. c r1 ,
ri , d. , d
a b.

118

. 5.

, A B
(A, B).
: (128,24).
128 = 5 24 + 8,

24 = 3 8.

(128, 24) = 8.
() .
( ) :
a
= q1 +
b

q2 +

q3 + .

..

1
qn

. a, b
:

a = q1 b + r1 ,
b = q2 r1 + r2 ,

a
1
= q1 +
,
b
b/r1
b
1
= q2 +
,
r1
r1 /r2

rk
1
= qk+2 +
,
rk+1
rk+1 /rk+2
rk+1
= qk+3 rk+2 ,
= qk+3 .
rk+2

rk = qk+2 rk+1 + rk+2 ,


rk+1

, . .
7.1. x , a, b
,


1

a
 x < 2 ,
b

2b

a/b x. , .

7.

119

. m1 , . . . , mk
x = a1 (mod m1 )
............
x = ak (mod mk ).
,
M = m1 . . . mk .
. Mi = M/mi . ,
Mi mi , Ni :

Mi Ni = 1 (mod mi ).

x=

k


ai Mi Ni .

i=1

x = ai Mi Ni = ai (mod mi ),
. . x .
mi .
. p . a
ap = a mod p,
, a p:

ap1 = 1 mod p.
. a
p. {0, a, 2a, . . . , (p 1)a}
p, . .
p {0, 1, 2, . . . , p 1}.

ap1 (p 1)! = (p 1)! mod p.


, (ap1 1)(p 1)! p. (p 1)!
p, () .
.
. (n) , n n.

120

. 5.

, p

(p) = p 1,

(pn ) = pn pn1 .

m, n: (m, n) = 1 :
(mn) = (m)(n).

n = p1 1 . . . pk k
1
1
(n) = n(1 p
1 ) . . . (1 pk ).

.
. (a, m) = 1 (. . a m
),
a(m) = 1 mod m.
.
r1 , r2 , . . . , r(m) ,
m. a m, ar1 , ar2 , . . . , ar(m)
m
r1 , r2 , . . . , r(m) m. , ,

a(m) r1 . . . r(m) = r1 . . . r(m) mod m.


r1 , r2 , . . . , r(m) m,
a(m) 1 = 0 mod m.

.
7.2. C > 0,
n
(n)
C

.
n
log log n

8.
8.1. . ma
(mod M ) .
, m, a < M. .
8.1. ,
O(n2 (log n)3 ), n = log M .

121

8.

. a :

a = a0 + a1 2 + . . . + as 2s ,

ai = 0, 1.

m0 = m, i = 1, . . . , s,

mi = m2i1 mas i (mod M ).


s  n = log M
, O(n(log n)3 ) ,
.
8.2. . M. m: 1 < m  M ,
M : (m, M ) = 1. m
. m, . . r:

mr = 1 (mod M ).
N = 2L : M 2 < N < 2M 2 .

.
1. .
N 1
1 
1 =
|x |0.
N

x=0


L,
, M (. .
L1 : 2L1 > M ).
2. . mx
(mod M )
1

2 =

N
1


|x |mx (mod M ).

x=0

3. .
:
1

|x =

N
1

k=0

|k exp

 2ikx 
N

122

. 5.

3 =

N 1 N 1
 2ikx 
1  
| exp
|k mx (mod M ).
N
N
x=0 k=0

4. . .

|k , mz (mod M ) = |k mz (mod M )


:

|P (k , mz (mod M )) = |k , mz (mod M ), 3 |2 .


k. , ,
rk (mod N ).
r m N.
,
. ,
().
, , , (
) ,
(,
1).
8.1. k , N , k < N ,
r, d, d < r < N ,
r
2

r
2

 rk dN  .

(8.1)

. d/r, k/N
, , N. k/N
( 7.1).
8.2. r, k , N , d (8.1), r
N ,

|P (k , mz (mod M )) 

1
.
3r 2

5. .
k ( ). M , k N , r.

123

8.

N > M 2, d/r, , (8.1):

1
k
d
1


.
2N
N
r
2N

d/r,
, ( ). ,
,

.
8.2.
.
8.3. M , ,

O(log log M ) , r > 0, M.
. d/r, d, r ,
.
r ( ).
r(r) |k , mz (mod M ), r,
(r) d, r,
r mz (mod M ). 8.2
1/3r2.
, r
(r)/3r. 5.2 ,
.
8.2.

mz (mod M ) | mx (mod M ) = 1,

z = x (mod r),

mz (mod M ) | mx (mod M ) = 0,

z = x (mod r).

mz (mod M ), k | 3  =

1
N


x=z (mod r)

x = br + z.

exp

 2ikx 
N

124

. 5.


x=z (mod r)

exp

 2ikx 
N

f


exp

 2ik(br + z) 
N

b=0

f=

N 1 z 
r

2ikr(f + 1)
 N 
2ikr
1 exp
N

 2ikz  1 exp

= exp
f :

=






 2ikz  1 exp 2ikr(f + 1) 2

1
 =
|P (k , mz (mod M )) =  exp
 N 

2ikr
N
N
1 exp

N
kkr(f + 1)

2
1 sin
 N 
= 2
2 kr
N
sin

|1 e2ix |2 = 1 e2ix e2ix + 1 = 2 2 cos 2x =


= 2(1 cos2 x + sin2 x) = 4 sin2 x.
(8.1)
kr dN + r , [1/2, 1/2].


2 r(f + 1)
1 sin
 N  ,
2 r
N2
sin
N

[1/2, 1/2]. N sin2 () ( r). 1/(r)2.


sin (x) >

2
x,

0<x<

,
2

125

8.


4 2
4
4
= 2 2 > 2.
r
r
3r
2 2 2

.
,
, .
8.4.
mod M

O((log M )2 (log log M )(log log log M ))


. , ( ).
8.3. . , . M m,
1  m < M , r
m, .
r ,
(mr/2 1, M ) .
1, M. 1 r ,
m.
, M .

y 2 = 1 (mod M ).

y = 1 (mod M ).
, y = b,

b2 = 1 (mod M ),

b = 1 (mod M ).

(b 1)(b + 1) = 0 (mod M ),
. .

b = 1 (mod M ),

(b 1)(b + 1) = kM.

(8.2)

, b 1 b + 1 ( )
kM k. b

126

. 5.

( b2 < 2M ), k = 1, b 1, b + 1
M.
, r m, , b = mr/2,
b2 = 1 (mod M ).
.
9.1. m r
(mod M ),

mr/2 = 1 (mod M )
mr < 2M.

(mr/2 1, M ) > 1.
mr < 2M ,
k (8.2).
, , ,
r mr/2 . ,
.
9.1. M

M = p1 1 p2 2 . . . pk k .
, m 1  m  M , M :
(m, M ) = 1. r m M.
, r mr/2 = 1 (mod M ),

1
Prob > 1 k1
2

( k M ). k  2.
. r . r m, mr/2 = 1 (mod M ) .
x = 1 (mod M )

x = 1 (mod pi ),

i = 1, . . . , k

( ). mod M.
.

9.

127

1) r . m
x = mr , 1/2, (
, m ,
),
1/2k.
2) r mr/2 = 1 (mod M ).

mr/2 = 1 (mod pi ),

i = 1, . . . , k.

, , 1/2k1.

Prob 

1
k1

9.
2L (
0 1 L )
F (x), 0 1, F (x)
1 x0 . ,
.
1/2 , F (x) = 1, N/2 .
,
. F

IF : |x  eiF (x) |x.


, ( 1)
|x0  .
J = I , , |0 (. . J |0
1 ).
.

128

. 5.

L
L
9.1. 1) T = UH
JUH
IF ( ) , |x0 

| =

N
1


|x.

x=0

2) T
, |x0  |, | |x0  N , ( N )

2
N = .
N

.
L
L
UH
JUH
= 2|| 1,

T = (2|| 1)(1 2|x0 x0 |) =


4

= 1 + 2|| + 2|x0 x0 |

||,

L
L
|0 = |, UH
| =
UH
L 2
= |0, (UH ) = 1.
, T , |x0 , |,

T | = | +

|x0 

4
|,
N

T |x0  = |x0 

|.

, N
, |x0 , |. N
1
. , N |x0 , |
N

N =

,
|x0 , |,
N .
: , |, T ( N
, N ).

10.

129


x0 .

10.
(. .
). ,
-. ,
, .

.
-,
(, ).
, :
= |0 + |1,

||2 + ||2 = 1.

(, ),

1

0 = (|00 + |11).
2

( ). S , ( ) . ,

.
, . ,

0
1

= (|0 + |1)(|00 + |11).


2

5 . .

130

. 5.

.

1

= (|000 + |100 + |011 + |111).


2

, ,
. ,
(CNOT):

|00 |00, |01 |01, |10 |11, |11 |10.



1

1 = (|000 + |110 + |011 + |101).


2

( 45 ) ( ).
:

2 =

1
((|000 + |100) + (|010 |110) + (|011 + |111) +
2

+ (|001 |101)).
,
.

. , - .
.
. 2 :

2 =

1
(|00(|0 + |1) + |01(|1 + |0) + |10(|0 |1) +
2

+ |11(|1 |0)).
, , ( )
:

e1 = |00, e2 = |01, e3 = |10, e4 = |11.


A = e1 + 2e2 + 3e3 + 4e4 ,


ej = ej ej ej , j = 1, 2, 3, 4.

10.

131

. ,
, . . .
,
:








1 0
0 1
1 0
0 i
I=
, x =
, z =
, y =
.
0 1
1 0
0 1
i 0
, , = |0 + |1,

= , = i(|0 + |1). 2
1 ,
.
, . . ,

,
.
, A , , A = 1,

u = |00(|0 + |1).
! ,
. , ( , :
), .
, L;
,
tL = L/c. ,
, : T > tL .
- . . ,
,
.
5*

1.

, -
. 6080
. .
.
, (. .
), .
.

, . ,
.
,
() .
, .
, .
,
,
. , () . , ,

. ,

1.

133

. , . ,
, (-),
, . ,
: ,
!
() .
. ,
( ), , ( ,
, , , ), . ,
. . , ,
, .
,
.
.

.
,
. .
. , ( )

.
(
).

, .
,
. ( .
.
?) , . ,
, , ,
.

134

. 6.

,
, , ,
( )
( ) . ,
.

,
.
, ,
-.
. ,
.

2.


.
.
,
. :
,
. ,
. , ,
. ,
,
.
, , .
, ( ) ,
.
, ,
,
.

2. 135

, ,
, (, ,
) !
, , .
. , . , . ,
-
[28].
, .
. , ,
, ,
. .
, ,
, , ,
.
, . 100- .

. ,
, ( ), .
,

.
.

.
, .
, .
. , , -

136

. 6.

, ,

, .
, . -.
. ,

. ,
(, ), . (
) N
.
. ,
, -, .
, ( ) . ,
.
.
, ,
, . ,
.
, ,
.

3.
?
40 .
, .
,

3.

137

1). ,
( , )
, -, .

, . [22, 23, 25, 165, 170, 190,
160], , ,
.
, .
: ?
? , ,
,
( ).
, . ,
.
, , ,
, .
. : ) ; ) . -,
. ,

. , ! ,

1)
,
. ( ,
), ( , , ,
), . ,
, .
, .
(- ) , .

138

. 6.

, [7].

. ,
. . , .
.

. , .
,
.
,
. , :
[50]
[15].
,
.

4.
4.1. .
= (, F, P). , F - P
F.
() ()


 ,  = () () dP().

4.1. a (),
b (), c (), 1,
|a , b  c , b |  1 a , c .
(4.1)

4.

139

= a () b () dP() c () b () dP() =


= [a () c ()] b () dP(). (4.2)

a2 = 1,






|| =  [1 a () c ()] a () b () dP() 

 [1 a () c ()] dP(). (4.3)

4.2.
4.2. a (), b (), c () 1.

P(a = +1, b = +1) + P(b = 1, c = +1) 


 P(a = +1, c = +1). (4.4)
.

P( : a () = +1, b () = +1) =
= P( : a () = +1, b () = +1, c () = +1) +
+ P( : a () = +1, b () = +1, c () = 1),

(4.5)

P( : b () = 1, c () = +1) =
= P( : a () = +1, b () = 1, c () = +1) +
+ P( : a () = 1, b () = 1, c () = +1)

(4.6)

140

. 6.

P( : a () = +1, c () = +1) =
= P( : a () = +1, b () = +1, c () = +1) +
+ P( : a () = +1, b () = 1, c () = +1). (4.7)
(5) (6),

P( : a () = +1, b () = +1) +
+ P( : b () = 1, c () = +1) =
= P( : a () = +1, b () = +1, c () = +1) +
+ P( : a () = +1, b () = +1, c () = 1) +
+ P( : a () = +1, b () = 1, c () = +1) +
+ P( : a () = 1, b () = 1, c () = +1). (4.8)
(8)
P( : a () = +1, c () = +1).

P( : a () = +1, b () = +1) +
+ P( : b () = 1, c () = +1) =
= P( : a () = +1, c () = +1) +
+ P( : a () = +1, b () = +1, c () = 1) +
+ P( : a () = 1, b () = 1, c () = +1). (4.9)
, ,

P( : a () = +1, b () = +1) +
+ P( : b () = 1, c () = +1) 
 P( : a () = +1, c () = +1). (4.10)
4.3.
4.3. j () j (), j = 1, 2,
, :

|j ()|  1 |j ()|  1 . .

(4.11)

5.

141

1 , 1  + 1 , 2  + 2 , 1  2 , 2   2.

(4.12)

. , :

u1 v1 + u1 v2 + u2 v1 u2 v2  2,

(4.13)

1 1 + 1 2 + 2 1 2 2  2.

(4.14)

,
P.

5.

(4.1), (4.4), (4.12) ,
(, )
, .

.
a (), b (), c (), ab (), ac (), . . . ,
ba (), ca (), . . .

, a (,
) b .

a (), b.
(4.1), (4.4), (4.12), . ,
(4.1), (4.4), (4.12)
,
.
, 1, 2,
. ,

142

. 6.

a () ( ab ()
).
, . , ,
a
, , +1, : 1.
,
a () .
.
. , : ,
() , .

,
. ,
, .

6.

, . . ,
. s1 , s2 , s3 , . . . ,
,
1 , 2 , 3 , . . . ,
,
() E , E ,
,
. , , , E + E.
,
.

6.

143


- F .
, , ( , ). ,
.

: R. :
B R
1 (B) F. , . ,
,
() .
V (),
. , V ()
. ,
( ) V () ( )
.

. P F. S(). ,
S() . S() . ,
(. . 7, 8) S()
, .

, . . ,
.
. , ,
, .
V ().
. ( )
.
.

144

. 6.

,
. . a
a.

, Ls (H) .
,

. ,
D(H).
,

M = (S(), V ())

N = (Ls (H), D(H)).


, M ,
.
( ) , M .

( )

j : V () Ls (H),
j : S() D(H),

(6.1)

i : Ls (H) V ().
i : D(H) S().

(6.3)

(6.2)

(6.4)

, j i -,
(6.1), (6.2) (6.3), (6.4) .
, , -, j i.
, ,
a, b, . . .


7.

145

7.

[15],
j (6.1):
1). j -.
2). f : R R

j(f ()) = f (j())
(7.1)
V ().
3). 1 ,
2 , . . .
j(1 + 2 + . . .) = j(1 ) + j(2 ) + . . .
(7.2)
[23], j(1 ), j(2 ), . . . . ,

[j(n ), j(m )] = 0, n = m.
, ,
V ()
Ls (H). .
.
1 ( ). 13 ( ) j : S() D(H), S() , -, :


P () dP() = Tr 
a,

(7.3)

a = j().
= j(P), 
1,
.
2 ( ).
(6.1), (6.2), 13.
, D(H)
.
- 1).
1)

- , .

146

. 6.

8.
.
3,
(7.2)

ak = j(k ). 1. ,
, a Ls (H) 
V ().


. ,
a Ls (H) , 
- . , , j(V ())
Ls (H), . . [45].
, 1 3, 2
. , 1). ,
, , ,
2).
() I
1). j(V ())
I
(), [0, 2), 1/2.
2). V () ()

a = j().
3). j(S())
1

= (|+| ||+).
2

(8.1)

4- H = C2 C2
1

= (|+ | | |+).
2

(8.2)

1)
,
.
2)
70- (.
[1, 1820]). , [215].

8.

147

, , j : V ()
Ls (H) j : S() D(H) .
j(V ()) j(S()) .
2, 3
, V () L(H).
, , j , .
(6.1), (6.2), . .
i, (6.3), (6.4),
1).
, j i ( ).

a Ls (H) : i(
a) = a , a a) V (). D(H)
j 1 (
: i() = P , P
j 1 () S(). , j
i .
, .
i j.
[44].
4). D(H) a b

:


a , b P a ()b () dP () = 
a, b Tr 
a b.

(8.3)

5). [0, 2)

() = i(
() I)  () = i(I
())
:

() =  ()

(8.4)
(8.5)

. . P , = .
8.1 ().
H .
j : V () Ls (H), j : S() D(H),
1)
13 , .

148

. 6.

13 , i
4, 5, .
, , i. 1
, i, . (6.3), , 3 i,
. (6.4), . , -,
. i, ,
a


a = i(
a).
. 4.1
(), :

|1 , 2 P 3 , 2 P |  1 1 , 3 P ,
P P . , 2 . ,
,
1. 5

|1 ,  2 P 3 ,  2 P |  1 + 1 ,  3 P .
4 :
|Tr ( )(
(1 ) I)(I
(2 ))

(2 ))| 
Tr ( )(
(3 ) I)(I
(1 ) I)(I
(3 )).
 1 + Tr ( )(

1 , 2 , 3 , . 8.2.

( V () L(H))
2, . 2,
4.
,
8.1 :

8.

149

,
( )
(
)?
, ,
,
4. , .
,
.
4

.
). D(H) a, b Ls (H)

:
a b
P ( : a () A, b () B) = Tr A
B ,

(8.6)

a), b = i(b), A B
a = i(
a } { b }
R. {A
B
a b.

8.2 (). 8.1
4 .
. 4.2 P P , =
(8.4), (), :
P( : 1 () = +1, 2 () = +1) +
+ P( : 2 () = 1, 3 () = +1) 
 P( : 1 () = +1, 3 () = +1).
, 2. , . ! , ,

150

. 6.

()  () , .
5
P( : 1 () = +1,  2 () = 1) +
+ P( : 2 () = 1,  3 () = 1) 
 P( : 1 () = +1,  3 () = 1).
B
:


Tr ( )+ (1 )
(2 ) + Tr ( ) (2 )
(3 ) 

(3 ),
 Tr ( )+ (1 )

(8.7)

 () ()
() I I
().

()  (), ,
:

1
2
sin2 1
,
2
2
1
3
P ((2 ) = 1,  (3 ) = 1) = cos2 2
,
2
2
1
3
P ((1 ) = +1,  (3 ) = 1) = sin2 1
.
2
2
1
3
.
P ((2 ) = +1,  (3 ) = +1) = cos2 2
2
2

P ((1 ) = +1,  (2 ) = 1) =

(8.7)
2
3
3
sin2 1
+ cos2 2
 sin2 1
(8.8)
2

1 = 0, 2 = 6, 3 = 2

sin2 3 + cos2 3  sin2 .

(8.9)

f () = sin2 3 + cos2 2 sin2


( ), ,
f ()  0 .

9.

151

2 V ()
, 
a = j() Ls (H).
:
). V ()

sup{|x| : x ()} = sup{|x| : x Spectrum (j())}.

(8.10)

8.3. 8.1
2
5 ( ).
, 8.1 8.2,
, . 4.3, (4.12).
, ,
.
j : V () Ls (H) i : Ls (H)
V (). a , a,
b,
a, b ] = 0.
a: [ 
.
, ,
,
, , . [50, . 49].
, ,
, .

9.

2 a,
a = j(). ,


152

. 6.

2,
, -.
? , !
[280],
:
, : ,
, , .
.
, ,
( ),
. (, )
.
.
, ,
, , .
,
, . , ()
h

, 2
? ,
? ,
h
2

+ (),

(9.1)

?
, 
a = j() . ,
( ,

), 2 .
.

10.

153

:

( 2, 2 ), ()

.

10.
, . .
11. ,
. , a.

. ,
. ,
a
, a.
C
,
.
, , .
,
, , .
,
a ,
a?
,
. ,
(),
.
,
, (. 9.1).

154

. 6.

10.1.
.
, , ,
1).
j
,
( )
(- ).
. .

, ,
a , 

j 1 (
a) = { V () : j() = 
a}
.
-, ,
, , P . ,
.
. ,

j 1 () = {P S() : j(P) = }
, , , j 1 (
a).
10.2. . ,

, 8.18.3 P j 1 () (
) 
a a) ( j 1 (
).
1)

R3 R3 .

10.

155

.
,
. , , .
,


(,
).
,
. , . ,
, ,
(),   (), . . , P ,

( ), , (),   ().
C1 ( ).
, ,  .
. C2 .
.
, , ,
(). ,
C2 P (), C1 .
, C , ( ,
, ).
,
C. , ,
C : P P,C ,

156

. 6.

: a,C (), b,C (), c,C ().


. , 4.1,
: C1 , C2 , C3 .


a , b (C1 ) = a,C1 ()b,C1 () dP,C1 (),

c , b (C2 ) = c,C2 ()b,C2 () dP,C2 ().

C1 = C2 , , 4.1. ,
:


a , c (C3 ) = a,C3 ()c,C3 () dP,C3 ().

C1 = C2 = C3 .
,
, . [10], .
, , .
[8588]. ,
.

.

() , . [247, 228, 229, 116, 24, 26].

( 4.2) ( 4.3).
. C.
, C
Q. Q(C) C C -

10.

157

C. j : V () Ls (H)
i : S() D(H)

i : C Ls (H) V (),

i : C D(H) S().

C (
a () 
a)(), ) () = i(C , 

P = i(C , ). , P C.
.

, ?
(, , , ), ,
C C ,
. . Q C :

Q(C) = 0

(10.1)

C C.
10.1. () (10.1)
, , .
. Q(C) = 0,
, C = C1 = C2 = C3
.
10.3. . , ,
, , 1).
1)

( ),
, .
,
(entanglet) , -

158

. 6.

, ,
( ) , ,
: ,
, ( )
.
,
.
. , ,
,
. .

11.

, .
, . a b,
a, b ] = 0, [ 
a Ls (H). a-
. 
b, a. ,
a-
C Cb , b Ls (H) [ 
a, b ] = 0.
, . , , a b , ,
:

i(Cb , 
a)() = a (Cb , ).
.
. .
.
.

12.

159

, a, b,
.

12.
,
. .

.
, ,
.

, ,
.


( )
.
. , .
,
.

7


.
.

. . 6
. ,
, . ,
,
,
.
, , .
,
[10, 13, 1826, 30, 31, 39, 42, 46,
5557, 60, 61, 68, 78, 80, 8499, 110, 120, 136141, 149, 162216,
225227, 235238, 244, 245, 253, 254, 269, 270, 283287, 290].
[197, 204, 209] ,
. .
, .
() ,
. .

.

.

1.

161


, . . 8.
, , . , ,
, 2n = Rn Rn ,
, = L2 (R3 , R) L2 (R3 , R), L2 (R3 , R)
: R3 R,
. , , ( ),
( )

.
, 1). :


q(x)
(x) =
,
p(x)
q L2 (R3 , R) p L2 (R3 , R)
. , , ,
f : R.
,
,
. .

1.


,
.

1)
, , .

6 . .

162

. 7.

(
) , .
, , -
, - .

[5], ,
.
[5, . 238235].
1.1.
. .

( )
,
. ,
, .
, ,
,
. ,

, .
, ,

.
, ,
(). , ,
,

. ,
-

1.

163

, , ,
,
. , . , ,
.
, , ,
.
, , . 0 , v0 c:
X = (0 , v0 , c).
(1.1)
(1.1) , . , , (1.1) . , ;
, .
X , : 0 , ,
,
. .

. , , , ,
,
.
, , . ,
, ,
. ,
6*

164

. 7.

, ,
.

, ,
.
1.2. .
:
. , () .
.
X : mx Dx .
,
X , , . .

P ( < X < ) 1.
Y , X :

Y = (X), 1)
, , (, ).
Y
my Dy .
y = (x) ,
, mx .

y = (mx ) +  (mx )(x mx ).


, (, ) ,
1)
, .

1.

165

, ;
, (, ) y = (x) .
X Y
:

Y = (mx ) +  (mx )(X mx ),

, X mx = X ,

Y = (mx ) +  (mx )X.

(1.2)

(1.2)
. ,

X , .
(1.3)

my = (mx ).

(1.3), , ,
.
,
.

,
.
1.3. . n :

(X1 , X2 , . . . , Xn ),
:

mx1 , mx2 , . . . , mxn


K11 K12
K22

K = (Kij ) =

. . . K1n
. . . K2n

. . . . . . .
. . . . . .
Knn

166

. 7.

Y X1 , X2 , . . .
. . . , Xn :
Y = (X1 , X2 , . . . , Xn ),
(1.4)
,

(, ).
Y
my . , ,
(1.3).
[5] (1.3) ,
. . 243245.
1.4. ,
.
,

,
.
, ,
, . ,

. Y
X :

Y = (X),

(1.5)


X ,
, .
, :
mx
:

y = (x) (mx ) +  (mx )(x mx ) +

1 
(mx )(x mx )2.
2

167

1.

, , Y X :
1 
(mx )(X mx )2 =
2

1
= (mx ) +  (mx )X +  (mx )X 2 .
2

Y = (mx ) +  (mx )(X mx ) +

(1.6)

(1.6), Y. ,

my = (mx ) +  (mx )M [X 2 ] = (mx ) +  (mx )Dx .


(1.7)
(1.7) (mx ), ; ,
, (1.7).

:
Y = (X1 , X2 , . . . , Xn ).

y = (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn )
mx1 , mx2 , . . . , mxn
,

Y = (mx1 , mx2 , . . . , mxn ) +

n 



i=1

xi

n 

1  2
(Xi mxi ) +
(Xi mxi )2 +
2
mx
x2i mx
i=1

 2 
i<j

xi xj

mx

(Xi mxi )(Xj mxj ),

, ,
n 



Y = (mx1 , mx2 , . . . , mxn ) +


Xi +
i=1

mx

 2

1  2
2
X
+
X iX j ,
i
2
2
xi xj mx
xi mx
i<j
n

xi

i=1

(1.8)

168

. 7.

m - ,
Xi mxi . (1.8)
,

1  2
Dxi +
2
x2i mx
n

my = (mx1 , mx2 , . . . , mxn ) +

i=1

 2 
xi xj

i<j

mx

Kij ,

(1.9)

Kij Xi , Xj .
,
X1 , X2 , . . . , Xn , (1.9)
n 

1  2
my = (mx1 , mx2 , . . . , mxn ) +
Dxi .
(1.10)
2
2

i=1

xi

mx

(1.10)
.
(1.9) ,
, . ,
( )
(x1 , . . . , xn ) (),
 2

 (mx ) =
(m
)
x ,
2
xi

(1.10)

my = (mx ) +

1
Tr K (mx ).
2

(0) = 0.
,
(x) (0).
:

my =

1
Tr K (mx ).
2

1.

169

, , X ,
. . mx = 0,

my =

1
Tr K (0).
2

(1.11)

1.5.
. , , , (1.11),
, ,
. A =

 (0)
K
=
.
2
Tr K

( ) . ,
. ,
(
). :

my = Tr A,

(1.12)

= Tr K .
y
y : y = ,

my = Tr A.

(1.13)

, , (1.12), O(3/2 ),
X O(2 ). ( (1.12)), , my = Tr A O().
. ,
, - , .
- ,
(1.13). ,
.
:

. .
, . , (
) .

170

. 7.

,
- [5]. ,

. . 1933 . [7], . .
810
.

2.

. :
) ;
) S() ( ),
S() ;
) V (),
V () f : R, R ;
) f :

f  = f () d().

, M =
= (S(), V ()). , = Rn Rn , S() , V () C
.
( )
. :
) Hc ( Hc ,  = 1, );
) ,
: = ,  0, Tr = 1 (
 (Hc ));
) ,
: A = A ( Ls (Hc ));

2.

171

) A
A = Tr A.
, N =
= ( (HC ), Ls (HC )).
( )
M , N.
.
(,
,
).

,
A = Tr A,
(2.1)
A ( ),
( ),
,


f  = f () d(),

(2.2)

f : R
( ; ), .
[197, 204, 209]
. (2.1)
(2.2)?
(2.2)
,
(2.1)? , ,
, .
() () :

f A=

f  (0)
,
2

(2.3)

172

. 7.

( )
( ):

(2.4)

, [197, 204, 209],


.
. ,

.
:

t = s.

(2.5)

[197]
. -,
, , -, , -,
(
1 ).
. ,

. .

3.
, , . .

w : [0, ) R,
(,  , P) , . w(t, )
. , .
[43]
.
. , P
C([0, ), R) -

3.

173

: [0, ) R, , -.
, -, ,
.
( -, )
P
( ), (t, ), . [7].

.
.
(, , ).
, (s, )
((s1 , ), . . . , (sm , )), s1  s2  . . .  sm .


: = C([0, ), R), . .
: [0, ) R. , . . (s, ), = F ([0, ), R)
: [0, ) R.
:
) w(0, ) = 0 ;
) w(s, ) ;
) w(s, )

w(s2 , ) w(s1 , ) N (0, s2 s1 ),


0  s1  s2 . N (a, 2 ) a 2 :

1
2 2

(xa)2

22


, -

174

. 7.

, w(s, ) = (w1 (s, ), . . . , wn (s, )), . .

w(s2 , ) w(s1 , ) N (0, (s2 s1 )I),


I .

w(s2 , ) w(s1 , ) N (0, (s2 s1 )),


 0 (. .
(s2 s1 )). ws () ( w (s, )).

, (, ) .
,
( L2 (R3 )).
(. .
) .

. A (2.1) H.
( , ).
(Tr < )
Tr = 1. H - ws ,
:

E(, ws ) = 0,

H,

E(1 , ws )(2 , ws ) = s(1 , 2 ),

1 , 2 H.

: s  0} =
{ws

= { ws : s  0}.

4.

175

4.

4.1. .
,
( , , ,
, ).
, . t. ,

, .
ws (), ,

Wt = ws
,

(4.1)

. f : H R


Ef (Wt )t= .
(4.2)
.
H L2 (R, R) : R3 R, .

( ) L2 .
? . .
. -,
.
1) (4.2) f : H R 1)

,
. .
,
, . , .
.

176

. 7.

. ,
. , ,
f ().
,

f () =

f ()
.

(4.3)

4.1. f C 3 (H) (
), f (0) = 0,

f (3) ()  af erf  ,

H.

(4.4)

(4.2) (4.3) :

Ef (W ) =

1
E(f  (0)w1 , w1 ) + O(),
2

0.

(4.5)

. - H -
(4.5)

1
Ef (W ) = Ef ( w1 ).
(4.6)

f ( ) .
. 8.
4.2.
. = L2 (R3 , R), V (),
f (),
4.1. Wt .
S(). ,
: M = (S(), V ()).
M = (D(), Ls ()),
D() , Ls
A : .

4.

177

T : M M ,
:

T : S() D(),
T : V () Ls (),

T (Wt ) = ,
T (f ) =

1 
f (0).
2

(4.7)
(4.8)

4.2. , (4.7) (4.8),


. (4.7) , (4.8) . , .
4.3. .
, .
, .
. :
%

tpq = tP =

hG
5,391 1044 .
c5

(4.9)

tP =

h
,
EP

(4.10)

EP =

hc5
1,956 109 .
G

(4.11)

.
. :
%

mP =

hc
E
= 2P 2,176 108 .
G
c

(4.12)

.
,
c, G h, , . EP , mP tP ,
h = EP tP .
(4.13)

178

. 7.

,
. , me 9,109

31
2
Ee = me c
10

8,181 1014 . , Ee =

EH
h2
,

E
=

H
2
mt a20

4,359 1018 .
, a0 . ,

tq = te =

h
1,288 1021 .
Ee

(4.14)


:
t
= P 4,185 1023.
(4.15)
te

, .
.
( ), ,
-. , ,

me
.
mP

(4.16)

, m,

m
=
.
(4.17)
mP

, - Tr - .
, , .

. , ,
:

muon =

mmuon
1020.
mP

, 1000 ,
. , - .

4.

179

neuron =

mneuron
1019.
mP

, , -
.
,
.
.
.

mHiggs 120 ( ).

Higgs 1017.

, . -
. , ( ,
)
mHiggs 130190 . . , ,
- , mHiggs 1 . , Higgs 1016.
.
, . .
( ) . , ,
- ( )
1018 1023, . . . . ,
, ,
. .
.

8



1.



, (
)
:
2n = Rn Rn
. , ,

. ,
2n = H H , H ()
,
= H H.

= H H.
. , ,
, . , .

2.

181

.
. , ,
. , . [204, 209].

2.

=
= Q P Q = P = Rn. =
= (q , p) ,
q =

dH
dH
, p = , H(q , p)
dp
dq

( ).
(x, y) =

n


xj yj Rn

j=1

(1 , 2 ) =
= (q1 , q2 ) + (p1 , p2 ). 1
H(q , p) = (H , ), H : 2
. , (R-) 

A11 A12
2
n
2
n
,
A : R R A =
A21 A22

A11 : Q Q, A12 : P Q, A21 : Q Q, A22 : P P. A : R2n R2n ,


A11 = A11 , A22 = A22 , A12 = A21 , A21 = A12 . H(q , p) =

1
[(H11 q , q) +
2

+ 2(H12 p, q) + (H22 p, p)].


: q = H21 q + H22 p, p = (H11 q + H12 p).
,
= Q P



0 1
.
J=
1 0
( 1 (n n)- 1 .) -

182

. 8.

 
q

=
= JH.
p

(2.1)

(t) = Ut 0 ,

Ut = eJHt.

(2.2)

Ut .
J - . , J - fA () = (A , ), A :
, , A J.
Lsymp Lsymp () A : , :
(2.3)

AJ = JA.

L()
.
J -.


D S
.
2.1. A Lsymp () A =
S D

, A Lsymp () , D = D S = S.
J -
(D , S), D , a S . , q) + (Dp
fA () = (A , ) = (Dp, q) + 2(Sp
 , p).
H Lsymp (), . . H =
H(q , p) =
1

R T
.
T R

1
(H , ),
2

: H(q , p) = [(Rp, p) + 2(T p, q) + (Rq , q)],


2
R = R T = T.

q = Rp T q ,

p = (Rq + T p).

(2.4)

2.2. J -,
Ut (. (2.2)) J - : Ut J = JUt .

2.

183

2.1 ( J -


1 p2
+ mk 2 q 2 (
). H(q , p) =
2 m

k ). J - 1
1
= mk 2. m =
, ,
m

H(q , p) = [p2 + q 2 ],
2
q = kp, p = kq.
J -

H =

k 0
.
0 k


w(1 , 2 ) = (1 , J2 ).
(2.5)
, w(1 , 2 ) = (p2 , q1 ) (p1 , q2 ) j = {qj , pj },
j = 1, 2. .
2.3. A .
: A Lsymp () , A

w(A1 , 2 ) = w(1 , A2 ).

(2.6)

2.1 ( ).
, (2.5),
( ) . c
. ,
, . J -
.
:
c = Q iP. : i = p + iq = J. R-
A : c c C- ,
A(i) = iA , A Lsymp ().
2.4. L(c ) C- Lsymp () J - .
c (
, . 6.1) C- : 1 , 2  = q1 + ip1 , q2 +

184

. 8.

+ ip2  = (q1 , q2 ) + (p1 , p2 ) + i((p1 , q2 ) (p2 , q1 )). ,


1 , 2  = (1 , 2 ) iw(1 , 2 ), w .
.
C- A  ,  ,
( , ) w( , ). A Lsymp ()
, , C- c
, .
2.5. Ls (c ) C-

Lsymp, s (c ) J - .
, J - A ( A A ) . ,
C-
J - .
2.6.
J - H() .
. , w(H , ) = 0,
1

H() = H ,  = [(H , ) iw(H , )] = (H , )


2
2
2
.
2.6,
1
H() = H , , H Ls (Cn ),
2
(2.1)

d
= H.
dt

(2.7)

(t) = Ut ,

Ut = eiHt.

, J - .

3.

185

3.
J -

c ( )
 , . Ls Ls (c )
C- c .
: h = 1. c

d
= H ,
dt

(t) = Ut ,

Ut = eiHt/h.

(3.1)
(3.2)

, , J - .
( , ) (3.1) .
, (2.1)
,
! (t, ) = Ut
.
R- J , i. c = Q iP , Q P
,
= q + ip. , q p :
( x R3, Q = P = L2 (R3 )). = Q P.
, .
3.1. Ls (c )
C- Lsymp, s () J - .

186

. 8.

H Ls (c ) 1).

H() =

1
1
H ,  = [(Rp, p) + 2(T p, q) + (Rq , q)].
2
2

= Q P , Q P
,
dq
= Rp T q ,
dt

dp
= (Rq + T p).
dt

(3.3)


, , , (3.1).
3.1.

H(q , p) =

1
[(Rp, p) + (Rq , q)],
2

R . : q = Rp, p = Rq.
H = L2 (R3 ). q(x) p(x)
(x) = (q(x), p(x)). q(x) p(x)
: p(x)
q(x) ( q(x) = E(x) p(x) = B(x) ).

H(q , p) =

1
2

R(x, y)[q(x)q(y) + p(x)p(y)] dx dy


R6

H() =

1
2

R(x, y)(x)(y) dx dy ,
R6

R(x, y) = R(y , x) R6.

4.

4.1. . (X , F )
, . . X
, F - .
1)

, H  0, .

187

4.

(
f : X R) RV(X),
(X , F ) PM(X).
g : X X

g : RV(X) RV(X),
g : PM(X) PM(X),

g f (x) = f (g(x)),

f (x) dg (x) =

g f (x) d(x).

xt = gt (x),

(4.1)

gt : X X
( t ).
g ,
X RV(X) PM(X):

ft = gt f ,

(4.2)

t = gt .

(4.3)

,
X = (4.1), (4.2), (4.3)
( , . .
), ( , . . ) ( ). , .
4.2. . ,
.
,
(. [38]).
, ,
, J - .
:
 f
  f

f
f
1
2
{f1 (), f2 ()} =
(), 2 ()
(), 1 () .
q

188

. 8.

, f : H R H. f ()
f : H H R H H. ,
{f1 , f2 } = (f1 , Jf2 ) = w(f1 , f2 ). H() Ut (). f0 f (t, ) = f0 (Ut ()). , :
f
(t, ) = {f (t, ), H()},
t

f (0, ) = f0 ().

(4.4)

(t, f0 ) = Ut f0
  H

 H

.
(t, f0 ) = etL f0 , L =
(),
(),
q

5. ,

.
1
H() = (H , ), H J -2

. Ut : , (2.1). Ut
(2.2). , , ,
(5.1)

Ut () = .

Ut ,
(4.3)
:

2 (Ut ) = 2 (),

. .

2 dUt () = 2 d(), (5.2)

Ut 2 d() = 2 d().

(5.3)

. , Ut :

Ut 2 = 2 ,

(5.4)

6.

189

5.l. Ut
, H() J -.
. ) H J -.

d
Ut 2 = 2(U t , Ut ) = 2(JHUt , Ut ) = 0.
dt

JH:
(JH) = HJ = JH. , (5.4).
d

Ut 2 = 0. ) (5.4).
dt
(5.1) ,
(JH , ) = 0,

(5.5)

, JH . , H J.
(5.5)

(JH (), ) = 0,

(5.6)

5.1. , J - , : ( ) 2 () = ,
2 (Ut ) = t  0.
J -
. J -,

.

6.
6.1. .
Ut : , . A : : fA () = (A , ). Ut fA () = fA (Ut ) = fUt AUt (). At = Ut AUt
. , Ut = eJHt,
Ut = eHJt .

At = eHJt AeJHt .

(6.1)

190

. 8.

dAt
= (At JH HJAt ),
dt
dAt
= [At , HJ] + At [J , H].
dt

6.2. J - .

(6.2)

Vquad, symp () =
'
&
1
= f : R : f fA () = (A , ), A Lsymp, s () ,
2

J - ,
Vquad, symp () , J -
. H,
A J. (6.1)
At = Ut AUt = eJHt AeJHt . (6.2) :
dAt
= J[H, At ].
(6.3)
dt

6.3. . . 11.2, ,
[H, J] = 0 [A, J] = 0. J
i, (6.1) : At = Ut AUt = eitH AeitH , Ut Ut , (6.2)
:
dAt
= [H, At ].
dt

(6.4)

, ,

J - .

7.
7.1. .
Ut : , H(). 0.

191

7.

, Ut () . Ut ().

(cov(Ut )y1 , y2 )

= (y1 , )(y2 , ) dUt () =

= (y1 , Ut )(y2 , Ut ) d() = (cov()Ut y1 , y2 ).

, Bt = cov(Ut )
Bt = Ut BUt eJHt BeHJt .
(7.1)

dBt
= (JHBt Bt HJ),
dt
dBt
= [JH, Bt ] + Bt [J , H].
dt

(7.2)

7.2. J - .
Ut : , J - H(), . .
7.1.
J - ,
J -.
. ) J = . BJ , B = cov .


(BJy1 , y2 ) = (Jy1 , )(y2 , ) d() =




= (y1 , J)(y2 , J J) d() = (y1 , J)(Jy2 , J) d() =

= (Jy2 , )(y1 , ) d() = (BJy2 , y1 ) = (y1 , BJy2 ).

) B = cov() Lsymp (). J :




(y) = ei(y ,J) d() = e 2 (BJ


J

y ,J y)

= (y).

192

. 8.

.
7.1. J - .
J -.
J - J -
(JUt = Ut J ), (7.1) 7.1 ,
J - 0 Ut .

Bt = Ut BUt eJHt BeHJt ,

(7.3)

dBt
= J[Bt , H].
dt

(7.4)

7.3. .
, [H, J] = 0
[B , J] = 0.
J
i, (7.3)

Bt = Ut BUt eiHt BeiHt ,

(7.5)

dBt
= i[Bt , H].
dt

(7.6)

, . ,
B .
7.4. .
0 . ,
H = Q = P = L2 (R3 ),


(|q(x)|2 + |p(x)|2 ) dx d(q , p).

L2 (R3 )L2 (R3 ) R3


().
SG
,

(y , m ) = (y , ) d() = 0,

y ,

193

7.


2 () = 2 d() = .

Ut , J - () S ().
, : Ut : SG
G

SG,symp () SG (), J -

. : Ut : SG
,symp () SG,symp ().
7.5. . . mc
B c covc ,

mc , y

= y ,  d(),


(7.7)

B c y1 , y2  = y1 ,  , y2  d().

(7.8)

7.2. J -

mc = 0 m = 0.

(7.9)

. J - f : R


f (q , p ) d(q , p ) = f (p , q ) d(q , p ).

(7.10)

m = 0.


0 = (y , ) d() = [(yq , q ) + (yp , p )] d() =

= [(yq , q ) (yp , p )] d() = w(y , ) d(),


w . ,
. ,

y , mc 

7 . .

= (y , ) d() i w(y , ) d().

(7.11)

194

. 8.

7.3. J - 0.

covc = 2 cov .
.


(7.12)

covc (y , y) = |y , |2 d() = |(y , ) iw(y , )|2 d() =




= [(y , )2 + (y , J)2 ] d().

,


(y , J) d() = (y , )2 d().

covc (y , y) = 2 (y , )2 d() = 2 cov (y , y).

7.1. 0
J - A


A ,  d() = Tr covc A.

(7.13)

2 () = Tr covc .

(7.14)

. {ej }
c . (, ,
.)


Tr covc A =
Aej ,  , ej  d() = A ,  d().
j

, [1]

2 () = Tr cov .

(7.15)

, (7.12), (7.14) (7.15)


. . : (7.14)
-

7.

195

.
R C , :
2 () = TrR cov = TrC covc .
, mc B c C-
, J -.
,
(7.12).
c
c
 B
 = cov B = cov
B11 B12
= B , B = B ,
: B =
, B11
11
22
22
B21 B22


D S
=B
c
B12
.
21 B =
S D
.
7.4.

D = B11 + B22 ,

S = B12 B21 .

, B B c.
  B J -, B =

B11 B12
. , D = 2B11 , S = 2B12 ,
B21 B11

(7.12). .
7.2. - J - 0 1).
, B c ,
( J -) .
(
0 ) B c (
).
1)
C-
B c : c c , .

7*

196

. 8.

,
J - H .
t = Ut . ,
B c (t) = Ut B c Ut . [B c , J] = 0, B c (t) (7.6).

8.


=
= Q P , Q P () .
,
( )

Nquant = (D(c ), Ls (c )),


c = Q iP ,
D(c ) , a Ls (c ) c
( ) 1).

SG
,symp () J -
0 .

C = i. (
:
C c , J .) bn : C . . . C C
n- .
bn  = sup |bn (1 , . . . , )|.
1

|bn (1 , . . . , )|  bn n.


1)

(8.1)

,
.
, ,
, +
c c c .

8.

197

C ,

|f ()|  aeb ,

(8.2)

., , [153]. f : a = af ,
b = bf .
8.1. ,

f (n) (0)  crn ,

n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

(8.3)

c = cf r = rf f.
. ) f .
C g (z) = f (z) z C. 
n!
(n)
g (z)z (n+1) dz , R > 0
g (z) : g (0) =
2i

|z|=R

|g (0)|  n!Rn sup |f (Rei )|  af n!Rn ebf R .


(n)

0 2

(n)

R = n , g (0) = f (n) (0)( , . . . , ),


f (n) (0)  af en n1/2 ebf n .
f
(8.3) rf = ebf.
) f (8.3).
(8.1)



(n)
n
|f ()| 
f (0)  /n!  cf
(rf )n /n!  cf erf  .
n=0

n=0

f bf = rf .
Vsymp (),
f : R, () f (0) = 0, () f J -: f (J) = f (), () f
f : C C, :

|f ()|  cf erf 
cf , rf  0 C.

198

. 8.

,
f C C

.
8.1. H Lsymp, s ().

Vsymp () f () =

N


ak (H , )k ,

k=1

ak R.


.
8.1. f Vsymp (). f  (0)
Lsymp, s ().
: Jf  () = f  (J)J.
Vsymp ()
. Vsymp ()

Msymp
= (SG
,symp (), Vsymp ()).

(8.4)

f Vsymp ()
B SG
,symp () (,
SG,symp ()
, J ).
B B .
()

f B = f () dB ()

8.2. f Vsymp () B SG
,symp ()

f  =

Tr Dc f  (0) + o(),
2

0,

(8.5)

Dc Dc = covc /.

|R(, f , )|  cf

o() = 2 R(, f , ),
erf  dD (), D = cov .

(8.6)

199

8.

.

f () d():

(8.7)

,


f  = f ( ) dD () =
(f  (0) , ) dD () + 2 R(, f , ),

(8.8)

R(, f , ) = g(, f ; ) dD (),

g(, f ; ) =


n/22

n!

n=4

f (n) (0)( , . . . , ).

,


(f  (0), ) dD () = 0,

f  (0)( , , ) dD () = 0,

B (, , D )
0. B SG
,symp (), Tr D = 1.
, Tr Dc = 1 1).
R(, f , ).
(8.3), < 1

|R(, f , )| 


f (n) (0) n
n=4

n!

 cf

n

rf n
n=4

n!

= Cf erf  .

1)
()
.

() = ( ) .
, (),
(8.7) ,
(, ,

): () =

() E

E(() E)2

( E = 0).

200

. 8.

|R(, f , )|  cf


erf  dD (). ,

f  =
(f  (0) , ) dD () + o(),
2

0.

(8.9)

, (8.5).
, (

Msymp
= (SG
,symp (), Vsymp ()) ,
) (8.5)
( Nquant = (D(c ), Ls (c )) ).
(8.5) . T

= (SG
Msymp
,symp (), Vsymp ()) Nquant = (D(c ), Ls (c )).

T : SG
,symp () D(c ),

Dc = T () =

covc

(8.10)

( Dc,
, )

T : Vsymp () Ls (c ),

Aquant = T (f ) =

1 
f (0).
2

(8.11)

.
8.1.

= (SG
Msymp
, symp (), Vsymp ())
Nquant =
= (D(c ), Ls (c )) (8.10),
(8.11). (8.5).
, T : Vsymp () Ls (c ) , [2]:
 

j T (fj ), j R, fj Vsymp ().
T
(8.12)
j fj =

9.

201

Aj = T (fj ) ( ), . [23].
8.1. T
Vquad, symp () J -
-
Ls (c ).
= u + iv c , u Q v P ,
 = 1. D =
J - ,
0 ()



uu+vv vuuv
c
c
.
B = D B = 2
uvvu uu+vv

9.

, , J -.  = 1 ( )
, () . .
,
. (  = 1)
0 covc = .
9.1. 0, , ,
H : .

Ut = eitH ,
H.
. ) H = . Ut Btc = Ut ( )Ut = Ut Ut =
= eit eit = . -

202

. 8.

, , Ut = .
.
) Ut = =  = 1.
Ut Ut = . 1 , 2

1 , Ut Ut , 2  = 1 , , 2 .
2 = , , 1 , c(t)Ut  = 1 , , c(t) =
= Ut , . c(t)Ut = . , c(0) = 2 = 1.
c (0) iH = 0, . . H = ic (0). , H ic (0). , c (0) = iH, , . .
c (0) = iH, . = ic (0) = H, .
Ut -
.
9.2. H : Hk = k k {k }, H.
Ut -
0
c

B =

ck k k ,

ck  0,

(9.1)

k=1

.
. ) covc = B c (9.1).

cov

Ut

Ut BUt

ck eik t k k = covc = B c .

k=1

, , Ut =
t.
) Ut = t. , B c

Bc =


k=1

Bk , k k k +


k=j

Bk , j k j .

203

10.

, Bk , j  = 0 k = j. ,
, Z.

k=j

Ut ZUt 1 , 2  =

Bk , j eit(j k ) k , 2 1 , j  =

k=j

= Z1 , 2 .
1 = j , 2 = k .

Ut ZUt j , k  = Bk , j eit(j k ) = Bk , j .


Bk , j  = 0 k = j.

10. ,

,
: . H : R.
,
, H . ,
(t) Ut (0) = .
(
)
Ut : .
(10.1)
Ut PM() , . 8. , Ut t > 0
. ,
.
0 .
PM (). ,
PMsymp PM (), J - : J = .
.

204

. 8.

Ut
, Ut
PM ().
0 . ,
0 , ,
J - .
.
Ut PM() 0


2 (Ut ) = Ut 2 d().

(10.2)

, , . . , .
, Ut . (10.2), Ut ,
Ut . , U : , . ;
U  =  , ,
U 1 U 2  = 1 2 . , , H(),
.

= JH ().

(10.3)

10.1. Ut , H(), Ut () = .
,
( (5.6))

(JH (), ) = 0,

(10.4)

. ) U 2 = 2 .
(10.3)
0=

d
U 2 = 2(JH (Ut ), Ut ).
dt

, (JH (Ut ), Ut ) = 0 .
, Ut () = , (10.4).

10.

205

) (10.4) . ,
,
(JH (Ut ), Ut ) = 0
(10.5)
d

. U 2 = 0 , , U  =
dt
=  t  t0 , .
, (10.4) , Ut
. W () f : R, (10.4).
10.1.
, (10.5).
(10.4)  H   H 
H:
,p =
,q .
(10.6)
q

10.2. H W (). H (0) Lsymp, s ().


. :
(H (), J) = 0.




H ()J + J H () = 0 , , H (0)J + H ()J +
+ J H () = 0.

[H (0), J] = 0.

(10.7)

[H (), J] = H ()J.

(10.8)

, H : R
2


2
H

p q

p2

q2 q p

H =
2 H 2 H .
H (0, 0) Lsymp, s () ,
2H
2H
(
0,
0
)
=
(0, 0),
q 2
p2

2H
2H
=
.
q p
p q


. ,
:

2H
2H
=
pi qj
qj pi

i, j. -

206

. 8.


H(q1 , q2 , p1 , p2 ) = p1 q2 q1 p2 .

2
H
2H


q1 p1
q1 p2
0 1
2H

= 2
= 1 0
q p
H
2H
=
q2 p1

2H
p1 q1

2H
= 2
p q
H
p2 q1

q2 p2

2H
p1 q2

2H
=
p2 q2


=

0 1
.
1 0

, , 13.1, (10.4). (, H() = a1 (H , ) + a2 (H , )2,


[H, J] = 0) Ut (). J - , (10.4).
, (10.4) , . , H(q , p) = q 2 p ( ).
(10.4) ,
.
. 0 ( ):
m = 0. , ,
: mt = 0 t  0.
= , g = .
, . . , g
1
1
, 0.
10.1. ,
Ut () :

Ut () = Ut ().

(10.9)

: mt = 0 t  0.
.
10.2. .

207

10.

U = U .
. , g
t
1 t

f () dg
1 Ut ()

= f (Ut ()) d() = f (Ut ()) d() =




= f (Ut ()) d() = f () dUt ().


10.3. . H , .
. ) (10.9).

dUt
() =
dt

dUt
(), H (Ut ()) = H (Ut ()). ,
dt

H () = H ()

(10.10)

= Ut . ,
.
dU
) (10.10). : t () =
dt

= JH (Ut ()) = JH (Ut ()). , . (10.9).


10.2. H() J -. .
, , J - (, , 0).
10.3. H() J -. ( ).

1.

, ., , [15]. , ( [3], ,
, . . . , ., , [9, 10, 100, 101, 114,
119, 240]) (
,
). , , M = (S(), V ()), .
, S() (
), V ()
f : R (
).

, -, , , ,
.
, , [213],

[53, 54].
, .
- = L2 (S  (R3 ), ) L2 (S  (R3 ), ),
S  (R3 ) ,

2.

209

S  (R3 ), .
. f ()
S  (R3 ). F (f ( )) f : S (R3 ) R. f () = (u, ), u S(R3 ),

F (f ) = f () d() f 22 . A :

F A=

F  (0)
. :
2

F  (0)
F  = F (f ( )) d(f ( )) = Tr D
,
(1.1)
2

D = cov
.

2.



a = + m2 , m > 0.
, a1 S(R3 ). , b(, ) = (a1 , ) .
( ) b = cov =

a 1

2

- S  (R3 ), . L2 (S  (R3 ), ), f : S  (R3 ) R,




f 22 =
f 2 () d() < .
S  (R3 )

,
H0 N ,
.

L2 (S  (R3 ), ), . [13]. : S(R3 ) S(R3 )

210

. 9.

L2 (R3 , dx).
d() : L2 (S  (R3 ), ) L2 (S  (R3 ), ),
, , :
d()(q , p) = (bp, p) + i(q , p), p S(R3 ), q S  (R3 ).

p q :

(q , r) (
q , r)f () = (, r)f (), r S  (R3 ),
 
1
s,
f (), s S  (R3 ).
(s, p) (s, p)f () =
i

 



+ ,
.
d()(
q, p) = b ,

(2.1)

= a = + m2 ,


H0 = d + m2 =
=

1
2


R3

2
dx +
2 (x)


(x) + m2

R3

dx.
(x)

= I ,

N = d(1) =
1
=
2


R3

( + m2 )1/2
dx +
(x)
(x)

(x)
R3

dx.
(x)

, L2 (S  (R3 ), ).
,
( + m2 )1/2 , . [15].

- :

3
Nquant = (D(C ), Ls (C )), C = LC
2 (S (R ), )
f : S  (R3 ) C, D ,
Ls
.

3.

211

3.
,
f ( ) : = Q P , Q =
= P = L2 (S  (R3 ), ).
V ()
F (f ),



J=

0 1
, 1 0

F (Jf ) = F (f ).
,


(p2 ()q1 () p1 ()q2 ()) d(),

w(f1 , f2 ) = (f1 , Jf2 ) =


S(R3 )


fj () =

qj ()
, j = 1, 2.
pj ()

ST ()
:


2 () = f 22 d(f ) = 1.

,
J :


F (Jf ) d(f ) = F (f ) d(f ).

C ,
: C = Q iP , . 2.
,
M = (ST (), V ()).

T : ST () D(C ),
T : V () Ls (C ),

T () = cov ,

()

F  (0)
.
2

()

T (F ) =

212

. 9.

F : L2 (S  (R3 ), ) R F  (f ) =

F
(f )
f ()

f (). , F  (0) =

2F
(0).
f ()2

3.1. T : M Nquant , (),


(), -, (1.1) .

4.

:

3
C LC
2 (S (R ), ), 2 = 1.
.
4.1. - .


F (f ) d () =

1
(F  (0), ) = T (F )T ( ) .
2

(4.1)

5. -

H V ():

H(f ) =

f () =

q()
p()

1
(Hf , f ),
2

H : L2 (S  (R3 ), ) L2 (S  (R3 ), ) L2 (S  (R3 ), ) L2 (S  (R3 ), )


,
J. q =

H
H
, p =
( p
q

: /p()
/q())

f(t, ) = JHf (t, ).

(5.1)

6.

213

5.1. H V () (5.1) -
if(t, ) = Hf (t, ).
(5.2)
, H V () f ().
H , H = diag(R, R), H(f ) =
1
= [(Rp, p) + (Rq , q)]
2

q(t
, ) = Rp(t, ),

p(t
, ) = Rq(t, ).

(5.3)

, q(t, ) p(t, ) (. ). (5.3)

q(t, ) + R2 q(t, ) = 0.

(5.4)


.
.
5.2.
.
:
L2 (S  (R3 ), ) L2 (S  (R3 ), ).

6.
M = (ST (), V ()) , Nquant = (D(C ), Ls (C )).
M . :
) V () ?
) ( 2 ()
1) ?
,
( T -)

214

. 9.

,
. 8.
0,  0,

ST (),
2 () = . , J. C , . . C = i.
, C . W () F : R, F (0) = 0,
F : C C:

|F (f )|  aF ebF f 2 ,

aF , bF  0.

, F J : F (Jf ) = F (f ), f .
: M = (ST (), V ()).

T : ST () D(C ),
T : W () Ls (C ),

cov
,

F  (0)
T (F ) =
.
2

T () =

()
()

6.1. M Nquant () (). -


:

f  = Tr T ()T (F ) + o(),

|o()|  2 KF

edF f  d(f ),

0,

(6.1)

KF , dF  0,


cov
.
D = T () =

10

,
(
1)) .
.
. 6 , . 7
.
. . 7

.

.


.

,
. [173, 186], .
[193, 194]. .
:
( . . [7]) . ,
, . ,
, ,
1)
, , , , , , , , , , .

216

. 10.

, , ,
, . ,
.
(cos-)
.

,
, , .

1.
, . . [7].
1.1.

P = {, F , P},
( ), F
- , P ()
F .
, - ,
,
, .
,
, . . ,
, - [7] ( ., , [3, 6, 8, 9, 14,
15, 100102]).
.
) ,
, (x).
) : Bx , x,

P (Bx ) = |(x)|2.

(1.1)

1.

217

) . , .
 = {A1 , A2 },
A1 A2 = , A1 A2 = . (., , [277,
278]):

P(B | C) =
P(Aj | C)P(B | Aj C).
(1.2)
-
:

P(B | C) =

P(Aj | C)P(B | Aj ) +

+ 2 cos (B |  , C) P(A1 | C)P(B | A1 )P(A2 | C)P(B | A2 ) ,
(1.3)

(B |  , C) (), B ,
 C , B .
(., , [6]). [6] ,
.
) (

).
, ( [6,
102, 15]) ( [1])
, .
()() .
, , .
,
. C :
, , , . .
, P, ;

218

. 10.


C 1).
(1.2)
(1.3) ( ).
, - = (,  , P),


.

. P(A | C)
A , C.

. , , ,
. , , C. ,
, C.
P(A | C) C ,
, ,
. , C1 C2 ,
, , C = C1 C2 .
.
. ,
C1 C2 , -  (,  , P), ,
1)
, . , . . [7].
. .
. [292, 293] ,
.

1.

219

C = C1 C2 , , .
, -  , .
P(A | C) C ,   . ( A - -  .)
, -  - . :
cont = (,  |  , P)  (
).
,
.
,  REN , . 
. ,
.
- . ,
. .
,
- .
,
.
, , P(B | Aj C),
, . , (1.3)
. P(B | Aj C) . (1.3) P(B | Aj C)

P(B | Aj ).

P(B | C) =
P(Aj | C)P(B | Aj ),
(1.4)

220

. 10.



P(B | C) =
P(Aj | C)P(B | Aj ) + (B |  , C).

(1.5)

, (B |  , C) (1.4).
1)  tr (. 2)
(1.3),
 tr
.
()()
,
.
? ,

. , , ,
- ,

.
, ,
, , .
, ? .
.
,
. , [12, 27, 66, 67, 105, 110, 111, 161, 175, 180],
[120, 121], [6974, 129133, 82,
83, 180, 179, 105, 253262, 274], [198].
, (1.3), ,
1)
, . .
cos-.

2.

221

[159] .
[63] .
, -

(., , [4] [22]).

2.
(1.2)
, a b , a = a1 , a2
b = b1 , b2 .

P(b = bi | C) =
P(a = an | C)P(b = bi | a = an , C).
n

a
C , , a C.
P(b = bi | a =
= an , C).

(. [64, 99, 100, 101, 151]).
Aj a = aj a. , , a.
( j = 1, 2) -
Aj = { : a() = aj }.
b,
Bi = { : b() = bi }.
 = {A1 , A2 }  = {B1 , B2 } .
C ,  ,  , P(An C) = 0
n.  -
 ,nd .  
, P(Bn Ak ) = 0 n k.
,  
, Bn
 , . a b

222

. 10.

  ,
.
, .
, a b . B  ,nd .
a b :

(B |  , C) =
2

(B |

, C)

P(A1 | C)P(B | A1 )P(A2 | C)P(B | A2 )

(B |  , C) = P(B | C)

2


(2.1)

P(B | Aj )P(Aj | C). ,

j=1


(1.5) ,
()

(B |  , C) = (B |  , C) P(A1 | C)P(B | A1 )P(A2 | C)P(B | A2 ) .
(2.2)

 tr = {C  ,nd : |(B |  , C)|  1}


 tr
. :
cont, tr

= (,  |  tr , P).

(2.3)

,  , C1 , C2  tr ,
C = C1 C2  tr. ,
.
2.1.
(1.3) .  tr S
H ( ). a, b ( ),
tr

2.

223


a, b.
b
|
a
a
V
{ei } {ebi } (
a b)
.
.
(2.2)
(1.5)


P(B | C) =
P(Aj | C)P(B | Aj ) +

+ 2(B |  , C) P(A1 | C)P(B | A1 )P(A2 | C)P(B | A2 ) . (2.4)
1) |(B |  , C)|  1
B  .
(B |  , C) [0, 2]

(B |  , C) = cos (B |  , C).
(B |  , C) B
 C.
(2.4)
(1.3)
, .
,
, . , a b.
2) , |(B |  , C)|  1 B  .
(B |  , C) (, +)

(B |  , C) = ch (B |  , C).
(2.4) :

224

. 10.

P(B | C) =

P(Aj | C)P(B | Aj )

ch (B |  , C) P(A1 | C)P(B | A1 )P(A2 | C)P(B | A2 ) . (2.5)

1). B = Bx , x = b1 , b2 , (b = x | a, C) (Bx |  , C).

3.

, : a = a1 , a2 , b = b1 , b2 .
. .
a, b
tr
cont, tr = (,  |  , P) . Y = {a1 , a2 }, X = {b1 , b2 } (
a b). C  tr.

paC (y) = P(a = y | C),

pbC (y) = P(b = x | C),

p(x | y) = P(b = x | a = y),

x X , y Y.

(1.3)
(

b
a
pc =
pC (y)p(x | y) + 2 cos C (x)
paC (y)p(x | y) ,
yY
1)

(3.1)

yY

, hyp
cont,hyp = (,  |  , P),
hyp
 = {C  ,nd : |(Bj |  , C)|  1},
, . . e1 = 1 e2 = j ,
j 2 = +1 (. [13, 174, 180]). ,
-  . tr
hyp
,  
 . ,
- : ||  1, ||  1.
C , .

3.

225

(b = x | a, C) = arccos (b = x | a, C), x X.

(b = x | a, C) = pbC (x)
paC (y)p(x | y),
yY

(b = x | a, C)

(b = x | a, C) =  (
2

yY

paC (y)p(x | y)

D = A + B + 2 AB cos =

= | A + ei B |2 A, B > 0, [0, 2], pbC (x)


( ):
pbC (x) = |C (x)|2 ,
(3.2)

(x) C (x) =

paC (a1 )p(x | a1 )

paC (a2 )p(x | a2 ) .


(3.3)
, x X
C (x) ( +
),
.
cont, tr , .
, .
: X C, C
, E = (X , C).
X = {b1 , b2 }, E .
{(b1 x), (b2 x)}
. ( 5.1),

Bj (x) = (bj x).
E : (x) = (bj )(bj x) + (b2 )(b2 x).
(3.3),
Jb | a :

+e

iC (x)

 tr (X , C).

(3.4)

J b | a (, , ) . (3.2) pbC (x)


(b | a)- ,
8 . .

226

. 10.

. C (x) ( C ) . ebx ( ) = (x ).
(3.2)
:

pbC (x) = C , ebx 2 ,

(3.5)


 E = (X , C) (x)(x).
: ,  =
xX

{ebx }xX H = (E ,  ). X R, R


. (3.5),
,
b:


E(b | C) =
xpbC (x) =
x|C (x)|2 =
xX

xX

xC , ebx C , ebx  = bC , C ,

(3.6)

xX

b : E E : bebx = xebx , x X , b (X , C):


b(x) = x(x). , (3.6)
b.
:

uaj = paC (aj ) , ubj = pbC (bj ) , pij = p(bj | ai ),


(3.7)

uij = pij , j = C (bj ).


, uaj , ubj C ,
. . uaj = uaj (C), ubj = ubj (C).

Pb | a = (pij ).

3.

227

. C = v1b eb1 +
+ v2b eb2 , vjb = ua1 u1j + ua2 u2j eij ,

pbC (bj ) = |vjb |2 = |ua1 u1j + ua2 u2j eij |2 .

(3.8)

, , , .
, (3.8)
(3.1).
b, a, ,
, . a b,
. , -
. ( )
a ()
H , b. ,
( ) .
C0 = 0

= ua1 ea1 + ua2 ea2 ,

ea1 = (u11 , u12 ),

ea2 = (ei1 u21 , ei2 u22 ).

(3.9)
(3.10)

{eai } E , a-. , {eai }


E. : ea1 = v11 eb1 + v12 eb2 ,
ea2 = v21 eb1 + v22 eb2 , V = (vij ) ,
: v11 = u11 , v21 = u21 ,
v12 = ei1 u21 , v22 = ei2 u22 . V ,
(3.5) a-:

paC (aj ) = |, eaj |2 .

(3.11)

(3.9) (3.11)
, {eai } , . . V
.
8*

228

. 10.

, , V V b | a
, Pb | a ei1 =
= ei2 ,
C0 (b1 ) C0 (b2 ) = mod 2.
(3.12)
, (3.12) ,
.
3.1.
Pb | a .

cos C (b2 ) = cos C (b1 )

(3.13)

C  tr.
3.1
:
cos C (b1 ) + cos C (b2 ) =

cos C (b1 ) cos C (b2 ) =

mod 2.

(3.12),
a, C0 (bi ), i = 1, 2, ,

cos C (b2 ) = cos C (b1 ) + .


(3.14)
C (b1 ) [0, ], C (b2 ) [ , 2], .
,
C (bj ), j = 1, 2, (3.14). , ,
, .
a-
, {eaj } C0 : eaj = eaj (C0 ).
paC0 (aj ) =
= |C0 , eaj (C0 )|2 .
a- C  tr.

3.

229

3.2.
Pb | a
C  tr C (bj )

C0 (b2 ) = C0 (b1 ) + mod 2.

(3.15)

C  tr eaj eaj (C0 ),


C0 :
paC (aj ) = |C , eaj |2 .
(3.16)
. C0
. {eaj (C0 )} V (C0 ), . C  tr
C = v1a (C)ea1 (C0 ) + v2a (C)ea2 (C0 ),
|vja (C)|2 = paC (aj ). , C  tr

C (b1 ) = ua1 (C)v11 (C0 ) + ei[C (b1 )C0 (b1 )] ua2 (C)v12 (C0 ),
C (b2 ) = ua1 (C)v21 (C0 ) + ei[C (b2 )C0 (b2 )] ua2 (C)v22 (C0 ).
, : C (b1 ) C0 (b1 ) = (C (b2 )
C0 (b2 )) mod 2 C0 C1 . (3.15) C (b1 ), C (b2 ) C0 (b1 ),
C0 (b2 ), : C (b2 ) C0 (b2 ) = (C (b1 ) + ) (C0 (b1 )
) = (C (b1 ) C0 (b1 )) mod 2.
(3.15) , C  tr. C
(x) (x),
C (b1 ) ( [0, ] [ , 2]).
3.2 2.1:
cont, tr ,

,
Pb | a .
Pb | a ,
-

230

. 10.

(. (3.6)),
a:


E(a | C) =
ypaC (y) =
y|C , eay |2 = 
aC , C , (3.17)
yY

yY

a : E E 
aeaj = aj eaj . (3.17)
: 
, a a.

S E = (X , C). J b | a :  tr S .
() , ,
b|a
tr
b|a
 tr = J ( ),

S tr S

S. S tr a b.

4.

Pb | a .
. b a R.

q1 = p11 = p22 q2 = p12 = p21 . , a- (. (3.10)) :


ea1 = (q1 , q2 ), ea2 = (ei1 q2 , ei2 q1 ). 2 = 1 + , a
: ea2 = ei2 (q2 , q1 ). 

b b-. , b-
a : 
a = V diag(a1 , a2 )V ,
b. 
v11 = v22 = q1 , v21 = v12 = q2 . , a11 = a1 q12 + a2 q22 ,
a22 = a1 q22 + a2 q12 , a12 = a21 = (a1 a2 )q1 q2 . [ b, 
a] = m
,
m11 = m22 = 0 m12 = m21 = (a1 a2 )(b2 b1 )q1 q2 .
 = 0.
a1 = a2 , b1 = b2 qj = 0, , m

5. Pb | a Pa | b

231

5.
Pb | a Pa | b
b-, . . C (x), b,
a-.
,
Pb | a .
. a-, . .
C (y), a, b-.
Pb | a Pa | b
.
5.1. Pb | a . B1 , B2  tr
, Pa | b .
5.1. Pb | a
Pa | b ,
, . .

p(bi | aj ) = p(aj | bi ),

i, j = 1, 2.

(5.1)

, a b , . . pa (ai ) = pb (bi ) =
1
2

= , i = 1, 2.
.
()

a b.
5.2. Pb | a Pa | b
.

(Bi | a, Bi ) = 1.

(5.2)

5.1. Pb | a Pa | b .

J b | a (Bj )(x) = (bj x),

x X,

J a | b (Aj )(y) = (aj y),

y Y.

232

. 10.

, Pa | b Pb | a ,
. . a b
, : pbC (x) = |C , Bx |2 .

6.

, , .
a b, n : a = a1 , . . . , an
b = b1 , . . . , bn . 2.
6.1. B , C , D1 , D2  , P(C) = 0 D1 D2 =
= .

P(B(D1 D2 ) | C) = P(BD1 | C) + P(BD2 | C).

(6.1)

6.1 ( ). 6.1, P(Dj C) = 0.

P(B(D1 D2 ) | C) = P(B | D1 C)P(D1 | C) +


+ P(B | D2 C)P(D2 | C). (6.2)
6.2 (
). 6.1
P(BDj ) = 0, j = 1, 2.

P(B(D1 D2 ) | C) = P(B | D1 )P(D1 | C) +


+ P(B | D2 )P(D2 | C) + 2(B | {D1 , D2 }, C)

P(B | D1 )P(D1 | C)P(B | D2 )P(D2 | C) ,

(6.3)

(B | {D1 , D2 }, C) =

(B | {D1 , D2 }, C)

P(B | D1 )P(D1 | C)P(B | D2 )P(D2 | C)

(6.4)

6.

233

(B | {D1 , D2 }, C) =
= P(B(D1 D2 ) | C)

2


P(B | Dj )P(Dj | C) =

j=1

2


P(Dj | C)(P(B | Dj C) P(B | Dj )).

j=1

,  = {D1 , D2 }
, (6.3)
(. 2).
(6.1) (6.3).
6.2. 6.1 P(BD1 ), P(CD1 ) P(BD1 C) .

P(B(D1 D2 ) | C) = P(B | D1 )P(D1 | C) + P(BD2 | C) +



+ 2(B | {D1 , D2 }, C) P(B | D1 )P(D1 | C)P(BD2 | C) ,

(6.5)


(B | {D1 , D2 }, C) = P(B(D1 D2 ) | C) P(B | D1 )P(D1 | C)

 1
.
P(BD2 | C) 2 P(B | D1 )P(D1 | C)P(BD2 | C)
, .

(B | {D1 , D2 }, C) = cos (B | {D1 , D2 }, C),


(B | {D1 , D2 }, C) = cos (B | {D1 , D2 }, C).
(6.3) (6.5), . 6.2

P(Bx | C) = P(Bx (A1 . . . An ) | C) =


= P(Bx | A1 )P(A1 | C) + P(Bx (A2 . . . An ) | C) +
+ 2(Bx | {A1 , A2 . . . An }, C)

P(Bx | A1 )P(A1 | C)P(Bx (A2 . . . An ) | C) ,

234

. 10.

)
(Bx | {A1 , A2 . . . An }, C) = P(Bx (A1 . . . An ) | C)
*
P(Bx | A1 )P(A1 | C) P(Bx (A2 . . . An ) | C)

 1
2 P(Bx | A1 )P(A1 | C)P(Bx (A2 . . . An ) | C)
.
,
x X : |(Bx | {A1 , A2 . . . An }, C)|  1. (Bx | {A1 , A2 . . . An }, C) =
= cos (Bx | {A1 , A2 . . . An }, C). ,
P(Bx | C) P(Bx (A1 . . . An ) | C)


(1)
C (x) C (x) = P(Bx | A1 )P(A1 | C) +

(1 )
+ eiC (x) P(Bx (A2 . . . An ) | C) ,
C (Bx | {A1 , A2 . . . An }, C).

(1)

P(Bx (A2 . . . An ) | C) =
= P(Bx | A2 )P(A2 | C) + P(Bx (A3 . . . An ) | C)

P(Bx | A2 )P(A2 | C)P(Bx (A3 . . . An ) | C) ,

)
(Bx | {A2 , A3 . . . An )}, C) = P(Bx (A2 . . . An ) | C)
*
P(Bx | A2 )P(A2 | C) P(Bx (A3 . . . An ) | C)
 1

.
2 P(Bx | A2 )P(A2 | C)P(Bx (A3 . . . An ) | C)

, ,

(2)
C (x) = P(Bx | A2 )P(A2 | C) +

(2 )
+ eiC (x) P(Bx (A3 . . . An ) | C) ,

6.

235

C (x) = arccos (Bx | {A2 , A3 . . . An }, C). j -


P(Bx (Aj . . . An ) | C)

(j)
C (x) = P(Bx | Aj )P(Aj | C) +

(j)
+ eiC (x) P(Bx (Aj+1 . . . An ) | C) ,
(2)

(j)

)
(Bx | {Aj , Aj+1 . . . An )}, C) = P(Bx (Aj . . . An ) | C)
*
P(Bx | Aj )P(Aj | C) P(Bx (Aj+1 . . . An ) | C)


 1
2 P(Bx | Aj )P(Aj | C)P(Bx (Aj+1 . . . An ) | C)
.

, || . j = n 1
P(Bx (An1 An ) | C).
C - Bx :

P(Bx (An1 An ) | C) = P(Bx | An1 )P(An1 | C) +


+ P(Bx | An )P(An | C) + 2(Bx | {An1 , An })

P(Bx | An1 )P(An1 | C)P(Bx | An )P(An | C) ,

(6.4). || ,


(n1)
C
(x) = P(Bx | An1 )P(An1 | C) +

+ eiC (x) P(Bx | An )P(An | C) ,
C (x) = arccos (x | {An1 , An }, C).

(j)
(j)
C (x) = P(Bx (Aj+1 . . . An ) | C) eiC (x) ,

(j)

(j)

C (x) = arg C (x) = arccos

Mj
,
Nj

236

. 10.

Mj =

P(Bx | Aj )P(Aj | C) +

+ (Bx | {Aj , Aj+1 . . . An }, C) P(Bx (Aj+1 . . . An ) | C) ,

Nj =

P(Bx (Aj . . . An ) | C) .

,
(n1)

(n1)

(x) = arg C

= arccos

(x) =


P(Bx (An1 An ) | C)

P(Bx | An1 )P(An1 | C) +



+ (Bx | {An1 , An }, C) P(Bx | An )P(An | C) .


(1 )
(2 )
(2)
C (x) = P(Bx | A1 )P(A1 | C) + ei[C (x)C (x)] C (x) =


(2 )
= P(Bx | A1 )P(A1 | C) + eiC (x) P(Bx | A2 )P(A2 | C) +
(3 )

+ eiC

(x) (3)
C (x),

(2)

(1)

(2)

(3)

C (x) = C (x) C (x),

(2)

(2)

(3)

C (x) = C (x) + C (x) C (x).

C (x) =

n


(j)

eiC

(x)

P(Bx | Aj )P(Aj | C)

j=1
(1)

C (x) = 0 ( (n)
(n1)
(x) + C (x).
) C (x) = C
, ,
C (x). .

7.

237

p(x | y) =
= P(Bx | Ay ) pbC (x) = P(Bx | C), paC (y) = P(Ay | C),
 (y)

C (x) =
eiC (x) paC (y)p(x | y) .
y

, n = 3

(2 )
C (x) = paC (a1 )p(x | a1 ) + eiC (x) paC (a2 )p(x | a2 ) +

(3 )
+ eiC (x) paC (a3 )p(x | a3 ) ,

(2)

(1)

(2)

C (x) = C (x) C (x),

(3)

(3)

C (x) = C (x) + C (x).

(j)

, C (x) a- A1 , A2 , A3 . , pbC (x)




pbC (x) = |C (x)|2 =
paC (y)p(x | y) +
y

+2

(y )
(y )
cos [C 2 (x) C 1 (x)] paC (y1 )paC (y2 )p(x | y1 )p(x | y2 ) .

y1 <y2

,
(. . 2, 3).

7.


, a b
: a = a(t, ), b = b(t, ). ,
Y X t.
: X = {b1 , b2 }, Y = {a1 , a2 }. , .

) ( ).
t.

238

. 10.

(), t0 |(b(t0 ) = x | a(t0 ), C)|  1,


[0, 1].
t , , C

a(t)
(t, x) C (t, x) = pC (a1 )pb(t) | a(t) (x | a1 ) +

a(t)
+ eiC b(t) | a(t) pC (a2 )pb(t) | a(t) (x | a2 ) . (7.1)
a(t)
a(t), :




p(t; b1 | a1 )
p(t; b1 | a1 )
a
a
i
(t)
C

e1 (t) =
, e2 (t) = e
,
p(t; b2 | a2 )
p(t; b2 | a2 )
b(t) | a(t)

(b1 ) eaj
p(t; x | y) = P(b(t) = x | a(t) = y), C (t) = C
a(t)
b(t) | a(t)
b(t) | a(t)
ej . , C
(b2 ) = C
(b1 ) + .
(t, x)
:
) ( a-)
a(t)

a(t0 )

pC (y) = pC

(y),

y Y;

) ( )

p(t; x | y) = p(t0 ; x | y) p(x | y).


ea1 (t) ea1 (t0 ),

ea2 (t) = ei[C (t)C (t0 )] ea2 (t0 ),

. .

(t) = ua1 ea1 (t) + ua2 ea2 (t) = ua1 ea1 (t0 ) + eiC (t,t0 ) ua2 ea2 (t0 ),

a(t )
a
uj = pC 0 (aj ) , j = 1, 2, C (t, t0 ) = C (t) C (t0 ). U (t, t0 ) : H H ,
ea (t0 ) ea (t1 ).
: U (t, t0 ) = diag(1, eiC (t,t0 ) ).
,
H :
(t) = U (t, t0 )(t0 ).
(7.2)

7.

239

. U (t, t0 ) U (t, t0 , C)
C , . . (t0 ):
U (t, t0 ) = U (t, t0 , (t0 )). , (7.2)
(t) = U (t, t0 , 0 )0 ,
(7.3)
0 U (t, t0 , 0 )
. , . :
) ( )
C (t, t0 ) = C (t) C (t0 )
C.
U (t, t0 ) = diag(1, ei(t,t0 ) )
C , . . (t0 ).
.
, :
) : (t, t0 ) U (t, t0 ) ;
) :

(t; t0 , 0 ) = (t; t1 , (t1 , t0 , 0 )),


t0  t1  t (t; t0 , 0 ) = U (t; t0 )0 ;
) : U (t; t0 ) = U (t t0 ).
i H(t)

e h
, H : H H . h > 0 , (,
).
,


(t) (t )

C 0
. ,
H = diag(0, E), E = h C
t t0

:

C (t) = C (t0 )

E
(t t0 ).
h

11




. 10, 3, 6
(, ,
). . . 10
, P(b = x | C)
. ,
, 1), . [10,
291, 292].

() .

1.

, ,
, .
, . [13] [192] .
1)


, . . .
, . [10].

1.

241

C = A B , A
B , .
,
.
,
,
, , ,
. [13, 175, 188, 198, 208, 27, 6774, 82, 83, 105, 110, 111,
129133, 243, 253262, 274].
, . [7, 8]. .

,
. [48, 125, 126, 231, 275, 276, 281, 288, 248, 249],

!
[48, 125, 126, 231, 275, 276,
281, 288, 248, 249] , (, ,
) (
),
.
1.1 (). ,
, , (
). , ,
(x),
, . [24].
, . ( ) .
. .
( ) .

242

. 11.

, .
, .

2.


. a = a1 , a2 b = b1 , b2
: a1 = , a2 = , b1 = , b2 = .

. , .
a
:

paj =

aj
.

, paj aj
, . pbj b-.
bj , j = 1, 2, ,
, b = bj , j = 1, 2.
bj
() b = bj , j = 1, 2.
a- bj ,
j = 1, 2.
a|b

pij =

aj bi
.
bi
a|b

, , p12 a = a1 = ,
b = b2 = .
,
, . [23]:
a|b

a|b

paj = pb1 p1j + pb2 p2j ,

j = 1, 2.

3.

243

,
:

a|b
a|b
a|b a|b
paj = pb1 p1j + pb2 p2j + 2 pb1 pb2 p1j p2j cos j .
j a-
bj .

a|b

a|b

paj pb1 p1j pb2 p2j

cos j =
.
a|b a|b
2 pb1 pb2 p1j p2j

cos j = 0, .
, ( ) cos j ,
, . . 10.
(
),
. ,
(),
.

.

3.
, ,
. , . ,
, [79].


,
.

244

. 11.

4.


(cos ) , (ch ) . , ,
, (ch )
.

a|b

a|b

paj pb1 p1j pb2 p2j

a|b a|b
2 pb1 pb2 p1j p2j

(., , [13]).
[0, ),

a
b a|b
b a|b

ch j =

pj p1 p1j p2 p2j

.
a|b a|b
2 pb1 pb2 p1j p2j


.

. ( )
,
. [13]. .

12
-

, , XXI
.
.
. , . . 1) , . [6974].

.
(
).


.
.

( , , . .). ,
, .

.
( )
.
, ()
.
( ) 1)
, , . , .

246

. 12. -

.
: (
) ( ).

1.

70- , . - (
)
( ). , ,
. ,
( ) ( ) ,
, , , . . (, -)
( )
. , ,
. , ,
,
, ( - ),
. . [279].
, ,
( , ), . [19, 267]. ,
, . [103].
, ,
, . [12, 267, 143]. ,
. ,

1.

247

( ) , . [267, 12, 143].


. [279],
.
. , , ,

( , . [279]).
. , .
. .
,
, [279].
. , .
,
.

, (
). . (, , ) .
( ) ,
, .
. ,
,
( ) , . . 10, 11.
,
, [43]
, [239, 278].

248

. 12. -

,
. ,
.
. , ,
, . ,

.
.
( )
.
( )
, . ,
( )
, [57].
. ,
, . 1).
,
.

. , ( , ).
(
) ,
. ,
2).
. 1)

. . . .
. . . ,
. . . [57, . 38].
2)
. . . , , , . . .
, ,
, ,

2.

249

:
,
.
,
, . .

2.
, n
a1 , . . . , an
( ) . .
n: Q = Rn,
q = (q1 , . . . , qn ), qj , j -
. R . q(t) = (q1 (t), . . . , qn (t)) Q.
,
R ( ) . , q = 1 .
q = 1 ? .
aj , qj  0, ,
qj  0.
: vj (t) = qj (t) =
q (t + t) q (t)

j
= lim j
. t
t0
t, 2t, . . . zj (t) = qj (t + t) qj (t).
V
(= Rn ), v = (v1 , . . . , vn ). ,
Q V = R2n. -

. ,
, . . . [57, . 37].

250

. 12. -

. (q , v) = (,
) 1).
m (), 2). m . ,
mj .
Tj = mj qj .

H : Q V R. 3) ( )
1
H(q , p) =
mj vj2 + V (q1 , . . . , qn ).
2
n

(2.1)

j=1

K =

n
1
mj vj2 ,
2
j=1

V (q1 , . . . , qn ) , mj
j - .
:
.
: , a1 ,
1 , , a2 , 2 ,
, a2
, a1 .
,
( ). , .

. ,
.
1)
. (q , v) .
2)
m = 0, 1, . . . ,
( ) , .
3)
? ,
.

2.

251

V a1 , . . . , an
. ,

V (q1 , . . . , qn ) =

n


(qi qj )2 .

i,j=1

|qi qj | ai aj .
. ? . V (
a1 , . . . , an )
.
, , . , , . a1 , . . . , an (
). , , (
); ,
,
.
, ,
- . , V (q), .
,
.
. ,
p = mv .
v = (v1 , . . . , vn )
p = (p1 , . . . , pn ), pj = mj vj . P. Q P
. -

252

. 12. -

qj =

H
,
pj

pj =

H
,
qj

j = 1, . . . , n.

(2.2)

qj (0) = qj 0 ,

pj (0) = pj 0 .

(2.1), . .
n

p2j
H(q , p) =
+ V (q1 , . . . , qn ),
j=1

2mj

qj =

pj
= vj ,
mj

pj =

V
.
qj

mj v j =
v j (t) = lim

V
.
qj

vj (t + t) vj (t)

t

( ).

fj (q) =

V
() .
qj

mv = f.

(2.3)

.

:
:

H(q1 (t), . . . , qn (t), p1 (t), . . . , pn (t)) =


= H(q1 (0), . . . , qn (0), p1 (0), . . . , pn (0)) = const .

(2.1). -, (. . ) ,

, . : V = V (t, q). , , -

2.

253

, V = V (t, q), .

. . , ,
: V = V (t, q , v), , : V = V (t, q , p). . ,

: mv = f (t, q , p).
2.1 ( ).

. , . , ,
( ).
2.1 ( ). n = 1 V 0.
p
: p = 0 p(t) = p0 , q = 0 = v0 . ,
m
q(t) = q0 + v0 t. v0 > 0. , ( )
, . 1).
, v0 < 0.
.
t = t0 ( )

. . ,
. . , , ,
,
.
1)
.
V 0: .

254

. 12. -

3.


,
: , , . . ,
: V (q1 , . . . , qn ), .
,
. ,

. , . , ,
,
.
.
.
- ,
.
(
)
. () , . ,
( ). ,
.
. 1).
, .
( ,
) .
1)
.

4.

255

(,
),
.
- (,
, ).
,
, .

. . . [57]
(
).

4.
, (. .
) . .
,
, . , , .
,
. , , , . ,
,
.
, ( ). ,

, .
, .
, (
,
). , .
,
. ,

.

256

. 12. -

1. q(t) .
.
2. ,

( - ).
3. ,
, , .
, .
1 2. , . 3,
, [57] [143]

. [12],
.

.
R3,
[12]. [12]
. ,

[12]
( ).
,
.
V (t, q1 , . . .
. . . , qn , p1 , . . . , pn ), (
) , .
,

( ) .
()
.

4.

257

,
.
:
?. , ,
( -, , , ,
, . .). , Q 1). ,
: Q C, C
. q = (q1 , . . . , qn ) n a1 , . . . , an
(q) .
(q)
q .
C.
,
.
.
1.
. ,
(q1 , . . . , qn ) , . .

(q1 , . . . , qn ) = (q1 ), . . . , (qn ),


, qj , ai aj , j = i.
V (q1 , . . . , qn ) : . , V (q1 , . . .
. . . , qn ) = q12 + . . . + qn2 a1 , . . . , an .
1)
- .
( ) ,
, , .
. ,
, ,
, .

9 . .

258

. 12. -

: qj = pj , pj = 2qj , j = 1, 2, . . . , n.
, qj (t) aj ai , i = j. , ,
,

(q1 , . . . , qn ) = cei(q1 q2 +...+qn1 qn ) e(q1 +...+qn ) ,


2

c C ,
(. ).
,
.
2. aj
: , 2, 100 000
aj .

( , ).
1). . , ,
.

5. ,

,
.
( . ,
) . ,
() (q1 , . . . , qn ) ()
U (q1 , . . . , qn ), .

p = f + g,
1)

f =

V
U
, g= .
q
q

, , , ,
.

5. ,

259

g
.
g(q1 , . . . , qn )
. , g
, V (q1 , . . . , qn ). .
,
, V 0. V 0
U 0.
. ()
- - .
.

.
, .
(q)

(q) = R(q)eiS(q),
R(q) = |(q)| (q) (
c = (q)), a S(q) (q) (
c = (q)).

n
1  2R
U (q1 , . . . , qn ) =
,
2
R

i=1

qi

gj (q1 , . . . , qn ) =

U
(q , . . . , qn ).
qj 1

,
, .
5.1 ( ). R = const .
g 0. R = const , j -
qj .
9*

260

. 12. -

. ,
. R = 1,
R = 10100,
.
R(q) = cq , c > 0. ;
. g 0. .
5.2 ( ). R(q) =

= c(q 2 + d), c, d > 0. U (q) =


c!) g(q) =

2
( q2 + d

4q
.
(q + d)2
2

, ,
.
,
, . q > 0, g < 0. g
a .
, g(q) 4q/d2. a q , . ,
q. , g(q) 4/q 3.
a (

q ),
. .
R(q) = c(q 4 + b), c, b > 0. g(q) =

bq q 5
.
(q 2 + b)2

a .
q  0. d = 4 b . q q = 0 q = d, (
g(q)) .
q = d .
(
) ,
. q = d
.

5. ,

261

(q) R(q), ,
. [0, )
0 < d1 < d2 < . . . < dn < ,
q = dj
.
. ,
. (q1 , . . . , qn ) Q Q = O1 . . . ON .
Oj
. , O1 : a1 (
, q1  0), a2 (
, q2  0), . . ., an
( , qn  0).
,
: (t, q).
, . . (t, q)
.
n
2
1  pj
H(q , p) =
+ V (q1 , . . . , qn )
2

j=1

mj

 h2 2 (t, q1 , . . . , qn )

ih
(t, q1 , . . . , qn ) =
+
t
2mj
qj2
n

j=1

+ V (q1 , . . . , qn )(q1 , . . . , qn ) (5.1)


(0, q1 , . . . , qn ) = (q1 , . . . , qn ).
, (0, q), , , (t, q)
t. ,
U (t, q), g(t, q)
.

. , h . (
) h .

262

. 12. -

h = 3h . h
. , h
, .
h . ,
. [239]. ,
- h
, . .
. , h = h(t) .
, ( )
.

ih

 , q),
(t, q) = H(t
t

(0, q) = (q),

 , H
, H(q , p)
. ,
.
L2 (Q)
: Q C, Q ,
Q = Rn Q Rn :
2 =

|(x)|2 dx < .

dx , .
, dx . dx, ,
, . . (x) = const ,
. .
() ,
, ,
.
M

5. ,

263

.
L2 (Q, dM )
M
:

2 =

|(x)|2 dM (x) < .

, M :

dM (x) =

(2 det B)n/2

(B 1 (x),x)
2

dx,

B = (bij )ni,j=1 = (1 , . . . , n )
. (bij )
. ,
bij ai aj .
B , . . bij = bji . j qj , j = q j , aj . M ,
.
.
,
; ,
. , . [43]. ,
. .

.
Q
: P C . ,
p = mv , v , . , , , L2 (P , dM ), P
1).
1)

, ( ) .
; .
[144].

264

. 12. -

,
. , [239,
278]. , ():

dM (p) =

dp
2
+ p2

.

.
, .
,
, .
, (p) pk, k  1, p ,
, , (
, )
.
, : Q C,
L2 (Q) L2 (Q, dx). .
,
()
L2 (Q).
,
qj (q) = qj (q) ( qj -),
pj (q) =

h
(q) ( i qj

qj -, h (
i = 1/i, pj )).

:

[
q , p] = q p p q = ih.
,
H(q , p) H(
q , p)

6.

265

L2 (Q). ,
n

h2 2
 =
H
+ V (q1 , . . . , qn ).
j=1

2mj qj2

V (q) V (q).
. . A
:

A =

A()(x)(x) dx.
Q


.
.
1) H(q , p) ( ).
( )
V (q1 , . . . , qn ).
2) ,
V (q1 , . . . , qn ),
(t, q). ()
.
3)
, U (q1 , . . . , qn ).
4) U (q1 , . . . , qn ) , , .

6.

. [297] -

266

. 12. -

. , (, , , . .) ,
.
, , .
.

, .
, , .
,
, (
) .
, ,
.
.
( )
.


1. . . , , , . .: , 2004.
2. . ., . ., ., . .
. .: , 2004.
3. . . . 4- . .: ,
1963.
4. . ., . . : .
.: , 2004.
5. . . .: , 1953.
6. . . .: , 1968.
7. . . . 2- .
.: , 1974.
8. . ., . . . 10 . .: , 2005.
9. . . . .: ,
2002.
10. . .
. .: , 2003.
11. . . . .: ,
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