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.

..



2012
1

517.2(075.8)
22.16173
83

..
83 : . / .. .
. : : , 2012. 168 .
ISBn 978-5-9765-1234-4 ()
ISBn 978-5-02-037708-0 ()
, . .

, .

517.2(075.8)
22.16173

ISBn 978-5-9765-1234-4 ()
ISBn 978-5-02-037708-0 ()

.., 2012
, 2012

.................................................................................................. 7
1. ..................................................................................... 8
1.1. . ..................... 8
1.2. ........................................................ 9
1.3. ................................................................. 11
1.4. ................. 13
1.5. ........................ 14
2. .................................. 17
2.1. ................................... 17
2.2. ...................................................... 17
2.3.

( ) .......................................................... 18
2.4. ( ) ................................... 19
2.5. (..) (..)
................................................................... 20
2.6. .................................. 21
2.7. ................................................. 23
2.8. ............................... 25
2.9. ................................................... 25
2.10. ............................................ 26
3. ........................ 28
3.1. . .................... 28
3.2. ........................................................... 32
3.3. ......................................... 33

4. .............................. 41
4.1. ......................................................... 41
4.2. (..) (..)
...................................................................................... 43
4.3. .................................................. 45
4.4. ............................................................ 47
4.5. ............................................................ 51
5. ......................................................... 55
5.1. ................................................................ 55
5.2.
........................................... 55
5.3. .
................................................ 56
5.4. .......................................... 57
5.5. .................. 58
5.6.
........................................ 61
5.7. ............................................... 63
6. ..................................................... 65
6.1. ........................................... 65
6.2.
.................................................. 67
6.3. ........................ 69
7.
............................... 71
7.1. ............................................................................ 72
7.2. ............................................................................. 72
7.3. ............................................................................. 73
7.4. ....................................................................... 74
7.5. ..................................................................... 75

8. ..................................................................... 78
8.1. ............................................ 78
8.2. ................................................ 79
8.3. ..... 81
8.4.
.................................................. 82
8.5. ..... 83
9.
...................................................... 84
9.1. ............................................ 84
9.2. .................................................. 85
9.3. ............................ 87
9.4. ........................................................................... 88
9.5. ................................................... 89
9.6.
................................................................................ 91
10. ............................. 94
10.1. , ................ 94
10.2. ....... 96
10.3. . .................................. 98
10.4. ........................ 100
10.5. ................................................................ 103
11. .............................................. 106
11.1. ........... 106
11.2. ,
................... 107
11.3.
................................................................. 109
11.4. ........................................... 110

12. ................................................... 118


12.1. .......................................... 118
12.2. ......................................... 119
12.3. .................................................................... 120
12.4. ........................ 121
12.5. ................................................ 122
12.6. ....... 122
12.7. ....................................................... 124
13. .................................... 127
13.1. .
..................................................................... 127
13.2.
........................................................................ 129
13.3.
................ 138
14. .................................................................................................. 145
14.1. .......................................................................... 145
14.2. ........................................................................ 155
................................................................................................... 162


,


.
:
,
,
. , . , .
,
.
, .
.

1.

1.1. .

.

(18451918)
, .
,
-
- . , , .. .
, , , .
.
( = ), .
A , . ,
, .
, , , ,
, , .
, ,
.
, ,
. | | Crd A ( . crdinlity
).
, ,
. : N, Q, R.
8

, .
.
U , . , , .
.
1. , . . , = {1, 2, ..., n}.
2. . = {x | P(x)},
: , ().
, = {x | , 10}. ,
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}.
:
= {x | x3 x = 0} = {1, 0, 1}.

1.2.
, , ,
(. 1.1).

. 1.1

() , , (. 1.2).
+ .

= {x | x x }.

(1.1)

. 1.2

()
, , (. 1.3).
.

= {x | x x }.

(1.2)

. 1.3


, (.1.4).

\ = {x | x x }.
10

(1.3)

. 1.4

(. 1.5), A, ..

A = U / ,

(1.4)

U .

. 1.5

,
| | | |,
| A | = | A | + | B | | A |.

(1.5)

, | A | = 0. ,
(1.5) , ..
| A | = | A | + | B |.

(1.6)

1.3.
:
N = {1, 2, ..., n} .
11

Z = {..., n, ..., 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, ..., n, ...} .


Q = {p / q: p Z, q Z, q 0} .
, .
, .. , . , 2 ,
.
R , . R :
, , .
R ,
, ,
. : R, y R , , z R, , z .
.
, .
, , , . :
[; b] = { R | x b};
(; b) = { R | < x < b};
(; b] = { R | < x b};
(; b) = { R | x < b};
(b; ) = { R | x b};
(b; ) = { R | x > b};
R = (; ).
12

1.4.

,
, | | < .
, ..
, 0 , | 0 | > ,
.
(), (k) , (k ) . (k)
() . .
(m) () , :
1) (m ) .
2) > 0, 0 ,
< 0 (0 < m + ).
,
.
= sup A,
m = inf A (sup, inf supremum , infimum ).
, sup A inf A .
, [, b] (, b)
b. ,
.
()
() : (),
() . ( .)
. ,
. Y . , y Y 13

. , . ,
. ,
, .. = sup . inf .

1.5.


| |,
| | =

, 0,

, < 0.

(1.7)

, | | < ( > 0)
< < .
, | | < , < < ,
.. > . , < > ,
< < . ( ) | |. | | < .

| | .

(1.8)


1)
:
| + | | | + | |.

(1.9)

.
| | | | | | | |,

(| | + | |) + | | + | |,
( 1.8)
(1.9).
14

,
| | | | + | |.
2)
:
| | | | | |.

(1.10)

.
| | = | + | | | + | |,
| | | | | |.
3) () () :
| | = | | | |, | / | = | | / | |, 0.

(1.11)


.
.
| |
= 0
, .
| b | (b )
b , | b |
b .
| + b | ( + b)
(b) (b) .
. | + 3 | = 2.
. , (3) , 2.
:
1 = 3 2 = 5;
2 = 3 + 2 = 1.
15

. | + 3 | 7 = | + 6 | + 11.
. ,
:
1) 3; + 3 7 = + 6 + 11, = 2;
2) 6 < 3; 3 7 = + 6 + 11, = 20/9, 6 < 3;
3) < 6; 3 7 = 6 + 11, = 8/7, < 6.
: 2.

1. .
2. ?
3. .
4. ?
5. ?
6.
.
7. .
8.
.
9. .

16

2.

2.1.
n
n. , ( ) 1, 2, ..., n, ...,
{n}. 1, 2, ..., n, ... , n .
, 1
, , {xn } = , .. 1, , ..., 1/n, ...
n
, n
n + 1 > n, , n + 1 < n.
, n
n + 1 n, , n + 1 n.

,
.
(),
, ( ):
n < (n > ) n.
, .
,
> 0 n,
| n | > .

2.2.
,
N , , n > N | n | < .
17

{n} , ,
lim xn = a.

{n} , , .
, | n | < : < n < + . ( , + ) - . .
{n},
- , .
: {n} ,
.
. {n} b, < b,
( , + ) (b , b + ), = ( b)/3
{xn} .
, (
).

2.3.

( )
, . : {xn} ()
(), .
. . .
{xn} b.
sup{xn} = b. xn ,
n > 0 n = n0 , < n0.
18

{xn} , n > n0 n0
xn. < xn < + n > n0, | xn | <
n > n0. , lim xn = M .
x

2.4. ( )
{xn} = {(1 + 1/n)n}
.
, {xn} , :
1
1 n (n 1) 1 n (n 1) (n 2) 1
xn = (1 + )n = 1 + n +
2 +
3 + ... =
n
n
2!
3!
n
n
1
1
1
1
2
= 1 + 1 + (1 ) + (1 ) (1 ) + ...
n
n
n
2!
3!
1
1
1
1
2
xn +1 = 1 + 1 + (1
) + (1
) (1
) + ...
n + 1 3!
n +1
n +1
2!

xn xn + 1 , , xn + 1
, (n + 2)-, , xn.
n xn < xn + 1, .. {xn} . , {xn}
:
1
1
1
(1 ) + (1
n
2!
3!
1 1
1
1 1
< 2 + + + ... + < 2 + + 2
n!
2! 3!
2 2
xn = 2 +

1
2
) (1 ) + ... <
n
n
1
+ ... + n 1 < 2 + 1 = 3.
2

, {xn}
. , 3.
.
, (15501617). , : = 2, 718281...
1
lim (1 + )n = e n
n
.
19

:
1
lim(1 + )kn = e;
n
kn
lim(1 + an )
n

1
an

= e,

{kn} {n} .. .. .

2.5. (..)
(..)
, , ,
. , {n} .., > 0 N , n > N
| n | < .
..: {n} A, ,
:
{n } ..

{n} = + {n},

. {n} , > 0 N, n > N | n | =


= | n | < . , {n} ..
.. , ,
:
1) ..
..
.
.. n n. > 0 n N1,
n > N1 | n | < / 2.
n N2, n > N2 | n | < / 2.
n > N = max {N1, N2}, ,
20

| n + n | | n | + | n | < / 2 + / 2 = .
, n + n ..
2) {n} ..
{n} ..
. {n} , n | n | < . .. {n} N, n > N
| n | < / . n
| n n | = | n | | n | < / = .
, {n n} ..
{n} (..),
lim xn = .
n

, > 0 N = N () , n > N
[M; M], .
.. ..: {n} .., {n} = {1/n}
..
. {n} ..,
= 1 / N (M) , n > N |
n | > . n | n | < ,
.
: {n} .., {n} = {1 / n}
..

2.6.
,
: N ..
lim xn = a lim n = .
n

1) {n} {n}
lim n = , lim n = b,
21

,
lim (n n) = b.
. ,
n = + n, n = b + n,
{n} , {n} ..
n n = ( b) + (n n).
.. .., , lim (n n) = b.
2) {n} {n}
lim n = , lim n = b,

lim (n n) = b.
. ,
n n = b + ( n + b n + n n).
.. .., , lim (n n) = b.
3) {n} {n}
lim n = , lim n = b,
b 0,
lim (n/ n) = / b.
.
xn a
a + an a
a ab + ban ab an
= +(
)= +
yn b
b + n b
b
b 2 + b
n

.. ..,
lim (n / n) = / b.
, ,
, ,
22

, .
, .

2.7.
lim (n n), lim (n n), lim (n / n)
, {n} {n}
. , {n} {n}
( ) . .

xn
, n n .
yn
.
, , .. , n .
2n +1 + 3n +1

, a lim
.
.
n
n
n 2 + 3


, .
3n ,

lim

a lim

2n +1 + 3n +1
2n + 3n

2
2 ( )n + 3
0+3
3
=
= 3.
= lim
n
2
0 +1
( )n + 1
3


:
( + b) ( b) = 2 b2; ( b) (2+ b + b2) = 3 b3.
23

,
lim ( n 2 + 2n n) = lim

= lim

( n 2 + 2n n) ( n 2 + 2n + n)
( n 2 + 2n + n)

n 2 + 2n n 2
n 2 + 2n + n

= 2 lim

= 2 lim

n
n 2 + 2n + n
1
1+

2
+1
n

= 2 lim

n
n 2 + 2n
n(
+ 1)
n2

2
+ 1.
2

. 5
, lim (1 )n .
n
n

5
1
5

5
5
5
lim (1 )n = lim[1 + ( ) n = {lim[1 + ( ) n }5 = e5 .
n
n
n
n
n
n
, n :
a + an
n;
Sn = 1
2
b (q n 1)
Sn = 1
.
q 1
1 + 2 + ... + n
, lim
.
n
n2 + 3

lim

1 + 2 + ... + n
n2 + 3

1+ n
n
1
n2 + n 1
2
= lim 2
= lim 2
= .
n n + 3
2 n n + 3 2

, .
24

2.8.
{n} {n}
n zn yn n, {zn}
.
. > 0, N1 N2 ,
< xn n > N1 yn < + n > N2,
n > N = max {N1, N2} < xn zn yn < + ,
| zn | < n > N, .

2.9.
, :
1. , .. n [n + 1, bn + 1] [n, bn].
n
2. , .. (bn n)
0 .

(), .
. 1 2 ... n < b1, .. {n} ,

lim an .
n

, {bn}
b1 b2 ... bn > 1. -

lim bn .
n

lim (bn an ) = 0 , lim bn lim an = 0


lim bn = lim an .

lim bn = lim an = c .
n

n , bn , , n n c bn, .. .
, c . ,
d c , n d [n, bn]. 25

n c, d bn, bn n | d | > 0,
n
0 .
: (bn n)

2.10.

.
. {xn} b. [, b] ,

. [1, b1] ,
xn (
, ).
[1, b1] [2, b2], xn, .. , k- [k, bk],
xn.
, ,
. , k- k.
, {k} {bk}
.
{xn }. xn
k

{xn}, [1, b1]. xn {xn}, xn


2

[2, b2], .. ,
[k, bk] xn.

k xn bk lim bk = lim ak = c ,
k

lim xnk = c .
n


1. ?
2. ?

26

3. .
4. .
5.
.
6. ?
7.
.

, , 1?

9. .
8.

27

3.

3.1. .

,
. , , .

, .
, . ,
S = vt, S t , v .
X Y, , X
y = f (). , , , ,
f .
X (
) , Y .
.
1) ,
y = f (x). .
X , , .. ,
= f () .
,
.
. :
)

y=

x 2 5 x + 4 ; ) y = 5 arcsin (2x);

y=

1
; ) y = log4 (2x 12).
x 25 x
2

28

:
) , ,
:
2 5 + 4 0 = > (; 1] U [4; + );
) , arcsin (x), Arcos (x)
| | 1, = 5 arcsin (2x)
| 2 | 1 = > [1/2; 1/2];
) , , (; 0) U (0; 25) U (25; );
) , , , : 2 12 > 0 = > (6; ).
2) (, ) ,
,
y = f (x).
. , .
.

. , . 3.1 (, , ) ,
.

. 3.1

, ,
, 29

, , , . 3.1.
. 3.2 , . , , , .

. 3.2

3) , , f(), .
:
1. . = f() ,

f() = f(),

(3.1)

,
f() = f().

(3.2)

= f()
. , = 2 , f() = ()2 =
= 2 f() = f(), = 3 , f() = ()3 = 3
f() = f(x).
, , = 2 + 3
, f() = ()2 + ()3 = 2 3 f() f(x) f()
f(x).
,
.
2. . f = f(x) () X,
()
, .. 1 < 2, f(1) < f(2) (f(1) > f(2)).
30

(),
1 < 2 f(1) f(2) (f(1) f(2)).
.
.
3. . f() X, > 0,
| f() | < X. . , = sin x , | sin () | 1
R.
4. . = f()
T 0,

f( T) = f().

(3.3)

. , = kT, k = 1, 2, ...,
(3.3). .
= sin , = cos = 2, = tg ,
= ctg = .
= sin ( + b), = cos ( + b)

= 2/,

(3.4)

= tg ( + b), = ctg ( + b)
= /.

(3.5)

, , 1, 2, .., n
:
= ... (1, 2, .., n).

(3.6)

[0, T], kT (k = 1, 2, ...) .


31

. = sin x + cos x c
= 2. (3.6) = H.O.. (2; 2) = 2.
. = 10 ctg x 6 sin x ,
= 2. T1 ctg x , T2 sin x
2. (3.6) = H.O.. (; 2) = 2.
. y = 1 + cos (x/2 + /5) 4. (3.4) = 2/ = 2 / (1/2) = 4.
. : y = sin (x/3) + tg (x/4). y = sin (x/3) T1 = 2/(1/3) = 6, y = tg (x/4) T2 =
= /(1/4) = 4. = H.O.. (6;
4) = 12.

3.2.
, ,
,
= 2 + 5 + 1.
, F = (x, y) = 0, . , 3 + 2 = 0.
y = f(x) X Y. , , Y ,
, .. y = f(x) y Y
.
Y
, .. Y , X.
y = f(x) = f1(). , = 3
= 1/3. = 2 , (, ), (0, ),
.
, .

.
32

. = f(u) u, U Y, u, , u = () x, X U. X = f[()] (
, , ).
, = lg sin x , = lg u, u = sin x.
: y = C, y = xn,
y = x, y = logA x, y = sin x, y = cos x, y = tg x, y = ctg x, y = arcsin x,
y = arccos x, y = arctg x, y = arcctg x.
,
, .
, y =

x sin 2 x
3

x + 52 x

+ 1g 3 ( x 2) -

, , , ,
.
().
,
. :
l

( );

- ;

( ).

.
: ,
, , .

3.3.
, .
33

.
= f(), = f(), = f()
= f()
, , ,
= f(), = f(), = f()
= f ().
= f() = f()
. , (0, 0)
= f(), (0, 0), , = f() (. 3.3).
= f() = f() .

. 3.3


1: = f() = f() .
= f() = f(). (0, 0)
= f(), 1(0, 0), , = f() (. 3.4). , = f() =
= f() .
34

. 3.4

2: = f() = f() .
= f() = f(). L(0,
0), = f(), L1(
0, 0) = f(). (. .3.5).

. 3.5


3: = f()
= f() .
= | f() |, = f(| |), = | f(| |) |
= f().
4: = | f() |
= f(), , 35

, , , ,
.
, . 3.6() = f(),

. 3.6

. 3.6(b) = | f() |. [; b] [c; + ]


= f() = | f() | , f() 0,
[; ] [b; c] .
, = | f() | , .
= f( | | ) ,
oc . 0 | | = f(| |) = f(). .
5: = f(| |) :
1) = f() 0;
2) .
, . 7() = f().

. 3.7

36

= f( | | ) , . 3.7(b).
6: = | f(| |) |, :
1) = f() 0 (. 3.8b);
2) , , (. 3.8);
3) (. 3.8d).

. 3.8

. = f(x) . 3.9().
. 3.9 (bf) = | f() |.
. 3.9(d) . . 3.9(b, c, f) , .
. y = | | | + 1 | + | 2 |.
.
, : 1 = 0, 1 =
= 1, 3 = 2. .
(. 3.10):
37

. 3.9

. 3.10


:
) (; 1) :
| | = ; | x + 1 | = (x + 1); | 2 | = ( 2).

= + 3, .
, (; 1).
.
) (1; 0) :
| | = ; | x + 1 | = x + 1; | 2 | = ( 2);
= 3 + 1.
38

) (0; 2) :
| | = ; | x + 1 | = x + 1; | 2 | = ( 2);
= + 1.
) (2; ) :
| | = ; | x + 1 | = x + 1; | 2 | = 2;
= 3.

. 3.11

y = f(x + A), y = f(x) + b, y = mf(x),


= f(k) = f()
= f(x). :
1. y = f(x + ) y = f(x), (
> 0 , < 0 ) | | .
2. y = f(x) + b = f(), (
b > 0 , b < 0 ) | b | .
3. y = mf(x) (m 0) y = f(x),
( m > 1) m ( 0 < m < 1) m
.
4. = f(k) (k 0) y = f(x),
( k > 1) k ( 0 < k < 1) k
.
39

. = 2 + bx + .
.
.
:
b
b
b2
b2
x) + c = a ( x 2 + 2 x + 2 2 ) + c =
a
2a
4a
4a
2
b
b
= a ( x + ) 2 + (c ) = a ( x + x0 ) 2 + y0
2a
4a

ax 2 + bx + c = a ( x 2 +

b
b2
; y0 = c
.
2a
4a
,
:

x0 =

1) = 2;
2) | | ( 3);
3) (b/2)
( b2/4) ( 1, 2).
(0; ); 1 (1; 0), 2 (2; 0), 1, 2
.
D > 0,
.
D = 0, .
D < 0, .

1. .
2. .
3. .
4. ?
5. , .

40

4.

4.1.
.
n = f(n), ,
= f(x) . n, ,
, ,
, .
= f(x) , , ,
> 0,
S() > 0, , | | > S,
| f(x) | < .
lim f ( x) = A .
x

, : f(x)
.
f(x) , , | f(x) | <
< f(x) < + , 2 (. 4.1).

. 4.1

. 4.2

41

. | f(x) A | < < S.


. = f(x) 0, , , 0.
= f(x) , 0, , > 0, () > 0,
, 0 | x 0 | < , | f(x) A | < .
lim f ( x) = A .
x x0

f(x) 0 ,
, 0, f(x)
.
. = f(x) , 0,
> 0 - 0, 0
f(x)
A < f(x) < A + (. 4.2),
.
1.
0, 0 0. lim f ( x) = A ,
x x0

, 0, 0.
0
0, 0.
2. 0
, 0, , , 0,
f(x) , f(x) lim f ( x) = A
x x0 0
lim f ( x) = A .
x x0 + 0

lim f ( x) = lim f ( x) = A , lim f ( x) = A .

x x0 0

x x0 + 0

x x0

42

4.2. (..)
(..)
() (
) 0 , :
lim ( x) = 0.
x x0 ( )

, = s (x) /2 , .
.
: f(x) 0 ( ) ,
,
() 0 ( ):
f(x) = + ().
. 0.
lim f ( x) = A . , > 0
x 0

> 0, 0 | x 0 | <
| f(x) A | < . () = f(x) , | () | < , : () .. 0.
,
, .. | | > S.
: f(x)
.. () 0 ( ),
0 ( ), .. lim ( x) = 0.
x x0 ( )

. f(x) = + (). , , 0.
() = f(x) .. 0, > 0
> 0, 0
| x 0 | < | () | = | f(x) A | < .
, lim f ( x) = A .
x 0


1. .. ..
. 1 .. () () 0.
43

() () .. 0, > 0
1 > 0, 2 > 0, 0 | x 0 | < 1, | x 0 | < 2 | ()
| < /2 | () | < /2.
= min{1, 2}, . ,
| () | + | () | < .
,

| () + () | < , : () + () ..
2. .. () f(x) ..
. f(x) 1
0, ,
| x 0 | < 1, , | f() | < .
() .. 0, / > 0 2 > 0, 0
| x 0 | < 2, | () | < /.
= min{1, 2}, . ,
| () f() | = | () | | f() | < ,
: () f () ..
3. .. () f(),
, ..
. lim f ( x) = A 0 , 1/f () .
x x0

() 1/ f () .. 2.
3 .. () () -
( x)
. lim
:
x x0 ( ) ( x )
, , . .. () : .. , ();
; , ().
( x)
, lim
= 1 , .. () () 0( )
x x0 ( ) ( x )
. () ().
44

, () .. , : () = 0(()) 0 ( ) ( ()
() 0( )).
f() (
) 0, ,
, (), , 0
| x 0 | < , | f(x) | > .
.. ..
() .. 0( ), 1/()
.. 0( ). : () ..
0( ), 1/() .. 0( ).
. 0.
() .. 0. , > 0
> 0, , 0 | x 0 | <
, | () | < . : | 1/() | > 1/, | f(x) | > , f(x) = 1/() =
1/. , f(x) .. 0.
.

4.3.
f(x) ()

lim

x x0 ( )

f ( x) = A ,

lim ( x) = B . .

x x0 ( )

1) .

. : f(x)
( ). ..

f(x) = + (), f(x) = + (),


() () .. 0( ).
, :
() () = 0,
45

, () () .. .. , .
2)
.
.
f(x) ().

lim

x x0 ( )

f ( x) = A ,

lim ( x) = B . -

x x0 ( )

..
f(x) = + (), (x) = + (),
() () .. 0( ). f(x) (x) = ( ) +
+ (() ()), ..
lim [ f ( x) ( x)] = lim A lim B = A B .

x x0 ( )

x x0 ( )

x x0 ( )

3) .
. 2.
3 ,
.
4)
, .
.
f ( x) A
A + ( x) A
A AB + B( x) AB A( x)
.
= +(
)= +
( x) B
B + ( x) B
B
B 2 + B( x)
f ( x) A
.., lim
= .
x x0 ( ) ( x )
B
5) u(x) f(x) v(x), 0, ,
, 0, lim u ( x) = lim v( x) = A ,
x x0

x x0

lim f ( x) = A . ( ).
x x0

. > 0 1 > 0,
2 > 0, 0 | x 0 | < 1,
| x 0 | < 2 | u(x) | < | v() | < .
46

= min {1, 2}, , .. < u(x) < < v() < . , < f() <
0, lim f ( x) = A .
x x0

4.4.
4.4.1.
, ,
.
f(x) 0, :
1) 0, .. f(0);
2) 0;
3) , ..
lim f ( x) = f ( x0 ) .

x x0

x0 = lim x ,
x x0

lim f ( x) = f ( lim x) .

x x0

x x0

, lim f
.
0
, f() f(0) , , .
:
f(x) 0, :
lim y = 0 .

x 0

. = 0 + lim f ( x0 + x) = f ( x0 ) , x 0

0 0.
47

..
f( + 0) = f(0) + (), () = f( + 0) f(0) = ..
0, .. lim y = 0 .
x 0

,
1. f1() f2() 0, 0;
f1()/f2() 0 ,
f2(0) 0.
. ( ). g(x) = f1()/f2(). ,
g(x0) = f1(0)/f2(0). ,
lim f1 ( x) = f1 ( x0 ) , lim f 2 ( x) = f 2 ( x0 ) , , f2(0) 0,
x x0

x x0

lim g ( x) = lim

x x0

x x0

lim f ( x)
f (x )
f1 ( x) x x0 1
=
= 1 0 = g ( x0 ) ,
f 2 ( x) lim f 2 ( x) f1 ( x0 )
x x0

g(x) = f1()/f2() 0.
. lim

1 + sin x

p
x 1 cos 2 x
2

1+1
= 1.
1 (1)


:
x0, ; , .
, .
2. f(x) 0 f(x0) > 0, 0, f(x) > 0. ( ).
. f(x) 0, lim f ( x) = f ( x0 ) .
x x0

= f(x0)/2 > 0. 0:
() > 0,
, 0 | x 0 | < , 48

| f(x) f(x0) | < . f(x0) < f(x) < f(x0) + , f(x) > f(x0)/2 > 0 - 0.
x0 , . :
(
0, ) (
).
, 0 , .
4.4.2.
f(x) [, b],
(, b),
b.
, ,
,
.
,
1. : f(x)
(, b), .
. , f(x) [, b].
n xn (, b) ,
| f(xn)| > n (n = 1,2, ...).

(4.1)

{xn} ( ),
{xnk},
(, b) ( ).
f(x)
lim f ( xnk ) = f (a )

(4.2)

(4.2) (4.1). f(x)


[, b].
49

2. : f(x)
[a, b],
.
.
(, b) f(x) .
f(x) [, b]: = sup{f(x)} f(x).
: f(x) < .
1
. , , , .. () ,
( x) =
M f ( x)
1
1
f ( x) M M = sup{ f ( x)} , .

.
.
3. ( ):
f(x) [, b] f() f(b)
, (, b) , f(x) .
. [, b] 0. 0
. 0 f(x) , . , 0 ,
f(x) .
1 . , 1 f(x) , .
, 2 , f(x)
.
, (, b),
f() = 0, ,
,
f(x) . ,
, .
, f() = 0.
, , f() > 0, , Uc
, (, b), , f(x) . ,
n n Uc, f(x) n.
50

4. (
): (, b) f(x)

.
. () = f() ,
, = f() = f(b).
f(x) [, b], ()
[, b]. () .
(, b) , , () = 0 f() = 0, .. f() = .

4.5.

sin( x)
=1.
lim
x 0
x

. 4.1

. R
(. 4.1). , (0 < < /2)
. , , , ,
, .. SAOB < S. < SAO.
51

SAOB = 1/2R2sin (x), S. = 1/2R2x, SAO = 1/2R2 tg (x),


1/2R2sin (x) < 1/2R2x < 1/2R2 tg (x), , 1/2R2 sin (x) > 0, 1 < x/sin (x) < 1/cos (x),
cos (x) < sin (x)/x < 1.
cos (x) sin (x)/x , /2 < < 0. 0,
lim1 = 1 , lim cos( x) = 1 . x0

x 0

sin( x)
=1.
lim
x 0
x


tg ( x)
sin( x)
1
sin( x)
1
= lim

= lim
lim
= 1 1 = 1 ;
x 0
x 0
x 0 cos( x )
x
x
cos( x) x 0 x

1) lim

arctg( x)
.
x 0
x
= rctg (x), = tg (y), lim y = 0 ,
x 0

arctg( x)
y
1
1
= lim
= lim
= =1;
lim
x 0
y 0 tg( y )
y 0 tg( y ) / y
x
1
2) lim

arcsin( x)
= 1 , .
x

lim (1 + 1 / n)n = e , 3) lim

x 0

. , 1
y = (1 + ) x ( ,
x
n, ) , :
1
lim (1 + ) x = e .
x
x
= 1/, :
1
y

lim(1 + y ) = e .
y 0

52

= . , .


1

ln(1 + x)
= lim ln(1 + x) x = ln lim(1 + x) x = ln e = 1 ;
x 0
x 0
x 0
x
x
e 1
.
2) lim
x 0
x
= 1, ln () = ln (y + 1), = ln (y +
+ 1)/ln (), lim y = 0 ,

1) lim

x 0

ax 1
y ln(a )
= lim
= ln(a ) lim
x 0
y 0 ln(1 + y )
y 0
x

lim

ln(1 + y )
ex 1
.
3) lim
x 0
x
= ,

1
y

= ln(a ) ;

ex 1
=1.
x 0
x

lim



.. () () 0( ),
( x)
lim
= 1 . () ~ (). x x0 ( ) ( x )
,
.. 0:
1. sin (x) ~ x;
2. tg (x) ~ x;
3. arcsin (x) ~ x;
4. arctg (x) ~ x;
5. ln (1 + x) ~ x;
53

6. ex 1~ x;
7. x 1~ xln ();
8. 1 cos (x) ~ x2/2;
9. (1 + x) 1 ~ x.
,
:
(1 + x) 1
e ln(1+ x ) 1
ln(1 + x)
x
= lim
= lim
= lim
=1.
x 0
x 0
x 0
x 0 x
x
x
x

lim

.. , .
. :
lim

x 1/2

arctg(2 x 1)
2x 1
1
= lim
= .
2
1/2
x

(2
x

1)

(2
x
+
1)
2
4x 1

1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. ?
6. , .
7. , .
sin( x)
8. , lim
=1.
x 0
x
9. ?

54

5.

5.1.
y = f(x).
: y = f(x + x). = f(x + x) f(x). /x
y
lim
.
x 0 x
y = f(x) (
) , 0, y(x) f(x).
, .
. = 2, ().
1. + ;
2. = f( + ) f() = ( + )2 2 = 2 + ()2;
3. / = 2 + ;
y
4. y ( x) = lim
= lim (2 x + x) = 2 x;( x 2 ) = 2 x .
x 0 x
x 0
. , , .
y
, .. lim
.
x 0 x

5.2.

: , .
. y = f(x) ,
y
lim
, .. / .
x 0 x
55

= (/), / , .. 0 0.
, y = f(x) .
, .
, , , ..
.

5.3. .

y = f(x)
(. 5.1).

. 5.1

1. (,). .
+ =
= f( + ) 1( + , + ).
2. y = f(x + x) f(x) = M1N.
3. MM1 ,
.
y M 1 N
=
= tg .
x MN
4. 0. M1
, . MM1
56

,
, .. = ().
1 M1
. :
y
lim
= lim tgj = tga = k .
x 0 x
x 0
, , .

y = f(x) 0(0,0).
0(0, 0), , :
0 = k( 0), kK = f(x0).
0 = f(x0)(x x0).
,
.

: k = 1/k = 1/ f(x).
y = f(x) 0(0, 0)
1
y y0 =
( x x0 ) .
f ( x0 )
. = 2
(3; 9).
: = 2, '() = 2, '(3) = 6 = k. :
9 = 6( 3) 6 + 9 = 0. (3, 9):
9 = ( 3)/6 6 + 57 = 0.

5.4.
S = f(t), t , S ,
57

t. t0.
S0 = f(to). : v0
to.
t = to + t. S = f(to + t). t = t to
S = S S0 = f(to + t) f(to). vcp
t
: vcp = S/t. to
, t . vcp , t.
v0 to
vcp t 0, ..
S
v0 = lim
= S (t0 ).
t 0 t

.

5.5.
1. : ' = 0.

y
=0
x 0 x

. = f(x + ) f(x) = C C = 0, lim


' = 0.

2. , ,
: ' = 1.
y
. = x + - x = , lim
= 1 ' = 1.
x 0 x
3. (u v) = u v. u()
v(x) .
. y(x) = u(x) + v(x)
:
) .
) y = [u(x + x)-u(x)] + [v(x + x)
v(x)] = u + v.
58

) / = u/ + v/.
) 0
y
u v
lim
= lim (
+ ) = u ( x) + v( x) .
x 0 x
x 0 x
x
4. : (uv) = uv + uv. u() v(x)
.
. y(x) = u(x)v(x),
:
1) + u() v(x)
u(x + x) = u + u v( + ) = v + v.
2) = (u + u)(v + v)-uv = vu + uv + uv.
y
u
v
v
3)
.
=v
+u
+ u
x
x
x
x
y
u
v
v
4) lim
= lim (v
+u
+ u ) =
x 0 x
x 0
x
x
x
u
v
v
= v lim
+ u lim
+ lim u lim
= u v + uv .
x 0 x
x 0 x
x 0
x 0 x

1. 2 . , (uvw) = uvw + uvw + uvw.
2. : (u)' = u, .
. (Cu) = Cu + Cu = 0 + Cu = Cu.
5. : (u/v) = (uv uv)/v2. u() v(x)
.
. y(x) = u(x)/v(x).
1) + : u(x + x) = u + u v(x + x) = v + v.
u + u u vu u v
2) y =
=
.
v + v v v(v + v)
y vu / x u v / x
3)
.
=
x
v(v + v)
u
v
v lim
u lim
y
u v uv
x 0 x
x 0 x
4) lim
.
=
=
x 0 x
v lim (v + v)
v2
x 0

59

6. . = f(u) u = ().
: = f[()], u .
: = f(u) u = ()
,

: ' = u ux.
. . u u . 0. u() y
, .. lim u = 0 . yu = lim
.
x 0
u 0 u
y

= yu + (u ) , (u) 0 u 0,
u
y = yu u + (u )u .
:
y
u
u
.
= yu
+ (u )
x
x
x
u
0 , (u )
x
0, ' = u ux.
7. .
: y = f(x)
= (), ,
f(x) 0, = (), , .. (y) = l/f(x).
. y = f(x) ,
= () f() 0. ,
, = () :
x = [( y )]x ;
1 = y ( y ) y x ;
y x =

1
1
.
=
j y ( y ) xy

: '() 0, '() 0.
60

5.6.


)
= ln x:
1. + ;
2. y = ln( x + x) ln x = ln
y
3.
=
x

x
)
x ;
x

x + x
x
= ln(1 + ) ;
x
x

ln(1 +

x
x
ln(1 + )
ln(1 + )
y
x
x 1 = 1 ,
4. lim
= lim
= lim
x 0 x
x 0

0
x x
x
x / x
x
x
x
ln(1 + )
x x
x x
x
= lim ln(1 + ) = ln lim (1 + ) = ln e = 1.
lim
x 0
x
x
x0 x / x x0
) = logx = ln x/ln .
1
1
y = (log a x) =
.
(ln x) =
x ln a
ln a


y = f(x). , (ln )
, , ( ,
). , (ln ). = 1 / ',
yx = y(ln ).
.
= ( > 0, 1)
= , : ln y = xln A. :
(ln ) = ln ;
61

y
= ln a ;
y
(a x ) = a x ln a .
: ()' = , ln e = 1.
= n, n R
= n, : ln y = n ln x. :
n
(ln y )x = ;
x
y n
= ;
y x
n
( x n ) = x n = nx n 1 .
x

) y = sin x :
1. + ;
2. = sin (x + x) sin (x) = 2 sin (x/2) cos (x + x/2);
x
2sin( )
y
2 cos( x + x ) ;
3.
=
x
x
2
x
2sin( )
y
2 lim cos( x + x ) = cos x .
4. lim
= lim
x 0 x
x 0
x 0
x
2
(sin x) = cos x.
) y = cos x = sin (/2-x) : y = sin u, u = /2-x.
:

y x = yu u x = (sin u )u ( x) = cos u = cos( x) = cos x .


2
2

, (cos x) = sin x.
) y = tg x = sin x/cos x.
:
62

sin x
cos x cos x sin x ( sin x)
1
) =
=
.
2
cos x
cos x
cos 2 x
, (tg x) = l/cos 2x = sec2x.
y = (

) , (ctg x) = l/sin 2x = cosec2x.



) y = arcsin x ( /2 < < /2, | | < 1).
= sin y = > ' = (sin y) = cos y.
:
1
1
1
1
y x =
.
=
=
=
xy cos y + 1 sin 2 y
1 x2
) y = arccos x (0 < < , | | < 1). , arctgx + arcctgx =
:

,
2

(arcsin x) + (arccos x) = 0 = > (arccos x) = -(arcsin x).


1
.
(arccos x) =
1 x2

) y = arctg x ( /2 < < /2).

x = tg y = > xy = (tg y) = l/cos 2 = sec2;


1
1
1
1
;
=
=
=
2
2
xy sec y 1 + tg y 1 + x 2

1
.
(arctgx) =
1 + x2

r) y = arcctg x. , arctgx + arcctgx = , :


2
1

.
(arcctgx) =
1 + x2
y x =

5.7.
y = f(x) , f (x)
. ( ) 63

y = f(x) , .. = (')'. y = f(x) ..


:
y = f ( x) =
y = f ( x) =

dy
d2y
, y = f ( x) = 2 ,
dx
dx

d3y
dny
(n)
(n)
,
...,
(
)
.
y
=
f
x
=
dx3
dx n

1. .
2. ?
3. .
4. .
5. .
6.
.

64

6.

6.1.
y = f(x) X
.

y
.
f ( x) = lim
x 0 x

y
= f ( x) + (x) ,
x
(x) x 0,

y =

f ( x)x + (x)x .

(6.1)

, :

1) ;
2) (
, ,
(x)x
lim
= lim (x) = 0 ).
x 0
x 0
x
, , ,

dy = f ( x)x .

(6.2)

. = .

: dy = dx = x,
dx = ,
..
.

dy =

f ( x)x ,
65

(6.3)

dy
, ..
dx
.
f ( x) =

. 6.1

. 6.2


y = f(x) (,).
. y = f(x) y = f(x + ) f(x) (. 6.1).
= f(x) , , .. f(x) = tg .
MKN KN = MNtg = tg = f(x),
.. . 6.2 dy = KN.
,
, = f(x) ,
.
dy < y. , . 6.2 ,
dy > y.

.
1. dc = 0; 4. d(u v) = du dv;
2. dx = ;. 5. d(uv) = vdu + udv;
66

u
vdu udv
3. d(v) = dv; 6. d ( ) =
x
v2
, , 5: d(uv) = (uv)'dx = (uv + uv)dx = vdu +
+ udv. .

y = f(u), u = () , .. y = f[()]. y = f(u)
u = () , = 'u ux.

dy = dx = uuxdx = udu,

(6.4)

.. dy = f(u)du.
, , u. (.. )
.

6.2.

, y = dy + (x)x, ..
dy
, dy = f(x)x.
dy,
f(x + x) f(x) + f(x)x.

(6.5)

, (6.5).
. :

4 16, 64

: n- . f ( x) = n x ,
1
1 1 n x
(6.5)
f ( x) = x n =
n
nx
67

x + x n x +

x x n
x
= x (1 + ) .
nx
nx

x
).
4x
, 16,64 ,
4 x , .
, = 16, = 0,64.
0, 64
4 16, 64 4 16 + (
) = 2 1, 01 = 2, 02 .
4 16

.
y = f(x)
1, ,
x = x x1 . f(x1) f(x), , | f(x1) f(x) | = | |
dy = f(x)x.
y
y =

y

4

y =

x + x 4 x (1 +

dy
f ( x)x
xf ( x) x
y

=
=

y
y
f ( x)
f ( x)
x

y =
Ex ( y ) =

Ex ( y ) x ,

(6.6)

xf ( x)
y = f(x);
f ( x)

x
.
x
. ,
2%?
:
4
f ( x) = x3 . f(x) = 42.
3
x =

68

xf ( x) x 4x 2
=
= 3.
4 3
f ( x)
x
3
(6) y 3 x = 3 2 = 6(%) .

.
Ex ( y ) =

6.3.
y = f(x) (6.3) dy = f(x)dx,
.. : dx.
,
, , .
dy , .
d2y = f() , ..
d2y = d(dy).

(6.7)

n-
(n-1)- , .. dny = d(dn-1y).
d2y. d2y = d(dy) = = d(f(x)dx).
dx , ..
, dx , ..
d2y = dxdf(x) = dx[f(x)]dx = f(x)(dx)2.
, d2y = f(x)dx2,
dx2 = (dx)2,

(6.8)

d(n)y = f{n)(x)dx(n),

(6.9)

.. - n-
n- .
(6.9) ,
f ( n ) ( x) =
69

d (n) y
.
dx ( n )

,

. , , n = 2.
y = f(u), u = (),
d 2 y = d ( f (u )du ) = d ( f (u ))du + f (u )d (du ) =
= f (u )dudu + f (u )d 2u = f (u )du 2 + f (u )d 2u.
u , d2u = d(du) = d(u) = 0
d 2 y = f (u )du 2 . :
d 2 y = f (u )du 2 + f (u )d 2u ,
.. .

1. ?
2. .
3. .
4.
?
5. , ?
6.
.

70

7.

f(x) = (), U(c) = (c , + ),



f(c) f(x) x U(c)

(7.l)

(f () f () x U(c)).
. .
1. f(x) [, b] () (, b), , ,
c () f(x). , () f(x) [, b] .
() f(x), f(x)
( ).
. 7.1 y = f(x), [, b].
x1 x3 f(x), 2, x4
.

. 7.1

, b f(x), f(x).
, b .
71

7.1.
f(x)
, f() = 0.
. , f(x)
.
f (c + x) f (c)
.
x 0
x
f(c) f(x) x U(c), > 0
f (c) = lim

f (c + x) f (c)
0,
x
0 ,
f(c) 0.

(7.2)

< 0,
f (c + x) f (c)
0,
x
, 0 , ,
f(c) 0.

(7.3)

(7.2) (7.3) , f() = 0, .

7.2.
y = f(x) [, b], (,
b) f(A) = f(b), (, b), , f() = 0.
.
, , m .
, , .. m = M, (, b) f() = 0.
, ..
m < M,
.
72

2.
.

. 7.2

3. .
, y = f(x) (, f()), x (. 7.2).

7.3.
f(x) g(x) (, b)
(, b), g() 0 (, b), (, b), ,

f (b) f (a) f (c)


.
=
g (b) g (a) g (c)

(7.4)

. , g(b) g(A) 0,
, g() = 0,
.

F ( x) = f ( x) f (a)

f (b) f (a)
[ g ( x) g (a)] .
g (b) g (a )

[, b], (, b) F(A) = 0, F(b) = 0, .. . (, b), F() = 0.


F ( x) = f ( x)

f (b) f (a)
g ( x) ,
g (b) g (a)

, , .
73

g(x) = x .

7.4.
f(x) (, b)
(, b). (, b)
,
(7.5)
f (b) f (a) = f (c)(b a) .
,
f (b) f (a )
= f (c) .
ba
, (a, f(a)) (b, f(b)) y = f(x),
(, b).
, (, b) ,
, (a, f(a)) (b,
f(b)) (. 7.3).

. 7.3

(7.5) () .
= a + (b a),
, 0 < < 1.

f (b) f (a ) = f [a + (b a)](b a) .
74

C
f() , .
. [A; x]. f ( x) f (a ) = f (c)( x a ) ,
< < . f() = 0, .. f(x) = f(a) = const.

7.5.

, 0
,
, ..

0
f ( x)
f ( x)
= lim
lim
x x0 g ( x )
x x0 g ( x ) .
( x ) ( x )
. 0
0. ,
0
f(x) g(x), 0,
lim f ( x) = f ( x0 ) = 0 lim g ( x) = g ( x0 ) = 0 .
x x0

x x0

f ( x) f ( x0 )
f ( x)
lim
.
= lim
x x0 g ( x )
x x0 g ( x ) g ( x )
0
f() g(x) [, 0],

f ( x) f ( x0 )
f ( x)
f (c)
.
lim
= lim
= lim
x x0 g ( x )
x x0 g ( x ) g ( x )
x x0 g (c )
0
0, 0,
lim

x x0

f ( x)
f (c)
f ( x)
= lim
= lim
.
g ( x) c x0 g (c) x x0 g ( x)

.
1) lim

x 0

1 cos 3x
.
x2
75

,
lim

x 0

1 cos 3x 0
3sin 3x 0
9 cos 3x 9
= = lim
= = lim
= .
2
0
0
x

2x
2
2
x
0
0

ln x
1/ x
1
= = lim
= lim 3 = 0 ,
3
2
x
+
x
+

x
3x
3x

.. = ln x ,
= 3.
2) lim

x +

(0 ) ( )
, (0/0) (/):
x
1
1
0
1) lim( xctg 3x) = [0 ] = lim
= = lim
= .
2
0
x 0
x 0 tg 3 x
x

3sec 3x 3
0

2)

1
1
ex 1 x 0
lim( x ) = [ ] = lim
= =
x 0 x
x 0 x (e x 1)
e 1
0
ex 1
ex
1
0
=
=
lim
=
= .

x
x
x
x
x
x 0 e 1 + xe
2
0 x 0 e + e + xe

= lim

(00), (0), (1)


(- )
) (00) lim[u ( x)]v ( x ) ,
xa

lim u ( x) = 0 lim v( x) = 0 .
x

xa

) (0):

lim[u ( x)]v ( x ) = ( 0 ) , lim u ( x) = lim v( x) = 0 .


xa

xa

xa

) (1 ):

lim[u ( x)]v ( x ) = (1 ) , lim u ( x) = 1 lim v( x) = .


xa

xa

xa

- (0/0) (/),
[u(x)]v(x) .
76

1) lim x1+ 2ln x = (00 ) .


x 0

ln A:
6

ln a = ln lim x1+ 2ln x = lim ln x1+ 2ln x = lim


x 0

6 ln x

=
=
2 ln x

x 0 1 +

x 0

6 1 / x
3; a = e3 .
x 0 2 1 / x

= lim
1

2) lim (1 + e x ) x = ( 0 ) .
x

ln :
1

ln(1 + e x )
= =
x
x

ln a = ln lim (1 + e x ) x = lim ln(1 + e x ) x = lim


x

e
ex

lim
=
=
x x = 1; a = e.
x 1 + e x
e

= lim

1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .

77

8.

8.1.
, y = f(x) y = F(x) ,
f() = F(), f() = F(). .
f() = F(), f() = F(), f () = F().
y = f(x) y = F(x) (, f())
, , , . n-

f() = F(), f() = F(), f () = F (), ..., f(n)() = F(n)().

(8.1)

, .
y = f(x),
(n + 1) = .
n-
Pn(x) = c0 + c1x + c2x2 + ... + cnxn

(8.2)

, y = f(x)
. , Pn(x), n- , .. (8.1).
(8.2), (8.1), n- y = f(x) = .
(8.2) ( ), . = t, = + t
Pn(x) = c0 + c1x + c2x2 + ... + cnxn = c0 + c1( + t) + c2( + t)2 +
+ ... + cn( + t)n = c0 + c1t + c2t2 + ... + cntn = c0 + c1( ) +
+ c2( )2 + ... + cn( )n,
(8.3)
c0, c1, c2,..., cn .
78

Pn(x) (8.3).
c0, c1, c2,..., cn n :
Pn(x) = c1 + 2c2( ) + 3c3( )2 + ... + ncn( )n 1,
Pn(x) = 2c2 + 3 2 c3 ( ) + ... + n (n 1)cn( )n 2,
...............................................................................................
P(n)n(x) = n (n 1) (n 2) ... 1 cn.
= , , (8.1), :
Pn() = c0 = f(), Pn() = c1 = f(), Pn() = 2c2 = f(),
:

..., P(n)n() = n!cn = f(n)(),

c0 = f(), c1 = f(), c2 = f ()/2!,....., cn = f(n) ()/n! .


:
f (a )
f (a )
f ( n ) (a)
( x a) +
( x a) 2 + ... +
( x a)n .
1!
2!
n!
= 0
:
f (0)
f (0) 2
f ( n ) (0) n
Pn ( x) = f (0) +
x+
x + ... +
x .
1!
2!
n!
Pn ( x) = f (a) +

8.2.
:
f() Pn() = Rn(). f() = Pn() + Rn() :
f (a )
f ( n ) (a)
( x a) + ... +
( x a) n + Rn ( x) . (8.4)
1!
n
!

(8.4) n-
y = f(x) = , Rn()
.
:
f (0)
f (0) 2
f ( n ) (0) n
(8.5)
f ( x) = f (0) +
x+
x + ... +
x + Rn ( x) .
1!
2!
n!

f ( x) = f (a ) +

79

:
Rn (k) () = f(k)(x) Pn (k) () , k = 0,1,2 ..., n.
= , (1), :
Rn (k) () = f(k)() Pn (k) () = 0 , k = 0,1,2 ..., n.
k = n + 1 Rn (n + 1) () = f(n + 1)(x).
g(x) = ( )n + 1. ,
g() = g() = ... = g(n)() = 0, g(n + 1)(x) = (n + 1)!.
Rn () g(x) . , Rn() = g() = 0, :
1 (, ) ,
Rn ( x) Rn ( x) Rn (a) Rn ( x1 )
, x1 (a, x) .
=
=
g ( x)
g ( x) g (a )
g ( x1 )
Rn () g(x) 1,
:
Rn ( x1 ) Rn ( x1 ) Rn (a ) Rn ( x2 )
, x2 (a, x1 ) ,
=
=
g ( x1 )
g ( x1 ) g (a ) g ( x2 )
Rn ( x2 ) Rn ( x2 ) Rn (a ) Rn( x3 )
, x3 (a, x2 ) ,
=
=
g ( x2 ) g ( x2 ) g (a ) g ( x3 )
..........................................................................................................
Rn( n ) ( xn )
g ( n ) ( xn )

Rn( n ) ( xn ) Rn( n ) (a )
g ( n ) ( xn ) g ( n ) (a )

Rn( n +1) ()
g ( n +1) ()

f ( n +1) ()
, (a, xn ) .
(n + 1)!

f ( n +1) ()
(8.6)
( x a) n +1 .
(
n
+
1)!

.
(6), :
Rn ( x) =

f (a )
f ( n ) (a)
f ( n +1) ()
( x a) + ... +
( x a)n +
( x a) n +1 ,
1!
n!
(n + 1)!
.
( = 0) :
f ( x) = f (a ) +

80

f ( x) = f (0) +

f (0)
f ( n ) (0) n f ( n +1) () n +1
x + ... +
x +
x ,
1!
n!
(n + 1)!

0 .

. f(x)
(n + 1) , Rn()
, ( )n , ..
Rn() = [( )n ] . R ( x)
. , lim n n = 0 .
xa ( x a)
, f(x) , ,
, ( )n.
: Rn() = ()n .

8.3.

1) f(x) = . f(x) = f(x) = f(x) = ...f(n + 1)(x) = ,
f(0) = f(0) = f(0) = ...f(n + 1)(0) = 1,

ex = 1 + x +

x 2 x3
xn
+ ... +
+ o( x n ) .
2! 3!
n!

2) f(x) = sin x. f(n)(x) = sin (x + n/2),


0 _ _ n_,

(n)
f (0) = sin(n ) =
n 1
2 (
2 __n_,
1)


sin x = x

x3 x5
x 2 n 1
+ ... + (1)n 1
+ o( x 2 n ) .
3! 5!
(2n 1)!

3) f(x) = s x. f(n)(x) = cos (x + n/2),


0 _ _ n_,

(n)
f (0) = cos(n ) =
n
2 (
2 __n_,
1)


81

x2 x4
x2n
+ ... + (1)n
+ o( x 2 n +1 ) .
2! 4!
(2n)!
(2n) (2n + 1),
.

cos x = 1

8.4.


. , , . , Rn().
,
, .. lim Rn = 0 .
x

f(x)
.
. 10-4.
.
ex = 1 + x +

x 2 x3
xn
x n +1
+ ... +
+
e ,
2! 3!
n ! (n + 1)!

= 1, :
1 1
1
+ ... + .
2! 3!
n!
e
Rn =
. n , | Rn | < 10-4:
(n + 1)!
e2+

e
e
3
<
<
< 104 (n + 1)! > 3 104 .
(n + 1)! (n + 1)! (n + 1)!

n = 7.
82

1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
2! 3! 4! 5! 6! 7!
2,5 + 0,16667 + 0, 04167 + 0, 00833 + 0, 00139 + 0, 00019 = 2, 71824.
e2+

8.5.

f (a)
, f() = g() = 0, ..
g (a)
(0/0).
f(x) g(x) .
lim

xa

. lim

x 0

sin x x
.
x3

. n = 2
lim

x 0

x3
+ o( x 4 ) x
o( x 4 )
1
1
6
=

+
lim
= .
3
3
6 x 0 x
6
x

1. n-
y = f(x) = ?
2. n- y = f(x)
= .
3. .
4. , sin (x), cos (x)
= 0?
5.
?

83

9.

9.1.
= f(x) () X, 1,2 , 2 > 1 f(x2) >
f(x1) (f(2) < f(1)).

()
() X, () .
. 1 2 . 2 > 1 1,2 . , f(x2) > f(x1).
f(x) [1, 2]
,
f(x2) f(x1) = f()(2 1),

(9.1)

1 < < 2, .. , , , f() > 0


(9.1) .
f(x2) f(x1) > 0 f(x2) > f(x1).
.
,
. ( ) ,
, () , .. .
84

9.2.

0 = f() , , , ,
, .. f(0) = 0. ,
. , = | |
() = 0, .
= 2/3 = 0 (. 9.1), 2
: y = 3 , '(0) = .
3 x

. 9.1


. = f() 0, ,
.
, , ..
, .
, - ,
. : . , = 3 + 1
. ' = 32 = 0
, = 0 .
85

.

0
, 0
, , .
. ,
.. (, 0) (f(x) > 0),
(0, b) (f(x) < 0). ()
(, 0) (0, b).
f(x0) > f(x) (,
0), f(x0) > f(x) (0,
b), .. f(x0) f(x) (, b), , 0 .
,
.
, .

f()
0,
f (0) , 0 f();
f(0) , 0 .
. f(0) = 0, f(0 ) > 0. , f() =
(f(x)) > 0 0, .. f()
(, b), 0.
f(0) = 0, , (, 0) f() < 0, (0, b) f() > 0, .. f() 0
, .. 0 .
f(0) = 0 f(0) < 0.
,
0 f(0) 0, . 86

, , .
. ,
0 f(0) = 0,
.

9.3.
y = f(x)
() (, b), ( )
(. 9.2).

. 9.2


y = f(x) f() (, b). f() < 0,
, f() > 0 .
. , f(x) < 0,
, (. 9.3).

. 9.3

87

0 0, (, b), 0 ,

Y f(x0) = f(x0)(x x0).
Y ,
. Y

y Y = f(x) [f(x0) + f(x0)(x x0)]
y Y = f(x) f(x0) f(x0)(x x0).
f(x) f(x0) :
f(x) f(x0) = f()( 0),
0 < < .
y Y = f()( 0) f(x0)(x x0) = (x x0)[ f() f(x0)].
f() f(x0) :
f() f(x0) = (c x0)f(c1),
x0 < 1 < c.
y Y = f(c1)(x x0)(c x0).
x x0 c x0 ,
x0, (x x0)(c x0) > 0. f() < 0 (, b) , , f(c) < 0. , y Y = f(c1)(x x0)(c x0) < 0.
, (, b), 0,
y = Y, Y = f(x), ..
.
, f() > 0 .

9.4.
, , . .

y = f(x) (, b) f(). , 0 ( < 0 < b)
(. 9.4), f(0) = 0.
88

. 9.4

. , f() 0.
f() > 0.
0 , ,
. , 0 . , f(0) = 0.
, . , = 5/3 '' = 10/9-1/3. , ' < 0 < < 0 ' 0 0 < < +.
, = 0 , ' .
, , .
, , .

f()
0, y = f(x).
. , , f(x) < 0 < 0 f(x) > 0
> 0. 0 , 0 . , 0 , .. (0, f(x0)) .

9.5.
. , .
89

y = f(x) ,
(, f(x)) :

) )

. 9.5

. 9.5 , . 9.5
, . 9.5 . ,

.

.
1. = 0
f(x),
lim f ( x) = .
x x0 0
( x x0 + 0)

,
0.
2. =
f(x),
lim f ( x) = A .

lim f ( x) = A
x

lim f ( x) = An , =

x +

= .
90

3. = kx + b
f(x),
f ( x)
= k lim[ f ( x) kx] = b .
lim
x x
x
, = kx + b ,
f ( x)
b
lim[ f ( x) (kx + b)] = 0 lim (
k )=0,
x
x
x
x
f ( x)
k = lim
.
x x
k , lim[ f ( x) (kx + b)] = 0 x

b = lim[ f ( x) kx] .
x

, , , .. + .

9.6.


:
1. .
2. .
3. .
3. .
5. .
6. .
7. .
. y =
:

1 + x2
.
1 x2

1. : (, 1) U(l, 1) U(l, +), .. 1.


91

2. , f(x) = f(),
.
3. : (0) = 1, ..
(0, 1). f() = 0 , , .
4. 1 0() 1 + 0
() , ..
1 + x2
1 + x2

lim
=

lim
= + ,
x 1+ 0 1 x 2
x 1 0 1 x 2
= 1 .
= 1 .
1 + x2
lim
= 1 , = 1 x + 1 x 2
( x )
1 + x2
= 0 , .
x x (1 x 2 )
5. .

, lim

2 x(1 x 2 ) (1 + x 2 )(2 x)
4x
.
=
2 2
(1 x )
(1 x 2 )2
= 0 ' = 0 ' = 1.
= 0, .. = 1 .
< 0 f() < 0, > 0 f() > 0 (. 9.6), = 0
f(0) = 1 . (, 1)
(1,0) , (0,1) (1, ) .
y =

. 9.6

6. .
4(1 x 2 ) 2 2 x 2(1 x 2 )(2 x) 4(1 + 3x 2 )
. '' 0,
=
(1 x 2 ) 4
(1 x 2 )3
.
y =

92

, '' > 0 (1, 1)


, '' < 0 (, 1), (l, +),
.
7. (. 9.7):

. 9.7

1.
.
2. .
3.
.
4. ?
5. .
6. ?
7. .

93

10.

10.1. ,



, :
(x, y) D f
z Z, z
() , : z = f(x, y).
D , Z
z.
(, ) , , D ( ).
.
z = ln( y x 2 1) + 9 y 2 .
: , :
2
y x 2 1 > 0
y > x + 1
D( z ) :

.
2
9 y 0
| y | 3

. 10.1.
, , ,
.

(, , f(, )). , , 94

, z = f(x, y) .
,
.

. 10.1

XOY,
z = f(x, y) ,
.
, ,
f(x, y) = c, = const.
,
z = f(x, y).
. z = 42 + 2.
: 42 + 2 = , 0 .
c = 0, (0; 0). c 0,
a = 2 c , b = c ,
a = 2 c, b = c :

x2
(2 c )2

y2
( c )2

= 1.

, , z = 42 + 2 (. 10.2).
95

. 10.2

. f(x, y, z) = c
= f(x, y, z).

10.2.


.
, .
z = f(x, y),
z
z
= f x( x, y ) = lim x ,

0
x
x
x
x z = f ( x + x, y ) f ( x, y ) , ( ) z = f(x, y) . :
yz
z
,
= f y ( x, y ) = lim
y 0 y
y
y z = f ( x, y + y ) f ( x, y ) .
96

, f x( x, y ) , f y ( x, y ) .
. z = xy.
: .
z x = yx y 1 . z y = x y ln x .
z z



x y
z = f(x, y) OY .
z = f(x, y) (, ),

z = dz + (l )l ,

(10.1)

l = (x)2 + (y )2 ,

(l ) 0, 0,

dz .


.
= dx, = dy,

dz = z x dx + z y dy .

(10.2)

.
,
(10.1) ,
.
,
.
97

10.3. .
, = f(x, y, z) .
.
= f(x, y, z) M0(x0;
y0; z0)

u
u
= lim l ,

0
l
l
l

(10.3)

lu = u() u(0) l ,
l = M 0 M = ( x x0 ) 2 + ( y y0 ) 2 + ( z z0 )2 .
:
= f(x, y, z) D,
0,
l
u u
u
u
=
cos + cos + cos ,
y
z
l x
cos , cos , cos l .

(10.4)

. = f(x, y, z)
0,
l u = u x x + u y y + u z z + (l )l ,
= l cos , y = l cos , z = l cos .
u u x l cos + u y l cos + u z l cos + (l )l
l =
, ,
l
l
u u
u
u
=
cos + cos + cos .
l 0, :
l x
y
z
. = 2 + z2 + x2z (0; 2; 1) , N (3; 6; 1).
: u = f(x, y, z)
0:
98

u
u
( M 0 ) = 4 + 2 0 1 = 4,
= y 2 + 2 xz ,
x
x
u
u
( M 0 ) = 2 0 2 + 1 = 1, .
= 2 xy + z 2 ,
x
y
u
u
( M 0 ) = 2 1 2 + 02 = 4.
= 2 zy + x 2 ,
x
z

3
: l = M 0 N = (3; 4;0), l = 9 + 16 = 5 , cos = ,
5
4
cos = , cos = 0.
5
u
3
4
(10.4), :
(M 0 ) = 4 + 1 +
l
5
5
16
+40 = .
5
,
0 . ,
u(0), u(0), uz(0) . = f(x, y, z).
D , = f(x, y, z).
= f(x, y, z) :
u
u
u
gradu =
i +
i +
k.
(10.5)
x
y
z

(10.4) (10.5) ,
u

= gradu e = gradu cos (e; gradu ),


(10.6)
e

e = (cos ; cos ; cos ) , .
(10.6) ,
:
1)
:
u ( M 0 )
(10.7)
= l gradu ( M 0 );
l
2) :
99

u
( M 0 ) = gradu ( M 0 ) .
l
l
y
. z =
0(1; 3).
x
y
3
1
: z x =
, z x ( M 0 ) = ; z y =
, z y ( M 0 ) = 1.
3
2
x
2 x
max

3
gradz (1; 3) = i + j (. 10.3).
2

. 10.3

10.4.
z = f ( x1 , x2 , ..., xn )
X * = ( x1* , x2* , ..., xn* ) .

f (X *) f X ) ( f (X *) f (X ) ,
, z = f(X) * ( ).

* z = f(X) , .
100

f x1 ( x1 , x2 ,..., xn ) = 0,

f x2 ( x1 , x2 ,..., xn ) = 0,
(10.8)

....................................
f ( x , x ,..., x ) = 0.
n
xn 1 2

, ,
.
,
, . 2- .
l = (x1 ) 2 + (x2 ) 2 + ... + (xn ) 2 :
d 2 f ( X * ) > 0 , *;
d 2 f ( X * ) < 0 , *;
d 2 f ( X * ) , *;
d 2 f ( X * ) , .
n n 2 f
d 2 f
xi x j . i =1 j =1 xi x j
2
* d f dx1,
dx2, ..., dxn. dx1, dx2, ..., dxn, , .. d2f(X *).
, *, , , d2f(X *).
d2f
2 f
2 f ... 2 f

2
x1x2
x1x2
x1
...
...
... .
H = ...

2 f
2 f ... 2 f

xn2
xn x1 xn x2
101

z = (x1, x2, ..., xn).


,
.
n n
2 f ( X * )
, d 2 f ( X * ) = aij xi x j , aij = a ji =
.
xi x j
i =1 j =1

z = (x1, x2, ..., xn)
*, *
. d2f(X *) dx1, dx2, ..., dxn, * . d2f(X *)
, * , , .
d2f(X *) ()
, * .
d2f(X *) ,
.
z = f(x, y). :
2 f ( X * )
2 f ( X * )
2 f ( X * )
;
b
=
;
c
=
.
xy
x 2
y 2
d2f(X *) = adx2 + 2bdxdy + cdy2
dx dy :
a b
A=
.
b c
a=

,
:
|| > 0, * .

a > 0, * , a < 0, ;

|| < 0, * ;
|| = 0, .

. z = x2 + xy + y2 2x 3y.
102

: :
z x = 2 x + y 2 = 0,

z y = x + 2 y 3 = 0.
1
4
x* = ; y * = .
3
3
1 4
X * ( ; ) .
3 3
:
= 2; z xy
= 1;
z xx
z yx = 1; z yy = 2.
:

2 1
H =
.
1 2
1 4
|A| > 0 a > 0, X * ( ; ) :
3 3
1 4 16 2
7
zmin = + + 4 = .
9 9 9 3
3

10.5.
z = f(x1, x2, ..., xn)
, x1, x2, ..., xn
i(x1, x2, ..., xn) = 0, i = 1, 2, ..., m, m < n.

(10.9)

, f i
. (9) .
X0(x10, x20, ..., xn0)
() z = f(X),
, , (10.9),
f(X0) f(X) f(X0) f(X)).

, 103

,
:
L(x, y, ) = f(x, y) + (x, y),
.
: (0, 0)
(x, y) = 0,
0, (0, 0, 0)
L(x, y, ).
,
z = f(x, y, ) (x, y) = 0

Lx = 0,

Ly = 0,

Ll = 0.

x ( x0 , y0 , 0 ) y ( x0 , y0 , 0 )
0
( x0 , y0 , 0 ) Lxy
( x0 , y0 , 0 ) .
= x ( x0 , y0 , 0 ) Lxx
y ( x0 , y0 , 0 ) Lyx ( x0 , y0 , 0 ) Lyy
( x0 , y0 , 0 )
> 0, ,
< 0, .
. z = x2 + 2y2
3x + 2y = 11.
: : L = x2 + 2y2 + (3x + 2y 11).
:
Lx = 2 x + 3 = 0,

Ly = 4 y + 2 = 0,

L = 3x + 2 11 = 0.
: = 3; = 1; = 2. , (3;1) .
:
= 2; Lxy
= 0; Lyy
= 4.
x = 3; y = 2; Lxx
104

0 3 2
= 3 2 0 = 44 > 0 .
2 0 4

, (3; 1) , zmin = 11.


, .
.

1. .
2. ?
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. ,
.
7.
.
8. .

105

11.

11.1.


, ..
( ) .
. F(x)
f(x) , F(x) = f(x).
, F(x) = 3/3 2, (3/3) = 2.
: f(x)
, : F1(x) F2(x)
f(x) , , F2(x) = F1(x) + .
. (F1(x) F2(x)) = (F2(x)) (F2(x)) = f(x)
f(x) = 0, ,
, F2(x) F1(x) = .
, F1(x)
F2(x) f(x) . , f(x) -
. f(x) = 2
3/3 + , .
. f(x) f(x)
f(x)dx.
,
, , .
, F(x) -
f(x),
106

f(x)dx = F(x) + C ( = const).


(11.1)
f(x), ,
, f(x)dx
.
f(x)
.
, d[F(x) + ] =
= f(x)dx.

.

11.2. ,


, .
1. :
(f(x)dx) = f(x).

(11.2)

(1),
(f(x)dx) = (F(x) + ) = (F(x) + = f(x).
2. :
df(x)dx = f(x)dx.

(11.3)

1
df(x)dx = (f(x)dx)dx = f(x)dx.
3.

:
dF(x)dx = F(x) + C.
(11.4)
F(x)
f(x), : f(x)dx = F(x) + C 2 f(x)dx = dF(x). dF(x) = f(x)dx = F(x) + C.
107

4. :
kf(x)dx = kf(x)dx.

(11.5)

, (kf(x)dx) = kf(x). , (kf(x)dx) = kf(x).


kf(x)dx kf(x)dx
kf(x). .
, 4 .
5.

:
[f(x)g(x)]dx = f(x)dxg(x)dx.

(11.6)

4.
5
.
2 3 , d
.
,
:
1) x n dx =
2)

x n +1
+ C (n 1) , 6) cos xdx = sin x + C ,
n +1

dx
dx
ln | x | + C , 7)
= tgx + C ,
x
cos 2 x

3) a n dx =

ax
dx
+ C (a > 0) , 8) 2 = ctgx + C ,
ln a
sin x

4) e x dx = e x + C , 9)
5) sin xdx = cos x + C , 10)

dx
1 x2

= arcsin x + C ,

dx
= arctgx + C .
1 + x2

.
108

11.3.

. f(x)dx = F(x) + C
, .
. f(x)dx = F(x) + C, F(x) = f(x).
x = (t), (t) t,
f[(t)] (t)dt = F[((t)] + C.

(11.7)

,
dF[((t)] = F[((t)](t)dt = f[(t)](t)dt,
.. (11.7) .
-
,
. ,
:
x
d
dx
dx
du
a =
=
=
=
2

2
2
2
1 u2
a x
x
x

a 1
11)
1

a
a
x
= arcsin u + C = arcsin + C , a > 0,
a
x
d
x
1
1
a
= 2 = arctg + C ,
2
a
a
a
x
x
1+
1+
a
a
x
1+
2
2
dx
x+ x a
dx
x 2 a 2 dx =
=

=
2
x a2
x + x2 a2
x2 a2
x + x2 a2
13)
dx
1
12) 2
= 2
2
a +x
a

dx

d ( x + x2 a2 )
2

x+ x a

= ln x + x 2 a 2 + C.

109

11.4.
11.4.1.
,
f(x)dx , x = (t):
f(x)dx = f[(t)]d(t) = f[(t)](t)dt,

(11.8)

(t) .
(t)
.
t
( x = (t) t ).

, t -
: t = (x), dt = (x)dx.
.

e x dx
.
1 + e2 x

dt
eln t
e x dx
t = dt = arctg t + C =
:
=

2x
2ln t
1+ e
1+ e
1 + t2
x
= arctg e + C.

: x = ln t, dx = dt/t.
e x dx
dt
:
=
= arctg t + C = arctg e x + C .
2x
2
1+ e
1+ t
: e = t, edx = dt).
11.4.2.
u = u(x), v = v(x). d(uv) = (uxv + uvx)dx = udv + vdu.
udv = d(uv)-vdu. ,
udv = d(uv) vdu
udv = uv vdu.

(11.9)


. u dv
110

udv
vdu.
. J = x sin xdx .
: u = x; dv = sin xdx. du = dx, v = -cos x.
, J = x cos x + cos xdx = x cos x + sin x + C.
. J = x ln xdx .
: u = ln x; dv = xdx, du = dx/x, v = x2/2.
1
1
dx 1 2
1
, J = x ln xdx = x 2 ln x x 2
= x ln x x 2 + C.
2
2
x 2
4
11.4.3.
() = 0 + 1 + 22 + ... + nn n- , Q() = b0 + b1 + b22 + ... + bmm m- . ()/Q() .
, n < m,
.
:
x3 + 2
7x + 2
.
= x+ 2
2
x 7
x 7
:
A
1.
n N;
( x a)n
2.

p2
Mx + N

q < 0;
4
x 2 + px + q

3.

Mx + N
n N.
( x 2 + px + q) n

:
Adx
1. n = 1
= A ln x a + C ;
xa
Adx
( x a) n +1
n 1
=
A
+C ;
n + 1
( x a)n

111

2.

( Mx + N )dx
Mxdx
Ndx
.
= 2
+ 2
2
x + px + q
x + px + q
x + px + q


.
.

(2 x + 3)dx
2 xdx
3dx
.
= 2
+ 2
2
x + 4x + 9
x + 4x + 9
x + 4x + 9

2 xdx
xdx
(t 2)dt
tdt
dt
= 2
= 2 2
= 2 2
4 2
=
2
x + 4x + 9
( x + 2) + 5
t +5
t +5
t +5
t
x+2
4
4
= ln t 2 + 5
arctg
+ C1 = ln x 2 + 4 x + 9
arctg
+ C1
5
5
5
5
3dx
dt
3
t
3
x+2
I2 = 2
arctg
arctg
= 3 2
=
+ C2 =
+ C2
x + 4x + 9
t +5
5
5
5
5

I1 =

(2 x + 3)dx
1
x+2
arctg
= I1 + I 2 = ln x 2 + 4 x + 9
+ C.
2
x + 4x + 9
5
5
3.

dx
1 ( x2 + a2 ) x2
1
dx
1
x 2 dx
.
=
=

( x 2 + a 2 )n a 2
( x 2 + a 2 )n
a 2 ( x 2 + a 2 )n 1 a 2 ( x 2 + a 2 )n

x 2 dx
x
1
dx
=
+
.
2
2
2 n
2
2 n 1
(2n 2) ( x + a 2 )n 1
(x + a )
(2n 2)( x + a )

,
dx
x
(2n 3)
dx
. (11.10)
= 2
+ 2
2
2
2 n
2
2 n 1
a (2n 2) ( x + a 2 ) n 1
( x + a ) a (2n 2)( x + a )
(11.10) . (11.10) In In1, In1 In2 .. dx
1
x
= arctg + C .
I1 = 2
2
a
a
x +a
112

.
I1 =
I2 =

dx
.
( x + 1)3
2

x
3
dx
.
+ 2
2
4 ( x + 1)2
4( x + 1)
2

3
x
1
dx
3x
3
+ 2
+ arctg( x) + C .

=
2
2
4 2( x + 1) 2 ( x + 1) 8( x + 1) 8
I3 =

x
3x
3
+
+ arctg( x) + C .
2
2
4( x + 1)
8( x + 1) 8
2




,
Q( x) = A( x a) r ( x b) s ... ( x 2 + px + q)t ( x 2 + ux + v) w ... ,
Q(x);
, b Q(x) = 0;
.

A
A2
Ar
M x + N1
P( x)
= 1 +
+ ... +
+ ... + 2 1
+
2
r
Q( x) x a ( x a)
( x a)
( x + px + q)1
+... +

M t x + Nt

( x + px + q)t
2

+ ...

1, 2, ..., r, M1, N1, ..., Mt, Nt .


, ()/Q() .
Q(). () , , ,
.
113


.
(2 x + 3)dx
.
( x 2)3
2x + 3
A
B
C
.
=
+
+
3
2
x 2 ( x 2)
( x 2)
( x 2)3

2 + 3 = 2 4 + 4 + 2 + = 2 + (4 + ) + (4 2 + ).

A = 0,

4 A + B = 2,
4 A 2 B + C = 3.

: = 0, = 2, = 7.
(2o + 3)dx
2dx
7 dx
2
7
=
+
=

+C.

3
2
3
x 2 2( x 2) 2
( x 2)
( x 2)
( x 2)
11.4.4.
, :
ax + b
) dx ,
cx + d
R ,
, , .
ax + b 2

=t .
cx + d
x +1
.
dx .
1 x2
1) R( x,

1 x 2 = t , :
x +1
dt
dx = dt
= 1 x 2 arcsin 1 x 2 + C .

2
2
1 x
1 x
114

2) :
ax + b s 2 ax + b
,
, ...) dx .
cx + d
cx + d
ax + b s

= t , s s1, s2, ...:


cx + d
dx
.
.
x+3x
2 3 6,

R ( x,

s1

dx
3

x+ x

x =t:

6t dt
t dt
1
= 6
=6 (t 2 t + 1
)dt =
3
2
t
+
1
t
+
1
t +t

= 2 x 3 3 x + 6 6 x 6 ln

x +1 + C .

dx

ax + bx + c
:

3)

dt
t a

dx
2

x + 4x + 5

= ln t + t 2 a + C ;

dt
2

a t

= arcsin

dx
2

x + 4x + 5

dx
2

( x + 2) + 1

t
+C.
a

.
dt
2

t +1

= ln t + t 2 + 1 + C =

= ln x + 2 + x 2 + 4 x + 5 + C .
4)

2
2
2
2
2
2
R( x, a x )dx, R( x, a + x )dx, R( x, x a )dx.

115

sin (t), cos (t)


a
: x = a sin(t ), x = a tg(t ), x =
.
cos(t )
.
1 + cos 2t
a2
sin 2t
dt =
(t +
)+C =
2
2
2
a2
a2
x x
=
(t + sin t 1 sin t ) + C =
(arcsin + 2 a 2 x 2 ) + C.
2
2
a a

2
2
2
2
2
(a x ) dx = a cos tdt = a

11.4.5.
1) sin m x cos n x dx , m n .
,
sin m +1 x
m
=
+ C
sin
xd
(sin
x
)

m +1
cos n +1 x
+C.
n +1
m n ,
n
cos xd (cos x) =

2sin 2 x = 1 cos 2 x ,
2 cos 2 x = 1 + cos 2 x .
2) tg n xdx
1
tg 2 x =
1.
cos 2 x
.
1
4
2
2
2
tg xdx = tg x( 2 1) dx = tg xd (tg x) tg xdx =
cos x
3
tg x
1
tg3 x
=
( 2 1) dx =
tg x + x + C.
3
3
cos x
3) sin x cos xdx, sin x sin xdx, cos x cos xdx
1
sin x cos = [sin( + ) + sin( )],
2
116

1
sin x sin = [cos( + ) + cos( )],
2
1
cos x cos = [cos( ) cos( + )].
2
4) R(sin x, cos x) dx x
t = tg :
2
x
2 x
2tg
1 tg
2
2 = 2t , cos x =
2 = 1 t , x = 2arctg(t ), dx = 2dt .
sin x =
x 1+ t2
x 1+ t2
1+ t2
1 + tg 2
1 + tg 2
2
2
2t 1 t 2 2dt
R(sin x, cos x) dx = R(
.
,
)
1+ t2 1+ t2 1+ t2
.
dx
(1 + t 2 )2dt
dt
x
=
= = ln t + C = ln tg + C .

sin x
t
2
(1 + t 2 )2t

1. f(x), .
2.
?
3.
.
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. .
117

12.

12.1.
= f(x).
S, = f(x), = , = b y = 0.
[, b] n = 0 <
1 < 2... < n = b. [i-1, xi]
i (i1 < i < xi)
n

Fn = f (ci )xi ,
i =1

(12.1)

i = i i-1.
(1) = f(x)
(, b). = max xi . 1 i n

S lim Fn ,
l 0

= f(x)
[, b]. :
b

f ( x) dx ,

(12.2)

, b ,
f(x)dx (12.1),
.
, :
b

f ( x)dx = f ( y )dy = f (t )dt = ... ,


(12.1).
118

12.2.
1. :

f ( x)dx = f ( x)dx .

(12.3)

.
b

i =1

i =1

lim f (ci )xi = lim f (ci )xi = f ( x)dx .


f ( x)dx =
0
0

2. :

[ f ( x) g ( x)]dx = f ( x)dx g ( x)dx .

(12.4)

1.
2 .
3.
:

f ( x) dx = f ( x) dx .

i =1

i =1

(12.5)
b

lim f (ci )( xi 1 xi ) = lim f (ci )( xi xi 1 ) = f ( x)dx .


f ( x)dx =
0
0
a

a
a

a
a

4. (12.5) = b, f ( x)dx = f ( x)dx

2 f ( x)dx = 0 , .. f ( x)dx = 0 .

(12.6)

5. ,

, .. , b, c

f ( x)dx = f ( x)dx + f ( x)dx .

(12.7)

. f(x) [, b]
< c < b.
c

f ( x)dx = S1 , f ( x)dx = S2 , f ( x)dx = S .


119

(12.7)
: S1 + S2 = S.
< b < c, 3, :
b

f ( x)dx = f ( x)dx f ( x)dx .

(12.7) : S1 = S S2.

12.3.
= f(x) [, b],
[, b],
b

f ( x)dx = f (c)(b a) .

(12.8)

. [, b],
m
( ).
n

i =1

i =1

mxi f (i )xi M xi
i =1

m(b a ) f (i )xi M (b a) .
i =1

:
n

m(b a ) lim f (i )xi M (b a ) ,


xi i =1
b

m(b a ) f ( x)dx M (b a ) ,
a

1 b
f ( x)dx M .
baa

, S (m S M),
1 b
f ( x)dx = S .
baa
= f(x) [, b],
, m
120

M ( -).
1 b
[, b], f(c) = S. ,
f ( x)dx = f (c)
baa
b
f ( x)dx = f (c)(b a) .
a

. b

, f(x) > 0 [, b], .. f ( x)dx


a

. (b ) f(c),
.

12.4.
x

f (t )dt , a

: ( x) = f (t )dt .
a

: f(t) ,

( x) = f ( x) .

(12.9)

. ():
( x + x) ( x)
( x) = lim
= lim
x 0
x 0
x

x +x

f (t )dt f (t )dt
x

x +x

= lim

x 0

f (t )dt
x


x +x

f (t )dt = f (c)x , + .
x

,
( x) = lim

x 0

f (c)x
= lim f (c) = f ( x) ,
x 0
x

.. .
: = f(x) [, b],
121

[, b] (x

, ( x) = f (t )dt ).
a

12.5.
, .. .
. = f(x) [, b] F(x)
f(x) [, b], -:
b

f ( x)dx = F (b) F (a) .

(12.10)

.
x

( x) = f (t )dt a

f(x). F(x) ()
: F(x) = () + ,
:
b

F (b) F (a ) = ((b) + C ) ((a) + C ) = (b) (a) = f ( x)dx f ( x)dx .


a

, f ( x)dx = 0 , -.
a

12.6.

12.6.1.

. , [, b]
b

f(x) 0, S = f ( x)dx . f(x) < 0


b

a b

[, b], f ( x)dx f ( x)dx = S .


122

,
. [, b] f1(x) f2(x)
, f2(x) f1(x). S ,
= f1(x) = f2(x) [, b],
b

S = [ f 2 ( x) f1 ( x)] dx .
a

(12.11)

. , = 2 2,
= .
. = 2 2
= , : (1; 1) (2; 2).
[1, 2] 2 2. f2(x) = , f1(x) = 2 2, (12.10):
2

S = [ x ( x 2 2)] dx = 4,5 (. .).


1

12.6.2.
[, b] = f(x). Vx ,
, = f(x), = 0,
= , = b.
,
. [, b] n = 0 < 1 < 2 ...
< n = b. [i-1, xi] i. :
n

2
f (ci )xi ,

i =1

i
f(ci).
Vx :
n

Vx = lim f 2 (ci )xi ,


xi 0 i =1

.. ( x) = f 2 ( x) .

123

Vx = f 2 ( x)dx .

(12.12)

. , , = , = 0, = 0, = 1, .
: (12.12)
1

Vx = (e x ) 2 dx =
0

1
(1 2 ) (. .).
2
e

(12.12) ,
Vy , :
d

Vy = f 2 ( y )dy .

(12.13)

12.7.
, 2- .
12.7.1.
f(x) [, +],
+

f ( x)dx
a

lim f ( x)dx .

(12.14)

b a

,
, .
b

f ( x)dx f ( x)dx :
b

f ( x)dx = alim
f ( x)dx ;

f ( x)dx = alim
f ( x)dx + blim
f ( x)dx .

+
124

dx
.
x2

. (12.14),
+

t dx
dx
1
=
= lim (1 ) = 1 ,
lim

2
2
t
+
t
+
t
x
1x

.. 1.
12.7.2.

f(x) 2- = ( < c < b),
b

f ( x)dx :
a

c 1

lim f ( x)dx + lim f ( x)dx .


0 +
0 +

c + 2

(12.15)

,
, .
,
b

a +

) c = a f ( x)dx = lim f ( x)dx ;


0 +
b

) c = b f ( x)dx = lim f ( x)dx .


0 +
1

dx

: ,
1

dx

dx

= lim
0 +

= lim 2(1 ) = 2 .
0 +

1
, , y =
x
= 1. 2 . .
125

1. ?
2. .
3. .
4. -.
5. , ?
6. ?
7. ?

126

13.

13.1. .

,
.

, ,

.

,
.
() ,
,
.
n-
:
F(x, y, y', y'', ..., ()) = 0,

(13.1)

() ;
;
', '', ..., () .
(13.1) ,
.

.
.

,
.
127

.
. ,
. : , = 0 :
(0) = 0.

(13.2)

n-
n 1, 2, ...,
n.
n- n .
n-
(13.1) = (, 1, 2, ..., n), n 1, 2, ..., n.
- .
n-
(13.1) ,
1, 2, ..., n, ..
= (, 10, 20, ..., n0).
(13.1) , .

, , ..
. , t k1 k2 . .
: (t) t. t :
= k1t k2t,
y
= (k1 k2 ) y ,
t
128

t 0,
= k,
k = k1 k2.
, : = kt.
(t0) = 0.

13.2.


:
F(x, , ) = 0.
(13.3)

,
:
y = f(x, y),
(13.4)
, :
(, )d + N(x, y)dy = 0.

(13.5)


, ()
(, , ) = 0,

(13.6)

.
.
, .


, . ,
(0; 0).
129

13.2.1.



M(x)dx + N(y)dy = 0.
(13.7)
(13.7),
M(x)dx + N(y)dy = 0
F(x) + () = ,

(13.8)

F(x) = M(x)dx, () = N(y)dy.


() (13.8) (13.7).
. exdx + ln ydy = 0.
: , . ,
exdx + ln ydy = .
,
+ (ln 1) = .

1(x)N1(y)dx + M2(x)N2(y)dy = 0,

(13.9)


, ,
. (13.9)
N 1() 2()
:
M 1 ( x)
N ( y)
dx + 1
dy = 0 ,
M 2 ( x)
N2 ( y)

M 1 ( x)
N ( y)
dx + 1
dy = C .
M 2 ( x)
N2 ( y)

. (l + y2)xdx + (l + x2)ydy = 0.
130

: (l + y2)
(1 + 2) 0:
x
y
dx +
dy = 0 .
2
1+ x
1 + y2
:
x
y
dx +
dy = C1 .

2
1+ x
1 + y2

1
1
ln(1 + x 2 ) + ln(1 + y 2 ) = C1 .
2
2
C1 ,

1
C1 = ln C ,
2

(1 + 2)(1 + 2) = .
13.2.2.
' = f(x, ) (,y)dx + N(x,y)dy = 0
k, k, .

y
t=
x
.
. (x + y)dx + (y x)dy = 0.
.
x+ y
.
y =
x y
kx + ky x + y
, .
=

kx ky x y
t = /, y = tx ' = t'x + t,
t x + t =

x + tx 1 + t

=
x tx 1 t
131

1+ t2
dx .
1 t
1+ t2
x

1 t
:
xdt =

1+ t2
dx
.
dt =
1 t
x
, :
1
arctg t ln(1 + t 2 ) = ln x + C
2
arctg t ln( x 1 + x 2 ) = C .
,
y
C = arctg ln x 2 + y 2 .
x
13.2.3. ,


a x + b1 y + c1
y = f 1

a2 x + b2 y + c2
. ,

y =

a1 x + b1 y + c1
.
a2 x + b2 y + c2

(13.10)

( 1 2)
.
:
a b
1) 1 1 0 , (13.10) a2 b2
:
x = u + , y = v + ,
132

(13.11)


a1 + b1 + c1 = 0,

a2 + b2 + c2 = 0.
, , du = dx, dv = dy, ,
dy dv
, (13.11) (13.10), =
dx du
v(u):
dv a1u + b1v
.
=
du a2u + b2 v
t = v/u,
.
2)

a1
a2

b1
= 0 , (13.10) b2

:
u = 1 + b1y.
. y =

x+ y+2
.
x +1

: 1 = b1 = 1, c1 = 2, 2 = 1, b2 = 0, c2 = 1.
1 1
0 . x = u + , y = v + , :

1 0
+ + 2 = 0,

+ 1 = 0.
, = 1, = 1, :
x = u 1, y = v 1.
:
dv u 1 + v 1 + 2 u + v
v
=
=
=1+ .
du
u 1+1
u
u
t = v/u, v = tu, v = tu + t, t:
tu + t = 1 + t, dt = du/u, t = ln u + ln C = ln Cu.
133

, :
v
y +1
= ln Cu ,
= ln C ( x + 1),
u
x +1
y = ( x + 1) ln C ( x + 1) 1 .
13.2.4.


' + () = Q(x),

(13.12)

.
() Q(x) .

.

: ' + () = 0.
. ,

dy
dy
= P( x) y,
= P( x)dx, ln y = P( x)dx + ln C , y = Ce P ( x ) dx . (13.13)
dx
y

(13.13), (13.13)

y = C ( x)e P ( x ) dx .

(13.14)

(13.14) (13.12), (x),


. (13.12)

y = e P ( x ) dx Q( X )e P ( x ) dx dx + C .

(13.15)

. ' 4 = (0) = 1.
134

:
' 4 = 0. :
y = Ce P ( x ) dx = Ce 4 dx = Ce4 x .
(x):
= (x)e4x.
:
' = '()4 + 4(x)e4x.
' , :
'()4 + 4(x)e4x 4(x)e4x = ; '(x)e4x = x,
1
1
C ( x) = xe 4 x dx = e4 x ( x + ) + C .
4
4

1
1
1
1
y = C ( x)e4 x = [ e4 x ( x + ) + C ]e 4 x = Ce4 x ( x + ) .
4
4
4
4
:
17
x = 0 C = . , :
16
1
y = [17e4 x (4 x + 1)] .
16
13.2.5.

' + () = Q(x)n,

(13.16)

n 0, n 1.
,
:
1) -n,
-n + -n ()1-n = Q(x).
2) z = 1-n. :
135

dz
1 dz
.
= (1 n) y n y , , y n y =
dx
1 n dx
z:
1 dz
(13.17)
+ P( x) z = Q( x) .
1 n dx

(13.17) .
. y +

y ln x 2
y .
=
x
x

. -2: y 2 y +

y 1 ln x
=
x
x

: z = y-1, z = y-2, :

z
ln x
.
(13.18)
=
x
x

z
: z = 0 .
x
dz dx
= ; ln z = ln x + ln C ; z = Cx;
dx x
z

z = Cx

dz dx
= ; ln z = ln x + ln C ; z = Cx.
dx x

(13.18)
z = C(x)x; z = C(x)x + C(x).
dC ( x)
C ( x) x
ln x dC ( x)
ln x
.
x + C ( x)
=
;
x=
dx
x
x
dx
x

dC ( x) =

ln x
dx .
x2

:
C ( x) =

ln x 1
ln x 1

+ + C ; z = C ( x) x =
+ +Cx .
x
x
x
x

136

:
y=

1
.
ln x + 1 + Cx

.
13.2.6.

(, y)dx + N(x, y)dy = 0

(13.19)

, (, ) N(x, y)
,
M N
.
(13.20)
=
y x
(13.20) ,
(13.19)
du(x, ).
(13.19) :
du(x, y) = 0.
, , ,
(13.19)
u(, ) = .
,

du ( x, y ) =

u
u
dx +
dy .
x
y

(13.21)

(13.21) (13.19),
:
u
u
= M ( x, y );
= N ( x, y ) .
(13.22)

x
y

, , (13.22), :
u = M(x, y)dx + (),

(13.23)

() ( ,
).
137

, (13.23) . ()
, (13.23)
(13.22).
. :
(32 + 6xy2)dx + (62 + 4y3)dy = 0.

(13.24)

: (, ) = 3 + 6xy , N(x, ) = 6 + 4y
2

M N
=
= 12 xy .
y
x
(13.24)
. ,
u
u
= M ( x, y ) = 3x 2 + 6 xy 2 ; = N ( x, y ) = 6 x 2 y + 4 y 3 .
x
y
u = M(x,y)dx + () = (32 + 6xy2)dx + () = 3 + 3x2y2 + ().

N, :
u = 62 + () = 62 + 4y3;
() = 4y3.
, :
() = 4 + 1.
, :
u = 3 + 3x2y2 + () = 3 + 3x2y2 + 4 + 1 = 2, 3 + 3x2y2 + 4 = ,
= 2 1.

13.3.


y + py' + qy = R(x),
138

(13.25)

, q ;
R(x) .
R(x) = 0, (13.25) , .
13.3.1.
(13.25)
= ,

(13.26)

.
() + ()' + q = (2 + p + q), (13.26) (13.25),
2 + p + q = 0,
(13.27)
(13.25).
(13.25) ,
(13.27)
, .
:
1. (13.27) (13.25) 1 2, 1 2.
(13.5)
= 11 + 22 ,

(13.28)

1 2 .
2. (13.27)
( 2),
(13.25)
= 1 + 2 ,
(13.29)
1 2 .
3. (13.27)
,
(13.25)
139

y = 1 sin + 2cos ,

(13.30)

= /2, = q p 2 / 4 , 1 2 .
. :
) 3' + 2 = 0, (0) = 3, '(0) = 4;
) ' + = 0, (0) = 1, '(0) = 0;
) 2' + 2 = 0, (0) = 1, '(0) = 1.
:
) 2 3 + 2 = 0,
1 = 1, 2 = 2.
= 1 + 22.
1 2, . (0) = C1 + C2 '(0) = 1 + 22, 1
2 ,
C1 + C2 = 3,
.

C1 + 2C2 = 4.
1 = 2, 2 = 1 = 2 + 2.
) 2 2 + 1 = 0,
1 = 2 = 1. . 2 , = (1 + 2). (0) = 1,
1 = 1 , ' = + 2 '(0) = 0, 2 = 1.
, :
= (1- ).
) 2 2 + 2 = 0
. . 3

y = 1 sin + 2cos , ( = = 1).
(0) = 1, 2 = 1. ' = (1 C2)ex sin x + (1 + C2)cos .
, '(0) = 1, 1 = 0. ,
: = cos .
(13.25)
.
140

13.3.2.
. (13.25)

* : = + *.
, , .
(13.25) .
.
1. (13.25)
R(x) = P(x)erx,
P(x) m, r
2 + p + q = 0,
*
* = Q(x)erx,
Q(x) m.
Q(x) .
() , Q(x) .
.

x
1
1
y y = 3e 2 .
2
2

(13.31)

1
1
. 2 = 0
2
2
1
1 = 1; 2 = .
2

1
1
x
x
y = C1e x + C2 e 2 y = C1e x + C2 e 2 .
1
r = 2
, (13.31)

141

y* = Ae 2 .
1

y* = Ae 2 (31),
1

x
x
1 2x 1 2x 1 2x
Ae Ae Ae = 3e 2 , = 6 y* = 6e 2 .
4
4
2

, (31)
y = y + y* = C1e x + C2 e

1
x
2

6e 2 .

2. (25)
R(x) = P(x)erx,
P(x) m, r
2 + p + q = 0.
(.. ),
*
* = Q(x)erx,
Q(x) m.
r ,
* = 2Q(x)erx.
.
3 = 2 + 3.

(13.32)

: 3 = 0
1 = 0; 2 = 3.
= 13 + 2.
2

r = 0
1 = 0, (32)
* = (2 + + ).
* = (2 + + ) (32),
6 + 2 92 3 = 2 + 3
92 + (6 6) + (2 3) = 2 + 3.
142


:
9 A = 1,

6 A 6 B = 3,
2 B 3C = 0,

= 1/9, = 11/18, = 11/27.


, (13.32)
= + * = 13 + 2 1/93 11/18 2 11/27.
3. (13.25)
R(x) = ex[P1(x) cos x + P2(x) sin x],
P1(x) P2(x) m1 m2.
i , *
* = ex[Q1(x) cos x + (x) sin x],
Q1 Q2 max (m1,m2).
i , *
* = ex[Q1(x) cos x + (x) sin x].
.
5 + 6 = 13 sin 3.

(13.33)

: 2 5 + 6 = 0
1 = 3; 2 = 2.
= 13 + 22.
3i , (13.33)
* = sin 3x + cos 3x.
* = sin 3x + cos 3x (13.33), :
9A sin 3x 9 cos 3x 15A cos 3x + 15B sin 3x + 6A sin 3x + 6B cos 3x =
= 13 sin 3x
(3A + 15B) sin 3x + (15A 3B) cos 3x = 13 sin 3x.
143

sin 3x cos 3x
:
3 A + 15B = 13,

15 A 3B = 0,
= 1/6, = 5/6.
, (33)
= + * = 13 + 22 + 5/6 cos 3x 1/6 sin 3x.

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5.
?
6. .
7. ?
8.
?
9. ?
10. .

144

14.

14.1.
14.1.1.
.
1, 2, ..., ...
:

a1 + a2 + ... + an + ... = an .
n =1

(14.1)

.
,
. (14.1) ,

, .
(14.1) ,
1, 2, ..., ... . , , .
:
1)
; .. ,
( ), -

Sn = a1 + a2 + ... + an + ... = an .
n =1



S1, S2, ..., Sn, ...
(14.2)
2) (14.2) , + ,
145

. ,
, > 0 , Sn,
,
, .. n1 2 | Sn1 Sn2 | < .
,
SK. ( ) S SK, S
: S = lim Sn .
n

. an ,
n =1

(14.2),

S = lim Sn an = S .
n

n =1

,
.
, ,
.
:
, ,
.
,
, .
. b + bq + bq2 + ... +

bqn-1 + ... = bq n 1 , ..
n =1

.
: , , | q | < 1. -
b(1 q n )
.
Sn =
1 q
| q | < 1 :
146

S = lim Sn =
x

b
.
1 q


, : lim an = 0 .
n

. , , lim Sn = S , lim Sn 1 = S . = Sn Sn-1, lim an =


n

= lim ( Sn Sn 1 ) = S S = 0 .
n

,
, . , .
,
. ,
, .
, , ( ), , ,
, .. , . , ,
, ,
.
n

n +1
.
.
n =1 n
:
n

n +1
1
lim
= nlim
1 + = e 0 ,

n n
n
.
, .
, .
, .
, .
147


,
, :
1.
.
, .
2.
, ,
.
3. .
, ,
.
4. , ,
, .

, , .
-
. ,

.
, .
.

a1 + a2 + ... + an + ... = an ,
n =1

b1 + b2 + ... + bn + ... = bn .
n =1

148

()
()

b, () (), ()
().
, , , ,
b , , .. > .
.
( ), ( ), (
) , ( ).
. 1 + 2 + ... + + ... = An, b1 + b2 + ... + b + ... =
= n. b, . , () ,
(
), , .. () .
() , ,
() .
sin 2 n
.
n
n =1 3

1
sin 2 n 1
n , n n
n =1 3
3
3
q = 1/3 < 1, () .

. , ,
- , , . .
, , , ;
, , , .

:
1
p , ( p R) .
n =1 n

149

, , > 1, , < 1.
, ,
. ,
, ( ) . . ( ).
.
. :
a
lim n = q, (0 q +) .
n b
n

1) 0 < q < +, ;
2) q = 0, ()
(), () ();
3) q = +, ()
(), () ().
. 0 , >
q < n/bn < q + .
, bn > 0, > :
(q )bn < n < (q + )bn.
, () (q )bn ,
(q + )bn . bn, (q )bn, (q + )bn
( ) .
, (),
(q + )bn, (), (), (q )bn, ().
, () () .
150

q = 0,
bn, , < b , , ()
(), () (.)
.
, q = +.
3n 2 n + 1
.
3
2
n =1 n + n + 5n

.
1
. ,
n =1 n
3n 2 n + 1 3
.
n 3
n + n 2 + 5n n
a
lim n = 3 0 , .
n b
n
:

an
n =1

an +1
=q,
n a
n
q < 1 , q > 1.
lim

. 0 , >
q < An + 1/n < q + .

(14.3)

q < 1. , = q + < 1. (14.3)


, + 1 < , + 2 < + 1 < 2, ..., + m < p + m-1

< pm, ... , ak p m


m =1

an . < 1, n =1

, an .
n =1

q > 1. , p = q > 1. (14.3) , + 1 > > . ,


151

. , .
3n n !
.
n
n =1 n

3n +1 (n + 1)! 3n n !
a
n
: n = 3 lim
: lim n +1 = lim
=
n +1

n a
n
n
n
n +1
n
(n + 1)
3
= > 1 , .
e
. q = 1
, .
: f(x)
(1,), f(l) +

n =1

+ ... + f(n) + ... = f (n) f ( x)dx .

. n

(. 14.1), [f(2) + f(3) + ... + f(n)] < f ( x)dx < [f (1) + ... +
n

+ f (n -1)] Sn f (1) < f ( x)dx < Sn 1 .

. 14.1

, f ( x)dx ,

f ( x)dx . , 1

, ,

, .. f (n) n =1

152

. f ( x)dx = , f ( x)dx n ,

, , Sn1 , .. f (n) .
n =1

.
1
a .
n =1 n
1
: f ( x) = a .
x
+. x1a
: F(x) = ln x = 1 F ( x) =
1. lim F ( x) = 0
x
1a
1 lim F ( x) = 1. , x

1 1.
14.1.2.
.
, , : 1 2 + 3 4 + ... + (1)n-1 + ... , > 0.
. n
, , .
.
= 2m:
S2m = (1 2) + (3 4) + ... + (2m1 2m).
( n = 2m )
( , S2m
S2m = 1 (2 3) (4 5) ... (2m-2 2m-1) 2m,
, S2m < 1).
S2m .
S2m < 1 m , ,
S < 1.
153


n = 2m + 1. , S2m + 1 = S2m + 2m + 1. ,
, lim S2 m +1 = lim S2 m +
m

+ lim a2 m +1 = S + 0 = S .

, n ( ) lim Sn = S , .. n
.
(1)n 1
.
n =1
n2
.
1
1
1
1 > 2 > 2 > ... > 2 > ... ,
2
3
n
, .

14.7.

, , .
.
, (14.1)
| 1 | + | 2 | + ... + | n |...
(14.4)
, .
. Sn + Sn- (14.1), .
Sn1 = Sn + Sn-, ,
, Sn2 = Sn + + Sn-.
(14.4) , ,
lim Sn 2 = S .
n

Sn + Sn- ( Sn + Sn- ) (Sn + < S, Sn- < S), , lim Sn+ lim Sn ,
n

, lim Sn1 = lim Sn+


lim Sn , .. (14.1) .
n

, . (14.4)
( 1) n 1
, (14.1) . ,
n
n =1
154

, 1

( ) .
n =1 n
.
, ,
, .
, , ,
, .
( 1) n 1
,

n
n =1
n

1
( 1)
,
.
n
n =1

: ,
, ,
.
. , , ,
.
.
,
, , .

14.2.
, ,
.. . ,
,
0 + 1 + 22 + ... + + ... .
(14.5)
, 0, 1, 2, ...,
.
14.2.1.
, (14.5)
, .
155

.
1 + + 2 + ... + + ...
:
q = x, | q | = | x | < 1.
1 < x < 1, .. (1; 1).

:
1) = 0 0 (
), , , , | | < | x0 |.
2) = 1,
, | | | x1 |.
.
1) (14.5) = 0 0, , lim an = lim cn x n = 0 . n

, | nxn0 | , .. > 0,
| nxn0 | < .

(14.6)

(14.5) cn x n ,
n =1

c c0 + c1 x0

x
x
+ ... + cn x0n
x0
x0

+ ... .

(14.7)

(14.7) (14.6)

M +M

x
x
+ ... + M
x0
x0

+ ... ,

(14.8)

, ,
x
< 1 , .. | x | | x0 |. ,
x0
(14.5) .

q =

156

2) (14.5) = 1. ,
, | | > | 1 |.
, .. | | > | 1 | (14.5) .
1
( | 1 | < | | ), . ,
, | | > | 1 |, (14.5) .
, R 0,
| x | < R , | | > R (. 14.2).

. 14.2

R , (R, R)
. ,
.. = R = R, , .
(14.5)
. , :

c0 + c1 x0 + ... + cn x0n + ... ,

(14.9)

, n, . (14.9) ,
an + 1
c x n +1
c
= lim n +1 n = x lim n +1
n a
n
n c
cn x
n
n
lim

, ..
cn +1
c
< 1 x < lim n .
n c
cn
n +1
, (14.5), ..
c
(14.10)
R = lim n .
n c
n +1
x lim

157

xn
.
n =1 n !
: (14.10)

R = lim

cn
(n + 1)!
= lim
= lim (n + 1) = ,
n
cn +1 n n !

.. (; ).
14.2.2.

f() , .. f ( x) = cn x n .
n =1

, (): [, b],
(R; R), f() , , :
b

n
f ( x)dx = c0 dx + c1 xdx + ... + cn x dx + ... .

,
:
f ( x) = c1 + 2c2 x + 3c3 x 2 + ... + ncn x n 1 + ...

R.
14.2.3.
f() ,
f (a )
f ( n ) (a)
( x a) + ... +
( x a) n + ... , (14.11)
1!
n
!

f() ( ).
0 = 0 f().
(14.11) . , f() f ( x) = f (a ) +

158

, .. f().
,
f (a )
f ( n ) (a)
( x a) + ... +
( x a) n + Rn ( x)
1!
n!
n .
f ( x) = f (a ) +

: G f() G , f() .
14.2.4.
1. et = 1 + t +

t2
tn
+ ... + + ..., t (; ), ( R = );
2
n!

2. sin t = t

t3 t5
t 2 n +1
+ ... + (1)n
+ ..., t (; ), ( R = );
3! 5!
(2n + 1)!

3. cos t = t

t2 t4
t 2 n +1
+ ... + (1)n
+ ..., t (; ), ( R = );
2! 4!
(2n)!

4. ln(1 + t ) = t

t 2 t3
tn
+ ... + (1)n +1 + ..., t (1;1), ( R = 1);
2 3
2!

m
m(m 1) 2
m(m 1)...(m n + 1) n
t+
t + ... +
t ...,
5.
1!
2!
n!
t N , t (1;1), ( R = 1).
(1 + t ) m = 1 +


15. , , , , .

, .
159

. ( 1)
1
.
f ( x) =
x+2
1
1
1 1
.
=
=
: = 1, = + 1
x + 2 y + 3 31+ y
3
y x 1
:
5, m = 1, t = =
3
3
n

1
1 x 1 ( x 1)2
n ( x 1)
= 1
+
+
...
+
(

1)
+ ... .
2
n
x+2 3
3
3
3

, | t | < 1, , x (2; 4) R = 3, x (2; 4).


0,25

. e x dx 0

10-4.

:
. . 1, t = x2:
2

e x = 1 x 2 +
,

x 4 x6
x2n

+ ... + (1)n
+ ..., t (; ), ( R = ) .
2! 3!
n!

2n
0,25

2
x2
n x
+ ... dx =
e dx = 1 x + ... + (1)
n!
0
0

1
1
1
1
=
+
+ ... + (1)n
+ ...
3
5
4 3 4
5 2! 4
(2n + 1)n !42 n +1
,
1
.
= 0, 0000014... < 0, 0001 ,
7 3! 47
. 0,250000 0,005208 + 0,000098
= 0,244890, 0,0001
0,25

0,25

x
e dx = 0, 2449

160

1. ?
2. ?
3.
.
4.
: , , .
5. .
6. ?
7. .
8. ?
9. ?

161

1. .. . . .: , 1973. . 1.
2. : / . .
.. . : , 2008.
3. .. : . .: , 2002.
4. . / . . .. . .: ,
2003.

162

163

21.11.2011. 60 88/16. .
. . . 10,3. .-. . 4,7. 500 . . 2442.
, 117342, . , . , .17-, . 324.
./: (495)334-82-65, . (495)336-03-11.
E-mail: flinta@mail.ru; WebSite: www.flinta.ru.
, 117997, -7, -485,
. , . 90.

164

165