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-2011

378(076.5):539.4
30.121735
982

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982 .., .., ..


/ . . ... .:
, 2011. 108 .

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.

ISBN 978-5-4263-0060-6
, 2011
, 2011


.......................................................................................... 5
.............................................................................. 6


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................................................................................... 6

1.

RC-......................................... 24
2.


........................................................ 32
3.


.................................................... 48
4.


....................................................... 55
5.



................................................................. 61
6.


....................................... 69
7.

......................... 78

8.

L-................................................................... 84
9.

R-................................................................... 91
10.

..................................... 97
.......................................................................107



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f = 1/T = 980 .

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2. .
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u(t) = Ucos(t + 0)

(B.1)

: (U), (0) (0).



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u(t) = U(t) (0t + 0)

(B.2)

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(.2) , - U(t)
cos(0t + 0). ,
( << 0).
21

, .
, . (.2) :

u(t) = (U0 + Ucost) cos(0t) =


= U0(1 + m Ucost) cos(0t),

(B.3)

m = U/U0 ( ).

: 0 < m < 1.
(.3)

u(t) = U0cos(0t) + 0,5mU0cos(0 )t +


+ 0,5mU0cos(0 + )t.

(B.4)

( ) U0,
[ (.4)]
mU0/2,
.

.


1. 173
f = 5 ,
t = 5 U = 1 .
..
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2. ()
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22

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23

1
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U
U e j
K = = j = Ke j .
(1.1)
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U


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(), () (). - (. 1.2)


Z
K = 2 .
(1.2)

Z +Z
1

(. 1.3), R,
op ( Z1 = R; Z 2 = 1 j C ) :

K =

1
1
; K =
.
2
1 + j CR
1 + ( R C )

(1.3)

. 1.5 ( 1).
, -
(). , 2 max.
,
, K = K max 2.

.1.3.RC-

RC- = 1/R; f = 1/2R.


R C (. . 1.4),
RC- () ( 2, . 1.5);
: = 1/R.
R 26

. R- (. 1.3 1.4)
U
i :
1
U (t ) = U R + U C = i (t ) R + i (t ) dt .
C
, , R, , UC << UR,
1
U (t )
U (t ) dt .
RC
, > 0
:
1/ << R.
R- UR << UC
U (t ) RC

dU (t )
dt

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R- , .
. 1.6. R RC >> t,
RC << t, t .
27

.1.5.- :
1 ; 2

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1 ; 2


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.
28


1. U = F(f) .
, , R 1 C 1 ( ). X1 2, 4, 5 6. - 1 1 8 ,
U = 0,1 .

.
1200 ,
10 . . 1.1, K = U /U
(! U = 0,1 ).
1.1
U = F(f) (
)
K = F(f) (
)
f,
U,
K = U/U

10

20

190

200

C1 2; .
2. ().
R1 C1, . 1.
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3.
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29

(
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4.
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C1 2 4.
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31

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1. .

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U& U
U j
Z& = & = e j ( u i ) = e z .
I
I
I
32

Z1 = R + j L
Z 2 = 1 j C ,
Z Z
(R + j L) 1 ( j C ) =
Z = 1 2 =
Z +Z
( R + j L ) + 1 ( j C )
1

0 j

Q0
L
=

,
CR
0

1 + jQ0
0
1


0 =

(2.1)

LC
L
L ; Q0 = 0
R
, .
10100 , 1/Q0 << 1
0
v
= 0 + ; << 0

2 .
0
0

Z p
Z =
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1 + j 2Q 0

Zp
Z = Z =
,
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1 + Q02 2 4

L
2
Z p =
=
= Q0 = Q02 R , Z RC R
L

w0, =
C
f
, =
.
=
0
f0
, (2.3),
( = 0)
33

, .
(2.3), (. 2.1).

.2.1. -

U&
Z&
=
K& = & =
U
Ri + Z&

1

(2.4)
Ri
1+ &
Z

Z
,
(2.2),

:
Z p Z p + Ri
K p

,
=
K =
Q
Q
1+ j2
1+ j2

Z p
Z p
1+
1+
Ri
Ri
Z p
K p =
,

Z p + Ri

(2.5)

(2.5)

K p .
().
Kp
K ( ) = K ( ) =
,

(2.6)
1 + 4Q02 2
34

Q =

Q0


1+ Z / Ri
Ri.
(2.6), ,
, < 1 ,
Zp.
,

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2 (
2 ). , (2.6)
:

f
1
= 2 =
2


(2.7)
f0
f Q


2f = f0

Zp
f
1
= 0 (1 + )
Q Q0
Ri

(2.8)

Ri . 2.2. (2.8) . 2.2,



Q0,

Ri Zp. Ri >> Zp
, Kp << 1, , , . Ri (Ri
Zp ) . Ri << Zp
( = 1)
, .
35

1 2

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1 Ri >> Zp; 2 Ri; Zp; 3 Ri << Zp

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( ) .
.

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36

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(. 2.3),

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(.2.5, ) (.2.5, ). K1 2.
, , K1 ,
.
, ,
. 2.

K = K1K 2 .

(2.9)


(2.9), (.2.5).
M
, (. 2.4) K =
.
L1 L2

.
() ,
. 37

(.2.4),
di
di1
1
+ R1i1 + i1 (t ) dt = e M 2
dt
dt
C1
.
di2
di1
1
L2
+ R2i2 + i2 (t ) dt = e M
dt
C2
dt
L1

(2.10)

.2.4.

R1 =
= R2 = R; L1=L2 = L; C1 = C2 = C.
i1,
i2 E,
I1 I2 .

& & + j MI& = E&


ZI
1
2
2
,
&
&
&
ZI 2 + j MI1 = 0

(2.11)

1
Z = R + j ML +
j C
. (2.11),

j M
.
(2.12)
M 2 + Z 2


I2 = E 2


38

1
1
M
I 2 = E 2 2 2 2
U =
j C
C M +Z

(2.13)


U
M
1
(2.14)
K = = 2 2 2 .
C M +Z
U

(2.14) Z ,

K
K ( ) = K ( ) =
, (2.15)
2
2
(d + k ) + 2(d 2 k 2 ) 2 + 4

R
M
k =
, d =

L
L
0
0
2
1
1 02 , , =
d =
0

Q0

1
.
0 =
LC

.2.5. :
; ;

39

.2.5. :
;


, .
dk
d
:

(d2 k2 + 2) = 0.

(2.16)

= 0; = k 2 d 2 .

(2.17)

k d. k < d,
,
40

, (2.17):

= 0
I,II =

(2.18)

(2.19)
.
1 k2 d 2
(2.15), = 0
, , (I
II) ,
0 .
, (I II, . .
,
0. (2.15) (2.19), kmax(I,II) = 0,5Q0, ,
k
, kmin = k ( 0 ) = 2
k + d2
, .

= 0 = 0,
. ,
0 .
k
kmax ( 0 ) = 2
k + d2
, ,
,
.
,
k = d. , (2.19) I = II,
1

, kmax = k ( 0 ) = Q0 ,
2

,

41

k ( ) =


(2.20)
4d 4 + 4
,
, -
. (1), (2), (3) , kmax, . 2.6.

.

.2.6. :
1 ; 2 ; 3


kmax 2 .
, (2.15),

42

2
k4

f
k
=2
= d1 1 + 2 1 + .
d
0
f
d

(2.21)

, , ,
k
<< 1,

f
d
f

2 1 = 0, 65 d = 0, 65

1

Q0

(2.22)

, , . k
= 1
d

1
f
= d 2 = 1, 41 d = 1, 41 ,
f
Q0

(2.23)

1,5 ,
,
, ,

.
,
,
kmax 2 . , kmax 2 .
, k = 2,4/d
f
= 3,1 d .
2
f0
,
3,1 . ,

.


1.
.
(. 2.1) : L1 2 ( 43

), R1 = 100 ( ) R2 .
V -102
( X 4). 1V -102
.

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( 5 4).
1.1. , , 2 ,
U , U = 1 .
. 2.1.
2.1
K = (f)
f,
U,
KH=U/U.max

, ,
U U
K
KH =
=
= U U .max .
K max U .max U
KH . 2.1.
, , KH.

Q. , (2.5), (2.8), (2.3),
Zp, Q0 R.
1.2. R1 = 100O R1 = 20. 1.1,
44

(. ) 4.
.2.1.
,
. , (2.8) 1.1 1.2.
1.3. R1 = 20 R2 R1 = 100
R2=10 ( ).
1.1. , Q.
, 1.1 1.2 , , 1.3.
2. AM
.
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, f0
F1 = 1. -102
f0. .
-102 -118. -118, , ,
1 .
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AM ; -118 m=40%.
2Umax 2Umin
2U 2U min
m = max
,
2U max + 2U min
m. ,
m . C1-73 , .
F2 (. )
,
, F1 = 1.
45


F1 F2.
.
3.
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. ( ),
: R3 = 100,
X15 X16 , C3, C4, C5, L3, L4
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-118
CI-73. -102 ( 7 8). 1V -102
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48

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-n , , ,
. -n
,
, .
.
-n - () ig
U:

ig = Is(eqU/kT 1).

(3.1)

Is , ;
; k ; q
.
U ig
: Rg = U/ig.
ig(U)
.
(.3.1) Rg(U), ig(U).
R = dU/di.
-n C(U),
Rg(U). , (U) . (U) , . rs n
.
49

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rs,
rs. ( 1 ).

.3.1. p-n

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2
Is -
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-n .
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1. 9,
226 814.
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; 5 6
51

4, 1
; XI 2.
2. 9, , ,
. 3.1 .
3. 9 226. , 2
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4. 226 814.
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3.1
Ig = (Ug)
Ig,

0,5

Ug,

2. 9, 226, 814
.
1. . , ,
, .3.4. : 9;
X11 X12
3,
.

.3.4.

52

X7 X8
1,
.

1 . , (),
(). X9 10
-2.
. 0 30
5 ,
. 3.2.
3.2
Ig = (Ug)
Ug,

10

30

Ig,
UR = 1

2. 9 226. 1
1. (), ,
. , 0 90 10 . . 3.3.
3.3
Ig = (Ug)
Ug,

10

20

30

90

Ig,
UR = 1

3. 226 814.
. 814,
9 X10 .
7 8 ABM-1 .
( X11 X12). ,
. 3.4, .
53

3.4
Ig = (Ug)
Ig,

10

Ug,

3. .
1. .
2. -
9, 226, 814 .
3. 9, 226, 814 .


1.
2.
3.
4.

p-n ?
p-n ?
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6. ?

54

4


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1. .
2. .
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55

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i
i ( )
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,
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, ;
.

,
, .

() - i(U)
U = const (. 4.1).
: U = 0 U=5, ,
. ,

. :
56

.4.1.

r =

dU
di

U =const

U
i

.
U =const

i(U), (.4.2). U < U (U = U U);


U.
(U > U)
. .

.4.2.

57

i
i

U =const

U
i

.
i =const


1. .

.4.3.

, .4.3. :
16 9 X10 ABM-1
U; 7 8 ; 11 12,
U 5
6
, X1
58

2 -2 , 4 , . ,
,
U = 0.
1. . U 0 0,15 0,01,
. .4.1.
4.1
i = (U) U = 0
U,
i,

!
300!
2. . , X11 X12. 2. 2
U = 5 .
U 0 0,23 , 1.
,
.4.1.
,
U = 5.
2. .
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X7 8. i
X1 2 -2, i 7 8 -1,
U 9 10
, , 4 ,
, X11 12 2.
1. . i = 0. 2
0 10 1, i , i = 0.
59

4.2
i = (U) i = 0
U,
i,

2. i = 50 .
; i = 50 ,
1. , . 4.2.
3. 2 i =100 , i = 150 , i = 200 ,
.4.2.
.
3. .
1. , .
2. U = 5 i = 150 .
3. U = 5:
)
i = 25, 75, 125;
) r i = 50,
100, 150.


1.
().
2. .
3. .
4.
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60

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( ) 100%.
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I, I I,
I=I + I, U U. I U

I =

E U

.
R R

(5.1)

.5.1.

, . ,
. ,

62

U =

E
.
2

(5.2)

I I
(. 5.2,, ). , U I U.

.5.2,.

.5.2,.

(. 5.3) (. 5.4). R
63

.5.3.

.5.4.

U + IR = ,

(5.3)

U + (I + I) R1 = ,

(5.4)

U
. R2 R2 + R2
,
.
I =

R2 > R..

(5.5)

, 64

(. 5.5).

U = U + U,
(5.6)

U IR.

(5.7)

.5.5.

,
R. S
n
S=
,

(5.8)
n

R R

(5.9)
n = 1 + + ,
R1 R2
=

.
+1


1. .
(. 5.3) ,
65

(. 5.6). : V1 16, R4 , R1 = 100 (), R3 = 2,2 (). -2.



6 ABM-1, U 2 3 -2.

.5.6.

1. , U I, R3 = 5.
R3 = 2,2 () ,
738 R3, . R3 .
.
-2 ,
R1, U. . R1 ,
738, 66

R1. R1 .
16, R1,

, =5. . 5.1.
5.1
R1 , R1 , R3 , Ec
,

R1 ,

R1 ,

R3 ,

5
6
7

2. , 1
Ec=6 Ec=7. . 5.1.
2. .
(. . 5.4), R2 = 3.
1.
, . 5.1.
3. .
, R4,
.
1.
, . 5.1.
Ec=5.


1.
?
2. . .
67

3.
.
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. .
8. .

68

6



: ,
, ; , .
:
1. .
2. .
3. .
: [1], [2].


,
.
, R, , . . ( ),
.
R.

,
:
U
i
P
KU = ; K i = ; K p = .
i
P
U
69


K = j() -
() (. 6.1). ,
a Kmax = K.

K . K = K/M
2- .
.
= .

.6.1.-

U = f(U)
KU = f(U)
, (. 6.2).

.6.2.


,
70

, . 6.3.
,
, .

.6.3.

. 6.4.
, U = IR U
U, I ~ U.
. 6.5. ,
.
,

I = SU, S I = f(U). , ,

.

.

, (. . 6.6). R1 R2.
R, R3
R5 R.
71

,
R. R

R =

R . R
R . + R

(6.1)

. 6.4. :
I = (t); U = (t)

72

. 6.5.

. 6.6.


( R5), R. R3
R3 << R., R R3.
R.
R R

(6.2)
R 3 5 = R .
R3 + R5

Ku S R.

(6.3)

,
1, 2 3. ,
. 6.7. ,
,
R
73

= . + 4;

(6.4)

K=

S R
1 + ( )

K
1 + ( )

(6.5)

= R C.

:

KUB =

K
M

K
1 + ( B )

(6.6)

M = 2 , = 1 R C .

. 6.7.


4.
. 6.8.
, .
1 3,

KU =

K
1+

(6.7)

)
(

' = R5 C2, R5 R .

K
K
KU H = =


(6.8)
M
1
1+
2
)
(
74

M = 2 , =

1
1
=
.
R5 C2 R C2

. 6.8.


(. 6.9)
, :
V1 -16, R1 = 6,8 , R2 = 1,2 , R4 = 200 ,
R5 = 2 , C1 = 100 , 2 = 10 , = 500 ,
4=4300 , R3 = 1 .

. 6.9. ,

1.
.
-2,
c = 9 .
75

. U
-1 6 . U. ABM-1.
-118 X1 ,
U 4 , U 1 .
2.
F = 1 -118. U = f(U) . 6.1.
6.1
U = f(U)
U,

10

15

20

25

30

40

50

60

U,
K

U = f(U) K = (U)

U..
3. - .
U = 15 -
:
) 1 = 20 , 2 = 10 , 3 = 500 , 4 = 4300 .
) 1 = 20 , 2 = 0,1 , 3 = 500 , 4 = 4300 .
) 1 = 20 , 2 = 10 , 3 = 500 , 4 = 0,1 .
) 1 = 20 , 2 = 10 , 3 = 1000 , 4 = 4300 .
. 6.2.
6.2
U = (F)
F,
U,
K

76

10 20 50 100 200 1000 2000 5000 104 2 104 5 104

105

K = (lg F) ( F ).
4- - M H = M B = 2 .

, ,
;

R.
,
U, 1.
4. .
: C1 = 20 , 2 = 10 ,
= 500 , 4 = 4300 . 1 15 , : ) U; ) U U.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

.
. .
.
.
( ) .
.
.
, , .
.
.
.

77

7


: ;
.
:
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
: [1], [2].

( ) .
= U U
,

.
2 : )
,
(
); )
, ( ). , .
, ;
.
78

,
, , .

:
K
K =
,

(7.1)
1 K
K .
< 0. K > 0 , K
(7.1), , , ,
1 K .
K , U 0 U = 0.
(7.1) , ,
. ,
K . , b. : , .
U = f(U) K = U/U ,
, , U,
.
:

> 1 K
( ), ; .

,
.
79



: .
R ,
, .
,

, ..
(7.1),
,

dK
1
1


(7.2)
dK
d .
=

K
1+ K
K 1+ K

dK
1 dK d
(7.3)

,
K
K K


K ,

.
.
.


1. .
(. 7.1),
:
V1V2 16

R4 = 51

R9 = 51

R1 = 51

R6 = 51

R11 = 2

R2 = 10

R7 = 10

1 = 10

R3 = 1,2

R8 = 1,2

2 = 5
4 = 1

80

.7.1.

2 Ec , , Ec = 9.
( 1 ^)
3118.
U 3 .
2. - .
) U = 10,
U,
f, . 7.1. K. . 7.1
( ).
7.1
U = (f)
f, 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000 10000 20000 50000 100000 200000
U,
K

) f = 2 U, U,
. 7.2. . 7.2.
7.2
U = f(U)
U,

10

15

20

25

30

40

50

60

U,

81

3. .
,
R5=1,6 3 = 5 .
2 . ) ).
4. .
R5 3. ,
R10= 6,8 X1 6 . 2 . ) ). X1 6, R10 = 6,8 .
5. .
1. . , R5 = 10 3 = 5. ( 3 ^)
173.
.
.
.
2. R5 C3. ,
R10=100 X1 2. .

.
, .
6. .
, 2,
3 4, K = F(lg f).
.
, 3 4.
7. .
U = j (U)
,
82

2, 3 4. U 3- U.
8. .
, 2,
3 4
,
3 4.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

.
.
.
.
.
.
7. .
8. .

83

8
L-
:
,
.
:
1. .
2. .
3. 2 .
4. .
5. .
: [1], [2].

,
.
1010 .

, (. 8.1).
, (8.1) (8.2):

K(U) b = 1,

(8.1)

k + = 2n, n = 0, 1, 2, ,

(8.2)

U ,
K(U)
, k .
84

.8.1.


, ,
, . (8.1) ,
U
U. (8.2) , U
U , .
,
, U = 0,
.

U 0.

K(0) > 1.

(8.3)

, ,
, ,
.
(8.3) ,

, .


k U, K = f(U).

85

K (8.3)
(8.1), . , (8.1)

.
k()
() , (8.2)
. ,
,
. . .
, . 8.2, (U = 0)
(8.3) , ,
( ).
.
K(U) c 1/ . 8.2

(K = 1).

.8.2.
()

, U = 0
(8.3)
. ,
, . 8.3.
,
86

,
U1.
U2.
, .
, = P/, P
, P , , ,
.

.8.3.

L-, ,
(. 8.4).
;
, .

L:

= M/L.

(8.4)

,
. , ,
,

.
87

.8.4. LC-


1. .
(. 8.4), V1 16, L2 Z2
( L1 ),
R 1 = 51 ; R 2 = 6,1 ; R 3 = 10 ; R 4 = 6,8 ;
1 = 0,1 ( ), 2 = 0,033 ,
3=1000 , 4 = 0,1 ; 5 = 100; L1 .
-2,
= 9 .
-118 C1. U U 2, , .
U = 50 .
U, U 40 60
1 .
K = U /U .
. 8.1.
.
8.1
U = (f)
f,
U,
K

88

2. .
f = f. U
20 200 10 , U. K, . 8.2.
8.2
U = (U)
U,
U,
K

3. .
-118. 1 = 0,1
,
.
Z2 L1. ,
,
, . U U,
. . 3 ^
, 1 173 . , .
.
4.
.
( 1 )
U. U
R4 = 15 ; 2 ; 6,8 . . 3 . 3 = 0,022 . 3 = 1000 .
5.
.

2: 0,033 ; 0,022 ; 0,01 .
89

6.
.
C173 4 . -
.
2=0,033, .
7. .
1. 1 K = F(f).
.
2. 2
K=F(U).
3.
L1 L2 L2 ( ),
. K = F(U) = 1/.
.
1/ c K, 3.
4. , 4.
5.
2, 5,
.


1. ?
2. , ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. LC-
?
6. LC-
?

90

9
R-
: RC- ;
.
:
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
: [1], [2].

RC- . K(U) = 1, K(U)


, ,
jk + = 2n, n = 0, 1, 2, , 8.
RC-, , , L- -
L , ,
.
RC-
, , .

:
91

180 (
)
( ).
(. 9.1)
, , 3- R- (R11, R22, R33).

.9.1.RC-


k = 180 ;
( = 180).
RC-
90, RC.
0, = 180. ,
, : K(0) > 1.
(. 9.2).
360


. ,
, . ( R11, R22)

92

0 = 1 R1C1R2 C2 , ,
. . R1 = R2 1 = 2
= 1/3 K > 1
, K = 3.
. ( R8) :
.

.9.2.RC-

RC-
.


1. .
1.1. RC- .9.3,
:
R1 = R3 = 3 , R2 = 0, R4 = 2,4 , R5 = 15 ,
R 6 =7,5, R 7 = 1,2 , R 9 = 51 , R 10 = 5,1 ;
R11= 3,9, R12 = 510 , R13 = 15 , 1 = 2 = 0,033,
3 = 4 = 20 , V1 = V2 = 16.
93

.9.3. RC-

-2 = 12 . .
1.2.
( 1 ) 173,
U X1
.
1.3. 173 RC- .
1.4. ,
R8 = 10 , ,

. .
1.5. U, C173 , U.,
U. k = U/U. .
2. .
2.1. R8
,
173
R1 = R2 = 3 ; 1 ; 10 . f.
. 9.1.
94

9.1
R1, R3
R1 = R3,

f,

3
1
10

R1 = R3 = 3 .
2.2. R8
,
C173
1 = 2 = 0,033 ; 0,01; 0,1 .
f. . 9.2.
9.2
1, 2
1 = 2,

f,

0,033
0,01
0,1

3. .
R8 = 10 (), R13 = 15 .
R8= 6,8 (). U
1 ^ .
10
1 . R 13,
R
1 . U. , R 1 10
1 . . 9.3.
9.3
U R
R,

10

U,

95

4. .
4.1. , 2. .
4.2. RC-
U=j(R) 3.

1. LC- RC-.
2. R-
?
3.
R- .
4. R-
?

96

10

: 3-
-204 ().
:
1. -204 (
).
2. .
3. -.
4. .
: [1], [2].


, .
3- .
:
1. 1- 100
10 ;
2. - 2-
78 ;
3. - 3- 120 .
2- 3- , 100 6000,
2- 3- , , 1-.
2- 3- - ,
2-, 3-
97

( , ,
() , ).
1- , , , ; 1-

.
.

.10.1 , . . 10.210.4 ,
.
S 1.1, S 1.2, S 1.3.

.10.1.
-204

98

.10.2. 1-

.10.3. 1-

1- ( 1) S 1.1 S 1.2 (. .10.2). ,


; ,
. 1 ,

,
,
.
99


.10.4. 2- -204

1- S 1.1 (. .10.1).
1- .10.3.
, ; 21, 20, 18, 1- T1 R2
( 1- , ). 14, R 17, R 16, ^, R 18
- V3,
.
R18; , R21, R13, R14
- -
V3.
12, R 14
, 1-
. , 100

(1-, 2- 3- ). R19, 10,


R21, 17, RC-,
,
, ; 15
, R 12 R 18 , ,
V 3, R 18
. 16 , R12
R 26,
V4.
15,
R12, 16, R24 -
, V4,
(R29 + R28), R29, ,
1 2 (1 2
). R25,
R 26
-
V4.
R27
C21, C20 , ; R27, R28, R29, V4
, R27 -
V4.
( 1 2);
,
. V5, V7 n--n ,
V6, V8 ,
-n- . R30, R31 - V 7, V 8
.
2- S 1.2 ,
S 1.3 S 1.1 .

2- . 10.4.
101

. 10.4 NN
, NN . 10.3.
. 10.4 3L3
120 , 2L1 78 , 2- 3L3 . L245
f = 78 . L12 L245
. 4 5
,
L245 ,
V1,
; R5
, ,
.
R8, R7, R9 -, - V3 V1; C8 , R5 R7 V1
. R19, 10 ;
L8C9 78 .
- , V2; -n- V2 R11, R21
, , ; 11, (R12 + R10), R10
14, R17, R15, R16
V3,
NN , 1-
.
3- S 1.3 ,
S 1.1, S 1.2 .
. 10.4, , V1
L6, 9, f = 120 ,
3L3 L3, 6, 7
f = 120 .
102


1. 1.
-204 ()
. ,
1, 2, 3 .
T-. 1 (
). 1, 2 (
3 ),
,
( , Q) - , ( . )

C173 .
10 1 ,
,
( , ,
);
1 ,
,
. 10.1.
1. ,
, ( 29 )
, (
2), -
: 1) ;. 2)
.
10.1
1
f,

10

30

50

70

100

9103

12103

300

500

1103

15103

20103

30103

U,
f,

1103

3103

6103

U,

2. 1- ,
1- .
103

1- , 1 ( 2
3 ). (
Q) 1 1, , :
1. PQ
2. Q 1 (..10.3).
3. , ^ (. . 10.3). UQM UA.
4. , ^
R2 (. . 10.3). U UA.
5. , ^ .
6. , ^ . U U.
7. , ^ .
8. , ^ .
9. ., ^ . U U.
10. , 1-
10 15 ,
( Q) 1
, . 10.2.
10.2
1-
f, 10 30 50 70 100 300 500 1103 3103 5103 7103 10103 13103 15103
U ,

3. 3- .
3 ( 1 2
). ( Q) - ( -118) ; ( )
.
(U = 1), 110
130 2 ,
- . . 10.3.
104

10.3
3-
f,

110

112

114

116

118

120

122

124

126

128

130

U,

. 10.3,
3- . - .
3118 .
( Q) X-, - ( 4102).
-
1 , 400 1 , m = 40%, f = f.
(
Q), ..10.4;
( ^);
( ); ( ),
, .
4. 2-
.
2. 1 3 .
( Q)
-118 , ( )
.
1 ,
2- ,
68 86 1 . . 10.4.
10.4
2-
f,
U,

68

69

70

84

85

86


.
105

2- (.. 10.1) 3- ,
.


1.
-204 :
) 1- ;
) 2- ;
) 3- .
2. T1?
3.
L1C2, L2C4C5, L3C3, L4C6C7, L9C9, L8C9?
4. , R5 R6

, ?
5. V1,
V3, V4?
6. V3?
7.
1-, 2-, 3- ?
8. , ?
9. V2?
?
?

106


1. .., .. /
. ..: . .
.-. ., . . - . -. .: .:
-, 2000. 282 .
2. .., .., .. :
. -. . . -. .: , 1986. 318 .

107

.., ..,
..

117571 , -, . 88, . 446


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