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1. . . . . . . .
1.1.
1.2. .
1.3. . . .

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2. -
2.1. . . . . . . . . .
2.2. . . . . . . .
2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4. , . .
2.5. B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6. . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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3. . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1. .
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3.2. . . .
3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7. . . . . .
3.8. . . . . . . .
3.9. . . . . . . . . . . .
3.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

64
68
71
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82
99
104
111
123
126

4. .
4.1. . . . . . . . . .
4.2. . . . . . . . . . .
4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

127
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57
63

5. O . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1. . . . . . . . . .
5.2. .
5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. :
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6.1. . . . .
6.2. . . . . . . . .
6.3. . . . . . . . .
6.4. . . . . . . . . . . . .

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143
143
158
162
167

.................
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168
168
172
176
178

7. . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1. . .
7.2. e
7.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6. () . . . . . . . . . .
7.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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. 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 2. . 3.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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180
180
188
192
199
202
206
208
217
224
224
226
230


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36

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R = 10 0,414M1,696 .

(2.3.3)

(2.3.1)(2.3.3).
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L = l = 10 0,5M1,8 M < 5,

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M  5.
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 1,5M5,68
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(2.3.5)

(2.3.1) (2.3.4), ,
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2.4. ,

41

2.4. ,

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2.5. B

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2.5. B

43

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T = 10 0,5 M2,1 ,

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50- . , . . . 5,57,5
1977 . :
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2
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ij, j = 0,

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(2.6.3)

(2.6.3) (2.6.1),



1
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ij ui, j dV +
ij wi, j dV +
ij wi, j dV.
2
2
2
(2.6.4)
e (2.6.4) ( ) e -

2.6.

(2.6.2).



1
1
1
W =
pi u0i dS +
p0i wi dS +
pi wi dS,
2
2
2
S

pi

ij

p0i

47

(2.6.5)

0ij

nj
=
nj S;
=
nj S.

,
e .
1. S1 , S0 . ,
S0 , . .
p0i = pi = 0.
(2.6.6)
S1
,
.
- e
wi = 0 S1 .
(2.6.7)
(2.6.5), , (2.6.4) (2.6.6) (2.6.7)
(2.6.4)

1
Wd =
(2.6.8)
ij u0i, j dV.
2
(2.6.3), (2.2.4.) (2.2.7) ,
ij = ij 0ij = c0ijkl wk, l + qcijkl u0k, l + qcijkl wk, l .
(2.6.9) (2.6.8),


1
q
0
0
cijkl wk, l ui, j dV +
cijkl u0i, j u0k, l dV +
Wd =
2
2

q
+
cijkl wk, l u0i, j dV.
2

(2.6.9)

(2.6.10)

(2.6.10) :


0kl wk, l dV =
c0ijkl wk, l u0i, j dV =


=
(0kl wk ), l dV
0kl, l wk dV =


0
=
pk wk dS
0kl, l wk dV. (2.6.11)
S

48

. 2. -

(2.6.11)
(2.6.6) (2.6.7),
(2.6.2). ,


q
q
Wd =
cijkl u0i, j u0k, l dV +
cijkl wk, l u0i, j dV. (2.6.12)
2
2
S1
. , .
2. B S . ,
pi = 0 S.

(2.6.13)

(2.6.5) (2.6.4)


1
Ws =
(2.6.14)
0ij wi, j dV.
2
0ij = c0ijkl u0k, l , (2.6.9) ,
c0ijkl wi, j = kl q cijkl u0i, j q cijkl wi, j .

(2.6.15)

(2.6.14)
Ws =



1
q
q
=
kl u0k,l dV
cijkl u0i, j u0k,l dV
cijkl wi, j u0k,l dV.
2
2
2
(2.6.16)
(2.6.16)
:




0

0
kl uk, l dV =
(kl uk ), l dV
kl, l u0k dV =


=
pk u0k dS
kl, l u0k dV. (2.6.17)
S

(2.6.13), e
(2.6.2).


q
q
Ws =
cijkl u0i, j u0k, l dV
cijkl wi, j u0k, l dV. (2.6.18)
2
2

2.6.

49

(2.6.12) (2.6.18), ,
, . .

  

q

0
0

0
cijkl ui, j uk, l dV +
cijkl wi, j uk, l dV , (2.6.19)
W =
2
V


S1 , ,
.
(2.6.19) , , e
e
, .
, (2.6.19)
- , .
, q .
(2.6.8), . 7, ,
q wi q. , (2.6.19)
, q 2 ,

q
W =
cijkl u0i, j u0k, l dV.
(2.6.20)
2
V

, (19) e (2.6.20) .
. 1.1 , ,
; ,
(2.6.20) :

q
W =
cijkl u0i, j u0k, l dV.
(2.6.21)
2
V

, . . 0ij = const, cijkl = const, (2.6.21)



W =

qV 
c
u0 u0 .
2 ijkl i, j k, l

(2.6.22)

-
:
u01,3 = u03,1 = u02,3 = u03,2 = 0,

033 = 0,

(2.6.23)

50

. 2. -

(2.2.10)
.
, ,


18K2 (11 + 22 )
W = V
+
(3K + 4)2



4(3K 2)(3K +)(11 +22 )2 2


2
2
2
(
+
+

+
+3
11 22
11
22
12 ,
3(3K + 4)2
3
(2.6.24)


V (11 + 22 )2
211 11 22 + 222 + 3212
W =
+
.
(2.6.25)
2
9K
3


2
V.
(2.6.26)
2
(2.6.24)(2.6.26) ,
, .
e . . , ,
, . . . , , , .
,
,
e, , . , (2.6.19)(2.6.21) (2.6.24)(2.6.26)
.
. [Yamashita, 1979] e
, e , e ,

.
,
, ( )
3V
W =
,
(2.6.27)
2
.
W = 2 V 212 =

2.6.

51

(2.6.26),
=3

(2.6.28)

[Yamashita, 1979] 0,58 , = 75 . e


0,020,32 0,08, . 2.4.

. e , (2.6.26) S, e , . e bV (,
b > 1)
. ,
e bV e
. , (2.6.26),
2 V
( + )2 bV
2 bV
=

,
2
2
2




1+ 1 .
=
b

(2.6.29)

(2.6.30)

= 100 , = 0,1 b = 30. , e bV . = 0,17 . , ()max = 10,


()max = 1,7 . e , ,
0,110 , . , .

W
2
=
,
bV
2b

(2.6.31)

e : ,
,
.

52

. 2. -

2.7.
[ ., 1987] E ( ) e
Vc ( 3 )
(2.7.1)
E = 100 Vc ,
e Vc = (Ll)3/2 , L l
, .
Vc e

(2.3.2),

Vc
6
=
V

L
. (2.3.1)
l

,
M 3 9
Vc = 3 V 10 %. (2.7.1)

E = 300 V.
(2.7.2)
, ,
(2.6.26) ,
E = W =

2
V = 25 000 V ,
2

(2.7.3)

= 0,1, = 108 , = 2 1010 .


(2.7.2) (2.7.3) e
. -, ,
e ; -, =
= 1,2 %, [ ., 1977].
, . E ,

E
=
.
(2.7.4)
W

E = 101,5M+5 .

(2.7.5)

(2.6.26) V (2.3.2) = 0,1,


= 108 , = 2 1010 ,
W = 101,24M+8,93 .

(2.7.6)

(2.7.4) (2.7.5) (2.7.6)


=

E
= 100,26M1,93 %.
W

(2.7.7)

2.8.

53

2.1

1
2

3
4
5
6
7
8
8,3
9
0,06 0,13 0,20 0,40 0,63 1,30 1,62 2,45
0,17 0,48 1,84 4,18 5,10 5,66 5,73
0,17 0,28 0,69 2,28 4,78 5,61 5,73

[, 1992] . . . ,
1
2 . (2.7.7), 1 2
. 2.1.
, , , , .
.
e (2.6.26):
W =

2
V,
2

() = 108 =
= 1000 . ,
100 10 . ,
, . .
. e
(2.6.26), ,
.

2.8.

o .
,
.

e e , . .
V (t) (t). ,
e e e. ,
, . . || = const. . e
( ). ,

54

. 2. -

. 2.3. . V (t) e ; (t)

e , ,
e -
. e
. 2.3.
e
e. ,
e . [, 1987] e ,
Ts = 10 0,26 M3,50 .

(2.8.1)

e
, (2.8.1) (2.5.2).
Ts /T 39
1/1301/3600. , , Tl = T , . .
.
V (t), . ,
. , V (t).
: (2.3.2) V (2.5.2) M
T t.
V = 5,63 t2,48 3 ,
t .

(2.8.2)

2.9.

55

.
e
V = 10kM+l 3 ,

t = 10aM+b ,

(2.8.3)

M ,
k

V = 10l a b t a 3 .

(2.8.4)

, e .

2.9.
-
. -, . ,
. -, .
,
. ,
, .
:
, ,
.
: , ,
e , . .
.

. ,
. ?
, , ,
, e .

.
.
, -,
, .
,
-

56

. 2. -

( ) .
:
e ,
?
, e.
, , e :
e , -
, . .
e
, ,
.

. ,
( ) . e
.
e . e , , e , , e
, . . ,
, . e, ,
.
, e .
:
, ,
, , .
: ,
,
, .
, .
.

3.1. .

. 2.2 , , . .
e = 0. ,

. e , , (7.5.9)(7.5.12). . 2.3 .
, -, e

58

. 3.

, ( ) . -, ( e
95 % )
. ; , (7.5.9)(7.5.12)
(7.3.12). e , ,
(2.3.2) (2.3.3) :
Vmax = 10 1,242 M4,466 3 ,

Rmax = 10 0,414 M1,696 .

(3.1.1)

x, y, z; z  0; u, v ;
w ; ( ); ; V R
e ; H
; .
:
R3
,
2 (1 )

r1 = x2 + y 2 + (z H)2 ,

r2 = x2 + y 2 + (z + H)2 .
G=

(3.1.2)

:
u = G y (F1 + x2 F2 ),
v = G x (F1 + y 2 F2 ),
w = G x y F3 ,

(3.1.3)


F1 =

1 2
R2

3r13
5r15


+

4(1 )(1 2)
1 2 2zH
5
+
3
3r2 (r2 + z + H)2
3r2
r2


3 4 2z(z + H)
+ R2
+
,
r27
5r25



1
R2
3 4 10zH
+
+
F2 = 5 + 7
r
r27
r1
r25
1
+



14z(z + H)
4(1 )(1 2)(3r2 + z + H)
2 3 4
+
R

,
r27
3r23 (r2 + z + H)3
r29

3.1.

59



zH
R2 (z H)
(3 4)(z H) 10zH(z + H)
F3 =
+
+

7
5
r1
r27
r1
r25
4(1 )(1 2)(2r2 + z + H)

+
3r23 (r2 + z + H)2


(3 4)(z + H) 14z(z + H)2
2 2z

+R
.
r27
r27
r29
:
xx = G x y (F4 + x2 F5 ),
yy = G x y (F4 + y 2 F5 ),
zz = G x y F6 ,

(3.1.4)

1 + 2 3R2
7 10 30zH
F4 =
+

+
+
7
5
r1 e
r27
r1
r25



4(1 )(1 2)(3r2 + z + H)
14z(z + H)
2 3 4
+
+ 3R

,
r27
r23 (r2 + z + H)3
r29


F5 =

5
7R2
9
7
r1
r1

+
e

5(3 4) 70zH

r27
r29



4(1)(12)(r22 +(2r2 +z +H)2 )
3 4 18z(z +H)
2
+ 7R
+

,
r29
r211
r25 (r2 + z + H)4

F6 =




1
1
5(z H)2
7(z H)2
2
+
+
R

+
r17
r17
r19
r15
e

82 8 + 1 10H(2z + H) 5(3 4)(H 2 z 2 )


+

r27
r27
r25

70zH(z + H)2
1 4 7(3 4)(z + H)2
2
+
R
+

9
r27
r2
r29
+


14(z + H)(4z + H) 126z(z + H)3
+
.
r29
r211

e
= 2 (1 2) G xy




2
1
3 4 10H(z + H)
1
2 7(z + H)
+

+2R

. (3.1.5)

r27
r27
r29
r15 e
r25

60

. 3.


xy = G (F7 + x2 y 2 F8 ),
yz = G x (F9 + y 2 F10 ),

(3.1.6)

xz = G y (F9 + x2 F10 ),

F7 =

2(4 5)
15R3





4
1 + (H z)2
(H z)2
2
+
+
+R

r17
3r13
r15
5r15
i
e

10zH(z + H)2
82 19 + 9 8zH + (2 3)(z + H)2
+

+
3
5
3r2
r27
r2

4(1 )(1 2)
12z(z + H)
2 4(3 4)
+
+R

5
r2 (r2 + z + H)2
r27
5r2


(3 4)(z H)2
14z(z + H)3
+
,
r27
r29

5(3 4) 70zH
4(1 )(1 2)

7
9
r
r
r2 (r2 + z + H)2
e
2
2


8(1 )(1 2)(2r2 + z + H)
3 4 18z(z + H)
2

+
7R
+

,
r24 (r2 + z + H)4
r29
r211

5
7R2
F8 = 7 9
r1
r1


F9 =


F10 =

(z H) R2 (z H)
+
r17
r15

z(3 2) H
5 +
r25
r2
e


14z(z + H)2
10zH(z + H)
2 3z + H
+R

+
,
r27
r27
r29

5(z H) 7R2 (z H)

r17
r19

5z(3 4) 5H
+ 7
r27
r2
e


70zH(z + H)
18z(z + H)2
3z + H
2

+ 7R
+
.
r29
r29
r211
+





w
= Gy F11 + x2 F12 + 6R2 F13 + 7x2 F14 ,
x



w
y =
= Gx F11 + y 2 F12 + 6R2 F13 + 7y 2 F14 ,
y

x =

(3.1.7)
(3.1.8)

3.1.

61


F11 =

zH

r15

(3 4)(z H) 10zH(z + H)
+

r27
r25

F12

5(z H)
=
r17

5(3 4)(z H) 70zH(z + H)

r27
r29

+
e

F13

zH
=
r17

F14 =

zH
r19

8(1 )(1 2)(r2 (8r2 + 9z + 9H) + 3(z + H)2 )


,
6r25 (r2 + z + H)3

(1 4)z + (3 4)H
14z(z + H)2

,
r27
r29

+
e

4(1 )(1 2)(2r2 + z + H)


,
3r23 (r2 + z + H)2

(1 4)z + (3 4)H
18z(z + H)2
+
.
9
r211
r2

e e ,
, ; i .
, V ,
. (3.1.3)(3.1.8),
Fk (3.1.5), (3.1.7), (3.1.8) R = 0.
G e ,
3 V
G=
.
(3.1.9)
8 (1 )
,
. , . e
,
.
:
3R , , .
R e .
, , -

62

. 3.

, ,
p .
. e
, :
(x, y, z)
H
ri
(, , ) =
, h = , i = .
(3.1.10)
R
R
R
.
(3.1.10), , F4 ,


7 10 30 h
+
+
72
52
e


3 4 14 ( + h)
4(1)(12)(32 ++h)
+
+3

. (3.1.11)
72
32 (2 + + h)3
92

1
1
F4 = 5 F 4 = 5
R
R

3
1 + 2
+ 7

5
1
1

Fk . , F k ,
R, ; , F k .
, :
ij =

ij =
ij ,
R3
2(1 )

(3.1.12)

ij .
(3.1.12) , (3.1.10) V R, ,
, ,
,
(3.1.10).
, ,
-. , (3.1.12),

(u, v, w)
G

= 3 (
(
u, v , w).

u, v , w)
=
R
R
2(1 )

(3.1.13)

(3.1.13) , e
. , (
) .

3.2.

63

3.2.


. 2.2.
, .
. 2.6 ,
.
, (7.5.6). e
wi = 6 A(Mi1,1 + Mi2,2 + Mi3,3 ) (011 + 022 )+

2 (BMi1,1 2C Mi2,2 D Mi3,3 ) 011 +


+ (2CMi1,1 + BMi2,2 DMi3,3 ) 022 + (Mi1,2 + Mi2,1 ) 012 , (3.2.1)
K

3K + 2

3K

A =
, B=
, C=
, D=
; Mir,j =
3K + 4
3K + 4
3K + 4
   3K + 4
mir,j dV , mir .
=
V

(. 2.2), , e , . . = 0. , (3.2.1)
1 , 2

wi = 2 (BMi1,1 2CMi2,2 DMi3,3 ) 1 +


+ (2CMi1,1 + BMi2,2 DMi3,3 ) 2 . (3.2.2)

e
:
=

1 + 2
,
2

1 2
.
2

(3.2.3) (3.2.2),



wi = 2 D Mi1,1 + Mi2,2 2Mi3,3 + (Mi1,1 Mi2,2 ) .

(3.2.3)

(3.2.4)

.
, .
,

64

. 3.

. , , .
(3.2.4) Mi1,1 + Mi2,2 ,
e mi1,1 + mi2,2 .
mi1
, x1 , mi1,1
; mi2,2
x2 . ,
, x3 .
Mi3,3 , x3
, x3 . ,
(3.2.4) ( ) e , . , D = 5/9 = 1/4.
, -
.
,
. (3.2.4)
,
, ,  , (3.2.4) (3.2.1)
. , (3.2.1),
, , e ; e
.
, , , ,
, . 3.1 . , e
,
- . ,
.

3.3. .

, , . ,

3.3.

65

.
.

. 3.1 z = 0.

r1 = r2 = r = x2 + y 2 + H 2 .
(3.3.1)
:



 2


V
1 2
3
1
2 (12)(3r+H)
2 x
u=
y
+x
5 +3R

,
2
r(r+H)2
r3 (r + H)3
r7 5r5
r



 2


1 2
V
3
1
2 (12)(3r+H)
2 y
x
v=
+y
5 +3R

,
2
r(r+H)2
r3 (r + H)3
r7 5r5
r



3H
(1 2)(2r + H)
V
2H
xy

3R 7 ;
w=
2
r3 (r + H)2
r
r5
(3.3.2)


2
3 V
(1 2)(3r + H)
xx =
xy 5 +
+
2
r3 (r + H)3
r





(1 2)(5r2 + 4rH + H 2 )
7x2
5
3
2
+ x2 7

+
R
, (3.3.3)
r
r5 (r + H)4
r7
r9

2
3 V
(1 2)(3r + H)
xy 5 +
+
yy =
2
r
r3 (r + H)3





5
3
(1 2)(5r2 + 4rH + H 2 )
7y 2
2
+ y2 7
+
R
, (3.3.4)

r
r7
r9
r5 (r + H)4




1
2(1 ) 5H 2
3 V
7H 2
2
zz =
xy
+ 7 +R
9
;
(3.3.5)
2(1 )
r
r7
r
r5


V
6(1 2)
5 4 3H 2
+ 5 +
+
xy = yx =

4
r3
r
r(r + H)2


5
(1 2)(5r2 + 4rH + H 2 )
2 2
+ 6x y

r7
r5 (r + H)4



5H 2
35x2 y 2
6
4
R2 5 + 7 +
, (3.3.6)
5
r
r9
r
xz = zx = yz = zy = 0,
3 . .

(3.3.7)

66

. 3.

e




2
2(1 ) 5H 2
3(1 2) V
1
2 7H
xy
=

+
R

.
2(1 )
r5
r7
r9
r7

(3.3.8)

:

3H
V
w
(1 2)(2r + H)
=
y 5
+
x =
x
2
r3 (r + H)2
r





1 7x2
(12)(8r2 +9rH +3H 2 ) 15H
2

+ x2
3R
,
r5 (r + H)3
r7
r7
r9
(3.3.9)

3H
V
w
(1 2)(2r + H)
=
x 5
y =
+
y
2
r3 (r + H)2
r





2
2
15H
1 7y 2
2 (12)(8r +9rH +3H )
2
.
7 3R H 7 9
+y
r
r
r
r5 (r + H)3
(3.3.10)
. 3.1 e .


, x2 + y 2  H, . .
, e .
(3.3.3), (3.3.4) (3.3.6) = 1/4 :
xx =

3 V xy(5x2 r02 )
,
4
r07

yy =

3 V xy(5y 2 r02 )
,
4
r07

xy =

3 V 15x2 y 2 r04
,
4
3r07

(3.3.11)


r0 = x2 + y 2 , - .
,
.
. , ,
107 108 . ,
.
, .
, -

3.3.

67

0 = 108 .
: ? ( (3.3.11))
e e
.
1 , 2 ,
,
s .
,

xx + yy (xx yy )2 + 42xy
1,2 =
,
(3.3.12)
2
1 2
.
s = xx + yy , =
2
(3.3.11) x = r0 cos ,
y = r0 sin , :

18 sin 2 274 210 cos 4
1,2 = A
,
24 
(3.3.13)
274 210 cos 4
3 sin 2
, =A
,
s = A
2
24
A =

3 V 1
3.
4
r0

(3.3.13) e fi :

18 sin 2 274 210 cos 4
f1,2 =
,
24
3 sin 2
(3.3.14)
f3 =
,
2
274 210 cos 4
f4 =
,
24
. 3.1. , ,
f1 = 1,5. , 1 = 0 = 1,5A,


9 Vmax
R = 3
.
(3.3.15)
80
= 0,1, = 108 , = 2

1010 , Vmax (2.3.2). , , , 1,


R = 10 0,414M 2,594M .
3*

(3.3.16)

68

. 3.

. 3.1. fi

(3.1.1), , 50
.
. 2.3 e e , (2.3.1).
(3.3.15) Vmax , (2.3.5), ,
, :
R = 10 0,433M eM ,

(3.3.17)

e = 2,718 ... .

3.4.

()

(. 3.2) [ ., 1979; ., 1984]. 0. 1972
1978 , 10 .
20-
.
, . ,
- ( 0), 00,5 /, 4,4 /,
+15 /. , -

3.4.

69

- .
,
, . 3.2.

.
e (3.3.2),
.

( ) . 3.2. . , - - . F F . - (
)

e ,
. e e .
e
. ,
, e , ,
.

.
. (. 3.2).
(3.3.2)
V
w=
xy
2

3H
2r + H
3
5
2r (r + H)2
r

3R2 H

.
r7

(3.4.1)

, .
, (3.4.1) -

70

. 3.

(3.1.1)
V = 10 1,242 M4,466 3 ,

R = 10 0,414 M1,696 .

(3.4.2)

e : V R (3.4.1) ,
w . (3.4.1) , ,
, ,
. 2 : || = 0,10,2,
= (12) 108 . .

.
.
,
, = (12) 1010 . ,
, , , ; w
8 . e
, e
. ,
, ,
, ; .
e (3.4.1) (3.4.2) H = R :
= +0,2, = 2 108 , = 2 1010 = +0,16, = 1,6 108 , =
= 1,25 1010 . . . 3.1,
.
. e 3.1

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

M = 5,2 (09.06.1975)

2,7
4,4
2,1
8,8
7,2
6,0
12,0

e
2,2
4,4
3,1
5,2
5,6
7,2
10,6

M = 4,2 (13.09.1973)

1,6
3,7
3,0
2,3
2,9

e
2,0
2,5
2,1
2,4
2,6


0,8
1,0
1,2
1,2
1,1
1,6
3,0

3.5.

71

, , 25 %50 %.
. e . ,
, ,
,
e. .
,
, ,
4,4 +15 /.
( )
. ,
e .
, 1 . :

;
,
. . 2.1 ,
.
e .

3.5.
( . . ) .
,
.
, .
,

.
e
.

(3.1.7), (3.1.8), :


x = Gy (F11 +6R2 F13 )+x2 (F12 +42R2 F14 ) = Gy (f1 +x2 f2 ), (3.5.1)


y = Gx (F11 +6R2 F13 )+y 2 (F12 +42R2 F14 ) = Gx (f1 +y 2 f2 ). (3.5.2)

72

. 3.

, F11 F14 ,
fi = fi (x2 + y 2 , z). , z = const
x2 + y 2 = const fi = const. (3.5.1)
(3.5.2) ,
, e 4
. ,
x (x, 0)
(x = y) x, y.
x e y , x = y .

, . . (z) = (z)/(0).
e (3.5.1) (3.5.2) e :
(, , ) =

(x, y, z)
,
R

h=

H
,
R


2 + 2 .

(3.5.3)

h = 1,
. e e e
= 1, 3, 10. = 1
, e, . = 0 , (3.5.1)
(3.5.2), . e 3.3 3.4.
 3 0,004
, e
.  3 , .
(. 3.4) . -,
e e
. -, , 6 6 ,

. 3.3.

3.6.

73

. 3.4.

12 0,160,32 . ,
, e .
, . ,
e
.

3.6.

.

.
. . [2002].
:
, .
, .
. -

74

. 3.

28.07.1976
7,8 [Ruihao, Zhaozhu, 1983]
90 , 140 .
. 3.3 ,
. ,
,
,
. , [Druta, 1982] , 100 M 24
15200 .
. ,
, 100 .
, , ,
. , -
.
-, . . [1970; 1972] , ,
,
.
[, -, 1991; 1992] , , , . -
.
, . .
, . ,
.
, ,
, .

,
.
:
G = 0,6673 1010 [3 /( 2 )];
m = 0,5975 1025 , [];
r0 = 6 371 110 , [];
= 3000 , [/3 ].

3.6.

75

x, y ,
, . , x, y
,
.
, e z > 0,
z. , e . e
- .
e

(z) =

Gm
.
r0 z

(3.6.1)

e P , , . e ,
e e
dm = dv. dm
r
dP = G

dm
dv
= G
,
r
r

(3.6.2)

( = const)

(x , y  , z  )

P (x, y, z) = G
dv(x , y  , z  ),
(x x)2 +(y  y)2 +(z  z)2
(3.6.3)
.
, ,
z.

P
(z  z) (x , y  , z  )
  
= G

3/2 dv(x , y , z ). (3.6.4)
z

2

2

2
(x x) +(y y) +(z z)
w
, (3.6.3) e .

76

. 3.


(3.3.2), e (3.1.5), = 1/4
:


3H
2R3
2r + H
2H
xy
w=
3
3R 7 ,
(3.6.5)
3
2r (r + H)2
r
r5




2
1
2R3
2 10H(z + H)
1
2 7(z +H)
xy 5 + 5
=
+2R

, (3.6.6)
3
r27
r27
r29
r1 r2


x2 + y 2 + H 2 ,
r1 =
x2 + y 2 + (z H)2 ,
r2 =

r =

= x2 + y 2 + (z + H)2 .
(3.6.6) e ; (3.6.6), , r1 .
.
(3.6.4)(3.6.6) e :
(, , ) =

(x, y, z)
,
R

h=

H
,
R

A=

2
.
3

(3.6.7)

e
. (3.6.5) (3.6.7) e :

= cos , = sin , = 2 + 2 .
(3.6.8)



2+h
3h
2 3h

= AR sin 2 (), (3.6.9)


w = AR sin 2
2 5 23 (+h)2 7

= 2 + h2 , () .
(3.6.4),
. e , (3.6.4) z = 0.

, (3.6.4) . , . ,
, (3.6.6),
, , ,
.
.
23 ,

3.6.

77

. ,

2 3,

.
. e


D(1 )
= A F (2 ) +
,
(3.6.10)
51

1,2 = 2 + 2 + ( h)2 .
F (2 ) , e .
D(1 ) , 0
1 e. ,
, e .
, e ,
:
.
D - e ;
, .
, ,
Dn (r) = 1 exp(rn ).

(3.6.11)

, Dn (r) D(r) n . n 3050 , e (3.6.11),



.
(3.6.11)
. x  0
  n 
x
Dn (x) = 1 exp a
,
b

(3.6.12)

a b ,

(3.6.11).
(3.6.4)
(3.6.7),

78

. 3.

(3.6.8) .

P
p
= AGR sin 2
.
z

(3.6.13)


p/, , .
. ,

, ,
:
2
P 2GmAR
p
(0) w+
sin 2 ()AGR sin 2 .
=
3
2
z
z

r0
(3.6.14)
, w, P A,

g =

g =



3 r03
r03 p
g = sin 2

=
4Gm R
2m




p
= sin 2 0,0649
= + sin 2 = sin 2.

(3.6.15)

,
:
4Gm
R g.
(3.6.16)
g =
3r03
, (2.3.3)
R = 10 0,414 M+1,304 .

(3.6.17)

. 3.5 e h = 1, . 3.6 h = 1,5.


, H = R,
. ,
(. 3.6) , ,
. , h = 1,5, ,
(3.6.14), (3.6.15), . . .
. ,

3.6.

79

. 3.5. e h = 1

. 3.6. e h = 1,5

,
.
,
, max = 0,06.
(3.6.15), (3.6.16) , ( )
, , ,
(3.6.17), . ,
, g (

80

. 3.

. 3.7. 28.07.76 . M = 7,8. ,


. [Ruihao, Zhajzhu, 1983]

) .
1 .
, max(g) = 0,06 max(g) = 1
(3.6.16), (3.6.17) M = 2,2. .
, 1 e
.
,
2,2 . ,
= 50 g 250 .
. (3.6.16), (3.6.17) ,
g 152040
55,36. 3.5 3.6
,
M = 6 . ,
.
, , ,
.
28.07.1976 . 7,8. . 3.7, [Ruihao, Zhaozhu, 1983],

.
,
.
90 ; e 200 : = 0,1, = 108 , = 2 1010 .
e , . 3.4, -

3.6.

81

.
,
, , , . 140 ;
7,8 R = 35 ( (2.3.3)). ,
4 ,
. 3.6. . 3.7,
,
(3.6.14), (3.6.15).
.
[Druta, 1982] , 100 M 24
15200 . e

[Ruihao, Zhaozhu, 1983], . ,
.
.
.
(3.6.14)
g =

3
2P
6Gm
2P
(0) w +
=
w+
.
4
3
2
z
z
z 2
r0

(3.6.18)

6Gm/r04 = 0,15 1011 1 c2 =


= 0,0015 E/. , w = 10 , . . 10 , 102 ,
.
. e ( (3.6.18)) e . [, 1970; 1972] [, , 1991; 1992] ,
1.
. [, -, 1992]
18 . , - .
(. 3.1), . 3.8.
215 15 15 ,
.

82

. 3.

. 3.8. , [, -, 1992]


15- .
(3.6.9) , . . 3.8
,
.

, ,
.

3.7.

. 1807 .
. .

. , , .
, , 1859 .
, . ,

, (). ,
, , . .
,
.

3.7.

83

-,
.
[Terada, 1931]. . [Nourbehecht, 1963]
e
. . . [Mizutani, Ishido, 1976], . . [Fitterman, 1979a; 1979b; 1981]
e .
,
, .

,

. , e e :
1) e ;
2) e ;
3) e .

,
.

,
. ,
. .
:
t , [];
s , , [];
e e ;
H , [];
R , [];
k , [2 ];
L , [ ];
m m0 ;
, [1 ];
(), [/];
J , [/2 ];
 , [];
B
C , [/];
, [];
P () , [];
= + CP , [];
-;

84

. 3.

-;
; .
.
. ,
, :
L m0 
 ) = 0,
(V U
k
P
1 m
 = 0,
+
+ div V

m0 t
t
grad P +

(3.7.1)
(3.7.2)

 U
 e V
.
e (3.7.2).
e v0 ,
e vm0 . e e e, e em ,
m
m=

vm0 (1 + em )
1 + em
= m0
.
v0 (1 + e)
1+e

(3.7.3)

e em e ,
em = e. , e , e .
, . , , , 20 %,
, e = 2 (. ). (
)
, 10 %3 %
712 (. ).
e e
e e e = 1/m0 .
,
40 % ; m0 = 0,2 = 5. ,
= 5.
(3.7.3), em = e =
= const,
1 m
1 e
e
=
( 1) .
2
m0 t
(1 + e) t
t

(3.7.4)

3.7.

85

(3.7.1), (3.7.2)
L m0 
 = 0,
(V U)
k
P
 = ( 1) e .

+ div V
t
t

grad P +

(3.7.5)

V (3.7.5), P

P
k
e
.
div
div U
grad P = ( 1)
t
L m0
t

(3.7.6)

 e , div U
 = e/t. U
(3.7.6),

P
k
e
div
grad P = .
t
L m0
t

(3.7.7)

k/L m0 = const (3.7.7)


:

P
k
e

2 P = ,
t
L m0
t

(3.7.8)

2 .
(3.7.7), (3.7.8). ,
, t = 0
, . P (x, y, z, 0) = 0.
(3.7.7), (3.7.8) e .
,
. ,
.
- : t = 0
, . .
emax . emax e ,
.
(3.1.5)
= 1/4



2
1
2sR3
2 10H(z + H)
1
2 7(z + H)
emax =
xy 5 + 5
+2R

,
3
r27
r27
r29
r1 r2
(3.7.9)

86

. 3.



r1 = x2 + y 2 + (z H)2 , r2 = x2 + y 2 + (z + H)2 ; e (3.7.9),
r1 .
, ,
e = emax(x, y, z) E(t),

(3.7.10)

, (3.7.10) (3.7.8),

P
k

2 P = emax (t).
t
L m0

(3.7.11)

P 0.

. ,
, e .
e ,
. ,
:
   
P (x, y, z, 0) = 0, P 0 x, y , z ,
(3.7.12)
P
P (x, y, 0, t) = 0
(x, y, 0, t) = 0.
z
. :
mZ
J = m w grad
grad P ,

 = m Z grad k grad P ,
W
L
L

(3.7.13)
(3.7.14)

w ();
; Z -;  = m0 (V
 U
 ) .
, ; W
(3.7.14) -
, . . e
P . (3.7.14) ,
(3.7.1), (3.7.2).
(3.7.13) :
J = (grad + C grad P ),
(3.7.15)
.

3.7.

87

div J = 0
div ( (grad + C grad P )) = 0.

(3.7.16)


Jz = 0 e



P
+C
= 0.
(3.7.17)
z
z z=0
(3.7.16), (3.7.17)



( + CP ) 
2
2
= ( + CP ) = 0,
=
= 0. (3.7.18)

z z=0
z
z=0

+ CP 0,
(3.7.19)
. ,

,

.

. P (x, y, 0, t) = 0,

, P /x = 0 P/y = 0.




P 
Ez =
=
C
.
(3.7.20)
z z=0
z z=0
P /z = 0
Ez = 0. .
. (3.7.9), (3.7.11) (3.7.16)
, .
.
D t

L = 2D t .
(3.7.11)

k
L=
t.
(3.7.21)
L m0

88

. 3.

1
15 2
= 4 1010
, L = 5 104 , m0 = 0,1
, k = 3 10
L = 0,387 t , .
5
108 , R = 2400 .
106 , ,
400 . ,
.
(3.7.9) (3.7.11) :

(, , , h) =

(x, y, z, H)
,
R

p=

3G
P,
2s

k
t,
L m0 R 2

(3.7.22)



1
2 s
2 10h(+h) 2 14(+h)2
2 s
5 + 5

+
e(, h),
=
3G
3G
72
72
92
1 2
(3.7.23)


1 = 2 + 2 + ( h)2 , 2 = 2 + 2 + ( + h)2 ,
e .
(3.7.11)
p
2 p = e ().
(3.7.24)

emax =

. ,
,
.
,
L, .
(3.7.24) , :
p 2 p
2p
2
= e (),

2



p , , 0 = 0,



p , t = 0.

(3.7.25)

(3.7.25) e
p(, , ) =
1
=
4




0

1
(  )2 + (  )2
exp
e ( ) d d d ,

4(  )
(3.7.26)

- - (3.7.25)



1
(  )2 + (  )2
p(, , ) =
exp
e d d . (3.7.27)
4
4

3.7.

89


(3.7.27) :
= cos ,

= sin ,

 = cos ,

 = sin ,

(3.7.28)

(3.7.27)
1
p = sin 2
4

 2


( 2 cos ) + 2
exp
cos 2 d d =
4

0 0

= sin 2 p (, ). (3.7.29)

= 0 h = 1.
.
() =

2 (34 62 + 5)
.
2(2 + 1)9/2

(3.7.30)

, (3.7.29)
sin 2
p=
2


  

2 + 2
() exp
I2
d.
4
2

(3.7.31)

(3.7.29), p (, ), e
, p (, 0) = (). p (, )
. 3.9.
, , .
.  5 -

.
(3.7.19), (3.7.22) (3.7.29) ,
,
, e


2 s C
2 s C p
1 p

 =
E = grad = C grad P =
grad p =
r +

3 R
3 R



2p
2 s C
p
 , (3.7.32)
r + cos 2
=
sin 2
3 R

 .
r,

90

. 3.

. 3.9. p (, ) ( )




2
2 s C


 .
Emax =
r + cos 2
sin 2
(3.7.33)
3 R

.
= 0,1, s = 108 , = 2 1010 , = 5, = 4 1010 1 .
C 108 106 / (1100 /).

C = 106 /. ,
:

? 5 R = 2400 .
2 s C
1
=
/.
3 R
600

(3.7.34)

(3.7.33) , 0,9; 0,6. ,


1 /.
. ,
C;
, e R. ,
4 8 R 50 .

3.7.

91

,
1 % ,
, .
, :

.
, .
. . ,
. (3.7.24)

p 2 p
2p
2p

= e (),
2

2
2




p , , , 0 = 0, p , , 0, = 0



p , , 0,
= 0,

(3.7.35)

, , .
- -
(3.7.35)
p 2 p
2p
2p
2

= 0,

2
2






p , , 0,
p , , , 0 = e, p , , 0, = 0
= 0.

(3.7.36)

(3.7.36) ; = 0




1
(  )2 +( )2

 

p(, , , ) =
e( , , ) exp

4
8




( +  )2
(  )2
exp
d d d =
exp
4
4




1
( )2 +( )2 +()2

=
e( ,  ,  ) exp

4
8
0

92

. 3.








1




1exp
e(+ , + ,  )
d d d =

8
0





2 + 2 + (  )2

exp
1 exp
d d d , (3.7.37)
4


e .
p (, , , ) e
; . e (3.7.37) (3.7.23)

= cos , = sin , = , = 2 + 2 ,

(3.7.38)
 = cos ,  = sin ,  =  , = 2 + 2 .
(3.7.37) p (, , , ) =
= sin 2 p (, , ),


 2

1

p (, , ) = sin 2
e (, ,  )
8
0 0 0





2 2 cos +2 +( )2

exp
1exp
d d d ,
4

(3.7.39)




2 1
2
10h ( + h)
2
14( + h)2
e = cos 2
+ 5
7+
, (3.7.40)
2 51
72
2
92
2


1 = 2 + ( h)2 , 2 = 2 + ( + h)2 .
, (3.7.38) e (3.7.23)


2 1
2 10h (+h) 2 14(+h)2
e(, , ) = sin 2
+

+
, (3.7.41)
2 51 52
72
72
92


1 = 2 + ( h)2 , 2 = 2 + ( + h)2 .
(3.7.36)
, , .
, .
.

3.7.

93

. 3.10.
e

= 0,1
.
pr =

p (, 0,1, )
p (, 0,1, )
=
p (, 0,1, 0)
e (, /4, 0,1)

(3.7.42)

. 3.10.
.



2s C
e.
3
(3.7.43)

C =
= 106 /,
max = CP =

2 s C
= 4000 .
3

(3.7.44)

. 3.11 - . 3.11. max (


(3.7.43) (3.7.43)) .
,
(3.7.44); - ; , 600
( ).
240 5
0,1. . 3.11, : 1)
; 2)
;
3) -

94

. 3.

. , 7 0,1
1,5 .
. ,
. , e
. , .
, , () .
x, y, z
; z . x = 0
. x > 0
C1 , 1 ,
, 1; x < 0
C2 , 2 2.
.
( (3.7.18)) ,
2 1/2 = 0,

(3.7.45)

, ,
.


1/2 
= 0.
(3.7.46)
z z=0
.


1 
2 
1
=

,
(3.7.47)
2
x x=0
x x=0
. P
1 2 = P (C1 C2 ) = P C

x = 0.

(3.7.48)

[Fitterman, 1979a; 1979b; 1981]


2/1 C
1/2 (x, y, z, t)=
2(1 +2 )

dy

Gr (x, y, z, y  , z  ) P (f (0, y  ), z  , t) dz  ,
(3.7.49)

3.7.

95

Gr (x, y, z, y  , z  ) =


1
1
+ 2
=x
(x2 + (y y  )2 + (z z  )2 )3/2
(x + (y y  )2 + (z + z  )2 )3/2
P = P (f (x , y  ), z  , t).
(3.7.49) x > 0 x < 0
P e P
z < 0. ( . e.) ,
(3.7.37)
, (3.7.49)
. e , f ,
e .
e (3.7.49) , (3.7.22)
=

3
.
2 s C

(3.7.50)

1/2 (, , , ) =
2/1
=
2 (1 + 2 )




Gr (, , ,  ,  ) P (f (0,  ),  , t) d d . (3.7.51)

(3.7.51) e (3.7.37) . . 3.10 , p , e ,


.
e
. , (3.7.23),
max = 1/2 (, , , 0) =



2/1
=
Gr (, , ,  ,  ) e(f (0,  ),  ) d d , (3.7.52)
2 (1 + 2 )



1
2
10h( + h)
2
14( + h)2
e =   5 + 5
, 1/2 =

+
72
72
92
1
2

= 2 + 2 + ( h)2 ,   ,
 ,  .

96

. 3.

e e , , . . 1 = 2 ,
, . . = 0. (, , ) : , , ,
. (, , 0, 0) (3.7.52) 3.12 3.13 . . 3.12

, . 3.13 ;
= 2, . .
.
1 = 2 ; , ,
, (3.7.48) e, , .
. 3.11 3.12 3.13.
, 0,1 e
.

. ,
,
e .
-

. 3.12. max ( (3.7.52)) . 2


. 4000

3.7.

97

. 3.13. max ( (3.7.52)) .


2 . 4000

(3.7.48), . . max = ( +0) ( 0).


C = Cmax = 106 /,
(3.7.44) 4000 .
. 3.14
max = 4000 max ( )
. (e
) [Varotsos and Alexopoulos, 1984].
, , e

. 3.14. max , . e
[Varotsos, Alexopoluos, 1984]
4 . .

98

. 3.

(), , .
. 3.14 .
. ( > 30)
e . , .
, . . ,
,
( ) . e

. , (
) .
, > 30 ( ) . < 30
,
, .
,
?

,
. < 30 , .
, e
, ,
. ,
. e : e
.
. . e , , , .
.
).
( 10 1000 ).
). ,
.
). , e
, .
). .

3.8.

99

3.113.14, , ,
.
, .

,

;
.

3.8.

, ,
e .
. , , , . .
[Fitterman, 1979a; 1979b; 1981].
, e
,

 x) = a rot
B(

 
 u)
J(
J(u)
dV (u) = a
dV (u),
|x u|
|x u|

(3.8.1)

, a ,
a = 107 /.


()
dv
(3.8.2)
pot() =
r
rot() pot(), (3.8.1)

 x) = a rot pot J = a pot rot J = a
B(

 u)
J(
dV.
|x u|

(3.8.3)

J = ( + CP ). , C,
J = ( + CP ) = ,
4*

(3.8.4)

100

. 3.

(3.8.3)

 x) = a
B(

(u)
dV (u).
|x u|

(3.8.5)

,
, .
(u, v, w)





=

i
v w
w v








j+
k, (3.8.6)
u w
w u
u v
v u
i, j, k u, v, w .
(3.8.5) , C . ,
(3.8.5), (3.7.37) (3.7.49)
- .
. ,
. ,
,
.
(u, v, w) ,

= (1 2 ) (u),
u

= 0,
v

= 1/2 (w),
w

(3.8.7)

(3.8.6)




= 1/2 (w)
i
v

 




1/2 (w)
(1 2 ) (u)
j + (1 2 ) (u)
k. (3.8.8)
w
u
v
(3.8.8) (3.8.5),
. , , .
1 = 2 = ,



 
=
i+
j (w).
(3.8.9)
v
u

101

3.8.

, , (3.8.5)
S0 , . .

B(x,
y, z, t) = a


 
du dv
 
.

i+
j 
v
u
(x u)2 + (y v)2 + z 2
S0


B(x,
y, 0, t) = a

(3.8.10)



du dv
 
.

i+
j 
v
u
(x u)2 + (y v)2

(3.8.11)
(3.8.11) (3.7.52)
.
e e ,
(3.7.22) (3.7.50),

b =

3

B.
2 s a C

(3.8.12)

,
. e e
,
L .

b (, , 0, 0) =




b (, , 0, 0) =

du dv

,
v
( u)2 + ( v)2

du dv


,
u ( u)2 + ( v)2




(3.8.13)

(3.8.14)

u (y, z, L) dy dz
,
(3.8.15)
(u2 + (v y)2 + z 2 )3/2
0


2
2(5z + 6) 14(z + 1)2
L2 y 2 1
+

+
(y, z, L) =
, (3.8.16)
2
72
92
51
52

(u, v, 0, 0) =

1/2 =

1
2


y 2 + (z 1)2 + L2 .

102

. 3.

. 3.15. b = const
.
2 .
400

(3.8.13)(3.8.15), ,
4- .
, e (. .2),
.
L = 2
. . 3.15 b , ,
e ; . 3.16
b ,
e . 3.17
|b|.
.
(, , )
, , , , , . . 3.17 ,
|b| 0,2. (3.8.12) ,

U=

2 s a C
.
3

(3.8.17)

, , = 0,1, = 5, s = 108 ,
C = 106 /, = 2 1010 , = 4 1010 1 .
-

3.8.

103

. 3.16. b = const
.
2 .
400

. 3.17. |b| = const


.
2 .
400

, .
e
0,011 /, e

104

. 3.

. , ,
= 1 /. U 400 ,
|b|max 80 . 1020 . ,

.

3.9.

.
. .
.
. , ,

J,
, e e.
J ; ,
e, , , ,
.
e .
[Johnston, 1978] , ,



j + k
Ji = C Ji
i ,
(3.9.1)
2
i , j , k , i, j, k ; C
.
(3.9.1) , ,
, . (3.9.1)
. ,


j + k
3
i + j + k
i = i
.
2
2
3

(3.9.2)


. -

3.9.


:

 s1 0 0







J = J1 , J2 , J3 , S =  0 s2 0
 0 0 s
3

105





.


(3.9.3)

(3.9.1)
3

(3.9.4)
J = C J S.
2
(
)
. sij 3/2
, (3.9.4)
Ji = C Jj sij .

(3.9.5)

, . .

d Ji = C Jj dsij .

(3.9.6)

. ,
e  f
. B
f = B
 0 + B,

B

(3.9.7)

 0 , B
 ,
, B
, . . .

, .

  
0 + B
  B
 0 ,
B = B
(3.9.8)
e

 + (B)
 2 B0 .
0 B
B = B02 + 2B

(3.9.9)

106

. 3.

, B0 105 , B 10 ,
,

Bp = n B,

(3.9.10)

 0 /B0 .
n = B
(3.9.10), , , , , e. (3.9.10),

. ,
,
, o
.
, e .
e . ( [, , 1967]),

A.
m
 :

 

 = a rot A
 = a rotx grad 1 m()
B

.

x
r

(3.9.11)



r = x , x  - ,
, ;
a , , a = 107 /.
(3.9.11) eijk , i, j, k
1, 2, 3: eijk = 0,
, eijk = +1 e , eijk = 1
e . (a b)k = eijk ai bj ,
. eijk , ,
, ,



eijk = sign (i j) (j k) (k i) ,
(3.9.12)
sign (z) ,
: sign (|z|) = 1, sign (0) = 0.

3.9.

107

(3.9.11), ,

S,
1
S(x) = a m()

gradx ,
r

(3.9.13)

1
 = grad S a m
B
(3.9.14)
 2 .

x
r
, . ,


dV ()
4 x V ,
2

=
(3.9.15)

0
x
/ V.
|x |
V

,
(3.9.14)
 = grad S.
B
(3.9.16)

x
e dv
J (3.9.5),
,
 i dv = CJj sij dv.
(J)

(3.9.17)



 ) grad 1 dv(),
(3.9.18)
S(x) =
a J(

x
r



 ) gradx 1 dv () =
B(x) = gradx
a J(
r
 

1
= a gradx
CJj sij
dv (). (3.9.19)
xi r

r = (x1 1 )2 + (x2 2 )2 + (x3 3 )2 .


 

1
 k = a
B
CJj sij
dv () =
xk
xi r
 

1
2
dv (). (3.9.20)
= a
CJj sij
xi xk r

108

. 3.

:
,
.
sij :


0
sij = 2ei eij = 2ei ij ij ,
3

(3.9.21)

eij ; 0 = 11 + 22 + 33 e
; ei ,
e = i = (1 + ).
(3.9.10), (3.9.16)(3.9.21)
. 3.1 . 7
, . , - , e .
.
, e
,
.
.
. 3.4 e
,
. , [ . , 1991],

, 60 .
: x1 , x2 , x3 . n = {1/2; 0; 3 /2},
.
;
, . . J = J n.
(3.9.10)
Bp = n1 B1 + n3 B3 .

(3.9.22)

(3.9.20). e (3.9.21), ,

3.9.

109

. 3.1.

(, , ) =

(x1 , x2 , x3 )
.
R

(3.9.23)

.
b
 = 4 a C J b.
B
3

(3.9.24)

.
, .
= cos ,

= sin ,

= .

(3.9.25)

, ,
. e 4
,
10- , .
(3.9.22)
bp . ,
, 29. e
= 104 ; ,
R = 10 1
.
. bp . 3.18.
,

.
. , , ,
.


. ,

110

. 3.

. 3.18. bp () . ,
e e , . 3.19

. 3.19. .
, e

, , , [
., 1984]. ,

3.10.

111

. 3.18. . ,
: 03.09.76, M = 5,6 ; 26.09.78, M = 4,7 ; 27.02.77, M = 3,3
; 15.09.79, M = 4 .
0,5 .
. 3.19. = 0,1, = 108 ,
CJ = 1,5 108 A/( ), . CJ ,
,
1 102 /,
108 1010 1 . , CJ = 1,5 108 /( )
C, (3.9.2) 1,5 ,
e .

3.10.
,
, ,
, . .
, , .
. . . . . [ , 1983].
, [, 1979].
[Sadovsky et al., 1972],
( 15 ) () 1970 . ( 6,8)
30 . [, 1988] 42
32 , ,
10 ,
50 . 21 % 1
7 % 10 .
15,6 , 1976 . ( 530 ).
[ .,1990; , 1993] e
( )
57 5,4 70 , e ,

112

. 3.

3 , e [, 1991]
.
e ,
.

e , , , .

,
.

.
,
. , , .
,
. . [, 1988].
e ()
.
, ,
. e ,
.

.
e .
t , [];
h , [];
r0 , [];
l , [];
, [/3 ];
g , [/2 ];
H , [];
R , [];
, []=[/( 2 )];
s ( ), [];

3.10.

113

;
e e
;
, em = e, e e , em e
;
k , [2 ];
L , [ ];
m0 ;
, [1 ];
E ( );
-;
.
.
,
, e . , e
, . ,
.
, , ,
.
P (r, , t)
( (3.7.8))
P
e
P =
,
t
t

(3.10.1)

= k/(L m0 ) .
(3.10.1) e e. , .
.
(3.10.1)
.
,



t
P  
P
dt 
= 0,
(3.10.2)
r
r
r=r0
0

= 2 gh m0 = 2 ghk/(L ).
: . .

114

. 3.

, ,



t
P  
dt 
P
= 0,
(3.10.3)
r
r
r=r0
0

1
, . . P =
2

2


P d;
0

/2 .
(3.10.3) , e .
( )
P (, , t) = F . F ,
e . P  (r, , t)
(3.10.1) ,
F = P  (, , t).
(3.10.1) ,
(3.10.3),
P Pw (t)
 2

P
P
1 2P
1 P
e

+ 2
,
+
=
2
2
t
r
r r
r
t


t
(3.10.4)
P  
dt 
P
= 0, P (, , t) = F ,
r
r
r=r0
0

P (r, , 0) = 0,

Pw (t) = P (r0 , t).

.

. e = A sin t, , ,
.
p, , (
)

A

P =
p, r =
, t= ,
(3.10.5)

(3.10.4) :
 2

p
p
1 p

+
= cos ,

2



(3.10.6)
p p 

= 0, p(, ) = sin .
 =0

115

3.10.

e ,
 2

u
u
1 u

+
=0
(3.10.7)

2

()
C1 , C2 ,


u(, ) = C1 bei () cos ( ) + ber () sin ( ) +


+ C2 kei () cos ( ) + ker () sin ( ) . (3.10.8)
, (3.10.7)
u = f () exp (i( )),
,
(
). , ,



u(, ) = C2 kei () cos ( ) + ker() sin ( ) .
(3.10.9)



p(, ) = sin + C2 kei () cos ( + ker () sin ( ) .

(3.10.10)

C2
(3.10.6) ( C2 ). e .

pw () = p (0 , ) = Aw sin ( 0 ).
(3.10.11)

B
B 2 0 F
Aw =
, cos 0 =
, G = B 2 2 20 F + 20 S , B =
G
BG

d kei (0 )
2
2
= kei1 (0 ) + ker1 (0 ) , S = kei2 (0 ) + ker2 (0 ), F = ker (0 )

d ker (0 )
kei (0 )
.
d0

d0

0 . (3.10.5), l(t) = Pw (t)/ g.


,

.
(3.10.11)
, . 0 0
: pw sin . , . ,
0 , -

116

. 3.

0 ,
, , .
.
, e
,
e . , A = 107 (
e ), = 7, 0,5 ,
= 25/864
= 0,03 2 /, = 3105 , = 41010 1 . 1,2 , 175 .
. . ,
; ;
.
e (,
) , ,
.
(3.10.4)
:

P (r, , t) = W (r, t) +
Wn (r, t) exp(n i),
(3.10.12)
n=0

P = W , Pw = W (r0 , t), , (3.10.4)


 2

W
W
1 W
e

,
+
=
t
r2
r r
t


t
(3.10.13)
W  
dt 
W
= 0,
W (, t) = 0,
r
r
r=r0
0

W (r, 0) = 0,

Pw = W (r0 , t).


e .
, , m
. , .
(3.10.3) (3.10.7)
e = m E(t).
e
(3.10.13) . e

3.10.

117

x, y, z z  0
x, y, s
. (, . 3.1),





2
1 2 10H(z +H)
sR3
2
2 14(z +H)
=
2xy 5 + 5
+R

, (3.10.14)
3
r27
r27
r29
r1 r2


r1 = x2 + y 2 + (z H)2 , r2 = x2 + y 2 + (z + H)2 .

:

(x, y, z)
,
= 2 + 2 , =
cos , =
sin ,
(, , ) =
H
(3.10.15)
z = 0 ( ) , R = H,


s
s 2 3
12
14

=
0 sin 2 =
7 + 9 sin 2,
(3.10.16)

3
3
Z5
Z
Z

Z =
2 + 1 , 0 .
(3.10.16) , :
,
, .

. .
e (3.10.14).
x, y. . x, y
(3.10.16) (, x):

x
x + r cos
T

=+
cos = + n cos .
(3.10.17)
H
H
H
, n = T /H. :
s
sin 2 (
, n, ).
(3.10.18)
=
3
(
, n, ) .
K E
4-x :
(
, n, ) = S1 + S2 + S3 + S4 ,

(3.10.19)

118

. 3.


S1 = B 2 (1 ) 150( 1)2 b4 104( 1)( 2)b2 +


+ 2 (242 71 + 71) K( ),


S2 = 2B 90( 1)3 b6 150( 2)( 1)2 b4 + 132 ( 1)(82

23 + 23) b2 43 ( 2)(62 11 + 11) E( ),

S3 = 12 n2 2 ( 1) B 40( 1)3 b4 8(2 1)( 2)(2 1)b2 +

+ 2 (84 213 + 172 + 8 4) K( ),

S4 = 24 n2 2 B 10( 2)( 1)3 b4 2( 1)(84 193 + 152 +

+ 8 4)b2 + 2 ( 2)(84 123 + 112 + 2 1) E( ),


4
n
2
B =
,

=
,
b
=
2
n ,
120 b9 (1)4
1+(
+n )4

, 0.
e . e
, .
e w, , , n


m s sin 2
T
W =
w, r = T , t = T , n =
. (3.10.20)
3
H
T = 86 400 ;
. = 25/864 2 /
50 ;
, 100 500 .
:
 2

w
w
1 w

+
= () (
, n, ),

2




(3.10.21)
w  
d 
= 0, w(, ) = 0,
w

=0
0

w(, 0) = 0,

pw () = w(0 , ).

(3.10.21) .
u(, ) -

3.10.

119

.
,

 




z
2
1
z2
exp
u(
, , ) =
z(
, n, z) I0
exp
dz,
2
4
2
4
0

(3.10.22)
I0 .
, - -
(3.10.21), . . , (3.10.22)
.

.
, e p; L. h,
. , h -
. h

Lh = C(p) K0 ( p ),
(3.10.23)
K0 ; C(p) .
(3.10.23), h
C(p). v = h + u, C(p) ,
v , . . v(0 , ) = 0.
v , ,
, , . v
Lv(, p) = Lu(, p)

Lu (0 , p)

K0 ( p ).
K0 (0 p )

(3.10.24)

, e (3.10.21) w = h + v.
C(p) (3.10.21)
: . :

p K1 (0 p )
Lw(0 , p) =

Lu (0 , p)+

0 p K0 (0 p ) + p K1 (0 p )

p K0 (0 p )
+

Lu (0 , p), (3.10.25)

0 p K0 (0 p ) + p K1 (0 p )

u(, ) 
Lu (0 , ) = L
.


=0

120

. 3.

(3.10.21)
. .


.
, e

p K1 (0 p )
Lw(0 , p)
(3.10.26)
=

Lu(0 , p).
0 p K0 (0 p ) + p K1 (0 p )

.
1
F (t) =
2i

c+i


f (p) exp (pt) dp,

(3.10.27)

ci

c  c0 , c0 .
, , .
, ,
, (3.10.27)
.
. ,

, e .
(3.10.26) , :

p K1 ( p )
f (p) =
(3.10.28)

.
p K0 ( p ) + p K1 ( p )
[, 1949] . f (p), .
:
,
.
.

3.10.

121

,
:
2
F (t) =

z Im f (z 2 ) exp (z 2 t) dz,

(3.10.29)

.
f (p) :

p K1 ( p ) p K0 ( p ) K1 ( p )
1
.
(3.10.30)
f (p) = +

p
pK0 ( p ) + p K1 ( p )

1/ t ,
e e
.
. .
. e (3.10.26). e
.
u(
, , ), (3.10.22),
( 55,5) u(
, , )
, (
) e . , u(
, , ) (
, n, ).
, e , ,
, .
104 . , ,
e . 0,5 .
() ,
e , 4
, 5, 6, 7 10, 25
65 . .
u(
, , ) , (3.10.26)

, n, 0 )
K1 (0 p ) (
Lw(0 , p) = 
, n, 0 ),

 = F (p) (

p 0 p K0 (0 p )+ p K1 (0 p )
(3.10.31)

w(0 , ) = f () (
, n, 0 ).

(3.10.32)

122

. 3.

. 3.20. f ().

(3.10.32), f () o . f () e . 3.20. . 3.20 , 1


3/4 , 2
9/10. , ,
, [, 1988].
e

lm

q
e(x, y, z) f (t).
g

(3.10.33)

, , ,
. . [Sadovsky et al., 1972] e
15 30 () 1970 . 6,8 (. 3.21, a).
. .
(R = H) : m = 5 %, = 7, = 4 1010 1 , s = 108 ,
= 2 1010 , = 0,1. 30
50 ... + 50 .
:

, ,
. e
.

3.11.

123

. 3.21. a) () ; .
[Sadovsky et al., 1972]. ) . a

e (. 3.21, ) (. 3.20). e e . ,
.

, ( l1 t . 3.21, ), (. 3.20) .
e(x, y, z)
, , .
l2 t . 3.21, .

,
,
.
e .
23 , 34 ,
. ,
e? .

3.11.
, e e. , e . -

124

. 3.

,
, e .
e .
, ,
. ,

, . , e,
.
.
, , . 3.3,
. ,
0 = 108 .
,
0 , ,
0 ; 0 .
,
. T .
, 2.5 2.8
T = 10aM+b .

(3.11.1)

,
b.
tp , rp , . . tp = tp (rp ). tp
tp = T tp (rp ).

(3.11.2)

tp (rp ).
(3.3.15) e

9 V (tp )
rp = 3
.
(3.11.3)
8 0
, (2.8.3) (2.8.4) e
t = 10aM+b ,

V = 10kM+l 3 ,

(3.11.4)

3.11.

125

M
V (tp ) = 10l(k/a) b tk/a
3 .
p

(3.11.5)

(3.11.5) (3.11.3)

tp = s rpq ,
(3.11.6)

a/k
8 0
3a
s =
.
10 b(a/k)l , q =
9
k
, (3.11.6) (3.11.2)
tp = T s rpq .

(3.11.7)

,
e . .
R , ,
e Vm , (3.11.3) (3.11.4)
9
R3
R3
=
=
.
8 0
Vm
10 kM+l

(3.11.8)

s, e (3.11.1)

 kM+l a/k
10
T
s=
10 b(a/k) l = 3a/k .
(3.11.9)
3
R
R
(3.11.7) ,
,
 3a/k
rp
tp
=1
.
(3.11.10)
T
R
(3.11.10) .
rp = R
; rp = 0 tp = T .
.
, .
.

. (3.11.3)
V = Vm = const = (t). , = (t); ? .
,

126

. 3.

. , e .
,
.

3.12.
,
e , . .
, : ,
. :
, .
, ,
,
.
, .
e e, ,
. , ,
,
. , e ,
, . , e .
, ,
.
e e
: .
e , , ,
. . 3.4.
, ,
. , ,
, .
, , .


, . XX ,
. ,
, . . . e
.
,
o
.

, - ,
. ,
e
.
, ,
. , , .

.
. ,
. ,
, . 2.6.

4.1.
. . , , , :

, . e, ,
,
, .
e , -

128

. 4.

, . ,
. 2.6, .
. . [Reid, 1910]
.
, , , o,
... . ,

, o, , ,

... . , , ,

e... . , , ,
, , .
,
,
.

. ,
. ,
.
. [Benio, 1951] ,
e,
.
. [Bullen, 1953] , e,
, e ; ,
.
. . [1956] ,

, ,
, , , , , , .

, -

4.1.

129

.
. [Kasahara, 1969; , 1985]
4 :
, , ,
. .
. . [1960, . 427]. .

( . .) ,
,

, ...
.
. . ,
, .
. . . . . , e
( )
().
. . [1960], , .
e
, e , .
e
, , e .
.
, , e
.
. ,
, e .
, .
, , .
5 . .

130

. 4.

,
e , , ,
.
(), .
. . [1968] ,
,
. ,
. e e ,
.

, , .
,
. , , , ,
, , ,

.
,
,
e , ,
, ,
e , , e . ,
,
.
, .
- ()
1972 . [ ., 1976; Anderson et al., 1973; Nur, 1972; Sholz et
al., 1973]. .
1 .
, , e , . .

4.1.

131

.
.
2 .
e .
, .
3 . , e, , .
, [Sholz et. al., 1973], ,
,
. ,
.
. . [1983; 1984; 1991; Dobrovolsky, 2000] .
, , e , , . ,
()
, ,
, e
(). (
) , (), e , . , e
, , ( )
, .
,
,
. ,
,
.
.
- ,
e , e
, e ,
.
, ,
. 5*

132

. 4.

, ,
. e
- e .
, :
e e,
. . 2.6 :
. 1.1 , e .
, , e .
e, , e
. , ,
, ,
e .

. 4.1.

. 4.1.



, ,
. 1.2.
0 , .

.
.

. ,

4.1.

133


. .
I , ,
. ( ) .
, , ;

. () .
, ,
, . e
, .

,
, . ,
, , . , ,
,
.
-
, , . .
,
,
.
, -
,
e . ,
13 ,
. ,
, ,
. , -

134

. 4.

.

, .
, , . ,
, , .

.
, ,
, ,
. ,
e , , ,
. .
().
; .
.
.

.

, , , e
.
e ,
. :
e
, , , e
e. , : ,
. . -, (
). -, e
, o
e e , e e ,

4.1.

135

; , ,
.
,
,
e e. , ,
( ,
, ,
, ),
;
.
e, . , , e ,
e . ,
e
, , .
II , , .
. , , () .
, ; ,
.
.

, . ,
;
. .
, I II
, e .
,
, . e , , , . e II , -,
e , ()
.

136

. 4.

II ,
I : -
, .
, , , , . . . ,
, ,
:
,
. .
, II ,
, , ,
. , , -
, II
. ,
.
, ,
e ,
.
, .
. , .
,
, .

.
III .
( ) .

, -, .
, , .
,
.
.
IV . , ()
.
, .

4.2.

137

0 . , .

4.2.
, ,
, . . , e
.
: ,
,
, e
: ,
,
e
. e
.
. . [, 1957; 1960]
. , , .
: ) -; ) ;
) ; ) , .
: , , , ,
.
. . . . [, , 1970] , e
.
, . -,

, , e [, 1957],
- e e. -,
. [, 1969].
.
,
:

138

. 4.

1) e
;
2) ;
3) .
, .
.
e . - .

( ) .


. , ,
. . 1.2 , II
. e . . , . . . . , ,
, II .
- , (

IPE) 1971 . . . ,
. . , . . . . . e
e [, 1978].

. .
1 .
.

. ,
,
.
2 . e e
.

, . ,

,
.

4.2.

139

3 .
, . ,
.
,
. - e ,
... .
. e .
,
.
. [Stuart, 1974] ,
. ,
, .
e
.
. . [Brady, 1974; 1975; 1976] .
e e .
1 .
e e .
2 .
, () . e
.
3 . ,
.
4 . . e ,
e ,
e .
. . [Logan, 1977] .

. -
,
, . .
, -

140

. 4.


,
.
.

, .
. ,
, . 4.2.
( ) ,
, .
[Nason, 1973]; . 4.3 . e

.
, -

. 4.2.

. 4.3.
- [Nason, 1973]; , ;
, 1964 .

4.3.

141

, .
,
, ,
.
:
, , , e
. ,
. -, e
I II . ,

; , . -,
.
; c , ,
,
, .

4.3.
XX ,
, ,
. , ,
. ,
I .
,
e , e
.
: e- e , ,
. , ;

.
,
.
. e-

142

. 4.

,
[Reid, 1910; Nason, 1973].
,
. -,
, e . , , .
,
.
, - e .

. , e
, ,
, ,
, .
, , .

e . , e
e .
.
:
,
,
.

5
O

,
. , ( ) e (), ()
( ).
. , ,
, e ,
. , ,
. ,
( ) ,
.
, , ,
.

( ), .
.
.
-
.

. ,
. ,

.

5.1.

. , e. ,

144

. 5. O

,
, 10 % 20 %. e
1 %. , ,
.
,
. ,
. ,
, ; ,
,
.
e
, . . ,
. ,
;
, e
.
.
1971 .
7,2 , 19661972
[, 1978].
19651970 [, 1968].
0,8
6,757,0. ,

.
.
. 5.1 . ,
. 1 ,
. . , e B D
. . 5.1 e
, .
, , ,
. e,
( 1966 .) , , B e
4, 6 8. .

5.1.

145

. 5.1. 1971 . M = 7,2 . , ,


, .
[ ., 1975] [, 1978]

B 4, 6 8
70, 90 110 . (
) , , 1968 .
13,26, 16,62 20,56 . 1966 .,
e. . 5.2 e . .


0,02 0,04 . ,
.

,
. 70 90
.

, , ,
. (110 ) e
: 1969 1970
, 1967 . -

146

. 5. O

. 5.2.
19671971 .

, ,
70 90 .
.
:

vp =

3K + 4
,
3


vs =

(5.1.1)

K e ; ; .
, ,
1/4. K = 5/3,

vp0
= 3.
0
vs

(5.1.2)

, e
, .
. 2.2.
,
. (5.1.1) (5.1.2)
 2
dvp
2 vs0
d
2 d
=

=
.
0
0
vp
3 vp

(5.1.3)

5.1.

147

, e , . .
d
= p h(z) de.

(5.1.4)

p , h(z) z.
. h(z) h(0) = 1. ,
p ,
.
e , p = const.
[ ., 1983]


1  2z
h(z) =
4e
(5.1.5)
+ e0,2z ,
5
z .
(5.1.3) (5.1.4)
dvp = vp0

2p
h(z) de = vp0 k h(z) de,
9

(5.1.6)

k = 2p/9.
(5.1.6) ,
de = e
.

vp = vp0 + v = vp0 + vp0 k h(z) = vp0 (1 + k h ).

(5.1.7)

, p, (5.1.7)

v = v0 + v = v0 (1 + k h ).
(5.1.8)
.
, B.
(x, z)
B. z , x
. . 5.1, (x, z)
. , (x, z).
,
. e, -

148

. 5. O

,
. -,
. -,
e , . .
e e , e .
-, [, 1968] , , . e , .
.
:

x

j 1 + z  (x)2
j
ds
Tj =
=
dx.
(5.1.9)
v(x, z)
v(x, zj (x))
0

Sj

Sj zj (x) , ; xj
, v(x, z) .
e : tj e
j- ; Tj e ,
,
. ,
- tj Tj .
,
F =

n


2
tj Tj min,

(5.1.10)

j=1

.
,
F .
(5.1.8) e
x
j

Tj =

1+zj2

v0 +v
0

x
j

dx

2
1+z0j

v0
0

x
j

dx =

1+zj2

v0 (1+kh(z) )
0

x
j

dx

2
1+z0j

v0
0

dx.

(5.1.11)
(5.1.11) .
, zj (x)
,
. ,
(5.1.10), (5.1.11) .
v0 .

5.1.

149

. , ,

. -, , , -,
.
[, 1991; Dobrovolsky, 2000] ,

e ,
. , .

1
v0 (z) =
(z + 265).
(5.1.12)
50
,
,


z0j (x) = 70225 x2 + xj x 265.
(5.1.13)
(5.1.12) ( 1968 ),
e :
13.2613.17, 16.6216.90 20.5620.61, . . (5.1.12)
.
e . e, e x,
e. , . 7.5,
e :
(x, y, z) =



V
V
0 =
2N e,xx 6N N,xxz + 4N N,zzz z+
36
36

+ 18N N,xx 9N N,zz + 6BB,xxzz + 4BB,zzzz , (5.1.14)

0 , V e ;
; ; ,
.
(5.1.14) . 7, . (5.1.14) N e, N N ,
BB . 7.

r1 = (x )2 + (y )2 + (z )2 ,
(5.1.15)

r2 = (x )2 + (y )2 + (z + )2 ,

150

. 5. O

N e(x, y, z) =

1
V



1
dV (, , ),
r1

1
N N (x, y, z) =
V


V

BB(x, y, z) =

1
V



1
1
dV (, , ) =
r2
V

1
dV (, , ), (5.1.16)
r1

Vm


r2 dV (, , ) =

1
V



r1 dV (, , ).
Vm

Vm , . . , V z = 0.
( ) . 7.2, . 7.3. e .
. . 5.2, e
:
1 % , , ,
.
. , ,
. . z1j (x) = z0j (x).
, F . , .
z2j (x).

. . :
.
v  v0 k h(z)  1,
1
1
= k h(z) .
1 + kh(z)

(5.1.17)

(5.1.11)
x
j

Tj = k

h(z0 ) (x, 0, z0j )


v0 (z0 )

2
1 + z0j

dx,

(5.1.18)

5.1.

F e (14)

x
2
j h(z0 ) 0 (x, 0, z0j ) 1 + z 2
n 

0j
V
dx .
tj + k
F =
36
v0 (z0 )
j=1

151

(5.1.19)

, 4 : ,
R, (L, l, l), L > l L
, L.
X, H
,

4-x .

x
2
j h(z0 ) 0 (X, H) 1 + z 2
n 

0j
F =
dx ,
(5.1.20)
tj + K
v0 (z0 )
j=1

K =

k V
;
36


x
j h(z0 ) 0 (X, H, R)
n 

3
F =
tj + P R
v0 (z0 )
j=1


2
1 + z0j

2
dx ;

(5.1.21)


x
j h(z0 ) 0 (X, H, l, L)
n 

2
F =
tj + P Ll
v0 (z0 )
j=1


2
1 + z0j

2
dx

(5.1.22)


x
j h(z0 ) 0 (X, H, l, L, )
n 

2
F =
tj + P Ll
v0 (z0 )
j=1


2
1 + z0j

2
dx ;

(5.1.23)

(5.1.21)(5.1.23) P =

k
, (5.1.20)(5.1.23) 27

0 .

, . e 3, 4, 5, 6
.

152

. 5. O

K P e
.
e F
. . , ,
F e
.
.
, e .

, e .
, .
.

, e . ,
.
1971 . 1971 ., , ,
, e .
,
,
.
: 70 0,094 , 90 0,112 , 110
0,055 . , ,
.
(5.1.20) . ,
,
,
( ). .
( .)
, , e . , (5.1.21)(5.1.23),

: , ,
. .

5.1.

153

, , , , .
, , e
. -,
. e .
. (5.1.20), e
:

x
j h(z0 ) 0 (X, H) 1 + z 2
0j
Tj = K
dx,
(5.1.24)
v0 (z0 )
0

K, X H .
, . , (5.1.24)
, . ,
(5.1.24),
. . 5.3 , ,
. ,
, e .
,
. 70110
(5.1.24)

. 5.3. 70110 . 1
( ); 2
(); 3 e

154

. 5. O

5 ,
9 (5.1.21)(5.1.23).
e . , , e
, .
, (2.3.2), e
V ,
V = 10 1,242 M4,47 3 .

(5.1.25)

.
. 5.1.
, .
: ,

,
. ,
e
e .
. 5.1 :
,
.
( ) . ( 0,2.) ,
5.1.
1971

X, H, L, l,

75,2

45,2

75,1

46,5

R = 20,4

7,26

kV
= 391
36
0,0522

75,3

52,9

32,6

7,26

0,0557

76,3
75,9

52,9
49,3

33,0 15,8
R = 20,5

10,5

7,25
7,26

0,0574
0,0581

76,1

55,6

32,9

16,7

7,29

0,0581

77,2

54,8

31,2

16,7

12,6

7,27

0,0613

16,1

K=

5.1.

155

, , e .
( X) .
( H)
, .
e
. ,
e F , . . . ,
.

. 5.4. ; 4, 6, 8 ; B
; e ; FF e ( ); ;
e , ()

. 5.4 ,
.
(2.3.1)
o , , . . .
,
.
P
P =

k
27

(5.1.26)

k. P = 0,06
: = 0,1, = 2 1010 ,
= 108 , k = 3240.
-

156

. 5. O

. 5.5. 1971 . 0200 .


. , , .
, ,
.
. 5.5 e 1971 . ;
. , 40
.
,
.
. ,
130170 ,

0,01 , . . .
, ; e
0,0010,002 .
2060
( e).
.
. 5.6 , , ,
. 5.5. , .

; .
.
, .

5.1.

157

. 5.6. . 100, 150, 200 .


e ;

e 19671971 .
,
, . e .
.
1968 . 1967 . , e .
(. 5.2) ,
110 . . 5.2 ,
7090
. e .

5 . .
. 5.2. , 1967 .
, .
, e

5.2

1967
1968
1969
1970
1971

X, H,
34
19
77
49
80
59
74
60
74
61

K=
kV
=
36
24
175
465
520
665

158

. 5. O

1971 . . K e.
, e
e V .
, . 1. ,

.

5.2.

e, e
. 3.4. .

(. 3.2).
19721978 ,
10 . 20- . ,
.
,
, ,
-
. . 3.4 (. 3.1).

. e
. (. 3.1), : , ,
2550 %.
100 200 ,
8 ; ,
, (. 3.2). . ,
,
.
.
. 3.4 ,
, .

,
(. 5.7).
(X, Y ) H
. -

5.2.

159

. 5.7. , . , ; 17 ; FF
( );
, ; e
; I ,
II , III


R e
V :


3H
(2r + H)
2 3H
w = sR3 (x X) (y Y )

R
,
(5.2.1)
2r3 (r + H)2
r7
r5


3H
(2r + H)
w = S(x X) (y Y )

,
(5.2.2)
r5
2r3 (r + H)2

V
2
, S=
, r = (x X)2 + (y Y )2 + H 2 ;
s =
3
2
; ,
1/4.
(5.2.1), (5.2.2), 5 ,
4. e
:
F =

n

(Wi (wi w0 ))2 min,
i=1

(5.2.3)

160

. 5. O

Wi wi ( ) e i- ; w0 e ; ;
.
,
. ,
, . 09.06.75
M = 5,2
. 13.09.73 . M = 4,2
,
R = H. .
. F , ,

. (5.2.1), (5.2.2).
. 5.3 . 5.7.
5.3. e
.

M = 5,2
M = 4,2

e,
e

1
2,7
2,77
1,6
2,22
2,23
0,8
2
4,4
4,59
3,7
3,62
3,58
1,0
3
2,1
4,28
3,0
2,45
2,40
1,2
4
8,8
6,61
2,3
2,62
2,59
1,2
5
7,2
6,38
2,9
2,77
2,78
1,1
6
6,0
7,65

1,6
7
12,0
11,73

3,0
X,
1,78
2,06
16,91
9,55
11,06

Y ,
18,40
16,6
7,20
6,25
7,66

M
5,2
5,30
4,2
5,37
4,77

H,

1,5
H=R

R,

1,91

5.2.

161

. 09.06.75 M = 5,2.

, e
. , , ,
.
e , , . ,
, . 5.7,
. ,
,
, , ,

, .
c .
, , .

.
e .
,
, . . ,
;
.
. S = 0,01044 3 . , S, ; ,
, , = 0,1, = 108 , = 2 1010 ,
S V . (2.3.2)
e M = 5,30.
;
, . . 3.4

, ,
. , ,
.
. 13.09.73 M = 4,2.

. , , ,

, .
6 . .

162

. 5. O

,
.
,
, , e
.
. , H,
,
R = H, . e ( )
,
.

5.3.
e
e . 3.6. ,
. ,

.
e . ,
.
75 %
. ,

. , e

, . ,
, ,
.

, [Ruihao,
Zhaozhu, 1983].
[Ruihao, Zhaozhu, 1983] e
.
28.07.1976 . 7,8,

(. 3.7).
, .

5.3.

163

. ,
, , , , .
.
.

: , ,
. . 5.1 ,
.
. ,
. ,
.
. , e
.
x1 , x2 , x3 , x3 .
( (7.5.7))
 0

u3 = 11 (2M31,1 + M32,2 + M33,3 )+


3

0
+ 22 (M31,1 2M32,2 + M33,3 ) 012 (M31,2 + M32,1 ) , (5.3.1)
3
011 , 022 , 012 ,
Mir,j (7.5.4).
W W = Gu3 .
G = 308 000 /. (7.3.12)


W = R (P (x X)2 + Q(y Y )2 T (x X)(y Y ))


3H
2r + H
3HR2
5 + 3
+
+
r
2r (r + H)2
r7



1
3H 3
3H 3
H
2 6H
, (5.3.2)

+
R

+
+ (P + Q)
2r3
2r(r + H)
r7
r5
5r5
3

6*

164

. 5. O

R ; X, Y , H 
, r = (x X)2 + (y Y )2 + H 2 , P =
=

G(2011 + 022 )
G(011 2022 )
2G012
,Q=
,T =
.
9
9
3

(5.3.2) ,
, P , Q, T , X, Y , H R.
. 3.7
( , e
),
( 39 ),
g.
F =

n


2
gk Wk ,

(5.3.3)

k=1

.
. (5.3.3) ,
. , , , .
Maple,
.
.
(5.3.2), P , Q, T
, (5.3.3)
, , . ,
X, Y , H, R. (5.3.3),
P , Q, T . P , Q, T ,

. X, Y , H, R
,
. :
, , ,

, .
.

5.3.

165

( e ), .

. : ,
e
. ,
.
: H R
,
,
. (5.3.2)
H = hR, h  1
.
, ,
h, ,
.
. . e
e. H R , ,
. h
H = R.
P
H
P
H

= 61,
= 37,6,
= 46,
= R = 38,5,

Q = 66,
R = 34,5,
Q = 53,
F = 2761,

T
F
T
M

= 26, X = 291, Y = 79,


= 2954, M = 7,81.
= 29, X = 293, Y = 75,
= 7,93.

.
, .
, , , ,
; .
e .
. 5.8 e . ,
.
.
. ,

166

. 5. O

. 5.8. 28.07.76 M = 7,8. ,


. a). [Ruihao, Zhajzhu, 1983]. ).
.
;

,
, , ,
. ,
.
.
, 110 . , -,
: , . -,
140 , 110 . -,
.
.
. e e

5.4.

167


. , ,
.

5.4.
,
:
e . ,

,
,
:
;
;
, (. . ) ,


.
, e ,
, . , e
. . ,

,
.
,
.

6
:


e : ,
e . .
, . . , e
, .

. ,
.
.
. ,

, e .
,
.

6.1.
,

( ), . , ,
, , .
,
. . , .
, ,
.

6.1.

169

,
e , :
.
, ( )
,
.
, . . 1997 . [Geller, 1997], , 100 e

.
.
? : ,
, ,
.
( ),
e .
, ,
- .
. 3
.
. 3.6 ,
: [, 1970; 1972; , -, 1991]. , ( ) 1 .
.
(
) ,
, ,
, , .
, e ,

67. ,
, , , [, 2002],
.

170

. 6. :

. 3.7 .
[Varotsos, Alexopoulos, 1984]
. , ,
, 40 e ,
, : . ,
,
,

.
,
,
, . . (
), e [, 2002],
.
(. 3.10). ,
,
e e (. 3.3). e , e.
e e , e
,
.
. ,
(),
, .
. , , .
,
,
.
? , ,
. , e . 3 .
(. 5),
.
- -

6.1.

171

e ,
.
,
,
e . e , e . e ,
, -, . ,
[e, 1989] : ,
, , . ,
, .
,
.
, :
, ?
, .
e ( ) , ,
,
. , ,
, .
. , ;
.
, , ,
. (:
;
.) , ( )
. , ,

, , , e . e
e .
, , . : e ( ),
, ,

172

. 6. :

. . ,
,
, . . .
. , , .
,
o :

? , ,
, ?

6.2.
e
,

, .
e, ,
. , e , e , . ,
, . ,

, .

. e e
. e ,
,
- . (
,
, .)

e .
, ,

. , ,
,
, , e
.
, . ,

6.2.

173

:
,
.
. ,
, e
; , , ,
,
.
, . - , , e . , e ,
.
, . e
-
. . ,

. e , .

, :
.

e e :
,
.
, , .
, , .
e (
, , . .)
. ,
.
.
. [Kovesligethy, 1908] . -, , -

174

. 6. :

.
, XX , . e
, , .
, , , , e .
: ,
. 1978 .
. . : ,
[Kerr, 1978].
, , 10 ,
. ,
,
, , . ,
, . .
e . e
, .

, , , . - . ,
. 5 .

, , .
.
,
.
. , ,
e .
.
, , [ ., 1999;
Keilis-Borok et al., 2001; ., 2002]. .


.
, ,

6.2.

175


.
. , e
.

. ,

.
. , [, 1968] ,
24.11.1971. [, , 2003] RTL, e ,
, , .
( ).

. . -. , e
: [Kosobokov, Keilis-Borok, 1990; KeilisBorok et al., 2001], .
.
. , e : [
., 2006; Pulinets et al., 2006]. (. 3.7) VAN, , , .
,
:
.
. ,
.
,

.
, e ,
. , -

176

. 6. :

, ,
( ). ,
( )

.
. 1 ,
. e (. 5.1).
. e . , XX , ,
, e ,
. e
: , , ,
. ,

e. :

,
. ,
,
e .
, -
; .
,
, ; ,
.
. ,
() 30
. , e.
:
.

6.3.

-

6.3.

177

. ,
e , - e
.
, ,
.

, e

. , , e
, .

,

. , .
, . ,
.
, .
( )
e .

. ,
,
. ,
e .
. 5.
,
e ,
. .
-, : ,
, ,
. -, .
,
. ,

178

. 6. :


. ,
.

6.4.
.

.
- ,
. ,

.
.
. e
, ,
.
.
, e .
. , -,
.
. ,
,
, . , ,
,
.
(, [, 1974]),
, , .

, .
. , -

6.4.

179

, , . e
, . ,
. -
,
.
.
, e , . , , ,
. . , , ,
.
.
. , ,
, .
,
e . . 5

.

. ,
.

. ,

, . ,

. , ,
.

.
, (
) . . [, 1963]
, . . (
) e-
.
, ,
. , .
,
.
, e- ,
.
,
, . .
.

7.1. .

.
x1 , x2 , x3 . V , x3  0. u, v, w , c .
:
,
.

7.1. .

181

,
, .

:
Lu = f ,

(cijkl uk,l ),j + Fi = 0,

(7.1.1)

: cijkl = cjikl ,
cijkl = cijlk , cijkl = cklij ; L , ; x3 = 0
, L.
(7.1.1) ,

(c0ijkl u0k,l ),j + Fi = 0,

Lu 0 = f.

(7.1.2)

, (7.1.1) (7.1.2)
. , (7.1.2) e
vir (x, ), , ,
(c0ijkl vkr,l ),j + ir (x ) = 0,

Lvr = 0,

(7.1.3)

ir ; -; r ,  xr .
(7.1.1)
(7.1.2),
u = u 0 + w,


cijkl = c0ijkl + q V cijkl ,

(7.1.4)

V V ; q
, |cijkl |  c0ijkl .
|cijkl |  c0ijkl . ,

, cijkl ,
[ijkl], |c[ijkl] | = c0[ijkl] ,
|cijkl | < c0ijkl .
q,
(7.1.4) .
(7.1.1) (7.1.2) (7.1.4) w

(c0ijkl wk,l ),j + q (V cijkl wk,l ),j + q (V cijkl u0k,l ),j = 0,

Lw
 = 0. (7.1.5)

, (7.1.5),
e .
,
.

182

. 7.

. ( ):
, e K, G ( ), ( ) E,
,
(, ). :
crjkl = rj kl + (rk jl + rl jk ),

(7.1.6)


.
,
:
E
9K
3K 2

, E=
, =
=
,
2(1 + )
3K +
2(3K + )
2( + )
2
E
2(1 + )
K =+ =
=
,
3
3(1 2)
3(1 2)
E
2
=
=
,
(1 + )(1 2)
1 2
=

(7.1.7)

.
,
:


1 ui
uj
ij =
+
.
(7.1.8)
2 xj
xi
e
:
= ii ,

eij = ij ij .
3

(7.1.9)

ij :
ii
, sij = ij ij .
=
(7.1.10)
3

K, , :
ij = K ij + 2 eij = ij + 2 ij ,

1
3
ij
ij +
sij =
ij +
,
ij =
3K
2
2 (3 + 2)
2
=

+ eij eij =
+ ij ij .
2
2
2

(7.1.11)

7.1. .

183


L u = 0

(cijkl uk,l ),j + Fi = 0,

(7.1.12)

, ,

Fr () vir (x, ) dV ().
ui (x) =

(7.1.13)

( ) .
:




 

div uw
 dv =
u div w
 dv +
w
 grad u dv = uw
 dS,
V




(uwj ),j dv =


u wj,j dv +


u,j wj dv =


S

uwj nj dS.
S

(7.1.14)

. ,
.
.
. ,
, [, 1955, 1970; , 1975], e
, .
:
kir = A [4(1 )n ir b,ir ],

i, r = 1, 2, 3;

(7.1.15)

:
mir = A [4(1 )n ir b,ir ] + A[4(1 ) nn ir + 2x23 nn,ir
(3 4) bb,ir 2x3 bb,ir3 4(1 )(1 2) lm,ir ],
m3r = A [b,r3 ] + A [4x3 (1 2) nn,r + 2x23 nn,r3 +
+ (3 4) bb,r3 2x3 bb,r33 + 4(1 )(1 2) ll,r ], (7.1.16)
mi3 = A [b,i3 ] + A [8x3 (1 ) nn,i 2x23 nn,i3 +
+ (3 4) bb,i3 + 2x3 bb,i33 4(1 )(1 2) ll,i ],

184

. 7.

m33 = A [4(1 ) n b,33 ] + A [8(1 )2 nn 4x3 nn,3


2x23 nn,33 (3 4) bb,33 + 2x3 bb,333 ],
A =

i, r = 1, 2,

1
, ; .
16(1 )

, (7.1.15) (7.1.16).

r1 = (x1 1 )2 + (x2 2 )2 + (x3 3 )2 ,
(7.1.17)

r2 = (x1 1 )2 + (x2 2 )2 + (x3 + 3 )2 ,

1
1
, b = r1 , nn = , bb = r2 ,
r1
r2
ll = ln(r2 + x3 + 3 ), lm = (x3 + 3 ) ll bb.
n=

(7.1.18)

:
b = 2n, bb = 2nn,
n = nn = ll = lm = 0,

lm,33 = ll,3 = nn,

(7.1.19)

.
(7.1.18) . , ll lm n nn .
-, e
, e , .

. [, , 1947]
.
( ). , , , [, 1976]. (7.1.5)


(m)
wi =
q m wi .
(7.1.20)
m=0

(7.1.5) (7.1.20) q :
(0)

wi

= 0,
(m)

(1)

(c0ijkl wk,l ),j + (V cijkl u0k,l ),j = 0,


(m1)

(c0ijkl wk,l ),j + (V cijkl wk,l

),j = 0,

m  2.

(7.1.21)

7.1. .

185

(7.1.21) , .
,

(1)
wi =
crjkl u0k,l vir,j dV (),
(m)
wi

 V 
=

crjkl

(m1)
wk,l
vir,j

(7.1.22)
dV (),

m  2.

(7.1.22)
e crjkl :

(m1)
=
crjkl wk,l
vir,j dV =
  


(m1)
(m1)


=
(crjkl wk
vir,j ),l dV
(crjkl vir,j ),l wk
dV =

(m)

wi


=

(m1)

crjkl wk


vir,j nj ds +


(m1)

(crjkl vir,j ),l wk

(m1)

(crjkl vir,j ),l wk

dV =

dV. (7.1.23)

e, , S ,
e. , crjkl = 0 .

  

 (m)  
(m1)

w  = 
(crjkl vir,j ),l wk
d 
i



 
 0
 (m1) 
 (m1) 
(c
(c




 d =

w
d

v
)
rjkl ir,j ,l
rjkl vir,j ),l wk
k


 (m1) 

 d = w(m1) . (7.1.24)
=
ik (x )wk
k
(1)

, (7.1.20) q |wi |


m=0

q m -

, , q < 1.
(7.1.20), (7.1.22) ,
, e
cijkl . ,

186

. 7.

crjkl = 0 crjkl = 0 . (7.1.20),


(7.1.22) , .
.
, , , ,
.
, , .
. (7.1.5)
.

wi = q

(V crjkl wk,l ),j vir dV +q



(V crjkl u0kl ),j vir dV , (7.1.25)

:

wi + q
V

crjkl wk,l vir,j dV = q



crjkl u0k,l vir,j dV.

(7.1.26)

(7.1.26) : x V wi D, x
/ V
wi e .
(7.1.26)
. , (7.1.20), (7.1.22)
(7.1.26) . e , ,
wi ,
(7.1.22).
.
(7.1.26) e . ,
. , ,
.
(7.1.26) . , ,

7.1. .

187

(7.1.26)
 
 

wi +
qp
crjkl wk,l vir,j dV =
qp
crjkl u0k,l vir,j dV.
p

Vp

Vp

(7.1.27)
, (7.1.27)
, e e
(7.1.26) -
, , ,
. e
: (7.1.27), , (
, ) .
. . , (7.1.15), (7.1.16), e
vir (x, ) 1/|x |. (7.1.26) 

( ). x
vir , e
, , , v ir (x) = vir (x, 0 ) .
(7.1.26)
wi (x) = qWrj v ir,j (x) qUrj v ir,j (x).
e :



Wrj =
crjkl wk,l dV , Urj =
crjkl u0k,l dV.
V

(7.1.28)

(7.1.29)

(7.1.28) ,
,
e e , (7.1.29), e e .
,
(7.1.28) Wrj ,
, , .
, V ,
e.
(7.1.28) , :
i xi , e .

188

. 7.

7.2. e

e .

. [1963],
[ ., 1976], [, 1946] , [, 1963]
,
e
[ , 1967] . .

, e
. . -,
(7.1.16),
,
, .
-. , , .
, .
.
e , x1 , x2 , x3 :

P (x1 , x2 , x3 ) =
(1 , 2 , 3 ) f (x1 1 , x2 2 , x3 3 ) dV (), (7.2.1)
V



(1 , 2 , 3 ) f (x1 1 , x2 2 , x3 +3 ) dV (). (7.2.2)
Q(x1 , x2 , x3 ) =
V

; V
e . f
e , e V .
.
x V x
/ V . , V e S ,
. S
.
. V
Vm , -

7.2. e 189

x3 = 0. : .
,
:

(3 ) f (x3 + 3 ) dV =

Q(V ) =
b


b

(3 ) f (x3 + 3 ) ds =

d3
a



s
a


() f (x3 ) ds =

d
a






(3 ) f (x3 3 ) ds =

d3
b

(3 ) f (x3 3 ) dV = P (Vm ). (7.2.3)

=
Vm

3 = ,
3 . ,
V Vm .

. ,
- .
. . ,
.

b
P (x) = () f (x ) d.
(7.2.4)
a

e x c.
b+c


b
( c) f (x ) d =

a+c

() f (x ( + c)) d =
a

b
() f ((x c) ) d = P (x c). (7.2.5)

=
a

(7.2.5) = + c. ,
e ,
.

190

. 7.

.
b
(7.2.6)
Q(x) = () f (x + ) d;
a

(7.2.5),
b+c


b
( c) f (x + ) d =

a+c

() f (x + ( + c)) d =
a

b
() f ((x + c) ) d = Q(x + c). (7.2.7)

=
a

,
. :

.
.
f (7.2.1) (7.2.2) .
, .




()
f (xi i ) dV =
()
f (xi i ) dV =
i
xi
V
 V

P
=
() f (xi i ) dV =
,
xi
xi
V


(7.2.8)



()
f (xi + i ) dV =
()
f (xi + i ) dV =
i
xi
V
V


Q
=
() f (xi + i ) dV =
.
xi
xi
V

. e
f ,
e .
e
, f = f (|x |) = f ((x1 1 )2 + (x2
2 )2 + (x3 3 )2 ).

- , e , -

7.2. e 191

, .
xi
- a. e e ,
, a . xi
e xi , ,
.

lij = cos (x
i xj ). L
M L:




 l11 l12 l13 
 l11 l21 l31 




1
T



(7.2.9)
L=
 l21 l22 l23  , M = L = L =  l12 l22 l32  .
 l31 l32 l33 
 l13 l23 l33 
,
a  = L a,

(7.2.10)

a a  .
lij :
, LL1 = L1 L =
= E, E , . .
lik ljk = ij ,

lki lkj = ij .

(7.2.11)

S(x) , V , P . e
V  S(Lx) P  :

P  (x) =
(L ) f ((x )2 ) dV.
(7.2.12)
V

(7.2.12) e .
1). M .
S(M Lx) = S(x), V ,
1,
M .
2). M , x,
.
3). M .
4). - a e
(7.2.11) (Ma)2 = a.
5).
V .

192

. 7.


:


(M L) f ((x M)2 ) dV =





() f ((M x M)2 ) dV =



 2 ) dV =
() f ((M (x ))

() f ((x )2 ) dV = P (M x).

(7.2.13)

,
P  (x) = P (M x).

(7.2.14)

(7.2.14), , - . ,
, , f f ((x1 1 )2 +
+ (x2 2 )2 , x3 3 ), (7.2.14) (x1 , x2 ). L M
:




 cos sin 
 cos sin 
,



(7.2.15)
, M =
L=
sin cos 
sin
cos 
, e .

7.3.
, e
. , (7.2.1) (7.2.2) 1.
. (7.1.19) ,
e
:

  
B=
b dV =
(x1 1 )2 +(x2 2 )2 +(x3 3 )2 dV ,
V


N=


n dV =

dV

.
(x1 1 )2 +(x2 2 )2 +(x3 3 )2

(7.3.1)


e i .

193

7.3.

4 :

  
BB =
bb dV =
(x1 1 )2 + (x2 2 )2 + (x3 + 3 )2 dV ,
V


NN =


nn dV =


Ll =

dV

,
2
(x1 1 ) + (x2 2 )2 + (x3 + 3 )2

ll dV =
 V 


ln( (x1 1 )2 + (x2 2 )2 + (x3 + 3 )2 + x3 + 3 ) dV ,


lm dV =

Lm =
 V 

((x3 + 3 ) ll


(x1 1 )2 + (x2 2 )2 + (x3 + 3 )2 ) dV.

(7.3.2)

e . , , ,
e , , . . . e
(7.1.19)
B = 2N , BB = 2N N ,
Ne = N N = Ll = Lm = 0,

Lm,33 = Ll,3 = N N.

(7.3.3)

[, 1946] ,

Ni = 4.
(7.3.4)
.
a, b, c
, , [, 1946]:

N = abc

7 . .

U (s) ds
,
u(s)

(7.3.5)

194

U (s) = 1

. 7.


x2
y2
z2
2
2
, u(s) = (a2 + s)(b2 + s)(c2 + s) ,
a +s
b +s
c +s
2

= 0 Ni
U () = 0 Ne .
e (7.3.5) ; . ,
.
e [, 1963]:





1 d s2 U 2 (s)
1 s U 2 (s)
B = abc

ds.
(7.3.6)
2 ds
u(s)
4 u(s)

(6) e . ,
s U 2 (s) = O(1). (7.3.6)
U 2 = 1, ,
s O(s3/2 ). , (7.3.6) ,
e , , ,
.
, , ,
(7.3.6) . (7.3.6)
, ,
e ,


a b c s U 2 (s) 
B=
ds
+ const .
(7.3.7)
4
u(s)
s=

,
Bi e .
e .
e [ , 1967],
. f (7.2.1)
= 0 .

w(x) =

n=k

n=0

[(x x0 ) 0 ]n w
+ Rk ,
n!

(7.3.8)


- 0 =i1
+i2
+... 
x1

x2

xi =x0i

x0 = x01 i1 + x02 i2 + ...

195

7.3.

x = x1 i1 + x2 i2 + ..., Rk


 


m n
(m+n)
:
= m n.
xi

xj

xi xj

(7.3.8)
f (x ) =

n=k

n=0

0 = i1

[0 ]n f
+ Rk ,
n!

(7.3.9)


+ i2
+ i3
,  = 1 i1 + 2 i2 + 3 i3 .

1
2
3 i =0



() f (x ) dV ()
P (x) =

(7.3.10)



() f (x ) dV () =
V

n=k

n=0

1
n!


V

() [0 ]n f dV () +


Rk dV , (7.3.11)
V

.
,
.
(7.3.11) .
. e , , e
R, e V
:


R2
15R4 + 10R2 r2 r4
Be = V r +
,
, Bi = V
5r
20R3


(7.3.12)
V
V
r2
Ne = , Ni =
3 2 ,
r
2R
R
Lle = V ln(r + x3 ), Lme = V (x3 ln(r + x3 ) r),

r = x21 + x22 + x23 .
(7.3.5), (7.3.6),
[, 1946].
7*

196

. 7.

(7.3.12) ,
(7.3.11). (7.3.11)
i ,
, e.
(7.3.11) e
n. e n , .
(7.3.11) f - e . 2 = ,
f
, . . ,

,
. e
,
.
. ,
e (e ) ( )
. , e e
.
 = r 


= r  = (x )2 + (y )2 + (z )2 ,

(7.3.13)

r - ;  .
e e m-


m dv.

m =

(7.3.14)

,

. m- , ,
. e
m, m  2.

7.3.

197

( )





U2 U1 U1 U2 dv =


 
U1
U2
U1
U2
ds =
n
n
S

 
U1
U2
U1
=
U2
ds, (7.3.15)
n
n
S

; S ,
V ; n , U /n =
= n grad U = U /n.
m+2 , ,
m+2 = (m + 2) (m + 3) m .

(7.3.16)

(7.3.15)
U1 = m+2 ,

U2 = 1,

(7.3.15) (7.3.16) :


m+2
m
ds.
dv =
(m + 2) (m + 3)
n
V

(7.3.17)

(7.3.18)

n , ,
, /n = cos , (7.3.18) ,
:


(m + 3)
m dv =
m+1 cos ds.
(7.3.19)
V

.
m = 3 :

cos
ds = 0.
(7.3.20)
2
S

m = 0 , e , :



2
1
1
0 =
ds.
(7.3.21)
dv =
cos ds =
3
6
n
V

198

. 7.

m = 1 :



1
ds

1
=
ds.
(7.3.22)
1 =
cos ds =

2
2
n
V

m = 1 e :



3
1
1
2
ds.
(7.3.23)
dv =
cos ds =
1 =
4
12
n
V

(7.3.18) e m- R e V
m
. n
 , , /n = /R. e R
.
, ,
r, .
ds = R2 sin d d, ,
 2 = R2 + r2 2Rr cos .
r  = R,
,
, d = R r sin d.
:

m+2
1
m =
ds =
(m + 2) (m + 3)
n
S

R2
=
(m + 2) (m + 3) R

2


m+2 sin d =

2R2

(m + 2) (m + 3) R


m+2 sin d =
0

1
3V
2rR(m + 2) (m + 3) R R

r+R


m+3 d =
e/i


m+4 
3V
1
=
(r+R)m+4 rR
. (7.3.24)
2rR(m+2)(m+3) (m+4) R R
: r > R
|r R| = r R, r < R |r R| = R r.

7.4.

199

7.4.
.
, , crjkl = const u0k,l = const. e :

kir dV (),
(7.4.1)
Kir =
V


.
(7.1.22) :

(1)
wi =
crjkl u0k,l kir,j dV () =
V

= crjkl u0k,l
(m)
wi


=

crjkl

= crjkl



kir,j dV = crjkl u0k,l Kir,j ,

V
(m1)
wk,l
kir,j



(m1)

wk,l

(7.4.2)
dV () =
kir,j dV (),

m  2.

. , e
. ,
.
. (7.4.2),

(1)

wi,n = crjkl u0k,l Kir,jn ,

(7.4.3)

e Kir .
. 7.3,
, e. , Kir,jn
(1)
(m)
, wi,n = const wi,n = const, . ;

200

. 7.

e
.
q e ,
q = 1, |crjkl |  c0rjkl . e
(7.1.23)

wi + crjkl
wk,l kir,j dV = crjkl u0k,l Kir,j .
(7.4.4)
V

, x V wi , (7.4.4) xn ,
wi,n crjkl wk,l Kir,jn = crjkl u0k,l Kir,jn .

(7.4.5)

(7.4.5)
wi,n . e ,

. [, 1963]. ,
, (7.4.5) e . wi
(7.1.26) q = 1 .
. .
1). . ,
( c0rjkl ). ,
( crjkl q = 1) M.
, , (7.1.2) :
u01,1 = , u0k,l = 0. (7.4.5)
4 3 w1,1 , w2,2
w3,3 3 .



2M (3 + 2M)(3+8)+3(2+7) (+2) +15(+2)



w1,1 =
,
3(+2)+3+2M 2M(3 + 8) + 15( + 2)


3 2M( + ) 5 ( + 2)

 ,
w2,2 = w3,3 =
3( + 2) + 3 + 2M 2M(3 + 8) + 15( + 2)
w1,2 = w2,1 = w2,3 = w3,2 = w1,3 = w3,1 = 0.
(7.4.6)
:
,

7.4.

201

. M
:
 M  . M
(7.4.6) 5 .
. , , =
M = . , , =
( = 1/4).
w1,1 =

97
,
92

w2,2 = w3,3 =

9
.
92

(7.4.7)

e (7.4.2). e
(1)

w1,1 =

23
,
45

(1)

(1)

w2,2 = w3,3 =

1
;
45

(7.4.8)


59
47
(2)
(2)
, w2,2 = w3,3 =
;
225
2025

(2)

w1,1 =

(1+2)

w1,1

58
,
75

(1+2)

w2,2

(1+2)

= w3,3

92
.
2025

(7.4.9)

(7.4.10)

(7.4.8)(7.4.10) .
(7.4.8)(7.4.10) (7.4.6), ,
(7.4.2) . ,
q = 1 |cijkl | = |c0ijkl |. , q < 1 .
.
e
.
> M = .
. , ,
= , M = . (7.4.6)
,
w1,1 =

+ 6
,
9 + 14

w2,2 = w3,3 =

5( + 2)
.
9 + 14

(7.4.11)

, (7.4.11) u01,1 = , u02,2 =


= u03,3 = 0, e .

202

. 7.

.
, . . > M > .
= M = 0 , ,
.
e . e
. (7.4.6)
M .
w1,1 = ,

w2,2 = w3,3 = 0.

(7.4.12)

: ,
.
. , ,
(7.4.6) (7.1.26)
.
2). . u01,2 =
= u02,1 = , u0k,l = 0.
2M(3 + 8)
,
2M(3 + 8) + 15( + 2)
= w3,3 = w1,3 = w3,1 = w2,3 = w3,2 = 0.

w1,2 = w2,1 =
w1,1 = w2,2

(7.4.13)

(7.4.13) :
e
. ,
,
.

7.5.
.
, ,
20 %. , ,
,
,
e , ,

. , ,
, , ,

7.5.

203

(7.1.16). :

wi = q
crjkl u0k,l mir,j dV ().
(7.5.1)
V

(7.1.16) e
,
. .
crjkl = const

wi = q crjkl
u0k,l mir,j dV ().
(7.5.2)
V

e e- , . . crjkl = const u0k,l = const,




0
wi = q crjkl uk,l
mir,j dV () = q crjkl u0k,l Mir,j ,
(7.5.3)
V



Mir,j =

mir
dV ().
j

(7.5.4)

e- e , u0k,l
, , ,
: u03,k = u0k,3 = 0 k = 1, 2, u03,3 033 = 0. u0k,l
.
e, -
, , , , .
, ,
, e
. K
e . K,

.
:


2
q crjkl = K rj kl + (rk jl + rl jk ),
(7.5.5)
3

204

. 7.


2
K = + .
3

(7.5.3) (7.5.5) u0k,l 0ij 0ij , wi .


.
wi = 6

K (Mi1,1 + Mi2,2 + Mi3,3 ) 0


(11 + 022 )+
3K + 4

(3K + 2)Mi1,1 2 Mi2,2 3K Mi3,3 0
+ 2
11
3K + 4
2 Mi1,1 + (3K + 2) Mi2,2 3K Mi3,3 0
22
2
3K + 4

2(Mi1,2 + Mi2,1 ) 012 , (7.5.6)

wi = (011 + 022 ) (Mi1,1 + Mi2,2 + Mi3,3 )+


3
 0

+ 11 (2Mi1,1 + Mi2,2 + Mi3,3 )+


3

022
0
(Mi1,1 2Mi2,2 + Mi3,3 ) 12 (Mi1,2 + Mi2,1 ) . (7.5.7)
+
3
(7.5.6) (7.5.7) ,
,
e e .
e , . ,

  


wi = (Mi1,2 + Mi2,1 ) =
mi1,2 dV +
mi2,1 dV =


 V
  V

mi1 dV +
mi2 dV , (7.5.8)
=
x2
x1
V

012

=
(7.2.8).
(7.5.8) (7.1.16)
,
(7.2.8); -

205

7.5.

, w1 = u, w2 = v, w3 = w,
x1 = x, x2 = y, x3 = z. :
u = Q [4(1 ) Ny 2Bxxy ] + Q [4(1 ) N ny + 4z 2 N nxxy
2(3 4) Bbxxy 4z Bbxxyz 8(1 ) (1 2) Lmxxy ],
v = Q [4(1 ) Nx 2Bxyy ] + Q [4(1 ) N nx + 4z 2 N nxyy
2(3 4) Bbxyy 4z Bbxyyz 8(1 ) (1 2) Lmxyy ],
w = Q [2Bxyz ] + Q [8z(1 2) N nxy + 4z 2 N nxyz +
+ 2(3 4) Bbxyz 4z Bbxyzz + 8(1 )(1 2) Llxy ];

(7.5.9)


xx = Q [4(1 ) Nxy 2Bxxxy ] + Q [4(1 ) N nxy + 4z 2 N nxxxy
2(3 4) Bbxxxy 4z Bbxxxyz 8(1 )(1 2) Lmxxxy ],
yy = Q [4(1 ) Nxy 2Bxyyy ] + Q [4(1 ) N nxy + 4z 2 N nxyyy
2(3 4) Bbxyyy 4z Bbxyyyz 8(1 )(1 2) Lmxyyy ],
zz = Q [2Bxyzz ] + Q [8(1 2) N nxy + 16z N nxyz + 4z 2 N nxyzz +
+ 2(1 4) Bbxyzz 4zBbxyzzz ],

(7.5.10)


xy = Q [2(1) (Nxx +Nyy )2Bxxyy ] + Q [2(1) (N nxx +N nyy )+
+ 4z 2 N nxxyy 2(3 4) Bbxxyy 4zBbxxyyz
8(1 )(1 2) Lmxxyy ],
xz = Q [2(1 ) Nyz 2Bxxyz ] + Q [2(1 ) N nyz + 8z N nxxy +
+ 4z 2 N nxxyz 2Bbxxyz 4z Bbxxyzz ],
yz = Q [2(1 ) Nxz 2Bxyyz ] + Q [2(1 ) N nxz + 8z N nxyy +
+ 4z 2 N nxyyz 2Bbxyyz 4zBbxyyzz ],

(7.5.11)

e
= xx + yy + zz =
= 4(1 2) Q [Nxy + (1 4) N nxy 2z N nxyz + 2Bbxyzz ]. (7.5.12)

,
16 (1 )
(7.5.9)(7.5.12) Q =

206

. 7.

.
( ) (7.5.9)(7.5.12),
.
.
,
.
,
.
[, 1955; 1970; , 1975] :
. e
. , ,
. (7.5.1)
, .
-, e e ( q)
. -, .
-,
, e
.
e , , , .

7.6. ()

, ,
. e,
,
. , , e
,
. , ,
,
e
, . . e . .
, e

7.6. ()

207

.
. ,
(7.5.8) ( , (7.5.6) (7.5.7)) ,


P =
f (|x |) dV (),
(7.6.1)
V

. . , , .
V ,
P 0, . , V R, :
P = R

P
P
= r
= R P0 .
R
r

(7.6.2)

R.
r, .

P0 = lim

r0

P
.
r

(7.6.3)

, , . r : r e, , e , , , . .
r = const ( r 0 r R).
(7.6.4)
e .
e,

.
.
.
,
.
, e . , e e
.
.

208

. 7.

7.7.

,
.
.
e . -,
, , , [ ., 2001; , , 2006].

(, [, , 2004; 2005]). -, . [, 1963] , ,
. ,
, . ,
. -,
.
. . , , , S, . e
( ) V SV ,
.
. v 0 ,
V + . ( v 0
,
: ,
e V + ,
V . ,
.) ,
V + V .
v 0 ,
0
0ij = ij (v 0 ) = ij (v 0 ) = cVijkl vk,l
.

(7.7.1)

cVijkl , . .
.
, V ,
,
. e -

7.7.

209

. ,
.
. [, 1963]. ,
, , . ,
, . . ,
, , . , , .

,
.
,
.
(e)

(c0ijkl uk,l ),j = 0,


(i)

(i)

0
),j = 0,
(cVijkl uk,l ),j + 0ij,j = (cVijkl uk,l ),j (cVijkl vk,l

(e)
(i)
u = u ,
SV ,
(e)
(i)
c0ijkl uk,l nj = cVijkl uk,l nj + ij (v 0 ) nj ,
Lu (e) = 0 S.

(7.7.2)

(e) (i) ,
.
c0ijkl cVijkl , ,
; :
. n
.
(7.7.1) .
L S (
) , .
,
,
.
.
v , e
. u.

v 0 e .
v (v ) = v + v 0 .

210

. 7.

, , e.

(c0ijkl uk,l ),j = 0,
(cVijkl vk,l ),j = 0,

(7.7.3)
u = v + v 0 ,
SV ,
0
V
cijkl uk,l nj = cijkl vk,l nj ,
L u = 0 S.
(7.7.2) (7.7.3) ,
v + v 0 = ui (7.7.3) (7.7.2)
.

.
. (7.7.2),
, , ,
. . [, 1976].
(7.7.2) ;
, .
, :
0
ij,j (u)+(V 0ij ),j = (c0ijkl uk,l ),j +q (V cijkl uk,l ),j (V cVijkl vk,l
),j = 0,
Lu = 0 S,
(7.7.4)
V e V ; q , q cijkl ; , cijkl = 0
x
/ V , x V cijkl = 0, cijkl = 0.
.
. e (7.7.2)(7.7.4), ,
.
, . . (7.7.2)(7.7.4) , .

.
(7.7.4). ,
,
(c0ijkl gkr,l ),j + ir (x ) = 0,

Lgr = 0 S,

(7.7.5)

ir ; -; r ,  xr .

211

7.7.

.
(7.7.4)


(m)
ui =
q m ui .
(7.7.6)
m=0

(7.7.6) (7.7.4) q
(7.7.4):
(0)

0
(c0ijkl uk,l ),j (cVijkl vk,l
),j = 0,
(m)

(m1)

(c0ijkl uk,l ),j + (cijkl uk,l

),j = 0

m  1.

(7.7.7)

(7.7.7) ,
. e :

(0)
0
ui =
gir,j (x, ) cVrjkl vk,l
dV (),
V
(m)
ui



(m1)
gir,j (x, ) crjkl uk,l
dV (),

(7.7.8)
m  1.

(7.7.6) , ,
, , q < 1 |cijkl |  c0ijkl .
e
.
.
(7.7.4) ,

ui = q
gir (x, ) (V cijkl uk,l ),j dV ()

0

gir (x, ) (cVijkl vk,l


),j dV (), (7.7.9)
.
(7.7.9)


0
ui +q
gir,j (x, ) crjkl uk,l dV () =
gir,j (x, ) cVrjkl vk,l
dV ().
V

(7.7.10)
x
/ V x V (7.7.10)
. x V (7.7.10)
ui . (7.7.10) xn ,

212

. 7.

:


gir,j (x, ) crjkl uk,l dV () =


ui,n + q
xn
V


0
gir,j (x, ) cVrjkl vk,l
dV ().
=
xn

(7.7.11)

x
/ V , . . , (7.7.10)
ui,n .
(7.7.10) (7.7.11) , . , (7.7.6), (7.7.8)
(7.7.10) .

(7.7.6).
, ,


; , e ,
. , [, , 1947]


.
.
. , cijkl = 0.
0ij (7.7.4) (7.7.10)
:


ui = gir (x, ) (V 0rj ),j dV () = 0rj gir,j (x, ) dV () =


c0rjkl

0
vk,l

gir,j (x, ) dV ().

(7.7.12)


, V
.

kir (x ), (7.7.12)


(e,i)
kir (x ) dV () = 0rj Kir,j .
(7.7.13)
ui = 0rj
xj
V

7.7.

213


(e,i)
Kir (x)


=

kir (x ) dV ()

(7.7.14)

e . (e,i)
, Kir

. e,
. ,

e (, [, 1946] [ ..., 1976]). , (e , e )
,
.
, . . ,

e, . .
.
, ,
. ,

.
. [, 1963] ,
e .
,
. , ,
,
(7.7.8)
(0)

0
ui,n = cVrjkl vk,l

2
xj xn


V

(i)
0
kir (x ) dV () = cVrjkl vk,l
Kir,jn .

(7.7.15)
,
(i)
(0)
e , Kir,jn = const ui,n = const. (m)
(7.7.8) , ui,n = const, . .
.

214

. 7.

(11)
(i)

(i)

(i)

(i)

0
ui,n q crjkl uk,l Kir,jn = cVrjkl vk,l
Kir,jn .

(7.7.16)

e
(7.7.10) :
(e)

ui

(i)

(i)

(i)

0
= q crjkl uk,l Kir,j cVrjkl vk,l
Kir,j .

(7.7.17)

, ,

. , , .
.
, . . .

,
, . ,
, (i)
(i)
. Kir,j Kir,jn .
e - : e ,
. ,
, .
(i)
(i)
Kir,j Kir,jn ,
e
.
.
W , . ,
, . ,
W =

1
2



1
=
2

0
(0ij + ij ) (vi,j
+ ui,j ) dV +

V  
0ij
V

0
vi,j

1
dV +
2

1
2


0
ij vi,j
V


ij ui,j dV =
V

dV +

1
2


0ij ui,j dV +
V

215

7.7.

1
2


ij ui,j dV +

1
2



0
vi,j
+
2


cVijkl uk,l dV +
V

1
2

ij ui,j dV =
V

0
0ij vi,j
V
+
2


0ij ui,j dV +

1
2



ij ui,j dV ,
(7.7.18)

V e , V , ;
.
(7.7.18)
.
ij ui,j = (ij ui ),j ij,j ui ,

1
2

(7.7.19)





1
1
(ij ui ),j dV
ij,j ui dV =
2
2



1
1
=
ij nj ui dS
ij,j ui dV =
ij,j ui dV. (7.7.20)
2
2
ij ui,j dV =

e ,
ij nj = 0 u = 0 S.
(7.7.4)



1
1
1
ij ui,j dV =
ij,j ui dV =
(V 0ij ),j ui dV.
2
2
2
(7.7.21)
(7.7.19)
(V 0ij ),j ui = ((V 0ij ) ui ),j (V 0ij ) ui,j ,

(7.7.22)

(7.7.22) (7.7.21)
, :



1
1
1
0
0ij ui,j dV.
ij ui,j dV =
(V ij ),j ui dV =
2
2
2
V

(7.7.23)
(7.7.23) (7.7.18),

0
0   
vi,j
0ij vi,j
1
0
V +
W =
(0ij + ij ) vi,j
dV =
cVijkl uk,l dV.
2
2
2
V

(7.7.24)

216

. 7.


(7.7.24) : (7.7.13), (7.7.16).
(7.7.6) (7.7.11).
. .
, .
x, y, z, . ,
z.
v 0 0ij = ij (v 0 )
:
vx0 = vy0 = 0,

vz0 = h z,

0xx = 0yy = h,
0zz = h ( + 2),

(7.7.25)

0xy = 0yz = 0xz = 0.


(7.7.13) e
e (7.3.12) :

:

h (1 5)
z h (7 5)
, u(i)
, = x2 + y 2 , (7.7.26)
z =
15 (1 )
15 (1 )


h R3
152 +12R2 152 R2
+
ue =
,
10+10
30r3 (1)
r2
r4



z h R3
152 +6R2 152 R2
e

uz =
, r = 2 + z 2 .
1020+
3
2
4
30 r (1)
r
r
(7.7.27)
(i)

u =

.
: > 0,2
.

. , e ,
, .

, . . .
- e ,
.
, e ;
.

, . .

. , ,
. . :
- e .
, ,
.
e ,
. . e , . ,

, , ,
. , , , .
,
, ,
,
.
,
. ,
; .

218

, ,
,
:
- ,
.
, .
.
,
.
.
: . , e e.
, ,
- e, ,
, - . ,
, .
, e ,
.
. .

. , e . ,
,
. e e- ,
. .
, . .
. ,
, . . ,
.
- .
. ,
e .

219


, . -: e ,
, , .
: .
, , , -
, , .
, . .
,
.
1.
2.
3.
4.

.
.
.
.


.
1. . , ,
, , .
.
2. . , , .
, , .
, .
3. . , ,
,
. ,
, e .
.
(-)
( ).
, , , . . . ,

e ,
, ( ) .

220

4. . e
.
. e

.
e .
, , ,
. , e e
.
, ,
.
. ,
, , ,
e , . .
, . , .
,
.
. , , . , ,

. ,

e.
- . , e , , . , , e .
. , , ,
.
(, , )

( ,
).

221

(, . .).
,
,
. , , , , , ,
, e .
; ,
( , ) ?
,
, . . e
. . e .
- .
-
, e-
; e . , e
. . . ,
. ,

, ,
e
.
: .

. e e
( )
, .

.
.

222

, ,
e .
( e ) (
). e
.
,
. , ,
,

.
e
e ,
. ,
.
. (, ) e
.
, ,
.
. ,
,
.
e . ,
,
,
e .
.
,
.
( ),
( ).
,
.
e .
e . ,
. , ,

223

( ) e
.
, .
: ?, ?,

? ,
,
e .


. 1.
.
b, a, .
.
-,
u(r) r
e :




d
d 1 d(r2 u)
2u
2 du

r
2 + ( + )
= 0,
(.1.1)
r2 dr
dr
r
dr r2
dr

2 
2
u 2 u = 0.
r
r

u +

u(r) = Ar +

(.1.2)

B
,
r2

(.1.3)

A B .
e e
m
=

3 u(b)
,
b

m =

3 u(a)
,
a

(.1.4)

e (.1.3)
=

b u(a)
b3 (Aa3 + B)
Aa3 + B
m
=
= 3
=
,

a u(b)
a (Ab3 + B)
m (Ab3 + B)

(.1.5)

a3 /b3 = m .
.
e e m

3u(a)
m
=
,
(.1.6)
p=

a
r = a rr .
- (r, , )
rr =

2B
du
=A 3 ,
dr
r

= =

B
u
=A + 3 ,
r
r

e = rr +2 = 3A,
(.1.7)

. 1.

225


4
B.
(.1.8)
r3
p = rr (a) r = a (.1.4)
A B. e
rr = 2rr + (rr + 2 ) = (3 + 2)A

A=

3 + 4
1
,
3 3 + 4 + m(3 + 2 3)

m(3 + 2 3)
b3
.
B=
3 3 + 4 + m(3 + 2 3)

(.1.5)

3( + 2)
.
(.1.10)
3 + 4 + m(3 + 2 3)
, b a, m = 0.

=

0 =

3( + 2)
,
3 + 4

3 + 4
.
k=
=
0
3 + 4 + m(3 + 2 3)

(.1.11)

(.1.12)

(.1.10)(.1.12) . e = .
, = 6/.
0 = 2,
1
k=
.
(.1.13)
1+m

= 2.
. e
b a. , ( ).
,
:
=

( + 2)
.
1 + m(( + 2) 1)


=
8 . .

18
.
1 + 17m

(.1.14)

226

. 2. . 3.8

,
020 % 184.
.
;
. m = 10 % = 5.

.

. 2. . 3.8
e b b ,
. 3.8, e (3.8.13)(3.8.15),
. . :

b (, ) =

b (, ) =

du dv


,
v
( u)2 + ( v)2
(.2.1)

du dv


,
u ( u)2 + ( v)2

1
=
2




(u2

u (y, z, L) dy dz
.
+ (v y)2 + z 2 )3/2

(.2.2)

(y, z, L) , e
.
u > 0 u < 0
, , ,
. u = 0
u , u.

=
v
2

1
=
u
2







3u (v y) (y, z, L) dy dz
,
(u2 + (v y)2 + z 2 )5/2
(.2.3)
(z + (v y) 2u ) (y, z, L) dy dz
.
(u2 + (v y)2 + z 2 )5/2
2

. 2. . 3.8

227

(.2.1)
1
b (, ) =
2

1
b (, ) =
2




du dv


( u)2 + ( v)2

3u(v y) (y, z, L) dy dz

,
(u2 + (v y)2 + z 2 )5/2




du dv


( u)2 + ( v)2

(.2.3)

(z 2 + (v y)2 2u2 ) (y, z, L) dy dz


.

(u2 + (v y)2 + z 2 )5/2


(.2.4) e
y = Y + . :
1
b (, ) =
2
1
b (, ) =
2




(Y + , z, L) Q(Y , z, , ) dY dz,
0




(.2.5)
(Y + , z, L) Q (Y , z, , ) dY dz.

Q (Y , z, , ) =

Q (Y , z, , ) =

3u (v Y )
du dv

,
(u2 +(vY )2 +z 2 )5/2
(u)2 +(v)2
(z 2 +(vY )2 2u2 )
du dv

,
(u2 +(vY )2 +z 2 )5/2
(u)2 +(v)2
(.2.6)

Q Q .
(.2.6) e u = U + ,
v = V +

Q =

Q =

8*

((U +

)2

3u (V Y )
du dv

,
2
2
5/2
+ (V Y ) + z )
U2 + V 2
(.2.7)

(z + (V Y ) 2u )
du dv

.
((U + )2 + (V Y )2 + z 2 )5/2
U2 + V 2
2

228

. 2. . 3.8

(.2.7) ,
, , ,

.
: U U -,
V V -.
-



r, : U - r = U , = V /U ,


V - r = V , = U/V .
|r| 

1/ U 2 + V 2 = 1/(|r| 1 + 2 ). - ,
, , , . r ,
(, ).
r
1
Q =
1

1
Q =
1

2
1 + 2
2
1+2

(1 + 2 )z 2 (Y + )2
(1+2 )z 2 (Y +)2
+
2
2
2
(1 + ) z + (Y + )
(1+2 ) z 2 +(Y +)2

2 ((1+2 )z 2 (Y +)2 ) (1+2 ) z 2 (Y +)2


+
(1+2 )z 2 +(Y +)2
(1+2 )z 2 +(Y +)2


d,

d.

(.2.8)

- ,

Q =

2z Y (3Z 2 z 2 )T
4 Y

,
(Y 2 + 2 )2 Z 3
(Y 2 + 2 )2

2z (24 + Y 2 2 + z 2 2 Y 4 Y 2 z 2 )T
2 (Y 2 2 )
+
,
Q =
(Y 2 + 2 )2 Z 3
(Y 2 + 2 )2

(.2.9)

z 2 + Y 2 + Y
z 2 + Y 2 Y
z 2 + 2 + Y
+ arctg
+ arctg
+
zZ
zZ
zZ
2
2

z + Y
, Z = z 2 + Y 2 + 2 .
+ arctg
zZ

T = arctg

, Q Q = 0 . (.2.1)

. 2. . 3.8

229

(.2.5) :
b (, , 0, 0) =





2zY (3Z 2 z 2 )T
1
4Y
=
(Y + , z, L)

dY dz,
2
(Y 2 + 2 )2 Z 3
(Y 2 + 2 )2
0



1
(Y + , z, L)
b (, , 0, 0) =
2

0


2z(24 + Y 2 2 + z 2 2 Y 4 Y 2 z 2 )T
2(Y 2 2 )
+

dY dz,
(Y 2 + 2 )2 Z 3
(Y 2 + 2 )2
(.2.10)

= 0
(, Maple
Mathematica).


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4056-81. 39 .
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. . . 1972. 8. . 314.
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. : , 1983. 187 .
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. .
e . .-. . ,
1988. 134 .
. . .: ,
1972. 183 .
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