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2012
504.054; 504.064
30.69
-91
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- . , . .. ; . -
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.., ..
-91
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.: - -
, 2012. 272 .
ISBN 978-5-89035-597-3


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, , -
. -
, ,
, . -
, -
, .
, -
-
, , ,
.
504.054; 504.064
30.69
ISBN 978-5-89035-597-3 .., .., 2012
-

, 2012
. -, 2010
3
Hpeancaoane
Crparcinnccxoc :uancunc cnc:uix (opoi, occncnnnammnx uop-
xaniuoc qyuxnnounponaunc xouoxnxn crpaui, onpc(cnncr ucoxo-
(nxocri no((cpaunn ccncpconuon paori orpacnn n ninonucunn
ccrxnx rpconaunn x xonoinnccxon c:onacuocrn ncpcno:ox n no:-
(cncrnnm orpacnn n ncnox ua oxpyammym cpc(y.
Ocuonuic ipy:o- n naccanponoroxn npnxo(nrcn n onimcn nacrn
ua iopo(a, i(c cocpc(oroncui xpynuic xcrannypinnccxnc, xnxnncc-
xnc, xamnuocrponrcniuic n (pyinc npc(npnnrnn, a raxc anroxainc-
rpann. Bipoci :aipn:unmmnx ncmccrn rnxn npon:no(crnaxn qop-
xnpymr rcxuoicuuic opconi pacccnunn rncnix xcrannon n nonnax
npoximncuuix nnoma(ox n npnnciammnx x unx rcppnropnn.
Bccixa :uannrcniuin nxna( n :aipn:ucunc cpc(i nuocnr xax nuq-
pacrpyxrypa cnc:uo(opouix npc(npnnrnn, rax n ncpcno:nxic nxn
ipy:i. B uacronmnn xoxcur ua cnc:uix (opoiax xnpa uaxo(nrcn n o-
pamcunn oncc nnrn xnnnnouon ipy:onix naiouon pa:nnnuix xo(nqn-
xannn. B orxpirix naiouax ncpcno:nrcn ipy:i, npcnxymccrncuuo ncxo(-
uoc cipic yinn, py(i, ncxonacxic xarcpnani, c noncpxuocrn xoropix
c(ynamrcn ncixnc nincnaric nacrnni. cio(uo npn ncpcno:xc n ncpc-
ipy:xc ipy:on n: naiouon n oxpyammym cpc(y nocrynacr oxono 3,3 xnu
rouu py(i, O,15 xnu rouu concn n O,36 xnu rouu xnucpaniuix y(o-
pcunn. Hincunc n axrnnn:annn roxcnxauron norcunnaniuoio :aipn:-
ucunn nponcxo(nr raxc npn onncrxc annacruon npn:xi :cxnnuoio
nonorua. 3aipn:unmmnc ncmccrna or cnc:uo(opouoio rpaucnopra
pa:uocnrcn no:(ymuixn xaccaxn ua npnnciammnc npocrpaucrna, qop-
xnpyn rax ua:inacxic icoxnxnnccxnc auoxannn.
Hcronunxox :aipn:ucunn, xpoxc ncpcno:nxix ipy:on, nnnncrcn rax-
c no(nnuon cocran n xarcpnani cnc:uo- nnn anro(opouoio nonor-
ua. Oror ncronunx ococuuo :axcrcu npn opiaun:annn ua cnc:uo(o-
pouox n anroxonniuox rpaucnoprc nicoxocxopocruoio (nncunn.
B rnx ycnonnnx nxccr xccro ycxopcuuin n:uoc (crancn no(nnuoio co-
crana, cncrcx cncnxn, ropxo:uon cncrcxi, xouraxruon ccrn, a raxc nap
4
pcnicxoncco nnn anroxamnuaacqanironoc noxpirnc (opoin, n pc-
:ynirarc ncio n nocqcpy nocrynamr pa:nnnuic :aipn:unmmnc ncmccrna,
n rox nncnc raxnc onacuic (nn n:un nm(cn xcranni, xax unxcni, nnux,
cnnucn, xpox, xa(xnn n xcni. Mnipnpyn n uaxannnnanci n nonnc cnc:-
uo(opouoio nonorua nnn anro(opoin n n ipyuronix no(ax, oun uapy-
mamr nponcxo(nmnc n nonnc noxnxnnccxnc nponccci n cnococrnymr
cc (cipa(annn. Honncuuic xnxpoopiaun:xi n pacrcunn xoiyr copnpo-
nari rncnic xcranni xax ucnocpc(crncuuo n: nonni, rax n n: ipyuro-
nix no( n uaxannnnari nx (o nicoxnx xouncurpannn.
Pa:paorxa xcro(on, xnunxn:npymmnx nocrynncunc n nocqcpy rn-
cnix xcrannon npn xcnnyarannn nicoxocxopocruix xaincrpancn, a
raxc xcro(on (croxcnxannn :aipn:ucuuix nonn n pcxynirnnannn :a-
ipn:ucuuix rcppnropnn ucxicnnxa c: :uaunn ncronunxon :aipn:uc-
unn, :axouon xnipannn n noxann:annn rncnix xcrannon n nocqcpc n
nx nocrynncunn n nnmcnic ncnn. Hxcuuo ro n npc(onpc(cnnno qopxy
n:nocunn xarcpnana n uacronmcn xunic, cc ua:naunc n nnau nocrpoc-
unn no inanax.
Kunia cocronr n: mccrn inan. Hcpnan inana nocnnmcua auann:y
ncronunxon :aipn:ucunn nuqpacrpyxrypi nicoxocxopocruoio rpauc-
nopra rncnixn xcrannaxn. Ocy(acrcn nponcxa :aipn:ucunn ar-
xocqcpi crannouapuixn n ncpc(nnuixn ncronunxaxn cnc:uo(o-
pouoio n iopo(cxoio rpaucnopra. Hccnc(o nauo :aipn:ucunc in(po-
cqcpi n nonni rncnixn xcrannaxn.
Bo nropon inanc paccxorpcua xnipannn rncnix xcrannon n no-
cqcpc n xo(c nx xpyionoporon n arxocqcpc, in(pocqcpc n nc(ocqcpc.
B ron inanc ocooc nunxaunc y(cncuo uciarnnuoxy nnnnunm rnc-
nix xcrannon ua nonoinnccxnc cnoncrna nonn n ua nonncuuym xnx-
ponory. Ocy(acrcn n:xcucunc ycronnnnocrn xyrannn xnxpocxo-
nnnccxnx ipnon nonni n :anncnxocrn or npnpo(i, xouncurpannn n
xnxnnccxon qopxi xcranna-:aipn:unrcnn. Hpnnc(cuo rcopcrnnccxoc
oocuonaunc uopxnponaunn co(cpaunn rncnix xcrannon n nonnc.
B rpcricn inanc onncaui rcxuoicuuic auoxannn, no:unxammnc
npn xnipannn rncnix xcrannon, rcxuoicuuic opconi pacccnunn ra-
xnx npc(npnnrnn rncnon npoximncuuocrn, xax xcrannypinnccxnc,
xamnuocrponrcniuic, xycopocniarcniuic :ano(i n TOH. Ocy-
(amrcn xacmrai :aipn:ucunn rncnixn xcrannaxn anroxonniuix
rpaucnoprox ua nicoxocxopocruix xaincrpannx. Ha ocuonc auann:a
ynacrxon Mocxoncxon n Kio-Bocronuon cnc:uix (opoi npoauann-
:nponau xapaxrcp :aipn:ucunn rncnixn xcrannaxn n(oni nonoci
orno(a n ua pa:nnnuix y(ancunnx or xoncn.
crncpran n nnran inana ocncmacr nonpoci xnipannn n uaxonnc-
unn rncnix xcrannon n pacrnrcniuocrn, n nnmcnix npo(yxrax n op-
iaun:xc ncnoncxa. Ho(pouo oncunnacrcn nnnnunc xouncurpannn
pa:nnnuix xcrannon ua :(oponic ncnoncxa.
B mccron inanc onncauo oopy(onaunc no onncrxc no:(yxa or apo-
:oncn n ninn, co(cpamcn rncnic xcranni, a raxc cronuix no(
pa:nnnuix npon:no(crn n nyrn cuncunn co(cpaunn rncnix xc-
rannon n nonnc.
Mouoipaqnn paccnnraua inanuix opa:ox ua cry(curon n acnn-
pauron, npoqcccnouaniuan (cnrcniuocri xoropix cnn:aua c n:yncun-
cx no:(cncrnnn nicoxopocruoio rpaucnopra ua oxpyammym cpc(y n
nonpocon pcannnrannn nonn, :aipn:ucuuix rncnixn xcrannaxn.
Anropi nipaamr naio(apuocri pcncu:curax npoqcccopy
B.H. Honony n npoqcccopy B.A. Kannony :a nonc:uic :axcnaunn n co-
ncri no co(cpaunm xouoipaqnn.
6
Iaaaa 1. HCTOHHHKH 3AIPR3HEHHH
EHOC0EPb TREbMH METAAMH
HPH SKCHYATAHHH H PEMOHTE
TPAHCHOPTA
Hcronunxn :aipn:ucunn nocqcpi rncnixn xcrannaxn no(pa:-
(cnnmrcn ua npnpo(uic n aurponoicuuic. Inanuixn npnpo(uixn
ncronunxaxn nnnnmrcn xaixarnnccxnc n oca(onuic iopuic nopo(i
n icucrnnccxn cnn:auuic c unxn nniuic xnucpaniuic opa:onaunn.
Kpoxc roio, xuoinc rncnic xcranni nocrynamr n nocqcpy c xoc-
xnnccxon n xcrcopnruon ninim, nynxaunnccxnxn ia:axn, iopnnnxn
ncronunxaxn n icn:cpaxn.
Aurponoicuuic ncronunxn oycnonncui npon:no(crncuuon (c-
nrcniuocrim ncnoncxa n qyuxnnounponauncx ucpicrnnccxon, rnc-
non, ncixon, opaarinammcn npoximncuuocrn, aipapuixn npc(-
npnnrnnxn n rpaucnoprox.
cnrcniuocri rpaucnopruix npc(npnnrnn cnn:aua c ocymccrnnc-
uncx ncpcno:onuoio nponccca, noipy:onuo-pa:ipy:onuix oncpannn,
xpaucuncx ipy:on, a raxc ninonucuncx paor no rcxunnccxoxy o-
cnynnaunm n pcxoury no(nnuoio cocrana n nyrcn coomcunn.
Hpn rox n oxpyammym cpc(y nocrynamr nipoci rncnix xcran-
non, opa:ycxic ua crannouapuix n ncpc(nnuix ncronunxax ni-
pocon.
3aipn:ucunc oxpyammcn cpc(i crannouapuixn ncronunxaxn ua
rpaucnoprc nponcxo(nr or npon:no(crn, occncnnnammnx pcxour
rpaucnopruix cpc(crn, ncnoxoiarcniuix npon:no(crn, :(aunn n co-
opycunn xo:nncrncuuo-ironoio ua:uancunn n xccr cronuox rpauc-
nopra. 3(cci c qopxnpycrcn noncpxuocruin crox, nxnmnammnn (o-
7
(cnic n ranic cucionic no(i, no(i or xonxn no(nnuoio cocrana n
yopxn noxcmcunn, cronuic no(i, opa:ymmnccn n npon:no(crncu-
uix nponcccax |2, 11, 16].
3aipn:ucunc oxpyammcn cpc(i ncpc(nnuixn ncronunxaxn
nponcxo(nr n nponcccc xcnnyarannn no(nnuoio cocrana cnc:uo-
(opouoio n iopo(cxoio rpaucnopra. Oro nponnnncrcn npn cniaunn
(n:cniuoio ronnnna, npnxcucunn aurnqpnxnnouuix xarcpnanon, a
raxc opa:onaunn ninn nnn xcnxon crpyxn n pa:nnnuix rpymnxcn
napax xonccopcnic, xonccoropxo:uan xono(xa, nauroipaq
xouraxruin npono(, npn ropxocunn anroxamnu ua (opouon
noncpxuo crn n ncnc(crnnc n:uoca mnu.
1.1. Cvaunonapnme ncvo4nnxn aaposoatnmx ampocoa
Ha cnc:uo(opouox rpaucnoprc nxccrcn onimoc xonnnccrno
noxoxornnuix n naiouuix (cno n :ano(on, ocymccrnnnmmnx pcxour
n noccrauonncunc (crancn no(nnuoio cocrana. Hpn ninonucunn rcx-
uonoinnccxnx nponcccon nponcxo(nr :aipn:ucunc oxpyammcn cpc(i
rncnixn xcrannaxn n conyrcrnymmnxn nx ia:axn |16].
1.1.1. Xome:onme
Ocuonuoc xonnnccrno :aipn:ucunn ua cnc:uo(opouox rpauc-
noprc nocrynacr or xorcniuix. Hpn cniaunn rncp(oio ronnnna n xa-
:yra n oxpyammym cpc(y nipacinamrcn nxccrc c (ixonixn ia:axn
rncp(ic nacrnni, co(cpamnc rncnic xcranni, n rox nncnc ncurox-
cn( naua(nn. Konnnccrno nipocon :aipn:unmmnx ncmccrn :anncnr
or xonnnccrna n nn(a ronnnna, a raxc or nn(a rcnnoaipciara.
Hpn nicoxorcxncparypuix rcxuonoinnccxnx nponcccax opa:ymr-
cn apo:oniuic nacrnni pa:xcpox O,51,O xxx, nnoxo ynannnnammnc
onncruixn ycrauonxaxn n cnocouic xnipnponari n arxocqcpc ua
:uannrcniuic paccronunn. Hpn rox c rcxuoicuuixn apo:onnxn n
arxocqcpy nocrynamr raxnc nicoroxcnnuic rncnic xcranni, xax
cnnucn, xa(xnn, pryri n (p. (ran. 1.1) |2, 1O].
8
Toauuo T.T
Coaepaanne nexovopmx vaaeamx wevaaaoa a yrae n soae na Pasancxo TSH
Bipoc
(npo(yxri ciopaunn)
0paxnnouuin cocran,
apo:oniuix nacrnn, %
Kouncurpannn, xi/xi
Ioncc
O,O5 xx
Mcucc
O,O5 xx
Zn Pb V Cu
Yioni 138 69 91 42
3ona c 1-io nonn ncxr-
poqnnirpon
48 52 183 83 53 249
3ona c 2-io nonn ncxr-
poqnnirpon
22 78 266 13O 146 136
3ona c 3-io nonn ncxr-
poqnnirpon
8 92 363 162 181 112
3ona-yuoc
Hc:uann-
rcniuin
o 1OO 791 257 273 4O
Banonin nipoc rncp(ix nacrnn n (ixonix ia:ax xorcniuix on-
pc(cnncrcn no qopxync:

M q mf 1
T T T

( )
1 O O1 , , r/io(, (1.1)
i(c q
T
:oniuocri ronnnna, % ; m xonnnccrno n:pacxo(onauuoio ronnnna :a
io(, r; f c:pa:xcpuin xoqqnnncur, ynnrinammnn rnn ronxn n nn( ronnnna;
1
T
qqcxrnnuocri :onoynonnrcncn, %.
3oniuocri ronnnna :anncnr or nn(a ronnnna n xoncncrcn n mnpo-
xnx npc(cnax. Tax, uanpnxcp, (nn yincn Ho(xocxonuoio acccnua oua
panua 39 % , a (nn Ky:ucnxoio acccnua 11 %; :oniuocri iopmnnx
cnauncn cocrannncr 54 %, a xa:yra O,1 % .
3uancunc c:pa:xcpuoio xoqqnnncura f :anncnr or rnna ronxn n
nn(a ronnnna, ncnoni:ycxix n xorcniuix. Hpn cniaunn ypix n xa-
xcuuix yincn n ronxc c ucno(nnuon pcmcrxon n pynuix :apocox
f O,OO23, a npn ncnoni:onaunn ronxn c nucnxoxcxaunnccxnxn :a-
pacinarcnnxn n ucno(nnuon pcmcrxon f O,OO26.
Oqqcxrnnuocri :onoynonnrcncn onpc(cnncrcn rnnox annapara n
xoncncrcn n npc(cnax or 85 (o 95 %.
9
o pacncra nipocon ncuroxcn(a naua(nn, nocrynammcio n arxoc-
qcpy c (ixonixn ia:axn npn ciopaunn n(xoio ronnnna, cuanana on-
pc(cnnmr cio co(cpaunc n n(xox ronnnnc no qopxync:
Q
r
1
95 4 31 6 , , , i/r , (1.2)
i(c
r
co(cpaunc ccpi n ronnnnc. nn xanoccpuncroio xa:yra O,5; ccpunc-
roio 1,9; nicoxoccpuncroio 4,1 i/r.
3arcx nipoci ncuroxcn(a naua(nn paccnnrinamr no qopxync:
xi/io(, (1.3)
i(c B xonnnccrno n:pacxo(onauuoio xa:yra :a io(, r; Q
1
co(cpaunc ncurox-
cn(a naua(nn n n(xox ronnnnc, i/xi; q
OC
xoqqnnncur occ(aunn ncuroxcn(a
naua(nn ua noncpxuocrn uaipcna xornon (q
OC
O,O7 (nn xornon c npoxcyron-
uixn napouaipcnarcnnxn, q
OC
O,O5 (nn xornon c: npoxcyronuix napouaipc-
narcncn panua uynm. nn ocraniuix cnynacn q
T
(onn rncp(ix nacrnn n npo(yx-
rax ciopaunn n(xoio ronnnna, ynannnnacxix n ycrponcrnax (nn onncrxn ia:on
xa:yruix xornon (oncunnacrcn no cpc(unx noxa:arcnnx paori ynannnnammnx
ycrponcrn :a io().
Hcronunxaxn nocrynncunn rncnix xcrannon n arxocqcpuin no:-
(yx nnnnmrcn raxc xycopocniarcniuic :ano(i (ran. 1.2).
Toauuo T.2
Coaepaanne vaaeamx wevaaaoa a vaepamx mvoamx ovxoaax (TEO)
n amwoamx rasax
Mcrann TIO, xi/xi
ixonic ia:i,
% or co(cpaunn n TIO
Hg 24 95
Cd 11O 759O
As O,24 75
Zn 1OOO2OOO 274O
Pb 4OO12OO 3O35
i 1585 1O
Cu 4OO6OO 1O
Cf 5O25O 1O
1O
3a nocnc(ucc (ccnrnncrnc co(cpaunc rncnix xcrannon n TIO
pc:xo nonicnnoci :a cncr orpaorauuix cyxnx ianinaunnccxnx nc-
xcuron n axxyxynnropon, naxn uaxannnaunn, nmxnuccncuruix naxn,
cnurcrnnccxnx xarcpnanon (xpacnrcnn, crannn:aropi), xcrannnncc-
xnx noxpirnn xon n (pyinx orxo(on. Co(cpaunc pryrn n unx xonc-
ncrcn n npc(cnax 125 % n n orpaoranmnx unxcni-xa(xncnix axxy-
xynnropax co(cpnrcn oxono 15 % xa(xnn. Omcc co(cpaunc xa(xnn
n TIO cocrannncr 1O15 xi/xi TIO. Hpn cniaunn TIO 9O % xa(xnn
ncpcxo(nr n (ixonic ia:i n :axnarinacrcn xcnxnxn (xcucc 2 xxx)
nacrnnaxn ncryncn :oni. Kouncurpannn xcrannon n orxo(nmnx ia:ax
npn cniaunn TIO n 1O1OO pa: npcnocxo(nr xouncurpannm xcran-
non n orxo(nmnx ia:ax ucpicrnnccxnx ycrauonox, paorammnx ua xa-
xcuuox yinc, r.c. rncnic xcranni nnnnmrcn cncnnqnnccxnxn ni-
pocaxn xycopocniarcniuix :ano(on |1O].
1.1.2. dumenme uexu
unrcnuic ncxa pcxouruix :ano(on cnc:uo(opouoio rpaucnopra
nxcmr n cnocx cocranc nnannniuic aipciari, mnxronin (nop, ynacr-
xn npnioronncunn qopxononuix n crpcucnix cxcccn, xccra pa:nnna
xcranna n onncrxn nnrin. B :anncnxocrn or cnocoon nnrin n npnxc-
uncxoio xcro(a npnioronncunn n(xoio xcranna uoxcuxnarypa rcx-
unnccxoio oopy(onaunn n nnrcnuix ncxax, a raxc cio cocran xoiyr
:uannrcniuo pa:nnnaricn. B xanccrnc nnannniuix aipciaron ua pcxour-
uix :ano(ax ncnoni:ymrcn naipauxn, ncxrpo(yionic n nu(yxnnou-
uic ncnn.
Banonic nipoci :aipn:unmmnx ncmccrn, ni(cnnmmnxcn npn
nnanxc nyiyua n orxpirix naipauxax, crann n ncxrpo(yionix ncnax,
a raxc npn nnanxc nyiyua, crann n nncruix xcrannon n nu(yxnnou-
uix ncnax, onpc(cnnmrcn no qopxync:
M

- q

B, xi/io(, (1.4)
i(c q

y(cniuoc ni(cncunc ncmccrn ua c(nunny npo(yxnnn, xi/r (ran. 1.3); B


xonnnccrno ninnannncxoio xcranna, r/io(.
Hpn nnanxc 1 r xcranna n orxpirix nyiyuonnrcnuix naipauxax ni-
(cnncrcn 9OO12OO x
3
xonomunxonoio ia:a, co(cpamcio oxcn(i yi-
11
ncpo(a, ccpi n a:ora, yincno(opo(i (napi xaccn) n nonn(ncncpcuym
nini |2]. Cocran nipocon ia:on n ninn, orxo(nmnx or orxpirix ny-
iyuonnrcnuix naipauox, npnnc(cui n ran. 1.3.
Toauuo T.J
Bmpocm upn uaaaxe 4yryna a ovxpmvmx aarpanxax
Hpon:-
no(n-
rcni-
uocri
ncnn, r/n
Bipoci, xi/r
Hini
Oxcn( yinc-
po(a
noxcn(
ccpi
Yincno-
(opo(i
Oxcn(i
a:ora
3 1822 18O22O 1,21,5 O,132,4O O,O12O,O15
5 1822 17O2OO 1,21,5 O,122,2O O,O11O,O15
7 182O 18O22O 1,41,6 O,152,4O O,O12O,O15
1O 182O 17O19O 1,21,5 O,132,2O O,O12O,O15
15 1618 16O2OO 1,11,4 O,112,1O O,O11O,O13
2O 172O 17O21O 1,11,8 O,122,3O O,O11O,O17
Xnxnnccxnn cocran naipauonuon ninn :anncnr or cocrana :aipy-
acxoio xcranna, ronnnna, ycnonnn paori ncnn n xocr xoncaricn
n mnpoxnx npc(cnax (xacc., %): SiO
2
or 2O (o 5O; CaO or 2 (o 12;
AI
2
O
3
or O,5 (o 6; MgO or O,5 (o 4; (IcO = Ic
2
O
3
) or 1O (o 36;
MnO or O,5 (o 2,5; yincpo( or 3O (o 45.
0paxnnouuin cocran pa:xcpon nacrnn naipauonuon ninn n :ann-
cnxocrn or nn(a (yrin npnnc(cu n ran. 1.4.
Mc(nauuin pa:xcp ninn npn iopnncx (yric cocrannncr 2O xxx, a
npn xono(uox 7O xxx.
Hpn nnanxc xcrannon (nyiyua n crann) n ncxrpo(yionix ncnax ni-
(cnnmrcn oxcn(i a:ora, oxcn( yincpo(a n nonn(ncncpcuan nini. Ko-
nnnccrno ni(cnncxix npc(uix ncmccrn :anncnr or cxxocrn n npon:-
no(nrcniuocrn ncnn (ran. 1.5).
12
Toauuo T.:
Bmpocm apeanmx aemecva, amaeaamnxca upn uaaaxe wevaaaoa
a aaexvpoayroamx ue4ax
xxocri
ncnn, r
Hpon:no(n-
rcniuocri ncnn
r/n
Bipoci, xi/r
Hini Oxcn( yincpo(a
Oxcn(i
a:ora
Hpn nnanxc nyiyua
3,O 1,65 9,49, 6 1,21,4 O,24O,28
5,O 2,5 9,39,5 1,21,4 O,24O,28
1O,O 4,5 8,78,9 1,21,5 O,24O,3O
2O,O 7,O 8,O8,2 1,31,6 O,26O,32
5O,O 14,O 6,87,O 1,31,5 O,26O,3O
1OO,O 23,O 6,56,7 1,31,6 O,26O,32
Hpn nnanxc crann
O,5 O,33 9,81O,O 1,21,5 O,24O,3O
1,5 O,94 9,79,9 1,21,4 O,24O,28
5,O 2,O 9,39,5 1,21,4 O,24O,28
1O,O 3,O 8,78,9 1,21,5 O,24O,3O
2O,O 5,9 8,O8,2 1,31,6 O,26O,32
5O,O 11,4 6,87,O 1,31,5 O,26O,3O
1OO,O 21,O 6,56,7 1,31,6 O,26O,32
Toauuo T.4
0paxunonnm cocvaa, % aarpano4no uman
Pa:xcp nacrnn,
xxx
5 51O 1O25 255O 5O75 7515O ` 15O
Hpn iopnncx
(yric, %
17 13 16 13 12 18 1O
Hpn xono(uox
(yric, %
2 6 22 26 3O 13
13
1pu+euonuu:
yiap nyiyua n c:no:nparuic norcpn cocrannnmr 46 %;
xpoxc yxa:auuix n rannnc, n ia:ax npncyrcrnymr (noxcn( ccpi 1,6 i/r;
nnaun(i 28,4 i/r; qropn(i O,56 i/r;
npn ninnanxc ucpancmmnx, aponponuix n xncnoroynopuix crancn co-
(cpaunc ninn n orxo(nmnx ia:ax yncnnnnnacrcn n 1,41,5 pa:a;
yiap xcranna n c:no:nparuic norcpn cocrannnmr 57 %.
Cocran ninn :anncnr or xapxn ninnannncxon crann. Cpc(unn xn-
xnnccxnn cocran ninn (xacc., %): Ic
2
O
3
6O; Mn
2
O
3
1O; AI
2
O
3
5;
SiO
2
7; MgO 6; ocraniuoc xnopn(i, oxcn(i xpoxa n qocqopa.
Cpc(unn qpaxnnouuin cocran ninn npnnc(cu n ran. 1.6.
Toauuo T.6
0paxunonnm cocvaa uman, amaeaamnca ns aaexvpoayroamx ue4e
Pa:xcp nacrnn
ninn, xxx
O2 24 46 68 81O > 1O
(onn, % 52 23 6 7 3 9
Hpn nnanxc crann n nu(yxnnouuix ncnax, no cpanucunm c ncxr-
po(yionixn, ni(cnncrcn uc:uannrcniuoc xonnnccrno ia:on n n 56 pa:
xcuimc ninn, nacrnni xoropon nxcmr onimnn pa:xcp.
Ornnnxn, n:nncncuuic n: qopx, no(ncpiamrcn ncpnnnuon onncrxc
c ncnoni:onauncx (pooxcruoio, (poccrpynuoio n ianrononuoio rcx-
uonoinnccxoio oopy(onaunn. Hpn rox nponcxo(nr :uannrcniuoc
ni(cncunc xcxaunnccxon ninn. Banonic nipoci ninn npn onncrxc
nnrin ncpuix xcrannon onpc(cnnmrcn no qopxync:

O O
- , M q L xi/io(, (1.5)
i(c q
O
y(cniuoc ni(cncunc ninn ua c(nunny xacci ornnnox, xi/r; 1 xonn-
nccrno opaarinacxoio xcranna, xi/io(.
Y(cniuoc ni(cncunc ninn ua pa:nnnuox oopy(onaunn npn (po-
oxcruon onncrxc nyiyua cocrannncr or 2,8 (o 29, (poccrpynuon
or 8 (o 26, a npn ianronxc or 3,O (o 24 xi/r. Y(cniuoc ni(cncunc ninn
ua pa:nnnuox oopy(onaunn onncrxn ornnnox npn (pooxcruon onncr-
xc crann cocrannncr or 4,2 (o 43, (poccrpynuon or 12,1 (o 39,3, a
npn ianronxc or 4,5 (o 36,1 xi/r.
14
1.1.J. Tepmuuecuue u uysneuno-npeccoome yuucmuu
Bcurnnnnnouuin no:(yx rcpxnnccxnx ynacrxon oinuo :aipn:ucu
napaxn n npo(yxraxn iopcunn xaccn, axxnaxox, nnauncrix no(opo-
(ox n (pyinxn ncmccrnaxn, nocrynammnxn n cncrcxy xccruon ni-
rnuon ncurnnnnnn or nauu n aipciaron rcpxnnccxon opaorxn (po-
cxcruix n (poccrpynuix xaxcp, a raxc uaipcnarcniuix ncncn, pa-
orammnx ua n(xox n ia:oopa:uox ronnnnc.
Hpn :axanxc, nnaunponaunn, ornic n uopxann:annn xcrannnncc-
xnx cnnrxon, :aioronox, ormraxnonauuix n:(cnnn nanonic ni(cnc-
unn :aipn:unmmnx ncmccrn onpc(cnnmrcn no qopxync:
M Bq
OIP
- 1O ,
3


xi/io(, (1.6)
i(c q

y(cniuoc ni(cncunc :aipn:unmmnx ncmccrn, i/xi xcranna (ran. 1.7); B


xonnnccrno opaorauuoio xcranna n io(.
Hpn uaipcnc n opaorxc xcranna n xy:ucnuo-npccconix ncxax ni-
(cnnmrcn nini, xacnnuin apo:oni (ryxau), oxcn( yincpo(a, (noxcn(
ccpi n (p. Hpn ciopaunn noncpxuocruoio cnon xcranna opa:ycrcn
onimoc xonnnccrno xcnxo(ncncpcuon ninn, cocronmcn ua 759O %
n: oxncnon cnc:a. Hanoncc ncponruin pa:xcp nacrnn ron ninn co-
crannncr O,51 xxx.
1.1.4. Juucmuu xumuuecuo u +:eumpoxumuuecuo
opuomuu memu::oo
Bcc npon:no(crncuuic oncpannn, cnn:auuic c uaucccuncx ua noncpx-
uocri n:(cnnn noxpirnn, xouo pa:(cnnri ua rpn ocuonuic ipynni:
xcxaunnccxan no(ioronxa noncpxuocrn n:(cnnn (onncrxa, mnnqonaunc
n nonnponaunc), opaorxa noncpxuocrcn n:(cnnn n pacrnopc (rpanncunc,
oc:npnnaunc n npoxinxa) n ianinaunnccxoc nnn xnxnnccxoc uauccc-
unc noxpirnn. Ka(on n: rnx ipynn coorncrcrnymr cnon nn(i n xonn-
nccrna nocrynammnx n arxocqcpuin no:(yx :aipn:unmmnx ncmccrn.
nn onncrxn noncpxuocrcn (crancn npnxcunmr nccxocrpynuym n
in(poapa:nnuym opaorxy. Y(ancunc c noncpxuocrn (crancn ucpon-
uocrcn, napannu n opa:onaunc nccrnmcn noncpxuocrn (ocrniacrcn
mnnqonauncx, nonnponauncx, ianronxon n nnpannouuon opaorxon.
15
Banonic nipoci :aipn:unmmnx ncmccrn onpc(cnnmrcn no qop-
xync:
M G i
MX MX
3 6 , , xi/io( , (1.7)
i(c G
MX
xaxcnxaniuo-pa:onin nipoc :aipn:unmmnx ncmccrn, i/c; i

npc-
xn opaorxn noncpxuocrcn n io(, n/io(.
Maxcnxaniuo-pa:onic nipoci :aipn:unmmnx ncmccrn, ni(cnn-
mmnxcn npn xcxaunnccxon opaorxc noncpxuocrcn, onpc(cnnmrcn
no qopxync:
G QC



2 78 1O
4
, , i/c , (1.8)
i(c Q

ocx acnnpnpycxoio no:(yxa, y(anncxoio or rcxuonoinnccxoio oopy-


(onaunn, x
3
/n; C

xouncurpannn :aipn:unmmnx ncmccrn, i/x


3
(ran. 1.8).
Toauuo T.
Bmaeaenne sarpasnamnx aemecva na vepwn4ecxnx y4acvxax
Tnn oopy(onaunn, rcxuonoinnccxnn
pcnx
Bcmccrno
Y(cniuoc
xonnnccrno
Connuic nauui: uaipcn no( :axanxy
n pacnnanax xnopncrix apnn, uar -
pnn n xannn; oxna(cunc n ornycx
craniuix (crancn n cxccnx n: yinc -
xncnoio uarpnn, xnopncroio uarpnn
n yincxncnoio xannn
Apo:onn
Xnopncrin
no(opo(
Apo:onn
O,35 i/xi xcranna
O,12 i/xi xcranna
O,25 i/xi xcranna
Hn:xorcxncparypuoc nnaunponaunc
Apo:onn
Hnauncrin
no(opo(
O,25 i/xi (crancn
O,3O i/xi (crancn
Bicoxorcxncparypuoc
nnaunponaunc
Apo:onn
Hnauncrin
no(opo(
O,36 i/xi (crancn
O,3O i/xi (crancn
Macnnuic nauui n axn:
:axanxa;
ornycx
Apo:onn n napi
xacna
O,1O i/xi (crancn
O,O8 i/xi (crancn
Onncruic (pooxcruic ycrauonxn
ncpno(nnccxoio n ucnpcpinuoio
(cncrnnn
Hini, xcrannnncc-
xan, oxannua
1,5 i/xi (crancn
16
Toauuo T.&
Xapaxvepncvnxa ampocoa uman
ov ocnoanoro vexnoaorn4ecxoro oopyaoaanna
Oopy(o-
naunc
Opncu-
rnpo-
nonuin
ocx
acnnpn-
pycxoio
no:(yxa
Xapax-
rcp ninn
Kouncu-
rpannn,
i/x
3
Mc(nau-
uin
(naxcrp,
xxx
Cpc(uc-
xna(pa-
rnnuoc
orxno-
ucunc
Hnor-
uocri
nacrnn,
i/cx
3
Onncruic
apaaui:
ianronon-
uic
(pocxcr-
uic
1O2O
415
Mcxaun-
nccxan
oxannua
O,3O,5
13
1O15
1O3O
2,22,5
2,O2,5
3,75,O
3,75,O
poo-
xcruic
onncruic
xaxcpi
((o 3 r/n)
1O15
Mcxaun-
nccxan
oxannua
22,5 3O4O 2,12,3 1,75,O
Unnqo-
naniuic
crauxn
O,53,O
Apa-
:nnuan,
xcran-
nnncc-
xan
O,3O,8 1O,5 2,73,3 3,44,8
Kpaunc-
naniuic
crauxn
36
Mcxaun-
nccxan
oxannua
O,1O,3
3anncnr or npnpo(i opaari-
nacxoio xarcpnana n xarcpna-
na mcrox
nn uaucccunn noxpirnn ncnoni:ymr pa:nnnuic xnxnnccxnc nc-
mccrna xax n nncrox nn(c, rax n n cocranc cxcccn. Cax nponccc ua-
ucccunn ocymccrnnncrcn npn pa:uix rcxncparypax. Orn qaxropi
oycnonnnnamr :anncnxocri co(cpaunn ni(cnnmmnxcn n oxpya-
mmym cpc(y npc(uix ncmccrn or xapaxrcpa rcxuonoinnccxoio npo-
nccca.
17
Banonic nipoci apo:oncn npn ianinaunnccxon opaorxc onpc-
(cnnmrcn no qopxync:
M q 1in1
HOK HOK B


1O
3
, xi/io( , (1.9)
i(c q
nox
y(cniuoc xonnnccrno apo:oncn, ni(cnnmmnxcn c c(nunni noncpx-
uocrn nauui npn uopxaniuon :aipy:xc, i/(nx
2
) (ran. 1.9); 1 nnoma(i :cpxa-
na nauui, x
2
; i npcxn paori oopy(onaunn n/(cui; n io(onan :aipycu-
uocri ycrauonxn, (cui/io(; 1
B
xoqqnnncur, :anncnmnn or (nnui no:(yxo-
no(a (ran. 1.1O).
Toauuo T.9
Yaeatnoe xoan4ecvao aaposoae, amaeaamnxca
c uoaepxnocvn raataann4ecxnx aann
upn pasan4nmx vexnoaorn4ecxnx upoueccax
Hponccc Bcmccrno
Konn-
nccrno,
i/(nx
2
)
1 2 3
Xnxnnccxoc rpanncunc:
n pacrnopax xpoxonon xncnori n cc concn
npn i > 5O C
unxcnnponaunc n xnopn(uix pacrnopax
npn nnoruocrn roxa 13 A/(x
2
unxcnnponaunc n cyniqaruix pacrnopax
npn nnoruocrn roxa 13 A/(x
2
Xpoxonin auin(pn(
Conn unxcnn
Conn unxcnn
O,O2
O,54
O,11
Cunrnc crapix noxpirnn:
onona n xpoxa
xc(n
unxcnn n ccpcpa
(xan mcnoni
Xpoxonin auin(pn(
Ccpuan xncnora
39,6
36,O
25,2
Oncxrpoxnxnnccxoc nonnponaunc n pacrno-
pax, co(cpamnx xpoxonym xncnory nnn
xpoxonin auin(pn( c xouncurpanncn
3O6O i/n
Xpoxonin auin(pn( 7,2
18
1 2 3
Haucccunc noxpirnn:
ncxrpoxnxnnccxan opaorxa n pacrno-
pax xpoxon xncnori xouncurpanncn
15O3OO xi/n npn cnnc roxa onimcn nnn
panuon 1OOO A (xpoxnponaunc, auo(npona-
unc, (cxaunponaunc n (p.)
ncxrpoxnxnnccxan opaorxa n pacrno-
pax xpoxon xncnori xouncurpanncn
3O1OO xi/n npn cnnc roxa onimcn nnn
panuon 5OO A (auo(nponaunc xaiuncnix
cnnanon), a raxc oxcn(nponaunc anmxnunn
n xaiunn
xnxnnccxan opaorxa crann n pacrnopax
xpoxonon xncnori n cc concn npn i > 5O C
(ocncrncunc, naccnnannn, uanonucunc,
nponnrxa)
Xpoxonin auin(pn(
To c
Xpoxonin
auin(pn(
36,O
3,6
O,O2
Toauuo T.T
3aancnwocvt 1
B
aaa aaposoae ov aannm aosayxoaoaa (ov opvoaoro ovcoca)
nnua, x O,2 1,O 2,O 4,O 6,O 8,O
Ioncc
1O
1
B
1,O O,4 O,2 O,18 O,17 O,15 O,14
Pa:xcp nacrnn apo:oncn npn rpanncunn uaxo(nrcn n npc(cnax
56 xxx, a npn xpoxnponaunn 81O xxx.
1.1.J. Juucmuu mexunuuecuo opuomuu memu::oo
Ha npc(npnnrnnx cnc:uo(opouoio rpaucnopra (nn pcxoura n
n:ioronncunn pa:nnnuix (crancn n n:(cnnn ncnoni:ymrcn roxapuic,
qpc:cpuic, :aronuic, cncpnnniuic n mnnqonaniuic crauxn. Hpn
rox n arxocqcpuin no:(yx nipacinamrcn nini n apo:onn. Hini,
opa:ymmancn n nponcccc apa:nnuon opaorxn, cocronr ua 3O4O %
Oonuonue moa. T.9
19
n: xarcpnana apa:nnuoio xpyia n ua 6O7O % n: xarcpnana opaa-
rinacxoio n:(cnnn. Konnnccrno ni(cnnmmcncn ninn :anncnr or pa:-
xcpon n rncp(ocrn opaarinacxoio xarcpnana, (naxcrpa n oxpyuon
cxopocrn xpyia, a raxc cnocoa no(ann n:(cnnn.
Banonoc ni(cncunc :aipn:unmmnx ncmccrn onpc(cnncrcn no qop-
xync:
M q i

3 6 , , xi/io(, (1.1O)
i(c q

y(cniuoc ni(cncunc :aipn:unmmnx ncmccrn ua c(nunny oopy(onaunn,


i/c (ran. 1.11); i

omcc npcxn paori o(uornnuix crauxon :a io(, n/io(.


Toauuo T.TT
Yaeatnoe amaeaenne apasnano n wevaaan4ecxo uman ocnoanmw
vexnoaorn4ecxnw oopyaoaannew upn wexann4ecxo opaovxe wevaaaoa
Oopy(onaunc
naxcrp mnnqonaniuoio
xpyia, xx
Konnnccrno ninn, i/c
1 2 3
Kpyinomnnqonaniuic
crauxn
15O
3OO
35O
4OO
6OO
75O
9OO
O,O32
O,O43
O,O47
O,O5O
O,O65
O,O7O
O,O86
Hnocxomnnqonaniuic
crauxn
175
25O
35O
4OO
5OO
O,O36
O,O42
O,O5O
O,O55
O,O62
Iccncurpomnnqonani-
uic crauxn
3O1OO
3955OO
48O6OO
O,O13
O,O22
O,O27
3yomnnqonaniuic
crauxn
751OO
16O165
4OO
O,O11
O,O13
O,O18
2O
1 2 3
Buyrpnmnnqonaniuic
crauxn
52O
1O5O
1252OO
O,OO8
O,O12
O,O3O
3aronuic
crauxn
1OO
15O
2OO
3OO
O,O11
O,O17
O,O23
O,O37
Orpc:uic crauxn O,2O2
Kpauncnaniuic
crauxn
O,O97
Bi(cncunc ronixo xcrannnnccxon ninn.
Hini :aronuix crauxon nxccr nacrnni ucnpannniuon qopxi; cc
(ncncpcuin cocran npnnc(cu n ran. 1.12.
Toauuo T.T2
ncuepcnm cocvaa uman, amaeaameca upn paove savo4nmx cvanxoa
Pa:xcp nacrnn, xxx < 1O 1O16 1625 254O 4O63 > 63
onn, % O,5 3 14,5 35 37 1O
Mc(nauuin pa:xcp ninn cocrannncr 38 xxx npn cpc(ucxna(parnnuox
orxnoucunn o 1,64 xxx; nnoruocri xarcpnana nacrnn ninn 4,23 i/cx
3
.
Hpnxcucunc oxna(ammcn n(xocrn npn paorc ua crauxax cun-
acr xonnnccrno ni(cnnmmcncn n no:(yx ninn ua 8O9O %. O(uaxo
n rox cnynac opa:ycrcn ryxau (xcnxo(ncncpcuin apo:oni), :aipn:-
unmmnn no:(yx. Konnnccrno ni(cnnmmciocn apo:onn :anncnr or
xomuocrn ncxrpoxoropa crauxa.
1.1.6. Copouno-pusopounme yuucmuu
B coponuo-pa:oponuix ynacrxax npon:no(nrcn pa:opxa, onncr-
xa, xonxa n copxa nocnc pcxoura or(cniuix y:non n (crancn. Onncr-
xa y:non nponcxo(nr n o(ynonuix n (pocxcruix ycrauonxax n co-
Oonuonue moa. T.TT
21
npono(acrcn ni(cncuncx n no:(ymuym cpc(y xcrannnnccxon, xcran-
noapa:nnuon n (pyinx nn(on ninn.
Banonic nipoci ninn npn onncrxc y:non n o(ynonuix n (poo-
xcruix xaxcpax onpc(cnnmrcn no qopxync:
M qB O O1 , , xi/io(, (1.11)
i(c q y(cniuoc ni(cncunc ninn, 1,5 i/xi opaarinacxix (crancn; B xacca
opaarinacxix :a io( (crancn, xi/io(.
Banonic nipoci ninn or nocra :anncrxn ncpc( cnapxon paccnn-
rinamrcn no qopxync:
M q 1

O OO1 , , xi/io(, (1.12)


i(c q

y(cniuoc ni(cncunc ninn ua o(nu opaorauuin crix, i (ran. 1.13);


1 nncno opaarinacxix cnaponuix crixon n io(.
1.1.7. Juucmuu coupuu u pesuu memu::oo
Ha pcxouruix :ano(ax npon:no(nrcn cnc(ymmnc nn(i cnaponuix
paor: ncxrpo(yionan cnapxa ncxrpo(axn ua qnxcnponauuix pao-
nnx xccrax n ua omnx nnoma(xax pcxouruix ncxon n rcppnropnn :a-
no(a, ia:onan cnapxa n pc:xa xcrannon, nonyanroxarnnccxan cnapxa
npononoxon, xouraxruan cnapxa, uannanxa xcrannon, nna:xcuuan pc:-
xa n cnapxa, a raxc cnapxa n :amnruon cpc(c. Ha ynacrxax cnapxn n
pc:xn xcrannon cocran n xacca ni(cnnmmnxcn n arxocqcpy npc(uix
ncmccrn :anncnr or nn(a n pcnxa rcxuonoinnccxoio nponccca n
cnoncrn npnxcuncxix cnaponuix n cnapnnacxix xarcpnanon. Han-
onimnc ni(cncunn ncmccrn nponcxo(nr npn pynuon ncxrpo(yionon
cnapxc noxpirixn ncxrpo(axn. Tax, uanpnxcp, npn pacxo(c 1 xi
ncxrpo(on n nponcccc pynuon (yionon cnapxn opa:ycrcn 4O i ninn,
2 i qropncroio no(opo(a, 1,5 i oxcn(on yincpo(a n a:ora.
Banonin nipoc :aipn:unmmnx ncmccrn npn ncxrpo(yionon cnap-
xc onpc(cnncrcn no qopxync:
M q B



1O
3
, xi/io(, (1.13)
i(c q

y(cniuin noxa:arcni ni(cnncxoio :aipn:unmmcio ncmccrna, i/xi cna-


ponuoio xarcpnana (ran. 1.15); B xacca pacxo(ycxix :a io( cnaponuix xarcpn-
anon, xi/io(.
22
Hpn nonyanroxarnnccxon n anroxarnnccxon cnapxc n :amnruon
cpc(c n c: ucc oman xacca ni(cnncxix npc(uix ncmccrn xcuimc
n 1,52 pa:a, a npn cnapxc no( qnmcox n 46 pa:.
Cnaponuan nini ua 99 % cocronr n: nacrnn (naxcrpox or 1O
3

(o 1 xxx, oxono 1 % ninn nxccr (naxcrp nacrnn 15 xxx, xpynuic nac-
rnni (oncc 5 xxx) cocrannnmr nccio (ccnric (onn nponcura. Xnxnncc-
xnn cocran ni(cnnmmnxcn npn cnapxc :aipn:ucunn :anncnr n ocuonuox
or cocrana cnaponuix xarcpnanon (npononoxn, noxpirnn, qnmcon) n n
xcuimcn crcncun or cocrana cnapnnacxix ncxrpo(on.
Hpn ia:onon n nna:xcuuon pc:xc xcrannon xonnnccrno ni(cnnmmnxcn
:aipn:unmmnx ncmccrn :anncnr or (nnui n ronmnui pa:pc:acxoio xcran-
na. Hini npc(crannncr coon xou(cucar oxcn(on xcranna, pa:xcp nacrnn
xoropoio uc npcnimacr 2 xxx. Xnxnnccxnn cocran ninn onpc(cnncrcn
inanuix opa:ox xapxon pa:pc:acxoio xarcpnana. Hpn pc:xc ni(cnnmr-
cn roxcnnuic coc(nucunn xpoxa n unxcnn, xapiaucn, npc(uic ia:i ox-
cn(i yincpo(a n a:ora, a npn nna:xcuuon pc:xc opa:ycrcn raxc n o:ou.
Banonin nipoc npn pc:xc xcrannon n cnnanon onpc(cnncrcn no
qopxync:
M q 1



1O
3
, xi/io(, (1.14)
i(c q

y(cniuoc ni(cncunc :aipn:unmmnx ncmccrn, i/ noi. xcrpi pc:a (ran. 1.14);


1 io(onoc xonnnccrno pa:pc:acxoio xcranna, noi. x/io(.
Toauuo T.TJ
Yaeatnoe amaeaenne uman ov uocvoa sa4ncvxn n manqoaxn caapo4noro cvmxa
Hponccc
Tnn opaa-
rinacxoio
pcnica
Y(cniuoc
ni(cncunc
ninn, i ua
o(nu crix
Xnxnnccxnn cocran ninn
3anncrxa
cnaponuoio
crixa
P 5O
P 65
22O
28O
Mcrannoapa:nnuan nini c co(cp-
auncx (noxcn(a xpcxunn (o 2O %,
qocqopa (o 1 %, xapiauna n cio
oxncnon (o 1 %
Unnqonxa
cnaponuoio
crixa
P 5O
P 65
6OO
8OO
Mcrannoapa:nnuan nini c co(cp-
auncx (noxcn(a xpcxunn (o 5O %,
oxcn(a anmxnunn (o O,5 %, xaiunn
n cio oxcn(on (o 4 %
23
Toauuo T.T4
Yaeatnoe amaeaenne caapo4noro aaposoaa upn pesxe wevaaaoa n cuaaaoa
Mcrann
Tonmnua
pa:pc:acxoio
xarcpnana,
xx
Y(cniuoc ni(cncunc
i/noi. x
B rox nncnc
coc(nucunc
q

i/noi. x
Ia:onan pc:xa
Yincpo(ncran
crani
ucinponauuan
crani
Bicoxoxapiau-
nonan crani
5
1O
2O
5
1O
2O
5
1O
2O
2,25
4,5
9,O
2,5
5
1O
2,45
4,9O
9,8O
Oxcn(i Mn

Oxcn(i Cf

Oxcn(i Mn

O,O7
O,13
O,O27
O,12
O,23
O,47
O,6
1,2
2,4
Cnnani rnraua
4
12
2O
3O
5
15
25
35
Ti n cio
oxcn(i

4,7
14,O
22,O
32,6
Hnaxcuuan pc:xa
Yincpo(n cran
un:xoncinpo-
nauuan crani
ucinponauuan
crani
Bicoxoxapiau-
nonan crani
1O
14
2O
5
1O
2O
5
1O
2O
4,1
6,O
1O,O
3
5
12
4,O
5,8
9,6
Oxcn(i Mn

Oxcn(i Cf

Oxcn(i Mn

O,12
O,18
O,3O
O,14
O,24
O,58
O,72
1,16
1,73
Cnnani rnraua
1O
2O
3O
2,9
6,8
12,6
Ti n cio
oxcn(i
To c
2,73
6,41
11,8
24
1.1.&. Hun:uouu nooepxnocmu uumunun upecmooun
u cmpe:ounmx nepeooooo
Hannanxa npon:no(nrcn ncxrpo(axn HHHHHH-4. Ha o(uy xpcc-
ronnuy uannannncrcn (o 3 xi ncxrpo(on.
Banonic nipoci cnaponuoio apo:onn or nocra uannanxn onpc(c-
nnmrcn no qopxync:

M qB1

O OO1 , ,
xi/io(, (1.15)
i(c q y(cniuoc ni(cncunc cnaponuoio apo:onn ua 1 xi pacxo(ycxix ncxrpo(on
(q 3O i/xi) (ran. 1.15); B xonnnccrno pacxo(ycxix ncxrpo(on n xi ua o(uy
xpccronnuy; 1 nncno uannannncxix xpccronnu n io(.
Toauuo T.T:
Yaeatnoe amaeaenne sarpasnamnx aemecva upn caapxe n nauaaaxe wevaaaoa
(rJxr pacxoayewmx caapo4nmx n nauaaao4nmx wavepnaaoa)
Hponccc
Cnaponuo-
uannanon-
uic
xarcpnani
Hini
Apo:onn n cocranc ninn
MnO
2
CfO
3
Cf
2
O
3
pyinc
xoxnoucuri
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Pynuan
(yionan
cnapxa
crancn
mrynuixn
ncxrpo-
(axn
YOHH-
13/45
YOHH-
13/55
3A-6O6/11
AHO-5
HT-15
O3u-9 A
BCH-4
14,O
18,O
11,O
14,4
7,9
5
2O,2
O,51
O,97
O,68
1,87
O,55
O,97
O,61

O,6

O,35
O,27

O,3

coc(. Si 1,4
qropn(i 1,4
coc(. Si 1,O
qropn(i 2,6
qropn(i 2,1

oxcn(i i O,O4
Mo O,O8
oxcn(i i O,39
oxcn(i Ic
19,59
25
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Pynuan
(yionan
uannanxa
crancn
O3H-25O 22,4 1,63
oxcn(i Ic
19,73
Pynuan
(yionan
cnapxa n
uannanxa
nyiyua
O3-1 14,7 O,47 Cu 4,45
Pynuan
ncxrpn-
nccxan
cnapxa
xc(n n cc
cnnanon
Koxcoxo-
ncn-1OO
2O,8 O,27 Cu 15,4
Pynuan
ncxrpn-
nccxan
cnapxa
anmxnunn
n cio
cnnanon
OH-245 12,4 O,54 oxcn(i Ic 11,5
Anroxarn-
nccxan n
nonyanro-
xarn
nccxan
cnapxa n
uannanxa
crann
AH -22 O,12 O,OO9
Oonuonue moa. T.T:
26
1.1.9. Meonuuuoe omoe:enue
Hpn nponc(cunn xc(unnxnx paor (nanxc) ncnoni:ymrcn xnixnc
npnnon, nnannmnccn npn rcxncparypc 18O23O C. Orn npnnon co-
(cpar cnnucn n onono, noroxy npn nanxc n no:(yx ni(cnnmrcn
apo:onn cnnuna n onona. Pa:xcp nacrnn cocrannncr O,77 xxx. Pac-
ncr nanonix nipocon npono(nr or(cniuo no cnnuny n onony no qop-
xync:
M q onk

3 6 , , xi/io(, (1.16)
i(c q

y(cniuoc ni(cncunc cnnuna n onona, i/c (ran. 1.16); o nncroc npcxn


nanxn n (cui, nac; n xonnnccrno paonnx (ucn n io(y; k xonnnccrno nocron.
1.1.10. 4uuymy:nmopnme yuucmuu
Hpn pa:opxc n copxc axxyxynnropuix arapcn npn ornnnxc cnnu-
nonix xncxx n xcncxcuruix coc(nucunn ni(cnncrcn cnnucn.
Banonin nipoc cnnuna onpc(cnncrcn no qopxync:
M min

1O
3
, xi/io(, (1.17)
i(c m y(cniuin nipoc cnnuna ua c(nunny nnoma(n :cpxana rninn, i/(cx x
2
)
(m O,OO13); i npcxn uaxo(cunn cnnuna n pacnnanncuuox nn(c n rninc npn o(-
uox pa:oipcnc, c; nnoma(i :cpxana rninn, n xoropox nnannrcn cnnucn; n
xonnnccrno pa:oipcnon rninn n io(.
1.2. Hepeaananme ncvo4nnxn uapoaaposoatnmx ampocoa
1.2.1. Xe:esnoooponm mpuncnopm
Tcnnono:i, ipy:onic n naccanpcxnc naioui, a raxc nyrcnan rcx-
unxa oruocnrcn x ncpc(nnuix ncronunxax :aipn:ucunn arxocqcpi.
O(nu rcnnono: no npc(uix nipocax xnnnancurcu 1O15 ipy:onix
anroxonnnx. Tncnic xcranni nocrynamr n arxocqcpuin no:(yx n
cocranc can, opa:ymmcncn npn ciopaunn (n:cniuoio ronnnna. Hpn
27
paorc rcnnono:a ua xonocrox xo(y can nipacinacrcn 12O, a npn
xaxcnxaniuon uaipy:xc 84 xi/x
3
|16].
Hcronunxox nocrynncunn rncnix xcrannon n arxocqcpuin no:-
(yx nnnnmrcn norcpn xnucpaniuoio cipin npn ncpcno:xc no cnc:uon
(opoic |11]. Hincunc n axrnnn:annn roxcnxauron norcunnaniuoio :a-
ipn:ucunn nponcxo(nr raxc npn onncrxc annacruon npn:xi :cxnn-
uoio nonorua. B ucxoropix cnynanx :aipn:ucunc nxccr xccro npn nc-
noni:onaunn (nn orcinxn :cxnnuoio nonorua n anaucnponxc nyrn
orxo(on ncpcpaarinammcn npoximncuuocrn n ncxpirix nopo( py(-
uix xccropo(cunn. B xccrax onncrxn naiouon inanuix ncronunxox
:aipn:ucunn nnnnmrcn ocrarxn xnucpaniuoio cipin, uc nonuocrim
nipauuic ipy:ononynarcncx. Yponcui :aipn:ucunn :(cci inacr ua-
cronixo nicox, nro orxcnannci cnynan qopxnponaunn xoxnncxcuix
rcxuoicuuix xccropo(cunn py( rncnix xcrannon.
Yncnnncunc yponun :aipn:ucunn :cxcni nonoci orno(a (opoi xo-
cr no:unxari n npn ninonucunn :cxnnuix paor. B iopuix n npc(-
iopuix panouax ua noncpxuocri xocr iri niucccu xarcpnan un-
unx nonncuuix iopn:ouron n iopuix nopo( c nicoxnx co(cpauncx
rncnix xcrannon.
Tncnic xcranni nona(amr n nonny nonorua cnc:uon (opoin n
npnnciammnx x ucn rcppnropnn n nponcccc xcnnyarannn no(nnuo-
Toauuo T.T6
Yaeatnme amaeaenna sarpasnamnx aemecva a upouecce uaxn
Hanxcuonaunc
rcxuonoinncc-
xon oncpannn
Mapxa
npnnon
Bi(cnnmmnccn :aipn:unmmnc ncmccrna
Hanxcuona-
unc
(nunni
n:xcpcunn
Konnnccrno, i/c
Hanxa n:(cnnn
nanniunxaxn
pynuoio rnna
HOC-3O
HOC-4O
HOC-6O
Cnnucn
Onono
Cnnucn
Onono
Cnnucn
Onono
i/c ua 1 nocr
To c
To c
To c
O,OOOOO75
O,OOOOO33
O,OOOOO5O
O,OOOOO33
O,OOOOO44
O,OOOOO3O6
28
io cocrana. Hcronunxox rnx :aipn:ucunn nnnncrcn rpcunc pa:nnnuix
n:anxo(cncrnymmnx nap |3,15].
Bo-ncpnix, xonccopcnic. Maprcuoncxan crani, n: xoropon n:-
iorannnnamr pcnici, n cnocx cocranc nxccr O,3 % xc(n, O,3 % unxcnn
n O,3 % xpoxa. Baxyyxuan crani pa:nnnuix xapox, n(yman ua n:ioron-
ncunc xoncc, co(cpnr O,5 % xpoxa n no O,3 % xc(n n unxcnn;
Bo-nropix, xonccoropxo:uic xono(xn. B cocran nyiyuuix rop-
xo:uix xono(ox c nonimcuuix co(cpauncx qocqopa, xoropic npn-
xcunmrcn no xuoinx ncxrponoc:(ax, nxo(nr xpox (O,3O,6 %) n un-
xcni (O,15O,35 %).
B-rpcrinx, nauroipaqxouraxruin npono(. Pa:nnnuic ncranxn
roxoccxuix xoucrpyxnnouuix xarcpnanon cocronr n: xoxno:nnnn
ipaqnra c xc(im, cnc:ox, cnnunox n unoncx.
B-ncrncprix, nponccci rpcunn n no(mnnunxax. Ha nporncunn
xuoinx ncr n no(nnuox cocranc n yxconox y:nc xonccuon napi nc-
noni:onannci no(mnnunxn cxonicunn, npn xcnnyarannn xoropix
n nonny nona(an cnnucn. ccnri ncr ua:a( npaxrnnccxn nc:(c ua c-
nc:uon (opoic rn no(mnnunxn inn :axcucui no(mnnunxaxn xa-
ncunn, nro :uannrcniuo yxcuimnno nona(aunc rncnix xcrannon n
nonny.
Co(cpaunc rncnix xcrannon, no (auuix IOCT, npnnc(cui n
ran. 1.17 |7, 8, 9].
H: rannni nn(uo, nro no nccx ncxcurax no(nnuoio cocrana npn-
cyrcrnymr rncnic xcranni, xoropic :aipn:unmr annacruin cnon n
nonocy orno(a cnc:uon (opoin.
1.2.2. Topoocuo mpuncnopm
K iopo(cxoxy rpaucnopry oruocnrcn anroxonniuin, rponncnyc-
uin n rpaxnanuin napxn, xcrpononnrcu n xouopcnic.
Hpn xcnnyarannn anrorpaucnopra ua nonni, uaxo(nmnccn n(oni
xaincrpancn, nona(amr coc(nucunn cnnuna n xa(xnn. 3aipn:ucunc
cnnunox nponcxo(nr npn npnxcucunn rnnnponauuoio cu:nua. Cnn-
ucn, nxo(nmnn n cocran rcrparnncnnuna, (oannncxoio x cu:nuy n
xanccrnc aurn(crouaropa, nipacinacrcn n oxpyammym cpc(y n nn(c
apo:oncn ucopiaunnccxnx concn n oxncnon, n ocuonuox n qopxc nac-
29
rnn pa:xcpox 1 xxx. Oxono 7O % cnnuna, (oannncxoio x cu:nuy c
rnnonon n(xocrim, nona(acr n arxocqcpy c orpaorauuixn ia:axn,
n: unx 3O % occ(acr ua :cxnc cpa:y :a cpc:ox ninycxuon rpyi anro-
xonnn, 4O % ocracrcn n arxocqcpc. O(nu ipy:onon anroxonni cpc(-
ucn ipy:ono(cxuocrn ni(cnncr 2,53 xi cnnuna n io( |12, 14].
Tncnic xcranni nipacinamrcn n arxocqcpuin no:(yx c cacn,
a :arcx nona(amr ua nonny npn xcnnyarannn anroxamnu, paoram-
mnx ua (n:cniuox ronnnnc.
Bauixn ncronunxaxn nocrynncunn n arxocqcpuin no:(yx rnc-
nix xcrannon nnnnmrcn: xnucpaniuan nini, opa:ymmancn ncnc(crnnc
Toauuo T.T
Coaepaanne vaaeamx wevaaaoa a wexannswax uoaananoro cocvaaa
crani
Co(cpaunc, %
Cu i Cf Mo V Mn Ti Pb b
Pcnica
(xaprcuon-
cxan crani)
O,3 O,3 O,3 O,O8 O,O5
O,8
1,2

Koncco
(naxyyx-
uan crani
xapxn T)
O,3 O,3 O,5 O,O8 O,15
O,5
1,2
O,O3 O,O1
Topxo:uan
xono(xa
(nyiyu c no -
nimcuuix
co(cpaun-
cx qocqopa)

O,15
O,35
O,3
O,6

O,7
1,1

Kouraxruin
npono(
35
5O

Toxoccx-
unxn (yinc-
po(ncro-
xcrannn-
nccxnc)
o
5O

Bo:-
xo-
cu

3O
n:uoca noncpxuocrn (opouoio noxpirnn, pc:nuonan xpomxa npo-
(yxr n:uoca anroxamnu, co(cpaman cnnucn, xc(i, nnux, xa(xnn n
unxcni, a raxc acccroco(cpamnc nacrnni qpnxnnouuix xarcpn-
anon ((o 3O % acccra), ncnoni:ycxix n rpaucnopruix cpc(crnax ((nc-
xn cncnncunn, ropxo:uic uaxna(xn n (p.).
Hanonimnn ocx ni(cncunn xnucpaniuon ninn cnn:au c n:uo-
cox mccuonuix, ipannnuix noxpirnn (opouix o(c( n pc:ynirarc
ninnaunn xonccaxn anroxonnn n: noxpirnn or(cniuix qpaixcuron
mcun, cxcraunn xcnxnx nacrnn c noxpirnn ncrpox n no:(ymuixn
nnxpnxn npn (nncunn rpaucnopruix cpc(crn nnn cxinaunn nx no-
(on. nn yconcpmcucrnonauuix noxpirnn uanoncc xapaxrcpcu n:uoc
or ncrnpaunn nx noncpxuocrn mnuaxn.
Ha nurcucnnuocri n:uoca (opouix noxpirnn nnnnmr xoucr-
pyxnnn mnui, pncyuox nporcxropa, cocran pc:nui, cxopocri (nnc-
unn, rcxunnccxoc cocronunc anroxonnn, uaipy:xa ua xoncco, (annc-
unc no:(yxa n mnuc, rcxncparypa no:(yxa n mnui, a raxc crnni n
xacrcpcrno no(nrcnn. H:uoc (opouix noxpirnn :anncnr n :uann-
rcniuon crcncun or nponuocrn xaxcuuo io xarcpnana, rmarcniuocrn
ninonucunn crponrcniuix paor, cnoc npcxcuuocrn nponc(cunn rcxy-
mnx pcxouron, crcncun ncnoni:onaunn ipy:ono(cxuocrn n pa:pc-
mcuuon cxopocrn (nncunn ua (opoic. H:uoc n pa:pymcunc (opo-
uix noxpirnn nnnnmrcn inanuix ncronunxox :aipn:ucunn no(uoio
croxa.
Bixo( pc:nuonon ninn npn xcnnyarannn n :anncnxocrn or rnna
n npocia rpaucnopruix cpc(crn cocrannncr (nn ncixonix anroxon-
ncn 1,35, ipy:onix 17,1 n anroycon 53,2 xi/anr. n io(, a acccro-
co(cpamcn ninn or n:uoca ropxo:uix uaxna(ox O,81,5 xi/anr. n
io(. B cocran mnu ipy:onix xamnu nxo(nr 35,7 % xnxnnccxn cnn:au-
uoio yincpo(a, 3O,7 % crpyxrypuo-cnoo(uoio yincpo(a n cocranc can,
17,2 % no(opo(a, 1,5 % ccpi, 1,6 % nnuxa, a raxc xc(i, rnrau, anm-
xnunn, xoanir, cnnucn n cnc:o.
Kpoxc npo(yxron n:uoca n pa:pymcunn (opouix noxpirnn, pc-
:nuonon ninn n nacrnn qpnxnnouuix xarcpnanon, ncnoni:ycxix n
rpaucnopruix cpc(crnax, nc ronunxaxn :aipn:ucunn nnnnmrcn ncrpo-
nic n no(uic uauoci ipyuronix nacrnn (ninn) n pc :ynirarc po:nn
orxpirix ipyuron npn coopycunn :cxnnuoio no norua, a raxc nac-
rnni or n:uoca qpnxnnouuix xarcpnanon, ncnoni:ycxic (nn opii
31
c :nx ucn cxoni:xocrim (nccox, :ona, xaxcuoyioniuin mnax, xnxn-
nccxnc pcaicuri).
Opa:onanmnccn n pc:ynirarc n:uoca mnu, (opouon noncpxuo crn,
npnxcucunn aurnqpnxnnouuix n (pyinx xarcpnanon :aipn:uc unn,
copauuic xamnuon npn no(xcraunn (opouix noxpirnn, ua :inamr
c+emo+ |12,17].
Hapacraunc n:uoca (opouon o(c(i (xx/io() no( (cncrnncx
rpaucnopruix cpc(crn n pacnpocrpaucunc rncp(ix nacrnn n:uoca
nnn:n (opoi nipaacrcn :anncnxocrim
H A BT + , (1.18)
i(c A n:uoc or nnnnunn arxocqcpuix qaxropon (nincrpnnaunc, xx); B na-
paxcrp, :anncnmnn or xoucrpyxnnn (opouon o(c(i, cocrana rpaucnopruoio
noroxa n cxopocrn (nncunn, xx/xnu r; T cpc(ucio(onan cyronuan ipy:oua-
npncuuocri (nncunn, xnu r.
nn acqanirocrouuix noxpirnn A O,4O,6; B O,25O,55; (nn
yconcpmcucrnonauuix mccuonuix n ipannnuix A 1,32,8 n B 3,5
6,O; mccuonuix A 4,56,5; B 1525; ipannnuix A 36; B 2O3O.
Ipyuronic (opoin c: noxpirnn nxcmr n:uoc noncpxuocrn
51O cx :a cc:ou. C xa(oio xnnoxcrpa raxon (opoin yuocnrcn ncr-
pox no 35O7OO x
2
ninn ccio(uo. Hini occ(acr n no(ncrpcuuon
nonocc mnpnuon (o 5OO x.
B ncpnic (na-rpn io(a xcnnyarannn acqanirocrouuix noxpi rnn
n:uoc nponcxo(nr :a cncr ncrnpaunn c opa:onauncx nincnn( uix nac-
rnn nopn(xa 1O xxx, (ancc nxccr xccro mcnymcunc n nixpamnnaunc
c pa:xcpox nacrnn 1OO xxx n xpynucc. Oror nponccc (ocrniacr xaxcn-
xyxa ncpc: 57 ncr xcnnyarannn. H:uoc (xx/io() ac qanirocrouuix
noxpirnn onpc(cnncrcn n: nipacunn
Z o hA
n on
+ O 85 1OOO , / , (1.19)
i(c Z
n
cpc(unn ronmnua yxcuimcunn cnon noxpirnn :a io(, xx; o O,45 xoq-
qnnncur, panuin (nn ycnonnn ncurpaniuix onacrcn Poccnn; h xoqqnnncur
conpornnnncxocrn ncrnpaunm acqanirocro ua; A
on
nurcucnnuocri (nncunn,
anroxonncn n cyrxn.
Bempoote nonoct xnucpaniuix nacrnn npn orcyrcrnnn cxina c oo-
nnu n orxocon, a raxc uauocon c (pyinx (opoi cocrannnmr nopn(xa
3 r/ia n io( |12].
32
H: omcio xonnnccrna rncp(ix nacrnn 25 % ocracrcn (o cxina ua
npoc:cn nacrn, a ocraniuic 75 % pacnpc(cnnmrcn ua noncpxuocrn
npnnciammcn rcppnropnn, nxnmnan oonnui. Konnnccrno (xi/x
2
)
npo(yxron n:uoca noxpi rnn, niucccuuix c npoc:cn nacrn ua npn-
(opouym nonocy, onpc(cnnmr no qopxync
G Z B k
n h
+
( )

1O 21 1
3
p/ , (1.2O)
i(c B mnpnua npoc:cn nacrn, x; p nnoruocri xarcpnana noxpirnn, xi/x
3
;
l paccronunc (o ocn nonoci (nncunn; k
h
xoqqnnncur, :anncnmnn or no:-
nimcunn npoc:cn nacrn ua( oxpyammcn xccruocrim:
Bo:nimc-
unc, x
1 12 24 46 61O ` 1O
Koqqn-
nncur k
h
O O,2 O,4 O,6 O,8 O,9
B cocranc cxcra ua xo(nrcn (o 3O % nacrnn ninn pa:xcpox 1OO15O xxx.
Hanonimym onacuocri n cocranc cxcra npc(crannncr nini c pa: xcpox
nacrnn xcucc 1OO xxx. Cxcr c pa: xcpox nacrnn 12O xx nxccr cnc(ym-
mnn ipauynoxcrpnnccxnn cocran ((auuic HHH Axa(cxnn xoxxyuani-
uoio xo:nncrna nx. K.. Hauqnnona):
Pa:xcpi
nacrnn, xx
(o 1 5 1O 15 2O
Macca
cxcra, %.
8,717,7 1,46,1 O,94,7 O,22,9 O,54,3
Kouncurpannn (i/x
3
) rncnix xcrannon n nonnc ua pa:uox pac-
cronunn or xpoxxn (opouoio nonorua onncinamrcn :anncnxocrim
c c 1 k k
o
h
h v


/ , (1.21)
i(c c
o
xouncurpannn :aipn:unrcnn n nonnc nnn:n xpoxxn (opouo io nonorua;
h noxa:arcni pacccnnaunn (h O,42 (nn cpc(ucn nonoci Poccnn); k
h
n k
v
xo-
qqnnncuri, ynnrinammnc no:nimcunc npoc:cn nacrn ua( oxpyammcn xcc-
ruocrim n uanpanncunc n cxopocri ncrpa; 1 paccronunc or ocn (opoin.
33
Oncuxa :aipn:ucunn (xi/xi) npn(opouix :cxcni cnnunox ocy-
mccrnnncrcn no qopxync
m m h
c n
/ , p (1.22)
i(c m
c
xacca cnnuna n noncpxuocruox cnoc nonni; m
n
xacca cnnuna ua no-
ncpxuocrn :cxnn, xi/x
2
; h ronmnua nonncuuoio cnon, x, n xoropox pacnpc(c-
nnmrcn nipoci cnnuna (ua naxoruix :cxnnx h O,2O,3 x, (nn oc raniuix nn(on
yio(nn O,1); p nnoruocri nonni, xi/x
3
.
B uacronmcc npcxn (opouan ccri Poccnn n ocxri rpaucnopr-
uon nuqpacrpyxrypi oxa:inamr uciarnnuoc nnnnunc ua oxpyam mym
cpc(y ua nnoma(n oncc 15 xnu ia |17].
Unpnua nonoci n:ironuoio :aipn:ucunn :cxnn, ua xoropon no
pcmcunm caunrapuo-xonoinnccxnx opiauon xocr iri :anpcmcua
xo:nncrncuuan (cnrcniuocri, ua:inacrcn :ouon nnnnunn (opoin. B :a-
nncnxocrn or nurcucnnuocrn (nncunn n npn or cyrcrnnn nccouaca-
(cunn oua cocrannncr 952OO x |8]. Hpn uannnnn nccouaca(cunn mn-
pnua nonoci n:ironuoio :aipn:ucunn coxpamacrcn (o 7O15O x.
Occ(ammnc ua noxpirnn anro(opoi n n npn(opouon nonocc nini,
npo(yxri n:uoca noxpirnn, mnu n ropxo:uix uaxna(ox, ronnnnuo-
cxa:onuic, aurniononc(uic n (pyinc xarcpnani npnno(nr x npc:xcp-
uoxy uacimcunm no( noncpxuocruoio croxa n nonni n:nccn xn, uc-
qrcnpo(yxraxn, connxn, xnxnnccxnxn ncmccrnaxn, xoropic :arcx
nona(amr n no(oroxn. Honrn 2 ric. r acccra, 5O ric. r pc:n uonon
ninn, 2 ric. r coc(nucunn cnnuna n (pyinx rncnix xcrannon cc-
io(uo occ(amr n npn(opouon nonocc ua paccronunn (o 3O x, yuocnr-
cn noncpxuocruix croxox n no(ocxi. Ha 9O % (n 1998 i. 3197 ric.
r) rn :aipn:ucunn npc(crannnmr coon xnucpani uym nini, xoropym
npon:no(nr napx anroxonncn n crponrcni uo-(opouix xamnu (o-
pouix opiaun:annn.
Ha iopo(cxox ncxrporpaucnoprc ncronunxaxn opa:onaunn ninn
nnn xcnxon crpyxn, co(cpamnxn rncnic xcranni, nnnnmrcn pa:-
nnnuic rpymnccn napi |5,6]. B pc:ynirarc n:uoca rpymnxcn ncxcuron
opa:ymrcn ipaqnruan nnn yioniuan nini, xc(uan nini, anmxnunc-
nan nini n xcnxan crpyxa, acccroco(cpaman nini, xcnxan crani-
uan crpyxa n nini (ran. 1.18).
Bcc ncpcnncncuuic npo(yxri n:uoca occ(amr n ocuonuox n :ouc
nonoci (nncunn rpaxnanuix naiouon n rponncnycon. Hcxnmncunc
34
cocrannnmr npo(yxri n:uoca xouraxruix ncranox roxonpncxunxon n
xouraxruix npono(on, xoropic xoiyr ncpcxcmaricn ncrpox ua :ua-
nnrcniuoc paccronunc. Konnnccrno npo(yxron n:uoca :anncnr or xc-
nnyarannouuix qaxropon, raxnx xax xouraxruoc (anncunc, cocronunc
rpymnxcn noncpxuocrcn, nnnnunc xnnxarnnccxnx ycno nnn ua orxpi-
ric xouraxri n (pyinc. Onrnxn:anncn rnx napaxcrpon xouo (o-
nricn ucxoropoio cuncunn :anincuuocrn. O(uaxo omyrnxoio cun-
cunn xonnnccrna npo(yxron n:uoca xouo (ocrniuyri ronixo nyrcx
npnxcucunn oncc concpmcuuix xarcpnanon n uonix xoucrpyxrnn-
uix pcmcunn y:non rpcunn.
Hcronunxaxn opa:onaunn xc(uon ninn nnnnmrcn xonncxropi rn-
ionix (nniarcncn n ncnoxoiarcniuix ncxrpnnccxnx xamnu, ycrauon-
ncuuix ua no(nnuox cocranc rpaxnan n rponncnyca, a raxc xou-
raxruin npono( rpaxnan, xoropin no(ncpiacrcn oruocnrcniuo cnni-
uoxy n:uocy anmxnuncnon xouraxruon ncranxon roxonpncxunxa.
B uacronmcc npcxn cpc(ucc xonnnccrno xc(uon ninn ua o(uy no(-
nnuym c(nunny rponncnyca cocrannncr 1,5 xi n io(. nn rpaxnanuo-
io naioua ra ncnnnnua :uannrcniuo nimc :a cncr onimcio xonnnccr-
Toauuo T.T&
Hcvo4nnxn opasoaanna nexovopmx vaaeamx wevaaaoa upn axcuayavaunn
vpoaaeycnoro n vpawaanoro uapxoa
Hcronunxn Mcrann
Konnnccrno
ua no(nnuym
c(nunny, xi/io(
Cyxxapuoc
xonnnccrno n P0,
r/io(
Tpaxnan
Tpon-
ncnyc
Tpaxnan
Tpon-
ncnyc
Konncxropi rnio-
nix (nniarcncn
n ncnoxoiarcniuix
xcxaun:xon
Mc(i 4,15 1,5 45,2 21,O
Kouraxruin npono( Mc(i 1O 11O
Crani
Iau(an
xoncc,
pcnici
3O 33O
35
na rnionix (nniarcncn. Omcc xonnnccrno xc(uon ninn no Poccnn
cocrannncr: or xcnnyarannn rpaxnanuix na iouon 155 r , rponncn-
ycon 21 r n io(.
Cuncunc xonnnccrna xc(uon ninn or n:uoca xonncxropon ncx-
rpo(nniarcncn xocr iri (ocrniuyro :a cncr npnxcucunn oncc
concpmcuuix mcrox. B uacronmcc npcxn cymccrnymr mcrxn rnna
OI-841, xoropic npnxcpuo n (na pa:a xcuimc n:uamnnamr xonncx-
ropi rnionix (nniarcncn, ncx ccpnnuic OI-2A. Hpnxcucunc acnu-
xpouuoio rnionoio ncxrponpnno(a n ncxrpouuix npcopa:onarc-
ncn (nn nnraunn norpcnrcncn cocrncuuix uy( ua rpaxnanuix
naiouax n rponncnycax n:axcu rpa(nnnouuix ncxrpoxamnu no:-
nonnr npaxrnnccxn nonuocrim ncxnmnnri opa:o naunc xonncxrop-
uon xc(uon ninn.
Ocuonuym (onm xc(uon ninn, opa:ymmcncn npn xcnnyarannn
iopo(cxoio ncxrporpaucnopra, cocrannnmr npo(yxri n: uoca rpax-
nanuoio xouraxruoio npono(a (oncc 6O %). Cuncunc n:uoca xou-
raxruoio npono(a rpaxnan xocr iri (ocrniuyro ronixo :a cncr :a-
xcui xarcpnana xouraxruon ncranxn. 3a pycox mnpoxoc npnxcuc-
unc uamnn xouraxruic ncranxn rpaxnanuix roxonpncxunxon n:
yioniuo-ipaqnruix xarcpnanon.
H:uoc au(acn rpaxnanuix xoncc n pcnicon npnno(nr x opa:o-
naunm xcnxon crani uon crpyxn n(oni nccio nyrn. Ococuuo nurcu-
cnnuin n:uoc nponcxo(nr ua xpnnix ynacrxax nyrn, i(c ncnc(crnnc
ccrxon cnn:n xc(y npanix n ncnix xonccox nponcxo(nr npocxani-
:i naunc xoncc oruocnrcniuo pcnicon. Cun:nri n:uoc au(acn n pcni-
con xouo nyrcx npnxcucunn ncxrpnnccxoio (nqqcpcunnana n xou-
crpyxnnn rpaxnanuon rc ncxn, nro uamno npnxcucunc n xoucrpyxnnn
rpaxnanuoio naioua uPB-2OOO (Icniinn).
Oror nonpoc rpcycr pcmcunn pn(a :a(an xax no xoucrpyxnnn rc-
ncxn, rax n no co:(aunm uonoio rnna ncxrponpnno(a.
Hpn xcnnyarannn iopo(cxoio ncxrporpaucnopra opa:ycrcn, xpo-
xc roio, ipaqnro-yioniuan nini n pc:ynirarc n:uoca ncxrpnnccxnx
mcrox rnio nix ncxrpo(nniarcncn n ncnoxoiarcniuix ncxrpnnccxnx
xamnu, a raxc xouraxruix ncra nox roxonpncxunxon rponncnycon.
B pc:ynirarc n:uoca ncxrpnnccxnx mcrox ncxrpo(nniarcncn ua o(nu
rpaxnanuin naiou n io( opa:ycrcn 2,86 xi ipaqnro-yioniuon ninn,
36
ua rponncnyc O,82 xi, nro co crannncr n P0 (nn rpaxnan oncc 3O r
n io(, (nn rponncnyca oncc 11 r. H:nccruo, nro :a pycuic ncx-
rpomcrxn npon:no(crna qnpxi Uyux (0PI) n pn(a (pyinx nxcmr
cpox cny i n 1,52 pa:a onimc.
1.3. Hcvo4nnxn sarpasnenna rnapocqepm
Ha rcppnropnn npoximncuuix npc(npnnrnn cymccrnycr rpn rnna
cronuix no(: ironic, noncpxuocruic n npon:no(crncuuic.
Iironic cronuic no(i npc(npnnrnn opa:ymrcn npn xcnnyara-
nnn ua cio rcppnropnn (ymcnix, ryancron, npancnuix n crononix,
noncpxuocruic npn cxinaunn (o(cnon, ranon n nonnnonuon no-
(on npnxcccn (nini, ucqrcnpo(yxri, opiaunnccxnc n xnucpaniuic
y(opcunn, ncnoni:ycxic n :ano(cxnx cxncpax n nncrunxax n (p.),
cxannnnammnxcn ua rcppnropnn, xpimax n crcuax npon:no(crncuuix
:(aunn.
Hpon:no(crncuuic cronuic no(i opa:ymrcn npn ncnoni:onaunn
no(i n rcxuonoinnccxnx nponcccax, i(c nponcxo(nr nx :aipn:ucunc, n
nacruocrn, rncnixn xcrannaxn.
B aumentx uexox no(a ncnoni:ycrcn ua oncpannnx in(pannnnccxon
ninnxn crcpucn, rpaucnoprnponxn n npoxinxn qopxononuon :cx-
nn n or(cncunnx pcicucpannn, a raxc npn in(porpaucnoprc orxo(on
iopcnon :cxnn n cncrcxy occncnnnammcn ncurnnnnnn. Opa:ymmn-
ccn npn ninonucunn rnx oncpannn cronuic no(i :aipn:ucui innuon,
nccxox, :oniuixn ocrarxaxn or niiopcnmcn nacrn crcpucnon cxccn
n cnn:inammnxn (oanxaxn qopxononuon cxccn. Kouncurpannn rnx
ncmccrn n cronuon no(c :anncnr or npnxcuncxoio oopy(onaunn n
npnpo(i ncxo(uix qopxononuix xarcpnanon n xocr (ocrniari
5 xi/x
3
. Inanuixn :aipn:unrcnnxn n rnx cronuix no(ax nnnnmrcn ox-
cn(i xpcxunn n cnc:a. Macconan (onn (noxcn(a xpcxunn cocrannn-
cr 8O,6 % ((naxcrp nacrnn 1OO25O xxx), a oxcn(a cnc:a Ic
2
O
3
((na-
xcrp nacrnn or 4O (o 1O2 xxx) 2 %.
Ha y:neuno-npeccootx yuocmox ocuonuixn npnxccnxn n no(c, nc-
noni:onauuon (nn oxna(cunn rcxuonoinnccxoio oopy(onaunn n no-
37
xonox, nnnnmrcn nacrnni ninn, oxannui n xacna. Kouncurpannn
npnxcccn xocr (ocrniari O,2 % xacc.
B +exonuuecux uexox no(a ncnoni:ycrcn (nn npnioronncunn cxa-
:onuo-oxna(ammnx n(xocrcn, npoxinxn oxpamnnacxix n:(cnnn,
(nn in(pannnnccxnx ncniraunn n opaorxn noxcmcunn. Ocuonuixn
npnxccnxn cronuix no( nnnnmrcn nini, xcrannnnccxnc n apa:nnuic
nacrnni, a raxc xacna, pacrnopnrcnn n xpacxn. Ocuonuic xapaxrc-
pncrnxn mnaxa, ni(cncuuoio n: orcronunxa cronuix no( mnnqonani-
uoio ynacrxa, npnnc(cui n ran. 1.19.
Toauuo T.T9
Xapaxvepncvnxn maawa ns ovcvonnxa cvo4nmx aoa
aaa pasan4noro anaa manqoaanna
Xapaxrcpncrnxa mnaxa
Bn( mnnqonaunn
cpuonoc
Hony-
ncpuonoc
ncronoc
Hnoruocri, xi/x
3
4O75 37OO 315O
Cpc(unn (naxcrp nacrnn, xx:
xcrannnnccxnx
apa:nnuix
O,8
O,5
O,7
O,4
O,5
O,3
Co(cpaunc nacrnn n mnaxc:
xcrannnnccxnx
apa:nnuix
96
4
93
7
91
9
Konnnccrno mnaxa or o(uoio
crauxa
1,4 1,O O,6
B mep+uuecux yuocmox no(a ncnoni:ycrcn (nn npnioronncunn rcx-
uonoinnccxnx pacrnopon, npn :axanxc, ornycxc n ornic (crancn, npn
npoxinxc (crancn n nauu nocnc cpoca orpaorauuix pacrnopon n (nn
opaorxn noxcmcunn. Ocuonuic xoxnoucuri cronuix no( :(cci:
nini xnucpaniuoio nponcxo(cunn c xouncurpanncn O,O2O,O5 xi/x
3
,
oxannua O,O2O,O3 xi/x
3
, rncnic xcranni O,15O,O3 xi/x
3
, mc-
nonn, xncnori n nnaun(i.
B mpoouaintx u eoaioonuuecux yuocmox no(a npnxcuncrcn (nn npn-
ioronncunn rcxuonoinnccxnx pacrnopon (nn rpanncunn xarcpnanon n
(crancn, npn uaucccunn ua unx noxpirnn, a raxc (nn npoxinxn (c-
38
rancn n nauu nocnc cpoca orpaorauuix pacrnopon n opaorxn no-
xcmcunn. B cronuix no(ax rnx ynacrxax co(cpnrcn nini n xcran-
nnnccxan oxannua c xouncurpanncn or O,4 (o 2O xi/x
3
, rncnic xc-
ranni (o 1O xi/x
3
, a raxc xynicnn, mcnonn, xncnori n nnaun(i.
B copountx uexox u no nocmox cnapxn cronuic no(i nxcmr xcxa-
unnccxnc npnxccn, xacnonpo(yxri, xncnori n r.n. n :uannrcniuo
xcuimnx xonnnccrnax, ncx n npnnc(cuuix nimc npon:no(crnax.
B no(ocroxn rncnic xcranni nona(amr n: pa:nnnuix rnnon nc-
ronunxon. K unx oruocnrcn nnnucnic no(i, xauann:annouuic n yc-
nonuo npoximncuuic no(i (ran. 1.2O).
Toauuo T.2
Cpeaneroaoaoe uocvyuaenne vaaeamx wevaaaoa ns pasan4nmx ncvo4nnxoa
O
n
c
x
c
u
r
Cpc(ucio(onoc nocrynnc-
unc, xi/xx
2
C
p
c
(
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q
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2
Cpc(ucio(onoc
nocrynncunc n: nccx
ncronunxon
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c
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a
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Mn 6,64 33,OO 129,85 92,8O 262,3O 2,8 89 179
Cf O,76 52,2O 24,57 17,6O 95,13 5,4 32344
V 1,8O 23,59
i 1,14 5,16 11,83 8,48 26,61 3,1 9O47
Co O,45 4,48 4,96 9,89 1,9 2967
Cu 6,96 2O,4O 55,86 12,96 96,18 7,4 32 67O
39
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Ag 1,89 O,42
Zn 3,47 8O,1O 885,5O 81,6O 1O5O,67 12,8 357 227
Cd O,47 2,76 4,69 O,8O 8,77 11,O 2982
Pb O,78 5,19 41,16 13,4O 6O,57 4,5 2O 595
Sn 4,2O 2,38 1,38 7,96 5,7 27O6
Mo O,15 2,38 5,95 8,OO 16,38 2,1 5568
Hg O,O4 O,32
As O,6O 4,96
Sb O,12 16,OO
H: rannni nn(uo, nro cyxxapuoc nocrynncunc xnxnnccxnx nc-
xcuron n 1 xx
2
iopo(cxon rcppnropnn n io( npcnimacr qouonoc. Oco-
cuuo ouo ncnnxo (nn nnuxa n xa(xnn, nxcmmnx xoqqnnncur xou-
ncurpannn n 13 n 11 pa: nimc qouonoio coorncrcrncuuo, xcuimnc
xoqqnnncuri xouncurpannn nxcmr xc(i (7,4), onono (5,7), xpox
(5,4), cnnucn (4,5), unxcni (3,1), xapiaucn (2,3).
Ioniman nacri rncnix xcrannon nona(acr n: nnnucnoio croxa:
(o 85 % nnuxa, 68 % cnnuna, 5O8O % xa(xnn, xc(n n xapiauna, oxo-
no 4O % xonn(cua n unxcnn. C xauann:annouuix croxox nocryna-
cr 53 % onona n 55 % xpoxa, a co(cpaunc ocraniuix ncxcuron uc
npcnimacr 1O2O %. Ycnonuo nncric npoxinuic no(i co(cpar
uc:uannrcniuoc xonnnccrno rncnix xcrannon. nn raxnx ncxcu-
ron, xax xc(i, xa(xnn n unxcni ouo cocrannncr oxono 5 %, a (nn oc-
raniuix oxono 1 %. Taxnx opa:ox, nnnucnin noncpxuocruin crox
nnnncrcn ocuonuix ncronunxox nona(aunn rncnix xcrannon n no-
(ocxi. Oro onpc(cnncrcn cio cocranox, xoropin opa:ycrcn :a cncr
cxina nonn n ninn c acqanirnponauuix noncpxuocrcn, po:nn :(a-
Oonuonue moa. T.2
4O
unn n coopycunn, a raxc npn pa:xinc ucpcuo xpaunmnxcn xa-
rcpnanon n cnanox.
Tncnic xcranni nocrynamr n ipyuronic no(i n: cnanox n nonn-
iouon, n xoropix xpaunrcn npoximncuuic n rncp(ic ironic orxo-
(i |4]. B ronmc cnanxn qopxnpycrcn rcxuoicuuin no(ouocuin iopn-
:our. io yponcui npcnimacr yponun uncncamnx ccrccrncuuix no-
(ouocuix iopn:ouron. Oro cnn:auo c uannnncx n no(omnc cnanxn
cnaonpounnacxoio cnon, opa:onanmciocn ncnc(crnnc cxonncunn
rouxo(ncncpcuix qpaxnnn ipyura, n :uannrcniuix nuqnnirpannou-
uix nnrauncx no nnoma(n cnanxn. 3a cncr roio nponccca opa:ycrcn
qnnirpar yunxaniuin no cnocn roxcnnuocrn pacrnop c xnucpann-
:anncn (o uccxonixo ipaxxon n (x
3
n nicoxnxn xouncurpannnxn rn-
cnix xcrannon. Kouncurpannn rncnix xcrannon (no 23 cnanxax n
nonniouax) n qnnirparc napinpymrcn n oncui mnpoxnx npc(cnax n co-
crannnmr: ximinxa 225O xxr/(x
3
, cnnuna 465O, xa(xnn O,22OOO,
xc(n 1,38OOO, unxcnn 143O OOO, pryrn O,25O, nnuxa 2O28 OOO,
xpoxa O,O13OO xi/n, cnc:a O,427OO xxi/(x
3
.
3aipn:ucunc (o(cnoio croxa npnxccnxn c (opouoio nonorua :a-
nncnr or nurcucnnuocrn nina(cunn oca(xon, npo(onnrcniuocrn nc-
pno(a cyxon noio(i n npc(mccrnymmcio (o(n, nacrori yopxn ynnn,
nurcucnnuocrn (nncunn anrorpaucnopra n crcncun naioycrponcrna
rcppnropnn.
Maccy :aipn:ucunn (xi/ia), uaxonncuuix :a npcxn T ua c(nunnc
nnoma(n rcppnropnn n nona(ammnx n noncpxuocruin crox, xouo
oncunri no qopxync |1O]

m m k T
( )
,

]
]
max
cxp , 1
:
(1.23)
i(c m
max
xaxcnxaniuo no:xouoc xonnnccrno uaxonncuuix :aipn:ucunn ua
noncpxuocrn; k
:
xoqqnnncur (nuaxnxn uaxonncunn :aipn:ucunn, 1/cyr; T
npo(onnrcniuocri ncpno(a c: oca(xon (croxa), cyr.
3uancunn cocrannnmmnx qopxyny (1.23) nncuon npnnc(cui n
ran. 1.22.
ononunrcniuan :aipn:ucuuocri croxa, ni:nauuan pa:xinauncx
ipyuronix noncpxuocrcn, :anncnr or cocronunn (opouix noxpirnn
n op(mpon, or(cnnmmnx npoc:ym nacri or ia:ouon, nx nicoruoio
pacnonocunn, yxnoua noncpxuocrn, nurcucnnuocrn oca(xon. Kou-
41
ncurpannn :aipn:ucunn n ranox croxc xcuimc xcuncrcn no npcxcun,
ncx n (o(cnix no(ax, n cc xouo npn unxari npaxrnnccxn nocronu-
uon n rcncunc ncpno(a cucioranunn.
Xnxnnccxnn auann: cucuon xacci, n:nron c oonnu (opoi ((au-
uic MAH-TY, MIY), ninnnn uannnnc :aipn:unmmnx ncmccrn n xou-
ncurpannnx, :uannrcniuo npcnimammnx caunrapuo-inincunnccxnc
uopxi: (nn ucqrcnpo(yx ron (o 11OO pa:, cnc:a (o 9O pa:, xc(n
(o 29O pa:, nnu xa (o 27O pa:, xa(xnn (o1O pa:, unxcnn n cnnuna
(o 5 pa:.
1.4. Hcvo4nnxn sarpasnenna uo4am
Hpc(npnnrnn cnc:uo(opouoio rpaucnopra :aunxamr rcppnro-
pnn n cpc(ucx or 2 (o 5O ia, :aipn:ucuuic n pa:uon crcncun rncnixn
xcrannaxn, xoropic nona(amr n nonny n: opa:ymmnxcn ua npc(npn-
nrnnx rncp(ix orxo(on (crpycx n onnnox, noxa xcrannon, mnaxon,
oxannui, :oni n ninn).
Konnnccrno noxa xcranna :anncnr or uaxcncuuoio x cnncaunm n:-
uomcuuoio oopy(onaunn, a raxc ocxa :axcui or(cniuix (crancn
npn nponc(cunn nnauono-npc(ynpc(nrcniuix pcxouron. Hanpnxcp,
ua xamnuocrponrcniuix npc(npnnrnnx (o 55 % noxa opa:ycrcn npn
:axcuc rcxuonoinnccxon ocuacrxn n nucrpyxcura. Ic:no:nparuic no-
Toauuo T.22
nnawnxa naxouaenna sarpasnenn aaa pasan4nmx paonoa
Xapaxrcpncrnxa panoua m
max
, xi/ia k
:
, 1/cyr
Panoui c conpcxcuuon :acrponxon c
nicoxon crcncuim naioycrponcrna n
xanon rpaucnopruon uaipy:xon
1O2O O,4O,5
A(xnuncrparnnuo-ropionic ncurpi c
nicoxon rpaucnopruon uaipy:xon
1OO14O O,3O,4
Hpoximncuuic panoui n :oui, npnncia-
mmnc x xpynuix xaincrpannx
2OO25O O,2O,3
42
rcpn xcranna ncnc(crnnc ncrnpaunn n xoppo:nn cocrannnmr oxono 25 %
or omcio xonnnccrno noxa.
Ha npc(npnnrnnx cnc:uo(opouoio rpaucnopra xcrannnnccxnc or-
xo(i opa:ymrcn npn nnric n xcxaunnccxon opaorxc n:(cnnn. Konn-
nccrno raxnx orxo(on cocrannncr n cpc(ucx 26O xi ua rouuy uaxo(nmnx-
cn n npon:no(crnc xcrannon, nuoi(a ouo (ocrniacr 5O % xacci opaa-
rinacxix :aioronox. Ocuonuixn ncronunxaxn orxo(on ncinponauuix
crancn nnnnmrcn xcrannoopaorxa (84 %) n xcrannnnccxnn nox (16 %).
Ha npc(npnnrnnx ua 1 xnu r norpcnncxix ncpuix xcrannon c:-
no:nparuic norcpn xcranna cocrannnmr: 5,4 ric. r npn o(npxc, mnn-
qonxc, pacnnnonxc n (pyinx nn(ax opaorxn; 2,1 ric. r npn xonxc, io-
pnncn mraxnonxc, rcpxnnccxon opaorxc (norcpc oxannui); 14 ric. r
npn rpanncunn xcranna; 15,2 ric. r :a cncr ucnonuoio copa orxo(on.
Bauix ncronunxox :aipn:ucunn nonni xocr iri opomcunc no-
(axn c nonimcuuix co(cpauncx rncnix xcrannon, nucccunc oca(-
xon ironix no( n nonni n xanccrnc y(opcunn n ococuuo npn nocro-
nuuox nucccunn nicoxnx (o: opiaunnccxnx, xnucpaniuix y(opcunn
n nccrnnn(on, co(cpamnx rncnic xcranni (ran. 1.23) |1,2,13].
Toauuo T.2J
Arpovexnn4ecxne ncvo4nnxn sarpasnenna uo4a vaaeamwn wevaaaawn
(wrJxr cyxo waccm)
Onc-
xcur
Opomc-
unc
cronui-
xn
no(axn
0ocqar-
uic
y(opc-
unn
H:nccr-
unxn
A:oruic
y(opc-
unn
Opiaun-
nccxnc
y(opc-
unn
Hccrnnn-
(i
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
As 226 212OO O,124 2,212O 325 226O
Cd 215OO O,117O O,O4O,1 O,O58,5 O,3O,8
Co 22OO 112 O,43,O 5,412 O,324
Cu 2O4O 6OO 66245 1O15 3,219 5,255
Hg O,155 O,O11,2 O,O5 O,32,9 O,O9O,2 O,842
Mn 6O39OO 4O2OOO 4O12OO 3O55O
Mo 14O O,16O O,115 17 O,O53
43
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
i 1653OO 738 1O2O 734 7,83O
Pb 5O3OOO 7225 2O125O 227 6,615 6O
Sc 29 O,525 O,O8O,1 2,4
Sn 4O7OO 319 O,54,O 1,416 3,8
Zn
7OO
49 OOO
5O145O 1O45O 142 1525O 1,325
Tncnic xcranni, nipacinacxic n arxocqcpuin no:(yx or pa:-
nnnuix npon:no(crn, c rcncuncx npcxcun occ(amr n nina(amr ua io-
po(cxym rcppnropnm (ran. 1.24).
Toauuo T.24
Pacupeaeaenne xonuenvpaun n narpysox xnwn4ecxnx aaewenvoa
a vaepaoqasnmx amuaaennax ns avwocqepm
Onc-
xcur
Cpc(ucc
co(cpa-
unc, xi
Koqqn-
nncur
xouncu-
rpannn
Cpc(uccyronuan uaipy:xa
Hpcnimc-
unc uaipy:-
xn ua(
qouonon
Ha 1 xx
2
, i
Ha 1 ncn.,
xxi
1 2 3 4 5 6
Ti 38OO O,6 144O 162 45O 25
V 151 2,O 57 6455,3 76
Cf 173 2,O 66 7395,6 8O
Mn 11 7OO 1,4 45 5O O17,5 36
Co 19 1,9 7 816,5 74
i 133 4,O 5O 5668,6 156
Cu 155 5,2 59 6626,2 274
Zn 5OO 6,8 19O 21 375,O 374
Sf 83 O,6 32 3552,5 25
Mo 5 4,7 2 2OO,9 183
Ag 1 O,6 1 13,2 22
Oonuonue moa. T.2J
44
1 2 3 4 5 6
Cd 3 19,4 1 1O7,7 769
Sn 1O 2,7 4 444,6 1O4
Sb 15 14,O 59 658,3 548
W 22 22,8 9 974,7 886
Pb 129 8,1 49 5514,8 313
Bi 1 1,8 1 23,5 71
Hg 1 12,O 1 51,3 466
B ran. 1.24 xoqqnnncuri xouncurpannn xcrannon paccnnraui
oruocnrcniuo qouonix :uancunn. Xnxnnccxnc ncxcuri n :anncnxoc-
rn or xoqqnnncura xouncurpannn xouo pa:(cnnri ua rpn ipynni:
1) nxcmmnc xouncurpannn, :uannrcniuo npcnimammnc qouonoc
:uancunc. K unx oruocnrcn noniqpax, xa(xnn, cypixa, pryri, cnnucn,
nnux, xonn(cu, unxcni, onono, xpox, naua(nn, nncxyr n xoanir;
2) nxcmmnc xouncurpannm, nn:xym x qouonon xapiaucn;
3) nxcmmnc xouncurpannn unc qouonon ccpcpo, crpounnn n
rnrau.
Oncxcuri c onimnx xoqqnnncurox xouncurpannn (amr noni-
mcuuym ncnnnnuy cpc(uccyronuon uaipy:xn xax ua nnoma(i, rax n ua
o(uoio ncnoncxa, :uannrcniuo npcnimammym qouonym.
Momuix ncronunxox nocrynncunn rncnix xcrannon n nocqcpy
nnnnmrcn rncp(ic orxo(i. Ioniman nacri nx nocrynacr ua oqnnnani-
uic n ucoqnnnaniuic cnanxn. Ocuonuixn ncronunxaxn rncnix
xcrannon cpc(n rncp(ix orxo(on nnnnmrcn: ironon xycop, mnaxi
onncruix coopycunn qn:nxo-xnxnnccxon onncrxn, xcrannoopa-
:nnuan nini, :oni n mnaxn rcnnonix ncxrpocraunnn |2, 11].
B rncp(ix orxo(ax uanonimcc co(cpaunc nxcmr noniqpax, cc-
pcpo, xa(xnn, xc(i, nnux, xonn(cu, xpox n cnnucn. Hpo(yxri nc-
pcpaorxn rncp(ix orxo(on co(cpar 8O % cnnuna, 6O % nnuxa, oxono
4O % onona, ccpcpa n xc(n. C xcrannoapa:nnuon ninim nocrynamr
n nonny oxono 8O % noniqpaxa n xoanira, 5O6O % xonn(cua, naua-
(nn n xpoxa; co mnaxaxn (o 45 % unxcnn n xa(xnn n (o 3O % onona.
Kauann:annouuic oca(xn co(cpar oxono 3O % xa(xnn n ccpcpa, a
raxc 1O15 % ocraniuix ncxcuron.
Oonuonue moa. T.24
45
Iaaaa 2. HOHBEHHO-SKOOIHHECKHH
MOHHTOPHHI TREbX METAOB
2.1. Mnrpauna vaaeamx wevaaaoa a nocqepe
B npnpo(c ocuony n:anxocnn:cn nnncunn n nponcccon cocrannncr
ucnpcpinuan xnipannn xnxnnccxnx ncxcuron n nnrocqcpc, in(po-
cqcpc, arxocqcpc n nnox ncmccrnc. Orn n onimcn nnn xcuimcn
crcncun :axxuyric nyrn ua:inamrcn noicoxnxnnccxnxn nnxnaxn
(no oruocnrcn x nnix opiaun:xax, a ico x nonnc, iopuix no-
po(ax, no:(yxy n no(c). Bi(cnnmr (na ocuonuix nnxna (xpyionopo-
ra) onimon (iconoinnccxnn) n xanin (nornnccxnn) |9].
Ionimon xpyionopor (nnrcn corun ricnn nnn xnnnnouon ncr. Ou
:axnmnacrcn n rox, nro iopuic nopo(i no(ncpiamrcn pa:pymcunm,
nincrpnnaunm, a pacrnopcuuic n no(c ncmccrna niuocnrcn n xnpo-
non oxcau, i(c oun opa:ymr (ouuic ornocunn. B ror (nnrcniuin
ncpno( nponcxo(nr xpynuic rcxrounnccxnc n:xcucunn :cxuon xopi,
n pc:ynirarc ncio o(un xarcpnxn nnn nx xpynuic noxn onycxamrcn
n ua nx xccrc opa:ymrcn xopn, a ucxoropic xopcxnc nna(nui no(-
unxamrcn n opa:ymr cymy. Hponcxo(nr ucnpcpinuin xpyionopor
iopuix nopo(, cnaiammnx xax xarcpnxn, rax n nnacri xopcxnx or-
nocunn.
Manin xpyionopor nnnncrcn nacrim onimoio. 3(cci nnrarcniuic
ncmccrna nonni, no(a n yincpo( axxyxynnpymrcn n pacrcunnx n nnix
opiaun:xax. Hpo(yxri pacna(a opiaunnccxoio ncmccrna ncpcpaari-
namrcn nonncuuixn xnxpoopiaun:xaxn n (pyinxn pc(yncuraxn, xo-
ropic pa:naiamr nx (o xnucpaniuix xoxnoucuron. Hocnc(unc nuoni
nonncxamrcn n xpyionopor.
46
B xa(ox xpyionoporc pa:nnnamr (na qou(a: pc:cpnuin n oxcu-
uin. Pc:cpnuin qou( npc(crannncr coon onimym xaccy xc(ncuuo
(nniammnxcn coc(nucunn n ocuonuox ucnonoinnccxoio nponcxo-
(cunn. Oxcuuin (no(nnuin) qou( nxccr xcuimym xaccy n xapax-
rcpn:ycrcn icrpix oxcuox cocrannnmmnx cio ncmccrn c oxpyam-
mcn cpc(on.
Inoicoxnxnnccxnc nnxni no(pa:(cnnmrcn ua (na ocuonuix rnna.
K ncpnoxy n: unx oruocnrcn xpyionopor ia:oopa:uix ncmccrn, xo
nropoxy oca(onuin nnxn ncxcuron, xoropic ni(cnnmrcn n: ipa-
unruoio cnon xournucuraniuoio rnna :cxuon xopi. Pa:(cncunc no-
icoxnxnnccxnx nnxnon ua xpyionopori ia:oopa:uix ncmccrn n oca-
(onuic nnxni ocuonauo ua cnocouocrn ucxoropix xpyionoporon
icrpo noccrauannnnaricn nocnc uapymcunn. Oro nponcxo(nr naio-
(apn nx onimoxy arxocqcpuoxy n pc:cpnuoxy qou(y. K raxnx nnx-
nax oruocnrcn xpyionopori yincpo(a, a:ora n xncnopo(a. Tax, uanpn-
xcp, n:irox yincxncnoio ia:a, uaxonnnmciocn n xaxox-nno xccrc n
pc:ynirarc iopcunn nnn oxncncunn, icrpo pacccnnacrcn no:(ymuixn
noroxaxn nnn xoxncucnpycrcn ycnncuuix norpcncuncx pacrcunnxn
n npcnpamcuncx n xapouari n xopnx |17, 23].
Oca(onuic nnxni, n xoropix ynacrnymr raxnc ncxcuri, xax qoc-
qop nnn rncnic xcranni, xcucc ycronnnni n:-:a xccruix uapymc-
unn, nocxonixy ocuonuan nx nacri cocpc(oroncua n oruocnrcniuo xa-
noaxrnnuox n xanono(nnuox pc:cpnuox qou(c :cxuon xopi. K nc-
xcurax oca(onuoio nnxna oruocnrcn xaninnn, uarpnn, xannn, qocqop,
xpcxunn, a raxc xcranni. Ho(annnmman nacri rnx ncxcuron ua-
xo(nrcn n oca(onuix nopo(ax, i(c cxouncurpnponauo (o 99 % xpcx-
unn, qocqopa n xaninnn, oxono 8O % xannn n cnimc 6O % uarpnn or
nccio xonnnccrna xa(oio ncxcura, uaxo(nmciocn n nocqcpc. Ino-
xacca ua:cxuon pacrnrcniuocrn co(cpnr unnrouym nacri rnx nc-
xcuron. B uanonimcn crcncun n noxaccc cnn:au qocqop, n xcuimcn
crcncun uarpnn, xaninnn, xannn n xpcxunn. B xnponox oxcauc co-
cpc(oroncuo cnimc 35 % xacci uarpnn, oxono 2 % xannn, oxono O,O1 %
qocqopa n xcucc O,OO1 % xpcxunn.
Tcpxnu rncnic xcranni mnpoxo ncnoni:ymrcn n xonoinn.
B ry ipynny nxo(nr 4O ona(ammnx xcrannnnccxnxn cnoncrnaxn nc-
xcuron ncpno(nnccxon cncrcxi c aroxuixn xaccaxn, onimnxn 5O.
Inaiopo(uic n pc(xnc xcranni n ry ipynny uc nxo(nr. Tncnic xc-
47
ranni nxcmr cnon ococuuocrn n nacrn nx icoxnxnnccxon xnipannn,
qopxnponaunn opconon pacccnunn n xouncurpannn, a raxc omcio
nnnnunn ua oxpyammym cpc(y onraunn nccio nnoio opiaunnccxo-
io xnpa. Bxccrc c rcx cnc(ycr orxcrnri, nro xuoinc ncxcuri n: ipyn-
ni rncnix xcrannon (xc(i, nnux, xoanir, xapiaucn, cnc:o, xonn-
(cu n (p.) nnnnmrcn cocran uon nacrim qcpxcuruix cncrcx n ynacrny-
mr n n:ucuuo nauix (nn nnoio opiaun:xa nponcccax. Hc(ocrarox
nnn orcyrcrnnc nx onacuo, rax xax oun nnnnmrcn uc:axcunxixn nc-
xcuraxn (nn nnix opiaun: xon. B xanix xonnnccrnax nx ncnoni:ymr
n xanccrnc xoxnoucuron ccnicxoxo:nncrncuuix y(opcunn n xnuc-
paniuix no(xopxox (nn nnoruix |16, 17].
Tncnic xcranni n :cxuon xopc uaxo(nrcn npcnxymccrncuuo n pac-
ccnuuox cocronunn, nx xnapxn uc npcnimamr O,1 % (ran. 2.1) |17].
Toauuo 2.T
Kaapxn xnwn4ecxnx aaewenvoa rpannvnoro caoa sewno xopm
(a uopaaxe ymaanna)
Oncxcur
Aroxuin
uoxcp
Knapx
11O
4
Oncxcur
Aroxuin
uoxcp
Knapx
11O
4
Ic 26 36 OOO Pb 82 16
T i 22 33OO Cs 55 3,8
Mn 25 7OO Sn 5O 2,7
Zf 4O 17O Tl 81 1,8
V 23 76 Mo 42 1,3
Zn 3O 51 Sb 51 O,2O
Cf 24 34 Cd 48 O,16
i 28 26 Hg 8O O,O33
Cu 29 22 Bi 83 O,O1O
O(uaxo oun cnocoui opa:oninari npnpo(uic, noxaniuic opa-
:onaunn (opconi), i(c nx xouncurpannn n corun n ricnnn pa: npcni-
macr xnapxonic yponun |7, 23, 25]. Opconi oinuo cnn:aui c xccro-
po(cunnxn py( n (pyinxn ncronunxaxn. Oun nxcmr pa:uoopa:uym
xouqniypannm, :anncnmym or iconoinnccxoio crpocunn, cocrana nxc-
mammnx nopo( n ycnonnn py(oopa:onaunn.
48
B ocuonc xnipannn ncxcuron n :cxuon xopc ncar (na qaxropa:
nuyrpcuunn n nucmunn. K nuyrpcuucxy qaxropy oruocnrcn cnoco-
uocri ncxcuron opa:oninari ncrynnc n pacrnopnxic coc(nucunn,
oca(aricn n: pacrnopon n pacnnanon, copnponaricn n r.(. Orn cnon-
crna ucnocpc(crncuuo cnn:aui c ycronnnnocrim aroxuix n(cp nc-
xcuron n crpocuncx ncxrpouuix oononcx, xoropic onpc(cnnmr nx
xnxnnccxnc cnoncrna. K nucmunx qaxropax, oxa:inammnx nnnnunc
ua xnipannm ncxcuron, oruocnr napaxcrpi cpc(i xnipannn, a nxcu-
uo, rcxncparypy, (anncunc, pH n oxncnnrcniuo-noccrauonnrcniuin
norcunnan cpc(i. Ha cnocouocri ncxcuron x xnipannn raxc (cnc-
rnycr qopxa uaxo(cunn n :cxuon xopc. Bi(cnnmr pa:nnnuic nn(i
cymccrnonaunn ncxcuron n :cxuon xopc: xnucpaniuin, c:xnucpani-
uin, xouncurpnponauuin n pacccnuuin |9, 17, 23].
Hoxa xnxnnccxnn ncxcur uaxo(nrcn n xpncrannnnccxon pcmcrxc,
cio nu(nnn(yaniuic cnoncrna uc nponnnnmrcn. Cnocouocri x xni-
pannn ncxcuron ouapynnacrcn npn pa:pymcunn xpncrannnnccxon
pcmcrxn no( (cncrnncx nucmunx qaxropon. Xnxnnccxnc ncxcuri
xoiyr uaxo(nricn n xnucpanax n nn(c nxnmncunn n xpncrannnnccxym
pcmcrxy nnn copnnouuixn ua (cqcxrax pcaniuix xpncrannon. B noc-
nc(ucx cnynac cnn:i nnnncrcn cnaon, n noroxy copnponauuic nc-
xcuri ncixo nonncxamrcn n nponccc xnipannn.
Mnipannn xnxnnccxnx :aipn:unmmnx ncmccrn n noiconcuo :c xax
uanoncc icoxnxnnccxn axrnnuox noxc icocncrcxi rccuo cnn:aua c
nx nonc(cuncx n conpncuuix c nonnon npnpo(uix no(ax. 0opxi
xnipannn rncnix xcrannon n npnpo(uix no(ax, n rox nncnc n non-
ncuuix, xuoioopa:ui (pnc. 2.1). B:ncmcuuic n xonnon(uic qopxi
coc(nucunn nxo(nr n cocran nonncuuix ipauynoxcrpnnccxnx qpax-
nnn, a ncrnuuo pacrnopcuuic n:nncxamr n cocranc no(uix nirncx
n: nonn.
B nponcccax xnipannn rncnix xcrannon ocooc xccro :aunxacr
xoxnncxcoopa:onaunc. Muoinc opiaunnccxnc ncmccr na, cnn:inan
noui xcrannon n xoxnncxci, cnococrnymr nx crannn:a nnn n ncpc-
uocy n pacrnopcuuox cocronunn.
Ha pacrnopnxocri coc(nucunn rncnix xcrannon onimoc nnnn-
unc oxa:inacr nx xouncurpannn n pacrnopc. Hpn oncui un:xon
xouncurpa nnn xnxponcxcuri uc nina(amr n oca(ox un npn n:xcuc-
unn pH cpc(i, un npn (oanncunn oca(nrcncn. Oror qaxrop nipacr
49
nauym poni n cnynac xcrannon, opa:ymmnx rpy(uopacrnopnxic co-
c(nucunn npn ncnnnnuax pH n 1
n
, xapaxrcpuix (nn npnpo(uix no(.
Mnipannouuan cnocouocri xnxponcxcuron n qopxc xoxnncxcuix
Pnc. 2.1. Cxcxa nonn n noroxon rncnix xcrannon n nocqcpc
Mnipannn
n nouncuuo-ipyuronic no(i
aniucnman rpaucqopxannn
Mnipannn
n nouncuuox
npoqnnc
3axpcnncunc n cocranc
rncp(ix qa:
Opa:onaunc
rpy(uopacrnopnxix
coc(nucunn rncnix
xcrannon
Copnnn
n nouuin oxcu
Inora
Pacrcunn
Ia:onincnic nipoci
Hocrynncunc n noiconcuo:i
n: arxocqcpi
Cocran
opiaunuccxnx,
xnucpaniuix,
opiauoxnuc-
paniuix
xoxnoucuron
B:anxo(cncrnnc c nounon
(ycnonnn n:anxo(cncrnnn:
cocran noun, oxncnn-
rcniuo-noccrauonnrcni-
uic, xncnoruo-ocuonuic
pcnxi)
Tncp(in
crox,
po:nn
(cqnnnnn
Pacrnopcunc
Opa:onaunc pacrno-
pnxix (no(nnuix)
coc(nucunn rncnix
xcrannon
Opa:onaunc opiaunuccxnx n
ucopiaunuccxnx copnnouuix
xoxnncxcon, copnnouuix
coc(nucunn
5O
coc(nucunn uc c:ipaunnua: oua nnxnrnpycrcn ycronnnnocrim caxo-
io coc(nucunn, no:xouocrim xouxypcunnn co cropoui (pyioio nc-
xcura, (ammcio oncc nponuin xoxnncxc, a raxc nina(cuncx n oca-
(ox caxon xoxn ncxcuon conn.
Ionimnucrno xcrannon opa:ycr pacrnopnxic xoxnncxci c opia-
unnccxnxn coc(nucunnxn. K unx npc(c nccio ucoxo(nxo oruccrn
xoxnncxci, co:(anacxic iyxnuonixn ncmccrnaxn n (pyinxn
opiaunnc cxnxn xncnoraxn c (nyx- n rpcxnancuruixn xcrannaxn. Poni
iyxnuonix ncmccrn n ncpcuocc xcrannon n pacrnopcuuox cocronunn
ncnnxa. Hanpnxcp, pcnuic no(i ncpcuocnr or 5O (o 75 % xapiauna,
unxcnn, xoanira n nn(c opiaunnccxnx coc(nucunn.
B paorax |3O, 38] noxa:aua nauan poni iyxyconoio iopn:oura xax
qn:nxo-xnxnnccxoio apicpa (nn :aipn:unrcncn, a raxc xax apcui
n:xcucunn qopx xnipa nnn. Cncnnqnxy icoxnxnnccxnx nponcccon n
iyxyconox iopn:ourc nonn oycnonnnnamr nponccci npcnpamcunn op-
iaunnccxnx coc(nucunn, noroxy xouo on(ari :uannrcniuon ponn
nocnc(unx n :axpcnncunn nnn uaoopor n (aniucnmcn xnipannn
xnxnnccxnx :aipn:unmmnx ncmccrn.
B nonncuuix pacrnopax n nirnxax ouapycui axnuoxncnori n
xncnori npuoio pn(a, oxcnxncnori, nonnqcuoni, qyninoxncnori,
r.c. ncci uaop opiaunnccxnx coc(nucunn, cnoncrncuuin xuoinx rn-
nax npnpo(uix no(. Bcc rn ncmccrna co(cpar qyuxnnouaniuic
ipynni, xoropic ynacrnymr n xoop(nuannouuix cnn:nx n opa:ona-
unn xoxnncxcuix n nuyrpnxoxnncxcuix coc(nucunn. B:anxo(cnc-
rnnc iyxyconix ncmccrn c nouaxn xcrannon n (pyinxn xnxnnccxnxn
:aipn:unrcnnxn nxnmnacr qn:nnccxnc (a(copnnn, ncnrn:annn, xoa-
iynnnnn) n xnxnnccxnc (nouuin oxcu, concopa:onaunc, opa:ona-
unc xoxnncx cuix coc(nucunn) nponccci. Ycronnnnocri opa:ymmnx-
cn xoxnncxcon :anncnr or pn(a qaxropon n n ncpnym oncpc(i or pH n
nouuon cnni no(uon cpc(i. Orn c ycnonnn onpc(cnnmr cnn:inaunc
rncnix xcrannon nonnon n ncnox n cc xoxnoucuraxn. Tax, uanpn-
xcp, yncnnncunc pH or 4 (o 5,5 nc(cr x no:pacraunm copnnn nnuxa
ua in(pooxcn(ax cnc:a n anmxnunn; npn pH 7,5 pacrnopnxocri nnu-
xa yncnnnnnacrcn n:-:a opa:onaunn xoxn ncxcon c opiaunnccxnx nc-
mccrnox. Oror npnxcp noxa:inacr, nro c n:xcucuncx pH xcuncrcn
poni nonncuuix xoxnoucuron n copnnn rncnix xcrannon. Hanpn-
xcp, xc(i (II) opa:ycr xoxnncxci n oncc mnpoxox nurcpnanc pH ncx
51
nnux. oan ncunc xc(n x nonncuuoxy pacrnopy, co(cpamcxy nnux,
nc(cr npn pH 5 x cuncunm copnnn nocnc(ucio |35].
Kncnic nonni noinomamr rncnic xcranni n: pacrnopon n xcui-
mcn crcncun, ncx ucnrpaniuic nnn co(cpamnc xapouari. B ro c
npcxn n raxnx nonnax :uannrcniuoc xonnnccrno xc(n cnn:inacrcn n
xoxnncxc uic coc(nucunn. Kncnic nonni nxcmr xcuimcc nncno ax-
rnnuix ncurpon, :aunrix nporouaxn n nouaxn anmxnunn, nro cun-
acr no: xouocri a(copnnn Cu
2=
n Ca
=2
. Ioiaric xaninncx n xap-
ouaraxn nonni xoiyr n onimcn crcncun, ncx xncnic copnponari
rncnic xcranni. B raxnx nonnax noui Ca
2=
oncc no(nnui n non-
ncuuox npoqnnc no cpanucunm c nouaxn Cu
2=
. Bicoxoc co(cpaunc
xcrannon, npnxo(nmcccn ua c(nunny opiaun nccxoio ncmccrna, n pn(c
cnynacn xouo oncunri opa:onauncx xuoion(cpuix nnn uannnn-
cx a(copnponauuix xoxnncx con, n xoropix nxccrcn ucxnnnancur-
uoc n:anxo(cncrnnc xc(y opia unnccxnxn nniau(axn n nouaxn xc-
rannon.
Mnipannn xnxnnccxnx ncxcuron n :cxuon xopc nxccr ncripc xc-
xaun:xa: xcxaunnccxnn, qn:nxo-xnxnnccxnn, noxnxnnccxnn n au-
rponoicuuin.
Mcxaunnccxan xnipannn cnn:aua c nponcccaxn po:nn, (cqnnnnn
n (pyinxn xcxaunnccxnxn nponcccaxn pa:pymcunn n :cxuon xopc.
Pa:(poncunc iopuix nopo( nc(cr x yncnnncunm nx (ncncpcuocrn n
copnnouuon cnocouocrn. Ouo conpono(acrcn pa:nocuncx xuo-
inx xnucpanon. Hanpnxcp, npn ncrnpaunn xapouari pa:naiamrcn c
ni(cncuncx xncnopo(a, cyniqn(i pacna(amrcn ua xcrann n ccpy, a
in(paruic xnucpani ni(cnnmr no(y. Mcxaunnccxan xnipannn no:un-
xacr n pc:ynirarc rcncunn no( nnn (nncunn no:(yxa. Oua conpono-
(acrcn oca(cuncx rncnix xnucpanon n nipacr ocuonuym poni npn
qopxnponaunn poccinuix xccropo(cunn.
0n:nxo-xnxnnccxan xnipannn npnno(nr x yncnnncunm nnn yxcui-
mcunm no(nnuocrn ncxcuron :a cncr n:xcucunn nx crcncun oxnc-
ncunn, a(copnnn, opa:onaunn cyniqn(on, in(pooxnccn n r.n. Cpc(n
qn:nxo-xnxnnccxnx xnipannn pa:nnnamr oxncnnrcniuic, noccrauo-
nnrcniuic, cyniqn(uic, cyniqaruo-xapouaruic, mcnonuic, xncnic,
ncnapnrcniuic n a(copnnouuic. B oxpyammcn cpc(c uanonimcc
:uancunc nxcmr a(copnnouuin n oxncnnrcniuo-noccrauonnrcniuin
rnni xnipannn, (cncrnnc xoropix nacro nponnnncrcn conxccruo. A(-
52
copnnouuan xnipannn onpc(cnncr oca(cunc ua noncpxuocrn pa:uo-
io po(a nicoxo(ncncpcuix nacrnn. K unx oruocnrcn innuncric nac-
rnni, nacrnni ropqa, xonnon(i opiaunnccxnx ncmccrn, in(pooxncn
cnc:a, anmxnunn n r.n. Kouncurpannn xnxponcxcuron ua copnn-
ouuox apicpc nponcxo(nr raxc npn npocannnaunn pacrnopon ncpc:
innuncric n opiaunnccxnc cpc(i nnn ncpc: nonni n pixnic ornoc-
unn, ooiamcuuic iyxycox, in(pooxncnxn cnc:a n anmxnunn.
Inoxnxnnccxan xnipannn opa:ycrcn :a cncr nurcucnnuoio :axpcn-
ncunn :uannrcniuoio nncna xaxpo- n xnxponcxcuron nnixn opia-
un:xaxn. Haxo(nci n ucnpcpinuox oxcuc c arxocqcpon, in(pocqc-
pon n ncpxucn nacrim nnrocqcpi, nnic opiaun:xi noxnxo xoxn-
ncxca oinuix noicuuix ncxcuron (O, H,C, , Ca, Mg n (p.)
uaxannnnamr pa:uoopa:uic ncxcuri, uaop xoropix :anncnr or
n:ucuuix norpcuocrcn opiaun:xa n icoxnxnnccxnx ococuuocrcn
cpc(i. H:nncxan nnrammnc pacrnopi n: nonn, pacrcunn uaxannnnamr
xnxponcxcuri n, orxnpan, ooiamamr nxn noncpxuocruic nonncu-
uic iopn:ouri. B pc:ynirarc xuoioxparuoio nonropcunn noicuuix
nnxnon uaxonncunn xnxponcxcuron n ncpxunx iopn:ourax nonn xo-
cr oxa:aricn nccixa :uannrcniuix.
Ha pnc. 2.2 ncpcnncncui inanuic nnxni qopxnponaunn aurpono-
icuuix icoxnxnnccxnx auoxannn n pa:nnnuix nacrnx nocqcpi.
Hanoncc omnx npc(crannncrcn aurponoicuuoc :aipn:ucunc ar-
xocqcpi (nnxn 1). B pc:ynirarc n:anxo(cncrnnn c :aipn:ucuuon ar-
xocqcpon noncpxuocruic n oxcaunnccxnc no(i xoiyr :aipn:unricn,
uaxo(nci :a ricnnn xnnoxcrpon or ncronunxa :aipn:ucunn. Arxoc-
qcpuic oca(xn niuocnr :aipn:unmmnc ncmccrna n: no:(yxa n nonny,
pacrcunn uaxannnnamr auoxaniuic xonnnccrna xnxnnccxnx ncxcu-
ron n: nonn, a raxc ucnocpc(crncuuo n: arxocqcpi. Bropoc xccro no
xacmraax :uannxocrn (nn nocqcpi :aunxacr :aipn:ucunc oxcauon
n xopcn n pc:ynirarc croxa :aipn:ucuuix pcnuix no( n ucnocpc(-
crncuuoio cpoca n xopn n oxcaui npoximncuuix orxo(on n ucqrn
(nnxn 2). Ioncc noxaniuoc :aipn:ucunc oxpyammcn cpc(i nxccr xcc-
ro n pc:ynirarc uaxonncunn rncp(ix orxo(on ua noncpxuocrn nnro-
cqcpi (nnxn 3). B pc:ynirarc roio n arxocqcpc, in(pocqcpc n non-
ncuuox noxponc pa:nnnamrcn ycronnnnic icoxnxnnccxnc auoxannn,
oxa:inammnc orpnnarcniuoc nnnnunc ua ycnonnn n:un n :(oponic
ncnoncxa.
53
Pnc. 2.2. Cxcxa :aipn:unmmnx ncmccrn n nocqcpc
1. Hcrouunx
:aipn:ucunn
arxocqcpi
(ia:, (ix, nini)
Hoinomcunc
in(pocqcpon
n: no:(yxa
(n oxcauax,
o:cpax, pcxax)
Haxonncunc
n nnoruix
n pacrcunnx pcx,
o:cp, oxcauon
Haxonncunc
n ua:cxuon
pacrnrcniuocrn
Haxonncunc
n ua:cxuix nnoruix
n ucnoncxc
Haxonncunc
n ua:cxuon
pacrnrcniuocrn
Haxonncunc
n nounax
(n: noncpxuocruix
n ipyuronix no()
2. Hcrouunx
:aipn:ucunn
in(pocqcpi
(npoximncuuic
n ironic
crouuic no(i)
Haxonncunc
n nnoruix
n pacrcunnx, pcx,
o:cp, oxcauon
Haxonncunc
n ua:cxuix nnoruix
n ucnoncxc
Haxonncunc
n nnoruix
n pacrcunnx pcx,
o:cp, oxcauon
Haxonncunc
n ua:cxuix nnoruix
n ucnoncxc
acrnuuoc nnn
nonuoc pacrnopcunc
n noncpxuocruix
no(ax in(pocqcpi
Pa:pymcunc no(
nnnnuncx
aicuron
nincrpnnaunn.
H:xcniucunc n
:aconcunc noun
3. Hcrouunx :aipn:uc-
unn noncpxuocrn
nnrocqcpi rncp(ixn
npoximncuuixn n
ironixn orxo(axn
Haxonncunc
n nounax
(n: oca(xon
noncpxuocruix
n ipyuronix no()
54
2.2. Bananne sarpasnenna vaaeamwn wevaaaawn
na noaorn4ecxne caocvaa uo4a
K axryaniuix nponcxax n:anxo(cncrnnn omccrna n npnpo(i or-
uocnrcn :amnra nonni n nonncuuoio noxpona or uapacrammcio rcxuo-
icuuoio no:(cncrnnn, n nacruocrn or :aipn:ucunn rncnixn xcranna-
xn. Oxonoinnccxnc nocnc(crnnn raxoio :aipn:ucunn nccixa ccpic:ui.
Bo-ncpnix, nocrynan n n:ironuix xonnnccrnax no nnmcnix ncnnx
n: nonni n nnic opiaun:xi, rncnic xcranni ni:inamr ccpic:uic,
n rox nncnc icucrnnccxnc :aoncnaunn. Oro nc(cr x cuncunm xonn-
nccrna n xanccrna ypoacn ccnicxoxo:nncrncuuix xyniryp pacrcunn n
nnoruono(nccxon npo(yxnnn n (ancc x pocry :aoncnacxocrn n cun-
cunm npo(onnrcniuocrn n:un ncnoncxa. Bo-nropix, uaxannnna-
nci n nonnc n onimnx xonnnccrnax, rncnic xcranni n:xcunmr cc
cnoncrna. H:xcucunn n ncpnym oncpc(i :arpainnamr nonoinnccxnc
cnoncrna nonni: cunacrcn nncncuuocri xnxpoopiaun:xon, cyacrcn
nx nn(onon cocran (pa:uoopa:nc), n:xcuncrcn crpyxrypa xnxpono-
ncuo:on, na(acr nurcucnnuocri ocuonuix xnxpononoinnccxnx npo-
ncccon n axrnnuocri nonncuuix qcpxcuron |3, 21, 24, 37]. Cnniuoc :a-
ipn:ucunc rncnixn xcrannaxn npnno(nr x n:xcucunm raxnx xouccp-
narnnuix npn:uaxon nonni, xax iyxycuoc cocronunc, crpyxrypa,
pcaxnnn cpc(i n (p. Pc:ynirarox roio nnnncrcn nacrnnuan, a n pn(c
cnynacn n nonuan yrpara nonncuuoio nno(opo(nn. Honna ninonuncr
xax noncuornnccxnc, rax n inoaniuic (omcnocqcpuic), xonoin-
nccxnc qyuxnnn, occncnnnammnc cranniuocri xax or(cniuix no-
iconcuo:on, rax n nocqcpi n ncnox, a cnc(onarcniuo, n caxy no:xo-
uocri cymccrnonaunn n:un ua :cxnc. Kpoxc roio, nonna nnnncrcn o(-
unx n: naucnmnx uc:axcunxix npnpo(uix pccypcon inanuix
cpc(crnox ccnicxoxo:nncrncuuoio npon:no(crna. Honna, :aipn:ucuuan
rncnixn xcrannaxn, n pc:ynirarc cuncunn nno(opo(nn, omcn (c-
ipa(annn n no pn(y (pyinx npnnnu uc cnocoua nonuoncuuo ninon-
unri cnon xonoinnccxnc n ccnicxoxo:nncrncuuic qyuxnnn. Bcc ro
noxa:inacr, nro :aipn:ucunc rncnixn xcrannaxn nnnncrcn yipo:on
xonoinnccxon n npo(ononicrncuuon c:onacuocrn ncnoncnccrna.
Ioniman nacri rncnix xcrannon, nocrynammnx ua noncpxuocri
nonni, :axpcnnncrcn n cc ncpxunx iyxyconix iopn:ourax. Oun copn-
55
pymrcn ua noncpxuocrn nonncuuix nacrnn, ua in(poxcn(ax cnc:a,
cnn:inamrcn c opiaunnccxnx ncmccrnox nonni, nxo(nr n cocran xpnc-
rannnnccxnx pcmcrox innuncrix xnucpanon, opa:ymr cocrcrncuuic
xnucpani n pc:ynirarc n:oxopquoio :axcmcunn n pacrnopnmrcn n
nonncuuon nnaic. ucrynnc coc(nucunn rncnix xcrannon co(cparcn
n nonncuuox no:(yxc. Kpoxc roio, oun nnnnmrcn cocranuon nacrim
nonncuuon nori.
Pa:nnnuic nnic opiaun:xi (nn cnocn n:uc(cnrcniuocrn rpc-
ymr onpc(cncuuoio cocrana nonni n no(i. B xccrax icoxnxnnccxnx
auoxannn nponcxo(nr orxnoucunn or uopxi xnucpaniuoio cocrana
no nccn nnmcnon ncnn. B pc:ynirarc uapymcunn xnucpaniuoio nnra-
unn uanm(amrcn n:xcucunn nn(onoio cocrana qnro- , :oo- n xnxpo-
noncuo:on. Toxcnnccxoc no:(cncrnnc rncnix xcrannon ua nonoin-
nccxnc cncrcxi, n ncpnym oncpc(i, oycnonncuo rcx, nro oun ncixo
cnn:inamrcn c cyniqin(pnniuixn ipynnaxn cnxon (n rox nncnc qcp-
xcuron), no(annnn nx cnurc: n rcx caxix uapyman oxcu ncmccrn n
opiaun:xc.
2nnic opiaun:xi nipaorann pa:uoopa:uic xcxaun:xi :amnri
or no:(cncrnnn rncnix xcrannon or noccrauonncunn nouon TM n
xcucc roxcnnuic coc(nucunn (o axrnnannn xncronuix cncrcx nou-
uoio rpaucnopra, y(annmmnx roxcnnccxnc noui n: xncrxn no nuc-
mumm cpc(y.
Hanoncc cymccrncuuix nocnc(crnncx no:(cncrnnn rncnix xc-
rannon ua noiconcuornnccxox n nocqcpuox yponunx opiaun:annn
nnoio ncmccrna nnnncrcn noxnponxa nponcccon oxncncunn opiaun-
nccxnx coc(nucunn, npnno(nman x cuncunm cxopocrn nx xnucpa-
nn:annn n uaxonncunm n xocncrcxax. Oro, n cnom oncpc(i, crnxynn-
pycr cnn:inaunc rncnix xcrannon n nn(c xcrannoopiaunnccxnx co-
c(nucunn, nro npcxcuuo cunxacr uaipy:xy c xocncrcxi.
B ro c npcxn ycronnnnocri nnix opiaun:xon, npc(c nccio pac-
rcunn, x nonimcuuix xouncurpannnx rncnix xcrannon n cnoco-
uocri uaxannnnari nx n nicoxnx xouncurpannnx xoiyr npc(crannnri
onimym onacuocri (nn :(oponin nm(cn, rax xax npn rox nonnnn-
crcn no:xouocri npounxuoncunn rncnix xcrannon n nnmcnic
ncnn.
Or xnxnnccxoio cocrana nonni :anncnr xnxnnccxnn cocran no-
rpcnncxix ncnoncxox no(i n npo(yxron pacrnrcniuoio n nnoruoio
56
nponcxo(cunn. B pc:ynirarc nnma xocr co(cpari xnucpaniuic
ncxcuri n uopxc, iri (cqnnnruon nnn co(cpari n:ironuoc xo-
nnnccrno rcx nnn nuix xnxnnccxnx ncxcuron, (cnammnx nnmy rox-
cnnuon, cnocouon ni:inari :aoncnaunn ncnoncxa n (ac cxcpri.
3aipn:ucunc nonn rncnixn xcrannaxn npnno(nr x uapymcunm
inoaniuix (nocqcpuix) qyuxnnn nonncuuoio noxpona. 3aipn:ucu-
uan nonna nnnncrcn xanonpnio(uon nnn noncc ucnpnio(uon (nn on-
raunn onimnucrna nnix opiaun:xon. ac ccnn nonna uc crauo-
nnrcn c:n:ucuuon, ro qopxnpymmnccn ua ucn noncuo:i ornnna-
mrcn xanix ocxox noxacci, un:xon cxopocrim nonoinnccxnx
nponcccon, y:xnx nn(onix, cocranox (nopa:uoopa:ncx), cnaon
ycronnnnocrim n r.(. Oxonoinnccxnc nocnc(crnnn :aipn:ucunn nonn
rncnixn xcrannaxn :anncnr or napaxcrpon :aipn:ucunn, icoxnxn-
nccxon ocrauonxn n ycronnnnocrn nonn. K napaxcrpax :aipn:ucunn
oruocnrcn npnpo(a xcranna (r.c. cio xnxnnccxnc n roxcnnccxnc cnon-
crna), co(cpaunc cio n nonnc, qopxa xnxnnccxoio coc(nucunn, cpox
or xoxcura :aipn:ucunn n r.(. Ha ycronnnnocri nonn x :aipn:ucunm
nnnnmr cc ipauynoxcrpnnccxnn cocran, co(cpaunc opiaunnccxoio
ncmccrna, xncnoruo-mcnonuic n oxncnnrcniuo-noccrauonnrcniuic
ycnonnn, axrnnuocri xnxpononoinnccxnx n noxnxnnccxnx nponcc-
con n r.(. |2, 16, 22, 253O, 38].
Hpnpoaa wevaaaa. Ho crcncun roxcnnuocrn n cnocouocrn yxy(mari
cnoncrna nonni rncnic xcranni opa:ymr cnc(ymmnn pn(: Hg
Cd ` Zn Cu ` Pb. Hcoxo(nxo :axcrnri, nro nn( pn(a :anncnr or
pa:nnnuix qaxropon: cnoncrn nonni, (nnrcniuocrn n qopxi uaxo-
(cunn n ucn xcranna n (p. Bcnc(crnnc roio oncui nacro uanm(acrcn
ucconna(cunc pn(on roxcnnuocrn xcrannon, nonyncuuix pa:nnnuixn
nccnc(onarcnnxn.
Konuenvpauna wevaaaa. B onimnucrnc cnynacn npn yncnnncunn co-
(cpaunn rncnix xcrannon n nonnc orxcnacrcn cuncunc cc nono-
innccxon axrnnuocrn. O(uaxo npn uc:uannrcniuox :aipn:ucunn uc
pc(xn cnynan yncnnncunn nncncuuocrn xnxpoopiaun:xon, nurcucnn-
uocrn xnxpononoinnccxnx nponcccon, qcpxcurarnnuon axrnnuocrn
nonni n r.(. Horoxy xc(y co(cpauncx xcranna n nonnc n crcncuim
cuncunn cc nonoinnccxon axrnnuocrn uc ncci(a cymccrnycr npnxan,
n rcx oncc nponopnnouaniuan cnn:i. 3aipn:ucunc pa:uixn xcranna-
xn oxa:inacr cxocc nnnnunc ua cnoncrna nonni. Pa:unna nnmi n
57
xouncurpannn xcranna-:aipn:unrcnn, npn xoropon nponnnnmrcn rc
nnn nuic nocnc(crnnn. Oro orncrnnno nn(uo ua npnxcpc HK npc-
(cniuo (onycrnxon xouncurpannn pa:uix xcrannon, xoropic pa:nn-
namrcn n 11OO pa:.
0opwa naxoaaenna wevaaaa a uo4ae. Bauix qaxropox, or xoro-
poio :anncnr nocnc(crnnn :aipn:ucunn, nnnncrcn qopxa xnxnnccxoio
coc(nucunn, n xoropon xcrann-:aipn:unrcni uaxo(nrcn n nonnc. Tax,
cnoo(uic noui xcrannon oncc roxcnnui, ncx nx uc(ncconnnpo-
nauuic conn nnn npaxrnnccxn ucpacrnopnxic oxcn(i rncnix xc-
rannon. Hocnc(unc oxa:inamr xcuimcc roxcnnccxoc no:(cncrnnc,
ncx no(opacrnopnxic conn. Cpc(n pacrnopnxix qopx uanxcuimym
axrnnuocri nponnnnmr unrpari, nro cnn:auo c nononrcniuix (cnc-
rnncx ua nonncuuym nory unrpar-nouon (ncronunxon xnucpaniuo-
io nnraunn (nn pacrcunn). Xnopn(-, cyniqar- n ancrar-noui pacno-
naiamrcn n :anncnxocrn or crcncun nx roxcnnuocrn (nn nnix opia-
un:xon.
Coawecvnoe n pasaeatnoe aecvane aaewenvoa. O(unx n: ocuonuix
ycnonnn uopxaniuoio pocra n pa:nnrnn nnix opiaun:xon nnnncrcn
canaucnponauuocri nx xnxnnccxoio cocrana. B:anxo(cncrnnc xnxn-
nccxnx ncxcuron nxccr uc xcuimcc :uancunc (nn qn:nonoinn nno-
io opiaun:xa, ncx nx uc(ocrarox nnn n:irox. Crcncui roxcnnuocrn
rncnix xcrannon :anncnr or npncyrcrnnn xouxypnpymmnx nouon uc-
:anncnxo or roio, roxcnnui oun nnn ucr. Kaninnn, qocqop n xaiunn
nnnnmrcn inanuixn auraiouncraxn no oruomcunm x rncnix xcran-
nax. Ha nonnax, oiarix rnxn xaxponcxcuraxn, roxcnnuocri rnc-
nix xcrannon nponnnncrcn n xcuimcn crcncun.
B ro c npcxn n:anxo(cncrnnc rncnix xcrannon c (pyinxn :aipn:-
unrcnnxn, raxnxn xax (crcpicuri n nccrnnn(i, npnno(nr x opa:o-
naunm rax ua:inacxix napaicucrnnccxnx crpyxryp, xoropic nacro
nxcmr oncc nicoxym roxcnnuocri, ncx ncxo(uic coc(nucunn.
Sxoaorn4ecxne uocaeacvana upn pasan4no ycvo4naocvn uo4a x sa-
rpasnenn. Inoxonoinnccxnc nocnc(crnnn :aipn:ucunn nonn rnc-
nixn xcrannaxn :anncnr uc ronixo or pa:nnnuix napaxcrpon :aipn:-
ucunn, uo n or cnoncrn caxon nonni.
Hpn nccnc(onaunn nnnnunn rncnix xcrannon ua qcpxcurarnn-
uym axrnnuocri nonni (nn pa:nnnuix cc nn(on ino ycrauonncuo,
nro ncpuo:cx nnnncrcn n 31OO pa: oncc ycronnnnix x :aipn:ucunm,
58
ncx (cpuono-no(:onncran nonna. Oro oycnonncuo xax oni mcn no(-
nnuocrim xcranna n (cpuono-no(:onncron nonnc, rax n n:uananiuo
xcuimcn noicuuocrim n oncc cc un:xon qcpxcurarnnuon axrnn-
uocrim.
Ycronnnnocri nonni x :aipn:ucunm noomc n rncnixn xcranna-
xn n nacruocrn oycnonncua icucrnnccxnxn cnoncrnaxn nonni, xoro-
pic qopxnpymrcn no( no:(cncrnncx xouxpcruix qaxropon nonnoo-
pa:onaunn, n pa:nnnuix icoipaqnnccxnx pcinouax.
Ococuuocrn icuc:nca ncpuo:cxon oycnonnnn qopxnponaunc
cnoncrn, onpc(cnnmmnx nicoxym ycronnnnocri rnx nonn x :aipn:uc-
unm rncnixn xcrannaxn: nicoxoc co(cpaunc n onimnc :anaci
iyxyca, nicoxan cxxocri nonncuuoio noinomammcio xoxnncxca,
oxncnnrcniuic ycnonnn n ucnrpaniuan pcaxnnn cpc(i. Orn cnoncrna
cnococrnymr ncpcno(y rncnix xcrannon n ucno(nnuic n ucrox-
cnnuic (nn nnix opiaun:xon qopxi. Horoxy :aipn:ucunc nico-
xnxn (o:axn rncnix xcrannon ni:inacr uc croni :uannrcniuoc yxy(-
mcunc xonoio-nonoinnccxoio cocronunn ncpuo:cxon no cpanucunm
c onimnucrnox (pyinx nonn.
2.3. Bananne vaaeamx wevaaaoa
na uo4aenny wnxponovy
Tncnic xcranni, nocrynan n nonny n nn(c pa:nnnuix xnxnnccxnx
coc(nucunn, xoiyr uaxannnnaricn n ucn (o nicoxnx xouncurpa-
nnn, npc(crannnmmnx cymccrncuuym onacuocri (nn uopxaniuoio
qyuxnnounponaunn nonncuuon nori. Hpn uapymcunn xnxnnccxoio
panuonccnn n nonnc no:unxacr crpccconan cnryannn. H:nccrui (auuic o
rox, nro nonoinnccxnc noxa:arcnn pauimc aipoxnxnnccxnx pcainpymr
ua n:xcucunc ycnonnn, nnnnmmnx ua pa:nnnuic cnoncrna nonni. Oco-
cuuo nyrxo or:inamrcn ua no:unxuoncunc crpccconon cnryannn n nonnc
xnxonora n co(cpamnccn n nonnc qcpxcuri |21].
Ho( (cncrnncx rncnix xcrannon n:xcunmrcn xuoinc noxa:arcnn
nuyrpnnonncuuon nonoinnccxon axrnnuocrn. B nacruocrn, cunacrcn
oman noxacca pa:uix ipynn nonncuuix xnxpoopiaun:xon, a raxc
59
nponcxo(nr uapymcunn n crpyxrypc nx xoxnncxca, cnc(crnncx ncio nn-
nncrcn n:xcucunc yponun qcpxcurarnnuon axrnnuocrn nonn |15].
Oxcncpnxcuraniuic nccnc(onaunn ninnnnn :axouoxcpuocrn n
(cncrnnn pa:nnnuix rncnix xcrannon ua qcpxcurarnnuym axrnn-
uocri nonn. B onimnucrnc cnynacn un:xnc xouncurpannn nouon xc-
rannon cnococrnymr nonimcunm axrnnuocrn nonncuuix qcpxcuron.
O(uaxo nonimcunc xouncurpannn rncnix xcrannon n nonnc npnno-
(nr x nonrn nnucnuoxy yxcuimcunm cc qcpxcurarnnuon axrnnuoc-
rn |12]. B onirax no xuoioncrucxy opomcunm nonn uconnmcuuixn
npoximncuuixn cronuixn no(axn ino noxa:auo, nro axrnnuocri
ucxoropix qcpxcuron ina n 3 pa:a unc, ncx npn opomcunn non-
uocrim onnmcuuixn. Hpnnnuon cuncunn qcpxcurarnnuon axrnn-
uocrn nonn no( (cncrnncx rncnix xcrannon xocr cnynri xax npn-
xoc nuinnponaunc axrnnuocrn qcpxcuron, rax n :a(cpxa cnurc:a
qcpxcuron xnxpoopiaun:xaxn npn no(anncunn nx pocra. Tor qaxr,
nro nuinnponaunc qcpxcurarnnuon axrnnuocrn nonn nponnnncrcn
uc cpa:y nocnc nucccunn xcrannon, a no ncrcncunn ucxoropoio npcxc-
un |33, 34] cnn:inacrcn c nuinnponauncx cnurc:a qcpxcuron xnx-
poopiaun:xaxn, a uc npnxix nuinnponauncx qcpxcuron no( no:-
(cncrnncx rncnix xcrannon.
Pn( anropon |12, 19] orxcnamr, nro ua (cpuono-no(:onncrix nonnax
uanoncc or:innnnixn ua :aipn:ucunc rncnixn xcrannaxn nnnn-
mrcn raxnc noxa:arcnn nonoinnccxon axrnnuocrn, xax unrpnqnxa-
nnouuan cnocouocri n qcpxcurarnnuan axrnnuocri nonni. Orn no-
xa:arcnn nuyrpnnonncuuon nonoinnccxon axrnnuocrn nicrynamr
nurcipaniuixn (nn uanpanncuuocrn noxnxnnccxnx nponcccon n non-
nc n xapaxrcpn:ymr omcc xynirypuoc cocronunc nonni. Axrnnuocri
qcpxcuron oncc ycronnnnin n nyncrnnrcniuin noxa:arcni no-
icuuocrn nonn, ncx, uanpnxcp, nurcucnnuocri xnxpononoinnccxnx
nponcccon, npo(ynnponaunc yincxncnoio ia:a n: nonni n (p. |1].
B nocnc(unc (ccnrnncrnn npono(nnnci nccnc(onaunn c ncnim n:y-
ncunn uciarnnuoio nnnnunn rncnix xcrannon ua ypca:uym axrnn-
uocri |12, 2O, 25]. Tax, n paorc |25] ino noxa:auo, nro xc(i nonuo-
crim no(annncr in(ponn: xoncnnui n (nyx nn(ax nonn yc n (o:c
12O xi/xi nonni. Orxcnanoci raxc cuncunc axrnnuocrn ypca:i n
nonnc ua 5 % npn (oanncunn 5O xi/xi nonni xpoxa, unxcnn, cnnuna,
n ua 1316 % npn (oanncunn xc(n. Cuncunc axrnnuocrn ypca:i
6O
ncpc: 3O xnu nocnc (oanncunn xcranna n nonncuuin opa:cn (ocrn-
iano 4967 % npn xa(xncnox :aipn:ucunn, 175O % npn nucccunn
xpoxa, ua 5194 % or xc(n, ua 2O33 % unxcnn, ua 2O55 %
cnnuna n ua 2331 % nnuxa. Hpn n:yncunn cocronunn nonn nnn-
:n xcrannypinnccxnx npc(npnnrnn n maxr, nccnc(onarcnn ycrauonn-
nn, nro axrnnuocri ypca:i cun:nnaci (no pa:uix ncronunxax) ua
9O % npn :aipn:ucunn xc(im n cnnunox, ua 85 % npn :aipn:ucunn
nnuxox, cnnunox n xc(im n ua 98 % npn :aipn:ucunn cnnunox n
nnuxox |2O].
Ha ocuonaunn xuoioncrunx nccnc(onaunn qcpxcurarnnuon axrnn-
uocrn nonn no( nnnnuncx :aipn:ucuuix npoximncuuixn orxo(axn
opocnrcniuix no( |14], cnao:aipn:ucuuixn cnnramrcn nonni, y xo-
ropix axrnnuocri nuncpra:i no cpanucunm c uc:aipn:ucuuon nonnon
(ranouox) cuncua ua 25 %, cpc(uc:aipn:ucuuixn ua 255O % n
cnniuo:aipn:ucuuixn oncc ncx ua 5O %. B ron c paorc npc(-
nocua ipa(annn :aipn:ucuuocrn nonn rncnixn xcrannaxn no ax-
rnnuocrn qocqara:i. K cnao:aipn:ucuuix orucccui nonni, n xoro-
pix axrnnuocri qcpxcura no cpanucunm c uc:aipn:ucuuixn nonnaxn
ina unc ua 2O %, x cpc(uc:aipn:ucuuix ua 2O4O % n x cnniuo-
:aipn:ucuuix oncc ncx ua 45 %.
Ha ocuonc xo(cniuix oniron, cnn:auuix c ncxyccrncuuix nuccc-
uncx rncnix xcrannon n nonny (nxnrannn :aipn:ucunn) n noncnix
uanm(cunn :a :aipn:ucuuixn nonnaxn (oxa:auo, nro pa:nnnuic
qcpxcuri uco(nuaxono pcainpymr ua n:irox xcranna |25, 34, 37].
Tax, n (cpuono-no(:onncron nonnc npn xouncurpannn pryrn 5O xi/xi
axrnnuocri ypca:i n (cin(poicua:i cunamrcn nonrn ua nopn(ox, a
nuncpra:i n xarana:i ronixo n 1,5 pa:a. Hpn nucccunn cnnuna
(or 2OO (o 8OO xi/xi) n (cpuono-no(:onncron nonnc axrnnuocri xara-
na:i cunanaci uc:anncnxo or xouncurpannn cnnuna. Hpn conxccr-
uox nucccunn n (cpuono-no(:onncrym nonny xapiauna, unxcnn, nnu-
xa (coorncrcrncuuo 25O2OOO, 2O16O n 252OO xi/xi nonni) nico-
xnc xouncurpannn xcrannon yiucrann axrnnuocri nccx nccnc(onauuix
qcpxcuron, xoropic no nyncrnnrcniuocrn x rncnix xcrannax pac-
nononnnci n cnc(ymmcx nopn(xc: ypca:a ` nuncpra:a ` (cin(poic-
ua:a ` xarana:a. Hpn pa:(cniuox nucccunn ynoxnuyrix xcrannon ua-
noncc roxcnnuixn oxa:annci xapiaucn n unxcni, a n xcuimcn crc-
ncun nnux.
61
Mnxpocxonnnccxnc ipni npnunxamr ynacrnc n naucnmnx non-
ncuuix nponcccax n ncpnym oncpc(i xax (ccrpyxropi opiaunnccxnx
ncmccrn n xocncrcxax. Oun ocymccrnnnmr ucpicrnnccxnn oxcu
xc(y ua(:cxuon n no(:cxuon nacrnxn xocncrcx cymn n nnnnmrcn
naucnmnxn xoxnoucuraxn nnmcnix ncncn n ua:cxuix xocncrc-
xax. Horoxy nounxaunc n:xcucunn nonncuuon xnxonori nauo
xax (nn npoiuo:a (nuaxnxn nnrarcniuix ncmccrn, rax n (nn cranni-
uocrn xocncrcx n ncnox. H:nccrua raxc nauan poni ipnon n npo-
ncccax (croxcnxannn nonn, co:(aunn nonncuuon crpyxrypi, cnurc:c
cncnnqnnccxnx iyxyconix ncmccrn, no nnnnunn ua oxcu nouon n
nonnc, ua cc no(oy(cpnnammym cnocouocri, n nponcccax npo(yx-
nnn qn:nonoinnccxn axrnnuix ncmccrn n nonnax n r.(.
Honna o(ua n: uanoncc cnouix cpc( onraunn ua :cxnc. Oua
nnnncrcn conoxynuocrim xuoccrna xnxpocpc( cymccrnonaunn pa:-
uix opiaun:xon, n ncpnym oncpc(i xnxpoon. B ncnox nonna uc ua-
cimcua xnxpoaxn, n noroxy n ucn co(cparcn n o(uonpcxcuuo xo-
iyr pa:nnnaricn xnxpoopiaun:xi, (ynnpymmnc qyuxnnn (pyi (pyia.
3a cncr icrcpoicuuocrn nonn n cnocouocrn xnxpoon (nnrcniuo co-
xpaunricn n ucaxrnnuox cocronunn nonni co(cpar oipoxuin :anac
xnxpoopiaun:xon |21, 24].
Bnnnunm rncnix xcrannon ua nonncuuic ipni ino nocnnmc-
uo uanonimcc xonnnccrno paor. Ocuonuic ycnnnn inn uanpannc-
ui ua oncuxy n:xcucunn nx nncncuuocrn n noxacci. O(uaxo rn
noxa:arcnn uc (anann no:xouocrn c(cnari o(uo:uanuic nino(i.
H:xcucunc pa:uoopa:nn, onpc(cnncxoc npn pacncrc crau(apruix
nu(cxcon, orxcnanoci ronixo npn nicoxnx yponunx :aipn:ucunn, roi-
(a xax ornnnnn n cocranc ipnon nponnnnnnci yc npn nccixa un:xox
yponuc :aipn:ucunn, uanpnxcp npn (o:c co(cpaunn xc(n 1OOO xxi/i
nonni.
Ha Konicxox nonyocrponc n :ouc nipocon xoxnuara Ccncpo-
unxcni, co(cpamnx xc(i n unxcni, n:xcucunc cocrana xoxnncxcon
nonncuuix ipnon ninnnnnoci ua ynacrxax, npnnciammnx x xoxn-
uary, i(c n ncpxucx iopn:ourc uapymcuuix nnnmnnaniuo-cnc:ncrix
no(:onon orxcnann yncnnncunc npncyrcrnnn P.funiculosum, Asp.
tcffcus, Asp.fumigatus. B ro npcxn (nn qouonix nonn inn xapaxrcpui
nn(i P. communc, Mofticfclla isabcllina. B paorax I.A. n(oxnxona |18,
19] npn nponc(cunn xnxpononoinnccxoio xounropnuia n :ouc no:-
62
(cncrnnn roio xoxnuara ycrauonncuo cuncunc nncncuuocrn caxa-
ponnrnnccxnx ipnon n cnniuo :aipn:ucuuix (1 xx or ncronunxa n
npoxnnoma(xn) rncnixn xcrannaxn nonnax. B xo(cniuix xcnc-
pnxcurax c no:pacrammnxn xouncurpannnxn :aipn:unrcncn xcro(ox
nunnnnponauuoio axnnonnrnnccxoio coomccrna ino ninnncuo
cuncunc nn(onoio pa:uoopa:nn pacrymnx ua xpaxxanc nonncuuix
ipnon npn xouncurpannn xc(n 6OO1OOO n unxcnn 17OO26OO xi/xi
nonni.
3aipn:ucunc rncnixn xcrannaxn xocr ni:inari uc ronixo nc-
pccrponxy ipnuix xoxnncxcon, uo n xuoccrncuuic auoxannn nx
pa:nnrnn: y ipnon uanpnxcp, nonnncunc ypo(nnnix xoun(ncuoc-
ncn, n:(yrix inq n r.(. |1O, 11, 31, 36, 38].
K raxnx ipnax xoiyr iri orucccui norcunnaniuo onacuic (nn
ncnoncxa naroicuuic n anncpicuuic nn(i. Haroicuuic ipni xoiyr
ocranaricn n rxaunx ncnoncnccxoio opiaun:xa, ni:inari xnxo:i, a
raxc coxpaunricn no nucmucn cpc(c.
Oinuon npnnnuon :apacunn inyoxnxn xnxo:axn no nucmucn
cpc(c nnnncrcn nocrynncunc cnop ipnon n opiaun:x ncnoncxa npn (i-
xaunn, a raxc n cnynac nonpc(cunn xouix noxponon n :auoca n
paui nuqcxnnn. Hpn n(ixaunn xpynuic cnopi (c pa:xcpox oncc
5 xxx), npounxamr n (ixarcniuic nyrn uc(ancxo n oinuo ni:inamr
:aoncnaunn uocoinorxn, n ncpnym oncpc(i cnuycnri. Ioncc xcnxnc
cnopi (15 xxx) xoiyr (ocrniari anincon n ni:inari inyoxnc xn-
xo:i.
2.4. Hopwnpoaanne coaepaanna
vaaeamx wevaaaoa a uo4ae
Crcncui onacuocrn :aipn:ucunn nonn rncnixn xcrannaxn onpc-
(cnncrcn yponucx nx no:xouoio orpnnarcniuoio nnnnunn ua xourax-
rnpymmnc cpc(i (no(y, nonny), nnmcnic npo(yxri n onocpc(onauuo
ua ncnoncxa. Ocuonuix xpnrcpncx yponun :aipn:ucunn nonni nnnn-
crcn npc(cniuo (onycrnxan xouncurpannn (HK) xnxnnccxoio nc-
xcura n naxoruox iopn:ourc nonni. B :anncnxocrn or nyrn xnipannn
63
:aipn:unmmnx ncmccrn n conpc(cniuic cpc(i ycrauonncuo ncripc
noxa:arcnn npc(uocrn n coorncrcrnymmnc nx HK: |3, 33]:
1) rpaucnoxannouuin noxa:arcni, orpaammnn ncpcxo( rncnix
xcrannon n: nonni n pacrcunn n no:xouocri uaxonncunn roxcnxau-
ron n nipamnnacxix npo(yxrax n xopxax;
2) xnipannouuin no(uin noxa:arcni, xapaxrcpn:ymmnn nocryn-
ncunc xnxnnccxnx ncxcuron n: nonni n ipyuronic no(i n no(onc-
ronunxn;
3) xnipannouuin no:(ymuin noxa:arcni, ynnrinammnn ncpcxo(
xnxnnccxnx ncxcuron n: nonni n arxocqcpy;
4) omccaunrapuin noxa:arcni, orpaammnn nnnnunc xnxnncc-
xnx ncxcuron ua caxonnmammym cnocouocri nonni n xnxpono-
ncuo:i.
B uacronmcc npcxn ycrauonncui HK nnmi (nn (nyx-rpcx (ccnr-
xon ncmccrn, no xoropix xourponnpycrcn xanccrno nonni, (nn (ou-
uix ornocunn raxnc uopxarnni noomc orcyrcrnymr. Hpnunnni
uopxnponaunn co(cpaunn xnxnnccxnx ncmccrn n nonnax ornnnamrcn
or raxo nix (nn no(ocxon, arxocqcpuoio no:(yxa n nnmcnix npo(yx-
ron. Oro oycnonncuo inanuix opa:ox rcx, nro npnxoc nocrynncunc
nx n: nonni n opiaun:x ncnoncxa oipaunncuo. amc nccio xnxnnccxnc
ncmccrna nocrynamr ncpc: cpc(i, conpc(cniuic c nonnon |48].
HK xnxnnccxnx ncmccrn n nonnax n (onycrnxic yponun nx co-
(cpaunn no noxa:arcnnx npc(uocrn npnnc(cui n ran. 2.2.
Toauuo 2.2
Hpeaeatno aouycvnwme xonuenvpaunn vaaeamx wevaaaoa a uo4aax n aouycvnwme
ypoann nx coaepaanna uo uoxasaveaaw apeanocvn
Bcmccrno
HK n nonnc
c yncrox
qoua, xi/xi
Hoxa:arcnn npc(uocrn
Tpaucno-
xannou-
uin
Mnipannouuin
Omcca-
unrapuin
Bo(uin
Bo:(ym-
uin
1 2 3 4 5 6
Ho(nnuan qopxa

Mc(i 3,O 3,5 72,O 3,O


Hnxcni 4,O 6,7 14,O 4,O
64
1 2 3 4 5 6
Hnux 23 23 2OO 37
Koanir 5 25
Ioncc
1OOO
5
Xpox 6 6
Banonoc co(cpaunc

Cypixa 4,5 4,5 4,5 5O


Mapiaucn 15OO 35OO 15OO 15OO
Mapiaucn =
naua(nn
1OOO = 1OO 15OO = 15O 2OOO = 2OO 1OOO = 1OO
Baua(nn 15O,O 17O 35O 15O
Cnnucn 3O 35 2OO 3O
Miminx 2 2 15 1O
Pryri 2,1 2,1 33,3 2,5 5,O
Cnnucn =
pryri
2O = 1,O 2O = 1,O 3O = 2,O 3O = 2,O
Ho(nnuic qopxi xc(n, unxcnn, nnuxa n:nncxamr n: nonni axxounnuo-
ancraruix yqcpuix pacrnopox pH 4,8 (nn xc(n, nnuxa n c pH 4,6 (nn unxcnn,
xoanira, ancraruo-uarpncnix yqcpuix pacrnopox c pH 3,5 (nn ccpo:cxon n
c pH 4,7 ancraruo-axxounnuix yqcpuix pacrnopox (nn nonn ocraniuix rnnon,
a xpox ancraruo-axxounnuix yqcpuix pacrnopox c pH 4,8.
Hpn nanonix co(cpaunnx rncnix xcrannon n nonnc, npcnimammnx HK,
onpc(cnnmr ronixo nx no(nnuym qopxy.
Kpoxc ipa(annn no npc(uocrn, npc(nocui 13 ipa(annn yponucn
:aipn:ucunn nonn no nanonoxy co(cpaunm rncnix xcrannon ua oc-
uonc nx xnapxonoio co(cpaunn n nonncuuox cnoc (ran. 2.3).
Hcnaionpnnruoc no:(cncrnnc raxnx ncxcuron, xax nnux, xc(i n
unxcni ua nonncuuym nory n ucxoropic noxnxnnccxnc nponccci
(qcpxcurarnnuan axrnnuocri, (ixaunc n nponnc) nponcxo(nr yc ua
23 yponunx. Honni, uannuan c 6 yponun, oruocnrcn x oncui cnniuo
:aipn:ucuuix.
Oonuonue moa. 2.2
65
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y

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x
n
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4
e
c
x
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x

a
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66
Ho crcncun onacuocrn rncnic xcranni pa:(cnnmrcn ua rpn xnac-
ca. K ncpnoxy oruocnrcn raxnc nicoxoonacuic xcranni, xax pryri,
ximinx, xa(xnn, cnnucn, ccncu, nnux, x nropoxy (cpc(uconacuoxy)
xoanir, unxcni, xonn(cu, cypixa, xpox n, uaxoucn, x rpcricxy (xa-
noonacuoxy) naua(nn, xapiaucn n noniqpax. Tncnic xcranni no-
crynamr n opiaun:x ncnoncxa no cncrcxc nonnapacrcuncnnor-
uocncnoncx |3].
Toxcnnccxoc (cncrnnc rn cnix xcrannon xocr iri npnxix n
xocncuuix. B ncpnox cny nac noxnpymrcn qcpxcuri, nro npnno(nr
x yxcuimcunm nno x npcxpamcunm nx xarannrnnccxoio (cncrnnn.
Kocncuuoc nnnnunc rncnix xcrannon ua opiaun:x nponnnncrcn n nc-
pcno(c nnrarcniuix ncmccrn n uc(ocrynuoc cocronunc n co:(a unn
iono(uon cpc(i.
Toxcnnccxn onacuon cnnracrcn ipynna rncnix xcrannon, co-
cronman n: 13 ncxcuron: pryrn, cnnuna, xa(xnn, ximinxa, cypixi,
onona, nnuxa, cpnnnnn, xc(n, apnn, xpoxa, rnraua. Hanoncc onac-
uixn n: unx npn:uaui pryri, cnnucn n xa(xnn. Opiaun:xi nponnnn-
mr pa:nnnuym nyncrnnrcniuocri x rncnix xcrannax (ran. 2.4).
Toauuo 2.4
Paam voxcn4nocvn vaaeamx wevaaaoa
Opiaun:x Pn( roxcnnuocrn
Bo(opocnn Hg ` Cu ` Cd ` Ic ` Cf ` Zn ` Co ` Mn
Ipnxn Ag ` Hg ` Cu ` Cd ` Cf ` i ` Pb ` Co ` Zn ` Ic
Hncrymnc pacrcunn Hg ` Pb ` Cu ` Cd ` Cf ` i ` Zn
Pii Ag ` Hg ` Cu ` Pb ` Cd ` Zn ` i ` Cf ` Co ` Mn
Mncxonnrammnc Ag ` Hg ` Cd ` Cn, Pb, Co, Zn ` Mn, i, Ic, Cf
Hanoncc onacuixn cnnramrcn no(nnuic qopxi rncnix xc-
rannon. Hx nonc(cunc n nonnc :anncnr or raxnx qaxropon, xax co(cp-
aunc n ucn opiaunnccxoio ncmccrna, xncnoruocri n nnoruocri, oxnc-
nnrcniuo-noccrauonnrcniuic ycnonnn n r.(.
B ran. 2.5 |3, 4, 8] npnnc(cua cmc o(ua ipa(annn rncnix xcran-
non no crcncun noinomcunn nx n: nonni pacrcunnxn. Oun pa:(c-
ncui ua rpn ipynni: norcunnaniuo roxcnnuic, n:ucuuo ucoxo(n-
xic, uaxo(nmnccn n pacrcunnx n npc(cnax uopxi n n (cqnnnrc.
67
Toauuo 2.:
Kaaccnqnxauna vaaeamx wevaaaoa uo cveuenn uoraomenna
nx pacvennawn ns uo4am
Ipynna Oncxcuri Co(cpaunc n xi/xi nonni
Horcunnaniuo
roxcnnuic
Cnnucn 3,65,8
Ka(xnn O,1O,6
Xpox O,91,5
2n:ucuuo ucoxo-
(nxic, uaxo(nmnccn
n npc(cnax uopxi
Mc(i 425
Hnxcni 2,238
Mapiaucn 2345O6
2n:ucuuo ucoxo-
(nxic, uaxo(nmnccn
n (cqnnnrc
Koanir 1,13,9
Hnux 3,88,3
Hurcucnnuocri rax ua:inacxon icoxnxnnccxon aurponoicuuon
auoxannn onpc(cnncrcn crcncuim uaxonncunn ncxcura :aipn:unrcnn
no cpanucunm c npnpo(uix qouox. Hoxa:arcncx yponun auoxannn
nnnncrcn xoqqnnncur xouncurpannn 1
C
, xoropin npc(crannncr co-
on oruomcunc co(cpaunn ncxcura n nccnc(ycxox ocxrc C x cpc(-
ucxy qouonoxy cio co(cpaunm C
q
:
1 C C
C
/ .
q
(2.1)
Kpoxc roio, (nn auoxannn paccnnrinacrcn xacca :aipn:unrcnn,
ninanmcio ua c(nunny nnoma(n n c(nunny npcxcun. Hpn rox ynn-
rinacrcn oman xacca noroxa :aipn:unrcncn (cpc(uccyronuan nincnan
uaipy:xa) 1 (xi/xx
2
) n xouncurpannn ncxcura, xi/xi ninn. Ha ocuo-
naunn rnx (auuix paccnnrinacrcn oman uaipy:xa, co:(anacxan noc-
rynncuncx xnxnnccxoio ncxcura n oxpyammym cpc(y:
1 C1
om
, (2.2)
n xoqqnnncur oruocnrcniuoio yncnnncunn omcn uaipy:xn nc xcura
1 1 1
1

om q
/ . (2.3)
68
Toauuo 2.6
Opnenvnpoao4naa mxaaa ouenxn sarpasnenna cneroaoro uoxpoaa
n uo4am avwocqepnmwn ocaaxawn
Ka-
rcio-
pnn
Yponcui
:aipn:ucunn
Cocronunc
arxocqcpuoio
no:(yxa
Hoxa:arcnn
:aipn:ucunn cucionoio
noxpona n nonn
I Hn:xnn 1
C
II
Cpc(unn,
yxcpcuuo
onacuin
Hpcnimcunc HK
or(cniuix :aipn:un-
mmnx ncmccrn (nini,
oxcn(i yincpo(a n
a:ora, ccpuncrin
auin(pn(); co(cpa-
unc rncnix xcran-
non nimc qoua
Cpc(unn yponcui :aipn:ucunn
nonn (Z
c
1632) n cucionoio
noxpona (Z
c
64128); noni -
mcuuan :anincuuocri cuc-
uoio noxpona (cpc(uccyronuan
uaipy:xa 25O45O xi/xx
2
);
co(cpaunc n nonnc cnnuna
oncc 1OO xi/xi
III
Bicoxnn,
onacuin
Hpcnimcunc xoxn-
ncxca :aipn:unmmnx
ncmccrn (nini,
oxcn(i yincpo(a n
a:ora, ccpuncrin
auin(pn(); co(cpa-
unc or(cniuix
xcrannon (inanuix
opa:ox cnnuna)
nimc HK
Bicoxnn yponcui :aipn:ucunn
nonn (Z
c
64128) n cuciono-
io noxpona (Z
c
128256).
B cocranc auoxannn npncyrcr-
nymr xcranni 1 xnacca onac -
uocrn (Pb, Cd, Hg) c 1
C
> 1O;
co(cpaunc Pb n nonnc oncc
25O xi/xi; cpc(uccyronuin
yponcui nina(cunn ninn
45O8OO xi/xx
2
IV
Oncui
nicoxnn,
npc:ninanuo
onacuin
Hpcnimcunc HK
(nuoi(a xuoioxpar-
uoc) xoxnncxca
:aipn:unmmnx
ncmccrn, n rox nncnc
pn(a rncnix
xcrannon
Oncui nicoxnn yponcui :ai-
pn:ucunn nonn (Z
c
> 128) n cuc-
ionoio noxpona(Z
c
> 256);
n cocranc auoxannn n nonnc
npncyrcrnymr (Pb > 4OO xi/xi)
n (Hg > 2,1 xi/xi), nro nnnncr-
cn nu(nxaropox npcnimcunn
HK rnx nuipc(ncuron n
no:(yxc; oncui nicoxan :ani -
ncuuocri cucionoio noxpona
(cpc(uccyronuan uaipy:xa
oncc 8OO xi/xx
2
)
69
B ypanucunn
1 C 1
q q nq
, (2.4),
i(c C
q
qouonoc co(cpaunc ncxcura; 1
nq
qouonan nincnan uaipy:xa nc-
xcura; 1
q
qouonan uaipy:xa nccnc(ycxoio ncxcura.
Hocxonixy nonni nacro :aipn:ucui cpa:y uccxonixnxn ncxcura-
xn, ro (nn unx paccnnrinamr cyxxapuin noxa:arcni :aipn:ucunn Z
c
,
orpaammnn qqcxr no:(cncrnnn ipynni ncxcuron:
Z 1 n
c C

n

( )

1
1
, (2.5)
i(c n nncno ynnrinacxix ncxcuron.
cnn Z
c
< 16, ro nonna oruocnrcn x ncpnon xarciopnn :aipn:ucunn,
Z
c
1632 xo nropon, Z
c
33128 x rpcricn xarciopnn n Z
c
> 128
x ncrncpron. B rannnax npnnc(cui oncuxn :aipn:ucunn cucionoio
noxpona n nonn (ran. 2.6) n no(uix cncrcx (ran. 2.7).
Toauuo 2.
Opnenvnpoao4naa mxaaa ouenxn sarpasnenna aoanmx cncvew
Yponcui
:aipn:ucunn
Cyxxapuin noxa:arcni
:aipn:ucunn Z
c
roxcnn-
uix ncxcuron n (ouuix
ornocunnx
Co(cpaunc roxcnnuix ncxcu-
ron n no(c
Cnain Mcucc 1O
Cnao nonimcuuic oruocnrcniuo
qoua
Cpc(unn 1O3O
Honimcuuic oruocnrcniuo qoua;
nn:o(nnccxoc npcnimcunc HK
Cnniuin 3O1OO
Bo xuoio pa: nimc qoua; cranni-
uoc npcnimcunc or(cniuixn
ncxcuraxn yponucn HK
Oncui
cnniuin
Ioncc 1OO
Hpaxrnnccxn nocronuuoc npn-
cyrcrnnc xuoinx ncxcuron nimc
HK
Oncuxa onacuocrn :aipn:ucunn nonn xoxnncxcox ncxcuron no
noxa:arcnm Z
c
npono(nrcn no oncuonuon mxanc (ran. 2.8), pa:pao-
7O
rauuon ua ocuonc n:yncunn cocronunn :(oponin uaccncunn, nponna-
mmcio ua rcppnropnnx c pa:nnnuix yponucx :aipn:ucunn nonn.
Toauuo 2.&
Opnenvnpoao4naa oueno4naa mxaaa ouacnocvn sarpasnenna uo4a
uo cywwapnowy uoxasavea
Karciopnn
:aipn:ucunn
Z
c
H:xcucunc :(oponin uaccncunn n onaiax
:aipn:ucunn
onycrnxan Mcucc 16
Hn:xnn yponcui :aoncnacxocrn (crcn n
xnunxyx qyuxnnouaniuix orxnoucunn
Yxcpcuuo
onacuan
1632
Yncnnncunc omcio yponun :aoncnac-
xocrn
Onacuan 32128
Yncnnncunc omcio yponun :aoncnac-
xocrn, nncna nacro oncmmnx (crcn, (c-
rcn c xpounnccxnxn :aoncnaunnxn, ua-
pymcuncx qyuxnnounponaunn ccp(cnuo-
cocy(ncron cncrcxi
pc:ninanuo
onacuan
Ioncc 128
Yncnnncunc :aoncnacxocrn (crcn, uapy-
mcunc pcnpo(yxrnnuon qyuxnnn cu-
mnu (yncnnncunc cnynacn roxcnxo:a c-
pcxcuuocrn, npc(cnpcxcuuix po(on,
po(cunn xcprnix (crcn)
Hpn uopxnponaunn :aipn:ucunn oxpyammcn cpc(i ucoxo(nxo
pa:yxuoc concraunc (nyx no(xo(on: uopxnponaunn no co(cpaunm
:aipn:unmmnx ncmccrn n ocxrax oxpyammcn cpc(i n uopxnpona-
unn no crcncun rpaucqopxannn oxpyammcn cpc(i n pc:ynirarc cc
:aipn:ucunn.
Hcnoni:onaunc HK uc ncci(a npc(crannncrcn onpan(auuix n cnny
ocxrnnuix npnnnu, raxnx xax nonnqyumnouaniuocri n icrcpoicu-
uocri nonni, pa:uoopa:nc cc rnnon, pa:uopo(uocri xnxnnccxnx co-
c(nucunn :aipn:unmmnx ncmccrn, nponnncunc cnucpin:xa n auraio-
un:xa xc(y ncxcuraxn, cnocouocri nnix opiaun:xon x a(anra-
nnn, a nonni x caxonoccrauonncunnx n (p. Hcpcnncncuuic qaxropi
rpcymr co:(aunn ccxoucnuoio xuoccrna HK :aipn:unmmnx nc-
71
mccrn n nonnc (nn xa(oio xouxpcruoio cnynan, nro nnnncrcn ucpcani-
uix. Horoxy ncc xoi(a-nno pa:paorauuic HK rncnix xcrannon
n nonnc y(yr n :uannrcniuon crcncun ycnonuixn.
Cnc(ycr raxc orxcrnri, nro, no xucunm ucxoropix anropon |13,
16, 25, 33, 4O], ncnoni:onaunc cyxxapuoio xoqqnnncura rcxuoicu-
uoio :aipn:ucunn, rax c xax n cncrcxa HK, nxccr pn( oipaunncunn.
Bo-ncpnix, npn pacncrc (auuoio noxa:arcnn uc ynnrinacrcn pa: nnnuan
crcncui roxcnnuocrn ncxcuron, nro xocr npnnccrn nnn x uc(o-
oncuxc crcncun xonoinnccxon uanpncuuocrn (ccnn nonna :aipn:-
ucua ncxcuraxn c oncui nicoxon roxcnnuocrim), nnn ncpconcuxc
(ccnn n co cranc :aipn:ucunn npcona(amr xcucc roxcnnuic ncxcu-
ri). Hnnmcrpanncn roio xocr cnynri cnc(ymmnn npnxcp. Hpn
auann:c ycnonuon nonni ^ 1, n ucn uamnn nnrnxparuoc npc nimcunc
qouonon xouncurpannn no xa(xnm n nnrnxparuoc no cnnuny, a n
ycnonuon nonnc ^ 2 nnrnxparuoc npcnimcunc qoua no xc(n n xap-
iauny. B oonx cnynanx cyxxapuin xoqqnnncur rcxuoicuuoio :a-
ipn:ucunn cocrannncr 9 c(nunn, r.c. n (nyx ucpanuo:uanuix no crcnc-
un onacuocrn cnynanx cyxxapuin xoq qnnncur rcxuoicuuoio :aipn:-
ucunn nonynnncn o(nuaxonix. Mc(y rcx concpmcuuo oncnn(uo, nro
n nonnc ^ 1 :aipn:ucunc iopa:(o oncc onacuo, ncx n nonnc ^ 2.
K roxy c n cnynac, ccnn rcppnropnn :aipn:ucua npcnxymccrncu uo o(-
unx nnn (nyxn ncxcuraxn, cyxxapuin xoqqnnncur rcxuoicuuo io
:aipn:ucunn uc orpaacr pcaniuon uanpncuuocrn xonoinnccxon cn-
ryannn. Tax, uanpnxcp, npn uannnnn n nonnc n:ironuon xouncurpa-
nnn xa(xnn (co(cpaunc ocraniuix ncxcuron ua yponuc, nn:xox x
qouo noxy) yponcui :aipn:ucunn, coinacuo cymccr nymmcn mxanc, y-
(cr cnnraricn un:xnx |37], (ac ccnn qouonoc co(cpaunc ncxcura
npcnimcuo n 15 pa: n (ocrniacr :uancunn 51O xi/xi nonni, nro :ua-
nnrcniuo nimc yponun HK n npc(crannncr onac uocri xax (nn :(o-
ponin uaccncunn, rax n (nn nonncuuon xocncrcxi.
B cnn:n co cxa:auuix nimc xoqqnnncur rcxuoicuuoio :aipn:-
ucunn xocr mnpoxo ncnoni:onaricn ronixo (nn oncuxn omcio
icoxnxnnccxoio no:(cncrnnn rcxuoicuuix nponcccon ua nau(maq-
ri. B ro c npcxn nonirxn uanrn xoppcnn nnm xc(y nonyncuuix
xoqqnnncurox n xonoinnccxnx cocronuncx nonn, a raxc cocro-
nuncx :(oponin uaccncunn niinn(nr uc(ocraronuo oocuonauuixn.
72
nn ycrpaucunn yxa:auuix uc(ocrarxon ucoxo(nxo npn pacncrc
nurcipaniuoio noxa:arcnn conoxynuoio (cncrnnn ncxcuron ynccri
crc ncui roxcnnuocrn xa(oio ncxcura, nro xouo (ocrnni nnc(c-
uncx (ononunrcniuoio cyxxapuoio nurcipaniuoio noxa:arcnn (),
paccnnrinacxoio ua ocuonc nuqopxannn o co(cpaunn n nonnc rox-
cnnuix ncxcuron, nx qouonox :uancunn, a raxc caunrapuo-inin-
cunnccxnx uopxarnnax |39]. Oror xoqqnnncur paccnnrinacrcn no
qopxync
1 C C 1

( )
,

,
]
]
]

/ ,
qou
1
(2.6)
i(c C

qaxrnnccxan xouncurpannn -io ncxcura; C


qou
qouonan xouncurpa-
nnn -io ncxcura; n xonnnccrno :aipn:unrcncn.
1/HK-1

xoqqnnncur oruocnrcniuon onacuocrn -io ncxcu-


ra. cnn co(cpaunc ncxcura nnn coc(nucunn panuo nnn unc qo-
uonoio, ro npn pacncrax no qopxync 2.6 oruomcunc Ci/C
qou
npnun-
xacrcn panuix c(nunnc.
nn y(ocrna :uancunc 1 ncpcno(nrcn n :axpirym 1OO-anniuym
mxany. nn roio ou cooruocnrcn c ucxnx n(caniuix xoqqnnncu-
rox, coorncrcrnymmnx uc:aipn:ucuuon nonnc (r.c. nonnc, nxcmmcn
oncuxy 1OO annon). Hocxonixy xouncurpa nnn ncxcuron n uc:aipn:-
ucuuon nonnc y(cr panua nnn unc qouonon, cyxxapuin xoqqn-
nncur xouncurpannn (nn uc:aipn:ucuuon nonni y(cr paccnn rinaricn
no qopxync
1 1

u
qou

,
1
(2.7)
i(c 1
qou
cyxxapuin xoqqnnncur xouncurpannn (nn qouonon nonni (onc-
uonuin ann pancu 1OO); n xonnnccrno :aipn:unrcncn; 1

xoqqnnncur or-
uocnrcniuon onacuocrn -io ncxcura.
Toi(a unmeepoaint ouenount oaa :oepu:nenuu nouot y(cr onpc-
(cnnricn cnc(ymmnx opa:ox:
I
qou
- 1OO / , 1 1 (2.8)
i(c I nurcipaniuin oncuonuin ann, uaxo(nmnncn n npc(cnax or O (o 1OO; nc-
nnnnua 1 paccnnrinacrcn no qopxync 2.6.
73
Taxnx opa:ox, npcnxymccrno nurcipaniuoio noxa:arcnn no cpan-
ucunm c cyxxapuix xoqqn nncurox rcxuoicuuoio :aipn:ucunn co-
cronr n yncrc :uannxocrn or(cni uix ncxcuron n npc(cranncunn xo-
ucnuoio pc:ynirara oncuxn n crau(apruon qopxc, ncnoni:ycxon npn
ounrnponxc nonn.
Hapn(y c xoxnncxcuix no(xo(ox x n:yncunm nonoinnccxoio o-
cxra nonni, n xoropin nxo(nr c(nuoopa:nc xcro(nx n xcro(on nc-
cnc(onaunn, n(cr noncx yunncpcaniuoio xcro(a onpc(cncunn n noxa-
:arcnn nonoinnccxon axrnnuocrn nonni.
Yunncpcaniuoio xcro(a ua (auuin xoxcur uc cymccrnycr, uo no:-
xocu onpc(cncuuin uaop xcro(on noxounropnuia n no(naiuoc-
rnxn nonn, c noxomim xoropix y(cr ninnncu pn( noxa:arcncn:
nncncuuocri axrcpnn (n rox nncnc cnopoopa:ymmnx n axrc-
pnn po(a Azotobactcf), axrnuoxnncron, xnxpoxnncron;
(ixaunc nonni (nurcucnnuocri ni(cncunn n: nonni CO
2
);
ncnnmno:onnrnnccxan (nporca:uan) cnocouocri nonn, nurcu-
cnnuocri uaxonncunn cnoo(uix axnuoxncnor, cxopocri pa:nocunn
xoncnnui;
axrnnuocri qcpxcuron (xarana:i, nuncpra:i, ypca:i, qocqora-
:i, in(poicua:i n (p.);
co(cpaunc n nonnc axxnanuoio n unrparuoio a:ora, no(nnuix
coc(nucunn qocqopa, iyxyca, yincno(on;
xanccrncuuin cocran iyxyca; qnroroxcnnuocri nonni;
pH, l.
nn oncuxn qcpxcurarnnuon axrnnuocrn nonni, xoropan ucno-
cpc(crncuuo xapaxrcpn:ycr cnocouocri nonni x caxoonnmcunm,
npc(naiacrcn ncnoni:onari nurcipaniuin noxa:arcni nonoinnccxoio
cocronunn nonni (HHIC) |28, 29], xoropin no:nonncr oncunri cono-
xynuocri nonoinnc cxnx noxa:arcncn (ran. 2.9).
nn roio n niopxc xaxcnxaniuoc :uancunc xa(oio n: noxa:a-
rcncn npnunxacrcn :a 1OO % n no oruomcunm x ucxy n nponcurax ni-
paacrcn :uancunc roio c noxa:arcnn n ocraniuix opa:nax:
I I I
1
1OO
( )
x
/
max
, (2.9)
i(c I
1
oruocnrcniuin ann noxa:arcnn; I
x
qaxrnnccxoc :uancunc no xa:arcnn;
I
max
xaxcnxaniuoc :uancunc noxa:arcnn.
74
Hocnc roio cyxxnpymrcn yc oruocnrcniuic :uancunn xuoinx
noxa:arcncn. Hx aconmruic :uancunn cyxxnponaui iri uc xoiyr,
rax xax nxcmr pa:uic c(nunni n:xcpcunn:
I I I I I
cp
+ + +
( )
1 2
,... / ,
n
A (2.1O)
i(c I
cp
cpc(unn oncuonuin ann noxa:arcncn; A nncno noxa:arcncn
Hurcipaniuin noxa:arcni nonoinnccxoio cocronunn nonni pac-
cnnrinamr no qopxync:
HHIC I I
cp cp

( )
/ ,
max
1OO (2.11)
i(c I
cp
cpc(unn oncuonuin ann nccx noxa:arcncn; I
cp

max
xaxcnxaniuin
oncuonuin ann nccx noxa:arcncn.
Toauuo 2.9
Kaaccnqnxauna uo4a uo cveuenn sarpasnenna na ocnoae
nnverpaatnoro uoxasaveaa axoaoro-noaorn4ecxoro cocvoanna uo4am
Honni
Crcncui cunc-
unn HHOICH
Hapymacxic xono-
innccxnc qyuxnnn
Co(cpaunc
n nonnc TM
Hc:aipn:ucuuic Hc nponcxo(nr 0ou
Cnao:aipn:ucu-
uic
1O % Huqopxannouuic 0ou 1 HK
Cpc(uc:aipn:-
ucuuic
1O25 %
Xnxnnccxnc, qn:n-
xo-xnxnnccxnc,
noxnxnnccxnc,
ncnocruic
11O HK
Cnniuo:aipn:-
ucuuic
` 25 % 0n:nnccxnc ` 1O HK
Hpn (naiuocrnxc :aipn:ucunn :a 1OO % npnunxacrcn :uancunc xa-
(oio n: rnx noxa:arcncn n uc:aipn:ucuuon nonnc n no oruomcunm x
ucxy n nponcurax nipaacrcn :uancunc roio c noxa:arcnn n :aipn:-
ucuuon nonnc.
Hpn aurponoicuuox no:(cncrnnn ua nonny cpc(ucc :uancunc ni-
pauuix noxa:arcncn n onimnucrnc cnynacn cunacrcn, n ro npcxn
xax or(cniuic noxa:arcnn nonoinnccxon axrnnuocrn nonni xoiyr
yncnnnnnaricn.
Hpn pacncrc nurcipaniuoio noxa:arcnn nonoinnccxoio cocronunn
nonni (onui ncnoni:onaricn uc nmic noxa:arcnn nonoinnccxon
axrnnuocrn nonn, a uanoncc nuqopxarnnuic. Hxcuuo oun (onui
cocrannnri ocuony nurcipaniuoio noxa:arcnn. Hpn rox noxa:arcnn
cnoncrn nonni, nxo(nmnc n nurcipaniuin noxa:arcni, xoiyr pa:nn-
naricn n :anncnxocrn or roio, (cncrnnc xaxoio aurponoicuuoio qax-
ropa nccnc(ycrcn n uopxnpycrcn. Hpoqnniuo-icucrnnccxnn xcro(
npc(ycxarpnnacr oncuxy nonoinnccxon axrnnuocrn uc ronixo ncpx-
unx iopn:ouron nonn, uo n nccio icucrnnccxoio npoqnnn (o xarcpnu-
cxon nopo(i.
Cuncunc nurcipaniuoio noxa:arcnn, xax npannno, uaxo(nrcn n
npnxon :anncnxocrn or crcncun no:(cncrnnn aurponoicuuoio qaxro-
pa. Oxounarcniuoc qopxnponaunc uaopa noxa:arcncn, cocrannnmmnx
nurcipaniuin noxa:arcni, rpcycr (aniucnmcn pa:paorxn.
76
Iaaaa 3. TEXHOIEHHbE IEOXHMHHECKHE
AHOMAHH
3.1. Bnam n cvpyxvypa vexnorennmx anowaan
Hcpcxcmcunc ncxcuron n oxpyammcn cpc(c nponcxo(nr n no(-
uo- n no:(ymuo-xnipannouuix noroxax, a raxc npn nonoinnccxox
noinomcunn ncxcuron pacrnrcniuocrim (rpaucnoxannn) c nocnc(y-
mmnx pacnpocrpaucuncx no rpoqnnccxnx ncnnx nnix opiaun:xon.
Hurcucnnuocri xnipannn rncnix xcrannon onpc(cnncrcn cxopocrim
oxcua n ncpcpacnpc(cncunn xc(y xoxnoucuraxn npnpo(uon cpc(i
n :anncnr or qn:nnccxnx, qn:nxo-xnxnnccxnx n nonoinnccxnx
cnoncrn npnpo(uix ocxron, onpc(cnnmmnx cooruomcunc xc(y
cxopocrim ncpcxo(a xcrannon n xonniuoc cocronunc n cxopocrnxn
nx ncpcuoca n oca(cunn (pnc. 3.1)
B pacnpc(cncunn xnxnnccxnx ncxcuron n :ouc inncpicuc:a
(nponccca, nporcxammcio n ncpxucn nacrn :cxuon xopi n ua cc no-
ncpxuocrn) onpc(cnnmmym poni nipamr icoxnxnnccxnc apicpi,
npc(crannnmmnc coon :oui pc:xoio yxcuimcunn xnipannouuon
cnocouocrn xaxnx-nno xnxnnccxnx ncxcuron. B raxnx :ouax no:-
unxacr nonimcuuic nx xouncurpannn, n rox nncnc opa:onaunc
npoximncuuix xccropo(cunn. Icoxnxnnccxnc apicpi, no cy-
mccrny, npc(crannnmr coon :oui, i(c nponcxo(nr pc:xan cxcua
xapaxrcpa nponcccon, nporcxammnx n pacrnopax. Hanpnxcp, ncpc-
xo( oxncnnrcniuix nponcccon n noccrauonnrcniuic, cxcua npo-
nccca pacrnopcunn opa:onauncx oca(xon n (p. Cpc(n icoxnxnncc-
xnx apicpon ni(cnnmr noicoxnxnnccxnc, qn:nxo-xnxnnccxnc n
xcxaunnccxnc |1, 2, 41].
77
Inoicoxnxnnccxnc apicpi no:unxamr n pc:ynirarc nurcucnnuoio
:axpcnncunn :ua nnrcniuoio nncna xaxpo- n xnxponcxcuron nnixn
opiaun:xaxn. 0n:nxo-xnxnnccxnc opa:ymrcn :a cncr n:xcucunn crc-
ncun oxncncunn, a(copnnn opa:onaunn in(poxcn(on, cyniqn-
(on n r.n. Pa:nnnamr xncnopo(uic, ccpono(opo(uic, inccnic (incn
iopn:our nonncuuoio npoqnnn, cccrpyxrypuin, xapaxrcpuin (nn
:aononcuuix nonn), noccrauonnrcniuic n orcyrcrnnn xncnopo(a n
ccpono(opo(a, mcnonuic n (pyinc apicpi. Mcxaunnccxnc no:unxa-
mr npn n:xcucunn cxopocrn no:(ym uix nnn no(uix noroxon n ncnc(-
crnnc qnnirpannouuix qqcxron. Poni xcxaunnccxoio apicpa xoiyr
ncnonunri nopncric n:nccrunxonic nopo(i, nccnauic n innuncric
npocnon n ronmc nopo(i n r.n.
Icoxnxnnccxnc apicpi uc ocramrcn ncnuo ucn:xcuuixn. Ho xcpc
uaxonncunn ua unx pa:nnnuix ncmccrn no:xouo pa:pymcunc ncxo(-
uix n opa:onaunc uonix apicpon. Hanpnxcp, ncp nouananiuo nnnm-
nnaniuin xapouaruin iopn:our qopxnpycrcn n pc :ynirarc xnipannn
Pnc. 3.1. 0opxi xnipannn rncnix xcrannon n npnpo(uix n nonncuuix no(ax
I
n
(
p
o
x
c
i

I
c

n

M
n

n

c
o
p

n
p
o
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a
u
u
i
c

u
a

u
n
x

x
a
r
n
o
u
i
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y
n
i
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n
(
i
,

x
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p

o
-
u
a
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i
,

c
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i

n

(
p
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c

c
o
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B

c
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a
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c

o
p
i
a
u
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u
c
-
c
x
o
i
o

(
c
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a
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o

o
(
u
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i
K
o
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n
n
c
x
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u
i
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c
o
c
(
n
u
c
u
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n
H
c
o
p
i
a
u
n
u
c
c
x
n
c
O
p
i
a
u
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u
c
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o
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n
a
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n

a
c
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o
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a
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i
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n
(
p
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u
c
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o
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n
n
Hcopiaunuccxnc
(cyniqaruic, xnopn(-
uic, in(poxapouar-
uic, in(poxcoxoxnncx-
ci n (p.)
MHIPHPYKUH BUCTBA
B3BUHHI KOuuOHHI
HCTHHHO
PACTBOPHHI
C un:xoxoncxynnpui-
xn opiaunuccxnxn
nniau(axn (axnuo-,
oxcn-, xapouonic
xncnori, xoucnnua,
DTA n (p.)
C nicoxoxoncxynnpui-
xn opiaunuccxnxn
nniau(axn (iyxyconic,
cnxonono(ouic
ncmccrna, nonnncnrn(i
n (p.)
78
xaninnn nnn nurcucnnuoio nocrynncunn CO
2
, n npn rox opa:ycrcn
xaninnr. ancc iopn:our xaninnra nicrynacr xax mcnonuon xapouar-
uin apicp (nn raxnx ncxcuron, xax crpounnn, cnnucn, nnux, xa(-
xnn, xoanir n xc(i.
Pn( ncmccrn npn xnipannn rcpncr no(nnuocri n :a(cpnnacrcn
ua icoxnxnnccxox apicpc. B cnynac xyxynnrnnuoio uaxonncunn rn-
cnix xcrannon (ac n cnaono(nnuix qop xax uapymacrcn icoxn-
xnnccxan ycronnnnocri cncrcx. Oun :aipn:unmrcn, uo npn rox npo-
ncxo(nr onnmcunc no(uix noroxon, ncpcuocnmnx roxcnxauri, n oi-
paunncunc cqcpi :aipn:ucunn. Hanpnxcp, npn nocrynncunn npc(uix
xoxnoucuron n cocranc ia:onincnix nipo con apicpox nnnncrcn pac-
rnrcniuin noxpon, :a(cpnnammnn rcxuoicuuic noroxn. 3aipn:ucu-
uic no(i, npoxo(n ncpc: nonny, onnmamrcn or roxcnxauron, uo caxa
nonna n pc:ynirarc crauonnrcn ipn:uon. Koxnoucuri rcxuoicuuoio
noroxa, uc :a(cpauuic nonnon, npounxamr n uncncamnc iopn-
:ouri, (ocrniamr yponun nonncuuo-ipyuronix no( n :aipn:unmr nx.
B pc:ynirarc xnipannn n xouncurpnponaunn xcrannon n oxpyam-
mcn cpc(c opa:ymrcn icoxnxnnccxnc auoxannn |1, 4, 15, 29]. Oun
npc(crannnmr coon ynacrxn :cxnn c cymccrncuuo nonimcuuixn
xouncurpannnxn xaxnx-nno xnxnnccxnx ncxcuron nnn nx coc(nuc-
unn (no cpanucunm c qouonixn xouncurpannnxn), :axouoxcpuo pac-
nonocuuic oruocnrcniuo cxonncunn nonc:uix ncxonacxix xcc-
ropo(cunn, py(onponnncunn, ucqrnuix nnn ia:onix :anccn n (p.
Icoxnxnnccxnc auoxannn pa:(cnnmrcn no rnnax icoxnxnnccxnx
noroxon |2]. K npnpo(uix auoxannnx oruocnrcn py(oicuuic, opa-
:ymmnccn oxono xccropo(cunn, n nynxauoicuuic nnn:n nynxauon.
Aurponoicuuic icoxnxnnccxnc auoxannn npc(crannnmr coon apo-
icuuic, ni:nauuic nina(cuncx oca(xon n: no:(ymuix noroxon, in(-
poicuuic, cnn:auuic c ni(cncuncx xnxnnccxnx ncmccrn n: no(uix
noroxon, noicuuic, opa:ymmnccn :a cncr xouncurpnponaunn nnix
opiaun:xon, n ncncroicuuic, oycnonncuuic pacnpocrpaucuncx or-
xo(on.
Auoxannn pa:(cnnmrcn raxc no npn:uaxax cpc(i, n xoropon oun
inn opa:onaui: nnroxnxnnccxnc (nonni, iopuic nopo(i, (ouuic
ornocunn), cuoyxnxnnccxnc (uaxo(nmnccn n cucuox noxponc), in(-
poxnxnnccxnc (n no(ax), arxoxnxnnccxnc (n no:(yxc) n noxnxnncc-
xnc (n nnix opiaun:xax).
79
Ocuonuon crpyxrypuon c(nunncn icoxnxnnccxnx auoxannn nnnn-
mrcn opconi pacccnunn |4]. Oun npc(crannnmr coon nonn auoxani-
uix xouncurpannn :aipn:unmmnx ncmccrn n nx acconnannn, orpaa-
mmnc no:(cncrnnc ncronunxon :aipn:ucunn ua xouxpcruym rcppnro-
pnm :a npcxn nx cymccrnonaunn.
B pn(c cnynacn oun xoiyr iri cnn:auuixn c py(oopa:ymmnxn
nponcccaxn (ncpnnnuic) n c nponcccaxn nincrpnnaunn (nropnnuic).
B npc(cnax ouapycuuix opconon nyrcx oropa npo ni(cnnmr nx
n(po n ncpnqcpnnccxym nacri. 2(po opcona nnnncrcn :ouon uanoni-
mcio :aipn:ucunn, a ncpnqcpnnccxan nacri cpc(ucio n cnaoio :a-
ipn:ucunn. Crpyxrypuixn c(nunnaxn opconon nnnnmrcn onain n y:ni.
Onain opconon :oui cnnomuoio cpc(ucio :aipn:ucunn, n xoropic
xoiyr iri nxpanncui n(pa :aipn:ucunn, nxcmmnc nonimcuuoc co-
(cpaunc npc(uix ncmccrn. Onain opconon n ncpnqcpnnuon :ouc, co-
npnxacanci c :ouaxn oncc cnaoio yponun :aipn:ucunn, opa:ymr
y:ni opconon. Ccpnn cnncuuix y:non opconon qopxnpycr pcino-
uaniuoc nonc, xoropoc oo:uanacrcn ycnonuo no ipaunnc cnaoio :a-
ipn:ucunn. Taxoc nonc ua:inacrcn qouonix :aipn:ucuncx.
Tcxuoicuuic icoxnxnnccxnc auoxannn o pa:ymrcn ua ynacrxax c
pc:xo n:xcunmmnxncn nau(maqruo-ico xnxnnccxnxn ycnonnnxn n
nurcucnnuocrim xnipannn xnxnnccxnx ncxcuron, r.c. ua pa:nnnuix
icoxnxnnccxnx a picpax :a cncr nocrynncunn ncmccrn, ni:nauuoio
au rponoicuuon (cnrcniuocrim. Ho pa:xcpax auoxannn oun pa:(cnn-
mrcn ua inoaniuic, pcinouaniuic n noxaniuic. Inoaniuic auoxa-
nnn oxnarinamr ncm nocqcpy. B arxocqcpc nponcxo(nr uaxonncunc
napunxonix ia:on (n ncpnym oncpc(i CO
2
) n pc:ynirarc ccxourponi-
uoio cniaunn nccon, a raxc npnpo(uix no:(cncrnnn, uanpnxcp npn
n:ncpcunn. Pcinouaniuic auoxannn npncymn or(cniuix pcinouax,
nponnunnnx, crpauax n :ouax. Taxnc auoxannn opa:ymrcn ncnc(-
crnnc ccxourponiuoio npnxcucunn xnucpaniuix y(opcunn, n(o-
xnxnxaron, a raxc n:ironuoio nonnna ccnicxoxo:nncrncuuix xyni-
ryp, nro npnno(nr x no:unxuoncunm ccnno(uix conounaxon. Onac-
uixn (nn oxpyammcn cpc(i nnnnmrcn auoxannn, opa:ymmnccn n
pc:ynirarc pa:nnna ucqrcnpo(yxron no npcxn anapnn npn nx rpauc-
noprnponxc no rpyonpono(ax n ua rpaucnoprc, ococuuo xopcxox.
Hpn raxnx anapnnx nponcxo(nr :aipn:ucunc onimnx nnoma(cn, co-
npono(ammcccn xacconon incnim pi n nrnn. uoxaniuic auoxa-
8O
nnn cnn:aui ucnocpc(crncuuo c xouxpcruixn ocxraxn iopo(ox,
noccnxox, qapnxon, :ano(ox nnn qcpxon. Bcc oun n onimcn nnn
xcuimcn crcncun :acopnmr nonny n no(y rncp(ixn n n(xnxn orxo-
(axn, xoropic co(cpar onimoc xonnnccrno npc(uix ncmccrn. Taxnc
rcxuoicuuic opconi npocncnnamrcn ua paccronunc or corcu xcrpon
(o (ccnrxon xnnoxcrpon or ocxron :aipn:ucunn n :anncnxocrn or
xccra pacnonocunn ccrccrncuuix n ncxyccrncuuix (rcxuoicuuix)
apicpon. Hcoxo(nxo :axcrnri, nro rcxuoicuuic apicpi, xax npa-
nnno, inamr npc(uixn, :uannrcniuo pcc ucnrpaniuixn n oncui
pc(xo nonc:uixn. Hpnxcpox nonc:uoio rcxuoicuuoio apicpa nnnn-
mrcn xcponpnnrnn, cnn:auuic c nonimcuncx nno(opo(nn nonn. K unx
oruocnrcn n:nccrxonaunc n nucccunc (pyinx xnxnnccxnx ncmccrn, cno-
cocrnymmcc uaxonncunm ncxcuron nnraunn (nn ccnicxoxo:nn-
crncuuix xyniryp.
C pocrox rcxunnccxoio npoipccca xonnnccrno rcxuoicuuix auoxa-
nnn nocronuuo yncnnnnnacrcn, n oun :aipn:unmr ncc uonic n uonic
rcppnropnn. Iopia c unxn (onua nccrnci no xpanucn xcpc n (nyx
uanpanncunnx. Bo-ncpnix, ncc npon:no(crncuuic npc(npnnrnn uco-
xo(nxo n nnauonox nopn(xc no xcpc no:xouocrn ncpcno(nri ua c:-
orxo(uic n xanoorxo(uic rcxuonoinn. Bo-nropix, noxpyi ocxron,
:aipn:unmmnx rcppnropnn, (onui (cnaricn pa:nnnuic ncxyccrncu-
uic coopycunn (orcronunxn, npy(i, nnornui n r. n.), r.c. co:(anari-
cn rcxuoicuuic apicpi. Oro no:nonnr noxann:onari rcxuoicuuic
auoxannn ua oipaunncuuix nnoma(nx n coxpaunri nncrory no(uix
acccnuon n nonni n npnnciammnx panouax.
Tncnic xcranni, nocrynammnc ua noncpxuocri nonni, uaxannn-
namrcn n nonncuuon ronmc n xc(ncuuo y(annmrcn npn nimcnannna-
unn, norpcncunn pacrcunnxn, po:nn n (cqnnnnn. Hcpnin ncpno(
nonyy(ancunn (r.c. y(ancunc nononnui or uananiuon xouncurpannn
rncnix xcrannon) :aunxacr xuoio npcxcun: (nn nnuxa ou cocran nncr
or 7O (o 51O ncr, xa(xnn or 13 (o 11O, xc(n or 31O (o 15OO, cnnu-
na or 74O59OO ncr |5].
Tncnic xcranni xnipnpymr n nonnc xax n iopn:ouraniuox, rax
n ncprnxaniuox uanpanncunnx. nn rcxuoicuuix rcppnropnn xapax-
rcpuo uaxonncunc xcrannon n ncpxucx iyxyconox iopn:ourc n pc:xoc
cuncunc nx n uncncamnx cnonx. Ha xapaxrcp ncpcpacnpc(cncunn
81
rncnix xcrannon n nonnc oxa:inamr nnnnunc cc ipauynoxcrpnncc-
xnn cocran, xncnoruan pcaxnnn cpc(i, co(cpaunc opiaunnccxnx nc-
mccrn, xarnouooxcuuan cnocouocri, uannnnc icoxnxnnccxnx api-
cpon n xuoioc (pyioc. Ipauynoxcrpnnccxnn cocran ucnocpc(crncuuo
no:(cncrnycr ua :axpcnncunc n nicnoo(cunc rncnix xcrannon.
Honni rncnoio cocrana (innuncric) nponucc cnn:inamr rncnic
xcranni, n noroxy oun xcuimc nona(amr n ipyuronic no(i n pac-
rcunn.
B xncnon cpc(c npcnxymccrncuuo a(copnpycrcn cnnucn, nnux n
xc(i, a n mcnonuon xa(xnn n xoanir |2, 13]. Opa:onaunc xoxn-
ncxcuix coc(nucunn nouon xcrannon c opiaunnccxnx ncmccrnox non-
ni cnococrnycr ninc(cunm n:nnmunx xacc xcrannon n: xnipannou-
uix nnxnon ua (nnrcniuoc npcxn. Hponuocri qnxcannn pa:uix xc-
rannon n opiaunnccxox ncmccrnc nonn uco(nuaxona. B iyxycc oua
yxcuimacrcn n pn(y: pryri > cnnucn > xc(i > nnux n xa(xnn. Karno-
uooxcuuan cnocouocri nonni :anncnr or xnucpanoinnccxoio co-
crana cc nnncron qpaxnnn, a raxc or xouncurpannn n nonnc opiaun-
nccxnx ncmccrn. H:irox nnain n nonnc noxoiacr ncpcxo(y rncnix
xcrannon xax n oncc un:xnc crcncun oxncncunn, rax n n ucpacrnopn-
xic qopxi. Horoxy (pcuauic paori, pciynnpymmnc no(uin pc-
nx, cnococrnymr npncyrcrnnm oxncncuuix qopx rncnix xcran-
non, n noroxy xnipannouuan cnocouocri cunacrcn.
K nncny naucnmnx xoxnoucuron nonni, cnn:inammnx rncnic
xcranni, oruocnrcn cnnnxari, anmxocnnnxari, oxcn(i n in(poxcn-
(i. Copnnouuic cnoncrna xnucpaniuon nacrn nonn xaonnunri,
cxcxrnri, nnnnri, xourxopnnounri, ncpxnxynnri |27,35] :anncnr n
ocuonuox or innuncron qpaxnnn.
Hocnc nocrynncunn n :ouy (cncrnnn inncpicuc:a rncnic xcranni
no( (cncrnncx icoxnxnnccxon xnipannn no(ncpiamrcn :uannrcniuo-
xy ncpcpacnpc(cncunm n npocrpaucrnc. Ka(an xnipannouuan npn-
po(uan cncrcxa nnnncrcn o(uonpcxcuuo rpaucnoprnpymmcn n nxcma-
mmcn cpc(on. B pc:ynirarc icoxnxnnccxon xnipannn nponcxo(nr, c
o(uon cropoui, pacccnnaunc, a c (pyion xouncurpannn xnxnnccxnx
ncxcuron. Bcn cncrcxa or ncronunxa (o icoxnxnnccxoio apicpa ua-
:inacrcn xnipannouuix noroxox nnn ncnim pacnpocrpaucuuoio :a-
ipn:unmmcio ncmccrna. Hpn rox cnc(ycr orxcrnri, nro n npocrpau-
82
crncuuox pa:xcmcunn xnxnnccxnx ncxcuron n :ouc inncpinuc:a on-
pc(cnnmmym poni nipamr (na rnna n:anxocnn:auuix apicpon.
Inanuix n: unx nnnnmrcn icoxnxnnccxnc, a ncnoxoiarcniuixn
opoipaqnnccxnc (pcnicquic) apicpi, xoropic pciynnpymr cxopocri
n uanpanncunc xnucpann:onauuix noroxon.
B rcx cnynanx, xoi(a ua nyrn xnucpann:onauuix noroxon no:un-
xamr opoipaqnnccxnc apicpi, nponcxo(nr uapymcunc icoxnxnncc-
xnx apicpon. Oun rcpnmr cnom ycronnnnocri n pa:pymamrcn. Ho(
(cncrnncx oxncnnrcniuo-noccrauonnrcniuix n (pyinx nponcccon
nponcxo(nr ncpcpacnpc(cncunc paucc uaxonncuuix xnxnnccxnx nc-
xcuron n opa:ymrcn uonic xnxnnccxnc auoxannn. Honc(cunc rnc-
nix xcrannon n nonnax n nx icoxnxnnccxan xnipannn n ncpnym onc-
pc(i xapaxrcpn:ycrcn :uancunnxn no(opo(uoio noxa:arcnn pH n oxnc-
nnrcniuo-noccrauonnrcniuoio norcunnana l cpc(i xnipannn |31,
3739].
3.2. Texnorennme opeoam pacceanna
upowmmaennmx upeaupnavn
Mcranni, nona(ammnc n arxocqcpuin no:(yx c nipocaxn pa:-
nnnuix npon:no(crn, oca(amrcn ua nonny, pacrcunn, nnic opiaun:-
xi n xoiyr uaxannnnaricn rax (o nicoxnx, onacuix (nn n:un xou-
ncurpannn. B pc:ynirarc nonnoopa:onarcniuix nponcccon oun ncpc-
pacnpc(cnnmrcn no nonncuuoxy npoqnnm, nimcnannnamrcn n
ncpcuocnrcn ipyuronixn no(axn |17]. Ocuonuixn qaxropaxn, xour-
ponnpymmnxn nonc(cunc rncnix xcrannon n npnpo(c, nnnnmrcn nx
xnxnnccxnc n qn:nnccxnc cnoncrna, a raxc ycnonnn nucmucn cpc(i,
raxnc xax mcnonuo-xncnoruic, oxncnnrcniuo-noccrauonnrcniuic,
copnnouuan cnocouocri nonni n cxxocri noinomammcio xoxnncx-
ca. Bnn:n npoximncuuix npc(npnnrnn rncnic xcranni xouncur-
pnpymrcn n noncpxuocruox iopn:ourc nonn ua inynuc (o 2O cx, i(c
oun npncyrcrnymr n cocranc iyxyconoio ncmccrna, xapouaron n non-
ncuuox pacrnopc, rncp(ix nacrnn (acconnannn), co(cpamnx uaop
ncxcuron, y xa(oio n: xoropix nxccrcn cnon xoqqnnncur xouncu-
83
rpannn. Hanpnxcp, (nn xcrannypinnccxnx :ano(on npn xoqqnnncu-
rc xouncurpannn no oruomcunm x qouy oncc 1O acconnannn n nonnc
nxccr nn(: Co
8O
-Mo
65
- i
38
-Cd
32
-W
25
-Zn
2O
, a ncixoio xamnuocrpoc-
unn (W
18
-(i,Pb)
12
-Zn
1O
.
B arxocqcpy rncnic xcranni nocrynamr n nn(c apo:oncn n xo-
iyr ncpcuocnricn ua paccronunc (o 5O xx. O(uaxo ocuonuan nacri ia-
:onincnix nipocon oca(acrcn oxono ncronunxa xnccnn. 3oua :a-
ipn:ucunn :anncnr or (nnrcniuocrn (cncrnnn n xomuocrn ncronunxa,
xnnxarnnccxnx ococuuocrcn panoua n po:i ncrpon n nyuxrc cio pac-
nonocunn. acri rcxuoicuuix nipocon xcrannon c in(poxnxnncc-
xnx croxox nona(acr n cccronuic no(ocxi, i(c uaxannnnacrcn n no-
(ax n (ouuix ornocunnx. pyian nacri, nona(an n nonny, opa:ycr
rcxuoicuuic icoxnxnnccxnc auoxannn opconi pacccnnaunn nox-
pyi npc(npnnrnn.
Omnn nn( (xopqonoinn) opcona pacccnunn onpc(cnncrcn xapax-
rcpox pcnicqa. Ha panunuuix rcppnropnnx oun :aunxamr onimym
nnoma(i n nxcmr crpyxrypy, nn:xym x xouncurpnnccxon qopxc.
Maxcnxaniuoc co(cpaunc xcrannon, uaxo(nmnxcn n n(pc, nocrcncu-
uo yinacr n ncpnqcpnnccxon nacrn opcona. Ha pnc. 3.2 npnnc(cu
Pnc. 3.2. Tcxuoicuuin opcon paccc-
nunn n nonnax :oui nnnnunn xcran-
nypinnccxoio xoxnuara no npon:-
no(crny nncruix xcrannon: I n II
npoximncuuic nnoma(xn; T:
xourypi rcxuoicuuix opconon ua
iopo(cxon rcppnropnn no noxa:a-
rcnm :aipn:ucunn Z, cyxxnpymmc-
xy apoicuuoc uaxonncunc cnnuna,
nnuxa, xc(n, ccpcpa, xa(xnn,
noniqpaxa, onona, xonn(cua,
cypixi, nncxyra n ximinxa (1
oncc 128, 2 64128, 3 3264,
4 1632, 5 xcucc 16).
O
1 2 3 4 5
1 xx
84
npnxcp rcxuoicuuoio opcona pacccnunn rncnix xcrannon n nonnax n
panouc xpynuoio xoxnuara nncruix n ryionnanxnx xcrannon |32].
Koxnuar pacnonocu ua panunuc, nro cnococrnycr mnpoxoxy pac-
ccnunm xcrannon. Oman nnoma(i opcona :aunxacr oxono 4OO xx
2
.
Oua :aipn:ucua xnxnnccxnxn ncxcuraxn: cnnunox, nnuxox, xc(im,
ccpcpox, xa(xncx, noniqpaxox, ononox, xonn(cuox, cypixon, nnc-
xyrox n ximinxox. Onacuin yponcui :aipn:ucunn xcrannaxn (nn
ncnoncxa (Z
c
> 32) uaxo(nrcn ua rcppnropnn 1OO12O xx
2
. B ry :ouy
nxccrc c iopo(cxnx uaccncuncx nxo(nr xcnxnc uaccncuuic nyuxri,
npnyca(cuic ynacrxn n ccnicxoxo:nncrncuuic :cxnn.
Crancnnannniuin :ano( Oncxrpocrani pacnonocu n o(uonxcu-
uox iopo(c Mocxoncxon onacrn. K ccncpy or Oncxrpocrann nocr-
pocu xpynuin :ano( rncnoio xamnuocrpocunn, n nocronuox uanpan-
ncunn :ano(, npon:no(nmnn ronnnno (nn AOC, c :ana(a x onnci-
nacxoxy ocxry npnxixamr nnic xnaprani, a c mia ou oxpycu
nccuix xaccnnox. Hpo(yxnncn cio nnnnmrcn xanccrncuuic crann n
cnnani. Hpn rox n arxocqcpy ccio(uo ni pacinacrcn 1OOO r ninn
n ocuonuox or ncxrpo(yronix ncncn n or o(nponuo-mnnqonaniuix
crauxon. Bcc nn(i npoximncuuix nincn ooiamcui mnpoxnx xox-
nncxcox xnxnnccxnx ncxcuron xapiauncx, xpoxox, unxcncx, xo-
anirox, noniqpaxox n xc(im (n corun pa: nimc qoua), ccpcpox,
nncxyrox, unoncx n ononox (n (ccnrxn pa:), xonn(cuox, nnuxox,
cnnunox, xa(xncx, icpxauncx, cpnnnncx, iaquncx, opox n naua-
(ncx (n uccxonixo pa:).
Boxpyi ocxra nponcxo(nr nurcucnnuoc :aipn:ucunc nonni n cuc-
ionoio noxpona rncnixn xcrannaxn, npnncx nonna uanoncc cnniuo
:aipn:ucua n npnxixammcn x rcppnropnn :ano(a nonocc mnpnuon
O,3 xx. Yponcui :aipn:ucunn :(cci onpc(cnncrcn xax onacuin (Z
c
`64),
a ua or(cniuix ynacrxax xax npc:ninanuo onacuin (Z
c
`128). Ho
xcpc y(ancunn or :ano(a yponcui :aipn:ucunn nocnc(onarcniuo cun-
acrcn or onacuoio (o yxcpcuuo onacuoio.
B nonnc uaxannnnamrcn n ocuonuox ncxcuri, xapaxrcpuic (nn
nincnipocon :ano(on, ococuuo axrnnuo xonn(cu, unxcni, naua-
(nn n noniqpax (n (ccnrxn-corun pa: nimc qouonix :uancunn). Ha
:uannrcniuon nacrn rcppnropnn i. Oncxrpocrani co(cpa unc xpoxa n
nonnc npcnimacr HK, ua or(cniuix ynacrxax, npnxi xammnx x ipa-
85
unnax :ano(a, cio co(cpaunc npcnocxo(nr HK n 5 pa: n oncc, a no
or(cniuix ronxax oncc ncx n 1OO pa:.
3aipn:ucunc oxpyammcn cpc(i :ano(ox Oncxrpocrani xouo
npnpanunri x opa:onaunm uccauxnnounponauuon cnanxn xpoxa nc-
xcura 2-io xnacca onacuocrn. Hnoma(i :aipn:ucunn xpoxox c 1
n(x
` 1
cocrannncr 7,8 xx
2
. 0opxnponaunc opconon pacccnunn, opa:ymmnx-
cn n pc:ynirarc no:(cncrnnn npc(npnnrnn nncruon xcrannypinn, ua-
xo(nmnxcn n iopuo-(onnuuix nau(maqrax, onpc(cnncrcn (onnuuixn
ncrpaxn. Bo:(ymuin norox, oipaunncuuin iopaxn, qopxnpycr ni-
rnuyrym no (onnuc xouqniypannm opcona. 3oua :aipn:ucunn npc(-
cranncua mnpoxon acconnanncn auoxaniuix xnxnnccxnx ncxcuron
(As, Cu, Ag, Sb, Pb, Zn, Mo). Co:(anacxin nxn onacuin (nn :(oponin
uaccncunn yponcui :aipn:ucunn npocncnnacrcn ua paccronunn (o 7 xx
or xoxnuara n oxnarinacr ncci iopo(, xoropin uaxo(nrcn n ucnoc-
pc(crncuuon nn:ocrn x ucxy |4, 32].
B xpynuix iopo(ax o(uon n: nc(ymnx orpacncn npoximncuuocrn
nnnncrcn xamnuocrpocunc. B orxo(ax rnx :ano(on npcnannpymr nnux,
cnnucn n xc(i, n xcuimnx xonnnccrnax co(cparcn noniqpax, xonn-
(cu n rnrau. Oman :oua :aipn:ucunn xamnuocrponrcniuix :ano(on
onpc(cnncrcn uannnncx ua npon:no(crnc nnrcnuix ncxon. 2(po opc-
ona pacccnunn, ouapycuuoc n cucionox noxponc n panouc (nyx xa-
mnuocrponrcniuix :ano(on annannouuoio npoqnnn, uaxo(nrcn ua
npoximncuuix nnoma(xax n npnnciammnx x unx rcppnropnnx n pa-
(nycc 2OO4OO x. B ron :ouc xoqqnnncur uaipy:xn Z
c
uc npcni macr
32, a n cucic 128. Pa(nyc opcona cocrannncr 1,5 xx.
3uannrcniuo xcuimym nnoma(i :aunxamr opconi pacccnunn xa-
mnuocrponrcniuix :ano(on c opaorxon xcrannon ronixo xcxaun-
nccxnx cnocoox (xcrannopc:aunc, mnnqonaunc n (p.). 3(cci onacuic
xonoinnccxnc yponun uaxo(nrcn n npc(cnax 1,2 xx or ncronunxa :a-
ipn:ucunn xcrannaxn, x xoropix oruocnrcn Zn, Pb, Cu n W.
B opconc pacccnunn naiouocrponrcniuoio :ano(a, pacnonocuuo-
io n ncurpc i. Pocnanni Cxoncucxon onacrn, ocuonuixn :aipn:unm-
mnxn xcrannaxn nnnnmrcn cnnucn n xc(i. Onacuic yponun :aipn:-
ucunn uaxo(nrcn n npc(cnax 2 xx |5]. Hnoma(i :aipn:ucunn npn
Z
c
3264 cocrannncr 61O ia, a npn Z
c
> 64128 panua 265 ia.
Hpnopocrponrcniuic :ano(i opa:ymr xcuimnc no nnoma(n rcx-
uoicuuic opconi. 3oui no:(cncrnnn npc(uix ncmccrn co cpc(unx n
86
yxcpcuuix onacuix yponucx uc npcnimamr 6OO x, a nicoxnn n onac-
uin yponcui nxccr xccro ua paccronunn (o 15O x or ncronunxa xnc-
cnn. 3(cci ocuonuixn :aipn:unmmnxn ncmccrnaxn nnnnmrcn xa(xnn,
cnnucn n ccpcpo. Cnc(ycr orxcrnri, nro uccxorpn ua uconimnc pa:-
xcpi :ou :aipn:ucunn rnx npon:no(crn, oun cnocoui oxa:inari
uciarnnuoc nnnnunc ua :(oponic uaccncunn. Oro oycnonncuo rcx, nro
rn npc(npnnrnn xax npannno pacnonocui nuyrpn xnxpopanouon
nnix xaccnnon |14, 26, 3O].
Auoxannn, ninnncuuic n nonnax naiouopcxouruoio :ano(a n
i. Pocnannc Cxoncucxon onacrn, nxcmr qopxy c :ouon :aipn:ucunn
14 xx
2
. B npc(cnax :aipn:ucunn ni(cnncrcn n(po ynacrox uanoncc
cnniuoio :aipn:ucunn, xoropin pacnonaiacrcn ronuo noxpyi naiouo-
pcxouruoio :ano(a, ncpcxo(uan :oua c oncc un:xnxn yponunxn :a-
ipn:ucunn n ncpnqcpnnccxan :oua c yxcpcuuo onacuix yponucx
(pnc. 3.3). B :ouy onacuoio yponun :aipn:ucunn uapn(y c npoxnno-
ma(xon nona(amr n ccnnrcuic :oui. B ncnox, :oua :aipn:ucunn
ornn nacrcn nonnncxcuruix cocranox, coorncrcrnymmnx ncxcu-
rax-nu(nxaropax xamnuocrpocunn n xcrannoopaorxn, nicoxon
nurcu cnnuocrim xc(n (1
C
3O), nnuxa (1
C
18), cnnuna (1
C
16),
xpoxa (1
C
1O), unxcnn (1
C
6), pryrn (1
C
5), nro onpc(cnncr ni-
coxym cyxxapuym crcncui rcxuoicuuoio no:(cncrnnn ua npnpo(uym
iconoinnccxym cpc(y.
Auann: crpyxrypi :aipn:ucunn no cyxxapuoxy noxa:arcnm Z
c
n
no xoqqnnncurax xouncurpannn (nn uanoncc xourpacruix nc-
xcuron :aipn:unrcncn (cnnuna n xc(n) cnn(crcnicrnycr, nro rcppn-
ropnn c uanoncc nicoxnx yponucx :aipn:ucunn :aunxamr uanxcui-
mym nnoma(i n conna(amr c ncronunxox :aipn:ucunn, a rcppnropnn
c uanxcuimnx yponucx :aipn:ucunn uanonimym nnoma(i n ua-
noncc y(ancui or ncronunxa :aipn:ucunn. Hanoncc roxcnnuin
ncxcur cnnucn, ncxcur 1-io xnacca onacuocrn, opa:ycr :ouy
:aipn:ucunn no nnoma(n (14,1 xx
2
) xcuimym, ncx xc(i (17,7 xx
2
)
ncxcur 2-io xnacca onacuocrn. Hnoma(i :oui c npc:ninanuo nico-
xnx yponucx :aipn:ucunn xc(im n 3 pa:a onimc, ncx cnnunox. Hno-
ma(i :oui c 1
n(x
`1 n no cnnuny (14,4 xx
2
), n no xc(n (18,2 xx
2
)
npcnimacr nnoma (n :ou c onacuix yponucx :aipn:ucunn, ninnncu-
uix no xoqqnnn cury xouncurpannn no qouy.A
87
1 2 J 4 J 6 7
1 2 J 4 J 6 7 8 9 10
x25O O 25O 5OO x
A 1
a a a a a
1 B
Pnc. 3.3 3aipn:ucunc nonn n panouc naiouopcxouruoio :ano(a:
A cxcxa onpoonaunn nonn n (ouuix ornocunn: T naiouopcxouruin :ano(;
2 cnc:uic (opoin; J anroxo nniuic (opoin; 4 nnic xnaprani; : ron-
xn onpoonaunn (nonn n (ouuix ornocunn);
1 pacnpc(cncunc ncnnnnu cyxxapuoio noxa:arcnn :aipn:ucunn: 6T nc-
nnnnui Z
c
(o n nonnax, n (ouuix ornocunnx): 6 xcucc 16; 1632;
& 3264; 9 64128; T oncc 123;
B, 1 :aipn:ucunc nonn cnnunox (B) n xc(im (1): T: pacnpc(cncunc ncnnnnu
xoqqnnncuron xouncurpannn (1
C
): T xcucc 4; 2 48; J 816; 4 1632;
: oncc 32; 6 ro c no ncnnnnuc KHK ` 1; naiouopcxouruin :ano(
A
88
3.3. 3arpasnenne vaaeamwn wevaaaawn
upn axcuayavaunn aavowonatnoro vpancuopva
B iopo(ax |23, 41] xouncurpnpycrcn uc ronixo uaccncunc, uo n oni-
moc nncno crannouapuix n no(nnuix ncronunxon :aipn:ucunn. onn
nipocon :aipn:unmmnx ncmccrn or crannouapuix ncronunxon npc(-
npnnrnn n omcx ocxc nipocon n iopo(ax cocrannncr nnmi 3,1 %,
roi(a xax ua no(nnuic (rpaucnopr) npnxo(nrcn 96,9 %. H: no(nn-
uix ncronunxon no crcncun no:(cncrnnn ua oxpyammym cpc(y ni-
(cnncrcn anroxonniuin rpaucnopr, nipoci xoropoio n iopo(ax (o-
crniamr 5O % n oncc n omcx ocxc.
Honni n ipyuri ua rcppnropnnx, npnnciammnx x anroxaincrpannx,
ncnirinamr pciynnpuoc :aipn:ucunc rncnixn xcrannaxn, ucqrc-
npo(yxraxn n nonnnnxnnnccxnx n apoxarnnccxnxn yincno(opo(a-
xn (HAY), xoropic co(cparcn inanuix opa:ox n ia:onincnix ni-
pocax anrorpaucnopra. Ho (auuix uanm(cunn, n: omcio xonnncc-
rna nipocon rncp(ix nacrnn, nxnmnan rncnic xcranni, npnxcpuo
25 % ocracrcn (o cxina ua npoc:cn nacrn, a 75 % pacnpc(cnncrcn ua
noncpxuocrn npnnciammcn rcppnropnn, nxnmnan oonnui. B :anncn-
xocrn or xoucrpyxrnnuoio npoqnnn n nnoma(n noxpirnn n cronuic
(o(cnic nnn cxinuic no(i nona(acr or 25 (o 5O % rncp(ix nacrnn.
Co(cpaunc cnnuna ua noncpxuocrn nonni ua xpam anroxaincrpann
(ocrniacr 1OOO xi/xi, uo n ninn iopo(cxnx ynnn c oncui onimnx (nn-
cuncx ouo xocr iri n 5 pa: onimc. 3axcrnx, nro y onimnucrna
pacrcunn yiucrcunc pocra no:unxacr npn xouncurpannn cnnuna n non-
nc oncc 3OOO xi/xi.
Ho (auuix xuoinx nccnc(onarcncn, :oua uanonimnx xouncur-
pannn rncnix xcrannon ua npnxaincrpaniuon rcppnropnn ouapy-
nnacrcn ua paccronunn 5, 71O n 15 x or xpan npoc:cn nacrn (o-
poin, npnncx xouncurpannn xcrannon n nonnc ua inynuc 51O cx
n(noc xcuimc, ncx n noncpxuocruox cnoc ((o 5 cx). Ha paccronunn
25 x or xpan npoc:cn nacrn xouncurpannn rncnix xcrannon cun-
acrcn npnxcpuo n(noc, a ncpc: 1OO x npnnnacrcn x qouonon |22,
28, 33].
C ncnim auann:a no:xouoio pacccnnaunn :aipn:unmmnx ncmccrn
ua iopo(cxnx rcppnropnnx nccnc(onancn xnxnnccxnn cocran cxccn
89
cucia n ipyura, oropauuon n:-no( xonccuix apox anroxonncn, npo-
cxanmnx :nxon no ynnnax Mocxni. Cocran ron cxccn xocr cnynri
nu(nxaropox rcxuoicuuoio :aipn:ucunn, cnn:auuoio c anrorpaucnop-
rox. Hpn auann:c ino ninnncuo npcnimcunc OK nnuxa n 1,84 pa:a,
roi(a xax co(cpaunc (pyinx rncnix xcrannon n ximinxa uc npcni-
mano coorncrcrnymmnx HK.
3aipn:ucuuin cuci n:-no( xoncc anroxonncn uc ronixo ncrnr ua
oonnui (opoi, uo n ncpcuocnrcn anroxonncx ua ynacrxn nx npcxcu-
uix n nocronuuix napxonox, yxy(man rcx caxix xonoinnccxym cn-
ryannm no nccn ccnnrcuon :ouc. nn cuncunn uaxonncunn rncnix
xcrannon n nonnax n ipyurax 2O-xcrponon npnxaincrpaniuon nonoci
npocxrnpycxon rpacci n npnnc(cunn noxa:arcncn :aipn:ucunn n co-
orncrcrnnc c uopxarnnuixn rpconaunnxn, nocnc nnc(cunn (opoin n
xcnnyarannm cpa:y nocnc oxounaunn crponrcnicrna npono(nrcn
cnnomuoc :a(cpucunc noncpxuocrn npn(opouon nonoci, npc(ornpa-
mammcc pacnincunc :aipn:ucuuix nonn n ipyuron, n opiaun:ycrcn
yxo( :a ia:ouox. ancc ncpc: xa(ic 5 ncr ua ynacrxax anrorpacci,
pacnonocuuix n ucnocpc(crncuuon nn:ocrn or ccnnrcuix rcppn-
ropnn, nxcmr xccro cnc(ymmnc xcponpnnrnn |2O, 21, 24, 25]:
pciynnpuin nonnn ia:oua n ncicrannouuin ncpno( c ncnim nac-
rnnuoio cxina :aipn:ucuuix nincnarix nacrnn n I (pcuauo-xonncx-
ropuym ccri;
y(ancunc ncpxucio (cpuonoio iopn:oura ronmnuon uc xcucc
O,15 x c :axcuon cio cnocx nncroio ipyura ronmnuon uc xcucc O,2 x n
nocnc(ymmnx (nonuix noccnox ia:ouuix rpan.
Hpnxcucunc rnnnponauuoio cu:nua, nxcmmcio n cnocx cocranc
rcrparnncnnucn, ni:inacr :aipn:ucunc arxocqcpuoio no:(yxa xax
rnx coc(nucuncx, rax n (pyinxn roxcnnuixn coc(nucunnxn cnnu-
na. Orn ncmccrna nipacinamrcn n oxpyammym cpc(y n nn(c apo-
:oncn.
Coc(nucunn cnnuna n nn(c rncnix apo:oncn uaxo(nrcn n no:(yxc
n rcncunc 14 uc (cni, n (nnrcniuocri nx npcinaunn :anncnr or pa:-
xcpa n xacci nacrnn. Ha 1 xx nyrn ncixonon anroxonni nipacina-
cr 19 xi coc(nucunn cnnuna n nn(c nacrnn (naxcrpox oncc 9 xxx,
11 xi 19 xxx, 19 xi xcucc 1 xxx, nro cocrannncr 39, 22 n 39 %
or omcio nipoca. Cpc(unn pa:xcp nacrnn cnnuna O,2O,5 xxx.
9O
Ococuuo cnniuo uciarnnuoc nnnnunc cnnuna nponnnncrcn n iopo-
(ax, nxcmmnx cnouic nau(maqri. Ha pnc. 3.4 npnnc(cua auoxannn
cnnuna, uaxo(nmancn ua rcppnropnn iopo(a c iopuo-(onnuuix xapax-
rcpox pcnicqa. B raxox iopo(c opa:ycrcn omnpuin opcon cnnuna,
n ocuonuox cocpc(oroncuuin n (onnuuon nacrn. Oro nponcxo(nr :a
cncr crcxaunn nipocon anrorpaucnopra npn nouncunn pcnicqa.
Oman nnoma(i opcona pacccnunn cnnuna :aunxacr oxono 6O % rcp-
pnropnn iopo(a, a nicoxnn yponcui :aipn:ucunn nonrn nononnuy
yponun opcona |32, 33].
Ha :aipn:ucunc iopo(on coc(nucunnxn cnnuna cnniuoc nnnnunc
oxa:inacr pcnx (nncunn anroxonncn. Bipoci co c(nucunn cnnu-
Pnc. 3.4. Auoxannn cnnuna n nonnax c nurcucnnuon anroxonniuon uaipy:xon
oxono 1OOO anroxamnu ua 1 xn xx
2
n iopuo-(onnuuox nau(maqrc: T xpyric
cxnoui; 2 moccc ocuonuic; J moccc ncnoxoiarcniuic; 4 nnucnuic auo-
xannn cnnuna c co(cpauncx n nonnc 25O5OO xi/xi; : nnoma(uic auoxa-
nnn cnnuna (: xcucc 25O xi/xi, 6 25O5OO xi/xi, oncc 5OO xi/xi); &
nyuxri, i(c ycrauonncui npcnimcunn HK cnnuna n arxocqcpuox no:(yxc
Bo(uin acccnu
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
91
na anroxonniuix rpaucnoprox onpc(cnnmrcn uannnncx n cu:nuax
rcrparnncnnuna. Horoxy nipoc cnnuna xouo onpc(cnnri no pac-
xo(y cu:nua ua 1 xx nyrn npn n:nccruon cxopocrn anroxonnn n xa-
(ox pcnxc (nncunn.
Hpn cpc(ucx io(onox npocic anroxonnn n 1O ric. xx c pacxo(ox
ronnnna 13,5 n ua 1OO xx n cpc(ucx co(cp aunn rcrparnncnnuna n
cu:nuc O,37 i/xi, rnx anroxonncx ccio(uo ni pacinacrcn n ar-
xocqcpy oxono 2 xi rncp(ix nacrnn, co(cpamnx npnxcpuo 37O i
cnnuna.
Hccnc(onaunc nnnnunn anroxonniuoio rpaucnopra ua :aipn:uc-
unc nonni rncnixn xcrannaxn npono(nnoci n(oni xaincrpancn
BnaIanrnxa (unrna) n ou (Poccnn) |3, 34].
Anroxaincrpani BnaIanrnxa |3] oc(nuncr cronnni rpcx
Ianrnncxnx iocy(apcrn: Tannnuu, Pniy, Bnniumc. Ynacrox, i(c pa-
nn npoi, uaxo(nrcn n Iannmucxox nccy n npc(crannncr coon ncc-
uym nonocy n ina(xoc nonc. Hpoi pann no ocnx cropouax anro-
xaincrpann ua paccronunn 1,O; 2,O; 5,O; 1O; 15; 25; 5O n 75 x. B npoax
inn ouapycui cnc(ymmnc xcranni: xc(i, xoanir, xpox, xapia-
ucn, cnnucn, unxcni n nnux. Maxcnxaniuan xouncurpannn cnnuna,
xpoxa n unxcnn n nonnc uanm(anaci ua paccronunc 25 x or anro-
crpa(i.
Kouncurpannn xc(n n xoanira n npoax, n:nrix n nccuon nonocc
n 5 xx or anrocrpa(i Kayuac Knannc(a, uc npcnimana qouonic :ua-
ncunn. Co(cpaunc xapiauna ua paccronunn 1 x or (opoin ina
n 2 pa:a onimc qouonon n c y(ancuncx or (opoin yxcuimanaci (o uc-
:uannrcniuix :uancunn ua paccronunn 5O x. Hanoniman xouncur-
pannn cnnuna uanm(anaci ua npanon cropouc (opoin ua paccronunn
5O x or oonnui, i(c ua xccrc n:nrnn npo uaxo(nnaci nna(nua. O(-
uaxo (ancc :(cci xouncurpannn cnnuna uc npcnimana :uancunn HK.
Ha ncnon cropouc (opoin co(cpaunc cnnuna ino nimc qouonoio
xonnnccrna n 4 pa:a. Kouncurpannn unxcnn npcnimana qouonoc xo-
nnnccrno no nccx npoax (ua paccronunn 25 x 1
i
1,5), a nnuxa
npaxrnnccxn uc ornnnanaci or qouonon.
B nonc xouncurpannn xc(n, xpoxa n xapiauna oxa:annci xcuimc
qouonoio, npnncx xouncurpannn xapiauna :uannrcniuo yxcuimanaci
c yncnnncuncx paccronunn or (opoin. Co(cpaunc unxcnn npcnimano
92
qouonoc n 1,8 pa:a ua paccronunn 1O x or (opoin, a nnuxa uaxo(n-
noci n npc(cnax qouonoio. B npoax, n:nrix ua paccronunn 25 n 5O x
or (opoin, xouncurpannn cnnuna ina nimc qouonoio xonnnccrna
n 3,3 pa:a.
Honimcuuoc co(cpaunc xcrannon n nonnc ua pa:uox paccronunn
or oonnu xocr opa:onaricn npn nouncunn pcnicqa no nna(n-
uax n (onnuax. Oro orpnnarcniuo cxa:inacrcn ua xanccrnc nipamnna-
cxix n raxnx xccrax pacrcunn, ococuuo onomcn. Horoxy ua paccro-
nunnx (o 5OO x or anroxaincrpancn caari onomn n ccnri :cpuonic uc
pcxoxcu(ycrcn.
Hpn nccnc(onaunn :aipn:ucunn nonni rncnixn xcrannaxn npn
crponrcnicrnc n xcnnyarannn anroxaincrpann qc(cpaniuoio :uanc-
unn ou |34] auann:nponann xnxpononoinnccxnc noxa:arcnn non-
ni. Oncuxy nncncuuocrn n nn(onon crpyxrypi xoxnncxca nonncuuix
xnxpoxnncron xourponnponann no cc:ouuoxy n:xcucunm qnrorox-
cnnuix cnoncrn nonni nnn:n anroxaincrpann. Hpoi nonni orn-
pann ua pa:uix ynacrxax anroxaincrpann ou ccncpucc n mucc
i. Bopouca ua pa:nnnuix ncxcurax pcnicqa ua paccronunn 1O, 5O
n 1OO x or nonorua (opoin n: cnon ronmnuon 2O cx.
Cpanucunc opa:non nonn, oropauuix ua paccronunn 1O x or no-
norua (opoin, c xourponiuixn opa:naxn, n:nrixn ua paccronunn
1OO x, ouapynno cnniuym (cipa(annm nonn, oycnonncuuym rcxuo-
icuuix no:(cncrnncx. Bnn:n nonorua (opoin orxcncuo no(mcnann-
naunc nonn ua O,2O,4 pH, a raxc yxcuimcunc in(ponnrnnccxon xnc-
noruocrn, cxxocrn noinomcunn xarnouon, crcncun uacimcuuocrn
ocuonaunnxn, nonimcunc nnoruocrn, crpyxrypi, cuncunc nnaiocx-
xocrn n iyxycnponauuocrn. B pc:ynirarc rnx nponcccon cunamrcn
yqcpuocri nonni, cc apannn, :anac nnain n cnocouocri x caxoonn-
mcunm.
Croni :uannrcniuic uapymcunn cnoncrn nonn orpnnarcniuo cxa-
:annci n ua crpyxrypc xnxpouoio coomccrna. B pc:ynirarc rcxuo-
icuuoio no:(cncrnnn nncncuuocri xnxpoxnncron n nmuc ua paccron-
unn 1O x or nonorua (opoin ina cuncua n 1,42,O pa:a no cpanuc-
unm c xourponiuix :axcpox.
H:xcunncn y nonorua (opoin n nn(onon cocran coomccrna: ucxo-
ropic nn(i, rnnnnuic (nn xourponiuoio yponun, ncpcmnn n paui pc(-
93
xnx nnn cnynanuix, n ro c npcxn nonnnnnci uonic nn(i ipnon,
ucxapaxrcpuic (nn nonn ccrccrncuuoio cnocunn.
B nponcccc nccnc(onaunn ino ycrauonncuo, nro ncpuo:cxuic non-
ni npn crponrcnicrnc n xcnnyarannn anrorpacc no(ncpiamrcn (cipa-
(annn. B pc:ynirarc uapymcunn crpyxrypi nonni, no:(ymuoio n no(-
uoio pcnxa, :aipn:ucunn rncnixn xcrannaxn, n:xcuncrcn crpyx-
rypa n qyuxnnounponaunc xnxpouoio xoxnncxca nonni.
3.4. Xapaxvep sarpasnenna vaaeamwn wevaaaawn uo4am
na aeaesnoaopoanow vpancuopve
3cxnn cnc:uo(opouoio rpaucnopra no(ncpiamrcn no:(cncrnnm
nccx nn(on :aipn:unrcncn, uo uanonimym onacuocri no cnonx no-
cnc(crnnnx n oxnary oipoxuix rcppnropnn npc(crannnmr coon rn-
cnic xcranni.
Cymccrncuuin nxna( n :aipn:ucunc cpc(i nuocnr cnc:uo(opo-
uic naioui n ncpcno:nxic nxn ipy:i. B uacronmcc npcxn ua cnc:uix
(opoiax xnpa uaxo(nrcn n opamcunn oncc 5 xnu ipy:onix naiouon
pa:nnnuix xo(nqnxannn. Baioui no cnocoy ncpcno:xn ipy:on no(-
pa:(cnnmrcn ua orxpiric (nnarqopxi) n :axpiric. B orxpirix naio-
uax ncpcno:nrcn ipy:i, uc rcpnmmnc cnonx cnoncrn npn no:(cncrnnn
arxocqcpuix oca(xon (npcnxymccrncuuo ncxo(uoc cipic yinn, py(i,
ncxonacxic xarcpnani), c noncpxuocrn xoropix c(ynamrcn ncixnc ni-
ncnaric nacrnni. cio(uo npn ncpcno:xc n ncpcipy:xc n: naiouon n
oxpyammym cpc(y nocrynacr oxono 3,3 xnu r py(i, O,15 xnu r concn
n O,36 xnu r xnucpaniuix y(opcunn |28]. 3aipn:unmmnc ncmccrna
or cnc:uo(opouoio rpaucnopra pa:uocnrcn no:(ymuixn noroxaxn
ua npnnciammnc npocrpaucrna, qopxnpyn icoxnxnnccxnc auoxannn |7,
11, 15, 36].
3aipn:ucunc rncnixn xcrannaxn nonoci orno(a cnc:uix (opoi
n npnnciammnx x ucn rcppnropnn nponcxo(nr, no-ncpnix, npn norc-
pnx ncpcno:nxix cinynnx ipy:on (y(opcunn, ncxcuron, xaxcuuoio
yinn n ococuuo py(uoio cipin) n, no-nropix, npn xcnnyarannn no(-
nnuoio cocrana :a cncr ncrnpaunn xcrannnnccxnx ropxo:uix xono-
(ox, nauroipaqon n (pyinx nap rpcunn.
94
Kax noxa:ann nccnc(onaunn, nponc(cuuic naoparopncn :amnruix
nccouaca(cunn BHHH2Ta, uanonimcc :aipn:ucunc nonnoipyuron
rncnixn xcrannaxn orxcnacrcn ua :cxnnuox nonoruc (opoin n n rcx-
unnccxon nonocc :cxcniuoio orno(a, ucnocpc(crncuuo npnxixammcn
x pcniconon xoncc. Hanpnxcp, ua ynacrxc o(uon n: py(oncpcno:nmnx
nnunn Ka:axcraua, uc :amnmcuuon nccuixn uaca(cunnxn, cyxxap-
uin noxa:arcni :aipn:ucunn :cxnnuoio nonorua rncnixn xcrannaxn
(ocrniacr 42O, a rcxunnccxon nonoci orno(a 128. Taxnc noxa:arcnn
npcnocxo(nr yponun :aipn:ucunn onimnucrna npoxnnoma(ox xpyn-
uix xcrannypinnccxnx n xnxnnccxnx npc(npnnrnn. Unpnua :aipn:-
ucunn rcppnropnn nnn:n nyrn xocr (ocrniari 4OO6OO x. Tncnic
xcranni, uaxo(nmnccn n nonnc, nona(amr n pacrcunn n nnic opia-
un:xi, i(c xoiyr uaxannnnaricn (o (ocraronuo nicoxnx, onacuix (nn
n:un xouncurpannn.
ononunrcniuix ncronunxox :aipn:ucunn nonoc :cxcniuoio or-
no(a cnc:uix (opoi n npnnciammnx x unx rcppnropnn nnnnmrcn ar-
xocqcpuic nipoci n croxn :aipn:ucuuix noncpxuocruix n ipyuro-
nix no( or pacnonocuuix nnn:n cnc:uix (opoi npoximncuuix n
ccnicxoxo:nncrncuuix npc(npnnrnn, a raxc uaccncuuix nyuxron.
Momuocri rnx ncronunxon :aipn:ucunn nauo :uari npn ycrauonnc-
unn (onn orncrcrncuuocrn :a :aipn:ucunc.
3aipn:ucunc rncnixn xcrannaxn :cxcni n nonocc orno(a rpauc-
nopruix xaincrpancn nponcxo(nr raxc npn onncrxc annacruon npn-
:xi :cxnnuoio nonorua or :aipn:unrcncn, ncnoni:onaunn (nn orcin-
xn :cxnnuoio nonorua orxo(on ncpcpaarinammcn npoximncuuocrn
n ncxpimuix nopo( py(uix xccropo(cunn, npn onncrxc cnc:uo-
(opouix naiouon n (pyinx rpaucnopruix cpc(crn or xnucpaniuoio
cipin, a raxc npn ninonucunn :cxnnuix paor n xccrax c nn:xnx
:anciauncx iopuix nopo(.
B 2OO2 i. nponc(cuo nccnc(onaunc :aipn:ucuuoio annacra, ninc-
:cuuoio c ncpcioua BixnuoHauxn n pa:xcmcuuoio pn(ox c cnc:-
uo(opouixn nyrnxn oxono craunnn umcpni |8]. Hpoi inn n:n-
ri n: rpcx ornanon, uaxo(nmnxcn ucnocpc(crncuuo uanpornn craunnn
umcpni, n (nyx (pyinx, pacnonocuuix ua paccronunn 2OO x or crau-
nnn. Auann: npo orccna ua rncnic xcranni npono(nnn cncxrpoipa-
qnnccxnx xcro(ox. nn roio npoi cuanana nicymnnann npn rcx-
ncparypc 4O C, :arcx npoy (ponnn n maponix xcniunnax n orccn-
95
nann qpaxnnm (o 44 xx (3OO xcm). Oropauuym cpc(umm npoy
xcro(ox xnapronaunn cniann n nna:xc cnniuoronuon rpcxqa:uon
(yin. Oxnccnm cncxrpon pcincrpnponann ua cncxrpoipaqc 0C 458 c.
B npoax orccna annacra inn uan(cui xc(i, pryri, ximinx, xa(-
xnn, noniqpax, xonn(cu, rnrau, onono, ccpcpo, naua(nn, unxcni,
xpox, nnux, xoanir n xapiaucn.
Pryri, ximinx, noniqpax, xa(xnn n ccpcpo npncyrcrnonann n
uc:uannrcniuix xouncurpannnx. nn oncuxn :aipn:ucuuocrn oro-
pauuoio orccna annacra inn paccnnraui xoqqnnncuri xouncur-
pannn xcrannon oruocnrcniuo qouonix, npnunrix (nn Mocxoncxon
onacrn, n cyxxapuin noxa:arcni :aipn:ucuuocrn nonni Z
c
(ran. 3.1).
H: rannni nn(uo, nro caxoc onimoc co(cpaunc rncnix xcran-
non n npoax orccna annacra nxccr unxcni (1
i
5O1OO) n xpox
(1
Cf
32,543,5), a (nn xonn(cua, rnraua, cnnuna, onona n naua(nn
ouo uc npcnimacr qouonoio.
nn raxnx xcrannon, xax xc(i, xoanir, nnux n xapiaucn xoq-
qnnncur xouncurpannn :uannrcniuo unc. nn xc(n ou cocrannncr
3,77,4, xoanira 2,91O,1, nnuxa 24, xapiauna 11,68.
Cyxxapuin noxa:arcni :aipn:ucuuocrn nonni Z
c
ornana, uaxo(nmc-
iocn ucnocpc(crncuuo uanpornn craunnn umcpni, oxa:ancn panuix
9O,86. nn ncpnoio n nropoio ornanon, pacnonocuuix ua paccronunn
2OO x or craunnn, ou coorncrcrncuuo cocrannnn 158,4 n 141,1. Cnc(ycr
:axcrnri, nro nonna c cyxxapuix noxa:arcncx :aipn:ucunn rncni-
xn xcrannaxn 9O,86 yc oruocnrcn x xarciopnn onacuan. Hponna-
unc ua ucn cnn:auo c yncnnncuncx omcio yponun :aoncnacxocrn, n
ococuuocrn (crcn, uapymcuncx qyuxnnn ccp(cnuo-cocy(ncron cnc-
rcxi y uaccncunn n pcnpo(yxrnnuon qyuxnnn cumnu.
Haxo(cunc rnx ornanon nnn:n nnoio xaccnna nnn c yxnouox
n cio cropouy xocr npc(crannnri onacuocri (nn :(oponin uaccncunn
nccio xnxpopanoua.
Taxnx opa:ox, nonyncuuic (auuic no :aipn:ucuuocrn orccna an-
nacra rncnixn xcrannaxn no(rncp(amr ucoxo(nxocri opiaun:a-
nnn coorncrcrnymmcio xpaucunn roio annacra, npn xoropox ncxnm-
nacrcn no:xouocri nona(aunn :aipn:ucunn n oxpyammym cpc(y.
Ocnc(onaunc nnnnunn ua :aipn:ucunc npnnciammcn rcppnropnn
xanoio xonina Mocxoncxon oxpyuon cnc:uon (opoin (MK M2),
ncnoni:ycxon ronixo (nn ipy:onoio rpaucnopra, npono(nnn conxccr-
96
uo corpy(unxn icoipaqnnccxoio qaxynircra MIY n xaqc(pi nuc-
ucpuon xonoinn MHHTa |38].
Iinn npoauann:nponaui ua co(cpaunc npc(uix nc mccrn npoi
nonn n ipyuron, oropauuic no 29 npoqnnnx, ncpcccxammnx MK
M2, ua paccronunn 5O x no oc cropoui or cnc: uo(opouoio no-
norua. Hpoqnnn oropa pacnonaiannci ua paccronunn or 1 (o 3 xx (pyi
or (pyia. Ha xa (ox npoqnnc ornpannci npoi ua uacinn n n uc-
nocpc(crncuuon nn:ocrn or nonorua cnc: uon (opoin, a raxc or rpcx
(o mccrn npo ua pa:nnn uox y(ancunn or cnc:uo(opouoio nonorua
ua paccronunc (o 5O x. Hpoi pannci n: ncpxucn nacrn (O5 cx) iy-
xyconoio iopn:oura no xcro(y xouncpra. Bcc io ino npoauann:n-
ponauo 112 npo no 29 npoqnnnx.
Toauuo J.T
Coaepaanne vaaeamx wevaaaoa a upoax ovceaa aaaacva
Onc-
xcur
Mccro oropa npoi
umcpni, O,O x
umcpni, 2OO x
(1 rcppnxou)
umcpni, 2OO x
(2 rcppnxou)
0ouonan
xouncu-
rpannn
xcran-
non,
xi/xi
Kou-
ncurpa-
nnn,
xi/xi
1
C
Kouncu-
rpannn,
xi/xi
1
C
Kou-
ncurpa-
nnn,
xi/xi
1
C
Pb 2O O,8 2O O,8 1O O,5 25,O
Cu 2OO 7,4 2OO 7,4 1OO 3,7 27,O
i 1OOO 5O 2OOO 1OO 2OOO 1OO 2O,O
Cf 15OO 32 2OOO 43,5 2OOO 43,5 46,O
Zn 1OO 2 2OO 4 1OO 2 5O,O
Co 2O 2,9 8O 1O,1 8O 1O,1 7,2
Mn 6OO 1 1OOO 1,68 8OO 1,35 59O
Mo 3 3 1 1 1 1 1,O
Ti 3OO O,O5 1OO O,17 1OO O,17 6OOO
Sn 4 O,8 3 O,6 3 O,6 5,2
V 2O O,31 2O O,31 2O O,31 64
97
Ionimnucrno noncpxuocruix npo nonn, xarcpnana uacinn n ipyu-
ron n(oni MK M2 xapaxrcpn:ymrcn nonimcuuixn xouncurpa nnnxn
cnnuna n n xcuimcn crcncun xc(n, nnuxa, unxcnn n xa(xnn. Cpc(ucc
co(cpaunc cnnuna 57,4 xi/xi n 2 pa:a npcnimacr qouonic :ua-
ncunn n (ocrniacr O,5 HK. Auoxaniuic :ua ncunn nimc HK (nn
nano nix qopx n 26 pa:, a qou n 824 pa:a. Taxoc nicoxoc co(cpa-
unc cnnuna cnn:auo xax c ucnocpc(crncuuix, rax n xoc ncuuix nnnn-
uncx cnc:uon (opoin. Ho xucunm anropon, pacccnunc cnnuna n(oni
MK M2 xocr iri ni:nauo cio co(cpauncx n no(mnnun xax no(-
nnuoio cocrana, a raxc npnxcucuncx co(cpamcio cnnucn yioniuo-
io mnaxa npn crponrcnicrnc iapacn n(oni cnc:uon (opoin n pcxou-
rc uacinn. Cpc(ucc co(cpaunc xc(n n nonnc n 1,5 pa:a npcnimacr
qouonic :uancunn, nnuxa n 3 pa:a, co(cpaunc n nonnc xa(xnn ua-
xo(nrcn ua yponuc qoua, a unxcnn unc qoua n (na pa:a.
B Cnnpcxon iocy(apcrncuuon ico(c:nnccxon axa(cxnn npono(n-
noci n:yncunc pacnpc(cncunn xcrannon n nonncuuox cnoc nnn:n
Tpauccnnpcxon cnc:uo(opouon xaincrpann. Icoxnxnnccxnc pa-
ori nxcnn xccro ua (nyx ynacrxax. O(nu ynacrox uaxo(nncn npnxcp-
uo n 6O xx x nocroxy or ipaunn Honocnnpcxa, n panouc craunnn ucc-
uan Honnua, (pyion n 55 xx x :ana(y or Honocnnpcxa, n panouc
craunnn Ioponymxa.
Tonxn oropa nonncuuix npo no icoxnxnnccxoxy npoqnnm pac-
nonaiannci ua paccronunn 2, 5, 1O, 2O, 3O, 4O, 6O, 8O, 1OO, 15O, 2OO, 3OO
n 5OO x or xpan cnc:uo(opouon uacinn n o(uy n (pyiym cropouy or
cnc:uon (opoin. Inynua onpoonaunn cocrannnna O1O cx. Bcc npo-
i no(ncpiannci nonyxonnnccrncuuoxy cncxrpaniuoxy auann:y ua 43
xnxnnccxnx ncxcura.
Auann: nonyncuuoio xarcpnana noxa:an, nro nnn:n cnc:uon (o-
poin nponcxo(nr pc:xoc nonimcunc co(cpaunn xuoinx xcrannon. Tax,
ua ynacrxc uccuan Honnua xaxcnxaniuoc co(cpaunc cpnnnnn n non-
nc n 25 pa: npcnimacr xccruin icoxnxnnccxnn qou, apnn n 12 pa:,
nnpxounn n 1O pa:, xpoxa n 9 pa:, nrrpnn n 8 pa:, crpounnn
n 6 pa:, cxau(nn n 7 pa:, nrrcpnn n nnuxa n 6 pa:, nauraua n 5 pa:,
anmxnunn n 3 pa:a. Ha ynacrxc Ioponymxa xouncurpannn cpnnnnn
n 45 pa: nimc xccruoio qoua, apnn n crpounnn n 16 pa:, nnpxo-
unn n 1O pa:, anmxnunn n 9 pa:, nrrpnn n cxau(nn n 8 pa:, nr-
rcpnn n nauraua n 5 pa:, nnuxa n xpoxa n 4 pa:a.
98
Paccnnrauuic xoqqnnncuri :aipn:ucunn, no( xoropixn noun-
xamr oruomcunc co(cpaunn xcranna n npc(cnax :aipn:ucuuoio ynac-
rxa x cio HK, napinpymr or O,9 (o 1O, nro cnn(crcnicrnycr o onac-
uox yponuc :aipn:ucunn.
Hponc(cuuin xoppcnnnnouuin auann: ninnnn, nro cnniuic xop-
pcnnnnouuic cnn:n (pyi c (pyiox (r ` O,8) nxcmr xc(i, cpnnnnn,
apnn, crpounnn, cxau(nn, nrrpnn, naurau. Bo:xouo, ro cnn:auo c
conxccruix nocrynncuncx rnx xcrannon n nponcccc (cqnnnnn ncpc-
no:nxix cinynnx xarcpnanon.
Taxnx opa:ox, n(oni Tpauccnnpcxon cnc:uo(opouon xainc-
rpann n nonnc npocncnnamrcn rcxuoicuuic nnucnuic icoxnxnncc-
xnc auoxannn. Cnc(onarcniuo, ncnxoc ncnoni:onaunc pacrcunn n :cx-
nn (ninaci, noxoci, oiopo(i n r.(.) ua paccronunn (o 25O x or cnc:-
uon (opoin onacuo (nn :(oponin ncnoncxa n nnoruix.
Hccnc(onaunc :aipn:ucunn nonoci orno(a npn ncpcno:xax nonc:-
uix ncxonacxix npono(nnn n(oni cnc:uo(opouix nnunn Ccncpo-
3ana(a Poccnn ua ynacrxax H(cniCnnpi, BoxncrponKomra, no(-
c:(uon (opoin x Cpc(uc-Tnxaucxoxy oxcnronoxy py(unxy, a raxc
ua yuancxox npocncxrc n Cauxr-Hcrcpypic. Ycrauonncuo, nro ua-
nonimcc :aipn:ucunc rncnixn xcrannaxn uanm(acrcn n rcnc ua-
cinn nnn n ucnocpc(crncuuon nn:ocrn or ucc. Honimcuuoc co(cp-
aunc xc(n n naua(nn ouapycuo n no(:onncrix nonnax, nnuxa, xpo-
xa, unxcnn n naua(nn n nccxax, a ropqnuo-no(:onncric nonni
ooiamcui xpoxox, unxcncx, xc(im n xapiauncx. Cyxxapuin noxa-
:arcni :aipn:ucuuocrn no nccn ocnc(onauuon rcppnropnn n:xcuncr-
cn or 32,O (o 5O,O, nro onpc(cnncr :aipn:ucuuym rcppnropnm xax onac-
uym. 0ouonic xouncurpannn n nonnax craunnn npcnimcui (nn nnu-
xa, ximinxa, xa(xnn, pryrn, cnnuna, xc(n, xpoxa n ucqrcnpo(yxron.
Crcncui :aipn:ucunn nonn xpynuix cnc:uo(opouix y:non nimc,
ncx ua ncpciouax n ucxpynuix craunnnx |36].
Xapaxrcp :aipn:ucunn nonn rncnixn xcrannaxn n:ynancn raxc
ua xpynuix cnc:uo(opouix y:nax n iopo(ax Bopouc n uncxn Kio-
Bocronuon cnc:uon (opoin. Hpoqnniuoc nccnc(onaunc npono(nnn
ua :cxnnx orno(a no( cnc:uym (opoiy n npnnciammnx rcppnropnnx,
x xoropix oruocnrcn :cxnn uaccncuuix nyuxron, nccuoio qou(a n
ocoo oxpauncxix rcppnropnn |15, 16]. Ha cnc:uo(opouix y:nax
99
Bopouccxon onacrn cocpc(oroncui npc(npnnrnn cnc:uon (opoin,
ocymccrnnnmrcn xaucnponic paori n npoiou cocranon no nccx ua-
npanncunnx.
Ocuonuic paori ua npc(npnnrnnx npon:no(nrcn paorammnxn
ua ncxonacxox ronnnnc noxoxornnaxn, xoropic nnnnmrcn ucopiaun-
:onauuixn ncronunxaxn :aipn:ucunn.
Hx nipoci npc(crannnmr coon cnouym xuoioxoxnoucuruym
cxcci, xoropan conna(acr no nuipc(ncurax c anroxonniuix rpauc-
noprox, uo pa:nnnacrcn xonnnccrncuuo.
ononunrcniuixn ucopiaun:onauuixn ncronunxaxn nipocon
ua cnc:uon (opoic nnnnmrcn ncpcno:nxic orxpirix cnocoox ipy-
:i. Konnnccrncuuo onpc(cnnri nx nxna( n :aipn:ucunc oxpyammcn
cpc(i uc npc(crannncrcn no:xouix, rax xax ou cymccrncuuo :ann-
cnr or noio(uix ycnonnn n or co(cpaunn npc(uix npnxcccn n ninc-
naron nacrn ncpcno:nxix xarcpnanon.
Hpn nponc(cunn nccnc(onaunn orop npo npon:no(nnn ua pac-
cronunn 1, 3, 1O, 15 n 25 x c ocnx cropou cnc:uo(opouoio nonorua.
Onpc(cnnnn no(opo(uin noxa:arcni nonncuuon nnain, nanonic n no(-
nnuic qopxi rncnix xcrannon. Ha ocuonaunn rnx (auuix pac-
cnnrinann xoqqnnncur xouncurpannn nanonix qopx or(cniuix
xcrannon n onpc(cnnnn cyxxapuin noxa:arcni :aipn:ucunn Z
c
.
Honncuuoc ocnc(onaunc rcppnropnn uncxnucxoio cnc:uo(opo-
uoio y:na n npnnciammcn ccncpo-:ana(uon nacrn iopo(a uncxn ino
nponc(cuo c yncrox (auuix (nuaxnnccxoio uopxnponaunn :aipn:unm-
mnx ncmccrn. Oro cnn:auo c rcx, nro ccncpo-:ana(uan nacri iopo(cxon
n npniopo(uon rcppnropnn pacnonocua ua niponucuuix ynacrxax n
npc(cnax ucnocpcuoio npn(onnuuo-rcppaconoio nau(maqruoio pano-
ua. Ocnc(ycxan rcppnropnn ina pa:nra panuoxcpuo pa:pncuuon
ccrxon ua ynacrxn pa:xcpox 5OO x 5OO x, c xoropix nyrcx ycpc(ucunn
opa:na npon:no(nncn orop npo. Omcc cocronunc nonncuuoio nox-
pona y:na xapaxrcpn:onanoci c ncnoni:onauncx (auuix qouonix n HK.
B pc:ynirarc in nonyncu cnc(ymmnn pn( aconmruoio uaxonncunn xc-
rannon ua nccnc(ycxon rcppnropnn: Pb ` Zn ` Cu ` Cd ` Mn ` Cf ` i.
Hpcnimcunn HK ninnncui no rpcx xcrannax: cnnuny, xa(xnm n xc(n.
3aipn:ucunn cocrannncr oxono O,36 xx
2
no cnnuny, O,O6 xx
2
no xa(xnm
n O,O4 xx
2
no xc(n.
1OO
B ncnox :aipn:unmmnc ncmccrna n npc(cnax cnc:uo(opouix crau-
nnn uc pacnpocrpaunmrcn oncc ncx ua 1O x. animc yc uc nponcxo-
(nr xouncurpnponaunc ncxcuron, nx co(cpaunc crauonnrcn conocra-
nnxix c pcinouaniuixn qouaxn.
Ocnc(onaunc nonn Bopouccxoio cnc:uo(opouoio y:na ino
nponc(cuo ua npnxcpc nnrn noncpcnuix npoqnncn. Hcpnin uaxo(nncn
ua rcppnropnn iopo(a n npc(cnax craunnn Bopouc-1 n ynnni c nurcu-
cnnuix (nncuncx iopo(cxoio rpaucnopra, xoropan nnnoruym no(xo-
(nr x cnc:uo(opouoxy ncppouy craunnn. Bropon n rpcrnn npoqnnn
nxnmnann ynacrxn no(c:(uix nyrcn xocronix cnc:uo(opouix nc-
pcxo(on craunnn Orpoxa n Ho(xncruan. Bropon npoqnni pacnonaian-
cn ua craunnn Orpoxa, uaxo(nmcncn n ncnocpcic iopo(a c nicoxon
nnoruocrim npoximncuuix npc(npnnrnn. Tpcrnn npoqnni npoxo(nn
ua ynacrxc craunnn Ho(xncruan, pacnonocuuon n npanocpcic iopo-
(a. Oror ynacrox xapaxrcpn:ycrcn cnaix (nncuncx anrorpaucnopra,
orcyrcrnncx xpynuix npoximncuuix npc(npnnrnn n y(ancuuocrim
nnoio ccxropa. crncprin n nnrin npoqnnn pacnonaiannci ua ncpc-
iouuox orpc:xc ncrxn BopoucIpn:n. Hccnc(onaunn ua rnx ynacrxax
no:nonnnn orcnc(nri nnnnunc (aniuocrn no:(cncrnnn cnc:uon (opo-
in ua pcxpcannouuym n :anonc(uym rcppnropnm.
Ho ncpnoxy npoqnnm coc(nucunn xcrannon 1-io xnacca onacuoc-
rn (cnnucn, xa(xnn) n nonnc nxcmr o(nuaxonym rcu(cunnm uaxonnc-
unn. 3uannrcniuoc yncnnncunc nx xouncurpannn uanm(acrcn n uc-
nocpc(crncuuon nn:ocrn x cnc:uon (opoic. 3arcx xouncurpannn no-
crcncuuo yxcuimanaci c y(ancuncx or ucc: ua paccronunn 25 x or
cnc:uon (opoin co(cpaunc nccx auann:npycxix xcrannon coxpama-
mrcn n 1,21,9 pa:a.
Ho nropoxy npoqnnm ua ynacrxc craunnn Orpoxa ouapycuo,
nro ua paccronunn 25 x co(cpaunc xcrannon ocramrcn nimc HK.
3aqnxcnponauuic co(cpaunn nanonix qopx cnnuna, xa(xnn, nnu-
xa, xc(n n unxcnn onimc ycrauonncuuix uopxarnnon n 1,93,3 pa:a.
Ha rcppnropnn ipy:onon craunnn Orpoxa inn ninnncui uanoni-
mnc (nn Bopouccxoio cnc:uo(opouoio y:na xoqqnnncuri xou-
ncurpannn rncnix xcrannon n ni(cncua 25-xcrponan :oua, n xoropon
npcnimcunn HK no nonnc onpc(cncui no nccx nccnc(ycxix nc-
xcurax (:a ncxnmncuncx xapiauna).
1O1
Hccnc(onaunc ncpciouuoio ynacrxa cnc:uon (opoin, pacnonocuuo-
io xc(y craunnnxn Uycpcxan n Ioponoc, npono(nnoci c ncnim onpc-
(cncunn (aniuocrn nnnnunn rpaucnopra. Ynacrox, uaxo(nmnncn ua ccncpo-
:ana(uon oxpanuc Bopouca ua rcppnropnn Ycxaucxoio opa, nxccr
c(nuic nau(maqruic ycnonnn, nro no:nonnno yncnnnnri pa:xcpi npo-
qnnn (o 1 xx. Ha nccx nporncunn npoqnnn pacnpocrpaucua ccpan ncc-
uan nonna cynccnauoio xcxaunnccxoio cocrana. Honncuuic npoqnnn,
:anocuuic no nccn rcppnropnn ynacrxa, no:nonnnn onpc(cnnri, nro
c y(ancuncx or cnc:uon (opoin yncnnnnnacrcn xomuocri iyxyconoio io-
pn:oura n crcncui nipacuuocrn nccx iopn:ouron. Opa:ni (nn aua-
nn:a ornpannci n npnnoncpxuocruox cnoc nonni (O2O cx) n ua iny-
nuc (9O1OO cx) ua paccronunnx: 1; 1O; 25; 65; 135; 325; 55O n 1OOO x
or cnc:uo(opouoio nonorua. Iino ouapycuo, nro xouncurpnpo-
naunc rncnix xcrannon nponcxo(nr n ocuonuox n npnnoncpxuocr-
uox cnoc nonni n pacnpocrpauncrcn (o 1O x or cnc:uo(opouoio
nonorua |38].
Ha inynuc 9O1OO cx inn uan(cui ncc xcranni, xonnnccrno xo-
ropix c y(ancuncx or (opoin yncnnnnnanoci. Mnipannn rncnix xc-
rannon no nonncuuoxy npoqnnm cnn:aua, npc(c nccio, c xcxaunncc-
xnx cocranox nonni, co(cpauncx iyxyca, a raxc c pcaxnncn cpc(i.
Taxnx opa:ox, ua ocuonaunn nponc(cuuix nccnc(onaunn ua rcppn-
ropnn Bopouccxoio y:na inn ninnncui icoxnxnnccxnc auoxannn n
xccrax ncpcccncunn pcniconix nyrcn y xocronix ncpcxo(on ua craunnnx
Orpoxa n Ho(xncruan. 3aqnxcnponauuic co(cpaunn nanonix qopx
cnnuna, xa(xnn, nnuxa, xc(n n unxcnn oxa:annci nimc ycrauonncuuix
uopxarnnon. Ha rcppnropnn ipy:onon craunnn Orpoxa inn ninn-
ncui uanonimnc (nn Bopouccxoio cnc:uo(opouoio y:na xoqqn-
nncuri xouncurpannn rncnix xcrannon n ni(cncua 25-xcrponan :oua
:aipn:ucunn nanonixn n no(nnuixn qopxaxn rncnix xcrannon.
Han(cuo, nro nonna rnx ynacrxon nnnncrcn norcunnaniuix ncronun-
xox :aipn:ucunn Bopouccxoio no(oxpaunnnma n pcxn ou. Hanoni-
mnc co(cpaunn nanonix n no(nnuix qopx xcrannon ouapycui n
noncpxuocruix iyxycono-axxyxynnrnnuix iopn:ourax nonni n ucnoc-
pc(crncuuon nn:ocrn x cnc:uon (opoic. Iino raxc ycrauonncuo,
nro xcxaun:x pacccnnaunn nccx nccnc(ycxix ncmccrn n O2O-caurnxcr-
ponox cnoc nonni o(nuaxon xax (nn cnc:uo(opouoio, rax n anro-
xonniuoio rpaucnopra, n no xcpc y(ancunn or ncronunxon :aipn:uc-
1O2
unn co(cpaunc rncnix xcrannon n nonnc yxcuimacrcn. Co(cpaunc
:aipn:unrcncn yxcuimacrcn c inynuon.
Ha xaqc(pc Hucucpuan xonoinn n rcxuocqcpuan c:onacuocri
POAT MHHT npono(nnoci nccnc(onaunc :aipn:ucunn nonoci orno(a
cnc:uon (opoin (nn ninnncunn ponn pa:nnnuix npon:no(crn n :aipn:-
ucunn nonn rncnixn xcrannaxn, a raxc oncuxa no:(cncrnnn cnc:-
uo(opouoio rpaucnopra ua rcppnropnnx, cnoo(uix or rcxuoicuuoio
no:(cncrnnn (pyinx npon:no(crncuuix xoxnncxcon, n cpanucunc nx c
rcppnropnnxn c onimnx xonnnccrnox npc(npnnrnn. Orop npo in
npon:nc(cu n: nonncuuoio noxpona n(oni Pncxoio or(cncunn Moc-
xoncxon cnc:uon (opoin xc(y craunnnxn Hoxponcxoc-Crpcmuc-
noucunuipa(cxan n xc(y craunnnxn Kpacuin Ianrncn n Ipa(au-
cxan, a raxc ua Kypcxox uanpanncunn Mocxoncxon cnc:uon (opoin,
npoxo(nmcn no rcppnropnn i. Mocxni |81O, 12].
Hpoi auann:nponann nonyxonnnccrncuuix aroxuo-xnccnou-
uix cncxrpaniuix xcro(ox ua co(cpaunc 4O ncxcuron. Oxa:anoci,
nro no nccx npoax orcyrcrnymr raxnc roxcnnuic xcranni 1-io xnacca
onacuocrn, xax xa(xnn, pryri n ximinx.
Oncuxy nonni npono(nnn no uanoncc onrnxaniuoxy cocrany xc-
rannon (nn xa(oio n: nipauuix ynacrxon cnc:uon (opoin, xy(a
oruocnnn rcxuoicuuic xcranni c uanonimnx nxna(ox n :aipn:ucunc
rcppnropnn. Mcranni c co(cpauncx n nonnc ua yponuc qouonon xou-
ncurpannn uc oxa:inamr ua omcc :aipn:ucunc :axcruoio nnnnunn.
Ha Pncxox uanpanncunn :aipycuuocri cnc:uon (opoin :uann-
rcniuo xcuimc no cpanucunm c (pyinxn uanpanncunnxn Mocxoncxon
cnc:uon (opoin. Hcpcno:xn (ucx ocymccrnnnmrcn n ocuonuox ncx-
rponoc:(axn. Bipauuic ncpcioui ua Pncxox uanpanncunn cocc(-
crnymr c :ouaxn or(ixa: ncconapxn Tnxnpn:cncxnn n Hoxponcxoc-
Crpcmucno, pacnonocuuic co cropoui ncpnoio inanuoio nyrn c-
nc:uon (opoin ((nncunc noc:(on or Mocxni).
Ynacrox Hoxponcxoc-Crpcmucnoucunuipa(cxan npoxo(nr n(oni
ncconapxonon :oui n uaxo(nmnxcn n ron :ouc npy(on (pnc. 3.5), oi-
paunncu Bonoxonaxcxnx moccc co cropoui nnarqopxi Hoxponcxoc-
Crpcmucno (paccronunc xc(y xocrox n nnarqopxon 5O x). Uoccc
ncpcccxacr cnc:uym (opoiy cncpxy no xocry. Pn(ox c nnarqopxon
ucunuipa(cxan cnc:uan (opoia Pncxoio uanpanncunn ncpcccxacrcn
c Mocxoncxon oxpyuon cnc:uon (opoion (MO2), xoropan npo-
1O3
xo(nr ua( nonoruox Pncxon cnc:uon (opoin no nyrnnpono(y. B uc-
nocpc(crncuuon nn:ocrn x ncpcccncunm rnx (nyx (opoi pacnonocu
nnon xaccnn, n(oni nipauuoio ynacrxa iapauin xoxnncxc.
Orop npo nonni npon:no(nnn n(oni craunnn Hoxponcxoc-
Crpcmucno no uanpanncunm x Mocxoncxon oxpyuon cnc:uon (o-
poic n craunnn ucunuipa(cxan. Hpoi ornpannci n cpc(ucx ncpc:
5O x n: nonncuuoio iopn:oura (O2O cx) xax n(oni cnc:uo(opouo-
io nonorua ua paccronunn 3 x (I n II nyrn), rax n or ucio no I nyrn ua
paccronunn 3, 5O, 1OO n 15O x.
3aipn:ucunc nonni nonoci orno(a ua rox ncpciouc onpc(cnncrcn
uaopox rcxuoicuuix xcrannon, nxo(nmnx n cocran ncinponauuix
crancn, n: xoropix n:ioronncui pcnici n (crann no(nnuoio cocra-
na. nn roio nroi onpc(cnnri yponcui co(cpaunn xcrannon n nonnc,
xouncurpannm xa(oio xcranna n npoax oruocnnn x cio qouonoxy
co(cpaunm (nn (auuoio pcinoua n paccnnrinann xoqqnnncur cio
xouncurpannn 1
C
. Orucccunc nonni x yponum :aipn:ucunn rncni-
xn xcrannaxn onpc(cnnnn ua ocuonc cyxxapuoio noxa:arcnn :aipn:-
ucunn Z
c
.
Pnc. 3.5. Cxcxa ynacrxa Mocxoncxon cnc:uon (opoin Pncxoio uanpanncunn
ua ncpciouc Hoxponcxoc-Crpcmucnoucunuipa(cxan
HAPK
Bonoxonaxcxoc
moccc
Bo(ocx 3
2nnon ccxrop
O x 1OO
2OO 3OO35O
45O
55O
65O
II nyri
Hoxponcxoc-Crpcmucno
ucunuipa(cxan
2nnon
ccxrop
Mocxoncxan
oxpyuan
cnc:uan
(opoia
1O4
Cyxxapuin noxa:arcni :aipn:ucunn nonni Z
c
paccnnrinann no
(cnnrn rcxuoicuuix ncxcurax, xoqqnnncuri xouncurpannn xoro-
pix nimc qouonix :uancunn: no xpoxy, unxcnm, xoaniry, xc(n, nnu-
xy, cnnuny, onony, xonn(cuy, nnpxouy.
Hanonimnn nxna( n :aipn:ucunc nonni n(oni ynacrxa Hoxponc-
xoc-Crpcmucnoucunuipa(cxan nuocnr xpox, unxcni, xoanir xc(i,
nnux, cnnucn, onono, xonn(cu n nnpxounn.
Cyxxapuin noxa:arcni :aipn:ucunn rncnixn xcrannaxn n(oni
I nyrn cocrannncr 6374 n n(oni II nyrn uaxo(nrcn n npc(cnax 2534
(pnc. 3.6). Xapaxrcp pacnpc(cncunn :aipn:ucunn n(oni I nyrn ornnna-
crcn or xapaxrcpa pacnpc(cncunn n(oni II nyrn ua ncpciouc. nn y(o-
crna auann:a xapaxrcpa :aipn:ucunn nonni rncnixn xcrannaxn n(oni
ncpcioua ina nipaua ronxa orcncra (O x), xoropan coorncrcrnycr ua-
nany nnarqopxi Hoxponcxoc-Crpcmucno pn(ox c Bonoxonaxcxnx
moccc.
3aipn:ucunc nonni rncnixn xcrannaxn n(oni I nyrn (pnc. 3.6) ua
paccronunn 3 x or nonorua cnc:uon (opoin nponcxo(nr uc xouorou-
uo n npn rox xouo ni(cnnri ncripc :oui, nxcmmnc nonimcuuic
crcncun :aipn:ucuuocrn.
Hcpnic (nc :oui pacnonocui nnn:n craunnn Hoxponcxoc-
Crpcmucno, coorncrcrncuuo n 15O x (Z
c
4O,5) n 3OO x (Z
c
62,7) or
uanana nnarqopxi. Tpcrin uaxo(nrcn ua paccronunn 45O x (Z
c
38),
i(c npoxo(nr xpnnon ynacrox nonorua n uannuacrcn ropxocunc ncx-
rponoc:(on ncpc( nnarqopxon Hoxponcxoc-Crpcmucno. crncpran
:oua pacnonocua ua paccronunn 7OO x or uanana nnarqopxi, i(c
(Z
c
73,6) uanm(acrcn cnniuoc :aipn:ucunc rncnixn xcrannaxn (n
ocuonuox unxcncx n xpoxox). Hocnc(ucc xouo oncunri rcx, nro
ua( cnc:uon (opoion Pncxoio uanpanncunn npoxo(nr nyrcnpono(
Mocxoncxon oxpyuon (opoin, a raxc pn(ox co cropoui I nyrn ua-
xo(nrcn iapauin xoxnncxc, n :aipn:ucunc xcrannaxn, raxnx opa-
:ox, cnniuo no:pacracr. Honna n rnx :ouax n nroic oruocnrcn x xarc-
iopnn onacuan.
Hurcucnnuocri :aipn:ucunn nonni n(oni II nyrn ua paccronunn
3 x or nonorua cnc:uon (opoin iopa:(o unc, npn rox oua nxccr
(pyion xapaxrcp pacnpc(cncunn no cyxxapuoxy noxa:arcnm. Taxc
npocxarpnnamrcn ncripc :oui nonimcuuoio :aipn:ucunn rncnixn
xcrannaxn. Hcpnic (nc n npc(cnax nnarqopxi Hoxponcxoc-Crpcm-
1O5
P
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ucno ua paccronunn: 5O x (Z
c
33,8) n 15O x (Z
c
24,9) or uanana nnar-
qopxi. Tpcrin :oua pacnonaiacrcn ua paccronunn 4OO x (Z
c
15,5) n
coorncrcrnycr uanany npoxo(cunn xpnnoio ynacrxa. Topxocunc no-
c:(on npn npoxo(cunn xpnnoio ynacrxa cnc:uon (opoin uc :anna-
unponauo cxopocruix pcnxox. O(uaxo nona(aunc xcrannon n non-
ny nponcxo(nr n:-:a n:uamnnaunn au(aa n ipcun xoncca npn rpc-
unn o pcnic, a raxc n:-:a n:uamnnaunn nuyrpcuunx oxonix n
ncprnxaniuix noncpxuocrcn pcnicon npn npoxo(cunn xpnnix ynac-
rxon nonorua.
crncpran :oua uaxo(nrcn ua paccronunn 7OO x (Z
c
12,3) n(oni
ncpcioua n coorncrcrnycr :aipn:ucunm (nyxn cnc:uixn (opoiaxn:
Pncxoio uanpanncunn n Mocxoncxon oxpyuon. Honna n ncpnon :ouc
oruocnrcn x xarciopnn onacuan, ua nropon x yxcpcuuo onacuon,
ua rpcricn n ncrncpron x (onycrnxon. Honimcuuoc co(cpaunc
rncnix xcrannon ua orxcrxc 5O x cnn:auo c ropxo:uix nyrcx no
II nyrn ua ncpciouc TymnuoHoxponcxoc-Crpcmucno ncpc( nnarqop-
xon Hoxponcxoc-Crpcmucno. A uconimnc :uancunn cyxxapuoio no-
xa:arcnn :aipn:ucunn rncnixn xcrannaxn xouo oncunri uann-
nncx cuncunn pcnicqa n cropouy nnarqopxi Tymnuo.
Yncnnncunc xouncurpannn xcrannon unxcnn, xc(n, xpoxa, xonn-
(cua n (pyinx xcrannon (xaxcnxyx Z
c
, oruocnmnncn x paccronunm
15O x n 3OO x) n npc(cnax nnarqopxi Hoxponcxoc-Crpcmucno co cro-
poui I nyrn, no-nn(nxoxy, oycnonncuo paoron ropxo:uon cncrcxi
ncxrponoc:(on.
Mouo npc(nononri, nro nona(aunc ua nonoruo cnc:uon (opo-
in rncnix xcrannon nponcxo(nr n: xonccuix nap, pcnic, xouraxruix
npono(on n ropxo:uix xono(ox (cx. in. 2).
nn ycrauonncunn cnn:n xc(y :aipn:ucuncx nonni rncnixn xc-
rannaxn n paoron ropxo:uon cncrcxi paccnnrann ncnnnnuy ropxo:-
uoio nyrn c ncnoni:onauncx xcro(a nncncuuoio nurcipnponaunn no
nurcpnanax cxopocrcn (c nurcpnanox 1O xx/n) n (auuix yxnoua pcni-
cqa (ncraunnn |19]. nn onpc(cncunn uananiuon cxopocrn ropxoc-
unn npnxcunmrcn (auuic cxopocrcxcpuon ncuri. Hpn pacncrc rop-
xo:uoio nyrn cnc(ycr orxcrnri, nro n nponcccc ropxocunn cuanana
ocymccrnnncrcn no(ioronxa ropxo:on, i(c ropxo:uan xono(xa ronixo
ni(nniacrcn (nn conpnxocuoncunn c xonccox, npn rox xocr npo-
ncxo(nri ncixoc xacaunc au(aa xoncca npn ncpcxocc caxon xono(-
1O7
xn. Taxnx opa:ox, :arpannnacrcn npcxn ua npoxo(cunc no(ioronn-
rcniuoio ropxo:uoio nyrn. 3arcx nponcxo(nr nocrcncuuoc cryncuna-
roc ropxocunc (I cryncui (oanxa (anncunn cocrannncr 35 % or
cymccrnymmcio n nucnxarnnccxon cncrcxc 6 arx, (nn roio nroi xo-
no(xa npnanaci x xonccy; II cryncui 6O %; III cryncui 85 %) (o
xouna ocrauonxn. Cryncunarocri npn(acr pa:nnnuym cnny npnarnn
ropxo:uon xono(xn x au(ay xoncca, occncnnnan pa:uym crcncui
ncrnpaunn n xono(xn, n xoncca.
Pacncruin nonuin ropxo:uon nyri

r

n

(

c
,
i(c
n
no(ioronnrcniuin ropxo:uon nyri;
(
(cncrnnrcniuin nyri ropxo-
cunn;
c
(nnua no(nnuoio cocrana.
Taxnx opa:ox, nonuin ropxo:uon nyri (nn ocrauonxn ua nnar-
qopxc Hoxponcxo-Crpcmucno cocronr n: nyrn, i(c nponcxo(nr no(-
ioronxa ropxo:on (npn nucnxarnnccxox ynpanncunn ropxocunn),
75 x n pcaniuoio nyrn 575 x, i(c n(cr nurcucnnuoc ropxocunc c
ncnoni:onauncx xono(ox. Hocnc(unn cxna(inacrcn n: (cncrnnrcni-
uoio nyrn ropxocunn 325 x n (ononunrcniuoio 25O x ua (nnuy ncx-
rponoc:(a n 1O naiouon. Honrn nononnua (cncrnnrcniuoio ropxo:uo-
io nyrn npnxo(nrcn ua (nnuy nnarqopxi Hoxponcxoc-Crpcmuc-
no (25O x), i(c nponcxo(nr oxounarcniuoc ropxocunc noc:(a.
Hurcucnnuocri nona(aunn rncnix xcrannon npn rpcunn xonc-
coxono(xa napinpycrcn ua nporncunn ropxo:uoio nyrn. Hurcu-
cnnuocri ncrnpaunn ropxo:uix xono(ox :anncnr or nx xoucrpyxnnn
n cocrana. Koxno:nnnouuic xono(xn c (oanxon qocqopa ncrnpamr-
cn xcuimc, uo npn rox n onimcn crcncun uaipcnacrcn n n:uamnna-
crcn xoncco.
Hcrnpaunc ropxo:uix xono(ox n xoncca npaxrnnccxn uc nponcxo-
(nr ua no(ioronnrcniuox ropxo:uox nyrn (75 x).
Hponccc ropxocunn ncxrponoc:(a ncpc( craunncn Hoxponcxoc-
Cpcmucno cocronr n: rpcx ynacrxon, nro coorncrcrnycr uannnnm :ou
nurcucnnuoio :aipn:ucunn rncnixn xcrannaxn ua paccronunn 3 x
or nonorua (opoin n(oni I nyrn. Ha ncpnox ynacrxc (ua paccronunn
45O x or uanana craunnn Hoxponcxoc-Crpcmucno) (cncrnycr ncpnan
cryncui ropxocunn (Z
c
38,O). Maxcnxaniuoc :aipn:ucunc rncni-
xn xcrannaxn npnxo(nrcn ua orxcrxy 45O x or uanana nnarqopxi
1O8
Hoxponcxoc-Crpcmucno, a uc ua 55O x (ua 575 x uc npon:no(nnn npo-
oorop), rax xax no npcxn ropxocunn n(cr :ana:(inaunc ropxo:uon
cncrcxi n no(nnuox cocranc: nocnc nxnmncunn nucnxarnnccxnx rop-
xo:on xamnuncrox iononuoio noxoxornna ropxo:a nxnmnamrcn uc
o(uonpcxcuuo, a nocrcncuuo, uannuan c iononuoio.
Bropon ynacrox, (ammnn uanonimcc :uancunc noxa:arcnn Z
c
62,7,
coorncrcrnycr nropon cryncun ropxocunn n uaxo(nrcn ua paccronunn
3OO x or uanana nnarqopxi. Tpcrnn ynacrox ua orxcrxc 15O x (Z
c
4O,5)
xapaxrcpn:ycr xoucnuym cra(nm ropxocunn npn xnunxaniuon cxo-
pocrn. Taxnx opa:ox, uanano (cncrnnrcniuoio ropxo:uoio nyrn coor-
uocnrcn c caxix :aipn:ucuuix ynacrxox I nyrn 325 x.
Cyxxapuin noxa:arcni :aipn:ucunn nnnncrcn oncui onimnx (nn
raxon ucuaipycuuon cnc:uon (opoin Pncxoio or(cncunn. Oro cnn-
:auo n ocuonuox c pcnicqox ynacrxa cnc:uo(opouon (opoin, xoro-
pin nnnncr ua (ononunrcniuoc :aipn:ucunc nonni :a cncr no(nnuix
qopx rncnix xcrannon. Oun opa:ymr c qyninoxncnoraxn nonni yc-
ronnnnic xoxnncxci n cooruomcunn 1:1 n cnaomcnonuix ycnonnnx
(nonna n nonocc orno(a pH 7,88,2), rcx caxix uc nponcxo(nr ncp-
rnxaniuoio ncpcxcmcunn rnx xoxnncxcon |18, 2O, 37]. Hanm(acrcn
nnmi iopn:ouraniuan xnipannn rnx xoxnncxcon nun: no yxnouy pc-
nicqa x craunnn Hoxponcxoc-Crpcmucno. Ycpc(ucuuin yxnou :ua-
nnrcncu (nn ncpcioua Hoxponcxoc-Crpcmucnoucunuipa(cxan n co-
crannncr
c
6,O % (1%-ricnnuan panua cuncunm nnn no(cxy
pcnicqa ua 1 x ua ynacrxc 1OOO x). B (auuox cnynac xnuyc yxa:inacr
ua cnycx pcnicqa, n, cnc(onarcniuo, ua paccronunn 1,36 xx or nnar-
qopxi ucunuipa(cxan pcnicq onycxacrcn ua 8,13 x (o nnarqopxi
Hoxponcxoc-Crpcmucno. Taxnx opa:ox, :a(cpnnaunc xnipannou-
uix xoxnncxcon rncnix xcrannon nponcxo(nr oxono nnarqopxi
Hoxponcxoc-Crpcmucno.
Pn(ox c ncpcccncuncx c MO2 n xoxnncxcox iapacn, uaxo(n-
mnxcn ua paccronunn 7OO x or uanana nnarqopxi Hoxponcxoc-Crpcm-
ucno, uanm(acrcn caxoc onimoc :aipn:ucunc nonni unxcncx
(1
i
53) n xpoxox (1
Cf
1O), a raxc nonimcuuic :uancunn onona:
I nyri 1
Sn
3 n II nyri 1
Sn
4. Pn(ox (65O x) :aqnxcnponauo uanoni-
mcc xonnnccrno cnnuna 1
Pb
3,75 ua paccronunn 3 x or xoncn n(oni
I nyrn, nicoxnc xoqqnnncuri xouncurpannn (nn xonn(cua
1O9
1
Mo
1O (45O x) n 15 (3OO x) (nn I nyrn, a raxc 1
Mo
1O (5O x) n 1O
(15O x) (nn II nyrn. Hanonimcc :aipn:ucunc xoanirox ua paccro-
nunn or craunnn Hoxponcxoc-Crpcmucno 3OO x no I nyrn (1
Co
5)
n 5O x no II nyrn (1
Co
3,3).
Pacnpc(cncunc rcxuoicuuix xcrannon n(oni roio ynacrxa cnc:-
uon (opoin npc(cranncui ua pnc. 3.7 n 3.8. Pacnpc(cncunc xa(oio n:
rncnix xcrannon coorncrcrnycr xapaxrcpy ropxocunn ua craunnn
Hoxponcxoc-Crpcmucno (nn I n II nyrcn. Ha pcaniuox ropxo:uox nyrn
orxcnacrcn nicoxoc co(cpaunc n nonnc xc(n, unxcnn, xonn(cua n
nnuxa (pnc. 3.9). Maxcnxyx xouncurpannn xa(oio xcranna conna(a-
cr c xaxcnxaniuix ropxocuncx. Co(cpaunc cnnuna uc:uannrcni-
uo, n cio nonimcuuic xouncurpannn n nonnc uaxo(nrcn pn(ox c ia-
pauix xoxnncxcox.
H:nccruo, nro npn y(ancunn or xoncn crcncui :aipn:ucunn rnc-
nixn xcrannaxn yxcuimacrcn. nn nponcpxn ron :anncnxocrn (nn
cnc:uon (opoin inn oropaui npoi n panouc napxonoio xoxnncx-
ca npn y(ancunn ua 5O, 1OO n 15O x or xoncn (opoin. Hpn rox opa:y-
crcn ccrxa, cocronman n: ncpncu(nxynnpon, y(annmmnxcn or xoncn
(opoin ninyi napxa, n napanncncn, oc(nunmmnx ncc npoi, uanpn-
xcp, npn y(ancunn ua 5O x (cx. pnc. 3.5). acri npo ina oropaua ua
cpciy npy(on, pacnonocuuix ua paccronunn 5O1OO x. nn y(o-
crna (aniucnmcio ocy(cunn pc:yniraron nccnc(onaunn paccxarpn-
namrcn npoi, uaxo(nmnccn ua ncpncu(nxynnpuix nnunnx, coorncr-
crnymmnx ocy(acxix paccronunnx n(oni ncpcioua, uannuan or
nipauuon ronxn orcncra (uanano nnarqopxi Hoxponcxoc-Crpcmuc-
no): 1OO, 2OO, 3OO, 35O, 45O, 55O n 65O x.
Ocoin nurcpcc npc(crannnmr coon rpn ynacrxa :aipn:ucunn non-
ni rncnixn xcrannaxn ua paccronunn or cnc:uon (opoin (pnc. 3.1O).
Hcpnin ynacrox uaxo(nrcn xc(y (nyxxcrponon uacinim Bonoxo-
naxcxoio moccc n ncpnix npy(ox (ncpncu(nxynnp O x, cx. pnc. 3.5).
Bropon ynacrox xc(y ncpncu(nxynnpaxn 1OO n 45O x, i(c xaxcn-
xaniuoc :aipn:ucunc npnxo(nrcn ua nccuym rponnuxy xc(y ncpnix
n nropix npy(axn (3OO x). Tpcrnn ynacrox pacnonocu ua ipaunnc
xc(y rpcrinx npy(ox n iapaaxn, :a xoropixn n(cr ncpcccxamman
Pncxoc uanpanncunc Mocxoncxan oxpyuan cnc:uan (opoia ua ua-
cinn nicoron 56 x.
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113
Ha ncpnox n nropox ynacrxax c y(ancuncx or nonorua (opoin npo-
ncxo(nr yxcuimcunc cyxxapuoio noxa:arcnn Z
c
. Hpnncx (nn nropoio
ynacrxa (cx. pnc. 3.1O) crcncui :aipn:ucunn cunacrcn nponopnno-
uaniuo yncnnncunm paccronunn or cnc:uon (opoin.
nn ncpnoio ynacrxa cuncunc :aipn:ucunn nxccr xcucc nipacu-
uin xapaxrcp. Ho-nn(nxoxy, ro xouo oncunri nnnnuncx npoxo-
(nmcio nnn:n roio ynacrxa Bonoxonaxcxoio moccc. Ho ncc c ua-
nm(acrcn ycronnnnan rcu(cunnn x cuncunm :aipn:ucunn rncnixn
xcrannaxn npn y(ancunn or cnc:uon (opoin, nro ionopnr o :aipn:-
ucunn rcppnropnn, cnn:auuox n ocuonuox c paoron cnc:uo(opo-
uoio rpaucnopra, a uc anroxonniuoio. B npornnuox cnynac ua ncpnox
ynacrxc uanm(anoci i nnn yncnnncunc yponun :aipn:ucunn, nnn ou
ocranancn i ucn:xcuuix.
Ha rpcricx ynacrxc n:xcucunc Z
c
c y(ancuncx or nonorua (opoin
nxccr cnouin xapaxrcp. Cuanana crcncui :aipn:ucunn pc:xo cuna-
crcn npn y(ancunn or (opoin ua 5O x (55O x n 65O x), a :arcx npn y(a-
ncunn ua 1OO x n 15O x yncnnnnnacrcn, coxpaunn rcu(cunnm x yxcui-
mcunm cyxxapuoio noxa:arcnn :aipn:ucunn. Cnouin xapaxrcp n:-
xcucunn Z
c
ua rox ynacrxc xouo, no-nn(nxoxy, oncunri
npncyrcrnncx iapacn, nnn:n xoropix nonimcunc :aipn:ucunn co-
npono(acrcn yncnnncuncx co(cpaunn cnnuna, unxcnn n xpoxa, a
raxc (ononunrcniuix nxna(ox Mocxoncxon oxpyuon cnc:uon
(opoin.
Ha nccx ncpncu(nxynnpax uanm(acrcn ycronnnnoc cuncunc co-
(cpaunn xonn(cua, unxcnn, xc(n, xapiauna, xpoxa, xoanira n ono-
na npn y(ancunn or cnc:uon (opoin. Hanonimcc co(cpaunc nnuxa
n xc(n npn y(ancunn ua 5O x or cnc:uon (opoin ua orxcrxc 3OO35O x
(1
Zn
2O, 1
Cu
8). Pn(ox c Bonoxonaxcxnx moccc qnxcnpycrcn noc-
ronucrno n co(cpaunn xpoxa, xoanira n cnnuna npn y(ancunn or no-
norua (opoin.
Hpn y(ancunn ua 5O x or cnc:uon (opoin nponcxo(nr yncnnncunc
xouncurpannn cnnuna, rax xax :(cci npoxo(nr xccruan ipyuronan an-
roxonniuan (opoia. B (aniucnmcx npn y(ancunn ua 1OO n 15O x or
xoncn ninyi napxa xouncurpannn cnnuna cunacrcn. Ha rcppnropnn
iapauoio xoxnncxca npn y(ancunn ua 5O x or Pncxoio uanpanncunn
cnc:uon (opoin co(cpaunc cnnuna n nonncuuox noxponc npcnima-
cr qouonoc n 1O pa:.
114
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115
Ycronnnnoc yxcuimcunc co(cpaunn nnuxa raxc uanm(acrcn ua
orxcrxax O, 1OO, 2OO n 45O x no xoncc npn y(ancunn or cnc:uon (o-
poin. Ha orxcrxax 3OO35O n 65O x nponcxo(nr icrpin pocr co(cp-
aunn nnuxa ua paccronunn 1OO x or I nyrn. Orxcrxc 3OO35O x co-
orncrcrnycr 1
Zn
2O (conna(acr c uananox ropxo:uoio nyrn) n orxcr-
xc 65O x 1
Zn
4O (conna(acr c uannnncx iapacn n xonncxropa (nn
croxon no( cnc:uon (opoion uanpornn rpcricio no(ocxa).
Taxnx opa:ox, xouo c(cnari nino(, nro :aipn:ucunc nonncuuo-
io noxpona ocracrcn :uannrcniuix n xccrc uanonimcio ropxocunn
(orxcrxa 3OO x) n no ncpncu(nxynnpy y(ancunn or orxcrxn 3OO x. Xa-
paxrcp :aipn:ucunn coxpauncrcn ua napanncniuix nnunnx no oruomc-
unm x nonoruy cnc:uon (opoin. B xccrc pacnonocunn iapaa ra
rcu(cunnn uapymacrcn. Honna ua paccronunn 5O x or (opoin oruocnr-
cn x xarciopnn onacuan ua orxcrxc 3OO x, a yc ua paccronunn
1OO x x xarciopnn (onycrnxan ua nporncunn nccio ynacrxa, xpo-
xc orxcrxn 65O x, i(c nonna ua 1OO x or xoncn oruocnrcn x xarciopnn
yxcpcuuo onacuan. Ho uanoncc cnniuoc :aipn:ucunc rncnixn
xcrannaxn uanm(acrcn ua ynacrxc ncpcccncunn M2 Pncxoio ua-
npanncunn c MO2.
Ynacrox Kpacuin IanrncnIpa(aucxan npoxo(nr n(oni Tnxnpn-
:cncxon napxonon :oui n nocrpocx cnc:uo(opouoio ua:uancunn.
Oruocnrcniuo paccxarpnnacxoio ynacrxa cnc:uon (opoin Tnxnpn-
:cncxnn napx pacnonocu n ccncpo-nocronuon nacrn panoua. Bnn:n
craunnn Kpacuin Ianrncn c muon cropoui uaxo(nrcn noxoxornn-
uoc n pcqpncparopuoc (cno. 2nnon ccxrop pacnonocu n muon n
ccncpo-:ana(uon nacrn oruocnrcniuo cnc:uon (opoin. B(oni ccncp-
uon nonoci orno(a or craunnn Kpacuin Ianrncn (o Tnxnpn:cncxoio
napxa nocrpocui iapan. Ha rcppnropnn napxa n nccuon :ouc n 1OO x
or paccxarpnnacxon (opoin nxccrcn no(ocx (ua paccronunn 17OO x or
craunnn). 3a ronxy orcncra in nipau xoucn nnarqopxi Kpacuin
Ianrncn (pnc. 3.11).
Mc(y craunnnxn Kpacuin Ianrncn n Ipa(aucxan npoi orn-
pannci ncpc: 1OO2OO x n: nonncuuoio iopn:oura n(oni cnc:uo(o-
pouoio nonorua (I nyri) ua paccronunn 3 x, :a ncxnmncuncx (nnui
nnarqopx. Ha rcppnropnn Tnxnpn:cncxoio napxa npoi pannci ua
paccronunn 5O, 1OO n 2OO x or nonorua (opoin no ncpncu(nxynnpax x
orxcrxax 13OO15OO17OO19OO x (paccronunc or nnarqopxi Kpac-
116
uin Ianrncn) no I nyrn. Orop npo uc npon:no(nnn co cropoui
II nyrn n:-:a orcyrcrnnn nonncuuoio noxpona.
Hanonimnn nxna( n :aipn:ucunc nonni n(oni ynacrxa Kpacuin
Ianrncn Ipa(aucxan nuocnr xc(i 1
Cmax
8; unxcni 1
Cmax
4; nnux
1
Cmax
5; xonn(cu 1
Cmax
8. nn cnnuna, onona n xoanira xaxcn-
xaniuoc :uancunc xoqqnnncura xouncurpannn cocrannncr 22,5, a
(nn nnpxounn n xpoxa 3.
Cyxxapuin noxa:arcni :aipn:ucunn Z
c
nonni, paccnnrau no (ccn-
rn ncxcurax, xoqqnnncuri xouncurpannn xoropix nimc qouonix
:uancunn: xapiauna, xpoxa, unxcnn, xoanira, xc(n, nnuxa, cnnuna,
onona, xonn(cua, nnpxoua.
Ha ynacrxc xc(y craunnnxn Kpacuin Ianrncn n Ipa(aucxan
n:xcucunc cyxxapuoio noxa:arcnn :aipn:ucunn rncnixn xcranna-
xn nponcxo(nr uc xouorouuo n nxccr ncripc :oui onimoio :aipn:-
ucunn (pnc. 3.12). Honncuuin noxpon ua paccronunn 3 x or xoncn
oruocnrcn x xarciopnn yxcpcuuo onacuan. Hcpnan :oua (Z
c1
25,8)
uaxo(nrcn ua paccronunn 1OO x or nnarqopxi Kpacuin Ianrncn,
nropan npnxo(nrcn ua 4OO x (Z
c2
17,O), rpcrin ua paccronunn
Pnc. 3.11. Cxcxa ynacrxa Mocxoncxon cnc:uon (opoin Pncxoio uanpanncunn
ua ncpciouc Kpacuin IanrncnIpa(aucxan
2nnon ccxrop
Bo(ocx
Tnxnpn:cncxnn napx
cr. Ipa(aucxan
2nnon ccxrop
Pcqpcnpa-
ropuoc (cno
uoxoxornnuoc (cno
Iapan
cr. Kpacuin Ianrncn
O x
1OO 2OO
4OO
6OO
8OO
1OOO
12OO
13OO
15OO
17OO
19OO
117
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6OO x or craunnn (Z
c3
18,6), n, uaxoucn, ncrncpran y orxcrxn
14OO18OO x (Z
c4
16,8), r.c. ucnocpc(crncuuo :a 1OO x (o craunnn
Ipa(aucxan.
Honuin ropxo:uon nyri (nn ocrauonxn ua nnarqopxc Kpacuin Ian-
rncn cocronr n: nyrn, i(c nponcxo(nr no(ioronxa ropxo:on (npn nucn-
xarnnccxox ynpanncunn ropxocunn), 7O x n pcaniuoio nyrn: 596 x,
i(c n(cr nurcucnnuoc ropxocunc c ncnoni:onauncx xono(ox. Hono-
nnua roio nyrn npnxo(nrcn ua (nnuy nnarqopxi Kpacuin Ianrncn
(3OO x), i(c nponcxo(nr oxounarcniuoc ropxocunc noc:(a. Bropan
nacri nyrn ro nocnc(unc xcrpi (296 x) ynacrxa Ipa(aucxanKpac-
uin Ianrncn, npnncx :(cci yc ynrcua (nnua ncxrponoc:(a 25O x.
Horoxy xaxcnxyx nona(aunn xcrannon npnxo(nrcn ua 5O1OO x or
nnarqopxi n cooruocnrcn c xaxcnxyxox Z
c1
(1OO x or craunnn Kpac-
uin Ianrncn). Hpoi inn oropaui ncpc: 2OO x, noroxy ncrxoio
orucccunn x xaxcnxyxy 3OO x (uanano pcaniuoio ropxo:uoio nyrn) or
nnarqopxi Kpacuin Ianrncn uc :aqnxcnponauo.
Maxcnxaniuoc :uancunc Z
c3
(8OO6OO4OO x (o nnarqopxi Kpac-
uin Ianrncn) coorncrcrnycr nonocunm uconimon xpnnn:ui ynac-
rxa cnc:uon (opoin c pa(nycox xpnnn:ui R 691 x. Maxcnxyxi Z
c

ncpc: 1OO x n 3OO5OO x or Ipa(aucxon xoiyr iri oncucui rop-
xocuncx ncxrponoc:(on ncrpcnuoio II nyrn.
Cyxxapuin noxa:arcni n ncnox oxa:ancn onimnx (nn ucuaipy-
cuuon cnc:uon (opoin Pncxoio or(cncunn. Tax, ua ynacrxc Hox-
poncxoc-Crpcmucnoucunuipa(cxan ou cocrannncr Z
c
63, a ua ynac-
rxc Kpacuin IanrncnIpa(aucxan n 2,5 pa:a xcuimc (Z
c
26). Oro
cnn:auo c pcnicqox ynacrxa cnc:uon (opoin. nnianci no I nyrn or
Ipa(aucxon (o Kpacuoio Ianrnnna, pcnicq onycxacrcn n cropouy
Kpacuoio Ianrnnna co cpc(unx yxnouox
c
1,35 % (pa:unna n ypon-
unx nnarqopx cocrannncr 2,56 x), xoropin :uannrcniuo xcuimc, ncx
cpc(unn yxnou ua ynacrxc Hoxponcxoc-Crpcmucnoucunuipa(cxan
(
c
6,O %). Cnc(onarcniuo, :aipn:ucunc n onimcn xcpc ynacrxa
Hoxponcxoc-Crpcmucno nponcxo(nr n:-:a (ononunrcniuoio noroxa
xnipnpymmnx n cropouy cuncunn pcnicqa no(nnuix qopx rnc-
nix xcrannon.
Hanonimcc :uancunc xoqqnnncura xouncurpannn ua ncpciouc
Kpacuin Ianrncn Ipa(aucxan (pnc. 3.13) nxcmr ncripc ncxcura,
xoropic oruocnrcn x ncpnoxy n nropoxy xnaccax onacuocrn: xc(i, un-
119
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xcni, xonn(cu n nnux raxnc c, xax n ua ncpciouc Hoxponcxoc-
Crpcmucnoucunuipa(cxan.
pyinc ncripc ncxcura onono, xoanir, xpox n cnnucn nxcmr
n uccxonixo pa: xcuimnc :uancunn, ncx xc(i, unxcni, xonn(cu n
nnux ((nn ynacrxa Kpacuin IanrncnIpa(aucxan n 23 pa:a, (nn
Hoxponcxoc-Crpcmucnoucunuipa(cxan n 45 pa:) (pnc. 3.14). Cnn-
ucn ua oonx ynacrxax uaxo(nrcn ua o(uox yponuc 1
Pb
1,52,5, xpo-
xc orxcrxn 65O x ua ynacrxc Hoxponcxoc-Crpcmucnoucunuipa(c-
xan, i(c pacnonocu iapauin xoxnncxc. Hannnnc iapauoio xoonc-
parnna pn(ox c Kpacuix Ianrnnncx conccx ucxuoio yncnnnnnacr
co(cpaunc cnnuna no cpanucunm c (pyinxn xcrannaxn.
Pacnpc(cncunc xa(oio n: rncnix xcrannon coorncrcrnycr xapax-
rcpy ropxocunn ua craunnn Kpacuin Ianrncn (nn I nyrn n pacnono-
cunm xpnnoio ynacrxa. Bo nccx npoax nnuxa xcuimc, ncx xc(n, a
ua ropxo:uox nyrn uanm(acrcn nicoxoc co(cpaunc n nonnc xc(n n
xonn(cua.
3aipn:ucunc rncnixn xcrannaxn ua pa:nnnuox paccronunn npn
y(ancunn or I nyrn n cropouy Tnxnpn:cncxoio napxa noxa:auo ua
pnc. 3.15. Koxnncxcuoc :aipn:ucunc rncnixn xcrannaxn ua paccro-
nunn 5O, 1OO n 2OO x or xoncn yxcuimacrcn no cpanucunm c :aipn:uc-
uncx nonncuuoio noxpona ua paccronunn 3 x. Hanoncc cnniuoc
yxcuimcunc xouncurpannn :aqnxcnponauo y xc(n, nnuxa n unxcnn,
n ro npcxn xax co(cpaunc cnnuna n xpoxa n:xcunmrcn uc:uannrcni-
uo. Cnniuoc yxcuimcunc co(cpaunn xc(n, nnuxa n unxcnn npnno-
(nr x yxcuimcunm cyxxapuoio xoqqnnncura :aipn:ucunn, n pc:yni-
rarc ncio nonna xocr iri orucccua x xarciopnn uconacuan. Ho
npn ncpcxo(c or 5O x (o 2OO x npn y(ancunn nponcxo(nr nipanunna-
unc omcio :aipn:ucunn, xpoxc orxcrxn 19OO x. Oro, no-nn(nxoxy,
cnn:auo c omnx :aipn:ucuncx Tnxnpn:cncxoio napxa pn(ox co crau-
nncn Ipa(aucxan.
Ha nccx y(ancunn or cnc:uon (opoin no I nyrn uanm(acrcn qnx-
cnponauuoc ua onpc(cncuuox yponuc co(cpaunc n nonncuuox nox-
ponc xonn(cua, unxcnn, xoanira, xpoxa n onona. Mc(i coxpauncr
nocronuuic :uancunn uc:anncnxo or paccronunn or nonorua (opoin
nnmi ua ynacrxc 13OO15OO x or craunnn Kpacuin Ianrncn, a ua
17OO19OO x nponcxo(nr cc yncnnncunc n 3 pa:a ua y(ancunn 2OO x or
(opoin.
121
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Pacnpc(cncunc cnnuna n nnuxa npn y(ancunn or xoncn npaxrnncc-
xn uc :anncnr or paccronunn, cio :uancunn ucn:xcuui, xpoxc uconi-
moio yncnnncunn (o 1
Pb
3,7 n 1
Zn
3 ua paccronunn 2OO x or nnar-
qopxi Ipa(aucxan ua orxcrxc 19OO x.
Honna ua y(ancunn 2OO x or xpan nnarqopxi Ipa(aucxan oruo-
cnrcn x xarciopnn yxcpcuuo onacuan (:a cncr xc(n, nnpxounn, noni-
qpaxa n cnnuna). Bo nccx npoax ua paccronunn oncc 5O x or cnc:-
uon (opoin nonna nxccr cnaoxncnym pcaxnnm pH 56, noroxy
oncunri yncnnncunc :aipn:ucunn rncnixn xcrannaxn ua paccro-
nunn 2OO x or (opoin yncnnncuncx xnipannn no(nnuix qopx uc-
no:xouo. Mouo nnmi npc(nonaiari uannnnc (ononunrcniuoio nc-
ronunxa :aipn:ucunn.
Xapaxrcp :aipn:ucunn nonni rncnixn xcrannaxn (nn nccuon
:oui Tnxnpn:cncxoio napxa npn y(ancunn or cnc:uon (opoin uc :a-
nncnr or paccronunn n nnnncrcn nocronuuix, n ornnnnc or oncc or-
xpiron nacrn napxonon :oui Hoxponcxoc-Crpcmucno, i(c nponcxo-
(nr xouorouuoc yxcuimcunc :aipn:ucunn npn y(ancunn or cnc:uon
(opoin.
Taxnx opa:ox, yponcui :aipn:ucunn nonni nonoci orno(a ua ni-
pauuix ynacrxax Pncxoio or(cncunn (opoin :anncnr or cxopocrn
(nncunn noc:(a n, coorncrcrncuuo, uananiuon cxopocrn ropxoc-
unn, (nnui ropxo:uoio nyrn ncpc( nnarqopxaxn n yxnoua pcnicqa.
Hpn y(ancunn or (opoin nurcucnnuocri :aipn:ucunn npnnciammnx
rcppnropnn cunacrcn, uo xapaxrcp pacnpc(cncunn rncnix xcrannon
ua napanncnnx coorncrcrnycr pacnpc(cncunm nx n(oni xoncn ua pac-
cronunn 3 x. Hcpcccncunc cnc:uix (opoi Pncxoio uanpanncunn n
Mocxoncxon oxpyuon :uannrcniuo yncnnnnnacr xouncurpannm xc-
rannon n nonnc. Hannnnc uconimoio iapauoio xoxnncxca pn(ox c
nnarqopxon Kpacuin Ianrncn uc nnnncr ua xapaxrcp n axnnnry(y
pacnpc(cncunn xcrannon n nonocc orno(a.
H:yncunc xapaxrcpa :aipn:ucunn nonoci orno(a rncnixn xcran-
naxn ino nponc(cuo ua rcppnropnn Kypcxoio uanpanncunn Mocxon-
cxon (opoin, npoxo(nmcn no Kio-Bocronuoxy oxpyiy Mocxni, i(c
cocpc(oroncuo onimoc nncno npc(npnnrnn, oruocnmnxcn x xcran-
nypinnccxoxy n xamnuocrponrcniuoxy xoxnncxcy.
Iin nipau ynacrox or nnarqopxi Kannrunxn (o nnarqopxi Moc-
xnopcnic (orcncr or ncpcccncunn cnc:uon (opoin c Hnciopo(cxon
124
ynnncn, xoropan uaxo(nrcn :a 4OO x (o nnarqopxi Kannrunxn oruo-
cnrcniuo Kypcxoio nox:ana).
Hpoi ornpannci n cpc(ucx ncpc: 1OO x n: axrnnuoio nonncuuo-
io iopn:oura (O15 cx) xax n(oni caxoio cnc:uo(opouoio nonorua
ua paccronunn 3 x, rax n napanncniuo cxy ua paccronunn 5O, 1OO, 15O
n 2OO x. Honna auann:nponanaci nonyxonnnccrncuuix aroxuo-xnc-
cnouuix cncxrpaniuix auann:ox ua co(cpaunc 37 ncxcuron.
Ha ocuonc nonyncuuix (auuix crponnn (naipaxxi n:xcucunn
cyxxapuoio noxa:arcnn :aipn:ucunn or y(ancunn or inanuoio nyrn c-
nc:uon (opoin (nn uanoncc onacuix nocixn rncnix xcrannon (xc(i,
nnux, unxcni, xpox, cnnucn, xoanir, xonn(cu, onono).
Ycrauonncuo, nro uanonimnn nxna( n :aipn:ucunc nonni n(oni
cnc:uon (opoin nuocnr: xc(i 1
Cmax
8O; unxcni 1
Cmax
75; xo-
anir 1
Cmax
25; xpox 1
Cmax
1OO; xonn(cu 1
Cmax
1OO;
nnux 1
Cmax
1O; onono 1
Cmax
8 n cnnucn 1
Cmax
7,5.
Bo nccx npoax orcyrcrnycr caxin roxcnnuin xcrann 1-io xnacca
onacuocrn pryri. pyion roxcnnuin xcrann roio xnacca xa(-
xnn ouapynnacr noxaniuoc npncyrcrnnc n ucxoropix npoax.
Ka(xnn n 5O1OO pa: npcnimacr qouonoc co(cpaunc n nonnc xc(y
craunnnxn Hcpcpna n Mocxnopcnic. Honimcuuic xouncurpannn ro-
io xcranna ouapycui pn(ox c umnnucxon a:on Moccrponcua
n Kypinuoncxnx nno(onoonomuix oc(nucuncx (1
Cd
5O6O) ua
paccronunn 3, 1OO n 2OO x or nonorua cnc:uon (opoin. Oun raxc
nponnnnmrcn oxono :ano(a Oncxrponpnop ua paccronunn 3 x or (o-
poin (1
Cd
1OO), a raxc ua paccronunn 2OO x or xoncn (1
Cd
6O) xc-
(y nnarqopxaxn umnnuo n cno ua rcppnropnn ipy:onon cnc:uo-
(opouon craunnn umnnuo-Coprnpononuoc.
uoxaniuoc :aipn:ucunc xa(xncx nxccrcn raxc ua rcppnropnn
Mocxoncxoio ucpioxcxaunnccxoio :ano(a.
3aipn:ucunc nonni xa(xncx uanm(acrcn n ua cpciy pcxn Mocx-
na, i(c ccri cnycx pcnicqa x no(c. Taxnx opa:ox, nponcxo(nr :aipn:-
ucunc pcxn o(unx n: caxix roxcnnuix xcrannon.
nn nonuon oncuxn :aipn:ucunn rcppnropnn ucoxo(nxo ynn-
rinari ncci xoxnncxc pa:nnnuix npon:no(crn, pacnonocuuix
n(oni cnc:uon (opoin, a raxc xoxnncxc roxcnnuix rncnix xc-
rannon, onpc(cnnmmnx orucccunc nonni ron rcppnropnn x xarc-
iopnn onacuon.
125
B cocran npc(npnnrnn n iapauix xoxnncxcon, pacnonocuuix
n(oni ynacrxa KannrunxnMocxnopcnic, nxo(nr: Koxnuar Mocan-
rorpauc (^ 1), Ou(oxpnuuin :ano( (^ 2), Taiaucxnn OPHO (^ 3)
(onomuan a:a ua rcppnropnn npox:oui ^ 25 Bonioipa(cxnn npo-
cncxr), 2IH-6 (:ano( cnc:ocrouuix n:(cnnn n xoucrpyxnnn) (^ 4),
ICK (iapan) n anrocronuxn (^ 5, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 18, 2O, 26), OAO
Hcpnin anroxoxnuar (^ 6), 3ano( xcncpnxcuraniuix xamnu
(^ 7), Mocnpxoxnuar (^ 8), A3uK (Anro:ano( nx. ucunucxoio
Koxcoxona) (^ 1O), Honnipaqnnccxnn xoxnncxc Hymxnucxan nno-
ma(i (^ 12) n npox:ouc ^ 26 Kuin nopr, Mocxoncxnn ucpio-
xcxaunnccxnn :ano( (^ 15), uoxoxornnuoc (cno umnnuo (^ 16),
Baiouopcxouruoc (cno umnnuo (^ 17), cpcnoopaarinammnn
xoxnuar OAO 3apcnic (^ 19), umnnucxnn nnrcnuo-xcxaunnccxnn
:ano( (^ 21) npox:oua ^ 58 umnnuo-Hcpcpna, Oniruin :ano(
2IH-15 (^ 22), uoxoxornnuoc (xoropocrponrcniuoc) (cno Hcpc-
pna (^ 23), :ano( Cnopr:uax (^ 24), :ano( Oncxrponpnop
(^ 25), umnnucxan a:a Moccrponcua (^ 27), Icrouuin :ano(
(^ 28), IYH Mocrcnnoucpio (^ 29), Kypinuoncxoc nno(onoonom-
uoc oc(nucunc (^ 3O), Mocxoncxnn :ano( nonnxcrannon(^ 31).
Hyxcpannn npc(npnnrnn conna(acr c uyxcpanncn ocxron ua
pnc. 3.2O3.22 (nn nccnc(ycxoio ynacrxa cnc:uon (opoin.
nn ycrauonncunn nxna(a npc(npnnrnn n :aipn:ucunc nonni rnc-
nixn xcrannaxn n(oni cnc:uon (opoin npono(nnn paunponaunc
yponun :aipn:ucunn Z
c
no nipauuix npoax.
H:xcucunc cyxxapuoio noxa:arcnn :aipn:ucunn Z
c
(nn 3 x or xo-
ncn n(oni ynacrxa cnc:uon (opoin (no 8 ncxcurax) nponcxo(nr uc
xouorouuo, n uanm(acrcn ccxi uanoncc nipacuuix :ou :aipn:uc-
unn (pnc. 3.16).
Hcpnan :oua (Z
c
52,3) uaxo(nrcn ua paccronunn 1,7 xx or nipau-
uon ronxn orcncra n xccrc ncpcccncunn c MO2, i(c pn(ox pacnono-
cui Ou(oxpnuuin :ano( n 2cnc:ocrouuin :ano(, iapan (nicoxnn
yponcui :aipn:ucunn occncnnnacrcn nonimcuuon xouncurpanncn
unxcnn). H nonna oruocnrcn x xarciopnn onacuan.
Bropan :oua (Z
c
42,557,6) pacnonocua ua paccronunn 2,32,9 xx
or uanana orcncra, n rox xccrc pacnonaiamrcn OAO Hcpnin anro-
xoxnuar, 3ano( xcncpnxcuraniuix xamnu (uanano Ocranoncxoio
npoc:(a) n Mocnpxoxnuar nonna xarciopnn onacuan.
126
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127
Tpcrin :oua (Z
c
85,9143,2) uaxo(nrcn ua paccronunn 4,55 xx
or uanana orcncra. B rox xccrc ccri xpnnon ynacrox cnc:uon (opo-
in, n x inanuoxy nyrn npncoc(nunmrcn no(c:(uic nyrn or npc(npn-
nrnn co cropoui Ocranoncxoio npoc:(a n Mocxoncxoio Kuoio nop-
ra, a raxc pacnonaiacrcn Honnipaqnnccxnn xoxnncxc Hymxnucxan
nnoma(i n npox:ouc ^ 26 Kuin nopr. 3(cci :aipn:ucunc npo-
ncxo(nr :a cncr nicoxoio co(cpaunn unxcnn, xpoxa n onona, a nonna
oruocnrcn x xarciopnn npc:ninanuo onacuan.
crncpran :oua (Z
c
65,5131,6) uaxo(nrcn ua paccronunn 5,6
6,O xx, n panouc craunnn umnnuo, i(c pn(ox c cnc:uon (opoion
pacnonaiacrcn umnnucxnn napx. B nonnc uanpornn Ionimoio um-
nnucxoio npy(a n pn(ox c nnarqopxon umnnuo :aipn:ucunc ni:na-
uo nicoxnxn xouncurpannnxn xonn(cua, unxcnn, xc(n n xoanira.
Honna oruocnrcn x xarciopnn npc:ninanuo onacuan. 3(cci x inan-
uoxy xo(y Kypcxoio uanpanncunn (opoin (oannnmrcn craunnouuic
nyrn (nn ocnynnaunn craunnn umnnuo-Coprnpononuan. Hanpornn
umnnucxoio npy(a, pn(ox c xoropix npoxo(nr :aipycuuan um-
nnucxan ynnna, pacnonaiacrcn oniman nporncuuan :oua iapacn
n(oni cnc:uon (opoin.
Hnran :oua (Z
c
25,247,8) pacnonaiacrcn ua paccronunn 6,57,1 xx
or ronxn orcncra ncpcccncunn cnc:uon (opoin n yn. Hnciopo(-
cxon. B ron :ouc uaxo(nrcn Mocxoncxnn ucpioxcxaunnccxnn :ano(.
Tax c npncyrcrnycr pa:ncrnncunc (cnoncxnx nyrcn (nn ocnynnaunn
uoxoxornnuoio (cno umnnuo n Baiouopcxouruoio (cno. 3aipn:-
ucunc nponcxo(nr :a cncr nonimcuuix xouncurpannn xc(n, unxcnn
n xoanira. Honna oruocnrcn x xarciopnnx yxcpcuuo onacuan n
onacuan.
Uccran :oua (Z
c
62,61O9,2) uaxo(nrcn ua paccronunn 7,58,4 xx
y nnarqopxi cno, i(c pn(ox pacnonaiamrcn uoxoxornnuoc (cno
umnnuo, Baiouopcxouruoc (cno, iapan n umnnucxnn nnrcnuo-
xcxaunnccxnn :ano(, a raxc onimoc xonnnccrno (cnoncxnx nyrcn
(nn xaucnpnponaunn noxoxornnon. Honna oruocnrcn x onacuon, :a
cncr xc(n, cnnuna, unxcnn, xoanira n xpoxa.
Cc(ixan :oua (Z
c
56,6) uaxo(nrcn ua paccronunn 9,5 xx, pn(ox c
:ano(ox Oncxrponpnop, uoxoxornnuix (Moropocrponrcniuix)
(cno Hcpcpna. B rox xccrc nponcxo(nr cycunc nnoma(n (cnoncxnx
nyrcn, n no(xo(nr no(c:(uic nyrn, ocnynnammnc :ano(i. Honna
128
oruocnrcn x xarciopnn onacuan. Cymccrncuuoc nnnnunc ua :aipn:-
ucunc oxa:inamr cnnucn, unxcni, xoanir, xpox.
Caxix nncrix c ronxn :pcunn :aipn:ucunn rcppnropnn rncnixn
xcrannaxn nnnncrcn ynacrox 2,74 xx n panouc craunnn Tcxcrnni mnxn.
K xcrannoopaarinammnx npc(npnnrnnx, pacnonocuuix n(oni
nccnc(ycxoio ynacrxa cnc:uon (opoin, oruocnrcn nnmi 3ano( xcnc-
pnxcuraniuix xamnu, A3uK, Mocxoncxnn ucpioxcxaunnccxnn :a-
no(, Moropocrponrcniuoc (cno Hcpcpna, umnnucxnn nnrcnuo-xc-
xaunnccxnn :ano( n :ano( Oncxrponpnop. A3uK uaxo(nrcn ua (o-
craronuox paccronunn or nnarqopxi Tcxcrnnimnxn n uc oxa:inacr
nnnnunc ua :aipn:ucunc nonni ucnocpc(crncuuo y cnc:uo(opouo-
io nonorua (Z
c
41O,6). Tonixo (na xcranna nuocnr :aipn:ucunc n
nonny n panouc nnarqopxi Tcxcrnnimnxn noniqpax (1
W
4) n xo-
nn(cu (1
Mo
1O12).
Pacnonocunc npc(npnnrnn occncnnnacr xoppcnnnnm c xaxcn-
xaniuixn :uancunnxn :aipn:ucunn rncnixn xcrannaxn nonni n
nonocc orno(a cnc:uon (opoin, xoropan oruocnrcn x xarciopnn onac-
uan n npc:ninanuo onacuan.
Honna ynacrxa cnc:uon (opoin O1,5 xx (ronxa orcncra Hnc-
iopo(cxan ynnna), n npc(cnax xoropoio uaxo(nrcn nnarqopxa Kannr-
unxn, cnnracrcn (onycrnxon n yxcpcuuo onacuon, rax xax cyx-
xapuin noxa:arcni roio ynacrxa uaxo(nrcn n npc(cnax 1O23 c(nunn.
Co cropoui I nyrn pacnonaiamrcn Koxnuar Mocanrorpauc n Ou-
(oxpnuuin :ano(. Ocuonuixn :aipn:unrcnnxn :(cci nnnnmrcn xc(i
(1
Cu
28), cnnucn (1
Pb
1,53,5), unxcni (1
i
52O), xoanir
(1
Co
23,5), xpox (1
Cf
21O).
Honna ynacrxa cnc:uon (opoin 1O,511,5 xx (ronxa orcncra Hnc-
iopo(cxan ynnna) ncpc( nnarqopxon Mocxnopcnic oruocnrcn x (o-
nycrnxon, rax xax cyxxapuin noxa:arcni :aipn:ucunn nonni roio
ynacrxa uaxo(nrcn n npc(cnax 516 c(nunn. Co cropoui I nyrn pac-
nonaiacrcn umnnucxan a:a Moccrponcua n co cropoui II nyrn
Kypinuoncxoc nno(onoonomuoc oc(nucunc, n xoropix pa:ipyacr-
cn n :aipyacrcn anrorpaucnopr, nuocnmnn cnon nxna( n :aipn:ucunc
oxpyammcn cpc(i (cnnucn (K
Pb
1,5), unxcni (1
i
1O), xpox
(1
Cf
5) n (1
Zn
2,5)). Ho ccnn npnunri no nunxaunc nonimcuuoc
co(cpaunc xa(xnn ua orxcrxc 1O,911,5 xx, ro cyxxapuin noxa:a-
rcni :aipn:ucunn nonni yncnnnnnacrcn :a cncr roxcnnuocrn xa(xnn n
129
cocrannr :(cci Z
c
5475, n, cnc(onarcniuo, xarciopnn nonni xocr
iri npn:uaua onacuon.
Hnux, oruocnmnncn x rcxuoicuuix xcrannax, n (auuox cnynac
ronixo n 2,5 pa:a npcnimacr qouonoc co(cpaunc, conna(an npn rox
c xaxcnxyxaxn cyxxapuoio noxa:arcnn :aipn:ucunn nonni Z
c
ua pac-
cronunn 3 x or nonorua ua nporncunn nccio paccxarpnnacxoio ynac-
rxa Kypcxoio uanpanncunn cnc:uon (opoin.
Auann: (naipaxxi n:xcucunn cyxxapuoio noxa:arcnn :aipn:uc-
unn Z
c
(nn 5O x or xoncn n(oni cnc:uon (opoin Kypcxoio uanpannc-
unn noxa:an (pnc. 3.17), nro pacnpc(cncunc rncnix xcrannon nponc-
xo(nr rax c uc xouorouuo, xax n (nn 3 x or xoncn, n uanm(amrcn
ncripc ncrxo nipacuuic :oui :aipn:ucunn.
Hcpnan :oua (Z
c
47,7) pacnonaiacrcn ua paccronunn 4,1 xx or nc-
pcccncunn cnc:on (opoin c Hnciopo(cxon ynnncn, :a craunncn Tcx-
crnnimnxn, n rox xccrc uaxo(nrcn ICK Cniuan. Honna npn:uaua
onacuon.
Bropan :oua (Z
c
4O,298,3) 6,16,7 xx y craunnn umnnuo (6,1
6,7 xx). Ha paccronunn O,5O,7 xx or nnarqopxi pacnonocu Moc-
xoncxnn ucoioxcxaunnccxnn :ano( (Z
c
98,3). Honna oruocnrcn x
onacuon.
Tpcrin :oua (Z
c
68,281,3) pacnonaiacrcn ua paccronunn 8,39,1 xx
or nipauuon ronxn orcncra. Craunnn Hcpcpna, uoxoxornnuoc (Mo-
ropocrponrcniuoc) (cno Hcpcpna, umnnucxnn nnrcnuo-xcxaun-
nccxnn :ano(, :ano( Oncxrponpnop. B rox xccrc npoxo(nr oni-
moc xonnnccrno (cnoncxnx nyrcn, xoropic cnnamrcn (nn nixo(a n:
ipy:onon craunnn umnnuo-Coprnpononuoc ua inanuic nyrn: (na (nn
ipy:onix n (na (nn naccanpcxnx noc:(on. B ry c :ouy n(yr no(-
c:(uic nyrn, ocnynnammnc Oniruin :ano( 2IH-15 n :ano( Oncx-
rponpnop. Honna n rox xccrc oruocnrcn x xarciopnn onacuan.
crncpran :oua (Z
c
44,O67,8) uaxo(nrcn ua paccronunn 1O,511,1 xx
or ronxn orcncra, xc(y craunnnxn Hcpcpna n Mocxnopcnic, pn(ox c
umnnucxon a:on Moccrponcua. B rox xccrc npoxo(nr no(c:(-
uic nyrn Kypinuoncxoio nno(onoonomuoio oc(nucunn. B rnx npc(-
npnnrnnx n(cr nurcucnnuan cxcua anrorpaucnopra. Honna no npc(-
cranncuuoxy cyxxapuoxy noxa:arcnm :aipn:ucunn noccxim rcxuo-
icuuixn ncxcuraxn oruocnrcn x onacuon, uo c yncrox qnxcannn
roxcnnuoio xa(xnn (1
Cd
5O6O, :aipn:ucunc no:xouo :a cncr nc-
13O
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a
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x
x
O
,
O
1
O
,
O
2
O
,
O
3
O
,
O
4
O
,
O
5
O
,
O
6
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7
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8
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9
O
,
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1
O
O
,
O
K a n n r u n x n
^ 1
^ 4 , 5
^ 6
^ 7
^ 8
^ 9
^ 1 1
^ 1 2
^ 1 3
^ 1 4
^ 1 5
^ 1 6
^ 1 7
^ 1 8 , 2 1
^ 1 9 , 2 O
^ 2 2
^ 2 5
^ 2 6
^ 2 7
^ 2 8
^ 2 9
^ 3 O
^ 2
^ 3
131
noni:onaunn anrorpaucnoprox (n:cniuoio ronnnna) nonny n rox xcc-
rc ucoxo(nxo cnnrari npc:ninanuo onacuon.
Mc(y Hnciopo(cxon ynnncn n nnarqopxon Kannrunxn (O
O,4 xx) :aqnxcnponauo :aipn:ucunc rncnixn xcrannaxn, oruocnmc-
ccn x yxcpcuuo onacuoxy yponum Z
c
2O,4 (n ocuonuox :aipn:ucunc
occncnnnamr unxcni, xonn(cu, xpox n xc(i). Mouo onpc(cncuuo
cxa:ari, ocuoninanci ua ucnicoxox yponuc cyxxapuoio noxa:arcnn,
nro :aipn:ucunc rcppnropnn nponcxo(nr :a cncr paori cnc:uo(o-
pouoio rpaucnopra n anrorpaucnopra (anro(opoia uaxo(nrcn ua( c-
nc:uon (opoion).
ancc n(oni cnc:uon (opoin ua paccronunn 1,52 xx or Hncio-
po(cxon ynnni ouapycuo :aipn:ucunc rncnixn xcrannaxn, coor-
ncrcrnymmcc yponum yxcpcuuo onacuin Z
c
1O22,1 :a cncr co(cp-
aunn n nonnc xc(n (1
Cu
1O), nnuxa (1
Zn
4), cnnuna (1
Pb
23),
xonn(cua (1
Mo
8,313,3), xpoxa (1
Cf
5), onona (1
Sn
2,5). Co
cropoui I nyrn roio ynacrxa pacnonaiamrcn Koxnuar Mocanro-
rpauc n Ou(oxpnuuin :ano(. Co(cpaunc xc(n, xpoxa, onona xouo
cooruccrn c :aipn:ucuncx nonni caxon cnc:uon (opoion, a xonn-
(cua, nnuxa n cnnuna c paoron pacnonocuuix pn(ox npc(npn-
nrnn (rax xax rn xcranni nxo(nr n cocran rpymnxcn nacrcn no(nn-
uoio cocrana).
Ooman (auuic no pacnpc(cncunm rncnix xcrannon n nonnc no-
noci orno(a ua paccronunn 3 n 5O x or nonorua cnc:uon (opoin, xo-
uo yrncp(ari, nro coxpauncrcn nurcucnnuoc :aipn:ucunc xc(y nnar-
qopxaxn cno n Hcpcpna (xarciopnn nonni onacuan Z
c
6O11O),
a raxc pn(ox co craunncn umnnuo (xarciopnn nonni npc:ninanuo
onacuan, Z
c
8O13O). Cnc(ycr orxcrnri, nro cyxxapuin noxa:arcni
Z
c
ua y(ancunn 5O x or inanuoio nyrn yxcuimacrcn ua 3O c(nunn pn-
(ox co craunncn umnnuo (npn cpanucunn c paccronuncx 3 x) n ua
2O c(nunn (nn orpc:xa cnoHcpcpna.
B panouc nnarqopxi Tcxcrnnimnxn n ua paccronunn 5O x or no-
norua cnc:uon (opoin npoi uc ornpannci, rax xax co cropoui
I nyrn pacnonaiacrcn :aacqanirnponauuan nnoma(i c coc(nucuncx
c Bonioipa(cxnx npocncxrox n ynnncn umnnucxon.
Coxpauncrcn :uancunc cyxxapuoio noxa:arcnn ua ynacrxc O1,5 xx
n panouc craunnn Kannrunxn. Hcpc( craunncn Mocxnopcnic (ynacrox
1O11,5 xx) cyxxapuin noxa:arcni :aipn:ucunn nonni rncnixn
132
xcrannaxn yncnnnnnacrcn ua 5O c(nunn ((nn 3 x 16, a (nn 5O x 67,8).
Oro cnn:auo c rcx, nro npoi ornpannci co cropoui II nyrn (nn 5O x
or inanuoio nyrn, i(c uaxo(nrcn Kypinuoncxoc nno(onoonomuoc o-
c(nucunc n no(c:(uic nyrn x ucxy. Hpc(crannncrcn nurcpccuix ror
qaxr, nro pn(ox c nno(onoonomuix npc(npnnrncx uanm(acrcn no-
nimcuuoc co(cpaunc xa(xnn, caxoio roxcnnuoio xcranna 1-io xnac-
ca onacuocrn. H nxcuuo :(cci uaxo(nrcn caxan oniman xouncurpa-
nnn cnnuna n nonnc (1
Pb
7,5).
H: oncc (nyxcor oropauuix npo nonni nnmi ucxuoinc oruo-
cnrcn x nnunnx niopxn 1OO, 15O n 2OO x. Oro cnn:auo c ucno:xo-
uocrim oropa npo, rax xax n rnx xccrax cymccrnymr :aipa(cunn
npoximncuuix ocxron, a raxc acqanirnponauuic (opoin n nno-
ma(xn.
Hpn opaorxc (auuix (nn paccronunn 1OO x or inanuoio nyrn ino
ninnncuo mccri :ou :uannrcniuoio :aipn:ucunn nonni (pnc. 3.18).
Hcpnan :oua uaxo(nrcn ua paccronunn 1,O1,4 xx (Z
c
8,329,3)
n nxccr uconimoc :aipn:ucunc n panouc craunnn Kannrunxn, i(c ua-
xo(nrcn anroxoxnuar, Ou(oxpnuuin :ano( n Taiaucxan onomuan a:a.
Honna oruocnrcn x (onycrnxon n yxcpcuuo onacuon (1
Mo
33,3,
ccnn ynnrinari co(cpaunc ccpcpa, npcnimammcc n 65 pa: qouonoc
co(cpaunc, ro nonna oruocnrcn x onacuon).
Bropan :oua uaxo(nrcn ua paccronunn 3,54 xx or nipauuon ron-
xn orcncra (Z
c
58,3122,8) nocnc craunnn Tcxcrnnimnxn, i(c pac-
nonocu A3uK (raxnc xcranni, xax xc(i, unxcni, xoanir, xpox
1
Cf
75, xonn(cu n onono). Honna oruocnrcn x xarciopnn onacuan
Tpcrin :oua uaxo(nrcn ua paccronunn 66,5 xx or Hnciopo(cxon
ynnni (Z
c
36,513O), nocnc craunnn umnnuo. 3(cci pa:ncrnnnmrcn
nyrn ipy:onon craunnn umnnuo-Coprnpononuoc. Pn(ox pacnonocu
Mocxoncxnn ucpioxcxaunnccxnn :ano( (xc(i, unxcni 1
i
75, xo-
anir 1
Co
25, xpox 1
Cf
25, xonn(cu n onono). Karciopnn non-
ni onacuan n npc:ninanuo onacuan.
crncpran :oua pacnonaiacrcn ua paccronunn 78,2 xx or Hncio-
po(cxon ynnni (Z
c
25,839,3), nnn:n craunnn cno. Hpoi orn-
pannci co cropoui I nyrn, i(c napanncniuo n(cr uccxonixo (cnoncxnx
nyrcn. 3(cci uaxo(nrcn uoxoxornnuoc (cno umnnuo (xc(i, nnux,
cnnucn 1
Pb
27,5, unxcni, xpox 1
Cf
1O25, onono). Honna
xarciopnn yxcpcuuo onacuan n onacuan (orucccunc x xarciopnn
133
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x
x
O
,
O
1
O
,
O
2
O
,
O
3
O
,
O
4
O
,
O
5
O
,
O
6
O
,
O
7
O
,
O
8
O
,
O
9
O
,
O
1
O
O
,
O
1
1
O
,
O
1
2
O
,
O
1
3
O
,
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1
4
O
,
O
K a n n r u n x n
^ 1
^ 4 , 5
^ 6
^ 7
^ 8
^ 9
^ 1 1
^ 1 2
^ 1 3
^ 1 4
^ 1 5
^ 1 6
^ 1 7
^ 1 8 , 2 1
^ 1 9 , 2 O
^ 2 2
^ 2 5
^ 2 6
^ 2 7
^ 2 8
^ 2 9
^ 3 O
^ 2
^ 3
134
onacuan nponcxo(nr :a cncr npncyrcrnnn nonimcuuoio co(cpaunn
n nonnc cnnuna n nnuxa).
Hnran :oua uaxo(nrcn ua paccronunn 9,51O,3 xx or ronxn orcnc-
ra (Z
c
52,38O,1). Hocnc craunnn Hcpcpna, i(c pacnonocu :ano(
Oncxrponpnop (xc(i 1
Cu
61O; unxcni 1
i
3O5O), nonna or-
uocnrcn x xarciopnn onacuan;
Uccran :oua uaxo(nrcn ua paccronunn 11,5 xx or ronxn orcncra
(Z
c
14,O29,3), ncpc( craunncn Mocxnopcnic, rcppnropnn umnnu-
cxon a:i Moccrponcua, x xoropon no(xo(nr no(c:(uic nyrn.
Honna oruocnrcn x xarciopnn yxcpcuuo onacuan (xc(i, unxcni, xpox
n onono 1
Sn
3,3). Ha orxcrxc 11,3 xx o(ua npoa :aqnxcnponana
npcnimcunc xa(xnn 1
Cd
5O, noroxy nonna onacuan.
Auann:npyn xapaxrcp :aipn:ucunn nonoci orno(a Kypcxoio uanpan-
ncunn Mocxoncxon cnc:uon (opoin, o(uo:uanuo xouo c(cnari ni-
no( o rox, nro yponcui :aipn:ucunn no:pacracr or napanncnn 5O x x
napanncnn 1OO x ua 3O c(nunn xc(y craunnnxn umnnuo n cno (nc-
pc( Mocxoncxnx ucpioxcxaunnccxnx :ano(ox) n ua 8O c(nunn y crau-
nnn Tcxcrnnimnxn. Yponcui :aipn:ucunn n npc(cnax craunnn Kannr-
unxn yncnnnnnacrcn ua 8 c(nunn (nonrn ua nopn(ox).
B panouc craunnn Tcxcrnnimnxn yncnnncunc :aipn:ucunn rncni-
xn xcrannaxn xouo oncunri nnmi rcx, nro yc nonnnnaci no:xo-
uocri n:nrnn npo (co cropoui I nyrn), a raxc ua rox ynacrxc ync-
nnncuo xonnnccrno cnc:uo(opouix nnunn. (nucrncuuixn o-
cxraxn :aipn:ucunn xoiyr nicrynari umnnucxnn piuox n cncrcxa
iapauix xooncparnnon, pacnonocuuix nxcuuo ua paccronunn 1OO x
or cnc:uon (opoin (xc(i 1
Cu
1216, unxcni 1
i
153O, xo-
anir 1
Co
2,54,2, xpox 1
Cf
75, xonn(cu 1
Mo
4, onono
1
Sn
2,5, nonna xarciopnn onacuan).
Hpc(crannncrcn nurcpccuix ror qaxr, nro xc(y craunnnxn cno
n Hcpcpna coxpauncrcn :aipn:ucunc rncnixn xcrannaxn. 3(cci Z
c

yxcuimacrcn n 2 pa:a n cocrannncr 4O c(nunn. Mouo o(uo:uanuo yr-
ncp(ari, nro n rox xccrc :aipn:ucunc nonni rncnixn xcrannaxn
cnn:auo nxcuuo c paoron cnc:uon (opoin, rax xax :(cci uaxo(nrcn
uoxoxornnuoc (cno umnnuo, a raxc xuoccrncuuic no(c:(uic
nyrn uoxoxornnuoio (cno. B omcc :aipn:ucunc nuocnr cnon nxna(
raxnc xcranni, xax xc(i 1
Cu
36, nnux 1
Zn
2,51O, cnn-
ucn 1
Pb
27,5, unxcni 1
i
51O, xpox 1
Cf
1O25, ono-
135
no 1
Sn
28,3. Hannnnc cnnuna no(unxacr yponcui onacuocrn
nonni (o onacuon, a raxc ucoxo(nxo :axcrnri, nro nxcuuo :(cci
ua paccronunn 1OO x or inanuoio xo(a cnc:uon (opoin ua rcppnropnn
uoxoxornnuoio (cno :aqnxcnponauo caxoc onimoc :uancunc xoq-
qnnncura xouncurpannn cnnuna 1
Pb
7,5. Taxc ycrauonncuo ca-
xoc onimoc co(cpaunc nnuxa 1
Zn
1O no nccx nipauuox ynac-
rxc KannrunxnMocxnopcnic, npnncx cio co(cpaunc no:pacracr
n 2 pa:a no cpanucunm c 5O x.
Hpn auann:c :aipn:ucunn nonni ua paccronunn 15O x or inanuoio
nyrn inn ninnncui (nc :oui c xaxcnxaniuixn :uancunnxn cyx-
xapuoio noxa:arcnn Z
c
(pnc. 3.19).
Hcpnan :oua uaxo(nrcn ua paccronunn O2 xx or nipauuon ronxn
orcncra (Z
c
1O,723,4) n panouc craunnn Kannrunxn, i(c pacnono-
cui anroxoxnuar, pa:nn:xa Hnciopo(cxon ynnni n cnc:uon (o-
poin, Ou(oxpnuuin :ano(, iapan n 2IH-6. Honna oruocnrcn x xa-
rciopnn yxcpcuuo onacuan.
Bropan :oua uaxo(nrcn ua paccronunn 3,54,5 xx or nipauuon
ronxn orcncra (Z
c
14,666,6), nocnc craunnn Tcxcrnnimnxn. Honna
oruocnrcn x xarciopnn onacuan.
Hconimoc xonnnccrno (Z
c
912) rncnix xcrannon uaxo(nrcn
ua orxcrxax 6,5 xx (umnnuo) n 9,2 xx (Hcpcpna), noroxy nonna :(cci
oruocnrcn x (onycrnxon.
Tax xax ua paccronunn 15O x or nonorua cnc:uon (opoin n:nro uc-
onimoc xonnnccrno npo, rpy(uo ionopnri o nonuon xaprnuc :aipn:-
ucunn. Onpc(cncuuocri ccri ronixo n Kannrunxax (:aipn:ucunc :a cncr
unxcnn n xonn(cua) n Tcxcrnnimnxax (:aipn:ucunc :a cncr xc(n, un-
xcnn, xpoxa n xonn(cua).
Maxcnxaniuoc :aipn:ucunc rncnixn xcrannaxn ua paccronunn
2OO x or inanuoio nyrn uanm(acrcn ronixo n o(uox xccrc: xc(y crau-
nncn umnnuo n cno ua rcppnropnn Mocxoncxoio ucpioxcxaunncc-
xoio :ano(a (pnc. 3.2O), i(c yponcui :aipn:ucunn cocrannnmr Z
c
31
42,8, nonna xarciopnn onacuan (1
i
2O25, 1
Cf
12,5).
pyinc ynacrxn, xoropic nurcucnnuo inn :aipn:ucui ua paccro-
nunn 3, 5O, 1OO n 15O x, rcncpi oruocnrcn x xarciopnn nonni (onyc-
rnxan ua paccronunn 2OO x or xoncn.
Tax, n panouc Kannrunxon nonny xouo oruccrn x xarciopnn yxc-
pcuuo onacuan ua paccronunn 3, 5O, 1OO n 15O x, n xaxcnxaniuic
136
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a
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,

x
x
O
,
O
1
O
,
O
2
O
,
O
3
O
,
O
4
O
,
O
5
O
,
O
6
O
,
O
7
O
,
O
K a n n r u n x n
^ 1
^ 4 , 5
^ 6
^ 7
^ 8
^ 9
^ 1 1
^ 1 2
^ 1 3
^ 1 4
^ 1 5
^ 1 6
^ 1 7
^ 1 8 , 2 1
^ 1 9 , 2 O
^ 2 2
^ 2 5
^ 2 6
^ 2 7
^ 2 8
^ 2 9
^ 3 O
^ 2
^ 3
137
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o
n
n
i

u
a

y
n
a
c
r
x
c

K
a
n
n
r
u
n
x
n

M
o
c
x
n
o
p
c
n
i
c

u
a

p
a
c
c
r
o
n
u
n
n

2
O
O

x

o
r

i
n
a
n
u
o
i
o

n
y
r
n
O

O
,
5

1

1
,
5

2

2
,
5

3

3
,
5

4

4
,
5

5

5
,
5

6

6
,
5

7

7
,
5

8

8
,
5

9

9
,
5

1
O

1
O
,
5

1
1

1
1
,
5

1
2
P
a
c
c
r
o
n
u
n
c
,

x
x
O 5
1
O
1
5
2
O
2
5
3
O
3
5
4
O
4
5
K a n n r u n x n
^ 1
^ 4 , 5
^ 6
^ 7
^ 8
^ 9
^ 1 1
^ 1 2
^ 1 3
^ 1 4
^ 1 5
^ 1 6
^ 1 7
^ 1 8 , 2 1
^ 1 9 , 2 O
^ 2 2
^ 2 5
^ 2 6
^ 2 7
^ 2 8
^ 2 9
^ 3 O
^ 2
^ 3
138
:uancunn Z
c
n ocuonuox inn n npc(cnc 2O3O c(nunn, roi(a xax ua
paccronunn 2OO x or cnc:uon (opoin rn :uancunn yxcuimnnnci
n 2 pa:a. Hpnncx ronixo ncripc xcranna occncnnnamr :aipn:ucunc
rcppnropnn: xc(i (1
Cu
2), xpox (1
Cf
6,2), onono (1
Sn
2,5) n xo-
nn(cu (1
Mo
13,3).
B npc(cnax craunnn Tcxcrnnimnxn nponcxo(nr yxcuimcunc Z
c

n 6,5 pa: (ua 55 c(nunn) no cpanucunm c (auuixn (nn paccronunn 15O x
or nonorua cnc:uon (opoin. Honna oruocnrcn x (onycrnxon
(Z
c
12). Coxpauncrcn :uancunc cyxxapuoio noxa:arcnn n (nn crau-
nnn umnnuo (Z
c
8) ronixo nnmi :a cncr xonn(cua 1
Mo
13,3 no
cpanucunm c 15O x.
Ha cpciy pcxn Mocxni ua orxcrxc 1O,511,3 xx ua paccronunn
2OO x or inanuoio xo(a nonnnncrcn :aipn:ucunc rncnixn xcrannaxn
Z
c
11. 3(cci (cipa(annn nonni nponcxo(nr :a cncr nonimcuuix xou-
ncurpannn nnuxa (1
Zn
35), onona (1
Sn
5) n cnnuna (1
Pb
3), a
raxc noniqpaxa n nnpxounn, co(cpaunn xoropix n 2 pa:a npcni-
mamr qouonic :uancunn. Xorn cyxxapuin noxa:arcni Z
c
11 oruo-
cnrcn x nonnc xnacca (onycrnxan, uo uannnnc cnnuna, nnuxa, a rax-
c xa(xnn 1
Cd
5O ncpcno(nr nonny n xnacc onacuan.
Hpc(napnrcniuin auann: noxa:an, nro nonimcuuic co(cpaunn
xc(n cocpc(oroncui n(oni cnc:uo(opouon xaincrpann. Paccxarpn-
nan (naipaxxy (nn 3 x, xouo o(uo:uanuo cxa:ari, nro no nccx npoax
uanm(acrcn npcnimcunc qouonix xouncurpannn xc(n n 41O pa:,
xpoxc ynacrxa HcpcpnaMocxnopcnic n n panouc craunnn Tcxcrnni-
mnxn, i(c co(cpaunc xc(n uaxo(nrcn ua yponuc qouonoio. Hanoni-
man xouncurpannn xc(n oruocnrcn x ynacrxy cnoHcpcpna, i(c
1
Cu
1216 (pnc. 3.21).
Ha paccronunn 5O x or inanuoio xo(a ninnncuo nonimcuuoc co-
(cpaunc xc(n (1
Cu
2O8O) ua rcppnropnn cno Hcpcpna. pyian
xaprnua pacnpc(cncunn xc(n npncyrcrnycr ua napanncnn 1OO x. B pano-
uc Kannrunxon n ua cpciy pcxn Mocxni :aqnxcnponaui cnc(i xc(n.
Honimcunc cc uanm(acrcn n panouc Tcxcrnnimnxon (1
Cu
16), cno
(1
Cu
6O) n Hcpcpni (ua rcppnropnn :ano(a Oncxrponpnop
1
Cu
1O).
Ha paccronunn 15O x or cnc:uon (opoin :axcruo cuncunc co(cp-
aunn xc(n (o 1
Cu
3, xpoxc pc:xoio nonimcunn pn(ox c Tcxcrnni-
mnxaxn (1
Cu
1O). Hocnc(ymmcc cuncunc co(cpaunn xc(n (o
139
1
Cu
2 nponcxo(nr yc ua paccronunn 2OO x or cnc:uon (opoin, xpo-
xc panoua cno, i(c 1
Cu
5. Taxnx opa:ox, c pocrox paccronunn or
cnc:uon (opoin co(cpaunc xc(n cunacrcn, xpoxc ynacrxa Hcpc-
pni (5O x). 3(cci ocuonuon nxna( n :aipn:ucunc (acr npc(npnnrnc c-
nc:uo(opouoio rpaucnopra.
Cnc(ycr orxcrnri, nro xc(i cpanunrcniuo xanono(nnua n nonnc
npn pH 7,88,3 n noroxy n nonocc orno(a n:-:a ncxyccrncuuocrn
uacinuoio ipyura oua ocracrcn n ncpxunx cnonx.
Co(cpaunc nnuxa n nonnc ua nccx ynacrxc npnxcpuo panuoxcpuo.
Tax, ua y(ancunn 3 x or inanuoio nyrn cio co(cpaunc n 1,52,5 pa:a
npcnimacr qouonic xouncurpannn, a ua 5O x npn ncpcccncunn c Moc-
Pnc. 3.21. Koqqnnncuri xouncurpannn xcrannon n nonnc ua craunnn Hcpcpna
ua pa:nnnuox y(ancunn or inanuoio nyrn
3 5O 1OO 15O 2OO
Paccronunc or inanuoio nyrn, x
O
1
2
3
4
5
5
1O
15
2O
25
3O
35
4O
45
5O
55
i (1) Cu (2) Cf (3) Pb (4) Zn(5)
14O
xoncxon oxpyuon cnc:uon (opoion (ocrniacr 4 pa:. Ha (pyinx ynac-
rxax nnux npncyrcrnycr panuoxcpuo c xoqqnnncurox xouncurpannn
1
Zn
13 (xaxcnxyx xc(y cno n Hcpcpnon). Ha y(ancunn 1OO x ua
nccx ynacrxc nnux npcnimacr qouonoc co(cpaunc n 2 pa:a, xpoxc
panoua cno, i(c 1
Zn
7,51O. Ha paccronunn 15O x ua nccx ynacrxc
nnux npcnimacr qouonoc :uancunc n 22,5 pa:a; ua paccronunn 2OO x
or cnc:uon (opoin n npc(cnax cno n 23 pa:a, a ua cpciy pcxn
Mocxna n 35 pa:.
Ycrauonncuo, nro co(cpaunc n nonnc nnuxa uc :anncnr or (cnrcni-
uocrn npc(npnnrnn, uaxo(nmnxcn pn(ox c cnc:uon (opoion, n noc-
rynncunc cio n nonny nponcxo(nr ncpc: rpcunc xonccopcnic, xo-
nccoxono(xa no(nnuoio cocrana. Hnux oruocnrcn x 1-xy xnaccy
onacuocrn, noroxy crcncui onacuocrn :aipn:ucunn nonni (nn oxpy-
ammcn cpc(i :uannrcniuo no:pacracr.
Co(cpaunc cnnuna n nonnc nonoci orno(a KannrunxnMocxno-
pcnic nxccr uconimoc npcnimcunc ua( qouonix (2,57,5 pa:). O(-
uaxo cnnucn ona(acr uanoncc nipacuuix roxcnnccxnx (cncrnncx,
noroxy nonna npn (ocraronuox co(cpaunn cnnuna ncpcno(nrcn n
cnc(ymmym xarciopnm.
Hpn y(ancunn or inanuoio nyrn xoqqnnncur xouncurpannn cnnu-
na nxccr cnouym :anncnxocri. Cuanana co(cpaunc cnnuna yncnn-
nnnacrcn c 3,75 (3 x) (o 7,5 (1OO x), :arcx na(acr (1
Pb
2,53 npn
15O x), a :arcx cuona no:pacracr (1
Pb
5 npn 2OO x). Maxcnxaniuoc
:uancunc 7,5 npn 1OO x oruocnrcn x panouy craunnn cno, i(c uaxo-
(nrcn uoxoxornnuoc (cno umnnuo. ac ua y(ancunn 2OO x or
inanuoio nyrn nonna :aipn:ucua cnnunox n panouc cno 1
Pb
5.
Taxnx opa:ox, xouo npc(nononri, nro :aipn:ucunc cnnunox or-
uocnrcn x paorc npc(npnnrnn cnc:uo(opouoio rpaucnopra. Ioni-
moc co(cpaunc cnnuna (1
Pb
7,5) uanm(acrcn raxc npn y(ancunn
5O x n panouc no(c:(uix nyrcn umnnucxon a:i Moccrponcua.
Ora nonna uaxo(nrcn ua yxnouc, nc(ymcx x cpciy pcxn Mocxni, n,
cnc(onarcniuo, no:xouo nona(aunc cnnuna n no(y.
Hpncyrcrnnc unxcnn n rnx nonnax nxccr noxaniuin xapaxrcp n
xapaxrcpn:ycrcn nicoxnxn xouncurpannnxn. Hpan(a, mnpnua :oui
nicoxnx xouncurpannn unxcnn n(oni cnc:uo(opouon xaincrpann
ucncnnxa, oua uc npcnimacr 15O x. Hanpnxcp, pn(ox co craunncn
141
cno co(cpaunc cio nxccr nicoxnc :uancunn: 1
i
75 (3 x), 1
i
75
(1OO x) n 1
i
25 (2OO x). Ococuuocri mnpoxoio :aipn:ucunn rcppn-
ropnn 2OO x unxcncx, no:xouo, cnn:auo c xuoionncncuuixn no(-
c:(uixn nyrnxn uoxoxornnuoio (cno umnnuo.
Pn(ox co craunncn umnnuo raxc :aqnxcnponaui npoi c ni-
coxnx co(cpauncx unxcnn 1
i
: 5O (3 x), 63,5 (5O x), 25 (1OO x)
n 4 (15O x). Taxnx opa:ox, pn(ox co craunncn umnnuo n(cr pc:xoc
cuncunc unxcnn c pocrox paccronunn or inanuoio nyrn.
Ha orxcrxc 99,5 xx pn(ox c :ano(ox Oncxrponpnop 1
i
co-
crannncr: 38 (3 x), 38 (5O x), 5O (1OO x), 4 (15O x) n 2,5 (2OO x).
B panouc ncpcccncunn c Mocxoncxon oxpyuon cnc:uon (opoion
ua orxcrxc 1,52 xx 1
i
cocrannncr: 38 (3 x), 23 (5O n 1OO x), 4 (15O x)
n 3 (2O x). B nroic, xouo c(cnari nino(, nro ocuonuix ncronunxox
:aipn:ucunn nonni unxcncx ncc c ua(o cnnrari cnc:uym (opoiy, a
uc npc(npnnrnn 2IH-6 n iapauoio xoxnncxca. Bicoxoc co(cpaunc
unxcnn 1
i
38 nnonuc orncnacr yponum :aipn:ucunn ronixo ca-
xon cnc:uon (opoion.
Hpncyrcrnnc xpoxa ua ynacrxc KannrunxnMocxnopcnic n nonnc
nonoci orno(a uocnr noxaniuin xapaxrcp n conpono(acrcn nicoxn-
xn xouncurpannnxn. Tax, ua paccronunn 3 x or cnc:uon (opoin roni-
xo ua orxcrxc 4,5 xx xc(y Tcxcrnnimnxaxn n umnnuo qnxcnpycr-
cn oipoxuoc co(cpaunc xpoxa: 1
Cf
5O1OO. Pn(ox pacnonocui
ronixo npox:oua Kuin nopr n iapan. B panouc craunnn cno
(3 x or inanuoio xo(a) xoqqnnncur xouncurpannn xpoxa uaxo(nrcn
n npc(cnax 1
Cf
1O19.
Ha y(ancunn 5O x or inanuoio nyrn co(cpaunc xpoxa cunacrcn
(o 1
Cf
619 (nn nccio ynacrxa cnc:uon (opoin, a ua y(ancunn 1OO x,
n xccrc pacnonocunn craunnn Tcxcrnnimnxn, cio xouncurpannn
onnri nonimacrcn n nxccr nicoxnc :uancunn 1
Cf
75. Y craunnn c-
no nponcxo(nr raxc ucxoropoc no:pacraunc xpoxa (o 1
Cf
25.
Ha y(ancunn 15O x or inanuoio nyrn (opoin xpoxa nonrn ucr ua
ynacrxc Kypcxoio uanpanncunn. uoxaniuo nicoxoc co(cpaunc n non-
nc xpoxa pn(ox c Tcxcrnnimnxaxn ncc c npncyrcrnycr, n xorn ouo
yxcuimacrcn n 2 pa:a, o(uaxo ncc c ocracrcn nicoxnx 1
Cf
37,5.
Ha paccronunn 2OO x or inanuoio nyrn ronixo n panouc cno ua-
nm(acrcn nonimcunc xpoxa 1
Cf
512,5. Hpn rox ua npcccncunn
142
c Mocxoncxon oxpyuon cnc:uon (opoion cio xouncurpannn cun-
acrcn (1
Cf
6).
Taxnx opa:ox, npn paorc cnc:uo(opouoio rpaucnopra n cio
npc(npnnrnn nponcxo(nr raxc :aipn:ucunc rcppnropnn xpoxox.
Omcc :aipn:ucunc rncnixn xcrannaxn nonni nonoci orno(a
cnc:uon (opoin yxcuimacrcn c yncnnncuncx paccronunn or inanuo-
io xo(a (pnc. 3.22). Hpn y(ancunn 2OO x or inanuoio nyrn n panouc
craunnn Hcpcpna n umnnuo nonna oruocnrcn x xarciopnn (onycrn-
xan. Bnn:n craunnn cno, xoropan pacnonaiacrcn n ncurpc ipy:onon
craunnn umnnuo-Coprnpononuan, nonna npn y(ancunn ua 2OO x oc-
racrcn n xarciopnn onacuan.
Auann:npyn omym xaprnuy :aipn:ucunn no nocixn xcrannax (nn
:cncuon napxonon :oui n panouc umnnuo, xouo npnnrn x nino(y,
nro uanonimcc :uancunc noxa:arcnn no rncnix xcrannax coorncrcr-
nycr 3 x (Z
c
8O13O) or nonorua cnc:uon (opoin (xorn :uancunn (nn
5O x (Z
c
3O4O), 1OO x (Z
c
1O35) oncui ncnnxn). Tonixo (nn 15O x
n 2OO x or cnc:uon (opoin :aipn:ucunc rncnixn xcrannaxn coxpa-
Pnc. 3.22. Cyxxapuin noxa:arcni :aipn:ucunn nonni ua craunnnx Hcpcpna,
cno n umnnuo npn pa:nnnuox y(ancunn or inanuoio nyrn
3 5O 1OO 15O 2OO
Paccronunc or inanuoio nyrn, x
O
2O
4O
6O
8O
1OO
12O
14O
Hcpcpna cno umnnuo
uncrcn ua yponuc cyxxapuoio noxa:arcnn Z
c
47. Ora nonna n pano-
uc umnnuo oruocnrcn x xarciopnn onacuan ua paccronunn 5O
n 1OO x, a ua paccronunn 3 x npc:ninanuo onacuan.
Cpanunnan nnuo npoximncuuic ynacrxn :cxcni iopo(a n(oni Kyp-
cxoio uanpanncunn cnc:uon (opoin, ucni:n uc c(cnari nino(, nro
o(unx n: caxix ucnaiononynuix ynacrxon, :aipn:ucuuix rncnixn
xcrannaxn, uapymnnmnxn xnxpononoinnccxym cncrcxy nonni, nn-
nncrcn ynacrox umnnuo, i(c uaxo(nrcn napx n cncrcxa npy(on, xy(a,
no:xouo, cxinamrcn xoxnncxci ncmccrn, n cocran xoropix nxo(nr
rn xcranni. acri :aipn:ucunn, no:xouo, cnn:aua c uannnncx ia-
pauoio xoxnncxca n nurcucnnuoio (nncunn anroxonncn no um-
nnucxon ynnnc. O(uaxo ocuonuoc :aipn:ucunc rncnixn xcrannaxn
uyuo oruccrn x cnc:uon (opoic. 3(cci uannuamr pa:ncrnnnricn
craunnouuic nyrn ipy:onon craunnn umnnuo-Coprnpononuoc n no(-
no(nrcn no(c:(uic nyrn, xoropic ocnynnamr pn( npc(npnnrnn
(Mcrannnnccxnn oniruo-xcncpnxcuraniuin :ano(, 3ano( xcncpn-
xcuraniuix xamnu, 3ano( cxopocruix npcnn:nouuix ncxrponpn-
opon, 3ano( xcrannon:(cnnn Mocxoncxnn xinonapcuuin :a-
no( n (p.), xoropic cocpc(oroncui n panouc Ocranoncxoio npoc:(a, n
ipy:onon (nop Mocxoncxoio Kuoio nopra.
Taxnx opa:ox, cpanunnan nipauuic ynacrxn Pncxoio n Kypc-
xoio uanpanncunn, xouo o(uo:uanuo c(cnari nino(, nro nxna( c-
nc:uon (opoin c cc ropxo:uix :aipn:ucuncx nonni rncnixn xcran-
naxn ncpc( craunnnxn n ua xpnnn:uc xoncn cooruocnrcn c nxna(ox n
omcc :aipn:ucunc or npc(npnnrnn, pacnonocuuix n(oni nonorua
cnc:uon (opoin. Tonixo n panouc npc(npnnrnn cnc:uo(opouoio
rpaucnopra (craunnn cno ua Kypcxox uanpanncunn) n ua ncpcccncunn
c Mocxoncxon oxpyuon (opoion xouo (cnari nino(i o npnopnrcr-
uocrn nxna(a nxcuuo cnc:uon (opoin n :aipn:ucunc nonoci orno(a.
Ocuonuixn xcrannaxn rax, i(c npnnciamman rcppnropnn uc :aipyc-
ua rcxuoicuuixn xoxnncxcaxn, onpc(cnnmmnxn cocronunc nonni n
nonocc orno(a cnc:uon (opoin, nnnnmrcn unxcni, xc(i, nnux n xo-
nn(cu, xax ro nn(uo ua nipauuix ynacrxax Pncxoio uanpanncunn.
B cnynac :aipycuuon xaincrpann Kypcxoio uanpanncunn ocuonuixn
:aipn:unrcnnxn oxa:annci xc(i, unxcni, xonn(cu, xoanir n xpox.
144
Iaaaa 4. TREbE METAb
B HHHEBbX HEHRX
Tncnic xcranni rcxuoicuuoio nponcxo(cunn n xacconix xonn-
nccrnax nocrynamr n no:(yx, no(y n nonny. B nocqcpc, y(ynn cn ny-
cpo(uixn, oun n:anxo(cncrnymr c ncxcuraxn noiconcuo:on
xnxpoopiaun:xaxn, pacrcunnxn, nnoruixn n n xounc xounon nona-
(amr n opiaun:x ncnoncxa. Hpn nocrynncunn n opiaun:x nycpo(uix
xnxnnccxnx ncmccrn, xoropic uc xoiyr icrpo xcraonn:nponaricn n
nonuocrim ni(cnnricn no nucmumm cpc(y, uannuacrcn nx uaxonncunc
n nnmcnix ncnnx |4, 8], xoropoc ni:inacr pa:uoopa:uic uciarnnuic
qqcxri, npn no(n x uapymcunm ycronnnnocrn xocncrcx.
Coinacuo conpcxcuuix npc(cranncunnx |16], uaxonncunc xnxn-
nccxnx ncxcuron opiaun:xaxn onpc(cnncrcn uc ronixo nx nono-
innccxon npnpo(on n icoxnxncn cpc(i, uo n nnmcnixn ncnnxn, nc-
pc: xoropic ocymccrnnncrcn cnn:i opiaun:xon n cpc(i. Hnnmcrpannn
ron xouncnnnn npnnc(cua ua pnc. 4.1.
Pnc. 4.1. Inoxnxnnccxnc nnmcnic ncnn xnxponcxcuron
Mnxponcxcuri
nouni
Pacrcunn
Kopxa n nnmcnic
pacrnrcniuic
ncmccrna
Opiaun:xi ucnoncxa
n nnoruix
Kopxa n nnmcnic
ncmccrna nnoruoio
nponcxo(cunn
2nnoruic
(npoxcyrouuic)
:ncuin
Mnxponcxcuri
iopuix nopo(
Mnxponcxcuri
no:(yxa
Mnxponcxcuri
no(i
145
4.1. 3aeno uo4aapacvenne
Pacrcunn, cnocouic uaxannnnari rncnic xcranni n rxaunx nnn
ua nx noncpxuocrn, nnnnmrcn npoxcyronuix :ncuox n ncnn nonna
pacrcuncnnoruocncnoncx |11, 19]. Yncnnncunc co(cpaunn rn-
cnix xcrannon n nonnc nc(cr x no:pacraunm nx xouncurpannn n pac-
rcunnx. O rox cnn(crcnicrnymr xuoionncncuuic qaxri, ninnncu-
uic npn n:yncunn pacrnrcniuocrn ua aurponoicuuix icoxnxnnccxnx
auoxannnx. Xnxnnccxnn cocran pacrcunn :anncnr or cocrana nonni,
ua xoropix oun npon:pacramr, uo uc nonropncr cio, rax xax nponcxo-
(nr n:nparcniuoc noinomcunc ucoxo(nxix ncxcuron. Cxcxa nyrcn
uaxonncunn rncnix xcrannon n pacrcunnx npnnc(cua ua pnc. 4.2.
Pnc. 4.2. Cxcxa uaxonncunn xcrannon n pacrcunnx
Co(cpaunn,
cqopxnpo-
nauuic
n pacrcunnx
no( nnnnuncx
ccrccrncuuoio
icoxnxnuccxoio
qoua
Copnnn xyrnxynnpuix
cnocx, xncrxaxn nn(cpxnca,
a raxc (nqqy:nn nuyrpi
nncra ucpc: ycrinuuic mcnn
n pacrnopcunc :aipn:unrcncn
n no(c npnno(nr x ncpc(nnc-
unm or xccra noinomcunn
x nuyrpcuunx rxaunx
n xncrxax
Xapaxrcpn:ycr
ccrccrncuuoc co(cpa-
unc xnxponcxcuron n
axxyxynnnnm xcrannon
or pa:nnuuix ncrouun-
xon
Kouncurpnpymrcn
n uanxcucc qn:nonoinuccxn
axrnnuix opiauax
(xnyun, nyxonnni)
crccrncuuoc
co(cpaunc
xnxpo-
ncxcuron
n pacrcunnx
Mcranni,
nocrynammnc
n: nouni
ucpc:
xopucnym
cncrcxy
Mcranni,
ncpcuocnxic
no:(ymuixn
noroxaxn
Banonoc
co(cpaunc
xcrannon
n pacrcunnx
146
Or(cniuic nn(i pacrcunn pa:nnnamrcn no cnocouocrn xouncu-
rpnponari xcranni. O(un n: unx a(copnpymr n :uannrcniuon crc-
ncun, (pyinc nonrn uc pcainpymr ua nonimcuuoc co(cpaunc xcran-
non n oxpyammcn cpc(c |2O]. Hpn n:yncunn uaxonncunn xcrannon n
pacrnrcniuix opiaun:xax, npon:pacrammnx ua rcppnropnn cnc:uo-
(opouix y:non n ynnnax c nurcucnnuix (nncuncx anrorpaucnop-
ra, ococuuo nicoxnc nx xouncurpannn ouapycui n nncrnc (cpc-
nicn, pacnonocuuix n(oni cnc:uo(opouix xaincrpancn. Tax, n
pacrnrcniuix npoax c rcppnropnn cnc:uo(opouix y:non xoq-
qnnncur uaxonncunn cnnuna (oruomcunc xouncurpannn rncnix
xcrannon n nncrnc no oruomcunm x qouonon xouncurpannn) n:xc-
unncn or 1,29 (o 2,47, n ro npcxn xax ua anroxaincrpannx or 1,O1
(o 1,69 (ran. 4.1) |17, 27].
Toauuo 4.T
Koaqqnunenv naxouaenna vaaeamx wevaaaoa a ancvtax apeaecnmx uopoa
uoa aosaecvanew pasan4nmx anaoa vpancuopva
Bn( rpaucnopra
1
C
Cnn-
ucn
Hnux Mc(i
Ka(-
xnn
Mapia-
ucn
Xpox
Hn-
xcni
2cnc:uo(opo-
uin
1,812 1,519 2,124 1,9O2 6,161 1,945 1,514
Anroxonniuin 1,479 1,119 2,O97 1,147 3,377 1,831 1,391
Ha rcppnropnnx cnc:uo(opouix y:non Bopouc-1, craunnn Ho(-
xncruan Kio-Bocronuon cnc:uon (opoin yncnnncunc xouncurpannn
xcrannon n (pcnccuon pacrnrcniuocrn pacnpc(cnncrcn n cnc(ymmcn
nocnc(onarcniuocrn: rononi nnpaxn(uo-ocxopcnin xaximnucxnn
(inpn() ` cni xonmnan ionyan ` rononi ncpuin ` cpc:a nonncnan.
nn ynnn c nurcucnnuix (nncuncx anrorpaucnopra ino nonyncuo
nuoc pacnpc(cncunc: rononi nnpaxn(uo-ocxopcnin xaximnucxnn
(inpn() ` cpc:a nonncnan ` rononi ncpuin ` cni xonmnan ionyan.
Hccnc(onaunn noxa:ann, nro uanoncc cnniuoc nonpc(cunc nxc-
cr xccro n nncrinx nnpaxn(uo-ocxopcnoio rononn n :ouc (cncrnnn no-
xoxornnuoio (cno (42,8 % xnopornnccxon rxaun n unucn nacrn xpo-
ui n 23,3 % ucxpornnccxon rxaun). Oro nponcxo(nr noroxy, nro n :ouc
147
cnc:uo(opouix y:non uanm(acrcn nonimcunc rcxncparypi n (o-
nonunrcniuoc o(ynaunc nncricn :a cncr nnxpcnix noroxon or npoxo-
(nmnx noc:(on, nro npnno(nr x cuncunm ynnaucunn npncnc:uo-
(opouix npocrpaucrn |4O]. Ha rcppnropnn cnc:uo(opouix y:non
onimnc nonpc(cunn ninnncui y cnn xonmncn ionyon crcncui
nonpc(cunn ua xounnxax xnonuox (ocrniacr 5O %. Tononi ncpuin n
cpc:a nonncnan n xcuimcn crcncun :anncnr or xnnxarnnccxoio pc-
nxa rcppnropnn cnc:uon (opoin n ornnnamrcn un:xon cnocouoc-
rim x uaxonncunm xcrannon.
B nonu(nxannouuix nccnc(onaunnx cpc(i nacro ncnoni:ymrcn
(pcnccuic, xycrapunxonic n rpannuncric qopxi, a raxc un:mnc
pacrcunn -xxn n nnmanunxn |2, 7, 12, 21, 24, 32].
acroc ncnoni:onaunc aumonuoo n xanccrnc nonu(nxaropon o-
ncuncrcn nx nicoxon nyncrnnrcniuocrim x :aipn:ucunm arxocqcpuo-
io no:(yxa. Ho(ouoc cnoncrno oncuncrcn :uannrcniuon axrnnuoc-
rim xarnouuoio o xcua n nx rannoxax n cnaix ninc(cuncx roxcn-
xauron |42]. Orcyrcrnnc xyrnxynnpuoio cnon occncnnnacr cnoo(uoc
npounxuoncunc npc(uix ncmccrn n opiaun:x nnmanunxa npaxrnncc-
xn ncpc: ncm cio noncpxuocri. 3uannrcniuan npo(onnrcniuocri n:-
un nnmanunxon (or corcu (o uccxonixo ricnn ncr) (cnacr nx nccixa
yn:nnxixn n ycnonnnx xpounnccxon aurponoicuuon uaipy:xn. Ho
cpanucunm c nicmnxn pacrcunnxn, nnmanunxn xouncurpnpymr
n 5 pa: onimc cnc:a, n 23 pa:a onimc cnnuna, xa(xnn n pryrn |9].
unmanunxn uacnnrinamr oxono 25 ric. nn(on n mnpoxo pacnpocrpa-
ucui no nccxy :cxuoxy mapy or nonnpuix xono(uix cxan (o pac-
xancuuix xaxucn nycriui. Oun no(pa:(cnnmrcn ua uccxonixo xo-
noinnccxnx ipynn: uanonncuuic (nnicnuic), nnnnruic, nnqnruic.
nn nu(nxannn cocronunn arxocqcpi oinuo ncnoni:ymrcn nnqnr-
uic nnmanunxn. Oun noccnnmrcn ua xopc (cpcnicn n xycrapunxon n
cnnomi noxpinamr crnon (cpcna ua onimox nporncunn.
Cnocnnmc nnmanunxa nxccr pa:nnrym noncpxuocri, ua xoropon xo-
iyr y(cpnnaricn n nacrnnuo nnnrinaricn ncmccrna, uaxannnnanci n
nn(c xoxnncxcuix coc(nucunn c nnmanunxonixn xncnoraxn. Hanpn-
xcp, nnn:n nu(ycrpnaniuoio xoxnncxca n nnmanunxc po(a Pafmclia
cnnuna co(cpnrcn (o 16OO xi/xi cyxon xacci. Ycronnnnocri nnman-
unxon x onimnx xouncurpannnx rncnix xcrannon, no-nn(nxoxy,
148
oncuncrcn noxann:anncn xcrannon n qopxc ucpacrnopnxix concn ua
cio noncpxuocrn |5,14].
Bnnnunc rncnix xcrannon ua ccrccrncuuic coomccrna nnman-
unxon nccnc(onanoci ua ynacrxax Ycxaucxoio opa n Bopouc-Ipn:n
Kio-Bocronuon cnc:uon (opoin |17].
Ha rcppnropnn Ycxaucxoio opa n:yncunc nnnnunn rncnix xc-
rannon npono(nnn ua (nyx noncpcnuix npoqnnnx. Hcpnin pacnona-
iancn xc(y craunnnxn Ioponan n Uycpcxan n pcaxpcannouuon nac-
rn iopo(a. Bropon oxnarinan ynacrox Bopouccxoio nocqcpuoio :a-
nonc(unxa n panouc craunnn Icnncno. nn nu(nxannn (aniuocrn
npc(uoio no:(cncrnnn cnc:uon (opoin ua rcppnropnn Ycxaucxoio
opa auann:nponann xonnnccrno nn(on nnqnruix nnmanunxon n on-
pc(cnnnn raxnc nx xapaxrcpncrnxn, xax nncnonon nu(cxc oncuxn, nno-
ma(i noxpirnn n nacrora ncrpcnacxocrn (ran. 4.2).
H: rannni nn(uo, nro ua rcppnropnn :anonc(unxa co:(aui ua-
nnynmnc ycnonnn (nn cymccrnonaunn nnmanunxon. B npc(cnax iopo(-
cxon pcaxnnouuon :oui nn(onoc pa:uoopa:nc xcuimc n 2 pa:a, nn-
(onan uacimcuuocri n 2,1, a omcc npocxruoc noxpirnc n 1,4 pa:a.
Haxonncunc xcrannon n nnmanunxax ua rcppnropnn npniopo(uon pc-
axnnouuon :oui nimc, ncx n :anonc(unxc, n c yncnnncuncx paccro-
nunn or cnc:uon (opoin co(cpaunc rncnix xcrannon cunacrcn,
a nn(onoc pa:uoopa:nc yncnnnnnacrcn |24].
B pacrcuncno(nccxnx xoxnncxcax, pacnonocuuix nn: npo-
ximncuuix :ou, o(unx n: ncronunxon :aipn:unrcncn nnnnmrcn ar-
xocqcpuic oca(xn. B (o(cnon no(c co(cparcn ncc rncnic xcranni.
Co cuciox nocrynacr n cpc(ucx :a io(: xc(n 2,O7 i/ia, nnuxa 4,93,
unxcnn O,64, xapiauna 1,63 i/ia. C xnucpaniuixn y(o pcunnxn,
uanpnxcp, n (o:c
5O
H
45
K
5O
, nuocnrcn: xc(i O,57 i/ia, nnux 2,21,
xapiaucn 5,56, unxcni O,7, xoanir 1,74, xa(xnn O,13 n cnn-
ucn O,22 i/ia. Hcni:n cnnrari xonoinnccxn nncrixn opiaunncc xnc
y(opcunn. Hccnc(onaunn xnxnnccxoio cocrana xoxnocra noxa:ann,
nro n 6O r cio co(cpnrcn 56,4 i xc(n, 3,85 xi nnuxa, 1,67 xi unxcnn
n 2,27 xapiauna |1].
Ycrauonncuo, nro npn (nnrcniuox ncnoni:onaunn n xanccrnc y(o-
pcunn oca(xa cronuix no( n (o:ax 6O n 12O r/ia co(cpaunc cnnuna n
nonnc npcni mano HK n 1,1 pa:a, nnuxa n 1,9, xa(xnn n 1,72 pa-
:a |22, 23, 3O].
149
Honna axxyxynnpycr rncnic xcranni nurcucnnucc, ncx arxoc-
qcpa n npnpo(uic no(i. Oncxcuri-roxcnxauri xouncurpnpymrcn n
ncpxucx (O1O cx), r.c. n caxox nno(opo(uox cnoc nonni. Hpn rox
nacri rncnix xcrannon nuaxrnnnpycrcn yqcpuixn cnon crnaxn non-
ni, uo oniman nx nacri ocracrcn xo nniuon n noinomacrcn pacrcun-
nxn. Mnipannouuic qopxi xoiyr rpaucqopxnponaricn, uanpnxcp,
ncxo(uic qopxi xc(n n cnnuna ncpcxo(nr n xcucc no(nnuic, a co-
c(nucunn xa(xnn n nnuxa n oncc no(nnuic.
Ycrauonncuo, nro nonni, :aipn: ucuuic xa(xncx, nnuxox n cnnu-
nox, onnmamrcn oncui xc(ncuuo n pc:ynirarc ccrccrncuuix nponcc-
con, raxnx xax niuoc c ypoacx n nixinaunc c nuqnnirpannouuixn
Toauuo 4.2
Xapaxvepncvnxa pasan4nmx anaoa anmannxoa
a uouepe4nmx upoqnaax Ycwancxoro opa
Paccronunc
or (opoin, x
Bn(onoc pa:uo-
opa:nc, xonn-
nccrno nn(on
Bn(onan uaci-
mcuuocri,
nn(/crnon
Omcc npocxruoc
noxpirnc
Honcpcnuin npoqnni cr. UycpcxanIoponan
2 1,2 O,62
65 1 O,9 1,1
135 2 1,3 1,43
325 2 1,8 1,6
55O 4 3,8 4,66
1OOO 4 3,9 5,84
Honcpcnuin npoqnni ua rcppnropnn Bopouccxoio :anonc(unxa
(cr. Icnncno)
1O 1 O,6 4,35
65 2 1,5 1,98
135 2 1,6 5,8
325 4 3,3 11,7
55O 8 7,8 8,15
1OOO 6 5,9 7,9
15O
no(a xn. Bucccunc no(opacrnopnxix concn rncnix xcrannon n nonny
uc:uannrcniuo ycnnnnacr nx xnipannm ronixo n ncpnin io(; n nocnc-
(ymmnc io(i no(opacrnopnxic conn rncnix xcrannon rpaucqopxn-
pymrcn n xcucc no(nnuic coc(nucunn n nx nixinaunc n: xopuc-
onracxoio cnon nonn pc:xo cunanoci |28].
Monniuocri rncnix xcrannon :anncnr or cnoncrn nonni. Tax, n
nonnax c un:xon xarnouuon cxxocrim (ncnc(crnnc uconimoio co(cp-
aunn nna n iyxyca) a(copnnn xa( xnn ucncnnxa, noroxy no(nn-
uocri cio nicoxan. Cnocouocri xncnix nonn y(cpnnari raxnc :a-
ipn:unrcnn uaxuoio xcuimc, ncx y ucnrpaniuix.
Maxcnxaniuoc xonnnccrno rncnix xcrannon uaxo(nrcn n iy-
xyconox iopn:ourc. C inynuon cnon co(cpaunc nx yxcuimacr cn. Or
12 (o 2O % nanonix qopx rncnix xcrannon oxa:inamrcn n qopxc op-
iaunnccxnx coc(nucunn, cnimc 5 % cnn:auo c xapouara xn, n ronixo
1O % uaxo(nrcn n ucoparnxon qopxc. o 4O % rncnix xcrannon co-
(cparcn n nonnc n (ocrynuon qopxc |18, 29].
Tncnic xcranni n nnix opiaun:xax nipamr nauym poni n o-
xcuuix nponcccax. O(uaxo n nicoxnx xouncurpannnx oun ni:inamr
:aipn:ucunc nonn, npc(uo no:(cncrnymr ua xocncrcxi. Toxcnnuoc
(cncrnnc rncnix xcrannon xocr iri npnxix n xocncuuix. B ncp-
nox cnynac noxnpymrcn pcaxnnn c ynacrncx qcpxcuron, nro npnno-
(nr x yxcuimcunm nno x npcxpamcunm nx xarannrnnccxoio (cnc-
rnnn (ran. 4.3). Kocncuuoc no:(cncrnnc nponnnncrcn n ncpcno(c nn-
rarcniuix ncmccrn n uc(ocrynuoc cocronunc n co:(aunc iono(uon
cpc(i |15, 41].
Tncnic xcranni npcrcpncnamr n nonnc xnxnnccxnc npcnpamcunn
(cx. pnc. 4.1), n xo(c xoropix nx roxcnnuocri n:xcuncrcn n oncui mn-
poxnx npc(cnax. Hanonimym onacuocri npc(crannnmr no(nnuic
qopxi rncnix xcrannon, r.c. uanoncc (ocrynuic (nn nnix opia-
un:xon. Toxcnnuoc no:(cncrnnc rncnix xcrannon ua pacrcunn npo-
nnnncrcn:
n n:xcucunn npounnacxocrn xncronuix xcxpau (Ag, Au, Cd,
Cu, Hg, Pb);
pcaxnnn rnoniuix ipynn c xarnouaxn (Ag, Hg, Pb);
xouxypcunnn c n:ucuuo nauixn xcraonnraxn (As, Sb, Sc,
Tc, W);
151
cpo(crnc x qocqaruix ipynnax n axrnnuix ncurpax n A0 (AI,
Bc, Sc, Zf);
:axcmcunn n:ucuuo nauix nouon (Cs, Rb, Sc, Sf);
:axnarc n xoncxynax no:nnnn, :aunxacxix n:ucuuo nauixn
qyuxnnouaniuixn ipynnaxn rnna qocqara n unrpara (apccuar, opar,
ccncuar, noniqpaxar).
Ho crcncun onacuocrn rncnic xcranni pa:(cnnmr ua rpn xnacca:
I ocoo roxcnnuic (Cd, As, Hg, Pb, Sc, Zn);
II roxcnnuic (Co, Cu, Mo, i, Sb, Cf);
III cnao roxcnnuic (V, W, Mn).
Tncnic xcranni ona(amr onimnx cpo(crnox x qn:nonoinncc-
xn nauix opiaunnccxnx coc(nucunnx n cnocoui no(annnri uano-
ncc :uannxic nponccci xcraonn:xa, ropxo:nri pocr n pa:nnrnc pac-
rcunn. B ccnicxoxo:nncrncuuox npon:no(crnc ro npnno(nr x cunc-
unm npo(yxrnnuocrn n yxy(mcunm xanccrna npo(yxnnn. Oncuxa
roxcnnuocrn xcrannon x pacrcunnx (qnroroxcnnuocri) oncui cnoua
n :anncnr or xuoccrna qaxropon, n nacruocrn, or cooruomcunn no-
uon n nx coc(nucunn n pacrnopc. Hanpnxcp, roxcnnuocri apccuara n
Toauuo 4.J
Taaeame wevaaam, axoaamne a cocvaa nexovopmx qepwenvoa,
n uocaeacvana nx sawenm
0cpxcuri
Hcp-
nnnuin
xcrann
Mcranni, xoropic xoiyr :axcmari ncpnnnuin
xcrann, n uanm(acxan npn rox qqcxrnn-
uocri qcpxcura
Yxcuimcunc Honuoc npcxpamcunc
cxapoxcnna:a Mn Mg Co, i, Zn
Ouona:a Mn Mg, Zn, Ic, Co, i Bc, Cu
AT0-a:i Mn Mg, i, Zn Cu, Hg, Pb
Apinunua:a Mn Co, i, Cu
Kapoxcnna:a Zn Co, i, Mn Cu, Cd, Hg
cin(pona:a Zn Co, i, Mn Cu, Cd, Hg, Pb
Tpaucqcpa:a Ic Cu, Cf, Mn
152
ccncuara cunacrcn n npncyrcrnnn n:irxa qocqara nnn cyniqara.
0nroroxcnnuocri xcranna n pacrnopc onpc(cnncr cio aunou. Tax, cyni-
qari xc(n n unxcnn oncc roxcnnui (nn pacrcunn, ncx unrpari n
xnopn(i. Ho yxcuimcunn qnroroxcnnuocrn xcranni pacnonaiamrcn
n cnc(ymmnn pn(: i < Cu < Co < Mn < Zn. Tncnic xcranni nnnnmr-
cn nporonna:xarnnccxnxn n(axn, roxcnnuocri xoropix yncnnnnnacr-
cn c no:pacrauncx aroxuon xacci |38].
0nroroxcnnuocri xapiauna n cnc:a cnn:aua c xncnoruo-ocuon-
uix n oxncnnrcniuo-noccrauonnrcniuixn norcunnanaxn nonn. Ha
xncnix nonnax roxcnnuocri xapiauna oxa:inacr nnnnunc ua xapro-
qcni. Oruocnrcniuo ycronnnni x xapiauny oncc, poi, caxapuan
cncxna, oi, uanoncc nyncrnnrcniua xanycra. 0nroroxcnnuocri
unxcnn namc nccio nponnnncrcn ua xncnix nonnax. Monn(cu xano-
roxcnncu (nn pacrcunn. O(uaxo ua mcnonuix nonnax pacrcunn cno-
coui x cio n:ironuoxy noinomcunm (o 9O xi/xi. Hnux xapaxrc-
pn:ycrcn cnaon qnroroxcnnuocrim: ncpnic npn:uaxn :axc(ncunn
pocra n yiucrcuuocrn pa:nnrnn nponnnnmrcn y onimnucrna pacrc-
unn npn co(cpaunn roio ncxcura cnimc 3OO xi/xi. Yiucrcunc pac-
rcunn xc(im nponcxo(nr ua ncixnx, oc(ucuuix iyxycox nonnax.
Cnxnroxi n:irxa xc(n nponnnnmrcn n nn(c xnopo:a n opa:onaunn
oxonix xopucn xopnnucnoio nncra. 0nroroxcnnuocri pryriopiaun-
nccxnx n ucopiaunnccxnx coc(nucunn pa:nnnua: uanoncc roxcnnui
opiaunnccxnc coc(nucunn xcrnn-, (nxcrnn- n rnnpryri. Toxcnn-
uocri ximinxa nponnnncrcn ronixo npn oncui nicoxnx cio xouncu-
rpannnx ua ncixnx nonnax. nn onimnucrna pacrcunn ximinx uc
oncui onacuin ncxcur, rax xax ou xocr n: unx nino(nricn. Cypi-
xa nponnnncr qnroroxcnnuocri yc npn un:xnx xouncurpannnx. Cnn-
ucn nxccr ucnicoxym qnroroxcnnuocri n cnn:n co cnocouocrim
pacrcunn ncpcno(nri cio n xanono(nnuoc cocronunc n pcaxnnnx o-
pa:onaunn rpy(uopacrnopnxix qocqaron, cyniqaron, xapouaron, a
raxc :a cncr copnnn opiaunnccxnxn n xnucpaniuixn xonnon(a-
xn |3O].
onycrnxoc xonnnccrno rncnix xcrannon, xoropoc ncnoncx
xocr norpcnnri c npo(yxraxn nnraunn c: pncxa :aoncri, xo-
ncncrcn n :anncnxocrn or nn(a xcranna: cnnucn 3 xi, xa(xnn
O,4O,5 xi, pryri O,3 xi n uc(cnm. Orn yponun, rcx uc xcucc,
153
cnyar ocuonon (nn xourponn co(cpaunn rncnix xcrannon n npo-
(yxrax nnraunn |31].
Bnnnunc rncnix xcrannon ua nnic opiaun:xi :anncnr or nx
xouncurpannn. B xanix xonnnccrnax oun nxo(nr n cocran nonoinncc-
xn axrnnuix ncmccrn, pciynnpymmnx uopxaniuin xo( nponcccon n:-
uc(cnrcniuocrn. Hapymcunc n pc:ynirarc rcxuoicuuoio :aipn:ucunn
nonmnnouuo cnonnmnxcn xouncurpannn rncnix xcrannon npnno-
(nr x orpnnarcniuix n (ac xaracrpoqnnccxnx nocnc(crnnnx (nn
nnix opiaun:xon. Hocrynan n pacrcunn, rncnic xcranni pacnpc-
(cnnmrcn n nx opiauax n rxaunx ucpanuoxcpuo. Hanpnxcp, xopun nmc-
unni ornnnamrcn oncc nicoxnx co(cpauncx cnnuna n xa(xnn no
cpanucunm c nncrinxn. Opiaui uaxonncunn accnxnnnron (xopucnno-
(i, xnyun, nno(i) co(cpar :uannrcniuo xcuimc rncnix xcrannon,
ncx ncicrarnnuan xacca pacrcunn |33].
Mcxaun:x noinomcunn, rpaucnopra, xcraonn:xa n pacnpc(cncunc
rncnix xcrannon n opiauax n rxaunx rccuo cnn:aui c nn(onixn n
copronixn ococuuocrnxn no:(cninacxix xyniryp. Oun raxc :ann-
cnr or xonoinnccxnx n aurponoicuuix qaxropon. Ho npc(c nccio
uaxonncunc n pacnpc(cncunc rncnix xcrannon n opiauax pacrcunn
:anncnr or nn(a, qn:nonoinnccxon cncnnann:annn n xopqonoinncc-
xnx npn:uaxon or(cniuix opiauon (rnna nncricn, pa:xcpa ncpcmxon
n nnox) |1O, 11, 34, 36, 38].
nn unucn nacrn xopucnno(a crononon cncxni xapaxrcpuo noni-
mcuuoc co(cpaunc nccx ncxcuron, xpoxc xc(n. B cpc(ucn nacrn
xopucnno(a co(cpaunc xc(n n cnc:a nxccr uanxcuimcc :uancunc,
a nnuxa n cnnuna uanonimcc. B xopc cncxni co(cpnrcn onimoc
xonnnccrno xc(n, xapiauna, xa(xnn n cnc:a (pnc. 4.3).
B xopucnno(ax xopxonn co(cpaunc rncnix xcrannon (xpoxc c-
nc:a) yinacr or xounnxa (o iononxn. Hanm(acrcn nicoxoc co(cpa-
unc cnc:a n iononxc n panuoxcpuoc pacnpc(cncunc cio n ocraniuon
nacrn xopucnno(a. B ncurpaniuon nacrn xopucnno(a co(cpnrcn no-
nimcuuoc xonnnccrno nnuxa n cnnuna, a n xopc nonimcuuoc xo-
nnnccrno xc(n, xapiauna, xa(xnn n cnc:a (pnc. 4.4).
Mnunxaniuoc xonnnccrno xa(xnn, nnuxa n cnnuna uaxo(nrcn n
xnxorn xnyucn xaproqcnn. Honimcuuoc xonnnccrno cnc:a xapax-
rcpuo (nn ncpnqcpnnuon nacrn xnyucn. Mc(i pacnpc(cncua panuo-
xcpuo no nccn noncpxuocrn xopucnno(a (pnc. 4.5, o).
154
Kanycra ornnnacrcn or (pyinx onomuix xyniryp n xaproqcnn no-
nimcuuix co(cpauncx nnuxa n nouncuuix xaninnn. Co(cp-
aunc nccx ncxcuron no:pacracr (npnxcpuo n 35 pa:) or nucmunx
nncricn xonaua x xoncpiic (pnc. 4.5, ).
Y nno(on xaanxon rncnic xcranni paccpc(oroncui npnxcpuo
o(nuaxono no nccn nx (nnuc, xpoxc :oui, npnxixammcn x nno(ouo-
xc (npnxcpuo rpcri-ncrncpri nno(a), n ron :ouc co(cpaunc rncnix
Pnc. 4.3. Co(cpaunc rncnix xcrannon n cncxnc
Cu Mn Zn Pb Cd Ic
12 4O 42 O,8 O,1O 84
8 4O 51 1,2 O,14 52
1O 68 6O 2,2 O,3O 32O
Cu Mn Zn Pb Cd Ic
1O,O 1O,O 85,O 3,5O O,2O 7O,O
2O, 13,3 83,3 2,66 O,27 186,O
1O,O 8,O 51,O 1,2O O,O8 44,O
155
xcrannon n 1,53 pa:a nimc. Hanonimcc xonnnccrno rncnix xcran-
non uaxo(nrcn n xoypc nno(a n n ccp(ncnnuc (pnc. 4.6, o).
nn rixni xapaxrcpuo nonimcuuoc co(cpaunc rncnix xcran-
non n ncpxucn nacrn, npnxixammcn x nno(ouoxc. Mnunxaniuoc xo-
nnnccrno nx uaxo(nrcn n unucn nacrn nno(on (npnxcpuo n 1,54 pa:a
xcuimc, ncx n ncpxucn) (pnc. 4.6, ).
Pnc. 4.4. Co(cpaunc rncnix xcrannon n xopxonn
Cu Mn Zn Pb Cd Ic
1O,O 8,O 51,O 1,2O O,O8 44,O
1O,O 1O,O 85,O 3,5O O,2O 7O,O
2O,O 13,3 83,3 2,66 O,27 186,6
Cu Mn Zn Pb Cd Ic
8 16 32 1,O O,18 8O
8 16 34 1,4 O,16 6O
1O 2O 35 1,8 O,14 64
1O 2O 38 2,6 O,28 68
156
Hanonimcc xonnnccrno cnnuna n pcnpo(yxrnnuix opiauax (opia-
uax pa:xuocunn) :cpuonix xyniryp, ipcnnxn n no(conucnunxa co-
cpc(oroncuo n :apo(imc :cpuonxn, nno(a n ccxcun (ran. 4.2) |38].
Y nmcunni ipcnnxn n onca n u(ocncpxc co(cpnrcn onimcc xo-
nnnccrno roio ncxcura, ncx n oononxc, roi(a xax y nnxcun uaoo-
por. nn :cncuix xyniryp xapaxrcpuo oncc nicoxoc co(cpaunc cnnu-
na n ncpcmxax, ncx n nncronix nnacrnuxax. Pacrcunc canar ornnnacr-
cn uanoncc nicoxnx co(cpauncx cnnuna n xopunx, roi(a xax
pacrcunn ncrpymxa n xpcu uanxcuimnx. Cpc(n :cncuix xyniryp
uanonimcc xonnnccrno cnnuna no nccx opiauax pacrcunn uanm(acr-
cn y yxpona, mancnn n canara.
Taxnx opa:ox, :uan pacnpc(cncunc rncnix xcrannon n or(cniuix
:ouax n rxaunx pa:nnnuix opiauon pacrcunn, xouo oncunri nx onac-
uocri n :anncnxocrn or ocxa, xoropin oun :aunxamr n (auuox op-
iauc. Oro (acr ocuonaunc (nn xcxaunnccxoio y(ancunn onacuon nacrn
opiaua.
O(uon n: naucnmnx xcp (nn npon:no(crna xonoinnccxn c:o-
nacuon npo(yxnnn nnnncrcn uopxnponaunc co(cpaunn rncnix xc-

Cu Mn Zn Pb Cd Ic
8 8 27 1,6 O,2 176
8 8 16 O,6 O,1 32
8 4 17 1,O O,1 2O
Cu Mn Zn Co i Pb Cd
4,O 1O,O 3O,O 2,4 5,5 O,3O O,O2
8,O 24,O 45,O 6,O 7,O O,6O O,O4
13,3 26,3 61,7 6,6 1O,O O,93 O,O5
2O,O 3O,O 1O1,O 12,2 15,O 1,5O O,O8
Pnc. 4.5. Co(cpaunc n xaproqcnc (o) n xanycrc cnoxonauuon ()
rncnix xcrannon ( xi/xi cyxoio ncmccrna)
157

Mn Cf Pb Cd Zn Ic
25,O 1,O 2,5 O,O7 55,O 1OO,O
2O,O O,3 2,O O,O5 51,2 59,4
1O,O O,3 1,7 O,O4 33,3 46,2
Mn Cf Pb Cd Zn Ic
33,O 1,5 2,7 O,O9 57,O 71,O
25,O O,7 1,5 O,O9 39,O 59,O
17,O O,3 1,2 O,O8 37,O 55,O
12,O O,3 O,8 O,O5 3O,O 5O,O
Mn 1O,O 15,O 2O,O 7,O
Cf O,5 O,5 Cnc(i O,3
Pb 1,5 1,5 1,O 1,O
Cd O,O4 O,O4 O,O4 O,O3
Zn 3O,O 32,5 45,O 23,O
Ic 5O,O 6O,O 6O,O 39,6
Pnc. 4.6. Co(cpaunc rncnix xcrannon n xaanxc (o) n rixnc (),
xi/xi cyxoio ncmccrna
Toauuo 4.2
Pacupeaeaenne cannua a pasnmx opranax ceatcxoxosacvaennmx xyatvyp
Pacrcunc Opiau
Co(cpaunc, xi/xi cyxoio
ncmccrna
1 2 3
2nxcui
(:cpuonxa)
Oononxa
Ou(ocncpx
1,35
O,5O
Hmcunna
(:cpuonxa)
Oononxa
Ou(ocncpx
3apo(im
O,74
1,22
7,69
158
1 2 3
Oncc
(:cpuonxa)
Oononxa
Ou(ocncpx
3apo(im
3,85
8,33
63,33
Ipcnnxa
(:cpuonxa)
Oononxa
Ou(ocncpx
3apo(im
O,94
1,28
5,56
Ho(conucnunx
(:cpuonxa)
Oononxa
Ou(ocncpx
3apo(im
O,O6
O,O6
O,O9
Kopnau(p
cpcmox
uncr
3,5O
1,7O
Hcrpymxa
cpcmox
uncr
Kopcui
2,5O
1,OO
O.5O
Canar
cpcmox
uncr
Kopcui
19,7
28,4
37,4
Uancni
cpcmox
uncr
37,5
28,O
Ocrpaiou
cpcmox
uncr
18,4
7,O
uyx
uyxonnna
uncr
13,8
5,O
Yxpon
Crccni
uncrin
41,7
24,8
ccuox
uyxonnna
uncr
1O,O
3O,O
Xpcu
uncr
cpcmox
Kopcui
O,25
O,75
O,25
Ccni(cpcn
uncr
cpcmox
Kopcui
2,O
4,O
3,5
Oonuonue moa. 4.2
159
rannon. HK :aipn:unrcncn no:nonnmr cpanunnari xanccrno npo(yx-
nnn no yponum cc :aipn:ucuuocrn, a raxc pa:paarinari n pcann:o-
ninari ucoxo(nxic npnpo(ooxpauuic xcponpnnrnn. B ran. 4.3
npnnc(cui HK rncnix xcrannon n nnmcnix npo(yxrax |1, 18].
Toauuo 4.J
Hpeaeatno aouycvnwme xonuenvpaunn vaaeamx wevaaaoa
a unmeamx upoayxvax n upoaoaoatcvaennow cmpte, wrJxr
Hnmcnon
npo(yxr
Cnnucn Ka(xnn Pryri Mc(i Hnux Miminx
3cpuonic O,5 O,1 O,O3 1O,O 5O,O O,2
Ipcnnxa O,5 O,O4 O,O3 15,O 5O,O O,2
Xnc O,3 O,O5 O,O1 5,O 25,O O,1
Coni nona-
pcuuan
2,O O,1 O,O1 3,O 1O,O 1,O
Onomn
cncnc
O,5 O,O3 O,O2 5,O 1O,O O,2
0pyxri,
nio(i
O,4 O,O3 O,O2 5,O 1O,O O,2
Ipni O,5 O,1 O,O5 1O,O 2O,O O,5
Mnco n nrnna O,5 O,O5 O,O3 5,O 7O,O O,1
2nna O,3 O,O1 O,O2 3,O 5O,O O,1
Pia cncan:
pcnuan,
xopcxan
1,O
1,O
O,2
O,2
O,6
O,4
1O,O
1O,O
4O,O
4O,O
1,O
5,O
Mnucpani
uic no(i
O,1 O,O1 O,OO5, 1,O 5,O O,1
Hnno, nnuo O,3 O,O3 O,OO5 5,O 1O,O O,2
Hannrxn O,3 O,O3 O,OO5 3,O 1O,O O,1
16O
4.2. 3aeno pacvennaupeacvaanvean qaynm
B ycnonnnx aurponoicuuon (cnrcniuocrn :uannrcniuon nponcxon
nnnncrcn n:yncunc nurcucnnuocrn pacnpc(cncunn :aipn:unrcncn n op-
iauax n rxaunx ccnicxoxo:nncrncuuix nnoruix n nnnnunc nx ua xa-
nccrno nonynacxix n: unx npo(yxron nnraunn ncnoncxa |3, 26, 31, 36].
Tncnic xcranni nocrynamr n opiaun:x n noruix c xopxaxn n
no(on. Hpn rox cocronunc :(oponin xax (nxnx, rax n ccnicxoxo:nnc-
rncuuix nnor uix yxy(macrcn, nro orpnnarcniuo nnnncr ua nx npo-
(yxrnnuocri n ua xanccrno nonynacxix n: unx npo(yxron nnraunn nc-
noncxa.
4.2.1. Hpooyumm uoomnoooocmou u nmuueooocmou
Co(cpaunc xa(xnn n xopxax n npo(yxrax nnoruono(crna, n ncp-
nym oncpc(i, xnca n xonoxa, n :ouc nipocon nnuxonnannniuoio :a-
no(a Oncxrponnux (Ccncp uan Occrnn) :uannrcniuo npcnimacr
qouo nym cio xouncurpannm n uc:aipn:ucuuon :ouc. Maxcnxaniuoc
xonnnccrno xa(xnn n cnnunuc, nonyncuuon or nnoruix, nipa mcuuix
n xo:nncrnax, uaxo(nmnxcn n pa(nycc (o 6O xx y(ancuuocrn or ncron-
unxa :aipn:uc unn, npcnocxo(nno HK n 17 pa:. Honimcuuoc co(cp-
aunc rncnix xcrannon ino ouapycuo n ionn(nuc |1, 6].
B :ouc xoxnuara Hcncuiaunxcni axrnnuoc uaxon ncunc rncnix
xcrannon n opiauax n rxaunx nnoruix ino ouapycuo ua paccro-
nunnx (o 15 xx or ncronunxa :aipn:ucunn.
B xncc n nuyrpcuunx opiauax xpynuoio poiaroio cxora n :ouc ni-
pocon npoximncuuix npc(npnnrnn i. Mnacca raxc ino orxcncuo
auo xaniuoc co(cpaunc or(cniuix rncnix xcrannon (ran. 4.4).
B pc:ynirarc nipocon Maiunroiopcxoio xcrannypinnccxoio xox-
nuara co(cpaunc unxcnn n ximnax n nonxax inxon npcni macr
HK n 58 pa:, n ncncun n 6, a n ncixnx n 54 pa:a. Kouncurpannn
cnnuna n nonxax n ncncun ycrauonncua nimc HK n 1O pa:, a n xim-
nax n ncixnx n 12 pa: |1].
B cpc(ucx, n xo:nncrnax Cpc(ucio n Kuoio Ypana y xopon 56-ncr-
ucio no:pacra xou ncurpannn cnnuna n ximcnuon rxaun n ncncun npc-
nimacr HK n 3,65 pa:a, xa(xnn n ximnax n 4,65,2, n ncncun
161
n 1,7 pa:a. Kpo xc roio, nponcxo(nr axrnnuoc nocrynncunc xnxponc-
xcuron n opiaun:x nno(a. Ocuonuix opiauox nno(a, :a(cpnnammnx
raxnc ncxcuri, nnnncrcn ncncui. B rcncunc nccio qcraniuoio ncpn-
o(a n ucn (cnounpymrcn raxc nnux, xc(i n cnc:o.
B npoximncuuo pa:nnrix :ouax Anrancxoio xpan ninnncua nico-
xan xouncurpannn (ua npc(cnc HK) xa(xnn n unxc nn n ncncun n
ximnax xpynuoio poiaroio cxora. Co(cpaunc rncnix xcrannon
(xi/xi) n ximcnuon n xocruon rxaunx cnnucn n rnx :ouax cocrannn-
cr: cnnuna O,1, xa(xnn O,3, ximinxa O,1, pryrn O,O3, xc(n
O,5 n nnuxa 5 |1].
Konnnccrno rncnix xcrannon n opiaun:xc ccnicxoxo:nncrncuuix
nnoruix xouo cun:nri c noxomim ucxoropix cpc(crn n npncxon.
Tax, cxapx nnnaunc cnnuinx xpannni, nonyxa nnn nconnra cnoco-
crnycr cuncunm xouncurpannn cnnuna n opiauax rnx nnoruix.
Co (cpaunc xa(xnn xouo cun:nri, ncnoni:yn n xopxncunn pocrxn
nnxcun. nn cuncunn xouncurpannn xpoxa, crpounnn n anm xnunn
Toauuo 4.4
Coaepaanne vaaeamx wevaaaoa a opranax xpyunoro poravoro cxova
Opiaui
n rxaun
Mc(i 2cnc:o Cnnucn
xi/xi HK, % xi/xi HK, % xi/xi HK, %
Hcncui 2 6O 1O7 =114 3 B 5 pa:
ucixnc 3 4O 248 =396 6 B 11 pa:
Ccnc:cuxa 4 2O 11O =12O 5 B 9 pa:
Ccp(nc 4 2O 85 =7O 4 B 7 pa:
Mimni 2 6O 5O O 3 B 5 pa:
Opiaui n
rxaun
Koanir Hnux Hnxcni
xi/xi HK,% xi/xi HK,% xi/xi HK,%
Hcncui 1 71 4 9O 6 B 11 pa:
ucixnc 1 73 4 9O 6 B 11 pa:
Ccnc:cuxa 2 76 7 82 7 B 13 pa:
Ccp(nc 2 72 3 92 6 B 11 pa:
Mimni 2 74 8 8O 6 B 11 pa:
162
n pannou nno(nr xpannny, xoropan nnnncrcn caxix qqcxrnnuix
onncrn rcncx ni(cnnrcniuon cncrcxi cnnucn n opiaun:xa n ncnox or
rncnix xcrannon. Hpnxcucunc xyxn n: crcncn oiypnon no:nonncr
y(annri n: xnca xa(xnn n cun:nri co(cpaunc n ucx rnraua ((o O,3 %)
n anmxnunn ((o 38 %) |1,35]. Cxapxnnnaunc inxax :naxonoio ccua,
:aioronncuuoio ua ccnicxoxo:nncrncuuix yio(inx, y(opcuuix xap-
ouarox xaninnn, cunacr xouncurpannm n xncc crpounnn (c O,9
(o O,8 %). Oro oncuncrcn oncc nurcucnnuix ncpcpacnpc(cncuncx
(onn cra nniuoio crpounnn n (pyinc rxaun n opiaui inxon.
Mcunn cocran n crpyxrypy xopxonix pannouon, xouo pciynn-
ponari nocrynncunc rncnix xcrannon n opiaun:x nnoruix n n no-
nynacxym npo(yxnnm. Tax, npn ncpcno(c naxrnpymmnx xopon c cn-
nocuoio pannoua ua ccuauin nocrynncunc xpoxa n opiaun:x nnor-
uix cunacrcn n 3,3 pa:a, npn :axcuc cnnocuoio pannoua ccuuix
nocrynncunc unxcnn n opiaun:x cxora cunacrcn n 6 pa:.
Hpncyrcrnnc rncnix xcrannon (nnuxa, cnnuna, xa(xnn n xc(n) n
xonoxc n xononuix npo(yxrax npnxo cnn:auo c xonoinnccxnx cocro-
nuncx oxpyammcn cpc(i, n nacruocrn c ncpcxo(ox rnx xcrannon n:
nonni n xopxon (ran. 4.5).
Kouncurpannn xc(n n xonoxc pc:xo yncnnnnnacrcn n nacrnm uin
ncpno( nocnc opaorxn nyion xc(ico(cpamnxn npcnapara xn. Ko-
nnnccrno cnc:a n xonoxc nonimacrcn x ccurnpm n ua rox yponuc
y(cpnnacrcn (o xouna io(a, a :arcx cunacrcn x nmnm (o xnunxyxa.
Co(cpaunc pryrn n xonoxc (ocrniacr xaxcnxaniuix noxa:arcncn n
uonpc, a n (cxapc yxcuimacrcn.
Co(cpaunc cnnuna ococuuo ncnnxo n xonoxc, nonynacxox n :o-
uax, pacnonocuuix nnn:n mocccnuix (opoi, :ano(on no npo-
n:no(crny n ncpcpaorxc cnnuna. B rcncunc io(a xonnnccrno cnnuna
cunacrcn or :nxi x ncry. Cnnucn nona(acr n xonoxo xopon raxc n:
:cncuix rpan n ccua, co(cpamnx ror ncxcur, n ucnocpc(crncuuo n:
no:(yxa.
B ran. 4.5 npnnc(cui xoqqnnncuri ncpcxo(a rncnix xcrannon
n: pannoua (1
p
) n n: nonni (1
n
) n xonoxo. Cnc(ycr oparnri nunxa-
unc, nro 1
n
:uannrcniuo onimc ncx 1
p
. Cnc(crnncx roio nnnncrcn
nonimcuuoc co(cpaunc rncnix xcrannon n xonoxc n ncrucnacr-
nmuin ncpno( no cpanucunm c :nxuccronnonix. Oro oycnonncuo
(ononunrcniuix nocrynncuncx rcxuoicuuix :aipn:unrcncn n opia-
163
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164
un:x nnoruix c (cpunuon n nonncuuixn nacrnnaxn, nocxonixy co-
(cpaunc rncnix xcrannon n unx :uann rcniuo nimc, ncx n pacrn-
rcniuocrn.
B pc:ynirarc ocnc(onaunn xanccrna xonoxa n ucunuipa(cxon, Pn-
:aucxon n Mocxoncxon onacrnx ino ycrauonncuo, nro n oncc ncx
5O % xonoxa co(cpaunc cnnuna n xa(xnn npcnimano uopxnpyc xin
yponcui. B onimnucrnc xo:nncrn Icniopo(cxon onacrn xou ncurpannn
xc(n n cnnuna n xonoxc npcnimana HK n O,6 n 2,5 pa:a, coorncr-
crncuuo. B cnnnonuox xacnc xonnnccrno rnx ncxcu ron oxa:anoci
:uannrcniuo unc, ncx n ncxo(uox xonoxc.
B xo:nn crnax Ypanicxoio pcinoua co(cpaunc cnnuna, nnuxa, c-
nc:a n xa(xnn n xonoxc npcnimano MY (xaxcnxaniuo (onycrnxin
yponcui) n 25 pa:, unxcnn n 5,5 pa:a, a cnnuna n cnc:a coor-
ncrcrncuuo ua 15 % n 1O,3 %, roi(a xax yponcui :aipn:ucunn xoani-
rox, xc(im n nnuxox in unc MY coorncrcrncuuo ua 3,8, 39, 19 %.
B nponcccc ncpcpaorxn xonoxa-cipin nponcxo(nr ncpcpacnpc(c-
ncunc :aipn: unrcncn n nonynacxix npo(yxrax. cnn npnunri co(cp-
aunc ucxoropix rncnix xcran non n ncxo(uox xonoxc :a 1OO %, ro
o xonnnccrnc nx n xononuix npo(yxrax xouo cy(nri no (auuix
ran. 4.6.
Hpc(cranncuuic n rannnc (auuic noxa:inamr, nro xononuic npo-
(yxri, nonyncuuic n pc:ynirarc ccnapnponaunn, :aipn:ucui rncni-
xn xcrannaxn :uannrcniuo xcuimc, ncx pacxo(uoc xonoxo. Ocuonuan
nacri :aipn:unrcncn ncpcxo(nr n cinoporxy.
Ocuonuoc xonnnccrno pryrn n xonoxc ((o 7O %) cnn:inacrcn xa-
:cnuox, 1O % cinoporonuixn cnxaxn n 2O % nc pcxo(nr n nponym
qpaxnnm. B cnnnonuoc xacno ncpcxo(nr xcucc 5 % pryrn or cc yponun
n ncxo(uox xonoxc n oxono 16 % n naxry. B cnn:n c rnx, npnxcunn
pa:nnnuic rcxuonoinn ncpcpaorxn, xouo pann ouaniuo oc:npcn-
nari n ncnoni:onari xonoxo, :aipn:ucuuoc pryrico(cpamnxn coc(n-
ucunnxn.
Mc(i, nnux, xa(xnn, pryri, cnnucn, xapia ucn n unxcni copn-
pymrcn npcnxymccrncuuo (oncc 5O %) rnopo iox. B cnnnonuox xac-
nc co(cparcn (onn nponcura rnx :aipn: unrcncn, n pacrnopnxox
cnxc or 2 (o 26 %, n c:cnxonon qpaxnnn cinoporxn or 2
(o 3O %. 3uannrcniuoc xonnnccrno cnc:a ((o 4O %), ocuonuan xac-
165
ca xpoxa (oncc 7O %) n ximinxa uaxo(nrcn n c:cnxonon qpaxnnn
cinoporxn |18].
Hpo(yxnncn nrnncno(crna nnnnmrcn xnco nrnni n nnna, xanccrno
xoropix onpc(cnncrcn pacnpc(cncuncx :aipn:unrcncn n opiaun:xc
nrnni n ncpcxo(ox nx n xoucnuym cra(nm nnno |35].
Ocuonuix ncronunxox rncnix xcrannon, nocrynammnx n opia-
un:x nrnni, nnnnmrcn xoxnxopxa n no(a (ran. 4.7).
B ran. 4.7 npnnc(cuo co(cpaunc rncnix xcrannon n opiauax nrn-
ni Bn(uo, nro cnnucn uaxannnnacrcn n nnnax, xa(xnn n xc(i n nc-
ncun, a xoanir n ximnax, npnncx noxann:annn xcrannon n opiauax
:anncnr or no:pacra nrnni. Haxonncunc cnnuna n nonxax, ximnax n
ncixnx xyp-uccymcx xocr npcnimari (onycrnxin yponcui n 1,3 pa:a,
n ncncun n 1,5, a xa(xnn (o 8 pa:. Co(cpaunc cnnuna n xa(xnn
n cxopnync nnn cocran nncr 5O %, cnxc 3O %, n cnrxc 2O % or o-
mcio xonnnccrna rnx ncxcuron, ncpcmc(mnx n nnno. Yponcui xa(-
xnn n cnxc xocr npcnicnri MY (o 25 pa:, a n cnrxc (o 15 pa:.
Toauuo 4.6
Coaepaanne vaaeamx wevaaaoa a upoayxvax uepepaovxn woao xa
Hpo(yxri
Co(cpaunc rncnix xcrannon, %
Mc(i 2cnc:o Hnux Ka(xnn
Monoxo oc:-
npcuuoc
7O73 5258 98 9597
Ka:cnu
xncnoruin
cyxon
375O

2933

68
2746
152O

Cinoporxa
xncnan
cinyuan
2O27
2O27

4557
4557

6365

Cnnnxn
(354O %
npa)
2532 1O5O 67 5
Macno
cnnnonuoc
51O 11,5 31O
Haxra 1112 56 3,57
166
Ka(xnn, xax o(nu n: caxix onac uix roxcnxauron, cnococu uc roni-
xo uaxannnnaricn n nnnax, uo n nirccunri n: opiaun:xa nrnni nnux,
xc(i n cnc:o.
Hpn co(cpaunn n xoxnxopxc pryrn n xouncurpannn O,OO75 xi/xi
uaxonncunc cc n cnrxc (ocrniacr O,OO75 xi/xi, a n cnxc O,OO35 xi/xi.
cnn n xoxnxopxc npncyrcrnycr cnnucn n xouncurpannn O,44 xi/xi,
ro co(cpaunc cio n cnrxc cocrannr O,7, a n cnxc O,27 xi/xi.
Hpn n:ironuox nocrynncunn n opiaun:x nrnni rncnix xc ran-
non co(cpaunc nx n opiauax n rxaunx xouo pciynnponari c noxomim
(croxcnxauron: xoxnncxcouon (npon:no(uic nonnaxnuoxapouonix
xncnor n (p.) n copcuron xn ucpaniuoio nponcxo(cunn (pa:nnnuic
nconn ri, xnnuonrnnonnr, ncpxnxynnr, onannri, xourxoppnnoun-
ri n (p.), ona(ammnx onimon copnnouuon cxxocrim x roxcn uax.
Hcnoni:ymrcn raxc (croxcnxauri pacrnrcniuoio nponcxo(c-
unn, raxnc xax xopcui cono(xn, xpa nnna, oncnnxonin ox, ncxrnui
n aniinuari n (p. Hanpnxcp, nnc(cunc n pa nnou yrox xopxonon (o-
anxn Aroxc cnococrnycr cuncunm xou ncurpannn xarnouon rn-
cnix xcrannon n xponn, rxaunx n (pyinx opiauax nrnni, a raxc n
nnnax. Hpn rox yxcuimacrcn yponcui cnnuna n xc(n n xponn coor-
ncrcrncuuo ua 3O n 15 %, ncncun ua 4O n 2O %, xncc ua 19 n 9 %,
xocrnx ua 58 n 55 %, cnrxc nnn ua 12 n 18 %, cnxc ua 19 n 9 %.
O(uonpcxcuuo nonimacrcn xouncurpannn xaninnn n qocqopa n cxop-
nync nnn.
nn npon:no(crna xonoinncc xn c:onacuix nnn pa:paoraui (o-
anxn x xopxax nrnni c pa:ui xn axrnnuixn cocrannnmmnxn (cxccn
n: xccruix pacrcunn, xnon n (pyinx uarypaniuix npo(yxron). Orn (o-
Toauuo 4.
Coaepaanne vaaeamx wevaaaoa a pasan4nmx opranax uvnum
Oncxcuri
Co(cpaunc rncnix xcrannon, xi/xi
B ximnax B ncncun B nnnax
Cnnucn O,1 O,4 O,4
Ka(xnn O,1 O,3 O,1
Mc(i O,7 3,O 1,5
Koanir O,2 O,1 O,1
167
anxn cnococrnymr cun cunm xonnnccrna rncnix xcrannon n xoc-
rnx, ncncun, nnnax, yncnnnnnan nonoinnccxym ncuuocri npo(yxnnn
(yncnnnnnacrcn co (cpaunc nnraxnua A n xapornuon ua 57 %, ax-
rnnuocri nn:onnxa ua 6 %), nonimamr nurcucnnuocri nnncxna(xn
uccymcx ua 36 %, nxxyuuym pcaxrnnuocri opiaun:xa n cio cnoco-
uocri x a(anrannn |1].
4.2.2. Tmonpooyumm
Icnxn pii no nonoinnccxon ncuuocrn uc ycrynamr cnxax xnca
rcnnoxponuix nnoruix, uo oun ncinc ncpcnapnnamrcn n yc nannamrcn
opiaun:xox ncnoncxa. Co(cpaunc yincno(on n xncc pi oncui un:-
xoc, a nonoinnccxan ncuuocri nx cnxa nimc, ncx xononuoio cnxa
n cnxa rcnnoxponuix. Pia ncronunx uc ronixo cnxa n npa, uo
n xnucpaniuix ncmccrn n nnraxnuon (A, B
1
, B
6
, , H, PP). Horoxy
piuic npo(yxri xouo ncnoni:onari n ncncuix n ncncuo-npoqn-
naxrnnccxnx ncnnx.
Piuan xyxa, pinn np, xopocuan n xouccpnnponauuan xop-
xonan pia, xopxonon anronn:ar n (pyinc orxo(i ncpcpaorxn pii
uc:axcunxi n xopxax, ncnoni:ycxix n nnoruono(crnc, nrnncno(-
crnc n piono(crnc. oanncunc nx n pannou nnoruix n: pacnc-
ra 37 % no:nonncr nurcucnqnnnponari npon:no(crno nnoruono(-
nccxon npo(yxnnn.
Kanccrno pii (a cnc(onarcniuo, n pionpo(yxron) n :uann rcniuon
crcncun :anncnr or caunrapuoio cocronunn no(ocxon. B xnponon oxc-
au n no nuyrpcuunc no(ocxi ccio(uo cpacinamr oncc 18O xx
3
cron-
uix no(, n xoropix co(cpnrcn 3O ric. r pa:uix :aipn:unrcncn. Hpn
rox 9O % ocxa ironix cronuix no( n oniman nacri npoximncu-
uix, a raxc croxon xpynuix nnoruono(nccxnx n nrnncno(nccxnx
npc(npnnrnn cpa cinacrcn n no(oncronunxn uconnmcuuixn nnn nno-
xo onnmcuuixn. 3aipn:unmmnc ncmccrna xnipnpymr no rpoqnncc-
xon ncnn, copnpymrcn n axxyxynnpymrcn n opiaun: xc pi. B pic
xoiyr uaxannnnaricn xuoinc opiaunnccxnc n ucopiaun nccxnc ncmcc-
rna, co(cpamnccn n no(c, n rox nncnc rncnic xc ranni. Horoxy
piy oruocnr x o(uoxy n: norcunn aniuo onacuix npo(yxron (nn :(o-
ponin ncnoncxa |39].
168
Mc(y no(uon cpc(on n opiaun:xox pi ocymccrnnncrcn no-
cronuuin oxcu nouaxn rncnix xcrannon. B nnix opiaun:xax ra-
xnc xcranni, xax xapiaucn, xc(i, nnux, xoanir, cnc:o n (p., uaxo-
(nci n xanix xonnnccrnax, ynacrnymr n pciynnnnn n uopxann:annn
xcra onnnccxnx nponcccon. Oun axxyxynnpymrcn n pa:nnnuix opia-
uax n rxaunx n no xcpc ucoxo(nxocrn ncnoni:ymrcn (nn occncncunn
noxn xnnccxnx nponcccon.
Hpn npc:xcpuox nocrynncunn n opiaun:x xcranni uaxannnnamr-
cn n opiauax n rxaunx n n:ironuox xonnnccrnc n uannuamr oxa:inari
roxcnnccxoc no:(cncrnnc, xoropoc xocr nponnnnricn ua opiauuox,
rxaucnox, xncronuox, cyxncronuox n icucrnnccxox yponunx. Crc-
ncui roxcnnccxoio (cncrnnn rncnix xcrannon :anncnr or yponun nx
uaxonncunn n qopxi cymccrnonaunn n rxaunx.
Mcxaun:xi roxcnnccxoio (cncrnnn rncnix xcrannon :axnmnamr-
cn n cnc(ymmcx. Hcpacrnopnxic in(pooxcn(i xcrannon xouncurpn-
pymrcn n apax, i(c ucxoropic n: unx in(ponn:ymrcn c opa:onaun-
cx xncnor. Oro npnno(nr x pa:pymcunm nnrcnnn ap, pc:ynirarox
ncio nnnncrcn nuananc yncnnncunc nurcucnnuocrn (ixaunn, :arcx pc:-
xo yiucracrcn ia:ooxcu, nocnc uacrynacr napannn n cxcpri. nn pi
oruocnrcniuo nicoxoroxcnnui ccpcpo, pryri, xc(i, xa(xnn, nnux,
anmxnunn, unxcni n xpox. ucraniuoc (cncrnnc concn xuoinx xcran-
non uc(ocraronuo n:yncuo. Hanpnxcp, n:nccr uo, nro c:onacuan (nn
xopcxnx pi xouncurpannn concn rncnix xcran non n nicoxoxnuc-
pann:onauuon no(c xocr iri nccixa onacua (nn npccuono(uix
pi |1, 39].
Pryri uanoncc onacuin :aipn:unrcni ouapynnacrcn n o:c-
pax Kapcnnn, Ouccxox o:cpc n n Ccncpuon nnuc. Hanoniman cc
xouncurpannn uanm(anaci n Ouccxox o:cpc n Ccncpuon nnuc, n
xoropic cpacinamrcn cronuic no(i ncnnmno:uo-yxauix xoxn-
uaron. Oua ouapynnacrcn n pacrcunnx, ipyurc n pic. Ioncc
nurcucnn uo uaxonncunc pryrn n pic (cniri Ccncpuon nnui |39].
B :ouc cpoca cronuix no( ncnnmno:uo-yxauoio xoxnuara co-
(cpaunc omcn pryrn n pic (ocrniacr O,8 xi/xi. Hpn rox 17 % pry-
rn npnxo(nrcn ua nicoxoroxcnnuym xcrnnpryri uanoncc cranni-
uoc cc coc(nucunc, xoropoc xou ncurpnpycrcn n xopcxon no(c, oca-
(acrcn ua (uc n axrnnuo uaxan nnnacrcn n inyoxono(uon xopcxon
pic.
169
Co(cpaunc xa(xnn n unxcnn, a raxc cnc:a n nnuxa n opia un:xc
pi n: no(oxpaunnnma Tponnxon IPOC (ncxrpocraunnn paoracr ua
xaxcuuox yinc) n pcxn Yn (unc no rcncunm cc n: ro io no(oxpaun-
nnma) npcnimacr MY. Hpn rox pia, onramman n pcxc ua paccro-
nunn 15 xx unc no rcncunm or no(oxpaunnnma, oncc :aipn:ucua
rncnixn xcrannaxn, ncx n no(oxpaunnnmc. Oro nnnncrcn cnc(crnn-
cx nocronuuoio nocrynncunn cnccn no(i n no(oxpaunnnmc, roi(a
xax unc no rcncunm :aipn:ucunc cc ocracrcn oncc :uannrcniuix.
Hanonimcc uaxon ncunc rncnix xcrannon orxcnacrcn y pi, onra-
mmnx npcnxymc crncuuo y noncpxuocrn no(i, xnmunxn co(cpar
xcui mc :aipn:unrcncn, nro, npc(nononrcniuo, :anncnr or xapaxrcpa
nx nnraunn. Orn pa:nnnnn n :aipn:ucuuocrn pi yxcuimamrcn no xcpc
y(ancunn or ncxrpocraunnn.
Y pi pa:uix nn(on unxcni uaxannnnacrcn n pa:nnnuix opia uax
uco(nuaxono. B opiauax n rxaunx xouncurpannn cio nocnc(o narcniuo
yxcuimacrcn: y myxn: nonxn ` api ` ncncui ` cxc ncr ` ximni;
y oxyun: api ` nonxn ` cxcncr ` ncncui ` ximni; y cnia: non-
xn ` api ` cxcncr ` ncncui ` ximni. nn nccx pi xapaxrcpuo
nicoxoc co(cpaunc unxcnn n nonxax n apax n uc:uannrcniuoc n
ximnax.
Toxcnnuocri xa(xnn (nn pi nponnnncrcn yc npn nccixa xanix
xou ncurpannnx cio n no(c (O,OO6O,O51 xi/n). Yponcui uaxonncunn
roio xcranna n pic :anncnr or co(cpaunn cio n no(c, cocronunn
pii n cc no:pacra, xopxa n in(poxnxnnccxnx noxa:arcncn no(i. Ka(-
xnn uaxannnnacrcn n ocuonuox n xnmcnunxc n nonxax. Cnxn roxi
orpanncunn nipaamrcn n uapymcunnx ncurpaniuon ucpnuon cncrc-
xi, :arpy(ucunn (ixaunn n icxo(nuaxnnccxnxn paccrpon crnaxn.
Hpn (cncrnnn xa(xnn naronoio-auaroxnnccxnc n:xcucunn xapaxrc-
pn:ymrcn ocnn:ucuncx rcna n ap, cocy(ncri xn pcaxnnnxn n xoc,
ximnax, nuyrpcuunx opiauax n rxaunx (xponon:nnnunn, cra:), n:xc-
ucunnxn n oxpacxc rcna n nuyrpcuunx opiauon. B xnmcnunxc pi no:-
unxacr ucxpornnccxnn urcpoxonnr, n ncncun xaccnnuin ucxpo:,
a n nonxax xpounnccxan uc(ocra ronuocri.
Conn pryrn n xc(n ni:inamr nponccci, conpono(ammnccn uc-
xpo:ox n crpyxrypuixn uapymcunnxn xcxncronuix coc(nuc unn n
apax xapnonix pi. Ona(an cnniuix icnaroxcnnccxnx (cncrnn-
cx, rn coc(nucunn ni:inamr ucxpo: ncncun, npnno(nr x xpounncc-
17O
xon noncnuon uc(ocraronuocrn. B xnmcnunxc rn roxcnxauri ni:i-
namr (ncrpoqnnccxnc n arpoqnnccxnc n:xcucunn cnn :ncron oonon-
xn n cpc(ucn xnmxn ccioncrox xapna. B ccnc:cuxc pi orxcnacrcn
ucxpo: icxonornnccxon rxaun, noroxy uapyma crcn npo(yxnnn qop-
xcuuix ncxcuron xponn.
3axopannaunc :axcruo uc cunacr xonnnccrna pryrn n pic. Hoc-
nc y(ancunn iononi n nuyrpcuuocrcn co(cpaunc n ocraniuon nacrn
pii cnnuna n pryrn yxcuimacrcn n xopcxox oxy uc ua 35 %, n nnx-
mc ua 25 %, a n cxyxpnn ua 15 %.
B cnccn pcnuon pic co(cpaunc rncnix xcrannon (xi/xi) uc
(on uo iri nimc cnc(ymmnx uopxarnnuix :uancunn pcnuan: cnn-
ucn 1; xa(xnn O; pryri O,6; xc(i 1O; nnux 4O; ximinx 1.
B xopcxon pic: cnnucn 1; xa(xnn O,2; pryri O,4; xc(i 1O;
nnux 4O; ximinx 5.
4.2.J. Hpooyumm nue:oooocmou
Hpo(yxri nncnono(crna nocx, nncronuan ninina, xaronuoc xo-
nonxo, npononnc, nncnnuin n( nnnnmrcn npnpo(uixn nonoinncc-
xnxn crnxynnropaxn. Hx nonoinnccxan axrnnuocri onpc(cnncrcn
qcpxcuraxn, iopxouaxn, nnraxnuaxn, xnxpo ncxcuraxn, xoropic n
opiaun:xc ni:inamr roun:npymmcc, aurnxnxpouoc, aurncxncporn-
nccxoc n (pyinc (cncrnnn. Horoxy xax ncncuoc cpc(crno xc( (oncu
iri (opoxanccrncuuix, c: nocropouunx npnxcccn n npc(uix (nn
opiaun:xa ncmccrn. Ho crc ncun nncrori xc( pa:(cnnmr ua rpn ipyn-
ni: nncrin, xano:aipn:ucuuin n cnniuo:aipn:ucuuin. B nocnc(ucx,
xpoxc xcxaunnccxnx npnxcccn, npncyrcrnymr rncnic xcranni n (py-
inc npc(uic (nn ncnoncxa :aipn:unrcnn. Kax nnmcnon n ncncuin
npo(yxr pcxoxcu(onau xc( ronixo ncpnix (nyx ipynn.
Tncnic xcranni nncna nonynacr npn (ixaunn, c no(on n npn nc-
pcpaorxc ucxrapa n xc(, npnncx ocuonuoc nx xonnnccrno uaxannnna-
crcn, ncponruo, ua 1318-n (cui n:un nncni, paorammcn n nonc.
Hpn nicoxon xouncurpannn rncnix xcrannon n opiaun:xc nncn
oun noinamr or roxcnxo:a.
B cpc(ucx n xc(c co(cpnrcn (xi/xi): nnux 3,8; xc(i O,7; un-
xcni O,2; cnnucn O,2; xa(xnn O,O3; n ncpic: nnux 32, xc(i
171
7,9, unxcni 1,6, cnnucn 1,O; xa(xnn O,1; n opiaun:xc nncni:
nnux 8O; xc(i 18; unxcni O,5; cnnucn 1,8; xa(xnn O,1.
Ho (auuix BHHH ncrcpnuapuon caunrapnn, inincui n xonoinn,
ycrauon ncuo, nro n opiaun:xc nncn co(cpaunc rncnix xcrannon xo-
cr npcnimari HK: cnnuna n 1O pa:, xa(xnn n 3O, xc(n, nnuxa,
cnc:a n 35 pa:. B xc(c rnx c ncxcuron ua nopn(ox xcuimc,
nro cnn(crcnicrnycr o nicoxon qnnirpymmcn cnocouocrn pao nnx
nncn. Hpn rox n opiaun:xc nncn, nonynanmnx xa(xnn n cnn ucn, o-
uapycuo cuncunc co(cpaunn n:ucuuo nauix nc xcuron xc(n
n cnc:a |37].
auuic o pacnpc(cncunn rncnix xcrannon n cncrcxc nonnapac-
rcuncnininanncnanpo(yxnnn nncnono(crna npnnc(c ui n
ran. 4.8 |1].
Co(cpaunc rncnix xcrannon napinpycrcn or uc:uannrcniuix
xouncurpannn (o ncnnnnu, :uannrcniuo npcnimammnx HK: xa(-
xnn (o 5,3 xi/xi; cnnucn 4,2; xc(i O,9; nnux (o 35; cnc:o
(o 15,4 xi/xi.
Konnnccrno xa(xnn n npononncc n nncronuon nininc (ouo xc)
npcnimacr HK n ucxoropix npoax n 57 pa: n xoncncrcn or O,O5
(o O,35 xi/xi, cnnuna or 3,5 (o 8,9 xi/xi, nro n 39 pa: npc nimacr
Toauuo 4.&
Coaepaanne vaaeamx wevaaaoa a uo4ae,
pacvennax n upoayxvax u4eaoaoacvaa
Mcranni
Co(cpaunc xcrannon, xi/xi
B nonnc B pacrcunnx B nininc B ncpic B nocxc B xc(c
Xpox 65 5,311,3 u/o u/o u/o 1,1
Hnxcni 3,5 4,6 2,9 6 O,9 2,1
Hnux 12 526,6 33 32 7,2 2,3
Mc(i 2,8 O,51O,1 7,1 6,8 O,8 1,O
Koanir 1,3 O,31,7 O,O2 O,15 O,3 2,1
cnc:o 8OO 65124 79 83 9,5 2,1
Ka(xnn O,4 O,2 O,2 O,1 O,O1
Cnnucn 4,1 4,26,1 1,2 1,O O,5 O,O5
HK no xc(y, a xaxcnxaniuic xouncurpannn nnuxa or 34 (o 23O xi/xi,
co(cpaunc cnc:a n npononncc (ocrniacr 13O xi/xi.
Hpononnc nnnncrcn axrnnuix nocycrparox, ou uaxannnnacr conn
rncnix xcrannon n ncxnmnnrcniuo nicoxnx xouncurpannnx no cpan-
ucunm c (pyinxn npon:no(nxixn nncnaxn npo(yxraxn. Kyxynnrnn-
uan cnocouocri nncronuon ninini n oruomcunn rnc nix xcrannon
n uccxonixo pa: nimc, ncx xc(a n nocxa. Co(cpa unc xa(xnn n ucn
(ocrniacr O,5 xi/xi, cnnuna 6, nnuxa 65, c nc:a 24O xi/xi. Ho-
roxy nncronuym nininy xouo ncnoni:onari n xanccrnc nu(nxaropa
:aipn:ucunn oxpyammcn cpc(i.
173
Iaaaa 5. BHRHHE TREbX METAOB
HA 3OPOBbE HEOBEKA
Hpn paorc n xcnnyarannn rpaucnopruix cncrcx n nocqcpy noc-
rynamr rncnic xcranni: cnnucn, nnux, xa(xnn, pryri, xpox, xc(i,
xapiaucn, unxcni, cnc:o n naua(nn |9, 11, 15]. Hxcuuo rn xcranni
oxa:inamr npc(uoc no:(cncrnnc ua paorammnx n npon:no(crncuuox
xoxnncxcc nm(cn n, nocrynan n oxpyammym cpc(y, ua xocncrc-
xi (pnc. 5.1). B ro c npcxn oun co(cparcn n oncui uconimnx xonn-
nccrnax n opiaun:xc ncnoncxa n ucoxo(nxi (nn nporcxaunn pa:nnnuix
noxnxnnccxnx nponcccon n oxcua ncmccrn. Honuoc orcyrcrnnc rnx
ncxcuron n opiaun:xc npnno(nr x pa:nnnuix :a oncnaunnx |1, 3].
HIuL HOBA
BOA PACTHH2
2HBOTHI
uOBK
BO3YX
BOHI
OPIAHH3MI
CTOHI
BOI
Pnc. 5.1. Hyrn nocrynncunn xnxnnccxnx ncxcuron n opiaun:x ncnoncxa
174
3aoncnaunn ncnoncxa nnn nnoruix ni:naui (cqnnnrox uco-
xo(nxix xnxponcxcuron nnn nx n:irxox, a raxc (ncanaucox
xaxpo- n xnxponcxcuron, oinuo oc(nuncxix n ipynny, ua:ina-
cxym xnxponcxcuro:ox |2O].
5.1. Hyvn uocvyuaenna n amaeaenna vaaeamx wevaaaoa
ns oprannswa 4eaoaexa
Hyrn nocrynncunn xnxnnccxnx ncxcuron n opiaun:x ncnonc xa
pa:uoopa:ui (pnc. 5.1). Ocuonuic xonnnccrna xnxnnccxnx ncxcu-
ron nona(amr n opiaun:x c nnmcn n nnricnon no(on, xcuimnc
c n(i xacxix no:(yxox n ncpc: xoy. Honan n opiaun:x ncnoncxa,
xnxnnccxnc ncxcuri pacnpc(c nnmrcn xc(y opiauaxn n rxaunxn,
n:nparcniuo uaxannnnanci n unx. Maxpo- n xnxponcxcuri pac-
npc(cnnmrcn xc(y pa:uixn opiauaxn n rxaunxn ucpanuoxcpuo.
Caxic onimnc xouncurpa nnn xnxnnccxnx ncxcuron ouapynna-
mrcn n xocruon rxaun, xoc n cc npn(arxax, ncncun n ximnax. Kou-
ncurpannn roio nnn nuoio xnxnnccxoio ncxcura n onpc(cncuuon
nacrn rcna xax npannno orpaacr cio :uannxocri (nn qyuxnnounpo-
naunn opiaua nnn rxaun |1O, 3O].
B uacronmcc npcxn uaxonncuo xuoccrno (auuix |3, 5, 7, 12, 17,
27, 29], no(rncp(ammnx :anncnxocri nc xcuruoio cocrana nnix
opiaun:xon, n rox nncnc ncnoncxa, or co(cpa unn xnxnnccxnx nc-
xcuron n cpc(c onraunn.
Tax, xouncurpannn ximinxa, cnnuna, unxcnn, xapiauna n xc(n n
nonocax (crcn xoppcnnpymr c yponucx xouncurpannn rnx ncxcuron
n npoax nonni n nnricnon no(i, oropauuix n xccrax nx nponna-
unn. Kou ncurpannn xa(xnn n xonn(cua xoppcnnpymr ronixo c xou-
ncurpanncn nx n no(c, a nnuxa, xpoxa n opa ronixo c xouncurpa-
nncn n npoax nonni (pnc. 5.2) |2, 18].
3aipn:ucunc oxpyammcn cpc(i roxcnnuixn xcrannaxn n ncpnym
oncpc(i cxa:inacrcn ua (crnx, rax xax nurcucnnuoc uaxonncunc pa:-
nnnuix npc(uix ncxcuron n opiaun:xc pccuxa nponcxo(nr yc ua
cra(nn nuyrpnyrpouoio pa:nnrnn. Oro npnno(nr x nonnncunm npo-
(cuuix ypo(crn, cuncunm nxxyunrcra, pa:nnrnm xuoccrna xpoun-
175
nccxnx onc:ucn, :a(cpxc yxcrncuuoio n qn:nnccxoio pa:nnrnn.
B paorax A.B. Cxaniuoio |19, 2O] noxa:auo, nro nonimcuuoc co(cp-
aunc n nonnc, no(c, arxocqcpuox no:(yxc xax po- n xnxponcxcuron
coinacycrcn c nonimcuncx yponun ncxcu ron n nonocax, xonc n xponn
(crcn, nynonnuuon xponn, a raxc nnancurc.
Pnc. 5.2. Koppcnnnnn xc(y xouncurpanncn xnxponcxcuron n nonnc, nnricnon
no(c n nonocax (crcn (paccronunc O,5; 1,O n 5,O xx or xcrannypinnccxoio :ano(a
i. 3naroycr cnnnucxon onacrn)
O 2O 4O 6O 8O 1OO
O 2O 4O 6O 8O 1OO O 2O 4O 6O 8O 1OO
O 5O 1OO 15O
O 5O 1OO 15O O 2O 4O 6O 8O 1OO
O 2O 4O 6O 8O 1OO
i
As
Zn
Cd
Pb
Cf
Cu
O,5 xx
1 xx
5 xx
O,5 xx
1 xx
5 xx
O,5 xx
1 xx
5 xx
O,5 xx
1 xx
5 xx
O,5 xx
1 xx
5 xx
O,5 xx
1 xx
5 xx
O,5 xx
1 xx
5 xx
Bonoci
Bo(a
Houna
Bonoci
Bo(a
Houna
Bonoci
Bo(a
Houna
Bonoci
Bo(a
Houna
Bonoci
Bo(a
Houna
Bonoci
Houna
Bonoci
Houna
176
Hnraaaunonnoe uocvyuaenne. Hpn rox nyrn roxcnnccxoc (cncrnnc
xnxnnccxnx ncmccrn xapaxrcpn:ymrcn icrpix nocrynncuncx n(a n
xponi. Oro oncuncrcn onimon noncpxuocrim ncionuix anincon
(1OO15O x
2
), xanon ronmnuon aninconnpuix xcxpau, nurcucnnuix
roxox xponn no ncionuix xannnnnpax n orcyrcrnncx ycnonnn (nn (c-
nounponaunn n(a. Bcacinaunc ncrynnx coc(nucunn uannuacrcn yc n
ncpxunx (ixarcniuix nyrnx, uo oncc nonuo ouo ocymccrnnncrcn n
ncixnx n nporcxacr no :axouy npocron (nqqy:nn. 3a(cpxa ucopia-
unnccxnx coc(nucunn n ncpxunx (ixarcniuix nyrnx rcx onimc, ncx
nimc nx pacrnopnxocri n no(c. Hpn nocronuuox n(ixaunn xouncur-
pannn npc(uoio ncmccrna, co(cpaunc n(a n xponn cuanana icrpo
uapacracr, a :arcx ycrauannnnacrcn npnxcpuo ua nocronuuox yponuc.
Co(cpaunc n(a n ncuo:uon xponn nocrcncuuo ypanunnacrcn c cio
xouncurpanncn n aprcpnaniuon xponn. Oro nponcxo(nr noroxy, nro
opiaun:x uacimacrcn n(ox, ncnc(crnnc ncio noinomcunc cio cymcc-
rncuuo :axc(nncrcn.
B cnynac nuiannnnouuoio nyrn rncnic xcranni nocrynamr n op-
iaun:x ncnoncxa n nn(c apo:oncn. Hpn nocrynncunn apo:oncn n op-
iaun:x ncpc: (ixarcniuic nyrn nponcxo(nr occ(aunc nacrnn no nccn
nx (nnuc. Crcncui npounxuoncunn apo:oncn n opiaun:x :anncnr or
pa:xcpon, qopxi nacrnn n nx :apn(a. Oruocnrcniuo xpynuic nacrn-
ni occ(amr oinuo n xccrax, i(c no:(ymuic noroxn xcunmr uanpan-
ncunc, uanpnxcp, npn y(apc nacrnni o crcuxy (ixarcniuix nyrcn.
acrnni pa:xcpox oncc 1O xxx occ(amr nonuocrim n uocoinorxc,
nacrnni (naxcrpox onimc 2, uo xcuimc 1O xxx :a(cpnnamrcn n
ncpxunx (ixarcniuix nyrnx, a nacrnni pa:xcpox xcucc 2 xxx occ(a-
mr n aninconnpuon onacrn. Hponcur :a(cpxn apo:oncn xcrannon
xocr xoncaricn n mnpoxnx npc(cnax: (nn apo:oncn oxncn xaiunn
n nnuxa ou cocrannncr 55 %, (nn coc(nucunn cnnuna 79 %. ncncp-
cuocri n(ixacxix apo:oncn n :uannrcniuon xcpc onpc(cnncr nx rox-
cnnuocri: oua rcx nimc, ncx xcuimc pa:xcp n(ixacxix nacrnn. Ha-
npnxcp, roxcnnuocri oxncnon ypaua npn panuon (o:c npn pa:xcpc
nacrnn 5 xxx xcuimc, ncx npn 2,5 xxx.
Oxncni xcrannon, xax npannno, oncui xano pacrnopnxi n no(c.
Horoxy oun xoiyr (onimc :a(cpnnaricn n inyoxnx (ixarcniuix
nyrnx. Hanpnxcp, (nnrcniuocri :a(cpxn n ncixnx apo:oncn xano-
pacrnopnxix oxcn(on cocrannncr (nn oxncn pyrcunn 11O; oxncn ypa-
177
ua 13OO; rpcxoxncn cypixi 26OO nacon, roi(a xax (nn xopomo pac-
rnopnxix apo:oncn cyniqara n nnrpara cpnnnnn ronixo 4566 na-
con. B onacrn caxoonnmcunn (ixarcniuix nyrcn nacrnni, occnmnc
ua cnn:ncron oononxc ncpxucn nx nacrn, nxccrc co cnn:im npo(nnia-
mrcn nncpx n nocrcncuuo y(annmrcn n: opiaun:xa. O(uaxo npn nona-
(aunn n opiaun:x no(opacrnopnxix roxcnnuix apo:oncn nponcxo(nr
orpanncunc no nccn (nnuc (ixarcniuix nyrcn.
Apo:onn opa:ymrcn n nponcccax (ncncpinponaunn n xou(cuca-
nnn. Hcpnin xapaxrcpcu, uanpnxcp, (nn rcxuonoinn (poncunn nnn
n:xcnincunn rncp(ix ncmccrn. Hpnncx, ncx rncpc n:xcninacxoc
ncmccrno, rcx xcuimc pa:xcp nonynacxix nacrnn. Hpn cnapxc nxc-
cr xccro nponccc xou(cucannn opa:onanmnxcn napon n: xcranna n
qnmca. C inincunnccxon ronxn :pcunn apo:onn no(pa:(cnnmrcn ua
roxcnnuic, qnpoicuuic n nucpruic. Apo:oni, npounxuyn n ani-
nconnpuoc npocrpaucrno ncixnx, nno pacrnopncrcn n xponn, nno
:a(cpnnacrcn n aninconax. B :anncnxocrn or cnoncrn rncp(ix nac-
rnn (roxcnnuix nnn nucpruix) oun nino(nrcn n: opiaun:xa co cnn-
:im nnn npounxamr n rxaui anincon, xoropan ncpcpo(acrcn, opa-
:yn pynonym rxaui, n crauonnrcn no:(yxoucnpounnacxon. Oror
nponccc, nporcxammnn n rxaunx ncixnx, nnnncrcn ucoparnxix.
Hinn, ni:inammnc raxnc pynonic pa:pacraunn n ncixnx, ua:ina-
mrcn qupoeennt+u nnn onuo:oonocnt+u, a :aoncnaunn nucnxo-
xouno:axn.
B :anncnxocrn or nn(a ninn, ni:nanmcn pa:nnrnc nucnxoxouno-
:a, pa:nnnamr pa:nnnuic cio nn(i:
cnnnxo:, ni:inacxin n(ixauncx xnapncnon ninn, co(cpamcn
cnoo(uin (noxcn( xpcxunn;
cnnnxaro:, no:unxammnn npn n(ixaunn ninn xnucpanon, co-
(cpamnx (noxcn( xpcxunn n cnn:auuox cocronunn c anmxnuncx,
xaiuncx, cnc:ox, xaninncx n (p.;
xapoxouno:, opa:ymmcncn n pc:ynirarc (cncrnnn ninn xaxcu-
uoio yinn, ipaqnra n can;
xcrannoxouno:, oycnonncuuin no:(cncrnncx ninn cnc:a, anm-
xnunn, apnn, onona, xapiauna n (p.
Hucnxoxouno:i noxann:ymrcn n ncpxunx (ixarcniuix nyrnx nc-
noncxa. Ocnoucunnxn roio :aoncnaunn nnnnmrcn rycpxync:, nucn-
xounn, pouxnaniuan acrxa n pa:nnnuic uonoopa:onaunn. acrora
178
ocnoucunn n nx qopxa :anncnr or cocrana n(ixacxon ninn, a raxc
conyrcrnymmnx ucnaionpnnruix qaxropon oxpyammcn cpc(i. Hpn
icrpo npoipcccnpymmcn qopxc nucnxoxouno:a :aoncnaunc ninn-
nncrcn ncpc: 35 ncr nocnc uanana paori n xouraxrc c ninim. Mc(-
ncuuo npoipcccnpymman qopxa nponnnncrcn cnycrn 1O15 ncr. Hucn-
xoxouno:i, pa:nnnammnccn ncpc: uccxonixo ncr nocnc npcxpamcunn
xouraxra c ninim, ua:inamrcn no:(unxn. Hpn npcxpamcunn xourax-
ra paorammcio ncnoncxa c ninim oinuo nponcxo(nr nacrnnuoc ni-
(cncunc ninn n: ncixnx.
Ocuonuix xcponpnnrncx no npc(ynpc(cunm pa:nnrnn nincnix
onc:ucn ncixnx nnnncrcn xaxcnxaniuoc occninnnaunc no:(ymuon
cpc(i npon:no(crncuuix noxcmcunn. nn roio n :anncnxocrn or xa-
paxrcpa npon:no(crncuuoio nponccca npono(nrcn xcxaun:annn n nuc(-
pcunc (ncraunnouuoio ynpanncunn, icpxcrn:annn nincopa:ymmnx
nponcccon npon:no(crna, oca(cunc ninn npn noxomn cxannnammnx
cpc(crn, ycrponcrno qqcxrnnuon xccruon n omcn ncurnnnnnn, a
raxc nincynannnnaunc. Kpoxc roio, ncnoni:ymrcn nu(nnn(yaniuic
cpc(crna npoqnnaxrnxn n :amnri (pccnnparopi, cncnnaniuic mnc-
xi) ococuuo n raxnx npon:no(crnax, i(c omnc occninnnammnc
xcponpnnrnn n cnn:n c ococuuocrnxn npon:no(crna oxa:inamrcn uc-
(ocraronuo qqcxrnnuixn.
Hpn nocrynncunn rncnix xcrannon n opiaun:x ncpc: cny(onuo-
xnmcnuin rpaxr (2KT) roxcnxauri nona(amr n xponi n npon:no(-
crncuuix ycnonnnx pa:nnnuixn nyrnxn, uanpnxcp, npn :ainarinaunn
ninn, xypcunn, npncxc nnmn n (p. Pn( n(onnrix npopacrnopnxix
coc(nucunn, x xoropix oruocnrcn ucxoropic conn n ococuuo nna-
un(i, ncacinamrcn n xponi n nonocrn pra ncpc: cnn:ncrym oononxy.
Oro npnno(nr x ycnncunm roxcnnuocrn n(a, rax xax ou, xnuyn cny-
(ox, nona(acr cpa:y n ncncui.
Ioniman nacri n(onnrix ncmccrn, o(uaxo, nona(acr n 2KT, i(c
no(ncpiacrcn pa:naiammcxy (cncrnnm cny(onuo-xnmcnuix coxon.
Ha nporncunn 2KT cymccrnymr :uannrcniuic ipa(ncuri xncnor-
uo-mcnonuon pcaxnnn, onpc(cnnmmnc pa:nnnuym cxopocri ncacina-
unn roxcnnuix ncmccrn. 2cny(onuin cox nxccr pH = 1, noroxy xuo-
inc xncnori, nona(an n 2KT, oxa:inamrcn n uc(ncconnnponauuox
cocronunn n ncixo ncacinamrcn ncpc: cnn:ncrym oononxy n xponi.
179
B cny(xc roxcnnuic ncmccrna xoiyr copnponaricn nnmcnixn xac-
caxn, pa:annnricn nxn, n pc:ynirarc ncio yxcuimacrcn xouraxr n(a
co cnn:ncron oononxon. Kpoxc roio, ua cxopocri ncacinaunn nnnncr
nurcucnnuocri xponoopamcunn n cnn:ncron oononxc cny(xa. Oc-
uonuan xacca n(onnrix ncmccrn, nonanmnx n 2KT, ncacinacrcn rou-
xnx xnmcnunxox. Hcxoropic ncmccrna, uanpnxcp, rncnic xcranni
ucnocpc(crncuuo nonpc(amr xnmcnuin nnrcnnn n uapymamr cio
qyuxnnounponaunc.
B xnmcnunxc, rax c xax n n cny(xc, npopacrnopnxic ncmccrna
n ncxrponnri ncacinamrcn :a cncr (nqqy:nn. Bcacinaunc ncxrpo-
nnron :anncnr or crcncun nx noun:annn: cnniuic xncnori n ocuona-
unn ncacinamrcn xc(ncuuo, opa:yn xoxnncxci c xnmcnuon cnn:im.
Tncnic xcranni ncacinamrcn n ocuonuox n ncpxucx or(cnc rouxoio
xnmcnunxa: xpox, xapiaucn n nnux n no(n:(omuon xnmxc, a cnc-
:o, xc(i, pryri, cypixa n romcn. Ucnonuic xcranni pc:opnpymr-
cn icrpo n nonuocrim. Ucnonuo-:cxcniuic ncacinamrcn ua 2O
6O %, rax xax opa:ymr rpy(uo pacrnopnxic xoxnncxci c qocqar-no-
uaxn n npuixn xncnoraxn. Ococuuo rpy(uo ncacinamrcn cnxonic
xoxnncxci pc(xo:cxcniuix xcrannon. Hpn rox n: cny(xa n xnmcn-
unxa n(onnric ncmccrna nona(amr inanuix opa:ox n ncncui, i(c
nponcxo(nr nx xnxnnccxnc npcnpamcunn. B ocuonuox rn npcnpamc-
unn uanpanncui ua oc:npcnnaunc n(on, o(uaxo no:xocu n (pyion
nponccc, a nxcuuo opa:onaunc n ncncun cmc oncc onacuix coc(n-
ucunn, xoropic xoiyr oxa:aricn npnnnuon cxcprn orpannnmciocn nc-
noncxa.
3axc(ncunc pcinouaniuoio xponoroxa n (cnounponaunc ncuo:uon
xponn n onacrn xnmcnunxa npn pn(c rncnix orpanncunn, conpo-
no(ammnxcn moxox, cnococrnycr co:(aunm n 2KT (cno roxcnncc-
xnx ncmccrn. Horoxy (nn cuncunn orpanncunn ucoxo(nxo rma-
rcniuan onncrxa xnmcnunxa uc ronixo n pauunc, uo n oncc no:(unc
cpoxn.
Pesopvavnanm uyvt uocvyuaenna. B rox cnynac ia:oopa:uic,
n(xnc n rncp(ic ncmccrna, oruocnmnccn npcnxymccrncuuo x uc-
ncxrponnrax, xoiyr npounxari ncpc: xoy. Tncnic xcranni n nx conn
ncacinamrcn n xponi ncpc: xouin apicp n uc:uannrcniuon crcncun.
Hcxnmncunc cocrannnmr xcrannoopiaunnccxnc coc(nucunn. Cymcc-
rnycr rpn xcxaun:xa npounxuoncunn pa:nnnuix ncmccrn ncpc: xoy:
18O
ncpc: nn(cpxnc, ncpc: nonocnuic qonnnxyni n ncpc: nino(uic npo-
roxn caniuix cnc: (pnc. 5.3).
Ocuonuix apicpox, npcnnrcrnymmnx npounxuoncunm npc(uix
ncmccrn n opiaun:x ncpc: xoy, nnnnmrcn ncpxunn poionon n nccrn-
mnn cnon nn(cpxnca. O(uaxo conn xuoinx xcrannon, coc(nunnci c
npuixn xncnoraxn n xouix canox, xoiyr npcnpamaricn n npo-
pacrnopnxic coc(nucunn n npounxari ncpc: apicpuin cnon nn(cp-
xnca. uynmc (pyinx xcrannon ncacinamrcn n xponi ncpc: xoy cnnucn,
onono, xc(i, ximinx, nncxyr, cypixa, pryri n rannnn. Hnux n xa(xnn
opa:ymr cnxonic xoxnncxci n raxc xoiyr npounxari ncpc: xoy.
Uccrnnancuruin xpox, npoxo(n ncpc: xoy, noccrauannnnacrcn (o
rpcxnancuruoio cocronunn, xapaxrcpn:ymmciocn nonimcuuon rox-
cnnuocrim. Mcxaunnccxnc nonpc(cunn xon (cca(nui, napannui n
paui), rcpxnnccxnc n xnxnnccxnc ooin cnococrnymr npounxuonc-
unm roxcnnuix ncmccrn n opiaun:x.
Ha nyrn npounxuoncunn x xncrxax xcranni npco(oncnamr pn( no-
ipaunnuix xcxpau. Hcpcuoc xcrannon n nn(c xarnouon ocymccrnnn-
crcn npn noxomn qcpxcuruix cncrcx, nxnmncuuix n crpyxrypy xcx-
pau. Mcranni :a(cpnnamrcn n rxaunx n ocuonuox n nn(c opiaunncc-
Pnc. 5.3. Hocrynncunc rncnix xcrannon ncpc: xoy
poionon
mnnonarin
a:aniuin
Ho(xouan nponan
xncruarxa
Horonan
cnc:a
Caniuan
cnc:a
181
xnx xoxnncxcon. Houi xcrannon npncoc(nunmrcn x qyuxnnouaniuix
ipynnax cnxon n axnuoxncnor. Pryri n xa(xnn, uanpnxcp, n rxaunx
cnn:aui c cyniqin(pnniuixn ipynnaxn cnxon, ccncu c ccpyco(cp-
amnxn axnuoxncnoraxn (nncrnuox nnn xcrnounuox), a xc(i pca-
inpycr c ipynnaxn cnxon n axnuoxncnor, cyniqin(pnniuon, axnuuon,
xapoxcnniuon n c ncnrn(uix a:orox. 0n:nxo-xnxnnccxnc cnoncrna
opa:ymmnxcn npn rox coc(nucunn onpc(cnnmr pacnpc(cncunc xc-
ranna no opiauax n rxaunx.
Kpynuic xonnon(uic nacrnni oxcn(on xcrannon, raxnx xax nau-
rouon(i, axrnuon(i n ucxoropic rpaucnnyrouncnic ncxcuri :a-
xnarinamrcn pcrnxynou(orcnnaniuon cncrcxon ncncun, ccnc:cuxn,
noncx n xocruoio xo:ia, i(c oun npcxcuuo :a(cpnnamrcn ((cnoun-
pymrcn). K rnx ncxcurax oruocnrcn n rpaucnnyrouncnic ncxcuri.
Ioncc nponuix (cno nnnncrcn cxcncruan cncrcxa, i(c orxna(inamrcn
xcranni, nocrynammnc n opiaun:x npcnxymccrncuuo n nn(c xopomo
pacrnopnxix n no(c n (ncconnnpymmnx coc(nucunn. B xocruon rxa-
un (cnounpymrcn raxc xcranni, cxnouuic x opa:onaunm nponuix
coc(nucunn c xaninncx n qropox, uanpnxcp, cnnucn. Oncxcuri, xo-
ropic n:nparcniuo uaxannnnamrcn n xocruon rxaun, pa:(cnnmrcn ua
(nc onimnc ipynni. B o(uy n: unx nxo(nr xcranni, xoropic cpanun-
rcniuo panuoxcpuo pacnpc(cnnmrcn n xnucpaniuon qa:c xocrcn, ua-
npnxcp, xaninnn, crpounnn n pa(nn, a n (pyiym cxannnnammnccn
n noncpxuocruix crpyxrypax xocruon rxaun (naurauon(i, axrnuon(i,
nnpxounn, ropnn). nn rnx ncxcuron xapaxrcpuo npc:ninanuo xc(-
ncuuoc y(ancunc n: cxcncra, ncpcpacnpc(cncunc nuyrpn xocruon rxa-
un n xcuiman :anncnxocri oxcua or no:pacra n nnraunn. Hcpnan
ipynna ncxcuron uaxannnnacrcn n xocruon rxaun npcnxymccrncuuo
nyrcx nouuoio oxcua, nropan :a cncr a(copnnn.
Hpn conocranncunn xapaxrcpa pacnpc(cncunn ncxcura c cio oc-
uonuixn xnxnnccxnxn cnoncrnaxn ninnnncrcn pn( :axouoxcpuocrcn.
Oncxcuri, opa:ymmnc n no(c pacrnopnxic in(poxcn(i ocuonuoio
xapaxrcpa, ona(amr n :anncnxocrn or nancuruocrn nno panuoxcp-
uix, nno cxcncruix rnnox pacnpc(cncunn. O(uonancuruic nc-
xcuri (pyn(nn, nc:nn) pacnpc(cnnmrcn cpanunrcniuo panuoxcpuo,
(nyxnancuruic (crpounnn, pa(nn) n rpcxnancuruic (naurau, ncpnn,
npa:co(nx, axrnunn) n:nparcniuo uaxannnnamrcn n cxcncrc, a ncri-
pcxnancuruic (ypau, nnyrounn, ropnn), opa:ymmnc n no(c npaxrn-
182
nccxn ucpacrnopnxic in(pooxncn ocuonuoio xapaxrcpa, uaxannnna-
mrcn npcnxymccrncuuo n ncncun n cxcncrc. Hnrn-, mccrn-, ccxnna-
ncuruic ncxcuri, opa:ymmnc in(poxcn(i axqorcpuoio nnn
xncnoruoio xapaxrcpa (unonn, rcnnyp, nonounn), nno pacnpc(cnn-
mrcn cpanunrcniuo panuoxcpuo, nno uaxannnnamrcn npcnxymccr-
ncuuo n nonxax, uanpnxcp, nncxyr n mccrnnancuruin ypau. nn uc-
xoropix xcrannon VVIII ipynn ncpno(nnccxon cncrcxi, raxnx xax
xpox, naua(nn, xapiaucn, xoanir, unxcni, ximinx n ccncu xapaxrcp-
uo oncc panuoxcpuoc pacnpc(cncunc no nccx opiauax.
Hpeapamenne (xcraonn:x) n(onnrix ncmccrn n opiaun:xc nponc-
xo(nr n ocuonuox n pc:ynirarc oxncncunn, nacro conpono(ammciocn
in(ponnrnnccxnx pacmcnncuncx n noccrauonncuncx. Bo:xouo rax-
c cnn:inaunc n(on c cnxaxn, axnuoxncnoraxn, inmxypouonon n
ccpuon xncnoraxn. B onimnucrnc cnynacn n(onnroc coc(nucunc npo-
xo(nr ncpc: pn( nocnc(onarcniuix npcnpamcunn, :ancpmcuncx xoro-
pix nnnnmrcn cnurcrnnccxnc pcaxnnn xoumiannn (or nar. confugo-
io coc(nucunc).
Hponccc npcnpamcunn xnxnnccxnx ncmccrn n nonoinnccxnx cpc-
(ax (norpaucqopxannn) uannuacrcn cpa:y c nocnc nx nocrynncunn
n opiaun:x. Oncui onimoc :uancunc nxccr uananiuan qa:a xcrao-
nn:xa, rax xax n :anncnxocrn or cc nporcxaunn roxcnnuocri n(a xo-
cr nno yxcuimaricn, nno ycnnnnaricn. Tax, xuoinc qocqopoopia-
unnccxnc nuccxrnnn(i no(ncpiamrcn n opiaun:xc oxncncunm c o-
pa:onauncx oncc axrnnuix xcraonnron. Hanpnxcp, oxraxcrnn
npcnpamacrcn n oncc roxcnnuin qocqopaxn(oxcn(, rnoqoc (napa-
rnou) oxncnncrcn (o oncc axrnnuoio napaoxcoua. B ro c npcxn xo-
ucnuic npo(yxri napaoxcoua (napaunrpoqcuon n (nrnnonin qnp
qocqopuon xncnori) uc ona(amr nicoxon roxcnnuocrim. H:yncunc
xcraonn:xa npoximncuuix n(on nnnncrcn nauix c npaxrnnccxon
ronxn :pcunn. Hpc(cranncunn o xcxaun:xc norpaucqopxannn, o noc-
nc(onarcniuocrn n cxopocrn npcnpamcunn roio nnn nuoio ncmccrna
xoiyr iri ncnoni:onaui (nn axrnnuoio nxcmarcnicrna n rn nponcc-
ci, r.c. (nn pa:paorxn xcp no npoqnnaxrnxc orpanncunn, a raxc npn
(naiuocrnxc nuroxcnxannn.
Muoinc pcaxnnn xcraonn:xa xarann:npymrcn qcpxcuraxn. Ioni-
man nacri qcpxcuron cnn:aua c xncronuixn crpyxrypaxn (n(po, xn-
roxou(pnn, nn:ocoxi n r.(.), uo oun uaxo(nrcn raxc n n pacrnopnxon
183
qpaxnnn xuoinx rxaucn n nna:xc xponn. Ocoym poni n xcraonn:xc
n(on nipamr rax ua:inacxic xnxpocoxaniuic qcpxcuri. B nporo-
nna:xc nccx nnoruix xncrox :a ncxnmncuncx pnrponnron nxccrcn
rounanman crpyxrypa u(onna:xarnnccxan ccri nnn u(onna:xarn-
nccxnn pcrnxynyx. Mcraonn:x n(on nponcxo(nr n u(onna:xarnncc-
xox pcrnxynyxc xncrox inanuix opa:ox ncncun, rax xax nxcuuo :(cci
orxcnacrcn uanoniman axrnnuocri qcpxcuron.
Mcranni n nx coc(nucunn, nona(an n opiaun:x, xoiyr xuoioxpar-
uo xcunri qopxy cnocio cymccrnonaunn. umic xcranni ocuonuoc
npcxn cnocio npcinaunn n opiaun:xc cymccrnymr n nn(c xoxnncxcon
c cnxaxn. Hcxnmncunc cocrannnmr mcnonuic n ucxoropic mcnon-
uo-:cxcniuic xcranni, xoropic n n(xon qa:c uaxo(nrcn n nouuon
qopxc n nn(c ucnponuix ncixo in(ponn:ycxix xoxnncxcon. nn oni-
mnucrna rncnix xcrannon xapaxrcpuo xoxnncxcoopa:onaunc c uyx-
ncnuonixn xncnoraxn, cnxaxn n axnuoxncnoraxn. cnounponaunc
xcrannon n opiaun:xc nponcxo(nr n nn(c cncnnqnnccxnx xoxnncxcon.
Hanpnxcp, ypau n nn(c xoxnncxca orxna(inacrcn n rxaunx, co(cpa-
mnx xapounniuic n qocqopnniuic ipynni (PO
3-
), a n xncrxax noncx
ouapycu cnnunonocnxonin xoxnncxc.
Mcranni ncpcxcuuon nancuruocrn no(ncpiamrcn n opiaun:xc noc-
crauonncunm nnn oxncncunm. Tax, coc(nucunn cnc:a, xapiauna, xo-
nn(cua, naua(nn, xpoxa, ximinxa n: coc(nucunn nicmcn nancur-
uocrn noccrauannnnamrcn (o un:mcn. Hnrnnancuruin ximinx noc-
crauannnnacrcn n opiaun:xc (o oncc roxcnnuoio rpcxnancuruoio, a
coc(nucunn rcnnypa n ccncua (o ncxcurapuoio cocronunn. Ucc-
rnnancuruin xpox noccrauannnnacrcn (o rpcxnancuruoio, ncixo o-
pa:ymmcio xoxnncxc c cnxaxn. Baua(nn ncpcxo(nr n: nnrnnancur-
uon qopxi n rpcxnancuruym. H:nccrui raxc pcaxnnn noccrauonnc-
unn n opiaun:xc xapiauna n cnnuna. Hpnxcpox nonoinnccxoio
oxncncunn nnnnmrcn ypau, pryri n nnyrounn. cripcxnancuruin nny-
rounn ncpcxo(nr n mccrnnancuruin, xcrannnnccxan pryri oxncnncr-
cn (o (nyoxncn, a coc(nucunn rpcxnancuruoio nnyrounn (o ncri-
pcxnancuruoio.
Bmaeaenne ns oprannswa. Hyrn n xcxaun:xi ninc(cunn n: opiaun:-
xa n(onnrix coc(nucunn pa:nnnui. Tncnic xcranni nino(nrcn nc-
pc: ncixnc, nonxn, 2KT n xoy. 2(i n nx xcraonnri ni(cnnmrcn
nacro no uccxonixnx xauanax. Bi(cncunc n: opiaun:xa npc(uix nc-
184
mccrn nporcxacr noranuo n cocronr n: (nyx nnn oncc qa:. Oro cnn-
:auo c pa:uon qopxon nnpxynnnnn n (cnounponaunn n(a. B ncpnym
oncpc(i y(annmrcn n: opiaun:xa coc(nucunn, uaxo(nmnccn n ucn:xc-
ucuuox nn(c nnn oncui cnao cnn:auuic c xoxnoucuraxn xncrox. 3a-
rcx nponcxo(nr ni(cncunc qpaxnnn n(a, uaxo(nmcncn n xncrxax n
oncc nponuo cnn:auuon qopxc, n n nocnc(umm oncpc(i noxn(acr op-
iaun:x n(, uaxo(nmnncn n rxauncnix (cno.
Bi(cncunc xcrannon, nonanmnx n opiaun:x n nn(c apo:oncn, ocy-
mccrnnncrcn npn noxomn xcpnarcniuoio nnrcnnn ncpxunx (ixarcni-
uix nyrcn. Bi(cncunc xcrannon c ni(ixacxix no:(yxox npaxrnncc-
xn uc nponcxo(nr. Hcxnmncunc cocrannnmr ccncu n rcnnyp n nn(c nx
ncrynnx xcrnnnponauuix npon:no(uix.
Binc(cunc npc(uix ncmccrn ncpc: nonxn nponcxo(nr n pc:ynirarc
naccnnuon qnnirpannn nnn axrnnuoio rpaucnopra. Hpn naccnnuon
qnnirpannn n noncnuix xnyonxax opa:ycrcn ynirpaqnnirpar, xoro-
pin co(cpnr ncxrponnr n ron c xouncurpannn, nro n n nna:xc. Hpn
axrnnuox rpaucnoprc xcranni ni(cnnmrcn ncpc: xauanini noncx.
Honxaxn icrpo nino(nrcn xcranni, uaxo(nmnccn n opiaun:xc n nn(c
nouon. Oro oruocnrcn n ncpnym oncpc(i x ni(cnnmmnxcn c xonon
mcnonuix xcrannax nnrnm, pyn(nm n nc:nm. C xonon xopomo
y(annmrcn ncixo (ncconnnpymmnc conn (nyxnancuruix xcrannon (c-
pnnnnn, xa(xnn, xc(i), xcranni, uaxo(nmnccn n opiaun:xc n nn(c
xcnaron, a raxc xcranni VV1 ipynn, nxo(nmnc n cocran xncnopo-
(oco(cpamnx aunouon (xpox, naua(nn, xonn(cu, ccncu). Mcranni,
noxann:npymmnccn npcnxymccrncuuo n ncncun, c xonon nino(nrcn
cnao. Mcranni, pacnpc(cncuuic n opiaun:xc panuoxcpuo, y(annmr-
cn nno icrpo ncpc: nonxn, nno oncc xc(ncuuo ncpc: 2KT. Kox-
nncxcoopa:onaunc cnococrnycr ni(cncunm xcrannon c xonon. Ha
rox ocuonauo y(ancunc xcrannon n: opiaun:xa pa:uoopa:uixn op-
iaunnccxnxn xoxnncxcaxn.
Bi(cncunc npoximncuuix n(on ncpc: 2KT uannuacrcn yc no
pry c noxomim cnmui. B cnmuc co(cparcn rncnic xcranni, ua-
npnxcp, pryri, cnnucn n (p. 3ainarinaunc cnmui xocr no:npamari
npc(uic ncmccrna n cny(ox. 2(i n opa:ymmnccn n ncncun nx xcra-
onnri c cnnim rpaucnoprnpymrcn n xnmcnunx n ni(cnnmrcn n:
opiaun:xa. H: xnmcnunxa roxcnnuic ncmccrna xoiyr nona(ari uc-
nocpc(crncuuo n xponi, nocnc ncio oun ni(cnnmrcn n: opiaun:xa c
185
xonon. B ro c npcxn no:xocu n oncc cnouin nyri, xoi(a n: xn-
mcnunxa n( nona(acr n xponi n cuona no:npamacrcn n ncncui (nuyr-
pnncncuonuan nnpxynnnnn). Ionimym poni nipacr qopxa, n nn(c xo-
ropon xcrann uaxo(nrcn n cny(onuo-xnmcnuox rpaxrc. Hanpnxcp,
xcranni n xonnon(uox cocronunn nonrn nonuocrim y(annmrcn c xa-
nox. K raxnx xcrannax oruocnrcn pc(xo:cxcniuic xcranni, :onoro,
ccpcpo n (p.
Hpoximncuuic n(i xoiyr ni(cnnricn n: opiaun:xa raxc c ipy(-
uix xonoxox n ncpc: xoy, n nacruocrn, c norox. C ipy(uix xonoxox
y nnoruix n ncnoncxa ni(cnnmrcn raxnc xcranni, xax pryri, ccncu,
ximinx n (p., c norox pryri, xc(i n ximinx.
5.2. Toxcn4nocvt vaaeamx wevaaaoa
Tocuunocmi ro cnocouocri xnxnnccxoio ncmccrna oxa:inari
npc(uoc no:(cncrnnc ua nnic opiaun:xi. Toxcnnuocri ro xonn-
nccrncuuoc nounrnc: oncuxc no(ncar nonoinnccxnn qqcxr, qop-
xnpymmnncn n pc:ynirarc no:(cncrnnn ncmc crna, n (o:a (xouncurpa-
nnn), npn xoropon ror aicur ni:inacr nonpc(cunc. mc n XVI n.
Hapancnic :axcrnn, nro ncc ncmccrna nnnnmrcn n(axn, n ronixo (o:a
onpc(cnncr nx n(onnrocri. Oro xo pomo nn(uo ua npnxcpc raxnx n:-
ucuuo ucoxo(nxix (nn opia un:xa xnxponcxcuron, xax cnc:o, xc(i,
nnux, xapiaucn, onono, xoanir, ccncu n r.(. cnn rnx ncmccrn noc-
rynacr n opiaun:x uc(ocraronuo, ro no:xouo pa:nnrnc aucxnn, xap-
(noxnonarnn n (pyinx :aoncna unn. Hpn n:ironuox nx nocrynncunn
uanm(amrcn roxcnnuic qqcxri |8, 12, 22, 27, 31].
Hpoipaxxa OOH no oxpauc oxpyammcn cpc(i y(cnncr ocooc
nunxaunc cmou+ mocuunt+ coeounenuu+, x xoropix oruocnrcn nc-
mccrna, cnocouic axxyxynnponaricn n xocncrcxax n n nnmcnix nc-
nnx, ona(ammnc xauncpoicuuixn n/nnn xyraicuuixn cnoncrnaxn
n ni:inammnc uapymcunn pcnpo(yxrnnuoio :(oponin, u(oxpnuuon
cncrcxi, ucpnuo-ncnxnnccxoio pa:nnrnn (crcn n r.(. B pcccrp roxcnn-
uix coc(nucunn nxnmncui 64 ncmccrna, n rox nncnc 12 cronxnx op-
iaunnccxnx :aipn:unrcncn (CO3). Mciocy(apcrncuuon Croxionix-
cxon Kouncunncn npc(ycxarpnnacrcn npnunrnc xcp no nnxnn(annn
186
npon:no(crna n ncnoni:ona unn pn(a xnxnnccxnx ncmccrn, nxnmnan
ucxoropic nccrnnn(i HXI, a raxc n yxcuimcunm nipocon (nox-
cnuon. B cnncox cronxnx roxcnnuix coc(nucunn nxnmncui raxnc xc-
ranni, xax cnnucn, pryri, xa(xnn, ximinx, unxcni, xpox, c pnnnnn,
opiaunnccxnc coc(nucunn pryrn, cnnuna n onona.
Ycnnnn pa:nnnuix crpau no cuncunm xnxnnccxoio :aipn:uc unn
oxpyammcn cpc(i yc npnuccnn nononrcniuic pc:ynirari. 3a noc-
nc(unc (ccnrnncrnn n nponc yxcuimnnnci nipoci xuo inx rncnix
xcrannon, n CUA n ucxoropix (pyinx crpauax n pc:ynirarc :anpcra ua
ncnoni:onaunc rnnnponauuoio cu:nua co xparnnoci co(cpaunc
cnnuna n xponn (crcn.
nn npc(ynpc(cunn npc(uoio no:(cncrnnn n nocnc(ymmcio c:o-
nacuoio opamcunn c rncnixn xcrannaxn ucoxo(nxa

npcncurnnuan
oncuxa nx (cncrnnn.
Canneu. Cnnucn uc oruocnrcn x noncxcurax, ucoxo(nxix (nn
n:uc(cnrcniuocrn ncnoncnccxoio opiaun:xa. O(uaxo cio pacnpocrpa-
ucunc n npnpo(c n mnpoxoc ncnoni:onaunc n pa:nnnuix npon:no(-
crnax npnno(nr x roxy, nro ou ouapynnacrcn n opiaun:xax nm(cn n
nnoruix no nccx ronxax :cxuoio mapa |13, 21, 24]. Orpanncunc cnnu-
nox nponcxo(nr n ocuonuox n npon:no(crncuuix ycnonnnx. O(uaxo
ncrpcnamrcn cnynan orpanncunn cnnunox n iry npn ynorpcncunn
nnmcnix npo(yxron, (onioc npcxn xpaunnmnxcn n xcpaxnnccxon no-
cy(c, noxpiron n:uyrpn cnnunonon ina:ypim.
H: ucopiaunnccxnx coc(nucunn cnnuna uanoncc roxcnnui rc, xo-
ropic ncixo pacrnopnmrcn n nocpc(ax opiaun:xa. K unx oruocnrcn
ancrari cnnuna Pb(CH
3
COO)
2
3H
2
O n Pb(CH
3
COO)
2
Pb(OH)
2
, ocuon-
uon xapouar cnnuna (cnnunonic cnnna) 2PbCO
3
Pb(OH)
2
, xnopn(
cnnuna PbCl
2
, unrpar cnnuna Pb(O
3
)
2
n rcrparnncnnucn |Pb(C
2
H
5
)
4
].
Bo:(cncrnnc cnnuna ua opiaun:x ncnoncxa nponnnncrcn npc(c nccio
n uapymcunn cnurc:a icxoinonua n orxnoucunnx noxa:arcncn cocro-
nunn ucpnuo-ncnxnnccxon cqcpi. Bauo orxcrnri, nro ncnxoucnpo-
noinnccxnc n:xcucunn y (crcn nacro inamr cnn:aui c no:(cncrnncx
cnnuna ua opiaun:x xarcpn. Y cpcxcuuix cumnu, xoropic ncnoni-
:onann no(y c nonimcuuix co(cpauncx cnnuna nnn no(ncpiannci
nnnnunm roio xcranna ua npon:no(crnc, xouncurpannn cnnuna n xpo-
nn nimc, ncx n xourponiuon ipynnc. Cnnucn xocr nocrynari n op-
iaun:x pccuxa n c xonoxox xopxnmcn xarcpn. Mc(y xouncurpann-
187
nxn cnnuna n xonoxc xarcpn n n xponn pccuxa ouapycua npnxan
:anncnxocri |21].
Ocuonuix nu(nxaropox co(cpaunn cnnuna n opiaun:xc nnnnmr-
cn nonoci. Ycrauonncuo, nro co(cpaunc cnnuna 1O 2 xxi/i n nonocax
(crcn 57 ncr nnnncrcn ncpxucn ipaunncn qn:nonoinnccxon uopxi.
Hpn xpnrnnccxox co(cpaunn cnnuna 24 xxi/i y (crcn uanm(a-
crcn nonimcuuan :aoncnacxocri ucpnuon cncrcxi, a npn co(cpa-
unn 3 xxi/i nponcxo(nr cncnnqnnccxnc n:xcucunn n xocrnx.
Hanonimcc orpanncunc cnnunox nonynamr paonnc npc(npnnrnn
n ncxax no npon:no(crny cnnunonoio incra (co(cpaunc cnnuna n no-
nocax (ocrniacr 22O xxi/i) n xnucpaniuix xpacox ((o 4O xxi/i) |18].
Hcurpi xnxnnccxnx auoxannn noxann:ymrcn ncci(a ua npoxim-
ncuuix nnoma(xax npc(npnnrnn. Horoxy xaxcnxaniuym rcxuoicu-
uym uaipy:xy ncnirinamr cnyamnc cnnunonix npon:no(crn, (ac
uc nxcmmnc npnxoio npoqcccnouaniuoio xouraxra c xcrannaxn.
Cpc(ucc co(cpaunc cnnuna n nonocax corpy(unxon :ano(on no npo-
n:no(crny axxyxynnropon n cnnunonoio incra cocrannncr 5O 5,5 xxi/i
n 14 2,O xxi/i, nro ino :uannrcniuo nimc ((o 2O pa:) qouonix :ua-
ncunn. 3aipn:ucunc no:(yxa cnnunox uc oipaunnnnacrcn rcppnropncn
npoximncuuon nnoma(xn. Ouo pacnpocrpauncrcn :a cc npc(cni, :a-
xnarinan nnic xaccnni, rcppnropnn pacnonocunn (crcxnx n xc-
(nnnucxnx ynpc(cunn n cnoprnnuix coopycunn. Auann: cnnuna n
nnricnon no(c iopo(on c pa:nnron xamnuocrponrcniuon npoximncu-
uocrim, or(cniuixn cnnunonocxxnxn npc(npnnrnnxn (uanpnxcp,
npon:no(crno xnucpaniuix xpacox) n nurcucnnuon paoron anroxo-
nniuoio rpaucnopra noxa:an, nro co(cpaunc cnnuna uaxo(nrcn n
npc(cnax inincunnccxoio uopxarnna. Horoxy uaxonncunc cnnuna n
opiaun:xc iopo(on raxoio rnna cnn:auo c no:(cncrnncx :aipn:ucuuo-
io no:(yxa |21].
Y nm(cn, nponnammnx n :ouc (cncrnnn npc(npnnrnn no ninnan-
xc n ncpcpaorxc cnnuna, uanm(acrcn nonimcuuoc co(cpaunc cnnu-
na n nonocax. Tax, n n(pc auoxannn oxono cnnunono-xa(xncnoio xox-
nuara (ua paccronunn O,5 xx or :ano(a) co(cpaunc cnnuna n nonocax
(crcn cocrannnno 3O xxi/i, nro n 7 pa: nimc qouonoio :uancunn, a y
n:pocnix 15 xxi/i, nro n 5 pa: nimc qouonoio :uancunn. Ha pnc. 5.4
noxa:auo n:xcucunc co(cpaunn cnnuna n nonocax (crcn no xcpc y(a-
188
ncunn or cnnunono-xa(xncnoio xoxnuara. C yncnnncuncx paccron-
unn nponcxo(nr :axcruoc cuncunc xouncurpannn cnnuna. O(uaxo
(ac ua paccronunn 3 xx or npc(npnnrnn cpc(unn xouncurpannn xc-
ranna n nonocax cocrannncr 1O xxi/i, nro npcnimacr (onycrnxin ypo-
ncui.
3axcruoc :aipn:ucunc oxpyammcn cpc(i cnnunox cnn:auo raxc
c no:(cncrnnc arxocqcpuoio no:(yxa, n xoropin nona(amr co(cpa-
mnc cnnucn nipoci xamnuocrponrcniuix npon:no(crn. Hanpnxcp,
n iopo(c c pa:nnrix xamnuocrponrcniuix npon:no(crnox co(cpa-
unc cnnuna n nonocax (crcn, nponnammnx ua paccronunn O,51,O xx
or npc(npnnrnn, n:xcunnoci or 1 (o 9 xxi/i. B cpc(ucx co(cpaunc
cnnuna ino ua 5 % nimc, ncx n xourponiuon ipynnc. O(uaxo n 13 %
cnynacn cio xouncurpannn ina nimc (onycrnxoio yponun. B ro c
npcxn :aipn:ucunc arxocqcpuoio no:(yxa iopo(on nixnonaxn anro-
onycrnxin
yponcui
Kpnrnuccxnn
yponcui
Co(cpaunc Pb
n nounc, xi/xi
Co(cpaunc Pb
n nonocax (crcn, xxi/i
u
i
32 32
8O
6O
4O
2O
24
16
8
1
1 2 3 4
2OOO 1OOO 5OO
2 3
Paccronunc or ncrou-
unxa :aipn:ucunn, xx
Pnc. 5.4. Pacnpc(cncunc cnnuna n nonocax (crcn n :ouc nnnnunn cnnunono-xa(-
xncnoio xoxnuara: u

nacrora ncrpcnacxocrn co(cpaunn cnnuna n nonocax


(crcn (n xxi/i): T xcucc 8; 2 824; J oncc 24; 4 cpc(ucc co(cpaunc
cnnuna
189
rpaucnopra npnno(nr x :uannrcniuo oncc nurcucnnuoxy nocrynnc-
unm cnnuna n opiaun:x nponnammnx n unx nm(cn. B iopo(c ua pan-
unuuon rcppnropnn c xopomnxn ycnonnnxn nponcrpnnaunn cpc(ucc
co(cpaunc cnnuna n nonocax (crcn cocrannno 7 1 xxi/i, r.c. ino
nimc n 1,5 pa:a, ncx n :ouc nnnnunn nipocon xamnuocrponrcniuix
npon:no(crn. Ioncc ucnaionpnnruan cnryannn xocr pcann:oninari-
cn n iopo(c c iopuo-(onnuuix nau(maqrox, i(c :aipn:ucuuic xacci
no:(yxa npaxrnnccxn uc niuocnrcn :a nx npc(cni. 3(cci qopxnpymr-
cn omnpuic n nurcucnnuic icoxnxnnccxnc auoxannn, :aunxammnc
:uannrcniuym nacri iopo(cxon rcppnropnn. Hanoncc nicoxnn ypo-
ncui :aipn:ucunn arxocqcpuoio no:(yxa qnxcnpycrcn n (onnuax uc-
onimnx pcx, xy(a crcxamrcn xacci :aipn:ucuuoio no:(yxa. Ha pnc. 5.5
npc(cranncu noicoxnxnnccxnn npoqnni iopo(a, nocrpocuuin ua oc-
uonaunn (auuix o co(cpaunn cnnuna n nonocax (crcn. Hpn n:xcuc-
unn pcnicqa n yponun :aipn:ucunn nonn cnnunox nponcxo(nr n:xc-
ucunc co(cpaunn cnnuna n nonocax (crcn n n:pocnix. Y nrcncn,
nponnammnx n ponuon (naprcpuon) nacrn iopo(a, nxccr xccro
n 1,7 pa:a oncc nurcucnnuoc uaxonncunc cnnuna n opiaun:xc, ncx y
nm(cn, nin (oxa uaxo(nrcn ua cxnouax iop. B nnix xnapranax, npn-
xixammnx x xaincrpannx c nurcucnnuix (nncuncx anroxonncn n
npnpcuon nacrn iopo(a, i(c :a(cpnnamrcn noroxn :aipn:ucuuoio
no:(yxa, y 64 % (crcn co(cpaunc cnnuna npcnimacr (onycrnxin ypo-
ncui. Taxnx opa:ox, noicoxnxnnccxan cnryannn ncrxo conna(acr c
icoxnxnnccxon crpyxrypon iopo(a |18].
Cnnucn n cio coc(nucunn n :anncnxocrn or aipciaruoio cocronunn
n xapaxrcpa xouraxra c unxn xoiyr npounxari n opiaun:x ncpc: (i-
xarcniuic nyrn, 2KT n nacrnnuo ncpc: xouic noxponi. B npon:-
no(crncuuix ycnonnnx uanoncc nacro oun nocrynamr n opiaun:x n
nn(c ninn, apo:oncn n napon. B 2KT cnnucn n cio coc(nucunn no-
na(amr n ocuonuox npn ironix orpanncunnx, pcc ua npon:no(crnax,
i(c uc conm(amrcn npannna nnnuon inincui.
Cnnucn oxa:inacr omcroxcnnccxoc, xauncpoicuuoc n xyraicuuoc
(cncrnnn, ni:inacr nopacunc ncurpaniuon n ncpnqcpnnccxon uc-
pnuon cncrcxi, xponn n cocy(on. Hpn orpanncunn nonnnnmrcn xcran-
nnnccxnn nxyc no pry, cnmuorcncunc, pnora, iononuic onn n ionono-
xpycunc. Hpn xouncurpannn cnnuna n nnricnon no(c O,O421,O xi/n
19O
uanm(annci cnynan xpounnccxoio orpanncunn nm(cn. Cnnucn npn-
(acr no(c xcrannnnccxnn npnnxyc npn xouncurpannn 2 xi/n |16, 21].
Apo:oni cnnuna orxna(inacrcn n ncixnx ncnoncxa or 3O (o 6O % or
n(ixacxoio xonnnccrna. cnn xouncurpannn ninn cnnuna n no:(yxc
cocrannncr 2O xi/x
3
, ro n (ixarcniuix nyrnx :a(cpnnacrcn cio oxo-
no 5O %; npn n(ixaunn ninn c xouncurpanncn (o 1 xi/x
3
:a(cpxa
cocrannncr ronixo 1O %. Hpn :ainarinaunn ninn n 2KT nona(acr or 1O
(o 3O % cnnuna. Bcacinaunc nponcxo(nr n ocuonuox n cnn:ncron nac-
rn cny(xa n n ncpxucn nacrn rouxnx xnmox, uo ouo ucncnnxo, rax xax
oniman nacri cnnuna ni(cnncrcn c xanox |27].
Hocrynammnn n opiaun:x ncpc: (ixarcniuic nyrn cnnucn n cio
coc(nucunn npounxamr ucnocpc(crncuuo n xponi. Hpn nocrynncunn
Pnc. 5.5. Pacnpc(cncunc cnnuna n nonocax (crcn n iopo(c c iopuo-(o-
nnuuix nau(maqrox n nurcucnnuon anrorpaucnopruon uaipy:xon:
u

nacrora ncrpcnacxocrn co(cpaunn cnnuna n nonocax (crcn


(n xxi/i): T xcucc 8; 2 824; J oncc 24
Paccronunc, xx
u
i
%
u
i
%
Co(cpaunc Pb
n nounc, xi/xi
5O
O,5 1
6OO 25O
1,5
1OO
15O
35
78
22
6O
2OO
1 2 3
191
ncpc: 2KT cnnucn n cio coc(nucunn npcrcpncnamr pn( n:xcucunn.
B cny(xc, n:anxo(cncrnyn c connuon xncnoron, oun opa:ymr xopo-
mo pacrnopnxin n no(c xnopn( cnnuna. B rouxox xnmcnunxc no( nnn-
nuncx mcnonuon cpc(i n npuix xncnor opa:ymrcn conn cnnuna c
npuixn xncnoraxn, xoropic n npncyrcrnnn cnnn (amr xynicnm.
Mcninanmnc nacrnni cnnuna noinomamrcn cnn:ncron oononxon xn-
mcnunxa, a :arcx ncpc: xannnnnpi noporuon ncui n xnmcnuic nnx-
qarnnccxnc nyrn cnnucn nocrynacr n omnn xponorox. Cnnucn, npo-
unxammnn n ncncui, noinomacrcn cc xncrxaxn n nocrcncuuo ni(cnn-
crcn c cnnim.
O(unx n: ocuonuix noxa:arcncn no:(cncrnnn cnnuna ua cocronunc
:(oponin uaccncunn nnnncrcn cio co(cpaunc n xponn. B ran. 5.1 npc(-
cranncua pa:paorauuan Hcurpox no xourponm :a :aoncnaunnxn CUA
cxcxa n:xcucunn noxa:arcncn cocronunn :(oponin npn pa:nnnuox co-
(cpaunn cnnuna n xponn |16].
Toauuo :.T
Bosaecvane cannua na cocvoanne aeve n aspocamx
Kouncurpa-
nnn cnnuna
n 1OO xn
xponn, xxi
crn B:pocnic
15O Cxcprcniuin ncxo( Orpanncunc cnnunox
5O1OO
Ouncqanonarnn, ucqponarnn,
aucxnn, xonnxn
Ouncqanonarnn, aucxnn,
yxcuimcunc cnurc:a icxo-
inonua
4O
Yxcuimcunc cnurc:a icxo-
inonua
Hcpnqcpaniuan ucqponarnn,
ccnno(nc (xycxoc),
ucqponarnn
3O
Cuncunc xcraonn:xa
nnraxnua
Honimcunc cncronnnccxoio
(anncunn y xynnu, cunc-
unc cnyxa
2O
Honimcunc ncxropa ucpnuon
npono(nxocrn pnrponnra
nporonopqnua
Honimcunc pnrponnra
nporonopqnua
1O Cuncunc cnyxa, rcxnon pocra Inncprcu:nn
192
Cuncunc yponun icxoinonua n xponn uanm(acrcn npn co(cpa-
unn oncc 5O xxi cnnuna n 1OO xn xponn y n:pocnix, a y (crcn 4O xxi.
nn paorammcio ncpcouana (onycrnxan xouncurpannn cnnuna n xpo-
nn ycrauonncua ua yponuc 3O xxi n 1OO xn xponn (uopxa CUA).
Hpn co(cpaunn cnnuna n xponn oncc 15 xxi ua 1OO xn y cpcxcu-
uix cumnu no:pacracr pncx yncnnncunn nncna cnourauuix aopron.
B Poccnn pcxoxcu(ycrcn npono(nri oncc (craniuoc ocnc(onaunc
paorammnx n xouraxrc co cnnunox, ccnn co(cpaunc cnnuna n 1OO xn
nx xponn npcnimacr 5O xxi.
Hpcnimcunc (onycrnxoio co(cpaunn cnnuna n 1OO xn xponn y
(crcn mxoniuoio no:pacra ua 1 xxi nc(cr x cuncunm nurcnncxryani-
uoio pa:nnrnn pccuxa ua 1/41/2 anna, npnncx uciarnnuic noc-
nc(crnnn ouapynnamrcn (ac ncpc: 1O ncr nocnc no:(cncrnnn cnnu-
na. Ymcp or raxoio npcnimcunn n pacncrc ua o(uoio pccuxa oncun-
nacrcn n CUA npnnn:nrcniuo n 12OO (onn. |16].
Cnnucn oruocnrcn x n(ax, nxcmmnx xyxynnrnnuoc (cncrnnc. Ho-
na(an n opiaun:x, ou (cnounpycrcn no xuoinx opiauax n nn(c ucpacr-
nopnxoio rpcxocuonuoio qocqara cnnuna, opa:ymmciocn npn n:an-
xo(cncrnnn nouon cnnuna c qocqaraxn n cncrcxc xponn. 3uannrcni-
uan nacri cnnuna orxna(inacrcn n xocrnx, nirccunn conn xaninnn n:
xocruon rxaun. Kpoxc roio, cnnucn (cnounpycrcn n ximnax, ncncun
n nonxax. Hconimnc xonnnccrna cio uaxo(nrcn n ccnc:cuxc, iononuox
xo:ic, xnoxap(c n nnxqarnnccxnx y:nax.
Hpcnpamcunc cnnuna n opiaun:xc xapaxrcpn:ycrcn pa:uoopa:ui-
xn pcaxnnnxn. B xponn n nonoinnccxnx n(xocrnx opiaun:xa cnn-
ucn uaxo(nrcn n xonnon(uox cocronunn n nn(c (nqocqara n (nqoc-
qopinnncpara, cxcmauuix concn c xaninncx n xnopox n opiaunnccxnx
xoxnncxcon c cnxox. C cyniqin(pnniuixn ipynnaxn opiaunnccxnx
ncmccrn noui Pb
2=
opa:ymr nponuic cnn:n, nuinnpyn noxnpona-
unc SH- co(cpamnc qcpxcuri, nro npnno(nr x :aoncnaunm cnnu-
nonon aucxnn.
Hocrynnnmnn n xponi cnnucn icrpo ncpcxo(nr n xnixnc rxaun n
xc(ncuuo n cxcncr. Ho nurcucnnuocrn noinomcunn cnnuna n opia-
uax nxccr xccro n:xcucunc n pn(y: nonxn > ncncui > ncixnc > ccnc-
:cuxa > ccp(nc > ximni. B xponn cnnucn noxann:ycrcn n ocuonuox n
pnrponnrax. Kouncurpannn cnnuna n xocrnx ua 12 nopn(xa nimc,
ncx n ocraniuix opiauax, n :anncnr or no:pacra ncnoncxa, nona n xcc-
193
ra nrcnicrna. Cnnucn nurcucnnuo uaxannnnacrcn n opiaun:xc ncno-
ncxa npn uc(ocrarxc xaninnn n nnuxa n ycyiynncr (cqnnnr rnx nc-
xcuron.
Hc:anncnxo or nyrn nocrynncunn n opiaun:x (nuyrpnximcnuoio,
n xponi nnn n cny(ox) :a 23 uc(cnn ni(cnncrcn oxono nononnui
nnc(cuuoio xonnnccrna cnnuna. Bi(cncunc nponcxo(nr c xonon n xa-
nox npnxcpuo n cooruomcunn 1:2. Bpcxn nonyninc(cunn cnnuna n:
cxcncra cocrannncr 2O ncr. H: (cno cnnucn oinuo ni(cnncrcn xc(-
ncuuo, nuoi(a n rcncunc uccxonixnx ncr nocnc npcxpamcunn xourax-
ra c unx. Ho( nnnnuncx raxnx qaxropon, xax :noynorpcncunc anxo-
ioncx, rpanxi, ncpcipcn, qn:norcpancnrnnccxnc nponc(ypi, n:xc-
ucunn nnmcnoio pcnxa, xncnoruo-mcnonuoio cocronunn n (p. xocr
nponcxo(nri nurcucnnuoc ni(cncunc cnnuna n: (cno nyrcx ncpc-
xo(a cio n: ucpacrnopnxix qopx n pacrnopnxic coc(nucunn. B raxnx
cnynanx nuoi(a no:unxacr ocrpoc orpanncunc. Cnnucn nino(nrcn n:
opiaun:xa inanuix opa:ox ncpc: xnmcnunx n nonxn. Hconimoc
cio xonnnccrno ni(cnncrcn c norox n cnmuon, a raxc c ipy(uix xo-
noxox |18].
B xanccrnc npoqnnaxrnnccxoio cpc(crna (nn nnn, paorammnx co
cnnunox n cio coc(nucunnxn, ncnccoopa:uo npnunxari ncxrnui,
xoropic nnnnmrcn ccrccrncuuixn xoxnncxcoopa:onarcnnxn. Taxnc
coc(nucunn cnocoui opa:oninari xncmucnn(uic cnn:n c xarnoua-
xn nonnnancuruix xcrannon, n rox nncnc co cnnunox. Hpn n:anxo-
(cncrnnn ncxrnuon co cnnunox, nocnc(unn :axcmacr n unx arox xani-
nnn, opa:yn xanoroxcnnuin cnnucnco(cpamnn xoxnncxc, xoropin
icrpo nino(nrcn n: opiaun:xa. Hcxrnui co(cparcn n nnoxax, nno-
(ax, xopucnno(ax. Ha rox c npnunnnc ocuonauo npnxcucunc pa:-
nnnuix cnurcrnnccxnx xoxnncxcouon (nn ninc(cunn rncnix xcran-
non n: opiaun:xa ncnoncxa |1O].
Hnnx. Hnux cax no ccc uc nnnncrcn npoximncuuix n(ox, uo n
npncyrcrnnn ximinxa, xa(xnn, xapiauna n cnnuna n no:(yxc nnuxo-
nix npon:no(crn, uanpnxcp, n ianinaunnccxnx ncxax ou ni:inacr y
paonnx xcrannnnccxym nnxopa(xy. Toxcnnuan (o:a (nn xpic npn
nuiannnnouuox nnc(cunn (nxnopn(a nnuxa u
5O
75 xi/xi. Hnux n
cio coc(nucunn xanoroxcnnui (nn nm(cn npn nocrynncunn n opia-
un:x c nnmcn n no(on. Kouncurpannn n nnricnon no(c 11,226,6 xi/n
ncpcuocnrcn nm(ixn c: ncnxoio npc(a (nn :(oponin |26, 29].
194
Orpanncunc nnuxox n ocuonuox nponcxo(nr npn ncnoni:onaunn
nccrnnn(on, ucpcuox rcpancnrnnccxox npnxcucunn npcnaparon
nnuxa n ynorpcncunn uannrxon, xpaunmnxcn n nocy(c c nnuxonix
ianinaunnccxnx noxpirncx. Hnux raxc npncyrcrnycr n roxcnuax
xuoinx n(onnrix :xcn.
Orpanncunc napaxn nnuxa oxa:inacr omcroxcnnccxoc, pa:(paa-
mmcc n xauncpoicuuoc (cncrnnc. Bo pry nonnnncrcn cna(xnn npnnxyc,
omymacrcn cyxocri n iopnc, xamcni, romuora, pa:(pacunc xon n
cnn:ncrix oononcx, no:xocu orcx ncixnx.
Inoxnxnnccxan poni nnuxa cnn:aua c qcpxcurarnnuixn nponcc-
caxn, rax xax ou nxo(nr n cocran pn(a naucnmnx qcpxcuron, raxnx
xax mcnonuan qocqara:a, xapouar-(cin(para:a n (p. Hnux ynacrnycr
n oxcuc uyxncnuonix xncnor n cnurc:c cnxon |26].
2cny(onuo-xnmcnuan acopnnn pacrnopnxix concn nnuxa n:
npo(yxron nnraunn (ocrniacr 17 %. Bicoxnc xouncurpannn xaninnn
n xc(n, a raxc xcnaruic coc(nucunn, co(cpamnccn n nnmc, cuna-
mr acopnnm nnuxa. Hanoniman acopnnn nnuxa nponcxo(nr n
(ncua(narnncpcruon xnmxc n n rouxox xnmcnunxc. Hnux pacnpc(c-
nncrcn no nccx opiauax n rxaunx. io ouapynnamr n nicoxnx xou-
ncurpannnx n xocrnx, xoc, npc(crarcniuon cnc:c n cncpxc.
Tax xax nnux cnn:au c qcpxcuraxn, iopxouaxn n nnraxnuaxn, ro
ou oxa:inacr :uannrcniuoc nnnnunc ua ocuonuic n:ucuuic nponcc-
ci xponcrnopcunc, pa:xuocunc, pocr n pa:nnrnc opiaun:xa, oxcu
yincno(on, cnxon n npon, oxncnnrcniuo-noccrauonnrcniuic pcax-
nnn, ucpicrnnccxnn oxcu. Hc(ocrarox nnuxa n opiaun:xc ncnoncxa
npnno(nr x cuncunm anncrnra, ni:inacr aucxnm, anncpinnccxnc
:aoncnaunn, (cpxarnr, cuncunc ocrpori :pcunn, nina(cunc nonoc
n paccrponcrno nononon qyuxnnn. Hponcxo(nr raxc cuncunc nx-
xyunrcra, ncnc(crnnc ncio nm(n c (cqnnnrox nnuxa oinuo nacro n
(nnrcniuo oncmr npocry(uixn, nuqcxnnouuixn :aoncnaunnxn.
Hcpc(xo cuncunc co(cpaunn nnuxa n opiaun:xc nnnncrcn cnc(c-
rnncx n:ironuoio nocrynncunn n opiaun:x +eou, oo+uu u counuo,
nnnnmmnxcn auraiouncraxn nnuxa, ococuuo ua qouc (cqnnnra cn-
xa n pannouc nnraunn, a raxc npn xpounnccxox :noynorpcncunn
anxoioncx. Poni nnuxa n anxoioniuon nuroxcnxannn oycnonncua cio
ynacrncx n xcraonn:xc rnnonoio cnnpra. Horoxy y (crcn n no(-
195
pocrxon npn (cqnnnrc nnuxa nonimacrcn npc(pacnonocuuocri x
anxoionn:xy. cqnnnr nnuxa xocr npnno(nri x ycnncuuoxy uaxon-
ncunm n opiaun:xc xa(xnn, cnnuna, cnc:a n xc(n. H:ironuoc noc-
rynncunc nnuxa xocr noun:nri omcc co(cpaunc n nocrynncunc n
opiaun:x raxoio nauoio ncxcura, xax xc(i. Cyronuan norpcuocri
nnuxa (nn ncnoncxa cocrannncr 1O5O xi. Ha pnc. 5.6 npnnc(cui npn-
nnui no:unxuoncunn (cqnnnra nnuxa n opiaun:xc ncnoncxa, opiaui-
xnmcun, n xoropix uanm(acrcn cuncunc cio co(cpaunn, n cnxn-
roxi :aoncnaunn, a raxc ncpcncui nu(nxaropon, no xoropix cy(nr
o n:xcucunn xonnnccrna nnuxa n opiaun:xc |19, 2O]. B ran. 5.2 yxa-
:au ncpcncui nnmcnix npo(yxron c co(cpauncx nnuxa.
Toauuo :.2
Hnmeame upoayxvm, pexowenayewme aaa ooramenna oprannswa unnxow
ano aaa ero orpann4enna
Hpo(yxr Co(cpaunc nnuxa, xi /1OO i npo(yxron
1 2
Ycrpnni 1OO4OO
pon nnnuic 83O
Hmcunnuic :apo(imn 1O3O
Buyrpcuuocrn nnoruoio 152O
cpunxa 1O
Ccxn rixni 1O
Ipni 41O
Oncnuic xnonin, oncc 58
uyx 19
Ho(conucnunx (ccxcua) 5,O
cncnnna 5,O
Con 5,O
Cip O(ax 5,O
Hmcunna 4,O
Cyxnc cnnnxn 4,O
196
1 2
3cncuic iopomcx 35
Kaxao 35
Kpai 23
Mnco 25
2nnuin cnrox 2,54
Poi 2,5
Maxapoui c nnnox 23
Kyxypy:a 2,5
Opcxn 3,O
Pnc uconnmcuuin 2,O
Pia 1,O
Kaawn. Hcnoni:onaunc n npoximncuuocrn n n iry pa:nnnuix
xa(xnnco(cpamnx npc(xcron n xarcpnanon (ianinaunnccxnc arapcn,
cnnani, xpacxn n r.(.) npnno(nr x :aipn:ucunm nnricnon no(i n no:-
(yxa. 0ocqaruic y(opcunn n uano: raxc co(cpar xa(xnn. Cniapcr-
uin (ix cmc o(nu ncronunx orpanncunn xa(xncx: n 2O cniapcrax
co(cpnrcn (o 2O xxi xa(xnn. Bcc coc(nucunn xa(xnn nnnnmrcn cnni-
uon(onnrixn. Ococuuo roxcnnui napi xa(xnn, xoropic oxa:inamr
omcroxcnnccxoc, pa:(paammcc, xauncpoicuuoc n xyraicuuoc (cnc-
rnnn |23, 24]. Orpanncunc xa(xncx npnno(nr x iononoxpycunm, io-
nonuon onn, ycnncuuoxy cnmuorcncunm, uoconoxy xponorcncunm.
Bo pry omymacrcn xcrannnnccxnn nxyc, nponcxo(nr cnro-:onorncroc
oxpamnnaunc (cccu n mccx :yon (xa(xncnan xanxa).
Auann: arxocqcpuoio no:(yxa, nonni n cucuoio noxpona n pano-
uc ncronunxon nipocon xa(xnn noxa:inamr, nro cio nonimcuuoc
co(cpaunc ouapynnacrcn ronixo ua rcppnropnn npoximncuuon
nnoma(xn n n nnanmcn cocc(crnc c ncronunxox. Hanoncc nico-
xnc xouncurpannn xa(xnn n opiaun:xc uanm(amrcn y uaccncunn,
nponnammcio n pa(nycc O,5 xx or ncurpa icoxnxnnccxon auoxannn.
Y nnymnx n :ouc nnnnunn axxyxynnropuoio :ano(a co(cpaunc xa(-
xnn n opiaun:xc pc:xo cunacrcn yc ua paccronunn 1,5 xx. cnn
Oonuonue moa. :.2
Hca(cxnaruoc
nnraunc
((cqnnnr cnxa)
Anxoionn:x,
uapxoxaunn
Ionc:un noucx
(nporcuuypnn)
Crpccc
Bonoci
Koa
(cpxarnr
x:cxa
nina(cunc, xc(-
ncuuin pocr
n:ni, po:nn,
aqri, croxarnr,
inuinnr, xcnnnr
T-xncrouuin
nxxyuo(cqnnnr
inncpaxrnnuocri
nnn (cnpcccnn
cuncunc
naxnrn
:a(cpxa pa:nn-
rnn y (crcn
(cqnnnr
qcpxcura
nucynnua
uapymcunc
pocra, nononoio
co:pcnaunn
(innoinua(n:x)
y xaniunxon
cuncunc
norcunnn,
ccnno(nc, pncx
a(cuoxi
cuncunc
cnurc:a cnxa,
rccrocrcpoua
nonimcunc
yponun
xonccrcpnua
cuncunc annc-
rnra, n:npamc-
unc ooununn,
nxyca
qypyuxync:
yipcnan cini
nnoxoc :ann-
ncunc, rpoqn-
uccxnc n:ni
Bonoci
Cnn:ncric
Hxxyuuan
cncrcxa
Ho(cny(ou-
uan cnc:a
Innoqn:
Hpocrara
Hcucui
Ccp(cuuo-
cocy(ncran
cncrcxa
Hcurpaniuan
ucpnuan
cncrcxa
Hcniuan xponi,
cinoporxa
Onpc(cncunc
qcpxcuron
(xapouin(pa:i,
copnr(cin(po-
icua:i,
naxrar(cin(po-
icua:i,
mcnouuon
qocqara:i)
Ccruarxa
Cuncunc
ocrpori
:pcunn
Hcopna:,
ccopcn,
nonimcuuan
nornnnocri
Tncnic
xcranni (Cd,
Pb, Hg...)
Hcpc(o:nponxa
npcnaparon Ca,
Cu, qornua,
nyucnan rcpannn,
ncucunc
xoprnxocrc-
pon(axn,
xoxnncxcouaxn,
rcrpannxnnuox,
n:nuna:n(ox
Ouxonoinuccxnc
:aoncnaunn,
nocnconcpannou
uic cocronunn,
ooin,
napcurcpaniuoc
nnraunc
Hapymcunc
ncacinaunn
((ncaxrcpno:
xnmcuunxa,
qcpxcuronarnn,
nc(naxnn,
inncri n (p.)
Zn
Hcrouunxn
(cqnnnra
Hu(nxaropi Opiaui-
xnmcun
Cnxnroxi
Pnc. 5.6. Mnxponcuro: nnuxa
198
nnn:n :ano(a y 4O % (crcn co(cpaunc xa(xnn n nonocax npcnimacr
(onycrnxin yponcui 1 xxi/i, ro y (crcn, nponnammnx ua paccron-
unn 1,52 xx or npc(npnnrnn n ua qouonix rcppnropnnx, raxnc xou-
ncurpannn uc ouapynnamrcn.
Ka(xnn nxccr onimoc cpo(crno x uyxncnuonix xncnorax, ni-
:inan uapymcunc nx xcraonn:xa. Ou uapymacr cnurc: HK. 2cny-
(onuo-xnmcnuan acopnnn xa(xnn uc:uannrcniua n (nn ncnoncxa
cocrannncr 38 %. Ha ucc nnnncr n ncpnym oncpc(i pacrnopnxocri
concn xa(xnn n no nropym yponcui uannnnn nnuxa. Acopnnn xa(-
xnn ncpc: xoy uc:uannrcniua. Hocnc n(ixaunn xa(xncnon ninn
nnn apo:onn xa(xnn icrpo acopnpycrcn ncixnxn. B ncixnx occ-
(acr (o 5O % xa(xnn, nonanmcio n opiaun:x nuiannnnouuix nyrcx.
Crcncui noinomcunn xa(xnn ncixnxn :anncnr or pacrnopnxocrn co-
c(nucunn, cio (ncncpcuocrn n qyuxnnouaniuoio cocronunn opiauon
(ixaunn.
Manopacrnopnxic conn xa(xnn, raxnc xax cyniqn(, ocramrcn
n ncixnx ucacopnponauuixn n ni:inamr xccruic nocnancunn n
n:ni |24].
Ka(xnn n :uannrcniuox xonnnccrnc xouncurpnpycrcn raxc n non-
xax n ncncun. Ho (pyinx opiauax ou pacnpc(cnncrcn panuoxcpuo. Bca-
cinaunc xa(xnn nponcxo(nr n rouxox xnmcnunxc, ococuuo cnniuo
n (ncua(narnncpcruon n no(n:(omuon xnmxax.
Ha :a(cpxy xa(xnn n opiaun:xc oxa:i nacr nnnnunc no:pacr ncno-
ncxa. Y (crcn n no(pocrxon crcncui cio ncacinaunn n 5 pa: nimc, ncx
y n:pocnix. Ka(xnn, acopnpynci ncpc: ncixnc n 2KT, yc ncpc: uc-
cxonixo xnuyr ouapynnacrcn n xponn, o(uaxo yponcui cio icrpo
cunacrcn n rcncunc ncpnix cyrox nocnc nona(aunn n opiaun:x. Ou
ona(acr xauncpoicuuix, ioua(orponuix, xpnorponuix, xyraicu-
uix n ucqporoxcnnccxnx (cncrnnnxn. Pcaniuan yipo:a ucnaionpn-
nruoio no:(cncrnnn ua uaccncunc (ac npn un:xnx yponunx :aipn:uc-
unn cnn:aua c nicoxon nonoinnccxon xyxynnnncn roio xcranna.
Hocnc(crnnn xoporxoio xouraxra c nicoxnxn xouncurpannnxn xa(-
xnn n no:(yxc paoncn :oui npnno(nr x ncionuoxy qnpo:y, cronxoxy
uapymcunm ncionuix n ncncuonuon qyuxnnn |23].
Ka(xnn xocr nona(ari n opiaun:x ncnoncxa c no(on n nnmcn.
Hpn rox co(cpaunc cio n or(cniuix opiauax ncnoncxa yncnnnnna-
crcn c no:pacrox (ran. 5.3)
199
Toauuo :.J
Coaepaanne xaawna a opranax n vxanax 4eaoaexa
a pasan4nme aospacvnme uepnoam (wrJ100 r soam)
Opiaui
Bo:pacr ncnoncxa, io(i
4 18 4O 64
Hcncui 3,5 1O 16 16
Honxn O,5 8 2O 2O
Ccnc:cuxa O,3 O,3 1,O 1,5
Ccp(nc 2,O 3,O 3,O 3,O
Unronn(uan
cnc:a
O,5 1,O 1,O 1,O
H:ironuoc nocrynncunc xa(xnn n opiaun:x xocr npnno(nri x
aucxnn, nopacunm ncncun, ocrconopo:y, (cqopxannn cxcncra n pa:-
nnrnm inncprounn. Hanoncc nauix :aoncnauncx nnnncrcn nopa-
cunc noncx.
Haxanncunc xa(xnn n opiaun:xc ncnoncxa ycxopncrcn npn uc-
(ocrarxc nnuxa n/nnn ccncua n ycnnnnacr (cqnnnr rnx xnxponc-
xcuron.
Bi(cncunn xa(xnn n: opiaun:xa ncnoncxa nponcxo(nr xc(ncuuo
n inanuix opa:ox ncpc: 2KT. Y ncnoncxa c xonon n xanox ni(cnn-
crcn coorncrcrncuuo 2O n 8O % or nocrynnnmcio n opiaun:x xa(xnn.
Pvyvt. Pryri n npnpo(c xocr cymccrnonari n pa:nnnuix qn:nncc-
xnx cocronunnx n xnxnnccxnx qopxax. Kpoxc npocrix concn xno-
pn(a, unrpara n cyniqara (nyxnancuruan pryri opa:ycr xcrannop-
iaunnccxnc coc(nucunn, raxnc xax xcrnn- rnnpryri |16, 27, 3O].
B opiaun:x pryri npounxacr n ocuonuox ncpc: opiaui (ixaunn.
Hapi pryrn cnniuoroxcnnui. Oun ncacinamrcn ucnonpc(cuuon xo-
cn n oxa:inamr omcroxcnnccxoc, pa:(paammcc, anncpicuruoc n
xauncpoicuuoc (cncrnnn. Bo:xouo raxc nona(aunc pryrn n ncpc:
2KT npn :aucccunn pryrn n por ipn:uixn pyxaxn. O(uaxo nona(aunc
xcrannnnccxon pryrn ncpc: nnmcnapnrcniuin rpaxr c:npc(uo, rax
xax oua nonrn nonuocrim ni(cnncrcn n: opiaun:xa c xanox. H:nccr-
ui cnynan nuroxcnxannn pryrim n pc:ynirarc nrnpaunn n xoy pryr-
2OO
uon xa:n. Mcrnn- n rnnpryri cnocoui npounxari n opiaun:x ncpc:
xoy. Buc npon:no(crncuuix ycnonnn ocuonuix ncronunxox nocryn-
ncunn pryrn n opiaun:x nnnncrcn pia, n xoropon oua uaxo(nrcn n nn(c
xcrnnpryrn. B opiaun:xc npccuono(uix pi n: uc:aipn:ucuuix no-
(ocxon xouncurpannn pryrn uaxo(nrcn n npc(cnax 1OO2OO xxi/xi
nnauon rxaun. Ionimnucrno nn(on oxcaunnccxon pii co(cpnr
pryri n xonnnccrnc 5OO7OO xxi/xi. pyinc nnmcnic npo(yxri co(cp-
ar xcucc 6O xxi/xi, c nnricnon no(on n opiaun:x xocr nona(ari
(o O,4 xxi n cyrxn.
Pryri cnocoua uaxannnnaricn n ncncun, ncixnx n xocrnx. Hcopia-
unnccxnc coc(nucunn pryrn panuoxcpuo pacnpc(cnncrcn n xponn xc-
(y nna:xon n pnrponnraxn, roi(a xax co(cpaunc xcrnnpryrn n pnr-
ponnrax n 1O pa: onimc, ncx n nna:xc.
Pryri oruocnrcn x ipynnc rnononix n(on. Hona(an n opiaun:x n rox
xponn, noui pryrn coc(nunmrcn c cyniqin(pnniuixn (SH)-ipynnaxn
cnxon, qcpxcuron n axnuoxncnor c opa:onauncx cnao(ncconnn-
pymmnx n xax npannno ucpacrnopnxix coc(nucunn. Inoxnponaunc
cyniqin(pnniuix ipynn, xoropic nxo(nr n cocran oncc 1OO qcpxcu-
ron, npnno(nr x no(anncunm axrnnuocrn qcpxcuron n cncprinaunm
cnxon n ncnc(crnnc roio x uapymcunm cnxonoio oxcua n qyuxnnn
ncurpaniuon ucpnuon cncrcxi, ococuuo cc nicmnx or(cnon |4, 5].
Bi(cnncrcn pryri c xonon, xanox, cnmuon n xonoxox xopxnmcn
cumnui. Hcpno( nonyninc(cunn pryrn n: opiaun:xa ncnoncxa n n:
xponn cocrannncr oxono 7O (ucn.
Pa:nnnamr ocrpic n xpounnccxnc qopxi nuroxcnxannn pryrim.
Ocrpic orpanncunn n npon:no(crncuuix ycnonnnx ncrpcnamrcn pc(xo.
amc ncrpcnacrcn xpounnccxoc orpanncunc. Xpounnccxan nuroxcnxa-
nnn no:unxacr y nm(cn, paorammnx n ycnonnnx (nnrcniuoio xou raxra
c pryrim. Pa:nnnamr rpn cra(nn xpounnccxoio orpanncunn: uananiuan
cra(nn, cra(nn yxcpcuuo nipacuuix n:xcucunn n cra(nn nipacu-
uix n:xcucunn. Ha uananiuon cra(nn orxcnacrcn omcc uc(o xoiaunc,
nonnncunc iononuon onn, cuncunc naxnrn n uapymcunc cua. Hpn
cnocnpcxcuuox orcrpaucunn or paori co pryrim n ncncunn ncc npn-
:uaxn :aoncnaunn nonuocrim ncnc:amr n rpy(ocnocouocri noccra-
uannnnacrcn. Cra(nn yxcpcuuo nipacuuix n:xcucunn oinuo pa:-
nnnacrcn y nnn, nxcmmnx onimon cra paori n xouraxrc c pryrim.
Y raxnx nm(cn nonnnncrcn cnaocri, ynopuic iononuic onn, cccou-
2O1
unna n nonimcuuan pa:(panxocri. Orxcnamrcn ucxoropic ncnxo-
naronoinnccxnc cnxnroxi, raxnc xax nonnncunc poocrn, ucyncpcu-
uocrn n ccc npn paorc, a raxc noxpacucunc nnna, nornnnocri n
(poaunc pyx. Hpn cnocnpcxcuuox ncncunn, a raxc orcrpaucunn or
paori c pryrim no:xouo ni:(oponncunc. Ha cra(nn nipacuuix
n:xcucunn nonnnnmrcn ynopuic iononuic onn c: ncrxon noxann-
:annn, nocronuuan cccouunna, uapymcunc noxo(xn n cnaocri n uo-
iax. Hanm(acrcn cocronunc crpaxa, (cnpcccnn, cuncunc naxnrn n
nurcnncxra.
Orpanncunn ucopiaunnccxnxn coc(nucunnxn pryrn xano ornnna-
mrcn or nuroxcnxannn napaxn xcrannnnccxon pryrn.
Inanuan :a(ana npn nponc(cunn npoqnnaxrnnccxnx xcponpnnrnn
:axcua pryrn xcucc npc(uixn ncmccrnaxn nnn cuncunc xouncurpa-
nnn cc napon n no:(yxc paonnx noxcmcunn. nn roio ocymccrnnnmr
anroxarn:annm n icpxcrn:annm npon:no(crncuuix nponcccon. Ho-
xcmcunn, n xoropix ninonunmrcn paori c pryrim, (onui iri
oopy(onaui ucnpounnacxixn (nn pryrn crcuaxn n nonox n occnc-
ncui qqcxrnnuon ncurnnnnncn. Honcpxuocri cronon n mxaqon (c-
nacrcn ina(xon, c yxnouox (nn croxa pryrn n cocy( c no(on. Tcxncpa-
rypa no:(yxa n paonnx noxcmcunnx uc (onua npcnimari 18 C. unna,
paorammnc c pryrim, cuaamrcn cncnnaniuon o(c(on n: nnoruon
rxaun.
Xpow. Orpanncunc xpoxox y nm(cn oinuo nponcxo(nr npn :aina-
rinaunn cio coc(nucunn. B :anncnxocrn or yponun roxcnnuocrn, co-
c(nucunn xpoxa (cnnrcn ua rpn ipynni. Hanoncc roxcnnui coc(n-
ucunn mccrnnancuruoio xpoxa, npnncx nxpoxari oncc n(onnri,
ncx xpoxari. Mcucc roxcnnui coc(nucunn rpcxnancuruoio xpoxa.
Mcrannnnccxnn xpox n coc(nucunn (nyxnancuruoio xpoxa oruocnrcn
x xanoroxcnnuix ncmccrnax. Yxa:auuic pa:nnnnn n roxcnnuocrn
oycnonncui oncc nicoxon pacrnopnxocrim mccrnnancuruoio xpo-
xa. Xpoxar-noui CfO
4
2-
ncixo nxo(nr n xncrxy, npounxan ncpc: xnc-
ronuym xcxpauy. Buyrpn xncrxn xpoxari no(ncpiamrcn noccrauon-
ncunm n noui Cf
3=
|2O, 24, 27, 29].
Y ncnoncxa uanonimcc xonnnccrno xpoxa ouapynnacrcn n ncnc-
un, cnc:ax nuyrpcuucn ccxpcnnn n xnmcnunxc. Xpox xouncurpnpy-
crcn raxc n n xocrnx.
2O2
Coc(nucunn xpoxa ona(amr xyxynnrnnuixn cnoncrnaxn n oxa-
:inamr ua opiaun:x omcroxcnnccxoc, pa:(paammcc, anncpicuuoc,
xauncpoicuuoc n xyraicuuoc (cncrnnn.
Hpn xouncurpannn n no:(yxc napon rpcxoxncn xpoxa O,1 xi/x
3
y
ncnoncxa nonnnncrcn pa:(pacunc ncpxunx (ixarcniuix nyrcn (pn-
unri, qapnuinri, pouxnri n (p.), nopacunc uoconon nonocrn npo-
nnnncrcn npn xouncurpannn O,2 xi/x
3
. Hopoi pa:(paammcio (cn-
crnnn apo:onn mccrnnancuruoio xpoxa (nn uanoncc nyncrnnrcniuix
nnn cocrannncr O,OO25 xi/x
3
. Ocrpic orpanncunn y ncnoncxa ncrpcna-
mrcn pc(xo. Oun no:unxamr n pc:ynirarc n(ixaunn no:(yxa c oncui
nicoxon xouncurpanncn xpoxaron, nxpoxaron nnn (pyinx coc(nuc-
unn xpoxa nnn npn nona(aunn nuyrpi no(uix pacrnopon rnx coc(n-
ucunn. Ocrpic orpanncunn, ni:nauuic :a cncr nuiannnnouuoio noc-
rynncunn ryxaua xpoxonon xncnori n xouncurpannn 2O2O xi/x
3
,
npnno(nr x nopacunm (ixarcniuix nyrcn n ncixnx. Bo:unxacr xa-
mcni c xoxporon, onn n ipy(n, :arpy(uncrcn (ixaunc n pa:nnnacrcn
nncnpnr.
Coc(nucunn mccrnnancuruoio xpoxa ni:inamr anncpinnccxnc (c-
pxarnri n x:cxy. ac no( nnnnuncx O,O5 % pacrnopa nxpoxara xa-
nnn nnn uarpnn no:unxacr (cpxarnr, a npn nonropuox no:(cncrnnn
nonimcuuan nyncrnnrcniuocri x xpoxy. Anncpinnccxnc (cpxarnri
nonnnnmrcn no( nnnnuncx mccrn- n rpcxnancuruoio xpoxa, npnncx
ocuonuoc :uancunc nxccr uc nancuruocri, a pacrnopnxocri coc(nuc-
unn xpoxa n no(c n npax. Tax ua:inacxic ncxcuruic (cpxarnri n
ncxcuruic x:cxi no:unxamr npn nacrox xouraxrc paonnx c ncxcu-
rox n:-:a nxo(nmnx n cio cocran coc(nucunn xpoxa. Bicoxon xyra-
icuuon cnocouocrim ona(amr n ocuonuox coc(nucunn mccrnnancur-
uoio xpoxa. Bcocanmnncn xpox ni(cnncrcn c cnnim ncpc: xnmcnunx
n xoy, uo n ocuonuox c xonon.
Hpn xpounnccxon nuroxcnxannn xpoxox ni(cnnmr (nc qopxi:
ncionuym n cny(onuym. Hpn ncionuon qopxc nonnnncrcn cyxon xa-
mcni, n pc:ynirarc ncio pa:nnnacrcn pouxnr, a npn nonimcuuon nyn-
crnnrcniuocrn pouxnaniuan acrxa. B (aniucnmcx no:unxacr o(im-
xa, nacrin xamcni c ni(cncuncx xoxpori, xoropin xocr ncpcnrn n
nucnxounm. Hpn cny(onuon nuroxcnxannn xpoxox uanm(acrcn
n:oia, nonimcuuoc cnmuoor(cncunc, nonnnnmrcn romuora, pnora,
nouoc nnn :anop, nponcxo(nr pa:nnrnc n:ncuuon onc:un.
2O3
Meat. Toxcnnui xax xcrannnnccxan xc(i, rax n cc coc(nucunn.
Hapi xc(n npn nona(aunn n opiaun:x ncnoncxa oxa:inamr omcrox-
cnnccxoc, pa:(paammcc n xyraicuuoc (cncrnnn. Oun ni:inamr io-
nonuym oni, iononoxpycunc, cnaocri, onn n ximnax, uapymcunc
qyuxnnn ncncun n noncx, pa:(paamr cnn:ncric oononxn. Hapi
xc(n xoiyr ni:inari n:n:nncunc uoconon ncpciopo(xn, poionnni
ina:a, paccrponcrna ucpnuon cncrcxi, nonimcunc rcxncparypi
(o 3839 C n nonnncunc xc(uon nnxopa(xn. Cxcprcniuan (o:a
xc(n (nn ncnoncxa npn nona(aunn nuyrpi cocrannncr 1O i/xi, (o:a
6O1OO xi/xi ni:inacr romuory n pnory. o:a 1O3O xi/xi xacci uc
ni:inacr roxcnnccxoio (cncrnnn npn nocrynncunn xc(n nuyrpi op-
iaun:xa n rcncunc uccxonixnx uc(cni. Houi xc(n acopnpymrcn n
cny(xc, (ncua(narnncpcruon xnmxc n rouxox xnmcnunxc. Konn-
nccrno xc(n, acopnpycxon n: nnmn, cocrannncr 5O %, :anncnr or
(o:i n cc xnxnnccxon qopxi. Manopacrnopnxic coc(nucunn, ua-
npnxcp cyniqn(i, cnao acopnpymrcn, a xoxnncxci xc(n c axn-
uoxncnoraxn n cnn:inammnxn cnxaxn ncixo |25, 27].
B ran. 5.4 npnnc(cu ncpcncui nnmcnix npo(yxron c nicoxnx co-
(cpauncx xc(n |2O].
Toxcnnccxoc (cncrnnc xc(n oycnonncuo rcx, nro noui xc(n n:a-
nxo(cncrnymr c cyniqin(pnniuixn (SH) n axnuoipynnaxn (H
2
)
cnxon. Hpn rox opa:ymrcn noxnacrcpi xcnaruoio rnna. Icnxn cra-
uonnrcn ucpacrnopnxixn n rcpnmr qcpxcurarnnuym axrnnuocri, n
pc:ynirarc ncio uapymacrcn uopxaniuan n:uc(cnrcniuocri opiaun:-
xa. Mc(i nnnncrcn xnxponcxcurox, ucoxo(nxix (nn uopxaniuoio
qyuxnnounponaunn opiaun:xa.
Ha pnc. 5.7 npnnc(cui npnnnui no:unxuoncunn (cqnnnra xc(n n
opiaun:xc ncnoncxa, opiaui-xnmcun, n xoropix uanm(acrcn cun-
cunc cio co(cpaunn, n cnxnroxi :aoncnaunn. Hpnno(nrcn ncpc-
ncui nu(nxaropon, no xoropix cy(nr o n:xcucunn xonnnccrna xc(n
n opiaun:xc |2O].
cqnnnr xc(n orpnnarcniuo cxa:inacrcn ua xponcrnopcunn, nca-
cinaunn cnc:a, cocronunn coc(nunrcniuon rxaun; ou uapymacr rax-
c xcucrpyaniuin nnxn cumnu. Cyronuan norpcuocri xc(n cocran-
nncr 12 xi. H:irox xc(n npnno(nr x (cqnnnry n opiaun:xc ncno-
ncxa nnuxa n xonn(cua.
2O4
Binc(cunc xc(n n: opiaun:xa ncnoncxa nponcxo(nr ncpc: cnnuym
cncrcxy. Tonixo 24 % acopnponauuon xc(n ni(cnncrcn c xonon n
norox.
Mapraneu. Orpanncunc xcrannnnccxnx xapiauncx n cio connxn
nponcxo(nr npn n(ixaunn no:(yxa nnn:n npoximncuuix npc(npn-
nrnn. Hapi xapiauna oxa:inamr omcroxcnnccxoc, pa:(paammcc,
xauncpoicuuoc n xyraicuuoc (cncrnnn. Oun ni:inamr cnaocri, cou-
nnnocri, paccrponcrno ncnxnxn, n:xcucunc noxo(xn n napannnn. Map-
iaucn uanxcucc roxcnnuin n: ucoxo(nxix (nn uopxaniuon (c-
nrcniuocrn opiaun:xa ncnoncxa xcrannon. Hpn xouncurpannnx, npcni-
Toauuo :.4
Hnmeame upoayxvm, pexowenayewme aaa aocuoanenna aeqnunva wean
Hpo(yxr Co(cpaunc xc(n, xi/ 1OO i npo(yxra
Oiypni 8,4
Hcncui cnnuan 3,67,6
Opcxn (qyu(yx) 2,83,7
Kaxao 3,9
Hnnuic (pon 3,3
Uoxona( 1,12,7
Hno(i mnnonunxa 1,8
Cip 1,2
Hmcunnuic orpyn,
nmcunnuic :apo(imn
1,O1,5
Hrnna O,1O,5
2nna O,O5O,2
Ipni O,21,O
Pia O,1OO,5
Ipcnxnn opcx O,9
3cncui O,9
2O5
Pnc. 5.7. Mnxponcuro: xc(n
Hccrnnn(i
Hcucui
ncucui, xo:i
icnarnr
nnppo:
xoncnncrnr
cy(opoin
pncx
mn:oqpnunn
nonimcuuan
no:y(nxocri
xonnr
aprpnri,
aprpo:i
onc:ui
Icxrcpcna
cxncpo(cpxnn
no(aipa
napnxo:uin
rpoxoqncnr
xoucxaxcuuan
onc:ui
nncnoucqpnr
crpyxa
pncx onyxoncn
ncixnx,
ipy(uix cnc:,
no(cny(ouuon
cnc:i
inncpnnixcu-
rannn
Houxn
Hnporcxunxa
Kpacxn
(xc(i-na:ypi,
oxcn( xc(n)
Buyrpnxa-
rouuan
cnnpani
Mc(uan
nocy(a
Hcurpaniuan
ucpnuan
cncrcxa
2cny(ouuo-
xnmcuuin
rpaxr
Coc(nunrcniuan
rxaui
Ionc:ui
Bnnicoua-
Kouonanona
(icnaro-
ncpcpaniuan
(ncrpoqnn)
Icucrnuccxnc
uapymcunn
oxcua xc(n
Du(oxpnuuan
cncrcxa
Hxxyuuan
cncrcxa
Koa
Hnricnan no(a
Hpoqcccno-
uaniuic:
ianinaunxa,
npon:no(crno
xc(n,
npon:no(crno
xacncn,
crcxoniuan
npoximncu-
uocri, rcxcrnni-
uan npoxim-
ncuuocri
Bonoci
Cinoporxa
xponn
Moua
Cu
Hcrouunxn
nocrynncunn
cno Opiaui-
xnmcun
Hu(nxaropi
Cnxnroxi
2O6
mammnx 1 xi/i, xapiaucn roxcnncu n pa:uon crcncun n :anncnxocrn
or qopxi cio cymccrnonaunn |7, 8].
Hcpxauiauari (MnO
4
-
) ona(amr oncc nicoxon roxcnnuocrim no
cpanucunm c nouaxn Mn
2=
. Oro oncuncrcn nx xopomcn pacrnopn-
xocrim n nicoxon oxncnnmmcn cnocouocrim. Acopnnn (nyxnancur-
uoio xapiauna n: 2KT uc:uannrcniua ncnc(crnnc in(ponn:a xarnouon
Mn
2=
n opa:onaunn xanopacrnopnxix ocuonuix concn. B mcnonuon
cpc(c n (ncua(narnncpcruon xnmxc noui Mn
2=
oxncnnmrcn (o Mn
3=
.
Acopnnn rpcxnancuruoio xapiauna :anncnr or npncyrcrnnn n xnmcn-
unxc opiaunnccxnx xcnaroopa:ymmnx aicuron, (ammnx c Mn (III) xo-
pomo pacrnopnxic n no(c nponuic xoxnncxcuic coc(nucunn. Acop-
nnn xapiauna ycnnnnacrcn npn (cqnnnrc n opiaun:xc cnc:a. H:irox
n nnmc xaninnn n qocqara cunacr acopnnm xapiauna |22, 29].
Oxono 4O % xapiauna, nonanmcio n opiaun:x, (cnounpycrcn n xocr-
uox xo:ic, ocraniuan n no(nnuon n:xcunmmcncn qopxc pacnpc-
(cnncrcn no nccx opiauax. Mapiaucn opa:ycr xcrannoxoxnncxci c
cnxaxn n axnuoxncnoraxn. Cncnnqnnccxnxn rxaunxn, :a(cpnna-
mmnxn xapiaucn, nnnnmrcn ncncui, no(cny(onuan cnc:a, nonxn n
xnmcnunx ncnoncxa. Y(ancunc xapiauna n: opiaun:xa nponcxo(nr n
ocuonuox c xanox.
Mapiaucn nipacr nauym poni n xcraonn:xc xncrxn. Ou nxo(nr n
cocran axrnnuoio ncurpa xuoinx qcpxcuron, ninonuncr qyuxnnm :a-
mnri opiaun:xa or npc(uix no:(cncrnnn ncpcxncuix pa(nxanon. Ha
pnc. 5.8 npnnc(cui npnnnui no:unxuoncunn (cqnnnra xapiauna n
opiaun:xc ncnoncxa, opiaui-xnmcun, n xoropix uanm(acrcn cun-
cunc cio co(cpaunn, n cnxnroxi :aoncnaunn n cnynac (cqnnnra,
a raxc ncpcncui nu(nxaropon, no xoropix cy(nr o n:xcucunn xo-
nnnccrna xapiauna n opiaun:xc |2O]. Cyronuan norpcuocri xapiauna
cocrannncr (nn ncnoncxa 29 xi. B ran. 5.5 npnnc(cu ncpcncui nnmc-
nix npo(yxron c nicoxnx co(cpauncx xapiauna.
eaeso. Coc(nucunn cnc:a npn nona(aunn nuyrpi opiaun:xa nc-
noncxa xanoroxcnnui |4, 9]. O(uaxo oun xoiyr ncc c nponnnnri rox-
cnnuocri n :anncnxocrn or nocrynnnmcn n opiaun:x (o:i n pacrno-
pnxocrn. B nacruocrn, napi cnc:a n ucxoropic cio coc(nucunn xo-
iyr nponnnnri pa:(paammcc n xauncpoicuuoc (cncrnnc.
2cnc:o npncyrcrnycr no nccx xncrxax opiaun:xa n nipacr xnm-
ncnym poni no xuoinx noxnxnnccxnx pcaxnnnx. Hanoncc naui-
2O7
Pnc. 5.8. Mnxponcuro: xapiauna
Hcurpaniuan
ucpnuan
cncrcxa
cy(opoin
:a(cpxn
pa:nnrnn
y (crcn,
(cnpcccnn
nonimcuuan
yroxnncxocri
(nniarcniuic
paccrponcrna
(pncx
napannucn)
ocrconopo:
aprpo:i
aprpo:i
cxnouuocri x
uonoopa:o-
naunnx
pncx acrxi
pncx (nacra
uapymcunc
roncpauruoc-
rn x inmxo:c
pauunn
xnnxaxc
onpcunc
(ncqyuxnnn
nnuunxon
uapymcunc
nnixcurannn
ccnno(nc
Kocruan rxaui
Coc(nunrcniuan
rxaui
Hxyuuan
cncrcxa
Ho(cny(ouuan
cnc:a
2cucxan
nononan
cncrcxa
Koa
Hca(cxnaruoc
nnraunc
(un:xoc
norpcncunc
pacrnrcniuon
nnmn)
Bo:pacruic
n:xcucunn
(ococuuo y
cumnu)
H:irox V, Cu,
Ca, P, Ic
Bonoci
Hcniuan xponi
Moua
Kocrn
Hcucui
Houxn
Ho(cny(ouuan
cnc:a
Mn
Hpnunui
(cqnnnra
Opiaui-
xnmcun
cno
Cnxnroxi
2O8
xn c qn:nonoinnccxon ronxn :pcunn nnnnmrcn cnc:oco(cpamnc
cnxn icxoinonu, xnoinonu, nnroxpoxi n xarana:a. Icxoino-
nu inanuan cocranuan nacri pnrponnron occncnnnacr nuc-
mucc (ixaunc, nnnnnci ncpcuocnnxox xncnopo(a or ncixnx x rxa-
unx. Mnoinonu, nnroxpoxi n xarana:a occncnnnamr xncronuoc
(ixaunc.
Ha acopnnm cnc:a nnnnmr pa:nnnuic qaxropi: xonnnccrno n
xnxnnccxnc qopxi cnc:a n nnmc, a raxc npncyrcrnnc n nnmc nc-
mccrn, ycxopnmmnx nnn :axc(nnmmnx cio acopnnm. Ioncc ncx
y 5OO xnu. nm(cn no nccx xnpc uanm(acrcn (cqnnnr cnc:a, xoropin
npnno(nr x :aoncnaunm cnc:o(cqnnnruon aucxnn. O(uon n:
npnnnu pa:nnrnn roio :aoncnaunn nnnnmrcn cnniuo oipaunncuuan
acopnnn n yncnnncuuoc ni(cncunc cnc:a y ncnoncxa. ccyronuic
Toauuo :.:
Coaepaanne wapranua a unmeamx upoayxvax
Hpo(yxr Co(cpaunc xapiauna, xi/1OO i npo(yxra
Myxa nmcunnuan 2,7
Xnc:
pauon
nmcunnuin
1,5
1,2
Kpyna:
ipcnucnan
nmcuo
1,5
1,1
0aconi 1,4
Iopox 1,3
Xpcu 1,3
Cncxna O,7
Yxpon O,8
Mannua O,9
Cxopo(nua ncpuan O,6
Hcncui ionnin O,3
Honxn ionnin O,2
2O9
norcpn cnc:a y ncnoncxa cocrannnmr O,O1 % or cio omcio co(cpa-
unn n opiaun:xc.
0ocqar-noui n (nnuuoncnoncnuic npuic xncnori co:(amr c
nouaxn cnc:a xanopacrnopnxic coc(nucunn. Ucnonuan cpc(a xn-
mcnunxa npcnpamacr conn cnc:a n ucpacrnopnxic in(pooxcn(i.
Houi Ca
2=
, Zn
2=
, Mn
2=
, Co
2=
, i
2=
, Mg
2=
n Cf
3=
xouxypnpymr c c-
nc:ox n nponcccc acopnnn n cunamr cc.
Ha pnc. 5.9 npnnc(cui npnnnui no:unxuoncunn (cqnnnra cnc:a
n opiaun:xc ncnoncxa, opiaui-xnmcun, n xoropix uanm(acrcn cun-
cunc cio co(cpaunn, n cnxnroxi :aoncnaunn, a raxc ncpcncui
nu(nxaropon, no xoropix cy(nr o n:xcucunn xonnnccrna cnc:a n
opiaun:xc |2O]. Cyronuan norpcuocri xapiauna cocrannncr 1O2O xi
((nn xynnu) n 2O3O xi ((nn cumnu). B ran. 5.6 npnnc(cu ncpc-
ncui nnmcnix npo(yxron c nicoxnx co(cpauncx cnc:a.
Toauuo :.6
Coaepaanne aeaesa a unmeamx upoayxvax
Hpo(yxr Co(cpaunc cnc:a, xi/1OO i npo(yxra
1 2
Tnxinu 22
Hcncui cnnuan 2O
Ioi 2O1O
Ipni (o 17
Hnnuic (pon 17
Kaxao 12
Cocnan xyxa 912
Ccxn rixni 11,O
Honxn ionnin,cnnuic 1O
Mnco (ionn(nua) 9
3cncui 9
Con 96
Hmcunnuic :apo(imn 8
Mnco (nu(mx) 8
21O
1 2
0ncramxn 7
cncnnna 7
Ccxcua no(conucnunxa 6
Hcncuonuin namrcr 5
Hmcunnuan xyxa 4
Unnuar 4
Tonnuaxyp 4
Pauon xnc 3
Kyxypy:a 2
Mopcxan pia 2
Mopxoni 2
2nno 2
Hpn n:irxc cnc:a n opiaun:xc xocr pa:nnnaricn (cqnnnr xc(n
n nnuxa. H:irox nnuxa, n cnom oncpc(i, xocr npnno(nri x (cqn-
nnry xc(n n cnc:a.
Hnxeat. Hnxcni nona(acr n arxocqcpuin no:(yx c nipocaxn xc-
rannypinnccxnx :ano(on, iopuo(oinammnx npc(npnnrnn n ucpicrn-
nccxnx ycrauonox, paorammnx ua yinc nnn xa:yrc |9]. B Poccnn n no:-
(ymuin acccnu c nipocaxn unxcncnix :ano(on (Mounciopcx, Ho-
pnnicx, Opcx, Hnxcni, 3anonnpuin) ccio(uo nocrynacr (o 4,O ric. r
un xcnn. B Hopnnicxc no:(cncrnnm unxcnn n xouncurpannnx 1,O
2,5 xxi/x
3
no(ncpiacrcn npnxcpuo 2OO ric. ncnoncx, n nnrn iopo(ax
Ypana n Konicxoio nonyocrpona, i(c pacnonocui xcrannypinnccxnc
npon:no(crna, (o 4OO ric. ncnoncx. B nonnc uanoncc nicoxoc co-
(cpaunc unxcnn (cpc(ucc 35O xi/xi, xaxcnxaniuoc (o 1OOO xi/xi)
:aqnxcnponauo n i. Pc, i(c uaxo(nrcn nnannniuoc npon:no(crno |18].
HK unxcnn n cio coc(nucunn n no(c cocrannncr 1OO xxi/n; OK n non-
nc xoncncrcn n npc(cnax or 2O (o 6O xi/xi n :anncnxocrn or rn na nonn.
Hapi unxcnn n cio coc(nucunn, nipacinacxix n arxocqcpy, oxa-
:inamr omcroxcnnccxoc, pa:(paammcc, xauncpoicuuoc n xyraicu-
Oonuonue moa. :.6
211
Pnc. 5.9. Mnxponcuro: cnc:a
Hca(cxnaruoc
nnraunc, n r.u.
ncicrapnaucrno
cqnnnr
nnraxnua C
Hcniuan xponi
Kponcrnopcunc
aucxnn
icxoxpoxaro:
icxocn(cpo:
yncnnucunc
uacrori
npocry(uix
:aoncnaunn
iononoxpy-
cunc
uapymcunc
xouncurpannn
nunxaunn
iononuan
oni
cuncunc
naxnrn
uapymcunc
oxcuuix
nponcccon
cnaocri,
cuncunc
niuocnnnocrn
Hxxyuuan
cncrcxa
Hcurpaniuan
ucpnuan
cncrcxa
Ccp(nc
Mimni
Bonoci
0cppnrnu,
O2CC-
rpaucqcppnu,
icxoinonu,
nncruon
noxa:arcni,
pnrponnri
Dpnrponnri,
ximni,
cnn:ncran
xnmcuunxa,
ncucui
Kponorcucunn
(icxoppon,
n:na, xccnu-
uic, oncpannn)
Iacrpnr
c nouncuuon
ccxpcnncn
Inncruan
nuna:nn
Hapymcunc
qyuxnnn
mnronn(uon
cnc:i
0npo:uo-
xncro:uic
opa:onaunn
Icpcxcuuocri
ouopcrno
0n:nuccxnc
ncpcipy:xn
Onyxonn,
nuqcxnnn,
pcnxarn:x,
onc:un
ncucun,
ccnc:cuxn
(opa:onaunc
xoxnncxcouon)
ucucunc
xoxnncxcouaxn,
onyucunc
Ic
Hpnunui
(cqnnnra
Hu(nxaropi
cno
Opiaui-
xnmcun
Cnxnroxi
212
uoc (cncrnnn. Conn i (H) nnnnmrcn nuinnropaxn oxncnnrcniuix
qcpxcuron |13, 24].
B(ixacxic conn unxcnn, ococuuo n: cniapcruoio (ixa, ua(onio
:a(cpnnamrcn n ncixnx, n ncpnym oncpc(i ro xacacrcn xapounna
unxcnn i(CO)
5
.
Xpounnccxan nuroxcnxannn unxcncx npn no(nr x no:unxuoncunm
npoqcccnouaniuix :aoncnaunn uocoinor xn n ncixnx. Hanm(amrcn
anncpinnccxnc nopacunn xon ((cpxa rnri n x:cxi), a raxc cy-
mccrnycr pncx nonnncunn :noxanccrncuuix uonoo pa:onaunn. Yncnn-
ncunc pncxa cxcpruocrn paonnx or paxa nci xnx uacrynacr npn xou-
ncurpannn unxcnn n no:(yxc 5OO1OOO xxi/x
3
. B Poccnn nonimcuuan
:aoncnacxocri n cxcpruocri paonnx unxc ncnoio npon:no(crna n Ho-
pnnicxc or paxa ncixnx ina ycrauonnc ua n onncaua oncc 3O ncr roxy
ua:a(. Hpnncx y paonnx unxcnc nix npon:no(crn :aoncnaunc paxox
ncixnx ncrpcnacrcn uc ronixo namc, uo n uacrynacr n oncc xono(ox
no:pacrc. 3aqnxcnponaui cnynan nonimcuuon :aoncnacxocrn paxox
ncixnx n cpc(n uaccnc unn Hopnnicxa, uc nxcmmcio npon:no(crncu-
uoio xouraxra c unxcncx.
Bcacinaunc unxcnn nponcxo(nr n ncpxunx or(cnax rouxoio xnmcn-
unxa. B 2KT acopnpycrcn (o 3 % unxcnn n: nnmn. Bi(cncunc un-
xcnn nponcxo(nr npcnxymccrncuuo c xanox n ronixo 1O % c xonon.
Banaan. Orpanncunc naua(ncx xocr nponcxo(nri n npon:no(-
crncuuix ycnonnnx. Hapi naua(nn n cio coc(nucunn oxa:inamr omc-
roxcnnccxoc nopacunc nuyrpcuunx opiauon, ucpnuon n xponcuocuon
cncrcx, pa:(paammcc n xauncpoicuuoc (cncrnnn. B npncyrcrnnn cyni-
qara naua(nn VOSO
4
uapymacrcn cnurc: npuix xncnor n qocqonn-
nn(on. Baua(nn nuinnpycr oncc 13 qcpxcurarnnuix cncrcx |9].
Acopnnn coc(nucunn naua(nn n opiaun:xc ncnoncxa :anncnr or nx
pacrnopnxocrn n xnxnnccxon npnpo(i. Xopomo acopnpymrcn no(o-
pacrnopnxic coc(nucunn naua(nn. nyx- n nnrnnancuruic coc(nucunn
naua(nn cnao acopnpymrcn ncnc(crnnc in(ponn:a n oca(cunn xa-
nopacrnopnxix concn. Haxonncunc naua(nn uanm(acrcn n nopn(xc
yxcuimcunn co(cpaunn: ccp(nc > ccnc:cuxa > mnronn(uan cnc-
:a > ncixnc > nonxn. B rxaunx cocpc(orannnacrcn (o 1O % or nnc(cuuon
(o:i, npnncx nononnua roio xonnnccrna uaxannnnacrcn n xocrnx.
Kyxynnrnnuin qqcxr y naua(nn orcyrcrnycr. Ocuonuoc xonnnccr-
no naua(nn ni(cnncrcn ncpc: nonxn. Toxcnnuocri naua(nn n opiaun:xc
xocr iri cuncua npncxox acxopnuonon xncnori (nnraxnua C).
213
Iaaaa 6. 3AHHTA HPHPOHOH CPEb
OT 3AIPR3HEHHR
TREbMH METAAMH
6.1. 3amnva avwocqepnoro aosayxa
nn :amnri no:(ymuoio acccnua or :aipn:unmmcio aurponoicu-
uoio no:(cncrnnn ncnoni:ymr xonoin:annm rcxuonoinnccxnx npo-
ncccon, onncrxy nipocon or npc(uix npnxcccn n pacccnnaunc nx n
arxocqcpc, ycrponcrno caunrapuo-:amnruix :ou, a raxc apxnrcxryp-
uo-nnaunpononuic pcmcunn. Caxix ncpcncxrnnuix xcro(ox nnnn-
crcn xonoin:annn rcxuonoinnccxnx nponcccon, xoropan npc(ycxar-
pnnacr, n ncpnym oncpc(i, co:(aunc ucnpcpinuix rcxuonoinnccxnx
nponcccon npon:no(crna, :axcuy xccruix xorcniuix ycrauonox ua
ncurpann:onauuoc rcnno, npc(napnrcniuoc onnmcunc ronnnna n ci-
pin or npc(uix npnxcccn, :axcuy yinn n xa:yra ua npnpo(uin ia:,
npnxcucunc in(pooccninnnaunn n (p. |14, 15, 3O, 31, 37].
Ha rpaucnoprc ncpnooncpc(uon nponcxon nnnncrcn ncpcxo( ua
xonoinnccxn nncroc ronnnno. B xanccrnc :axcunrcncn cu:nua pac-
cxarpnnamrcn npnpo(uin ia:, xcrauon, rauon, axxnax n, uaxoucn,
caxoc nncroc ronnnno no(opo(. Hpo(onamrcn nurcucnnuic pa:-
paorxn no :axcuc xapmparopuix (nniarcncn ua oncc xonoinnuic
rnni (n:cniuic, naponic n ia:orypnuuic.
B oniruo-xoucrpyxropcxnx mpo co:(aui xcncpnxcuraniuic xo-
(cnn anroxonncn c (nniarcnnxn, paorammnxn ua ucpinn ncxrpn-
nccxnx axxyxynnropon n ncprc iopo(a, a :a cio npc(cnaxn ua cu:n-
uc xax oinuic xapmparopuic (nniarcnn. Hpo(onamrcn paori no
co:(aunm n(caniuoio c ronxn :pcunn xonoinnccxnx rpconaunn nn(a
214
rpaucnopra anroxonnn ua conucnuix ncxcurax. O(uaxo n uacro-
nmcc npcxn yponcui pa:nnrnn xonoin:annn rcxuonoinnccxnx nponcc-
con, n rox nncnc nuc(pcunc :axxuyrix rcxuonoinnccxnx nnxnon n r.(.,
uc(ocraroncu (nn nonuoio npc(ornpamcunn nipocon roxcnnuix nc-
mccrn n arxocqcpy. Horoxy ua npc(npnnrnnx nonccxccruo ncnoni-
:ymrcn pa:nnnuic xcro(i onncrxn orxo(nmnx ia:on or apo:oncn,
:oni, ninn, roxcnnuix ia:o- n napoopa:uix npnxcccn.
B uacronmcc npcxn (nn onncrxn nipocon or apo:oncn n :anncnxoc-
rn or crcncun :anincuuocrn no:(yxa, pa:xcpon rncp(ix nacrnn n rpcyc-
xoio yponun onncrxn npnxcunmr pa:nnnuic rnni ycrponcrn |15, 16, 3O].
Cyxue ntaeyaooumeau (nnxnoui, nincoca(nrcniuic xaxcpi)
npc(ua:uancui (nn ipyon xcxaunnccxon onncrxn nipocon or
xpynuon n rncnon ninn. Hpnunnn nx paori cocronr n occ(aunn
nacrnn no( (cncrnncx ncurpocuix cnn n cnni rnccrn. Hincia-
:onin norox, nnc(cuuin n nnx-
nou ncpc: narpyox (pnc. 6.1), co-
ncpmacr npamarcniuo-nocryna-
rcniuoc (nncunc n(oni xopnyca.
Hpn rox nacrnni ninn orpa-
cinamrcn x crcuxax nnxnoua n
:arcx na(amr nun: n copunx
ninn (yuxcp), orxy(a ncpno(n-
nccxn y(annmrcn. nn nonimc-
unn qqcxrnnuocrn paori npn-
xcunmrcn ipynnonic (arapcn-
uic) nnxnoui.
Mopte ntaeyaooumeau (cxpy-
cpi, ia:onpoxinarcnn n (p.) rpc-
ymr no(ann no(i n paoramr no
npnunnny oca(cunn nacrnn ninn
ua noncpxuocrn xancni no( (cnc-
rnncx cnn nucpnnn n poyuoncxo-
io (nncunn. Hanonimcc npax-
rnnccxoc npnxcucunc nonynnnn
cxpycpi Bcurypn (pnc. 6.2), xo-
ropic occncnnnamr (o 99 % onnc-
rxn or nacrnn pa:xcpox 2 xxx.
Pnc. 6.1. Cxcxa ycrponcrna nnxnoua:
T xopnyc; 2 nxo(uon narpyox;
J nixnonuan rpya; 4 copunx
ninn
1
4
3
2
Ounmcuuin ia:
Hini
215
Vuaimpt (rxaucnic, :cpuncric) cnocoui :a(cpnnari nacrnni
ninn (naxcrpox (o O,O5 xxx. Ococuuo qqcxrnnui pyxanuic qnni-
rpi c rxaunxn n: cnurcrnnccxnx nonoxou nonimcuuon rcpxocron-
xocrn (25O3OO C) rnna cyniqouT, qnnirponaniuic xcrannnncc-
xnc rxaun ((o 8OO C), a raxc qnnirpi n: rxaucn rnna 0HH n 0HA,
(ammnx nicoxym crcncui onncrxn.
0nnirpymmnc nincynonnrcnn npc(crannnmr coon ycrponcrna, n
xoropix :anincuuin norox nponycxacrcn ncpc: nopncric, ccrnaric
nnn nonoxuncric xarcpnani. Oun cnyar inanuix opa:ox (nn onnc-
rxn or ninn npnronuoio nnn pcnnpxynnnnouuoio no:(yxa. 0nnirpy-
mmnc nincynonnrcnn nnnnmrcn annaparaxn rouxon onncrxn ia:onix
noroxon (qqcxrnnuocrim (o 99,99 %) n ycrauannnnamrcn ua nocnc(-
ucn cryncun onncrxn. B xanccrnc qnnirpymmnx xarcpnanon n unx nc-
noni:ymrcn crcxnnuuan nara, ipannn, xoxc, xcrannnnccxan crpyxa,
xcpaxnnccxnc nnn xcrannnnccxnc xonina, mnaiar, nopncran yxaia
nnn rxaui, a raxc xcrannnnccxan ccrxa c xacnnuix noxpirncx. B ua-
cronmcc npcxn mnpoxo npnxcuncrcn iynarin ncuononnypcrau, o-
Pnc. 6.2. Cxcxa ycrponcrna cxpycpa Bcurypn:
T rpya Bcurypn; 2 cxpycp-xanncynonnrcni
1
2
Ia:
Hini
Bo(a
Ounmcuuin
ia:
216
paorauuin n pacrnopc mcnonn (nn nonimcunn no:(yxonpounnacxoc-
rn. Unpoxo ncnoni:ymrcn raxc xarcpnani 0H (qnnirpi Hcrpnuo-
na), n:ioronncuuic n: ynirparouxnx nonnxcpuix nonoxou ua ocuonc
ncpxnopnnunna, nonncrnpona, ancrnnncnnmno:i n nonnaxpnna, xo-
ropic xoiyr nonynari n y(cpnnari ncxrpnnccxnc :apn(i, n pc:yni-
rarc ncio nonimacrcn qqcxrnnuocri nincynannnnaunn. Marcpnani
0H cronxn x xnxnnccxnx ncmccrnax n x nicoxon rcxncparypc, or(c-
niuic nonnxcpi occncnnnamr rcpxocronxocri (o 27O C.
0nnirpi ornnnamrcn yxcpcuuix apo(nuaxnnccxnx conpornnnc-
uncx n oruocnrcniuo uconimnxn pa:xcpaxn. Oun cnyar (nn cpc(-
ucn n rouxon o(uocryncunaron onncrxn no:(yxa or xcnxon cyxon ninn
npn cio ncpnouananiuon :anincuuocrn (o 2OO xi/x
3
. nn onncrxn no:-
(yxa n cncrcxax nirnuon ncurnnnnnn oun uc npnxcunmrcn, rax xax
nxcmr uc(ocraronuym ninccxxocri.
B rxaucnix qnnirpax inanuym poni nipacr oca(cunc nacrnn ninn
ua unrnx npn npoxo(cunn no:(yxa ncpc: rxaui. Toncric nopcncric
rxaun paoramr nynmc n qqcxrnnucc, ncx rouxnc, a yncnnncunc co-
npornnncunn nx no xcpc :annaunn nporcxacr xc(ncuucc. Hpn oni-
mon :anincuuocrn no:(yxa ua rxaun opa:ycrcn panuoxcpuin cnon
ninn, xoropin npc(crannncr coon cnocopa:uin (ononunrcniuin
cnon qnnirpa. Oqqcxrnnuocri onncrxn npn rox nonimacrcn, uo o(-
uonpcxcuuo no:pacracr omcc conpornnncunc qnnirpa. Koi(a conpo-
rnnncunc qnnirpa yncnnnnnacrcn n(noc, cio ucoxo(nxo pcicucpn-
ponari.
nn orcoca n ynannnnaunn xcnxon crpyxn, apa:nnuix, xcrannn-
nccxnx n (pyinx nacrnn cyxnx nincn ua xcxauocoponuix n xcranno-
opaarinammnx npon:no(crnax ncnoni:ymrcn aipciari rnna AOYM
(pnc. 6.3). Oun npc(ua:uancui (nn onncrxn no:(yxa or rncp(ix nacrnn
cyxnx nincn (apa:nnuix, xcrannnnccxnx, ucxcrannnnccxnx) npn
cpc(ucx pa:xcpc nacrnn or 3 xxx n oncc nnn or O,3 xxx.
Aipciari AOYM cocronr n: noxon nucpnnouuon onncrxn no:(y-
xa, rouxon n ynirparouxon onncrxn, ncurnnnropa n xcxaun:xa pcic-
ucpannn. Oun ocuamcui xoxnncxrox ncxrpnnccxon nycxonon apxa-
rypi. Inox npc(napnrcniuon onncrxn no:(yxa n aipciarax AOYM-15OO
ninonucu n nn(c S-opa:uoio nucpnnouuoio oca(nrcnn. B noxc rou-
xon onncrxn ncnoni:ymrcn pyxanuic rxaucnic qnnirpymmnc nc-
217
xcuri. B noxc ynirparouxon onncrxn no:(yxa pa:xcmacrcn xacccra
uaxonnrcniuoio rnna c onimon qnnirpymmcn noncpxuocrim ua oc-
uonc ynirparouxnx crcxnononoxou. Tcxunnccxan xapaxrcpncrnxa
AOYM-15OO: npon:no(nrcniuocri 15OO x
3
/n, crcncui onncrxn no:-
(yxa 99,995 %, npncoc(nunrcniuan uaipy:xa 14OO Ha, nnoma(i
qnnirpannn uc xcucc 6 x
2
, cxxocri xourcnucpa (nn ynonncuuon
ninn uc xcucc 35 (x
2
, rcxncparypa onnmacxoio ia:a ua nxo(c uc
oncc

8O C.
Hpnunnn (cncrnnn aipciara AOYM cocronr n cnc(ymmcx. Bo:(yx,
no(ncamnn onncrxc, nocrynacr no nxo(uon narpyox noxa nucpnn-
ouuon onncrxn, i(c ynannnnamrcn nacrnni pa:xcpox 1O5O xxx, xo-
ropic nina(amr n yuxcp. ancc onnmacxin no:(yx nocrynacr no nro-
pym cryncui qnnirpannn, i(c npoxo(nr ncpc: qnnirpymmnn xarcpn-
an n onnmacrcn or xcnxnx nacrnn ninn. Ho xcpc uaxonncunn oca(xa
Pnc. 6.3. Aipciar (nn orcoca n ynannnnaunn ninn AOYM-8OO: T yuxcp;
2 nox nucpnnouuon onncrxn; J nox rouxon onncrxn; 4 xcxaun:x
pcicucpannn; : nox ncurnnnropa c nycxonix ycrponcrnox (HY); 6
inxnn no:(yxono( c no:(yxo:aopunxox; xoncco
1
2
3
5
4
6
7
Bixo(
Bxo(
218
ua qnnirpymmcx xarcpnanc yncnnnnnacrcn apo(nuaxnnccxoc conpo-
rnnncunc nropon cryncun qnnirpannn, nro npnno(nr x yxcuimcunm
npon:no(nrcniuocrn aipciara. Horoxy npn (ocrncunn conpornn-
ncunn O,3O,4 xHa nnn npn :axcruox cuncunn pacxo(a no:(yxa rpc-
ycrcn npon:nccrn orpnxnnaunc (pcicucpannm) qnnirpymmcio nc-
xcura or ninn. Pcicucpannn npon:no(nrcn npn orxnmncuuox ncurn-
nnropc. Ho oxounaunn nponccca pcicucpannn no:ouonnncrcn paora
ncurnnnropa, n qyuxnnounponaunc aipciara npo(onacrcn. Hocnc
nropon cryncun qnnirpa onnmacxin no:(yx nocrynacr n xacccry yni-
rparouxon onncrxn uaxonnrcniuoio rnna. Onnmcuuin no:(yx no:npa-
macrcn n noxcmcunc ncpc: ninycxuon narpyox, cuacuuin myxo-
inymnrcncx.
B cncrcxax acnnpannouuon ncurnnnnnn ua ynacrxax rpanncunn xc-
rannon n xcrannonoxpirnn ncnoni:ymrcn xacccruic qnnirpi c qnni-
rponaniuix xarcpnanox n: nonoxuncrix cnurcrnnccxnx xarcpnanon,
(ammnx no:xouocri ynannnnari xancnixn xncnor, mcnoncn n pacrno-
pon concn. Ha pnc. 6.4 noxa:au qnnirp rnna 0BI-T, n xoropox ycra-
uonncua xacccra c qnnirponaniuix xarcpnanox. Ou nxccr ccxi xo-
(nqnxannn, paccnnrauuix ua onncrxy or 2 (o 6O ric. x
3
/n orcacina-
cxoio no:(yxa. Cxopocri qnnirpannn n ucx cocrannncr 33,5 x/c, a
conpornnncunc 15O5OO Ha. Ynonncuuic xannn crcxamr c qnnirpa
n xopnyc n y(annmrcn n xauann:annm. 0nnirp npoxinamr no(on n:
qopcyuox o(nu pa: n 14 xccnna.
:aempoquaimpt npnxcunmrcn (nn onncrxn :anincuuix ia:on or ua-
noncc xcnxnx nacrnn nincn n ryxauon pa:xcpox or O,OOOOO5 (o O,1 xx.
Onncrxa no:(yxa n ncxrpocrarnnccxnx qnnirpax nnnncrcn caxon qqcx-
rnnuon n: nccx n:nccruix n uacronmcc npcxn n (ocrn iacr 99 %.
Hpoximncuuic ncxrpoqnnirpi pa:(cnnmrcn ua (nc ipynni: o(-
uo:ouuic, n xoropix o(uonpcxcuuo nponcxo(nr noun:annn n onncr-
xa no:(yxa, n (nyx:ouuic, n xoropix noun:annn n onncrxa no:(yxa
npono(nrcn n pa:uix nacrnx annapara. O(uo:ouuic ncxrpoqnnirpi
npnxcunmrcn (nn onncrxn rcxuonoinnccxnx n ncurnnnnnouuix ni-
pocon, (nyx:ouuic (nn onncrxn no:(yxa n cncrcxax xou(nnnoun-
ponaunn.
B :anncnxocrn or uanpanncunn (nncunn ia:on n axrnnuon :ouc
ncxrpoqnnirpi (cnnrcn ua ncprnxaniuic n iopn:ouraniuic. Ho
219
cnocoy ynannnnaunn oca(ammnxcn ua ncxrpo(ax nacrnn pa:nn-
namr cyxnc n xoxpic ncxrpoqnnirpi. Oca(nrcniuic ncxrpo(i n
cyxnx ncxrpoqnnirpax nxcmr nnacrnunarym qopxy, a n xoxpix
ninonunmrcn n nn(c nnnnu(pnnccxnx nnn mccrnipauuix rpy. Cy-
xnc nincynonnrcnn npc(ua:uancui (nn onncrxn ia:on c rcxncpary-
pon (o 45O C. K unx oruocnrcn ncxrpoqnnirpi cyxnc ncprnxani-
uic n iopn:ouraniuic xuoiononiuic n nnacrnunaric. nn y(ancunn
cyxon ninn c ncxrpo(on npnxcunmr pa:nnnuic cncrcxi ncrpnxn-
naunn.
Ha pnc. 6.5 npnnc(cui cxcxi rpynaroio (o) n nnacrnunaroio ()
ncxrpoqnnirpon. B xopnycc T rpynaroio ncxrpoqnnirpa pacnono-
cui oca(nrcniuic ncxrpo(i 2 nicoron 36 x, n:ioronncuuic n:
rpy (naxcrpox 15O3OO xx. Ho ocn rpy uarnuyri xopounpymmnc
ncxrpo(i J (naxcrpox 1,52 xx, xoropic :axpcnncui xc(y paxa-
xn 4. Bcpxunn paxa 4 coc(nucua c onopuo-npoxo(uix n:onnropox :.
Pnc. 6.4. 0nnirp rnna 0BI-T: T xopnyc; 2 xacccra c qnnirponaniuix xarc-
pnanox; J nmx (nn npoxinxn; 4 nmx (nn cxcui xacccri; : qopcyuxa (nn
npoxinxn mnauiox
3aipn:ucuuin ia:
ncrin ia:
Pacrnop
4
2
5
3
1
22O
B ncxrpoqnnirpc nxccrcn pacnpc(cnnrcniuan pcmcrxa 6. B nnacrnu-
narox ncxrpoqnnirpc xopounpymmnc ncxrpo(i J uarnuyri xc(y
napanncniuixn noncpxuocrnxn oca(nrcniuix ncxrpo(on 2, paccro-
nunc xc(y xoropixn cocrannncr 25O35O xx. nyxn xpanunxn ncx-
rpo(axn nnnnmrcn crcuxn xcrannnnccxoio xopnyca.
Pnc. 6.5. Cxcxa ycrponcrna rpcxnoniuoio ncxrpoqnnirpa: T xopnyc; 2 ncx-
rpo(i oca(nrcniuic; J xopounpymmnc ncxrpo(i; 4 paxa; : n:onnrop;
6 pacnpc(cnnrcniuan pcmcrxa
Ounmcuuin
ia:
Ounmcu-
uin ia:
3anincu-
uin ia:
3anincu-
uin ia:
Hini Hini
5
4
2
3
1
6
1 1 1
4
3
1
4
1-1
b
6
5

1
2
1-1
2s
221
Hpn uanpncunn ncxrpnnccxoio nonn nimc xpnrnnccxoio (15 xB/cx
npn rcxncparypc 15 C) xoncxyni no:(yxa, uaxo(nmciocn n annaparc,
noun:npymrcn n npnopcramr nononrcniuic n orpnnarcniuic :apn-
(i. Houi (nnyrcn x npornnononouo :apncuuoxy ncxrpo(y, ncrpc-
namr ua cnocx nyrn nacrnni ninn, ncpc(amr nx cnon :apn(, a rc, n
cnom oncpc(i, uanpannnmrcn x ncxrpo(y. ocrniuyn cio, nacrnni ninn
opa:ymr cnon, xoropin y(anncrcn c noncpxuocrn ncxrpo(a npn no-
xomn y(apa, nnpannn nnn orxinxn. Hpn cxopocrn ia:a n rpynarix
ncxrpoqnnirpax or O,7 (o 1,5 x/c, a n nnacrnunarix or O,5 (o 1,O x/c
xouo (ocrnni crcncun onncrxn, nn:xon x 1OO %. In(pannnnccxoc
conpornnncunc ncxrpoqnnirpa uc npcnimacr 1OO15O Ha, r.c. :ua-
nnrcniuo unc, ncx y onimnucrna nincynonnrcncn. 3arpari ua onncr-
xy 1OOO x
3
no:(yxa uaxo(nrcn n npc(cnax O,1O,5 xBr/n. Hc(ocrarxaxn
ncxrpoqnnirpon nnnncrcn nx nicoxan cronxocri n cnouocri n xc-
nnyarannn.
Oncxrpocrarnnccxnc qnnirpi npc(ua:uancui (nn onncrxn no:(yxa
or cnaponuoio, xacnnuoio n (pyinx nicoxo(ncncpcuix apo:oncn npn
pa:nnnuix nn(ax xcrannoopaorxn. Hpcnxymccrnaxn raxnx qnni-
rpon nnnnmrcn un:xnc xcnnyrannouuic :arpari, xanic iaapnri n
apo(nuaxnnccxoc conpornnncunc, cnocouocri ynannnnari nicoxo-
(ncncpcuic rncp(ic n n(xnc apo:onn, no:xouocri pcicucpannn
nyrcx npoxinxn n no:xouocri onncrxn no:(yxa (o HK. B nocnc(-
ucx cnynac onnmcuuin no:(yx xocr iri no:npamcu n noxcmcunc,
nro no:nonncr xouoxnri rcnno n ncxrpoucpinm. Onncrxa no:(yxa
n ncxrpocrarnnccxnx qnnirpax caxan qqcxrnnuan onncrxa n: nccx
n:nccruix n uacronmcc npcxn. Oncxrpocrarnnccxnc qnnirpi onnma-
mr no:(yx or nacrnn pa:xcpox or O,OOOOO5 xx (o O,1 xx.
Oncxrpocrarnnccxnc qnnirpi rnna O0BA (pnc. 6.6) cocronr n: nnac-
rnunaroio qnnirpa, noxa nnraunn n nynira ynpanncunn. Inox nnraunn
noxcmcu ua xoyx, occncnnnammnn :amnry or no:(cncrnnn qaxropon
nucmucn cpc(i n c:onacuoc ocnynnaunc aipciara. Hynir ynpannc-
unn xpcnnrcn ua ncpc(ucn nnn :a(ucn crcuxc xopnyca aipciara, nno
or(cniuo nnn:n paoncio xccra oncparopa. Mcxaunnccxoc oopy(ona-
unc nnacrnunaroio qnnirpa cocronr n: cnc(ymmnx ocuonuix y:non:
qnnirp npc(napnrcniuon onncrxn no:(yxa or xpynuix nacrnn
(npc(qnnirp), xoropin raxc cnynr (nn panuoxcpuoio pacnpc(cnc-
unn onnmacxoio no:(yxa ua nxo(c n ncxrpoqnnirp;
222
noun:arop, cocronmnn n: :a:cxncuuix nnacrnu c uarnuyrixn
xc(y unxn xopounpymmnxn ncxrpo(axn noniqpaxonon nnn un-
xpoxonon npononoxn;
oca(nrcni, npc(crannnmmnn coon xuoionnacrnunarin xou(cu-
carop n: :a:cxncuuix n norcunnaniuix nnacrnu;
npornnoyuocuin qnnirp (nocrqnnirp), xoropin cnynr (nn npc(-
ornpamcunn yuoca xpynuix xancni n cnynac n(xoio apo:onn nnn
xouinoxcparon ninn, opa:ymmnxcn npn cpinc yc ynonncuuix nac-
Pnc. 6.6. 0nnirp O0BA: T xopnyc; 2 nonoporuoc ycrponcrno; J no:(y-
xono( inxnn; 4 ncacinammnn narpyox; : qnnirp-a(copcp; 6 ncx-
rpocrarnnccxnn qnnirp; nynir ynpanncunn; & qnnirp ipyon onncrxn;
9 ncurnnnrop
1
2
7
9
5
6
8
4
3
223
rnn, a raxc (nn no((cpaunn panuoxcpuoio ia:opacnpc(cncunn n
ncxrpoqnnirpc;
xnxnnccxan xacccra (no (ononunrcniuoxy :axa:y).
Koucrpyxnnn xopnyca occncnnnacr ncixnn (ocryn x npc(qnnirpy,
noun:aropy, oca(nrcnm n nocrqnnirpy (nn nx npoxinxn nnn xcxaun-
nccxon nncrxn. Topncnic noncpxuocrn xopnycon crannouapuix aipc-
iaron cuacui qnaunaxn, npc(ua:uancuuixn (nn npncoc(nucunn
x ia:oxo(ax, npncoc(nucunn (ononunrcniuoio oopy(onaunn nnn nro-
poio aipciara npn (nyxxacxa(uon cxcxc.
B nponcccc onncrxn norox no:(yxa, co(cpamcio nacrnni rncp(oio
nnn n(xoio apo:onn, nocrynammnn n (nyx:ouuin ncxrpoqnnirp,
cuanana npoxo(nr ncpc: npc(qnnirp, i(c ynannnnamrcn uanoncc xpyn-
uic nacrnni. 3arcx ou nocrynacr n noun:arop, i(c xc(y nponononui-
xn xopounpymmnxn n nnacrnunarixn :a:cxncuuixn ncxrpo(axn npn
no(anc nicoxoio uanpncunn no:unxacr xopouuin pa:pn( n nponcxo-
(nr :apn(xa nacrnn (ua xopounpymmnc ncxrpo(i no(acrcn ninpnx-
ncuuoc nicoxoc uanpncunc nononrcniuon nonnpuocrn 1213 xB).
ancc :apncuuic nacrnni nocrynamr n oca(nrcni, i(c npnrninnamrcn
Pnc. 6.7. Hpnunnn paori ncxrpocrarnnccxoio qnnirpa
Hcpnan
cryncui
Bropan
cryncui
Tpcrin
cryncui
ncrin cncnn
no:(yx
0nnirp ouncrxn
or ia:a n:
axrnnnponauuoio
yinn
Anmxnucnin qnnirp
npc(napnrcniuon
ouncrxn
2ucnxa
oca(nrcnn
2ucnxa
noun:aropa
224
x nnacrnuax n oca(amrcn ua unx (pnc. 6.7). nn npc(ornpamcunn yuo-
ca xpynuix xancni n xouinoxcparon ninn c noroxox no:(yxa npc(yc-
xorpcu nocrqnnirp. Xnxnnccxan xacccra occncnnnacr onncrxy no:(y-
xa or npc(uix ia:onix npnxcccn (CO, HI, O
x
) n yncnnnnnacr apo(n-
uaxnnccxoc conpornnncunc qnnirpa ua 25O3OO Ha.
Hpn ynannnnaunn apo:oncn n xaccn apo:oni crcxacr no nnacrn-
uax n no((ou xopnyca qnnirpa. cpc: cnnnuon mryncp copauuan n(-
xocri xocr nocrynari n omnn copunx-orcronunx, a :arcx nuoni
ncnoni:onaricn (nn rcxuonoinnccxnx ncncn.
Pcicucpannn qnnirpa ocymccrnnncrcn npoxinxon npc(qnnirpa,
noun:aropa n oca(nrcnn n cncnnaniuon nauuc no(on npn rcxncparypc
4O5O C c nx nocnc(ymmcn cymxon. acrora pcicucpannn :anncnr or
ycnonnn xcnnyarannn qnnirpa. Hpn ucoxo(nxocrn n no(y (oannn-
mr cnurcrnnccxnc xommnc cpc(crna.
0nnirpi 0Hu ncnoni:ymrcn (nn onncrxn :anincuuoio n :aipn:-
ucuuoio no:(yxa paoncn :oui or apo:oncn cnnuna, onona, nnuxa,
ximinxa n r.n., npn nponc(cunn cnaponuix paor, n nnrcnuox npo-
n:no(crnc, nanxc n nycunn. K ocuonuix nx npcnxymccrnax oruo-
cnrcn un:xnn yponcui myxa, xanic iaapnri n xouoxnn rcnna n
ncxrpoucpinn :a cncr no:npara onnmcuuoio no:(yxa n paonym :o-
uy. 0nnirpi roio rnna ncnoni:ymrcn npn xacconon xouncurpannn
ninn ua nxo(c uc oncc 1OO xi/x
3
npn rcxncparypc onnmacxoio no:-
(yxa uc oncc 8O C. Hpn npon:no(nrcniuocrn no onnmacxoxy no:-
(yxy 4OO15OO x
3
/n crcncui onncrxn no ninn c pa:xcpox nacrnn
O,3 xxx, (ocrniacr 99,999 % (pnc. 6.8).
0nnirp 0Hu-4OO cocronr n: nucpnnouuoio oca(nrcnn, noxa
qnnirpon, ncurnnn ropa n qnnirpa xnxnnccxon onncrxn. B noxc qnni-
rpon ycrauannnnamrcn (na qnnirpa: ipyon n rouxon onncrxn. Bxo(-
uic narpyxn nucpnnouuoio oca(nrcnn-npncxunxa npc(ua:uancui
(nn npncoc(nucunn xccruix orcocon n cuacui :acnouxaxn. 0nni-
rpi 0Hu-1OOO n 0Hu-15OO cocronr n: ncripcx noxon: nucpnnou-
uoio oca (nrcnn, noxa qnnirpon, ncurnnnropa n myxoinymnrcnn.
B nox qnnirpon n nn(c xacccr nocnc(ona rcniuo ycrauannnnamrcn nc-
ripc qnnirpa: ipyon, npc(napnrcniuon, rouxon n xnxnnc cxon onncr-
xn. 0nnirpi ipyon, npc(napnrcniuon n rouxon onncrxn paoramr n
pcnxc uaxon ncunn ninn. 0nnirp ipyon onncrxn ncpno(nnccxn
npoxinamr. 0nnirpi npc(napnrcniuon n rouxon onncrxn no nipa-
225
orxc pccypca no(ncar :axcuc. B qnnir pc xnxnnccxon onncrxn ua-
nonunrcni :axcunmr npnnn:nrcniuo 1 pa: n 2 io(a.
Mcro( pocceuoonuu eo:ootx npu+ece o om+ocqepe ncnoni:ymr (nn
cuncunn onacuix xouncurpannn npnxcccn (o npc(cniuo (onycrn-
xix xouncurpannn. B npn:cxuox cnoc arxocqcpi nnn:n xpynuix
ucpicrnnccxnx ycrauonox (TOC, TOH, IPOC) n (pyinx npc(npnnrnn
xcrannypinnccxoio n xamnuocrponrcniuoio npoqnnn xouncurpannn
npc(uix ncmccrn, n nacruocrn xncnix ia:on n rncnix xcrannon, xo-
cr npcnimari npc(cniuo-(onycrnxic uopxi, uccxorpn ua ncc npn-
xcuncxic xcpi no onncrxc ia:on n xonoin:annm rcxuonoinnccxnx
nponcccon |15].
Pacccnnaunc nincia:onix nipocon ocymccrnnnmr c noxomim ni-
coxnx (ixonix rpy. cx nimc rpya, rcx onimc cc pacccnnammnn
qqcxr. Ha pn(c npc(npnnrnn nicora (ixonix rpy cocrannncr oncc
3OO x. 3uannrcniuym nicory (uc xcucc 1OO x) nxcmr ncurnnnnnouuic
rpyi ua AOC (nn pacccnnaunn pa(noaxrnnuix nipocon. Hpo(yxri
Pnc. 6.8. 0nnirp (nn onncrxn no:(yxa npn nanxc n nycunn 0Hu: T qnnirp
ipyon onncrxn; 2 qnnirp rouxon onncrxn; J nox ncurnnnropa; 4
xnxnnccxan xacccra
1
2
3
4
A
A
Bxo(
Bxo(
226
ciopaunn cocronr n: cxcccn ia:on n n:ncmcuuix nacrnn. cnn nocnc(-
unc nxcmr pa:xcp xcucc 2O xxx, ro cxopocri nx occ(aunn npc:ninanuo
xana. Kpynuic nacrnni ona(amr :uannrcniuon cxopocrim occ(aunn,
nro npnno(nr x nonimcuuon xouncurpannn n nonnc rnx nacrnn uc(a-
ncxo or rpyi. Hcpcxcmnnaunc nipocon n: rpyi c arxocqcpuix no:-
(yxox occncnnnacrcn arxocqcpuon rypyncuruon (nqqy:ncn. nn xax-
cnxaniuoio pacccnnaunn (ixonic ia:i (onui noxn(ari rpyy, nxcn
(ocraronuym no(cxuym cnny n xoxcur xonnnccrna (nncunn. Bico-
xan cxopocri ncrpa ycxopncr pacccnnaunc :aipn:unrcncn n arxocqcpc.
Pacccnnaunc npc(uix ncmccrn n arxocqcpc nnnncrcn npcxcuuix,
niuy(cuuix xcponpnnrncx, xoropoc ocymccrnnncrcn ncnc(crnnc
roio, nro cymccrnymmnc onncruic ycrponcrna uc occncnnnamr non-
uon onncrxn nipocon or npc(uix ncmccrn.
3amnra arxocqcpuoio no:(yxa or npc(uix nipocon npc(npnnrnn
n :uannrcniuon crcncun cnn:aua c ycrponcrnox conumopno-:omumntx
:on u opxumemypno-naonupooount+u pemenuu+u |25].
Caunrapuo-:amnruon :ouon ua:inacrcn nonoca, or(cnnmman nc-
ronunxn npoximncuuoio :aipn:ucunn or nnix n omccrncuuix :(a-
unn (nn :amnri uaccncunn or nnnnunn npc(uix qaxropon npon:no(-
crna. Unpnuy caunrapuo-:amnruix :ou ycrauannnnamr n :anncnxocrn
or xnacca npon:no(crna, crcncun cio npc(uocrn n xonnnccrna ni(cncu-
uix n arxocqcpy ncmccrn. Oua napinpycrcn or 5O (o 1OOO x. Ycrauan-
nnnamr nnri xnaccon caunrapuix :ou. Mamnuocrponrcniuic npc(npn-
nrnn, noxoxornnuic n naiouuic (cno oruocnrcn x 4 n 5 xnaccax c mn-
pnuon caunrapuo-:amnruon :oui coorncrcrncuuo 1OO n 5O x.
Caunrapuo-:amnruan :oua (onua iri naioycrpocua n o:cncuc-
ua ia:oycronnnnixn nopo(axn (cpcnicn n xycrapunxon, uanpnxcp,
axanncn cnon, rononcx xaua(cxnx, cnim xonmncn, xncuox ocrpo-
nncruix n r.(. O qqcxrnnuocrn o:cncucunn cnn(crcnicrnymr cnc-
(ymmnc (auuic: xnon o(uoio icxrapa cnonoio ncca ynannnnacr 32 r
ninn, nncrna yxonoio ncca 68 r.
Apxnrcxrypuo-nnaunpononuic xcponpnnrnn nxnmnamr npannni-
uoc n:anxuoc pa:xcmcunc ncronunxon nipoca n uaccncuuix xccr c
yncrox uanpanncunn ncrpon, niop no( :acrponxy npoximncuuoio
npc(npnnrnn ponuoio no:nimcuuoio xccra, xopomo npo(ynacxoio
ncrpaxn, coopycunc anroxonniuix (opoi n oxo( uaccncuuix nyux-
ron n (p.
227
6.2. 3amnva rnapocqepm
Onncrxa no(i npc(ua:uancua (nn (onc(cunn nccx napaxcrpon, xa-
paxrcpn:ymmnx cc xanccrno, (o uopxarnnuix noxa:arcncn. Mcro(i
onncrxn no(i (nn nnricnix uy(, (nn rcxuonoinnccxnx ncncn, a rax-
c cronuix no( cymccrncuuo pa:nnnamrcn, nocxonixy uopxarnni n
rpconaunn x onncrxc n rnx cnynanx nxcmr pa:nnnuic :uancunn.
Hpon:no(crncuuic cronuic no(i cnc:uo(opouix npc(npnnrnn
npc(crannnmr coon cnouic cncrcxi, cocran xoropix onpc(cnncrcn
xapaxrcpox rcxuonoinnccxnx nponcccon. Onncrxa cronuix no( xocr
ocymccrnnnricn xcxaunnccxnxn, qn:nxo-xnxnnccxnxn, xnxnnccxn-
xn, nonoinnccxnxn n (pyinxn xcro(axn. H:-:a cnouoio cocrana
cronuix no( npn nx onncrxc ncnoni:ymr xoxnuannn pa:nnnuix xc-
ro(on. O(uaxo ncci(a ncpnon cra(ncn nnnncrcn xcxaunnccxan onncrxa
or n:ncmcuuix nacrnn |25, 22].
nn onncrxn cronuix no(, co(cpamnx rncnic xcranni, ncnoni-
:ymrcn pcaicuruic n qn:nxo-xnxnnccxnc xcro(i. Conn rncnix xc-
rannon n cronuix no(ax npncyrcrnymr n nn(c pacrnopnxix n ucpacrno-
pnxix ncmccrn, cnocouix noccrauannnnaricn, oxncnnricn, oca(ari-
cn n a(copnponaricn n nn(c nu(nnn(yaniuix ncmccrn n xoxnncxcon.
Ho crcncun roxcnnuocrn rncnic xcranni xouo ycnonuo pacnono-
nri n pn(: Sb ` Ag ` Cu ` Hg ` Co > i > Pb ` Cf
=3
> V > Cd.
Pcaicuruic xcro(i onncrxn uanoncc qqcxrnnuo npnxcunmrcn
(nn y(ancunn coc(nucunn nnuxa, xc(n, unxcnn, cnnuna, xa(xnn, xo-
anira, cnc:a n (p. Cyri rnx xcro(on cocronr n ncpcno(c pacrnopn-
xix n no(c coc(nucunn rncnix xcrannon n ucpacrnopnxic npn (o-
anncunn pa:nnnuix pcaicuron n c nocnc(ymmnx or(cncuncx nx or
no(i n nn(c oca(xon. Hc(ocrarxox nnnncrcn c:no:nparuan norcpn
ncuuix ncmccrn c oca(xaxn.
B xanccrnc pcaicuron (nn y(ancunn n: cronuix no( nouon rncnix
xcrannon ncnoni:ymr in(poxcn(i xaninnn n uarpnn, xapouar uarpnn,
cyniqn(i uarpnn n pa:nnnuic mnaxn. Hanoncc mnpoxo npnxcuncr-
cn in(poxcn( xaninnn. Oca(cunc xcrannon nponcxo(nr n nn(c nx in(-
poxcn(on. Hponccc oca(cunn or(cniuix xcrannon n onpc(cncuuix
nurcpnanax pH npnnc(cu n ran. 6.1. Hpn o(uonpcxcuuox oca(cunn
in(poxcn(on (nyx nnn uccxonixnx xcrannon opa:ymrcn cxcmauuic
228
oca(xn, n xocr nponcxo(nri a(copnnn nouon xcrannon ua noncpx-
uocrn rncp(on qa:i. Bcnc(crnnc roio (ocrniacrcn oncc nonuan onnc-
rxa or ucxoropix rncnix xcrannon.
Hpn opaorxc xncnix cronuix no( oxcn(ox xaninnn n in(poxcn-
(ox uarpnn co(cpamnccn n croxax noui rncnix xcrannon cnn:ina-
mrcn n rpy(uopacrnopnxic coc(nucunn. Hanpnxcp, npn opaorxc
no(i, co(cpamcn noui Zn
2=
, mcnonim opa:ycrcn rpy(uopacrnopn-
xin in(poxcn(
Zn =2OH Zn OH
2= -
2

( )
!.
Hpn rox cocran opa:ymmcio oca(xa :anncnr or pH cpc(i. Tax,
uanpnxcp, npn pH 7 oca(acrcn rpnin(poxcn(cyniqar nnuxa ZnSO
4

3Zn(OH)
2
, a npn pH (o 8,8 ZnSO
4
5Zn(OH)
2
. B cnniuomcnonuon
cpc(c rncp(an qa:a npc(crannncr coon n ocuonuox in(poxcn( nnuxa.
Onncrxa cronuix no( or xc(n cnn:aua c oca(cuncx cc n nn(c in(-
poxcn(a nnn in(poxcn(-xapouara:
Cu =2OH Cu OH
2= -
2

( )
!,
Cu =2OH =CO Cu OH CO
2= -
3
2-
2 3

( )
!.
Toauuo 6.T
3na4enne pH ocaaaenna rnapoxcnaoa wevaaaoa
Karnou
3uancunc pH
Hanano oca(cunn npn
ncxo(uon xouncurpannn
noua 1O
2
xoni/n
Honuoc oca(cunc npn
ocraronuon xouncurpannn
noua 1O
5
xoni/n
Ic
2=
Ic
3=
Zn
2=
Cf
3=
i
2=
Al
3=
Co
2=
Cd
2=
Pb
2=
7,5
2,3
6,4
4,9
6,7
4,O
6,7
7,2
6,O
9,7
4,1
8,O9,O
6,8
9,5
5,2
7,7
9,7
9,5
229
uynmnx pcaicurox (nn onncrxn croxon or xarnouon xc(n nnnncrcn
n:nccri rpcricio copra, co(cpaman uc(ooi ucpa:nonnmnncn
xapouar xaninnn.
nn conxccruoio y(ancunn xc(n n xa(xnn pa:paorau nponccc, :a-
xnmnammnncn n xouraxrnponaunn nx c (noxcn(ox ccpi nnn co cxc-
cim cyniqara n nopomxon xcranna, uanpnxcp, nnuxa nnn cnc:a. Hpn
rox xcrann noccrauannnnacr cyniqnr-noui (o cyniqn(-nouon, xo-
ropic c rncnixn xcrannaxn opa:ymr rpy(uopacrnopnxic oca(xn.
Onncrxa croxon or unxcnn ocuonaua ua opaorxc nx mcnonuix
pacrnopox xapouara:
i =2OH i OH
2= -
2

( )
!,
2i =CO =2OH iOH CO
2=
3
2- -
2 3

( )
!,
i =CO iCO
2=
3
2-
3
!.
Opa:ymmnncn npn rox in(poxcn(-xapouar unxcnn xapaxrcpn-
:ycrcn oncui xanon pacrnopnxocrim. Hxcmmnccn n croxax xarnoui
cnnuna ncpcno(nr n oca(ox n nn(c o(uoio n: rpcx rpy(uopacrnopnxix
coc(nucunn:
Pb =2OH Pb OH
2= -
2

( )
!,
2Pb =CO =2OH PbOH CO
2=
3
2- -
2 3

( )
!,
Pb =CO PbCO
2=
3
2-
3
!.
Opa:onanmnncn xapouar cnnuna n no(c npaxrnnccxn ucpacr-
nopnx.
K nncny pcaicuruix cnocoon, npnio(uix (nn onncrxn cronuix
no( c nicoxon xouncurpanncn nouon rncnix xcrannon ((o 5 i/n),
oruocnrcn rax ua:inacxin xcro( qcppnrn:annn, xoropin ocuonau
ua opa:onaunn ucpacrnopnxoio qcppoxaiunruoio xpncrannnnccxo-
io coc(nucunn rnna mnnucncn McIc
2
C ` 4 (i(c Mc noui rnc-
noio xcranna) |5, 17]. ocronucrnox qcppnrn:annn nnnncrcn yunncp-
caniuocri no oruomcunm x onimnucrny :aipn:unrcncn, nocxonixy
uapn(y c pacrnopcuuixn rncnixn xcrannaxn rnx xcro(ox qqcx-
rnnuo y(annmrcn n: no(i opiaunnccxnc coc(nucunn, aunoui n xac-
23O
na. Hpn ncnoni:onaunn qcppnrn:annn xocr iri (ocrniuyra un:-
xan ocraronuan xouncurpannn npc(uix npnxcccn uc:anncnxo or nx
ncxo(uon xouncurpannn n omcio co(cpaunn concn n cronuon no(c,
a raxc nicoxan crcncui ocncrncunn croxon. Opa:ymmnncn n npo-
ncccc onncrxn qcppoxaiunruin mnax ncixo orcrannacrcn n qnni-
rpycrcn n xocr y(annricn n: opaarinacxix croxon xaiunruon cc-
napanncn.
K npcnxymccrnax pcaicuruix xcro(on oruocnrcn nx ua(cuocri
npn cnouox cocranc cronuix no(, uc:uannrcniuan nyncrnnrcniuocri
x npnxccnx opiaunnccxoio xapaxrcpa, no:xouocri anroxarn:annn n
oruocnrcniuan npocrora n xcnnyarannn |22].
Ocuonuic uc(ocrarxn: onimon pacxo( (cqnnnruix n (opoinx pc-
aicuron, nropnnuoc :aipn:ucunc no(i (nonimcunc concnoio cocrana),
ni:inammcc :arpy(ucunn npn no:nparc ua nonropuoc ncnoni:onaunc,
norcpn ncuuix ncmccrn, co(cpamnxcn n opaarinacxix croxax, n
cnouocri nx yrnnn:annn, a raxc opa:onaunc onimnx xonnnccrn
oca(xon npn ncnoni:onaunn pn(a pcaicuron.
Hponcxi, no:unxammnc npn ncnoni:onaunn pcaicuruix xcro(on,
nacrnnuo pcmamrcn onncrxon cronuix no( xcro(ox nouuoio oxcua.
Ou n ncnox occncnnnacr oncc nicoxym crcncui onncrxn croxon, uc
rpcycr pciynnponaunn pH n uc npnno(nr x opa:onaunm onimnx xo-
nnnccrn oca(xon. Taxc ou (acr no:xouocri nonropuo ncnoni:onari
onnmcuuym no(y n ni(cncuuic xcranni (nn rcxuonoinnccxnx uy(
npc(npnnrnn |34]. Oror nponccc nporcxacr ua nounrax, npc(crannnm-
mnx coon rncp(ic nonnncxrponnri, y xoropix noui o(uoio :uaxa
:apn(a :axpcnncui ua rncp(on xarpnnc, a noui npornnononouoio
:uaxa :apn(a cnocoui ncpcxo(nri n pacrnop n :axcunricn ua (pyinc
noui roio c :uaxa. Hounri cocronr n: nonnxcpon, nxcmmnx qyux-
nnouaniuic ipynni, xoropic cnocoui (ncconnnponari n pacrnopc.
B :anncnxocrn or roio, xaxnc noui ncpcxo(nr n pacrnop, nounri pa:-
(cnnmrcn ua xarnounri n aunounri.
nn y(ancunn nouon xcrannon n: cronuix no( npnxcunmrcn xarn-
ounri, uanpnxcp KY-2. Y xarnounron n pacrnop ncpcxo(nr xarnoui,
xoropic oxcunnamrcn ua xarnoui, uaxo(nmnccn n pacrnopc. 0yux-
nnouaniuixn ipynnaxn y xarnounron oinuo cnyar cyniqoipynni
SO
3
H

, qocqop ipynni PO(OH)


2
, xapoxcnniuic ipynni COOH

,
in(poxcnniuic OH

. Hpn xouraxrc nounra c pacrnopox rn ipynni


231
(ncconnnpymr, nocinan n pacrnop noui H
=
, a ua xarnounrc occ(amr
noui xcranna |6, 13, 26].
Houuin oxcu ua npnxcpc onncrxn no(i or nnuxa nponcxo(nr no
cxcxc
2RH=Zn -R Zn=2H ,
2=
2
=
i(c RH xarnounr.
Hoinornrcniuan cnocouocri nounron xapaxrcpn:ycrcn oxcuuon
cxxocrim, xoropan onpc(cnncrcn nncnox xnnnancuron nouon, noino-
macxix c(nunncn xacci nnn ocxa nounra. C rcncuncx npcxcun
paori oxcuuan cxxocri xarnounra ncromacrcn, n ucoxo(nxo npo-
no(nri cio pcicucpannm. Pcicucpannm H-xarnounra npono(nr pacrno-
pox ccpuon xncnori c xouncurpanncn 1,O1,5 %. Pcaxnnn, nponcxo-
(nman n H-xarnounrc, nporcxacr no ypanucunm
ZnR = H SO 2HR=ZnSO = -1 H SO
2 2 4 4 2 4
n n
( )
Houooxcuuym onncrxy cronuix no( ocymccrnnnmr ua ycrauonxax
ncpno(nnccxoio n ucnpcpinuoio (cncrnnn. Hanoncc pacnpocrpaucu-
uix nnnncrcn ucnpcpinuin nponccc, xoropin no:nonncr yxcuimnri
pacxo( cxoni, pcaicuron (nn pcicucpannn, npoxinuon no(i, a raxc
npnxcunri oncc xoxnaxruoc oopy(onaunc. Konouui ucnpcpinuoio
(cncrnnn xoiyr paorari xax c (nnymnxcn cnocx cxoni, rax n c xn-
nnmnx. nn pcicucpannn cxoni ncnoni:ymr xonouui c (nnymnxcn
cnocx nnn nucnxonynicannouuic. Hpn no(anc no:(yxa cxona n pao-
ncx ocxc annapara (nncrcn uancrpcny pacrnopy n y(anncrcn cncpxy.
Hpn rox cron cxoni n rpyc (cncrnycr xax oparuin xnanau.
B xanccrnc nouooxcuunxon npnxcunmrcn uc ronixo cnurcrnncc-
xnc cxoni, uo n npnpo(uic nouooxcuunxn, raxnc xax ipauynnpo-
nauuin ropq, innui n nconnri. Ipauynnponauuin ropq nnnncrcn
cpanunrcniuo (cmcnix npnpo(uix copcurox, npnio(uix, uanpn-
xcp, (nn n:nncncunn xarnouon xc(n (II) n: xuoioxoxnoucuruix npo-
xinuix no( rpannniuoio or(cncunn npon:no(crna ncnaruix nnar. O-
nacri ycncmuoio npnxcucunn npnpo(uix nouooxcuunxon xocr
iri cymccrncuuo pacmnpcua nyrcx xo(nqnnnponaunn, no:nonnm-
mcio npn(ari nx (ononunrcniuic ncuuic cnoncrna |1, 2, 28, 33].
Inanuan rpy(uocri, npcnnrcrnymman mnpoxoxy nuc(pcunm nou-
uoio oxcua n npaxrnxy onncrxn cronuix no(, ro (cqnnnr nouo-
232
oxcuuix cxon n pcaicuron (nn pcicucpannn, oc:npcnnaunn n yrn-
nn:annn nmaron. pyian rpy(uocri :axnmnacrcn n rox, nro no nccx
cnynanx ncnoni:onaunn nouuoio oxcua ucoxo(nxo npc(ornpamari
nona(aunc n annapar n:ncmcuuix nacrnn, noncpxuocruo-axrnnuix n
(pyinx opiaunnccxnx n ucopiaunnccxnx ncmccrn, cnocouix orpa-
nnri nouooxcuunx. Hcoxo(nxo raxc ynnrinari omym xnucpa-
nn:annm no(i n npannniuo ninpari cxony c yncrox cc ccncxrnnuoc-
rn x rcx nnn nuix n: npncyrcrnymmnx n onnmacxon no(c nouon.
Taxnc rpconaunn rpy(uo pcann:onari npn opaorxc cxcmauuix
croxon. Hcxo(n n: nimcn:nocuuoio, a raxc npnunxan no nunxaunc
cnouocri nocnc(ymmcio ncnoni:onaunn cxcmauuix nmaron, xo-
uo c(cnari nino( o rox, nro npnxoc nounruoc oc:npcnnaunc cxc-
mauuix croxon ucncpcncxrnnuo. Oxouoxnnccxn niio(uo cio npnxc-
unri (nn (cxnucpann:annn croxa, npomc(mcio npc(napnrcniuym pc-
aicuruym onncrxy or nouon rncnix xcrannon |34].
B rcx cnynanx, xoi(a rpcycrcn oncc inyoxan onncrxa croxon or
nouon rncnix xcrannon n opiaunnccxnx ncmccrn, ncnoni:ymr cop-
nnm. Oqqcxrnnuocri copnnouuon onncrxn oycnonncua, npc(c ncc-
io, rcx, nro copcuri cnocoui n:nncxari n: no(i xuoinc ucopiaun-
nccxnc n opiaunnccxnc coc(nucunn, n rox nncnc n nonoinnccxn ccr-
xnc, uc y(anncxic n: ucc (pyinxn xcro(axn.
Hpn ncnoni:onaunn nicoxoaxrnnuix copcuron no(y xouo onnc-
rnri or rncnix xcrannon (o npaxrnnccxn uyncnix ocraronuix xou-
ncurpannn. Haxoucn, copcuri xoiyr n:nncxari ncmccrna n: no(i npn
nmix xouncurpannnx, n rox nncnc xanix, xoi(a (pyinc xcro(i onnc-
rxn oxa:inamrcn ucqqcxrnnuixn.
B xanccrnc copcuron xoiyr cnynri npaxrnnccxn ncc xcnxo(nc-
ncpcuic ncmccrna, ona(ammnc pa:nnron noncpxuocrim: (pcnccuic
orxo(i, :ona, innui, mcnyxa opcxon, nyxa, ccxcua qaconn n (p. amc
nccio ncnoni:ymrcn cncnnaniuo npnioronncuuic copcuri axrn-
nnponauuic yinn, axrnnnponauuic npnpo(uic copcuri (uanpnxcp,
axrnnuin innuo:cx, curounronic innui). Onncaua copnnn xarn-
ouon ucxoropix rncnix xcrannon ua npnpo(uox (ncncpcuox xpcx-
uc:cxc onoxc n ncnoni:onaunc n xanccrnc copcuron nonoxunc-
rix xarcpnanon, y(cniuan noncpxuocri xoropix :uannrcniuo npcnoc-
xo(nr noncpxuocri ipauynnponauuix copcuron. Xnxnnccxn
xo(nqnnnponauuic nonnaxpnnounrpnnonic nonoxua, ona(ammnc
233
nicoxon copnnouuon cnocouocrim, raxc xoiyr iri ncnoni:o-
naui (nn xouncurpnponaunn n n:nncncunn rncnix xcrannon |1, 2,
3, 11, 14, 18, 35, 46].
B nocnc(ucc npcxn pa:nnnacrcn caxocronrcniuoc uanpanncunc n
onncrxc cronuix no(, ocuonauuoc ua npnxcucunn (cmcnix xnucpani-
uix n yincpo(co(cpamnx copnnouuix xarcpnanon. Hccnc(ycrcn
no:xouocri npnxcucunn cncnnaniuix xnucpaniuix ucopiaunncc-
xnx copcuron n:nparcniuoio (cncrnnn (nn (nqqcpcunnponauuon
xcxocopnnn rncnix xcrannon n ucopiaunnccxnx nouon, uanpnxcp,
qocqaron xaninnn (nn copnnn cnnuna (II) n cnc:a (III) |9].
Hpcnxymccrno copnnn ua xnucpaniuix copcurax cocronr n or-
cyrcrnnn nropnnuix pacconon, opa:onaunn ncixo oc:nonnacxoio
oca(xa n no:xouocrn pcicucpannn xcrannon, xoropic nponuo xc-
xocopnpymrcn ua xnucpaniuix copcurax n uc nixinamrcn co npc-
xcucx.
Hpn nccx xuoionncncuuix (ocronucrnax xcro(a copnnouuon
onncrxn ou ucnpnxcunx (nn :uannrcniuix ocxon cronuix no( xpyn-
uix npc(npnnrnn n cnn:n c (cqnnnrox copcuron. Kpoxc roio, cop-
nnn ucqqcxrnnua npn nicoxnx xouncurpannnx :aipn:unmmnx nc-
mccrn, n uc pcmcua nponcxa yrnnn:annn nmara. Horoxy copnnn
n uacronmcc npcxn uanoncc qqcxrnnua ronixo xax nropan cryncui
nocnc ocymccrnncunn pcaicuruix xcro(on onncrxn cronuix no(.
nn copnnn rncnix xcrannon n: cronuix no( ianinaunnccxoio
npon:no(crna nacro ncnoni:ymr orxo(i (cpcnoncpcpaorxn (onnnxn,
mnnqonaniuym nini, crpyxy n (p.) n copcuri n: ncnonniunua n
in(ponn:uoio nniunua (no(conucnuym n pnconym ny:iy, or(ynuy) n
nn(c ipauyn (naxcrpox (o 15 xx. Crcncui onncrxn ianinauocroxon ua
(pcnccuix orxo(ax ncpc: 1 nac xcno:nnnn (nn cnc:a n nnuxa cocran-
nncr 98, a xc(n n xpoxa 97 %. Copnnn rncnix xcrannon ua cop-
curax n: nniunua cocrannncr (nn nnuxa 99 %, cnc:a 96, a xpoxa
88 % |6, 11, 13].
Icniopo(cxnn iocy(apcrncuuin rcxunnccxnn yunncpcnrcr npc(na-
iacr ncnoni:onari (nn onncrxn cronuix no( or xc(n n unxcnn mnaxn
Ocxonicxoio ncxrpoxcrannypinnccxoio xoxnuara. Oun ona(amr
nicoxopa:nnron noncpxuocrim ((o 465 i/cx
2
) n co(cpar 45,O xacc. %
CaO, SiO
2
25,5, Al
2
O
3
6,4, Ic
2
O
3
7, MnO 3,3, MgO 11,
Cf
2
O
3
1,8. Hpn ncnoni:onaunn raxoio mnaxa n xanccrnc copcura
234
xaxcnxaniuan crcncui onncrxn npn o(uonpcxcuuox npncyrcrnnn no-
uon xc(n n unxcnn n xonnnccrnc 1O xi/n npn xcno:nnnn 15 xnu co-
crannncr coorncrcrncuuo 97,5 n 99 %.
B Hucrnryrc qn:nxo-opiaunnccxon xnxnn HAH Icnapycn pa:pao-
raui xcnaruic nonoxuncric copcuri 0HIHAH X-1, 0HIHAH
X-2 n 0HIHAH X-3 (nn onncrxn no(i or rncnix n ncpcxo(uix
xcrannon. Orn copcuri nxcmr n cnocx cocranc xnxnnccxnc axrnnuic
ipynni, cnocouic n:anxo(cncrnonari c uaxo(nmnxncn n pacrnopc
nouaxn xcrannon c opa:onauncx xcnaruix xoxnncxcon. B ran. 6.2
npnnc(cui copnnouuic cnoncrna nonoxuncrix xcnaruix copcuron
npn onncrxc 4 1O
2
xi-xn/n no(uix pacrnopon xnopn(on xc(n, unxc-
nn, xoanira, xa(xnn n unrpara cnnuna npn pH 6 n ccrxocrn no(i
4 xi-xn/n |9] .
Copcur 0HIHAH X-1 ona(acr nicoxon (nuaxnnccxon cxxoc-
rim (o npocxoxa no oruomcunm x nouax nccx xcrannon, uo ococuuo
onimym copnnouuym cnocouocri ou nxccr no oruomcunm x nouax
cnc:a.
C 1998 i. c copcurox 0HIHAH X-1 (cncrnycr noxaniuan o(uo-
xo(yniuan ycrauonxa (nn onncrxn no(i or nouon (nyxnancuruoio c-
nc:a (o :uancunn HK. Oua npc(crannncr coon xonouuy nicoron 11OO
n (naxcrpox 15O xx, nuyrpn xoropon uaxo(nrcn nnnnu(p n: nopncro-
io nonnnponnncua (naxcrpox 3O xx, ninonunmmnn qyuxnnm (pcua-
Toauuo 6.2
Cvavn4ecxaa owennaa ewxocvt n annawn4ecxaa ewxocvt
ao upocxoxa nexovopmx vaaeamx wevaaaoa, wr-axaJa
Copcur
Crarncrn-
nccxan
Oxcuuan
cxxocri
nuaxnnccxan cxxocri (o npocxoxa
Cu
2=
Pb
2=
Co
2=
i
2=
Cd
2=
Zn
2=
0HIHAH
X-1
6,5 O,77 1,O5 O,19 O,28 O,23 O,17
0HIHAH
X-2
5,O O,4O O,2O O,16 O,1O O,14 O,3O
0HIHAH
X-3
5,54 O,26 O,2O O,O6 O,15 O,1O O,O6
235
a. Cun:y no(acrcn no(a c co(cpauncx cnc:a 6 xi/n co cxopocrim
O,8 x
3
/n. Ycrauonxa paccnnraua ua onncrxy 25 x
3
no(i. Pcicucpannm
copcura npono(nnn 2u pacrnopox connuon xncnori.
Hanoncc qqcxrnnuixn xcro(axn onncrxn no(i or nouon rnc-
nix xcrannon nnnnmrcn ncxrpoxoaiynnnnn n ianinauoxoaiynnnnn.
Hcpcncxrnnuocri ncxrpoxnxnnccxnx xcro(on ni:naua rcx, nro oun
nnnnmrcn npnninuixn (nn ianinauorcxunxn. Oro cnn:auo c ncnoni-
:onauncx npn onncrxc roio c nn(a ucpinn, nro n n ocuonuox npo-
ncccc, a raxc c no:xouocrim nropnnuoio ncnoni:onaunn n:nncncu-
uix xcrannon n rox c npon:no(crnc n c npnxcucuncx oopy(onaunn,
xoropoc xoucrpyxrnnuo xano ornnnacrcn or oopy(onaunn ianinaun-
nccxnx ncxon |6, 8, 32, 34, 39, 44].
B npocrcnmcx nn(c ncxrponnrnnccxan nauua (auo( n xaro( ua no(-
nccxax n ucncpcxcmnnacxox ncxrponnrc) pc(xo npnxcuncrcn (nn n:-
nncncunn xcrannon n: pa:anncuuix pacrnopon. K nncny rcxuonoinncc-
xnx npncxon, nonimammnx npon:no(nrcniuocri nponccca n crcncui
n:nncncunn xcranna, oruocnrcn: ncnoni:onaunc uccrannouapuoio ncx-
rponn:a, ncpcxcmnnaunc pacrnopa nnn npamcunc ncxrpo(on, yncnn-
ncunc paoncn noncpxuocrn xaro(on, npc(napnrcniuan onncrxa n xou-
ncurpnponaunc opaarinacxix pacrnopon n r.n.
Tnnonan annaparypuo-rcxunnccxan cxcxa onncrxn cronuix no( c
npnxcucuncx ncxrpoxoaiynnropa (pnc. 6.9) nxnmnacr copunx-ycpc(-
unrcni croxon T, ncxrpoxoaiynnrop 2 n xoxnncxrc c ncronunxox
nocronu uoio roxa J, ax 4 (nn npnioronncunn pacrnopa nonapcuuon
conn, orcron unx : (nn or(cncunn in(poxcn(on xcrannon or onnmacxon
no(i, annapar (nn xcxaunnccxoio oc:nonnaunn oca(xa 6 n uacoc .
Oncxrpoxoaiynnnnouuin xcro( c pacrnopnxixn cnc:uixn auo-
(axn npnxcuncrcn npn oc:npcnnaunn xpoxco(cpamnx cronuix
no( npn pacxo(c (o 1O x/n n xouncurpannn Cf
6=
nnn cyxxapuon
xouncurpa nnn nouon rncnix xcrannon (o 1OO xi/n, a raxc npn pc-
icucpannn or paorauuix pacrnopon nocnc nponcccon xpoxonoxncno-
io auo(nponaunn n uaucccunn xpoxonix ianinaunnccxnx noxpirnn.
B pc:ynirarc pacrnopcunn cnc:uix auo(on no(a ooiamacrcn no uaxn
cnc:a (II) npn pcaxnnnx:
Ic =2OH Ic OH
2= -
2

( )
.
Fe 2e Fe ,
2+

236
Houi Ic
2=
noccrauannnnamr Cf(VI) n xpoxar- n nxpoxar noui (o
Cf
3=
, a raxc cnococrnymr nina(cunm oca(xa Ic(CfO
2
)
3
:
Cf O =6Ic =14H 6Ic =2Cf =7H O;
2 7
2- 2= = 3= 3=
2

Cf O =3Ic OH =4H O Cf OH =3Ic OH =2OH ;


2 7
2-
2 2 3 3
-
( )

( ) ( )
2Ic = H O=2Cf O =4OH 4c 2Ic CfO =2 =1 H O=4O
3=
2 2 7
2- -
2
3
2 2
n n .
( )
!
( )
ononunrcniuo nponcxo(nr xaro(uic ncxrpoxnxnnccxnc nponcc-
ci noccrauonncunn Cf (VI):
Cf O =14H =6c 2Cf =7H O;
2 7
2- = 3=
2

Cf O =4H O=3c Cf OH =5OH .


2 7
2-
2 3
-

( )
Hpn ncxrponn:c onnmacxin pacrnop no(mcnannnacrcn, nro
naionpnnrcrnycr xoa iynnnnn pixnix xnonicn Ic(OH)
2
c pa:ncp-
uyron noncpxuo crim, cnococrnymmcn copnnn nouon rncnix xc-
rannon.
Pnc. 6.9. Cxcxa ncxrpoxoaiynnnnouuon onncrxn cronuix no(: T copunx-
ycpc(unrcn croxon; 2 ncxrponn:cp (ncxrpoxoaiynnrop); J ni npnxnrcni;
4 ax; : orcronunx; 6 annapar (nn xcxaunnccxoio oc:non naunn oca(xa;
uacoc
Crouuan no(a
1
7
5
2
3
6
4
aCl
2
H
2
O
Oc:nocuuin
oca(ox
Oca(ox
Ounmcuuan
no(a
237
Ha xaro(c opa:ycrcn ia:oopa:uin H
2
:
Ic = 2H Ic =H .
= 2=
2

Onrnxaniuoc :uancunc pH cocrannncr 37 n xoppcxrnpycrcn n :a-


nncnxocrn or cooruomcunn xouncurpannn Cf(VI) n (pyinx nouon rn-
cnix xcrannon n cronuix no(ax. Hpn rox nponcxo(nr npaxrnnccxn
o(uonpcxcuuoc noccrauonnc unc Cf(VI) (o Cf
3=
n oca(cunc Cf
3=
n
nn(c Cf(OH)
3
. Hcoxo(nxoc npcxn xouraxra pacrnopa c ncxrpo(axn
uc npcnimacr uccxonixnx (ccnrxon ccxyu(. Marcpnan ncxrpo(on
un:xoyincpo(ncric crann. Hnoruocri roxa ua auo(c O,81,2 A/(x
2
.
nn no((cpaunn onrnxaniuon ncxrponpono(nxocrn pac rnopa xn-
unxaniuoc omcc concco(cpaunc uc (onuo npcnimari 3OO xi/n.
Hpn ncxo(uon xouncurpannn Cf(VI) n cronuix no(ax oncc 1OO xi/n
no:pacramr y(cniuin pacxo( xcranna ncxrpo(on n ncxrpoucpinn,
npcxn opaor xn n ocx ni(cnnmmciocn ia:oopa:uoio no(opo(a.
nn npc(ornpamcunn naccnna nnn n opaarinacxic cronuic no(i
nno(nr ucxoropin n:irox aCl.
Opa:ymmnncn n pc:ynirarc onncrxn ocxuin oca(ox orcrannamr
n ynnorunmr n rcnc unc cyrox. oanncunc qnoxynnura (12 xi/n no-
nnaxpnnaxn(a) ycxopncr xoaiynnnnm nacrnn oca(xa. Ocraronuic xou-
ncurpannn Cf
3=
, Ic
2=
n (pyinx nouon rncnix xcrannon n cronuon
no(c uc (onui npcnimari HK. Oca(ox Cf(OH)
3
, Ic(OH)
3
n (pyinx
rncnix xcrannon nocnc oc:no nnaunn ncnoni:ycrcn n xanccrnc xc-
rannypinnccxoio cipin.
Ocuonuixn uc(ocrarxaxn xcro(a ncxrpoxoaiynnnnn nnnnmrcn
onimon pacxo( xcranna n ncxrpoucpinn, naccnnannn auo(on, a
raxc nonnncunc nropnnuix orxo(on. acrnnuo pcmnri rn nponc-
xi xouo :axcuon ncxrpoxoaiynnnnn ua ianinauoxoaiynnnnm |22,
32, 39, 44]. Ianinauoxoaiynnnnouuin cnoco onncrxn cronuix no( or
nouon rncnix xcrannon, a raxc ucqrcnpo(yxron n pacrnopcuuix
opiaunnccxnx ncmccrn :axnmnacrcn n xouraxrnponaunn cronuix no(
o(uonpcxcuuo c xc(uon n cnc:uon crpyxon c: ncnoni:onaunn
nucmucio ncronunxa ncxrpnnccxoio roxa. B xouraxrc c no(on xcran-
nnnccxnc cnc:o n xc(i opa:ymr ianinaunnccxym napy, n xoropon
cnc:o nipacr poni auo(a n no(ncpiacrcn ncxrpoxnxnnccxoxy pac-
rnopcunm (cx. pnc. 6.9). Hpn rox nxcmr xccro opa:onaunc qcppn-
238
ron xcrannon, ncxrpoxnxnnccxoc noccrauonncunc xarnouon xcrannon
n copnnn pacrnopcuuix opiaunnccxnx ncmccrn opa:ymmnxcn oca(-
xox. Crcncui onncrxn cronuix no( or nouon rncnix xcrannon xocr
(ocrniari 99,9 %.
Icucpannn xoaiynnura npon:no(nrcn n nporonuix npamammnxcn
apaauax, n xoropix noxcmacrcn cxcci (crpyxa), opa:ymman
ianina uonapy (pnc. 6.1O). Bpamcunc apaaua occncnnnacr xouraxr
crpyxn c no:(yxox n onnmacr cc noncpxuocri or npo(yxron pcaxnnn
:a cncr rpcunn. Hpn npamcunn apaaua crpyxa noncpcxcuuo ro noi-
pyacrcn n nporcxammnn cxno:i ucio crox, ro oxa:inacrcn ua no:(yxc.
Cxopocri npamcunn apaaua cocrannncr 3O6O o/n. Iapaau (nnuon
3,5 x n (naxcrpox 1,2 x occncnnnacr onncrxy cronuix no( c pacxo(ox
24 x
3
/n. Hpn npon:no(nrcniuocrn 1O x
3
/n (nn ua apaaua (ocrnia-
cr 1O x.
Tnnonan cxcxa onncrxn cronuix no( c npnxcucuncx ianinauoxoaiy-
nnropa (pnc. 6.11) nxnmnacr ycpc(unrcni croxon 1, ianinauoxoaiynnrop
2, ax (nn npnioronncunn pacrnopa ccpuon xncnori 3, ncnoni:ycxon
(nn xoppcxrnponxn pH no(i (o :uancunn 24, orcronunx 4 (nn or(c-
ncunn cxccn in(poxcn(on xcrannon or onnmacxon no(i, annapar 5 (nn
xcxaunnccxoio oc:nonnaunn oca(xa n uacoc 6.
Pnc. 6.1O. Cxcxa ianinauoxoaiynnropa: T no(ana no(i; 2 xopnyc apaaua;
J onopuic xonina; 4 ncpcxcmn nam mnc ycrponcrna; : ncpqopnponauuin
mnr; 6 copuin ax; pc(yxrop c ncxrpo(nniarcncx; & orno( onnmcu-
uon no(i
1 2 3
7
4
5
6 8
239
Ianinauoxoaiynnnnouuin xcro( mnpoxo npnxcuncrcn npn onncr-
xc cronuix no( or nouon rncnix xcrannon n Cf(VI). B pc:ynirarc pac-
rnopcunn cnc:uon crpyxn cronuan no(a ooia macrcn coc(nucunnxn
cnc:a (II), noccrauannnnammnxn xpox (VI) (o Cf
3=
, a in(poxcn( c-
nc:a (III) n cio oxcn(i (xaiucrnr Ic
3
O
4
n icxarnr Ic
2
O
3
) ynacrnymr n
copnnn n xoaiynnnnn :aipn:ucunn, a raxc n nponcccax qcppnroo-
pa:onaunn.
Tncnic nncruic xcranni n:nncxamrcn n nn(c qcppnron. Hanoncc
qqcxrnnuoc n:nncncunc xc(n, nnuxa, xpoxa (VI) n xpoxa (III) n: ccp-
uo-xncnix pacrnopon nponcxo(nr npn pH ncxo(uix croxon 2,52,7,
npnncx xc(i n xpox (III) qqcxrnnuo n:nncxamrcn n (nana:ouc ncxo(-
uix xouncurpannn or 5O (o 25O xi/n, a xpox (VI) (o 2OO xi/n. Hn-
xcni uanoncc qqcxrnnuo n:nncxacrcn npn pH 3,53,7, a nnux n un-
xcni nnmi npn un:xnx xouncurpannnx coorncrcrncuuo (o 5O xi/n n
(o 1OO xi/n. Kouncurpannn nouon rncnix xcrannon n onnmcuuon no(c
xoncncrcn n npc(cnax or 1 (o O,1 xi/n.
Hpn ianinauoxoaiynnnnouuon onncrxc pacxo( cnc:a cocrannncr
O,21 xi ua 1 x
3
onnmacxix cronuix no( n :anncnxocrn or pH croxa.
B pc :ynirarc onncrxn opa:ycrcn O,41,5 xi cnc:oco(cpamcio nro-
Pnc. 6.11. Cxcxa ianinauoxoaiynnnnouuon onncrxn cronuix no(: T ycpc(unrcn
croxon; 2 ianinauoxoaiynnrop; J ax (nn npnioronncunn pacrnopa ccpuon
xncnori; 4 orcronunx; : annapar (nn xcxaunnccxoio oc:nonnaunn oca(xa;
6 uacoc
Crouuan no(a
1
6
4
2
5
3
H
2
SO
4
Oc:nocuuin
oca(ox
Oca(ox
Ounmcuuan
no(a
24O
pnnuoio orxo(a ua 1 x
3
onnmacxix cronuix no(. Kpoxc roio, cronuan
no(a, npomc(man opaorxy n ianinauoxoaiynnropc, co(cpnr oni-
moc xonnnccrno n:ncmcuuix, nnoxo orcrannammnxcn xcnxo(ncncp-
cuix nacrnn, cocronmnx inanuix opa:ox n: qcppnron n xoxca. Ho-
roxy onnmcuuym no(y ncpc( cpo cox n xauann:annm no(ncpiamr
xuoiocryncunaron onncrxc or n:ncmcu uix nacrnn ni(cpxc n or-
cronunxc, qnnirponaunm ncpc: nopncric xa rcpnani n qnnirpi c
nnanammcn :aipy:xon. Oca(ox n: unucn nacrn orcronunxa no(ncp-
iamr onncrxc ua npccc-qnnirpax.
K uc(ocrarxax annaparon no ianinauoxoaiynnnnn cnc(ycr oruccrn
onimnc iaapnruic pa:xcpi, :uannrcniuin myx n nnpannm, a rax-
c cnouocri pciynnponaunn napaxcrpon nponccca. Omnx uc(ocrar-
xox ncxrpoxnxnnccxnx xcro(on nnnncrcn nocrcncuuoc uaxonncunc
n pacrnopc concn mcnonuix xcrannon |22].
Cpc(n xcro(on, occncnnnammnx onncrxy cronuix no( or nouon
rncnix xcrannon, ucoxo(nxo orxcrnri raxc xcxpauuin xcro(,
xoropin ncnoni:ycrcn xax caxocronrcniuo, rax n n concraunn c (py-
inxn. auuin xcro( (acr no:xouocri pa:(cnnri n xouncurpnponari
npaxrnnccxn n ucn:xcuuox nn(c xoxnoucuri onnmacxix no( |22, 41].
O(unx n: xcxpauuix xcro(on nnnncrcn ncxrpo(nann:uin, oc-
uonauuin ua nnncunn ncpcuoca nouon ncxrponnra ncpc: ccncxrnnuic
nouooxcuuic xcxpaui no( (cncrnncx nocronuuoio ncxrpnnccxo-
io roxa. Hccnc(onaunc xouncurpnponaunn pa:anncuuix pacrnopon
ncxrponnron unxcnnponaunn xcro(ox ncxrpo(nann:a noxa:ano, nro
no:nparnri n rcxuonoinnccxnn nnxn xouo 9799 % ncxrponnra, npn
un:xnx ncxrpo:arparax.
Oncxrpo(nann: ncnoni:ycrcn raxc (nn onncrxn xpoxco(cpamnx,
unxcnico(cpamnx n r.(. npoxinuix cronuix no(. Ho( (cncrnncx
nocronuuoio ncxrpnnccxoio roxa xarnoui n aunoui, :aipn:unmmnc
no(y, nino(nrcn ncpc: nonynpounnacxic xcxpaui n o(un xaxcpi
(uanpnxcp, ncruic) ncxrpo(nann:aropa, a onnmcuuan no(a n (pyinc
(ucncruic), n: xoropix uanpannncrcn n ooporuin nnxn. Kouncurpar
n: ncruix xaxcp no:npamacrcn n npon:no(crno (nn nonropuoio nc-
noni:onaunn. Hocxonixy xcxpaui c :a(cpnnammcn cnocouocrim
5O7O % :axnarinamr npaxrnnccxn ncc nonnnancuruic xarnoui, ro
nx npnxcucunc (nn onncrxn npoxinuix cronuix no( n pcicucpannn
ncxrponnron npc(crannncrcn uanoncc ncpcncxrnnuix.
241
Honnxcpuic xcxpaui nxcmr, xax npannno, un:xym xnxnnccxym
cronxocri, n npn nx ncnoni:onaunn rpcycrcn npc(napnrcniuan onncr-
xa croxon. Horoxy n uacronmcc npcxn paccxarpnnacrcn no:xouocri
npnxcucunn ucopiaunnccxnx xcxpau. Hccxorpn ua ro, nro nx y(cni-
uan npon:no(nrcniuocri unc, ncx y nonnxcpuix, (nn onncrxn cro-
xon ianinaunnccxnx npon:no(crn ucopiaunnccxnc xcxpaui xoiyr
oxa:aricn npc(nonrnrcniucn.
K npcnxymccrnax xcxpauuix nponcccon onncrxn cnc(ycr orucc-
rn no:xouocri nx nonuon anroxarn:annn. ocraronuan xnxnnccxan
ycronnnnocri xcxpau no:nonncr ncc mnpc npnxcunri ncxrpo(nann:
n cxcxax inyoxon onncrxn, orpaorauuix pacrnopon n npoxinuix
cronuix no( ianinaunnccxnx npon:no(crn c yrnnn:anncn ncuuix xc-
rannon. Pcmammcc :uancunc npn rox nxccr c:orxo(uocri nponccca,
rax xax cio npo(yxraxn (xpoxc xouncurpara ncuuix xoxnoucuron)
nnnnmrcn onnmcuuan occconcuuan no(a, no:npamacxan n npon:no(-
crno, a raxc pacconi, xoropic xouo ncnoni:onari (nn pcicucpannn
xarnounronix yxninammnx qnnirpon npc(napnrcniuon onncrxn.
Hpn onncrxc npoximncuuix croxon or nouon rncnix xcrannon
uanonimnc xacmrai nonynnna nocopnnn y(ancunc xcrannon
nyrcx nuyrpn- n nucxncronuon xouncurpannn nx ua nocopcurax c
nocnc(ymmnx oca(cuncx n ni(cncuncx. O(uaxo uccxorpn ua ni-
coxym qqcxrnnuocri nonoinnccxnx xcro(on onncrxn nxcmrcn on-
pc(cncuuic rpy(uocrn, nircxammnc n: nonoinnccxon cymuocrn
nponccca, a nxcuuo cuncunc axrnnuocrn noxacci npn uccranni-
uocrn cocrana croxa, ucoxo(nxocri ucnpcpinuon no(nnrxn cronuix
no( noicuuixn ncxcuraxn, pa:anncunc nicoxoxouncurpnponau-
uix cronuix no( n (p. Kpoxc roio, uc pcmcua nponcxa yrnnn:annn
nropnnuoio orxo(a noxacci, a(copnponanmcn xcranni |17, 18,
2O, 27, 29].
B nocnc(ucc npcxn (nn onncrxn npoximncuuix cronuix no( or
rncnix xcrannon uanann ncnoni:onari icrcporpoquic xnxpoopia-
un:xi c (oanxaxn opiaunnccxoio ncmccrna, ucoxo(nxixn (nn yc-
ronnnnoio pocra axrcpnn. B raxon cncrcxc c ynacrncx xnxpoon npo-
rcxamr pcaxnnn oxncncunn/noccrauonncunn nnn oca(cunn xcrannon
n nn(c cyniqn(on.
nn oca(cunn ucxoropix xcrannon n: cronuix no( nacro ncnoni-
:ymr axrnnuin nn. Hanpnxcp, a(copnnn nouon pryrn axrnnuix nnox,
242
npc(napnrcniuo uaipcrix (o rcxncparypi 1OO C, (ocrniacr 9O % or
ncxo(uon xouncurpannn npn npcxcun xouraxra 2 n. nn n:nncncunn
nouon pryrn n: cronuix no( xouo npnxcunri raxc noxaccy xnx-
poopiaun:xon Micfococcus lutcs, aipcinponauuym narcxcox n ncxyc-
crncuuic noqnoxn. Aipcinponauuic no qnoxn xncrxn axrcpnn no:-
nonnmr a(copnponari (o 85 % nouon pryrn :a 12 n |18].
nn onncrxn cronuix no( or rncnix xcrannon, uanpnxcp, noni-
qpaxa n xonn(cua qqcxrnnuo ncnoni:onaunc cyniqarpc(ynnpym-
mnx axrcpnn. B xanccrnc ncronunxon nnraunn rnx axrcpnn npnxc-
unmr xcpocnu, oncnuonym xncnory n xcauroicuar uarpnn. Inoxnxn-
nccxym onncrxy cronuix no( ocymccrnnnmr n ycrauonxc, cocronmcn
n: cxxocrn (norcuxa) (nn xynirnnnponaunn xnxpoopiaun:xon, cx-
xocrn (nn cipin n orcronunxa. Onncrxa nponcxo(nr n rcncunc 1O (ucn
n auapouix ycnonnnx npn nocronuuon nnpxynnnnn axrnnuoio nna
n rcxncparypc n norcuxc 182O C. Kynirypa cyniqarpc(ynnpymmnx
axrcpnn, ni(cncuuan n: ucqrnuoio xccropo(cunn, npc(napnrcniuo
a(anrnpycrcn x ncronunxax nnraunn, a :arcx x npncyrcrnnm nouon
noniqpaxa n xonn(cua. Crcncui onncrxn no(i raxnx xcro(ox or no-
uon rnx xcrannon (ocrniacr 9498 %.
Cxcxa nonoinnccxon onncrxn xpoxco(cpamnx cronuix no( npn-
nc(cua ua pnc. 6.12. Iironan cronuan no(a co cpc(unx :uancuncx IHK
1OO xi/n nocrynacr n orcronunx T n :arcx caxorcxox n xaxcpy cxcmc-
unn J. B xaxcpy cxcmcunn nocrynamr raxc xpoxco(cpamnc cron-
uic no(i, npc(napnrcniuo ycpc(ucuuic n ocnoo(cuuic or xpynuix
nacrnn, a raxc axrnnuin nn n: orcronunxa onnmcuuix croxon 4. Pac-
xo( xpoxco(cpamnx cronuix no( xourponnpycrcn pacxo(oxcpox.
Cxcci no(i n axrnnuoio nna n xaxcpc cxcmcunn pa:(cnncrcn ua (na
noroxa n nocrynacr n ax 6, n xoropox npn nocronuuox ncpcxcmnna-
unn Cf(VI) noccrauannnnacrcn (o Cf
3=
, xoropin nina(acr n oca(ox n
nn(c in(poxcn(a. Bo(a c in(pooxcn(ox xpoxa n axrnnuix nnox noc-
rynacr n orcronunx 4. acri axrnnuoio nna nocnc oca(cunn no:npa-
macrcn n xaxcpy cxcmcunn, a n:irox cpacinacrcn n pc:cpnyap crau-
nnn ncpcxanxn 2. B ror pc:cpnyap nocrynacr raxc n onnmcuuan or
Cf(VI) no(a n: orcronunxa ironix croxon T. Cxcci croxon :arcx cpa-
cinacrcn n iopo(cxym xauann:annm.
Kouncurpannn Cf(V) n xaxcpc cxcmcunn xoncncrcn or 1O (o 4O xi/n,
a n orcronunxc onnmcuuix croxon or O,O4 (o O,2 xi/n. B nponcccc
243
1
7
5
9
2
8
4
6
3
6
OX
Pnc. 6.12. Tcxuonoinnccxan cxcxa ycrauonxn nonoinnccxon onncrxn xpoxco(cp-
amnx cronuix no(: T orcronunx ironix cronuix no(; 2 craunnn ncpcxan-
xn; J xaxcpa cxcmcunn; 4 orcronunx onnmcuuix cronuix no(; : uacoc
axrnnuoio nna; 6 ax; uacoc (nn orxanxn no( n oca(xon; & ax orpaorau-
uoio xpoxonoio ncxrponnra; 9 pacnpc(cnnrcniuan xaxcpa.
ironan no(a n: iopo(cxon xauann:annn Q 65 x
3
/n;
xpoxco(cpamnc cronuic no(i n: ncxa xcrannonoxpirnn, Q
47 x
3
/n;
auapouin axrnnuin nn;
cxcci no( n axrnnuoio nna;
no(a c in(poxncim xpoxa n axrnnuix nnox;
onnmcuuan no(a;
oca(ox ironix no(;
cxcci no(i n oca(xon n iopo(cxym xauann:annm Q 112 x
3
/n;
244
ncnoni:ycrcn xynirypa axrcpnn Pscudomonax dcclfomaticans, ni-
(cncuuan n: axrnnuoio nna. Ycnonnn nponccca noccrauonncunn aua-
pouic, npcxn noccrauonncunn n: mccrnnancuruoio xpoxa n rpcxna-
ncuruin or O,5 (o 4 n n :anncnxocrn or ncxo(uon xouncurpannn
Cf(VI). Tcxncparypa nponccca 2O25 C, pH cpc(i 7,78,3. Kann-
raniuic :arpari npn raxox xcro(c onncrxn unc n 35, a xcnnyra-
nnouuic n 57 pa: no cpanucunm c cymccrnymmnxn cnocoaxn
onncrxn no(i or xpoxa.
Onncrxa no(i or rncnix xcrannon n pa(noaxrnnuix ncxcuron
xcro(ox nocopnnn ocuonaua ua nx n:anxo(cncrnnn c noncpxuocr-
uixn crpyxrypaxn xncrox xnxpoopiaun:xon, xnxpouixn xcrao-
nnraxn n x:ononnxcpaxn (or ipcn. exo nuc, cuapyn). B rox xc-
ro(c nacro ncnoni:ymr xynirypy Z. famigcfa 115, opa:ymmym onimoc
xonnnccrno x:ononncaxapn(on npn pocrc ua cpc(c c yincno(axn. Ino-
xaccy uapamnnamr n qcpxcurarnnuon cpc(c, cocronmcn n: inmxo:i,
K
2
HPO
4
, K HPO
4
, H
4
Cl, MgSO
4
7H
2
O n (pocnoio xouncurpara
npn rcxncparypc 26 C, ncpcxcmnnaunn n aporac no:(yxox. Hocnc
xynirnnnponaunn n rcncunc 5 cyrox ioronym noxaccy or(cnnmr or
xynirypaniuon n(xocrn ncurpnqyinponauncx nnn orcrannauncx c
nocnc(ymmcn (cxau(anncn. Inoxaccy ncnoni:ymr (nn copnnn xc(n,
xa(xnn n ypaua. Ccncxrnnuoc n:nncncunc rnx ncxcuron npn nx con-
xccruox npncyrcrnnn (ocrniacrcn nyrcx n:xcucunn pH pacrnopa.
nn ocymccrnncunn nocopnnn n npon:no(crncuuix ycnonnnx nc-
noni:ymrcn (na rnna pcaxropon. cnn ocx npoximncuuix cronuix
no( uc npcnimacr 4,5 x
3
/cyr, npnxcunmr ycrauonxn ncpno(nnccxoio
(cncrnnn, cocronmnc n: arapcn nocnc(onarcniuo coc(nucuuix nauon
uconimon cxxocrn. Cxcxa onncrxn cno(nrcn x cnc(ymmnx oncpann-
nx. Cronuic no(i uaxannnnamrcn n nauc-cxccnrcnc. Hocnc cio ua-
nonucunn n:ironuin ocx pacrnopa ncpcxannnacrcn c nocronuuon
cxopocrim n ncpnin nau arapcn, xoropin, xax n ncc nocnc(ymmnc,
co(cpnr 18 xi nocopcura. Hocnc uacimcunn nocopcura xcran-
naxn n ncpnox nauc cio orxnmnamr, n nocopcur n: ucio uanpannnmr
ua pcicucpannm. io xccro :aunxacr nropon nau arapcn co cncnx
nocopcurox n r.(.
nn npon:no(crn c ocxox cronuix no( 4,5 x
3
/cyr ncnoni:ymr yc-
rauonxy c pcaxropox xnnnmcio cnon. Pcaxrop npc(crannncr coon cx-
xocri, co(cpamym ipauyni nocopcura, n (ouuym nacri xoropoio
245
n: naua cxccnrcnn no(amr cronuic no(i. B pc:ynirarc ncpcxcmnna-
unn ipauyni nocopcura pacnpc(cnnmrcn no nccxy ocxy n(xocrn
n pcaxropc. Hpn rox xpynuic oncc rncnic ipauyni nocrcncuuo
occ(amr, a xcnxnc no(unxamrcn uancpx, opa:yn cranniuin n:nc-
mcuuin cnon nocopcura, xoropin n occncnnnacr qqcxrnnuym
onncrxy pacrnopon or xcrannon. Ipauyni, copnponanmnc xcrann, cra-
uonnrcn rncncc n onycxamrcn ua (uo pcaxropa. Haxannnnammnncn
ua (uc uanoncc uacimcuuin xcrannaxn xarcpnan (cio ocx cocran-
nncr 1O % or omcio ocxa pcaxropa) ncpno(nnccxn y(annmr. B:a-
xcu n pcaxrop nno(nr cncnn nocopcur n ocxc, panuox y(ancuuo-
xy. Taxan ycrauonxa ncnoni:onanaci (nn onncrxn cronuix no( or cnnu-
na. Kouncurpannn cnnuna n cronuix no(ax xoncanaci n npc(cnax
or O,O1 (o 4,3O xi/n, :uancunc pH napinponanoci or 4,6 (o 9,7. Ycra-
uonxa cranniuo occncnnnana onncrxy no(i or cnnuna ua 9899 %.
Unaxi, nonynacxic ua onncruix coopycunnx nocnc onncrxn
cronuix no( ianinaunnccxnx npon:no(crn, uaxo(nrcn n rncp(ox, nac-
roopa:uox nnn n(xox cocronunn n co(cpar n cnocx cocranc nico-
xoroxcnnuic xpox, unxcni, xc(i, nnux, xa(xnn, cnc:o n (p. Ho npc(-
uoxy no:(cncrnnm ua oxpyammym cpc(y oun oncpcamr (ac orxo-
(i aroxuix ncxrpocraunnn. Ocxi opa:onaunn n uaxonncunn
mnaxon n: io(a n io( pacryr. Hpc(npnnrnn :anacrym niuy(cui cxna-
(nponari nx n xpaunri (nnrcniuoc npcxn ua cnonx rcppnropnnx, ni-
nnannnari oipoxuic mrpaqi :a nx npcxcuuoc pa:xcmcunc n xpauc-
unc. K roxy c xccra nx npcxcuuoio xpaucunn, xax noxa:inacr npax-
rnxa, uc no nccx cnynanx occncnnnamr ua(cuym :amnry oxpyammcn
cpc(i or no:xouoio :aipn:ucunn roxcnnuixn xoxnoucuraxn rnx
orxo(on. nn yxcuimcunn xonoinnccxon onacuocrn ianinauomnaxon
pa:paoraui rpn xcro(a cuncunn onacuocrn mnaxon (nn oxpyam-
mcn cpc(i |6, 12, 2O, 24, 29, 36].
Hcpnin xcro( ocuonau ua n:nncncunn nouon rncnix xcrannon n:
mnaxon c noxomim nx n:anxo(cncrnnn c connuon xncnoron.
Hpn n:anxo(cncrnnn mnaxon c connuon xncnoron uanm(amrcn
xapaxrcpuic n:xcucunn pH cpc(i, cnn(crcnicrnymmnc o ncpcxo(c
xapouara xaninnn n in(poxcn(on rncnix xcrannon n coorncrcrnym-
mnc xnopn(i xcrannon.
Pacncri noxa:ann, nro npn xnxnnccxox oc:npcnnaunn ua 1OO r
mnaxa, co(cpamcio 5O r no(i, ua xnxnnccxym pcaxnnm xapouara
246
xaninnn n pacrnopnxix in(poxcn(on rncnix xcrannon norpcycr-
cn 8O r 1O %-oio pacrnopa connuon xncnori. Hpn rox y(cr nony-
ncuo 12O r 18 %-oio pac rnopa xnopncroio xaninnn, co(cpamcio
1OO xi xnopn(on rncnix xcran non n 56 r oc:npccuuoio mnaxa,
co(cpamcio 28 r no(i. Oc:npccuuin mnax, uc co(cpamnn pac-
rnopnxix qopx rncnix xc rannon, uc onaccu (nn no(uix ocxron.
Pacrnop xnopncroio xaninnn xocr iri ncnoni:onau n xanccrnc
ycxopn rcnn icncopa:onaunn n pcncnrypax xoxno:nnnn ua ocuo nc
anmxocnnnxaron, npnxcuncxix (nn cuncunn ono(ucuuocrn (o-
inacxon ucqrn.
Bropon xcro( npc(ycxarpnnacr nicymnnaunc mnaxa n ncnoni:o-
naunc cio n xanccrnc xnucpaniuoio nopomxa n cocranc acqanirocrou-
uix cxcccn npn crponrcnicrnc anroxonni uix (opoi (un:xorcxncpa-
rypuan ncxcurannn).
Hccnc(onaunn noxa:ann, nro no cnc y(ancunn nnain nicymnnauncx
nnn n:anxo(cncrnncx c oxcn(ox xaninnn mnax no cnonx qn:nxo-xn-
xnnccxnx noxa:arcnnx coorncrcrnycr uopxax, npc(nnnncxix x xn-
ucpaniuix nopomxax, xoropic pcxoxcu(ycr cn npnxcunri (nn nccx
rnnon acqanirocrouuix cxcccn npn crponrcnicrnc anroxonniuix
(opoi |19, 34].
Tpcrnn xcro( npc(ycxarpnnacr nonncncunc nnauoio mnaxa n co-
cran innunuon xacci npn npon:no(crnc xcpax:nra (nicoxorcxncpa-
rypuan ncxcurannn).
Oror xcro( ocuonau ua ncnoni:ona unn nnauoio mnaxa n cocranc
innuncroio cipin npn npon:no(crnc xcpax :nra, nonynacxoio nico-
xorcxncparypuix oniox innuncrix ipauyn. nn oocuonaunn ro-
io cnocoa ino nccnc(onauo nonc(cunc npn uaipcnaunn no: (ymuo-
cyxnx in(poxcn(on rncnix xcrannon n cooca(cuuix c in(poxcn(ox
cnc:a. Tcpxoipannxcrpnnccxnc nccnc(onaunn noxa:ann, nro in(pox-
cn(i rnc nix xcrannon (:a ncxnmncuncx xc(n) npn uaipcnaunn npn
rcxncparypax or 18O (o 42O C opa:ymr oxcn(i, ona(ammnc cymcc-
rncuuo xcuimcn pacrnopnxocrim n no(c, ncx ncxo(uic in(poxcn(i,
a cooca(cuuic c in(poxcn(ox cnc:a opa:ymr npaxrnnccxn ucpac-
rnopnxic qcp pnri npn uaipcnaunn (o 4OO45O C. Bicoxorcxncpa-
rypuan ncxcurannn n xarpnnc n: innuncroio cipin, raxnx opa:ox,
nnnncrcn (ocraronuo qqcxrnnuix nponcccox yrnnn:annn mnaxon,
co(cpamnx in(poxcn(i rncnix xcrannon.
247
6.4. Hyvn cnnaenna coaepaanna vaaeamx wevaaaoa
a uo4ae
Cymccrnycr (na ocuonuix no(xo(a x cauannn nonn, :aipn:ucuuix
rncnixn xcrannaxn. Hcpnin no(xo( cocronr n onnmcunn nonni n:-
nncncuncx rncnix xcrannon n: y(ancunn ncpxucio :aipn:ucuuoio
cnon nonni c noxomim pacrcunn |7, 23, 38].
Bropon ocuonau ua :axpcnncunn rncnix xcrannon n nonnc nyrcx
ncpcno(a nx n ucpacrnopnxic n no(c n uc(ocrynuic nnix opiaun:xax
qopxi. nn roio npc(naiacrcn nucccunc n nonny opiaunnccxoio ncmcc-
rna, qocqopuix xnucpaniuix y(opcunn, nouooxcuuix cxon, npn-
po(uix nconnron, ypoio yinn, n:nccrxonaunc nonni n r.(. |14, 31, 37]
umon cnoco :axpcnncunn rncnix xcrannon n nonnc nxccr cnon
cpox (cncrnnn. Pauimc nnn no:c nacri nx cuona uanucr nocrynari n
nonncuuin pacrnop, a orry(a n nnic opiaun:xi.
Hpn oncuxc pa:nnnuix cnocoon cauannn :aipn:ucuuix rncni-
xn xcrannaxn nonn npc(naiacrcn ncnoni:onari rpn xpnrcpnn: +oao-
euuecyu e:onocnocmi, mexnoaoeuuecyu +qqemuonocmi u +ono+u-
uecyu penmoeainocmi. K coancunm, n uacronmcc npcxn un o(nu n:
cymccrnymmnx cnocoon cauannn uc y(onncrnopncr o(uonpcxcuuo
nccx rpcx xpnrcpnnx.
Hc ronixo pa:uic nn(i pacrcunn, uo n pa:nnnuic nx opiaui o-
na(amr uco(nuaxonon cnocouocrim uaxannnnari rncnic xcranni.
Oua :anncnr or nn(a nonn, ua xoro pix npon:pacramr pacrcunn, xo-
noinnccxon ocrauon xn n (auuox panouc, qa:i pa:nnrnn pacrcunn, a
raxc or cncnnqnxn axxyxynnpycxix xcrannon, nx xouncurpannn n
cnucpicrnnccxnx n auraiouncrnnccxnx n:anxo(cncrnnn or(cniuix
ncxcuron n cxccn. Konnnccrno axxyxynnpycxix rnc nix xcrannon
:anncnr raxc or nn(a pac rcunn |23]. Ho :uancunnx nanonoio co(cp-
aunn rncnix xcrannon n nonnc n n pacrcunnx n ncnox n n nx or(c-
niuix nacrnx paccnnrinamr nu(cxc noaxxyxynnnnn. Oxa:anoci, nro
cpc(ucc :uancunc nu(cxca noaxxyxynnnnn (nn ua(:cxuix nacrcn
pacrcunn yxcuimacrcn n cnc(ymmcx pn(y Ic Cu Cf Zn
Co Mn. nn nccx xcrannon (xpoxc cnc:a) nu(cxc noaxxyxynn-
nnn xcuimc 1, nro cnn(crcnicrnycr o nx cnaox noinomcunn pacrc-
unnxn n: nonni. nn cnc:a uanonimnn nu(cxc nonoinnccxon ax-
248
xyxynnnnn nxccr xncncp nyionon, noniui iopixan n ca copuan, n
uanxcuimnn xopi cnan n o(ynaunnx. Taxnx opa:ox, nonyncuuic
(auuic cnn(crcnicrnymr o rox, nro onimcn axxyxynnnnouuon cno-
couocrim no oruomcunm xo nccx n:yncuuix rncnix xcrannax o-
na(amr xncncp nyionon, noniui iopixan n ca copuan. Bipocmnc ua
:aipn:ucuuix nonnax pacrcunn cxamnnamr, nicymnnamr n no(ncpia-
mr o:oncunm. Honyncuuym :ony pnxcrnpymr n yrnnn:npymr. 3oni-
uin ocrarox pacrcunn-xouncurparopon xouo ncnoni:onari n xancc-
rnc xnxpoy(opcunn ua c(uix xnxponcxcuraxn nonnax. Ka(oc n:
pacrcunn uaxannnnacr n nociax 23 n pcc 4 ncxcura. Cnocouocri
(nxopacrymnx pacrcunn uaxannnnari rncnic xcranni xouo nc-
noni:onari xax o(nu n: xcro(on onncrxn n o:(oponncunn :aipn:ucu-
uix nonn. Oror xcro( uc rpcycr onimnx xouoxnnccxnx :arpar, npocr
n npaxrnnccxox ocymccrnncunn n npnxcunx n nmix xonoinnccxn
ucnaionpnnruix :ouax.
nn nnxnn(annn nocnc(crnnn :aipn:ucunn nonn rncnixn xcran-
naxn cymccrnymr pa:nnnuic xcro(i |14, 2O]. nn cnniuo:aipn:ucu-
uix nonn ro y(ancunc :aipn:ucuuoio cnon c nocnc(ymmnx n:nncnc-
uncx rncnix xcrannon nyrcx ncpcno(a nx coc(nucunn n no(nnuym
qopxy. Bixinaunc rncnix xcrannon n: nonni npon:no(nr pacrno-
pox IcCl
3
n xncnon cpc(c. Hpn nucccunn n nonny concn cnc:a nponc-
xo(nr ynynmcunc cc qn:nnccxoio cocronunn aipcinponaunc :a cncr
opa:onaunn cnc:oiyxaruix xoxnncxcon. Ho oxounaunn onncrxn
npono(nr xoxnncxcuoc oxyniryponaunc nonni, a nxcuuo: n:nccrxo-
naunc, nucccunc opiaunnccxnx n xnucpaniuix y(opcunn, xoxncu-
cnpymmnx norcpn noicuuix ncxcuron npn npoxinxc.
Mcucc (opoinx xcro(ox onncrxn nonni nnnncrcn nucccunc nc-
mccrn-nuaxrnnaropon. B Bcnnxopnraunn, Icpxaunn, 0paunnn, 2no-
unn (nn roio ncnoni:ymr xcpxanro-8-rpna:nu. Hpn rox xa(xnn,
cnnucn, pryri n unxcni nponuo qnxcnpymrcn n nonnc n ucpacrnopnxox
n uc(ocrynuox (nn pacrcunn nn(c. Oncxcuri nnraunn xaninnn,
xaiunn, xannn n (p. npn nnc(cunn xcpxanro-8-rpna:nua n nonnc uc
:axpcnnnmrcn. Hc(ocrarxaxn roio cnocoa nnnnmrcn oipaunncuuan
cxxocri n nuaxrnnnpymman cnocouocri ncmccrn-nuaxrnnaropon.
B Icpxaunn uamnn npnxcucunc nouooxcuuic cxoni, opa:ym-
mnc c xcrannaxn nponuic xcnaruic coc(nucunn. Houuooxcuuic
cxoni npnxcunmr n xncnoruon nnn concnon qopxax, nuocn nx n non-
249
ny n nn(c nopomxa nnn ipauyn n (o:ax, onpc(cnncxix yponucx :a-
ipn:ucunn.
nn onncrxn nonn or rncnix xcrannon ncnoni:ymr raxc xnxn-
nccxym xcnnopannm. B ocuonc roio xcro(a ncnr ncpcno( rncnix
xcrannon n nonnc n uc(ocrynuoc (nn pacrcunn cocronunc nyrcx n:xc-
ucunn pH cpc(i. Bo nnauox xnnxarc ro ncixo ocymccrnnri c noxo-
mim n:nccrxonaunn. 3amnruoc (cncrnnc n:nccrn nponnnncrcn n pc-
:ynirarc :axcui nouon no(opo(a n nonncuuox noinomammcx xoxn-
ncxcc ua noui xaninnn. Hpn rox nponcxo(nr ucnrpann:annn cpc(i
n opa:onaunc n nonncuuox pacrnopc xonnon(on in(poxcn(on rnc-
nix xcrannon. O(uonpcxcuuo axrnnn:npycrcn (cnrcniuocri axrcpn-
aniuon xnxpoqnopi, cymccrncuuo no:pacracr noxacca xnxpoopia-
un:xon, nacri xoropix xocr axxyxynnponari xcranni. Hanonimnn
qqcxr nponnnncrcn npn conxccruox nucccunn n:nccrn n xnucpani-
uix y(opcunn, rax xax nocnc(unc xoxncucnpymr orpnnarcniuoc no:-
(cncrnnc n:irxa rncnix xcrannon, a n:nccrxonaunc npnno(nr x o-
pa:onaunm xcucc no(nnuix coc(nucunn xcrannon (xapouaron, qoc-
qaron, in(poxcn(on) n, xax cnc(crnnc, x :uannrcniuoxy yxcuimcunm
co(cpaunn rnx ncxcuron n pacrcunnx.
nn n:nncncunn rncnix xcrannon n: axrnnuoio nna ncnoni:ymr
xaninncnic xarcpnani, raxnc xax rcxunnccxnn rpnxaninnn qocqar,
npnpo(uin innc, qocqoinnc n xcn.
Hpn cxc mcunn xaninncnix xarcpnanon n nna nponcxo(nr (ccop-
nnn rnc nix xcrannon c noncpxuocrn xnc rox, n:nncncunc nx n:
nnronna: xi axrcpnaniuix xncrox, :axc mcunc rncnix xcrannon ua
xaninnn n iyxnuonix n (pyinx opia unnccxnx ncmccrnax. Kaninncnic
xarcpnani, nicrynammnc n ponn a(copcura xnxpoopiaun:xon, iy-
xyconix n axnuoxncnor, cn xon n nnraxnuon, nurcucnqnnn pymr qn-
:nxo-noxnxnnccxnc nponccci, nc(ymnc x :axcmcunm rncnix xc-
rannon n cocrannnm mnx nna ua xaninnn |17, 18].
Apnponaunc cncrcxi n nnc (cunc uapn(y c xaninncnixn xa-
rcpnanaxn qocqar-nouon, uco xo(nxix (nn n:uc(cnrcniuocrn xnx-
poopiaun:xon n nnnnmmnxcn crpyxrypuix ncxcurox opiaun nccxnx
ncmccrn, xocr cnococr nonari oncc nonuoxy n:nncnc unm rncnix
xcrannon n: nna.
Oqqcxrnnuoc ncnoni:onaunc xaninncnix xarcpnanon n apannn
(nn n:nncncunn rncnix xcrannon n: axrnnuoio nna ino noxa:auo
25O
n xcncpnxcurax, nponc(cuuix ua nonoinnccxnx onn cruix coopyc-
unn i. Bc nnxnn Honiopo(. B xanccrnc ncxo(uix xaninncnix xarcpna-
non ncnoni:onann xnuinccnn cxnn qocqopnr, rcxunnccxnn rpnxani-
nnnqocqar, npnpo(uin innc, qocqoinnc n xouncpcnou uin xcn. Hc-
pc( cxcmcuncx n:ironuoio axrnnuoio nna c xaninncnix xa rcpnanox
n ucio nno(nnn xouoxaninnnqocqar nnn (nin(poqocqar uarpnn (o
nonyncunn xou ncurpannn PO
4
2+
11OO xi/n. Ho(any no:(yxa ocymccr-
nnnnn c noxomim aparopa Tnrau c ocxuon cxopocrim 16 x
3
/n.
Hpn nnc(cunn 5O xi/n qocqar-nouon n cncrcxy nnxaninncnin xa-
rcpnan crcncui n:nncncunn xc(n, cnnuna, unxcnn, xpoxa, nnuxa n:
rncp(on qa:i nna n no(uym (noui n xonnon(i) yncnnnnnanaci ua 1O
5O % npn (o:c xaninncnoio xarcpnana uc xcucc 25 i/n n npcxcun ncpc-
xcmnnaunn 13 n |17].
nn cuncunn qnroroxcnnuocrn rncnix xcrannon xouo ncnoni-
:onari raxc npnpo(uic copcuri nconnri. Oun nnnnmrcn uc roni-
xo xopomnxn copcuraxn, uo n o(uonpcxcuuo ncronunxaxn nnraunn
pacrcunn n ncmccrnaxn, ynynmammnxn crpyxrypy nonni. Unpoxo
pacnpocrpaucuuin nconnr xnnuonrnnnonnr qnxcnpycr cnnucn
n 51O pa: axrnnucc, ncx nonna.
nn (croxcnxannn ipyuron, :aipn:ucuuix connxn rncnix xcran-
non, ncnoni:ymr raxc axnuoxncnori, xoropic opa:ymr nponuic
xoxnncxci c nouaxn rncnix xcrannon. Ha npc(npnnrnnx no ni(cn-
xc xcxa, xon n ncpcpaorxc xnca, pii n nrnni opa:ymrcn cnox-
co(cpamnc orxo(i, npn in(ponn:c xoropix nonynamr rax ua:inac-
xym xoxno:nnnm AK-3O, xoropan cocronr n: cxccn uarpncnix concn
axnuoxncnor anaunua, nannua, innnnua, ccpnua, incrn(nua n (p.
Ora xoxno:nnnn oruocnrcn x ncmccrnax 4-io xnacca onacuocrn, uc
ni:inacr roxcnnccxoio (cncrnnn ua opiaun:x ncnoncxa n pa:pcmcua
Pocnorpcua(:opox x npnxcucunm n xanccrnc (croxcnxaura ipyuron.
Cnoco opaorxn nonni n pacxo( AK-3O :anncnr or co(cpaunn n
ucn rncnix xcrannon. Pacrnop xoxno:nnnn n cxccn co mcnonim ua-
uocnr ua nonny pa:pi:innammnx ycrponcrnox n: anronncrcpui nnn
n: pau(conra. Hponccc (croxcnxannn nonni xoxno:nnncn AK-3O
xourponnpycrcn no ncnnnnuc no(opo(uoio noxa:arcnn. Hponccc cnn-
ramr :ancpmcuuix, ccnn pH cun:nncn (o ncnnnnui 7,5 n uc n:xc-
unncn n rcncunc 23 (ucn. Honuoc cnn:inaunc xcrannon n o(uox xy-
oxcrpc nonni nponcxo(nr ncpc: 33,5 n |31, 37].
251
Ocoo qqcxrnnuo npnxcucunc (nn pcxynirnnannn :a ipn:ucuuix
nonn n :cxcni iyxnuonix xncnor. Ho cyrn (cna, pcxynirnnannn n rox
cnynac nxnmna cr xax (croxcnxannm nonn n :cxcni, :aipn:ucuuix rn-
cnixn xcrannaxn, rax n onncrxy nonn n :cxcni, :aipn:ucuuix opia-
unnccxnxn xoroxcnxauraxn. Iyxyc ninonuncr n nonnc nauym xo-
noinnccxym qyuxnnm. Ona(an nicoxon copnnouuon cnocouocrim,
iyxyconic ncmccrna opa:y mr c roxcnxauraxn uc pacrnopnxic n no(c
xanono(nnuic coc(nucunn n rcx caxix npc (ornpamamr nocrynnc-
unc raxnx :aipn:unrcncn n pacrcunn. Hanpnxcp, iyxnuonic xncnori
nonni, co(cp amcn 4 % iyxyca, xoiyr cnn:ari (n pacncrc ua 1 ia) (o 18 r
cnc :a, 4,5 r cnnuna, 1,5 r xc(n, 1 r nnuxa n 1 r xapiauna |31, 47].
Iyxnuonic xncnori n:anxo(cncrnymr c nouaxn rncnix xcran-
non (Mc
n=
) no cnc(ymmcn cxcxc:
n n
n n
n
Gum-COOH = Mc X Gum-COOH Mc = HX;
+

[ ]
!
-
n n
n n
n
Gum-COa = Mc X Gum-COOH Mc = aX.
+

[ ]
!
-
Opa :ymmnccn xcrannoopiaunnccxnc xoxnncxci ycronnnni n (na-
na:ouc :uancunn pH or 3 (o 9,5. Orn xoxnncxci ona(amr nicoxon
ycronnnnocrim x qn:nxo-xnxnnccxoxy n xnxpononoinnccxoxy no:-
(cncrnnm.
Hoxnxo qqcxrnnuoio cnn:inaunn rncnix xcrannon, oun axrn-
nn:npymr (cnrcniuocri xnxpoqnopi, yncnnnnnamr yqcpuocri non-
ncuuoio pacrnopa n crnxynnpymr pocr n pa:nnrnc pacrcunn.
Onir (croxcnxannn :aipn:ucuuon rncnixn xcrannaxn nonni n
panouc noccnxa Hcxnnuonxa Mocxoncxon onacrn noxa:an, nro ua pc-
xynirnnnponauuon nonnc ypoanuocri ccnicxoxo:nncrncuuix xyniryp
no:pacracr ua 1O2O % ronixo :a cncr cunrnn roxcnnccxoio (cncrnnn
rncnix xcrannon ua pacrc unn. nn pacrcunn ncraniuic (o:i rnc-
nix xc rannon cocrannnmr: xc(i 12O xi/xi, nnux 15O xi/xi, xpox
5O xi/xi, xa(xnn 3O xi/xi. Bucccunc iyxnuonix xncnor n xonn nccrnc
(o 1 % or xacci :aipn:ucuuon nonni nonuocrim cunxacr roxcnnccxoc
(cncrnnc rncnix xcrannon.
Hocnc opaorxn :aipn:ucuuon rncnixn xcrannaxn rcppnropnn
nnoio xnaprana no Mnnypnucxoxy npocncxry n Mocxnc iyxnuo-xn-
ucpaniuix xouncurparox co(cpaunc n nonnc no(nnuix qopx
crpounnn yxcui manoci n 7,9, xpoxa n 4,4, cnnuna n 3,7, unxc-
252
nn n 3,6 n ximinxa n 6,8 pa:, n pc:ynirarc ncio inn (ocrniuyri
ycrauonncu uic HK.
IYH Mocno(oxauanHHHnpocxr n OOO O0AT pa:paorann
rcxuonoinm oc:npcnnaunn n yrnnn:annn :ononix orxo(on xycopo-
cniarcniuoio :ano(a ^ 4 n npox:ouc Py(ucno, ocuonauuym ua cop-
nnn rncnix xcrannon n: :ononix orxo(on iyxnuoxnucpaniuix
xouncurparox (IMK) |47] .
Hpn (croxcnxannn :ononix orxo(on inanuix nnnncrcn qqcxrnn-
uoc cnn:inaunc rncnix xcrannon (nn nonyncunn xonoinnccxn c-
:onacuoio ipyura o(uonpcxcuuo c npn(auncx cxy apicpuix n npo-
rcxropuix qyuxnnn, xapaxrcpuix (nn npnpo(uix nonn n ipyuron. Ia-
picpuan qyuxnnn raxoio rcxuoicuuoio ipyura cocronr n cio ponn
(cno, i(c nponcxo(nr npcpinaunc ncnn xnipannn rncnix xcran-
non. Hporcxropuan qyuxnnn onpc(cnncrcn cnococouocrim rcxuoicu-
uoio ipyura nponuo cnn:inari ucopiaunnccxnc xoroxcnxauri, q-
qcxrnnuo npornnocronri ncrponon n no(uon po:nn n co:(anari ycno-
nnn (nn uopxaniuoio pa:nnrnn pacrcunn n nonncuuon xnxpoqnopi.
Inaio(apn rnx qyuxnnnx pc:xo oipaunnnnacrcn niuoc roxcnnuix
ncmccrn n: ipyura, a n caxox ipyurc nponcxo(nr ucnrpann:annn n oc:-
npcnnaunc roxcnnuix ncmccrn.
3ononic orxo(i, opa:ymmnccn ua MC3 ^ 4, npc(crannnmr coon
roxcnnuic orxo(i III nnn IV xnacca onacuocrn. 3ona nxccr nonimcu-
uoc co(cpaunc naua(nn, xoanira, xpoxa n crpounnn. Han oncc :a-
ipn:ucua :ona or pyxanuix qnnirpon, i(c npcona(amr coc(nucunn
naua(nn, xa(xnn, xoanira, unxcnn, xpoxa n crpounnn. B nixo(uox
mnaxc npcona(ammnxn ncxcuraxn nnnnmrcn naua(nn, xo anir, cnn-
ucn n xpox. Hanonimcc xonnnccrno xcrannon n no(nn uon (no(opac-
rnopnxon) qopxc npncyrcrnycr n :onc pyxanuoio qnnirpa, uanxcui-
mcc xonnnccrno n nixo(uox mnaxc.
B pc:ynirarc opaorxn cxcmauuix :ononix orxo(on IMK nony-
nacrcn rcxuoicuuin ipyur, xoropin no cnonx xcxaunnccxnx n qn:n-
xo-xnxnnccxnx xapaxrcpncrnxax npnio(cu (nn ncnoni:onaunn n xa-
nccrnc n:onnpymmcio xarcpnana ua nonniouax TIO, (nn ycrponcrna
n:onnpymmnx cnocn, npcxcuuix (opoi, no(cinxn rpcmnu n nponanon,
co:(aunn ncpxucio pcxynirnnnpymmcio cnon. Oncuxa crcncun :aipn:-
ucuuocrn rcxuoicuuoio ipyura no paccnnrauuoxy nu(cxcy :aipn:ucu-
uocrn (Z
c
) noxa:ana, nro n pc:ynirarc opaorxn :ona n: xarciopnn
onacuon (Z
c
or 32 (o 128) ncpcxo(nr n xarciopnm (onycrnxon n (ac
uconacuon (Z
c
16).
Hoxa:arcnn crcncun onacuocrn orxo(on, opaorauuix pa:nnnui-
xn (o:axn IMK, uc npcnimamr (onycrnxoio :uancunn (1 1O,5), nro
no:nonncr oruccrn oc:npccuuic :ononic orxo(i x V xnaccy onac-
uocrn.
B cnn:n c no:pocmcn axryaniuocrim inoaniuon nponcxi :amnri
oxpy ammcn cpc(i or :aipn:ucunn, pa:paorxa uonix qqcxrnnuix
xcro(on (o inn n ncpcpaorxn xnucpaniuoio cipin, occncnnnam-
mnx c:orxo(uoc n xanoorxo(uoc npon:no(crno npn xoxnncxcuox nc-
noni:onaunn xnucpaniuix pccypcon, nnnncrcn naucnmcn :a(ancn
conpcxcuuocrn.
Ha ocuonc nccnc(onaunn ponn xnxpoopiaun:xon n icoxnxnnccxnx
nponcccax n uacronmcc npcxn nurcucnnuo pa:nnnacrcn uonoc uanpan-
ncunc norcxuonoinn noicorcxuonoinn, cocranuon nacrim xoropon
nnnncrcn noin(poxcrannyp inn nnn axrcpnaniuoc nimcnannnaunc
xcrannon |2O].
B uacronmcc npcxn axrcpnaniuic xcro(i n:nncncunn xcrannon
mnpo xo npnxcunmrcn oncc ncx n 2O crpauax xnpa. Ocuonuixn xcxa-
un:xaxn axrcpnaniuoio ni(cncunn xcran non nnnnmrcn nooxncnc-
unc, nonoccrauonncunc, ann(onn:, noaxxyxynnnnn, nocopnnn n
xoxnncxcoopa:onaunc. Ka(oxy n: rnx nponcccon coorncr crnycr cnon
ipynna xnxpoopiaun:xon, cnocouix x onpc(cncuuoxy rnny n:a-
nxo(cncrnnn c rcxn nnn nuixn xnucpanaxn. Hpn rox qqcxrnnuocri
n:anxo(cncrnnn :anncnr or ncnoio pn(a qaxropon, ncncuanpanncuuin
no(op xoropix xocr occncnnri ccncxrnnuocri n xaxcnxaniuym
crcncui n:nncncunn nonyncunn ncuuix xcrannon |4, 29, 43, 44].
Iaxrcpnaniuan opaorxa orxo(on py(uix xccropo(cunn :uann-
rcniuo yxcuimacr pncx :aipn:ucunn oxpyam mcn cpc(i, n ro c npc-
xn noniman pcuracniuocri npon:no(crna :a cncr ncnoni:ona unn npo-
(yxron nimcnannnaunn (nn nonyncunn n: unx (ononunrcniuoio xo-
nnnccrna xoxnoucuron.
254
Cuncox anvepavypm
Iaaaa 1
1. Aaeceeo 1.B. Tncnic xcranni n nonnax n pacrcunnx. Honocnnpcx:
Aiponpoxn:(ar, 1987. 139 c.
2. 1eaoo C.B., 1opunoo V.A., 1o:iuoo A.V. n (p. Oxpaua oxpyammcn cpc-
(i: Yncunx / Ho( pc(. C.B. Icnona. M.: Bicman mxona, 1991. 319 c.
3. 1epenm B.H. Marcpnani n cnoncrna ncxrpnnccxnx xouraxron n ycrpon crnax
cnc:uo(opouoio rpaucnopra: Mouoipaqnn. M.: Hurcxcr, 2OO5. 4O8 c.
4. 1eyc A.A., 1pooocou ..H., Tuxonooo H.B. Icoxnxnn oxpyammcn cpc(i.
M.: Hc(pa, 1976. 248 c.
5. 1ox+on ..B. Auann: xonoinnccxnx qaxropon n cncrcxc iopo(cxoio
ncxrporpaucnopra // ncrin iopo(. 2OO4. ^ 3 (27).
6. 1ox+on ..B. Hcronunxn opa:onaunn ninn ua no(nnuox cocranc
rpaxnan n rponncnyca n xcpi no cuncunm cc xonnnccrna // ncrin io-
po(. 2OO4. ^ 3 (27).
7. IOCT 692174. Kono(xn ropxo:uic (nn naiouon n rcu(cpon cnc:uix
(opoi xoncn 152O |1524] xx. C. 22.
8. IOCT 258486. Hpono(a xouraxruic n: xc(n n cc cnnanon. C. 14.
9. IOCT 241828O. Pcnici cnc:uo(opouic mnpoxon xoncn rnnon P75,
P65 n P5O n: xaprcuoncxon crann. 28 c.
1O. 3ypeo H.H. Hucucpuan :amnra or :aipn:ucunn rncnixn xcrannaxn
ua rpaucnoprc: Ync. noconc. M.: PIOTYHC, 2OO4. 293 c.
11. 3ypeo H.H., 1oeyaooo T.M., 1eocoo B.H. Oxpaua oxpyammcn cpc(i
n xonoinnccxan c:onacuocri ua cnc:uo(opouox rpaucnoprc: Ync. no-
conc. M.: YMK MHC Poccnn, 1999. 592 c.
12. 1oeenieo H.1., 1opu+oo 1.1. Anroxonniuic (opoin n oxpyammcn
cpc(c. M.: OOO Tpaucuayxa, 1997. 285 c.
13. 1oomo-1enouoc A., 1enouoc X. Mnxponcxcuri n non nax n pacrcun-
nx. M.: Mnp, 1989. 438 c.
14. .yonun B.H., Tpoqu+eno 1.B. Hpoximncuuo-rpaucnopruan xono-
inn: Yncunx (nn ny:on / Ho( pc(. B.H. uyxaunua. M.: Bicman mxona,
2OO1. 273 c.
255
15. .tcu B.C. Hpnnnui n xcxaun:x cxo(a xoncca c pcnica. Hponcxa n:-
uoca xoncc n pcnicon. 2-c n:(. M.: Tpaucnopr, 2OO2. 215 c.
16. Mocaoo H.H., 1opooo 1.H. Oxpaua oxpyammcn cpc(i ua cnc:uo(o-
pouox rpaucnoprc: Yncunx (nn ny:on. M.: Tpaucnopr, 1996. 238 c.
17. He+uunoo M.B., 1oypoo C.C., 1omeouu B.1. n (p. Oxonoinnccxnc npo-
ncxi crponrcnicrna n xcnnyarannn anroxonniuix (opoi. B 2 n. / Ho( pc(.
M.B. Hcxnnuona. M.Hpxyrcx, 1997.
Iaaaa 2
1. Apo+un C.A., 1oacmun A.1. Kncnoruo-ocuonuan pciynnnnn (cncrnnn qcp-
xcuron a:oruoio oxcua n nonnc // Inon. . T. 41. 1988. ^ 6. 151 c.
2. Ap:o+o:ooo A.B. 0cpxcurarnnuan axrnnuocri (cpuono-no(:onncron non-
ni npn :aipn:ucunn rncnixn xcrannaxn n xonoinnccxnc qyuxnnn y(o-
pcunn: Anropcqcpar xau(. non. uayx. M.: MIY, 2OO4.
3. Aipoxonoinn / B.A. cpunxon, P.M. Ancxcaxnu, A.B. Ionycn n (p.; no(
pc(. B.A. cpunxona. M.: Konoc, 2OOO. 562 c.
4. 1oponnuoo B.., 1upuaoo H.1. Oxonoinnccxan c:onacuocri ccnicxoxo-
:nncrncuuon npo(yxnnn. M.: KonoC, 2OO6. 352 c.
5. 1opcyooo B.C. 0n:nxo-inincunnccxnc acncxri ycronnnnocrn pacrcunn
x rncnix xcrannax. Honocnnpcx: Hucrnryr nonnonc(cunn n aipoxnxnn,
1997. 325 c.
6. 1eaoo C.B., 1opunoo V.A., 1o:iuoo A.V. n (p. Oxpaua oxpyammcn cpc-
(i: Yncunx / Ho( pc(. C.B. Icnona. M.: Bicman mxona, 1991. 319 c.
7. 1eyc A.A., 1pooocou ..H., Tuxonooo H.B. Icoxnxnn oxpyammcn cpc(i.
M.: Hc(pa, 1976. 248 c.
8. Inonu(nxannn :aipn:ucunn ua:cxuix xocncrcx / Hcp. c ucx., no( pc(.
P. Uycpra. M.: Mnp, 1988. 35O c.
9. 1oeoonoocu 1.A. Xnxnnccxan xonoinn: Ync. noconc. M.: H:(-no
MIY, 1994. 237 c.
1O. Boaioo B.V., 1oaecnuoo C.H., 1o:eeo 1.1. u op. Bnnnunc :aipn:ucunn
rncnixn xcrannaxn ua xnxpocxonnnccxnc ipni n Azotobactcf ncpuo:cxa
oixuoncuuoio // Oxonoinn. 1997. ^ 5. C. 38839O.
11. 1ooo+ouno ..V. nuaxnxa omcn nncncuuocrn n xccnnuan npo(yx-
nnn nonncuuix xnxpoopiaun:xon ua rcppnropnn Hnuc-oucxoio cranno-
uapa // H:nccrnn CKHH BU. Ccp. crccrncuuic uayxn. 1975. ^ 3.
C. 3O33.
256
12. 1oauyaun 1.B. Hu(nxannn :aipn:ucunn nonn rncnixn xcrannaxn ny-
rcx onpc(cncunn axrnnuocrn nonncuuix qcpxcuron // Aipoxnxnn. 1989.
^ 11. C. 133142.
13. 1oaooun A.A. Mopo:ooo H.A. 1yaueoo H.1. n (p. Oncuxa ymcpa oxpyam-
mcn cpc(c or :aipn:ucunn roxcnnuixn xcrannaxn. M.: HMIPO, 2OOO. 134 c.
14. 1pueopun 1.B. Oxonoinnccxan oncuxa xoxnoucuron noiconcuo:a no
axrnnuocrn qcpxcuron nonn n ycnonnnx rcxuoicuuoio :aipn:ucunn: Anropc-
qcpar (ox. (nc. M., 199O. C. 54.
15. 1pueopun 1.B., 1oacmun A.1. naiuocrnxa :aipn:ucuuix rncnixn xc-
rannaxn opomacxix nonn no axrnnuocrn qocqara:i // Honnonc(cunc.
1986. ^ 8. C. 63.
16. 1y:eeo B.C. Oxonoinnccxan oncuxa aurponoicuuix no:(cncrnnn ua xnx-
pouym cncrcxy nonn: Anropcqcpar xau(. (nc. 1988. 35 c.
17. opoooaicu B.B. Ocuoni noicoxnxnn. M.: Bicman mxona,
1998. 413 c.
18. 1ooou+ooo 1.A. Boccrauonncunc xnxpononoinnccxnx cnoncrn nonni
nocnc xnxnnccxoio :aipn:ucunn // Hno(opo(nc nonn Mypxaucxon onacrn.
Anarnri, 1989. 185 c.
19. 1ooou+ooo 1.A. Mcro(onoinnccxnc no(xo(i n xcro(i oncuxn crpyx-
rypuo-qyuxnnouaniuoio cocronunn nonncuuon xnxponori n ccrccrncuuix
n rcxuoicuuix ycnonnnx. Anarnri: Poc. AH. Konicxnn uayn. ncurp. Hu-r
nponcx npoximncuuocrn xonoinn Ccncpa, 1992. C. 12, 19.
2O. 1oe+cou H... Inonoinnccxan axrnnuocri (cpuono-no(:onncrix nonn,
:aipn:ucuuix rncnixn xcrannaxn. M.: H:(. MIY, 1999. crp. 425.
21. 3oueunueo .1. Honna n xnxpoopiaun:xi. M.: Hayxa, 1999. 256 c.
22. 1o:eeo 1.1., 1oaecnuoo C.H., Boaioo B.V. Inonoinn nonn Kia Poc-
cnn. Pocron-ua-ouy: H:(-no HBBP, 2OO4. 35O c.
23. 1oooo B.A. Inoicoxnxnn nonncuuoio noxpona. M.: Hayxa, 1985. 262 c.
24. 1oaecnuoo C.H. 1o:eeo 1.1., Boaioo B.V. Inoxonoinnccxnc npnunn-
ni xounropnuia n uopxnponaunn :aipn:ucunn nonn. Pocron-ua-ouy: H:(-
no HBBP, 2OO1. 65 c.
25. 1oaecnuoo C.H., 1o:eeo 1.1., Boaioo B.V. Oxonoinnccxnc nocnc(-
crnnn :aipn:ucunn nonn rncnixn xcrannaxn. Pocron-ua-ouy: H:(-no
CKHH, 2OOO. 232 c.
26. .eeoeoo 1.B., 1onuoeu T.B. Mnxpoxnncri nonn, no(ncpcuuix nnn-
nunm orxo(on iopuo-xcrannypinnccxoio xoxnuara // Mnxonoinn n qnrona-
ronoinn. 1991. T. 25. Bin.2. C.111115.
257
27. .eeoeoo ..A. Mnucpaniuic y(opcunn ua (cpuono-no(:onncrix non-
nax. M.: H:(-no MIY, 1984. 285 c.
28. Honaeooo H.H., 1yaooo 1.H. Bnnnunc cnnuna ua qcpxcurarnnuym ax-
rnnuocri nimcnoncuuoio ncpuo:cxa n (cpuono-no(:onncron nonni // H:n.
CO AH CCCP. Ccp. non. uayx. 1985. ^ 6/1.
29. Opaoo .C. Xnxnn nonn. M.: Hayxa, 1985. 375 c.
3O. 1yconoo B.A. 0nronaroicuuic ipni n nx pacrcunn-xo:ncna n ycnonn-
nx Pocroncxon onacrn // 0nopncrnnccxnc n icooraunnccxnc nccnc(onaunn
n nponcncxon Poccnn. Caparon, 2OOO. C. 156158.
31. Pyxono(crno no caunrapuo-xnxnnccxoxy nccnc(onaunm nonn (Hopxa-
rnnuic xarcpnani). M.,1993. 13O c.
32. Cmynun .1. 3aipn:ucunc nonn n uoncnmnc rcxuonoinn nx noccrauon-
ncunn. CH.: H:(arcnicrno uaui, 2OO9. 432 c.
33. Tumooo H.M., ooxooo J.B., ooxoo M.B. Pcxoxcu(annn no oncuxc
xonoinnccxoio cocronunn nonn xax xoxnoucura oxpyammcn cpc(i.
H. Honiopo(: H:(-no BBAIC, 2OO6. 68 c.
34. Veoopoo A.C. Ycronnnnocri nonn x aurponoicuuix no:(cncrnnnx.
CH.: H:(-no C.-Hcrcp. yu-ra, 2OO8. 2O4 c.
35. Oxonoinnccxnc qyuxnnn nnrocqcpi / B.T. Tpoqnxon, .I. 3nnnui, T.A. Ia-
paomxnua n (p.; no( pc(. B.T. Tpoqnxona. M.: H:(-no MIY, 2OOO. 432 c.
36. 1oe|mon 1. ffcct of lcad on pfopcftics of lcad-tolcfant cclls // nvifonmcnt,
Biogcoclcmistfy and Gcomicfobiology, 1986.
37. TorofJor J.C. Activity of ufca and plosplatascs in tlc foot-soil intcffasc of
vcgctablc cfops // Bfitisl Mcdical Joufnal, 1997. P. 287289.
38. Zohowsk Jerzy, Boroiynsk Jerz., 1|oskowsko 1|zheio / Wplyw zfoznicowanycl
dawck Zn, Cu, Cd, i na wzfost nicktofycl mikfogfogfzybow glcbowycl // Afcl.
Oclf. Sfodow. 1987. . 12. P. 123133.
Iaaaa 3
1. Aaeceeno B.A. Oxonoinnccxan icoxnxnn: Yncunx. M.: uoioc, 2OOO.
627 c.
2. A++ocooo H.M., Opaoo .C., Coooonuooo ..1. Oxpaua nonn or xnxnnc-
cxoio :aipn:ucunn. M.: H:(-no MIY, 1989.
3. 1oampenoc 1., Heome A. Hccnc(onaunc :aipn:ucuuocrn rncnixn xc-
rannaxn nonni n(oni xaincrpann Bna-Ianrnxa // Oxonoinn n npoximncu-
uocri Poccnn. 2OO3 (aniycr). C. 4144.
258
4. 1eyc A.A., 1pooocou ..H., Tuxonooo H.B. Icoxnxnn oxpyammcn cpc-
(i. M.: Hc(pa, 1976. 248 c.
5. 1oeoonoocu 1.A. Xnxnnccxan xonoinn: Ync. noconc. M.: H:(-no
MIY, 1994. 237 c.
5. 1oaooun A.A., Mopo:ooo H.A., 1yaueoo H.1., Tpequaooo H.H. Oncuxa ymcpa
oxpyammcn cpc(c or :aipn:ucunn roxcnnuixn xcrannaxn / Ho( pc(. O.K. Iy-
pcuxona, M.B. Koncrxona, B.H. Mopo:onon. M.: HMIPO, 2OOO. 134 c.
6. 1p+ooo 1.1. Inoicoxnxnnccxnc nponnunnn: xouncnnnn, xnaccnqnxa-
nnn n xonoinnccxan oncuxa // Ocuonuic uanpanncunn icoxnxnn. K cronc-
rnm co (un po(cunn A.u. Bannnona. M., 1995. 195 c.
7. Xyoo B.T., .o:opeo 1.1., epeoueo A.H. n (p. Oncuxa :aipn:ucunn rnc-
nixn xcrannaxn, ucqrcnpo(yxraxn n cu:(a)nnpcuox nonn, ipyuron n no-
ncpxuocruix no( n :ouc nnnnunn Mocxoncxon oxpyuon cnc:uon (opoin //
Tpy(i nropon Haynuo-npaxrnnccxon xouqcpcunnn Ic:onacuocri (nncunn
noc:(on. M.: MHHT, 1998. C. 2931.
8. Xypooaeoo M.A., 3ypeo H.H. 3aipn:ucunc annacra rncnixn xcranna-
xn ua ynacrxc Ka:aucxoio uanpanncunn Mocxoncxon cnc:uon (opoin // Tpy-
(i uaynuo-npaxrnnccxon xouqcpcunnn Ic:onacuocri (nncunn noc:(on.
M.: MHHT, 2OO4 (uonpi). 15 c.
9. Xypooaeoo M.A., 3ypeo H.H., 1yu M.B. Cncxrpoqoroxcrpnnccxoc on-
pc(cncunc omcio cnc:a n nonocc orno(a cnc:uon (opoin // Tpy(i nropon
xouqcpcunnn Ic:onacuocri xax qaxrop pa:nnrnn pcinoua. Hcncx:
0IOTYHC, 2OO7.
1O. Xypooaeoo M.A., 3ypeo H.H. Tcxuoicuuoc :aipn:ucunc rncnixn xc-
rannaxn orccna annacra cnc:uo(opouoio nonorua // Mcny:oncxnn cop-
unx uaynuix rpy(on Conpcxcuuic nponcxi concpmcucrnonaunn paori
cnc:uo(opouoio rpaucnopra. M.: PIOTYHC, 2OO4. C. 181185.
11. 3ypeo H.H. Hucucpuan :amnra or :aipn:ucunn rncnixn xcrannaxn
ua rpaucnoprc. M.: PIOTYHC, 2OO4. 347 c.
12. 3ypeo H.H., 1epeeyoooo O.B. 3aipn:ucunc nonn rncnixn xcrannaxn
n :ouc orno(a anroxonniuix n cnc:uix (opoi // Tpy(i uaynuo-npaxrnncc-
xon xouqcpcunnn Ic:onacuocri (nncunn noc:(on. M.: MHHT, 2OO5
(oxrnpi).
13. 1oomo-1enouoc A., 1enouoc X. Mnxponcxcuri n non nax n pacrcun-
nx. M.: Mnp, 1989. 438 c.
14. 1oooo B.A. Inoicoxnxnn nonncuuoio noxpona. M.: Hayxa, 1985. 262 c.
259
15. 1ooepuno H.B. Bnnnunc cnc:uo(opouoio rpaucnopra ua co(cpaunc
rncnix xcrannon n npnnciammnx npocrpaucrnax / Ho( pc(. H.B. Ka nc pn-
uon // Icoipaqnn, omccrno, oxpyamman cpc(a: pa:nnrnc icoipaqnn n crpauax
Hcurpaniuon n Bocronuon nponi. Kannunuipa(, 2OO1. C. 192193.
16. 1ooepuno H.B. Bnnnunc cnc:uon (opoin ua :aipn:ucunc iopo(cxnx
nonn / Ho( pc(. H.B. Kancpnuon // Tpy(i xono(ix yncuix Bopouccxoio io-
cy(apcrncuuoio yunncpcnrcra. 2OOO. Bin. 2. C. 2O62O9.
17. 1oaecnuoo C.H., 1o:eeo 1.1., Boaioo B.V. Oxonoinnccxnc nocnc(cr nnn
:aipn:ucunn nonn rncnixn xcrannaxn. Pocron ua-(ouy: H:(-no CKHH,
2OOO. 232 c.
18. 1yoeupooo A.1. K nonpocy o (onycrnxix uaipy:xax nonn rncnixn
xcrannaxn / Ho( pc(. A.K. Ky(cnponon, H.H Ccxcumx, B.C. Iy:cna // Tnc-
nic xcranni n oxpyammcn cpc(c: xarcpnani Mc(yuapo(uoio cnxno:nyxa,
1518 oxr. 1996. Hymnuo, 1997. C. 226237.
19. 1ptaoo B.B., 1qpe+oo B.H., e+ymun 1.H. Topxo:uoc oopy(onaunc
cnc:uo(opouoio cocrana: cnpanonunx. M.: Tpaucnopr, 1989.
2O. .ooonun .B. Coc(nucunn rncnix xcrannon n nonnax nponcxi n
xcro(i n:yncunn // Honnonc(cunc. 2OO2. ^ 6. C. 682692.
21. .unomun B.A., 1opono T.B., 1epooo A.H. Cocronunc uaca(cunn
ncconapxon, ipaunnamnx c MKAox // Oxonoinn, xounropnui n pannouani-
uoc npnpo(ononi:onaunc. Haynuic rpy(i. Bin. 3O2 (1). M.: H:(-no
MIYu, 2OOO. C. 354O.
22. Moopooo A.H. 1oaynun C.V., Haiun H.1. n (p. Opconi pacccnunn rn-
cnix xcrannon ua rcppnropnn, npnnciammcn x xaincrpann // Inincua n ca-
unrapnn. 1993. ^ 7. C. 6364.
23. Mcro(nnccxnc pcxoxcu(annn no ninnncunm (cipa(nponauuix n :aipn:-
ucuuix :cxcni / Ho( pc(. A.C. 2xonncna. M.: H:(-no MIY, 1994. C. 174196.
24. Mo:oaeocou 1.1., .unomun B.A., 1opono T.B. pcnccuic xonina
MKA. nuaxnxa n conpcxcuuoc cocronunc nccuix uaca(cunn ua ipaun-
nax // Oxopcan xonoinn npnpo(a ycncxa. 2OO7. ^ 1(8). C 4449.
25. Huuqopooo 1.M. 3aipn:ucunc npnpo(uon cpc(i cnnunox or nixnon-
uix ia:on anrorpaucnopra / Ho( pc(. .M. Hnxnqoponon // Bccrunx Moc-
xoncx. yu-ra. Ccp. 5. Icoipaqnn. 1975. ^ 1. C. 2836.
26. Oxpyamman cpc(a / Anannaun C.u. n (p. // Oncuxa pncxa (nn :(opo-
nin (xnponon onir). M.: Koucynirannouuin ncurp no oncuxc pncxa,
1996. C. 159.
26O
27. Opaoo .C., 1e:yeaooo O.C. Inoicoxnxnn. Pocron-ua-ouy: 0cunxc,
2OOO. 32O c.
28. 1ooaooo 1.H. Oxonoinn rpaucnopra: Yncunx (nn ny:on. M.: Tpauc-
nopr, 2OOO. 248 c.
29. 1epeai+on A.H. Icoxnxnn nau(maqra: Ync. noconc / Ho( pc(. A.H. Hc-
pcnixaua, H.C. Kacnxona. M.: Acrpcn-2OOO, 1999. 768 c.
3O. 1eouu 1.A., Aooauonu C.A, Tuxonooo 1.H. Oxonoinnccxan nn(cxnono-
inn. M.: Axa(cxnn, 2OO4. 384 c.
31. Coooonuooo ..1. Tncnic xcranni // Honncuuo-xonoinnccxnn
xounropnui n oxpaua nonn: Ync. noconc / Ho( pc(. .C. Opnona, B.. Ba-
cnncn cxon. M.: H:(-no MIY,1994. 272 c.
32. Coem 1.1., 1eouu 1.A., Hnun 1.1. n (p. Icoxnxnn oxpyammcn cpc(i.
M.: Hc(pa, 199O. 334 c.
33. Cuuuou A.A. uoxaniuin xonoinnccxnn xounropnui :aipn:ucunn
oxpyammcn cpc(i or anroxonniuo-(opouoio xoxnncxca. Ka:aui,
2OO2. 2O1 c.
34. Coucmooo H.., eoumooo T.A., 1opeuou H.H. n (p. Inoxounropnui
:oui nnnnunn anroxaincrpann ou// Oxonoinn n npoximncuuocri Poc-
cnn. 2OO3 (uonpi). C. 374O.
35. Cmynun .1. 3aipn:ucunc nonn n uoncnmnc rcxuonoinn nx noccrauon-
ncunn. CH.: H:(arcnicrno uaui, 2OO9. 432 c.
36. Tumuno M.B. Anropcqcpar ua concxaunc yncuon crcncun rcxunnccxnx
uayx Auann: xonoinnccxoio cocronunn npnpo(uon cpc(i n(oni cnc:uo(o-
pouix nnunn Ccncpo-3ana(a Poccnn (npn ncpcno:xax nonc:uix ncxonacxix).
Anropcqcpar ua concxaunc yncuon crcncun rcxu. uayx. CH., 2OO3. 27 c.
37. Veoopoo A.C. Ycronnnnocri nonn x aurponoicuuix no:(cncrnnnx.
CH.: H:(-no C.-Hcrcp. Yunncpcnrcra, 2OO8. 2O4 c.
38. Veoopooo A.H. 3aipn:ucunc noncpxuocruix iopn:ouron nonn i. Bopouc-
a rncnixn xcrannaxn / Ho( pc(. A.H. 0c(oponon, .B. Uyucnixo // Bccr-
unx Bopouc yu-ra. Ccp. Icoipaqnn n icoxonoinn, 2OO3. ^ 1. C. 7482.
39. epntx H.A., Muaomeno H.3., .ooonun B.V. Oxoroxcnxonoinnccxnc
acncxri :aipn:ucunn nonn rncnixn xcrannaxn. Hymnuo: OHTH HHH
PAH, 2OO1. 148 c.
4O. Oxonoinnccxnc qyuxnnn nnrocqcpi / B.T. Tpoqnxon, .I. 3nnnui,
T.A. Iapaomxnua n (p.; no( pc(. B.T. Tpoqnxona. M.: H:(-no MIY, 2OOO.
432 c.
261
41. Oxoicoxnxnn iopo(cxnx nau(maqron / Ho( pc(. H.C. Kacnxona. M. :
H:(-no MIY, 1995. 336 c.
Iaaaa 4
1. 1oponnuoo B.., 1upuaoo H.1. Oxonoinnccxan c:onacuocri ccnicxoxo-
:nncrncuuon npo(yxnnn. M.: KonoC, 2OO6. 352 c.
2. 1opcyooo B.C. 0n:nxo-inincunnccxnc acncxri ycronnnnocrn pacrcunn
x rncnix xcrannax. Honocnnpcx: Hucrnryr nonnonc(cunn n aipoxnxnn,
1997.
3. 1eyc A.A., 1pooocou ..H., Tuxonooo H.B. Icoxnxnn oxpyammcn cpc-
(i. M.: Hc(pa, 1976. 248 c.
4. Inonu(nxannn :aipn:ucunn ua:cxuix xocncrcx / Hcp. c ucx., no( pc(.
P. Uycpra. M.: Mnp, 1988. 35O c.
5. 1u:poo ..1. Oncuxa n:xcucunn xanccrna no:(ymuoio acccnua Ho(xoc-
xonin c noxomim nnqnruix nccuix nnmanunxon // uccuoc xo:nncrno.
1992. ^ 3. C.13.
6. Inincua: Yncunx / Ho( pc(. I.H. Pyxnuncna. 2-c n:(., ncpcpa. n
(on. M.: IOTAP-M, 2OO2. 6O8 c.
7. 1unuumyaaun 1.X. Co(cpaunn ucxoropix xcrannon n nncrinx n ncrnnx
Populus balsamifcfa I. n ycnonnnx npoximncuuoio :aipn:ucunn / Ho( pc(.
P.X. Inunnrynnnua // Oxonoinn. 1998. ^ 2. C. 9497.
8. oymoo V.V, A+upoo H.X., 1oaeeo 1.A., Xou+ooo 1.V. Oxpyamman cpc-
(a n :(oponic. Ka:aui: PHH ox ncnarn, 2OO1. 36O c.
9. 3oaomopeoo 1.H. Icoxnxnnccxnc acncxri xounropnuia rncnix xcran-
non n nonnax // Pcinouaniuin xonoinnccxnn xounropnui: ua npnxcpc Bcp-
xucoxcxoio acccnua. M., 1983. C. 93114.
1O. 3ypeo H.H. Hucucpuan :amnra or :aipn:ucunn rncnixn xcrannaxn
ua rpaucnoprc. M.: PIOTYHC, 2OO4. 293 c.
11. Haiun B.1. Tncnic xcranni n cncrcxc nonnapacrcunc. Honocn-
npcx: Hayxa, 1991. 151 c.
12. Haiyn 1.M. Ia:oycronnnnocri pacrcunn. Bonpoci xonoinn n qn:no-
noinn / Ho( pc(. I.M. Hnixyua. Kncn: Hayxona (yxxa, 1971. 236 c.
13. Hainuuu A.H, 1opoaeo A.A., Xyooae B.B. Kauncpoicuuic ncmccrna n
no(uon cpc(c. M.: Hayxa, 1993. 222 c.
262
14. Hncopooo H.. Bnnnunc rncnix xcrannon ua nnmanunxn / Ho( pc(.
H.. Hucapona // Hponcxi xonoinnccxoio xounropnuia n xo(cnnponaunn
xocncrcx. u.: In(poxcrcon:(ar, 1983. T.6. C. 1O1111.
15. 1oomo-1enouoc A., 1enouoc X. Mnxponcxcuri n non nax n pacrcun-
nx. M.: Mnp, 1989. 438 c.
16. 1oooaicu A... Inoicoxnxnnccxnc noncxn py(uix xccropo(cunn.
M.: Hc(pa, 1974. 142 c.
17. 1ooepuno H.B. ncccprannn Icoxonoinnnccxan oncuxa no:(cncrnnn
cnc:uo(opouoio rpaucnopra ua xocncrcxi npnnciammnx rcppnropnn.
Bopouc: BIY, 2OO4. 215 c.
18. 1oaiuoo A.C. Ccnicxoxo:nncrncuuan xonoinn. Hcncx: H:(-no Y(x.
Yunncpcnrcra, 1995. 273 c.
19. Muneeo B.1. Aipoxnxnn n nocqcpa. M.: Konoc, 1984.
Muneeo B.1. Oxonoinnccxnc nponcxi aipoxnxnn. M.: H:(-no
MIY, 1988.
2O. Muneeo B.1. Aipoxnxnn. M.: H:(. MIY, 2OO4. 48O c.
21. Muneeo B.1. Oxonoinnccxnc qyuxnnn aipoxnxnn n conpcxcuuox :cx-
nc(cnnn // Aipoxnxnn. 2OOO. ^5. C. 513.
22. Muneeo B.1., Aaeceeo A.A., Tpumuno 1.A. Hnux n oxpyammcn cpc(c //
Aipoxnxnn. 1984. ^3. C. 941O4.
23. Muneeo B.1., Moopooo A.H., Tpumuno T.A. Tncnic xcranni n oxpy-
amman cpc(a n ycnonnnx conpcxcuuon nurcucnnuon xnxn:annn. Coomc-
unc 1. Ka(xnn // Aipoxnxnn. 1981. ^5. C.146155.
24. Myunu 1.: unxcuonoinnccxnc nccnc(onaunn ua rcppnropnn Hcurpani-
uoio cpuo:cxin Poccnn (cocronunc nonpoca) / Ho( pc(. .O. Mynun xa // Ho-
noc rn cncrcxarnxn un:mnx pacrcunn. 1998. T. 32. C. 6472.
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26. Oxpyamman cpc(a / C.u.Anannaun, M.M.Au(pnauona, .B. Tc ncuun-
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27. Onumeno 1.1., 1onuoo B.A., Buai M.V. Tpaucnopruan inincua. M.:
OOO 0npxa PHH0OP, 2OO6. 343 c.
28. Opaoo .C., 1e:yeaooo O.C. Inoicoxnxnn. Pocron-ua-ouy: 0cunxc,
2OOO. 32O c.
29. Opaoo .C., 1upuooo O.H., Cyxonooo H.H. Opiaunnccxoc ncmccrno nonn
Poccnncxon 0c(cpannn. M.: Hayxa, 1996. 256 c.
263
3O. Opaoo .C., Coooonuooo ..1., .o:onoocou H.H. Oxonoinn n oxpaua
nocqcpi npn xnxnnccxox :aipn:ucunn. M.: Bicman mxona, 2OO2.
334 c.
31. Ocuoni oncuxn pncxa (nn :(oponin uaccncunn npn no:(cncrnnn xn-
xnnccxnx ncmccrn, :aipn:unmmnx oxpyammym cpc(y / Ho( pc(. K.A. Pax-
xaunua, I.I. Ounmcuxo. M.: HHH xonoinn ncnoncxa n inin cui oxpyam-
mcn cpc(i, 2OO2. 4O8 c.
32. Oncuxa xopqonoio-qn:nonoinnccxnx noxa:arcncn nncricn (pcnccuix
pacrcunn npn nu(nxannouuix nccnc(onaunnx n iopo(cxnx xocncrcxax / 0c-
(opona A.H. n (p. // Hponcxi oraunxn ua pycc XX-XXI ncxon: xarcpn-
ani xc(yuapo(uon xouqcpcunnn. CH., 1998. C. 318.
33. 1oxneno 1.1. Oca(xn cronuix no( n (pyinc ucrpa(nnnouuic opiaun-
nccxnc y(opcunn. M.: IHHOM, 2OO7. 311 c.
34. 1epoynuno 1.H. 0opxi xa(xnn n nonnax n nocrynncunc cio n pacrc-
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35. 1o:onuoocu B.M. Inincunnccxnc ocuoni nnraunn, c:onacuocrn n
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36. 1.A. 1eouu, C.A. Aooauonu, 1.H. Tuxonooo. Oxonoinnccxan nn(cxnono-
inn. M.: Axa(cxnn, 2OO4. 384 c.
37. 1ycoooo T.M., Mopmtnooo B.M. Oxpyamman cpc(a n npo(yxri nnc-
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38. Veoopoo A.C. Ycronnnnocri nonn x aurponoicuuix no:(cncrnnnx.
CH.: H:(-no C.-Hcrcp. yu-ra, 2OO8. 2O4 c.
39. 1nonueno 1.A. Hpo(ononicrncuuan c:onacuocri n poni piuoio xo-
:nncrna n cc occncncunn. Piuoc xo:nncrno // O:op. Ccpnn nonpoxicno-
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C. 33.
4O. 1yneaio 1.B. Hu(nxaropuic noxa:arcnn (nn xapaxrcpncrnxn xoxno-
ucuron iopo(cxon xocncrcxi npn rpaucnopruox :aipn:ucunn // Tpy(i xo-
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Bin. 1. C. 265267.
41. A||owoy B.J. Soil pfoccsscs and bclaviouf of mctals. Iondon: Blackic,
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42. TchorJson 1.H.. Mctal uptakc in Iiclcns / .H.S. Riclafdson //
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264
Iaaaa 5
1. Aoutn A.1., Xoooponoo A.A. Inoicoxnxnnccxnc u(cxnn (xnxpo-
ncxcuro:i) ncnoncxa // Pyxono(crno no xc(nnnucxon icoipaqnn / Ho( pc(.
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2. Aeooonun H.A., Cycauoo B..., 1p+oooo H.B., 1onaonooo A.1. Oxonoio-
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2OOO. ^1.
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unx. M.: Hxap, 2OOO. 77O c.
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Mnp, 2OO5 296 c.
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(a n :(oponic. Ka:aui: PHH ox ncnarn, 2OO1. 36O c.
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ua rpaucnoprc. M.: PIOTYHC, 2OO4.
1O. 3ypeo H.H., Xaecmooo H.B., Xypooaeoo M.A., 1pumuno B.H. Ocuoni
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11. Mocaoo H.H., 1opooo 1.H. Oxpaua oxpyammcn cpc(i ua cnc:uo(o-
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12. Ocuoni oncuxn pncxa (nn :(oponin uaccncunn npn no:(cncrnnn xn-
xnnccxnx ncmccrn, :aipn:unmmnx oxpyammym cpc(y / Ho( pc(. K.A. Pax-
xaunua, I.I. Ounmcuxo. M.: HHH xonoinn ncnoncxa n inin cui oxpya-
mmcn cpc(i, 2OO2. 4O8 c.
13. Opaoo A.C., 1e:yeaooo O.C. Inoicoxnxnn: Yncunx. Pocron-ua-ouy:
0cunxc, 2OOO. 32O c.
14. 1omomyeoo 1.A., 1ycooo H.B. n (p. Bnnnunc xa(xnn ua ypoan ccni-
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265
15. Hpc(cniuo (onycrnxic xouncurpannn (HK) :aipn:unmmnx ncmccrn
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Mnu:(pan Poccnn, 1998. 31O c.
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23. Hnux n xa(xnn n oxpyammcn cpc(c / Orn. pc(. B.B. opononicxnn.
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25. Jopuc 1.A., Heaono H.A. Inonoinnccxan poni xc(n. Pnia: 3uaunc,
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28. epntx H.A. 3axouoxcpuocrn nonc(cunn rncnix xcrannon n cncrcxc
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29. Oxonoinn n :(oponic (crcn / Ho( pc(. M.2. Cry(cunxnua, A.A. qn xo-
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3O. 1pun B.M. Ocuoni xccuononoinn: Ync. noconc. Mnucx.: Honoc
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266
Iaaaa 6
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no(crna. 2OO7. ^ 1. C. 6368.
3. 1opnuooo H.H. Hcnoni:onaunc ropqa (nn onncrxn cronuix no( or xpo-
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mccrno. Hcxon, 2OO2. 799 c.
4. 1youuo:e 1.A., Hepuooo:e ..A., 1empuomouau 1.1. n (p. Mnxpononoin-
nccxnn xcro( yrnnn:annn orxo(on iopuoio npon:no(crna // BHHHTH. Oxc-
npccc-nuqopxannn Pccypcoccpciammnc rcxuonoinn. 2OO4. ^4.
2O24 c.
5. Bepoai C.B. Oc:npcnnaunc ianinauomnaxon c ni(cncuncx xcrannon //
Oxonoinn n npoximncuuocri Poccnn. 2OOO. Anpcni. C. 2829, 49.
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npoximncuuocri Poccnn. 2unapi 2OO5. 2527 c.
1O. enucoo A.A., Xyooo ..H. Onncrxa cronuix no( or rncnix xcrannon
c noxomim nucxncronuix nononnxcpon. Oxonoinn n npoximncuuocri
Poccnn. Aniycr 2OO7 C. 4244.
11. 1qu+oo 1.M., 1oouu 1.M., e+un B.H. n (p. Onncrxa ianinauocroxon
copcuraxn n: orxo(on // Oxonoinn n npoximncuuocri Poccnn. Anpcni
2OO1. 1416 c.
12. 3onyaaun X.H. Yrnnn:annn oca(xon cronuix no( ianinaunnccxnx npo-
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I2 PI, 2OOO. 251 c.
13. 3onoaicu A.1. Koxnncxcuan ncpcpaorxa cronuix no( ianinaunnc-
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267
14. 3ypeo H.H. Hucucpuan :amnra or :aipn:ucunn rncnixn xcrannaxn
ua rpaucnoprc. M.: PIOTYHC, 2OO4.
15. 3ypeo H.H., 1oeyaooo T.M., 1eocoo B.H. Oxpaua oxpyammcn cpc(i
n xonoinnccxan c:onacuocri ua cnc:uo(opouox rpaucnoprc. M.: YMK
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16. 3ypeo H.H., 1oeyaooo T.M., 3ypeoo H.1. Tcopnn n npaxrnxa :amnri
oxpyammcn cpc(i. M: 2cn(opn:(ar, 2OO4.
17. 3tooo H.B., 1onoo B.1., Moomooo T.1. n (p. Hccnc(onaunc :axouoxcp-
uocrcn noinomcunn rncnix xcrannon xnxpoopiaun:xaxn axrnnuoio nna //
2ypuan npnxna(uon xnxnn. 2OO2. T. 75. ^ 1O. C. 16841986.
18. 3tooo H.B, 1onoo B.1., 1emyxooo 1.A. n (p. H:nncncunc rncnix xc-
rannon n: axrnnuoio nna // Oxonoinn n npoximncuuocri Poccnn. Honpi
2OO4. 3435 c.
19. 3tpunoo M.H. O nonc(cunn roxcnnuix rncnix xcrannon ianinaunnc-
cxnx oca(xon npn nx yrnnn:annn n npoximncuuocrn crponrcniuix xarcpna-
non // Ianinauorcxunxa n opaorxa noncpxuocrn. 1992. T.1. ^12.
C. 991O1.
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21. 1o:aoo B.B. Yrnnn:annn ianinauomnaxon / B.B. Ko:non, M.M. 3anapnn,
C.B. Bcponi // Oxonoinn n npoximncuuocri Poccnn. Ccurnpi 1999.
C. 1516.
22. 1puoomeun .A., 1yun 1.1., .onun B... Hucucpuan :amnra noncpx-
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23. 1yopumooo B.H., 1eoun B.B, 1oeomoo H.H. Axxyxynnnnn rncnix xc-
rannon (nxopacrymnxn pacrcunnxn // Oxonoinn npoximncuuoio npon:no(-
cr na. 2OO4.
24. .yuueo 1.V. Pa:paorxa rcxuonoinn yrnnn:annn mnaxon ianinaun-
nccxnx npon:no(crn. Anropcq. (ncc. xau(. rcxu. uayx. H. Honiopo(: Hnc-
iopo(cxnn iocy(apcrncuuin rcxuonoinnccxnn yunncpcnrcr, 1999. 25 c.
25. Mocaoo H.B. Ipa(ocrponrcniuan xonoinn. M.: Bicman mxona,
2OO3. 284 c.
26. Huuqopooo H.M., 1eaonoaicu ..M. Bnnnunc rncnix xcrannon
ua nponccci noxnxnnccxoio oxncncunn opiaunnccxnx ncmccrn. M.:
IHHOM; uaoparopnn :uaunn, 2OO7. 78 c.
268
27. 1oxneno 1.1. Oca(xn cronuix no( n (pyinc ucrpa(nnnouuic opiaun-
nccxnc y(opcunn. M.: IHHOM; uaoparopnn :uaunn, 2OO7. 311 c.
28. 1oonooo 1.B. Oqqcxrnnuic a(copcuri (nn onncrxn n ni(cncunn
rn cnix xcrannon n: no(uix pacrnopon. u.: uHTH, 1991.
29. 1oaiun C.H., Aoo+oo :.1., 1onun B.B. Tcxuonoinn axrcpnaniuoio ni-
mcnannnaunn nncruix n pc(xnx xcrannon. M.: Hc(pa, 1982.
3O. 1oouonoo A.H., 1y:neuoo 1.1., Coaooieo 1.C. 3amnra nocqcpi or npo-
ximncuuix nipocon. Ocuoni npocxrnponaunn rcxuonoinnccxnx nponcc-
con. M.: Xnxnn; KonoC, 2OO5. 392 c.
31. 1+yue 1., 1tpcmu C. Iopia c :aipn:ucuncx nonni. M.: Aiponpoxn:-
(ar, 1986. 262 c.
32. 1u:onueo A.A., 1omoeoo A.A., 1omoeo B.1. Ianinauoxoaiynnnnouuan onncr-
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33. Coouno ..H. Oxcrpaxnnouuoc n:nncncunc nncruix xcrannon n: orxo(on
ianinaunnccxnx n rpannniuix npon:no(crn / Ho( pc(. u.2. Canxnua, A.M. Ka-
naucna, u.A. Mancuxo // Hncruic xcranni. 1988. ^4. C. 4245.
34. Coumoxuno B.1. Hccnc(onaunc pcaicuruoio xcro(a onncrxn cronuix
no( or nouon rncnix xcrannon. Anropcqcpar xau(. rcxu. uayx. Yqnxcxnn
Iocy(apcrncuuin annannouuin rcxunnccxnn yunncpcnrcr, 2OO4.
35. Cemeaicu B.1., O+euuncu B.1., Topoceouu 1.H. n (p. Hpnxcuc-
unc curounronix innu (nn onncrxn cronuix no( // Xnxnn n rcxuonoinn
no(i. 1981. Bin. 34. C. 376379.
36. Ceauoonooo H.B. K nonpocy o yrnnn:annn ianinauomnaxon / Ho( pc(.
H.B. Ccnnnauonon, T.A. Tpnqouona // HPOTOK`2OO1: Tc:nci (oxna(a Mc(.
uaynuo-npaxrnnccxon xouqcpcunnn. M., 2OO1. T.2. C. 486491.
37. Cmynun .1. 3aipn:ucunc nonn n uoncnmnc rcxuonoinn nx noccrauon-
ncunn. CH.: H:(arcnicrno uaui, 2OO9. 432 c.
38. Veoopoo A.C Ycronnnnocri nonn x aurponoicuuix no:(cncrnnnx.
CH.: H:(-no C.-Hcrcp. yu-ra, 2OO8. 2O4 c.
39. Topymuno 1.A., Oaimoncou ..H, Meueoo O.1. n (p. Bicmnc no(uic
pacrcunn (nn onncrxn cronuix no( // Oxonoinn n npoximncuuocri Poccnn.
Man 2OO6. C. 3639.
4O. Veoqonoo B.A., ootooo 1.H., uaueoo ..H. Onncrxa cronuix no( xcro-
(ox ianinauoxoaiynnnnn. Anxa-Ara.: Ka:xcxauop, 1991. 53 c.
41. Xocuo 1.B. Onir nuc(pcunn uonix xcxpauuix xcro(on no(oopaor-
xn croxon. u.: uHT, 1989. 43 c.
42. 1yaieun A.A., Hmeno H. 1, 1y:i+uno H.1. n (p. Pa:paorxa rcxuonoinn
oc:npcnnaunn n yrnnn:annn :ononix orxo(on xycopocniarcniuix :ano-
(on // Hpocxri pa:nnrnn nuqpacrpyrypi iopo(a. Binycx 6. Oxonoin-
nccxnc acncxri nucucpuon nuqpacrpyxrypi. Copunx uaynuix rpy(on.
M.: H:(-no Hpnxa-Hpccc, 2OO6. C. 143146.
43. Hepuooo:e ..A., 3ouoooo:e J.H. Hcpcncxrnni ncnoni:onaunn inccopa-
:onarcniuix nponcccon n ncnnx yrnnn:annn orxo(on iopuo-(oinammcn
npoximncuuo crn // Hucucpuan iconoinn. 1991. ^ 1. C. 2534.
44. Hepuooo:e ..A., :oo:o+uu T.., Vponmocieoo M.B. n (p. Pa:paorxa
xc ro(nxn axrcpnaniuoio nimcnannnaunn xcrannon n: c(uix py(, nopo( n
npoxim ncuuix orxo(on c ncnoni:onauncx ucnrpouuoio axrunannouuoio
auann:a. yua: Hpcnpnur Oc(nucuuoio nucrnryra n(cpuix nccnc(o-
naunn, 2OO1.
45. onmypuu B.A., Coaoenun 1.M. Ianinauoxnxnnccxnc xcro(i onncr-
xn rcxuoicuuix no(. M.: HKH Axa(cxxunia, 2OO5. 2O4 c.
46. 1eao+oo A.C., 3oxoomoeoo H.B., Bopumuno 1.1. Onncrxa cronuix no(
or rncnix xcrannon // ncrin iopo(. 2OO6. ^ 2 (34). C. 2223.
47. 1yaieun A.A., Hmeno H.1., 1y:i+uno H.1. n (p. Pa:paorxa rcxuono-
inn oc:npcnnaunn n yrnnn:annn :ononix orxo(on xycopocniarcniuix :a-
no(on // Hpocxri pa:nnrnn nuqpacrpyrypi iopo(a. Bin. 6: Oxonoinnccxnc
acncxri nucucpuon nuqpacrpyxrypi. C. uaynuix rpy(on. M.: H:(-no
Hpnxa-Hpccc, 2OO6. C. 143146.
27O
Oraaaaenne
Hpc(ncnonnc ................................................................................................ 3
Inana 1. HCTOHHKH 3AIP23HHHH IHOC0PI
T22uIMH MTAuuAMH HPH OKCHuYATAHHH
H PMOHT TPAHCHOPTA ................................................................6
1.1. Crannouapuic ncronunxn apo:oniuix nipocon ............................. 7
1.1.1. Korcniuic ......................................................................................... 7
1.1.2. unrcnuic ncxa ................................................................................ 1O
1.1.3. Tcpxnnccxnc n xy:ucnuo-npccconic ynacrxn ................................ 14
1.1.4. Ynacrxn xnxnnccxon n ncxrpoxnxnnccxon
opaorxn xcrannon ................................................................................. 14
1.1.5. Ynacrxn xcxaunnccxon opaorxn xcrannon ................................. 18
1.1.6. Coponuo-pa:oponuic ynacrxn .................................................... 2O
1.1.7. Ynacrxn cnapxn n pc:xn xcrannon .................................................. 21
1.1.8. Hannanxa noncpxuocrn xaraunn xpccronnu n crpcnonuix
ncpcno(on ................................................................................................. 24
1.1.9. Mc(unnxoc or(cncunc .................................................................... 26
1.1.1O. Axxyxynnropuic ynacrxn ............................................................. 26
1.2. Hcpc(nnuic ncronunxn napoapo:oniuix nipocon ..................... 26
1.2.1. 2cnc:uo(opouin rpaucnopr ....................................................... 26
1.2.2. Iopo(cxon rpaucnopr ...................................................................... 28
1.3. Hcronunxn :aipn:ucunn in(pocqcpi ................................................ 36
1.4. Hcronunxn :aipn:ucunn nonni .......................................................... 41
Inana 2. HOBHHO-OKOuOIHCKHH MOHHTOPHHI
T22uIX MTAuuOB ......................................................................45
2.1. Mnipannn rncnix xcrannon n nocqcpc .......................................... 45
2.2. Bnnnunc :aipn:ucunn rncnixn xcrannaxn ua nonoinnccxnc
cnoncrna nonn ...................................................................................... 54
2.3. Bnnnunc rncnix xcrannon ua nonncuuym xnxponory ................... 58
2.4. Hopxnponaunc co(cpaunn rncnix xcrannon n nonnc .................... 62
Inana 3. TXHOIHHI IOXHMHCKH AHOMAuHH .....76
3.1. Bn(i n crpyxrypa rcxuoicuuix auoxannn ......................................... 76
3.2. Tcxuoicuuic opconi pacccnunn npoximncuuix npc(npnnrnn ....... 82
3.3. 3aipn:ucunc rncnixn xcrannaxn npn xcnnyarannn
anroxonniuoio rpaucnopra ............................................................... 88
3.4. Xapaxrcp :aipn:ucunn rncnixn xcrannaxn nonni
ua cnc:uo(opouox rpaucnoprc ...................................................... 93
Inana 4. T22uI MTAuuI B HHUBIX HH2X ............... 144
4.1. 3ncuo nonnapacrcunc .................................................................. 145
4.2. 3ncuo pacrcunnnpc(crannrcnn qayui ....................................... 16O
4.2.1. Hpo(yxri nnoruono(crna n nrnncno(crna ................................ 16O
4.2.2. Pionpo(yxri .............................................................................. 167
4.2.3. Hpo(yxri nncnono(crna ............................................................... 17O
Inana 5. BuH2HH T22uIX MTAuuOB HA 3OPOBL
uOBKA .......................................................................................... 173
5.1. Hyrn nocrynncunn n ninc(cunn rncnix xcrannon
n: opiaun:xa ncnoncxa...................................................................... 174
5.2. Toxcnnuocri rncnix xcrannon ....................................................... 185
Inana 6. 3AUHTA HPHPOHOH CPI
OT 3AIP23HHH2 T22uIMH MTAuuAMH ........................ 213
6.1. 3amnra arxocqcpuoio no:(yxa ......................................................... 213
6.2. 3amnra in(pocqcpi .......................................................................... 227
6.4. Hyrn cuncunn co(cpaunn rncnix xcrannon n nonnc ................. 247
Cnncox nnrcparypi ................................................................................. 254




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