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, .

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, ;
, ,
, . ,

, , ,

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,

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. , .
, . ,
; ( : )
.
, : 117997 , ., 90,
.

1
.

1.
, f (x)
A, x a, f (x)
A, x .
, , y = x2 .
4, 2,
25, 5,
. . ,
4, x 2,
x2 25, x 5, . . , x2
9 x, 3, ,
|x2 9| ,
x x = 3.
y = x/x.
x, 0, 1 x ,
, x, x = 0.
, 1 x, 0,
, x = 0.
A, > 0
(a ; a + ) x = a,
x = a f (x)
(A ; A + ), ,
f (x) A, x a, :
f (x) A, x a lim f (x) = A. ,
xa
A f (x) x = a.
x, (a ; a + ),

a < x < a + ,

< x a < .

|x a| < .

. 1. .

, |x a|  0 x,

|x a| = 0, x = a;
|x a| > 0, x = a.
x, (a ; a + ),
a, :
0 < |x a| < ;
(a ; a) (a; a + ) a. f (x),
(A ; A + ),

A < f (x) < A + ,

< f (x) A < .

|f (x) A| < .
, , f (x) A,
x a, :
A f (x) x a,
() > 0 ,
x, 0 < |x a| < ,
|f (x) A| < .
x = a ,
f (x) g (x) , f (x) = g (x)
x = a, , , x = a, lim f (x) = A,
xa
lim g (x) = A.
xa
, A f (x)
x a, (. 1.1, ):
, x (a ; a) (a; a + ) (x; f (x))
y = f (x) A < y < A + ;
, f (x) x = a, (a; f (a))
(. 1.1, ).
, , , ().
. OY A, A A + .
A A + , Ox. y = A y = A +
(x; f (x)) y = f (x),
|f (x) A| < . Ox
x = a. Ox x x = a,

1.

y = f (x), . .
(x; f (x)), x = a, A < y < A + . . 1.1,
, x (x = a) (; ) (x; f (x))

. 1.1

.
(; a) (a; ) . x = a, a < x < a + ,
A < f (x) < A + . ,
, .
1. ,

lim (3x + 2) = 8.

x2

. , > 0 > 0
, x, 0 < |x 2| < ,
|(3x + 2) 8| < .

|(3x + 2) 8| = |3x 6| = 3|x 2|,


= /3 x, 0 < |x 2| < ,

|(3x + 2) 8| = 3|x 2| < 3 = 3 = .


3

> 0,
, lim (3x + 2) = 8.
x2

. 1. .

2. ,

lim

x3

x2 9
= 6.
x3

. x a
x , a. x = 3
x2 9
= x + 3, x 3 x3

f (x) = x + 3 x 3. > 0
, , x,
0 < |x 3| < , |(x + 3) 6| < .
|(x + 3) 6| = |x 3|, , , = ,
x, 0 < |x 3| < ,

|(x + 3) 6| = |x 3| < = /3 < .


lim (x + 3) = 6, , lim
x3

x3

x2 9
= 6.
x3

3. , f (x) = |x|/x x 0
.
. . , x 0 f (x) = |x|/x ,
A. , > 0 (),
|f (x) A| < x, 0 < |x| < .
, , = 1 1 ,
x, 0 < |x| < 1 ,

|f (x) A| < 1.
x > 0 f (x) = |x|/x = 1, x < 0 f (x) = |x|/x =
= 1, 0 < x < 1
|1 A| < 1,
(1)
1 < x < 0

| 1 A| = |1 + A| < 1.

(2)

(1) 0 < A < 2, (2)


2 < A < 0. , A ,
, , A ,
, .
, f (x) = |x|/x x 0 .
4. , :
) lim sin x = sin x0 ; ) lim cos x = cos x0 .
xx0

xx0

. ) > 0 () > 0, , x,

1.

0 < |x x0 | < , | sin x sin x0 | < . | sin x|  |x|, x,






x + x0
x x0 

 x x0 
| sin x sin x0 | = 2 cos
sin
  2 sin
  |x x0 |.
2

, , = /10, x,
0 < |x x0 | < ,

| sin x sin x0 |  |x x0 | < = /10 < .


, lim sin x = sin x0 . , lim sin x = 0.
x0

xx0

) ,
, , = /4, x,
0 < |x x0 | < ,


x + x0
x x0 

| cos x cos x0 | = 2 sin
sin

2
2


 x x0 
 2 sin
  |x x0 | < = < ,
2

, lim cos x = cos x0 . , lim cos x = 1.


x0

xx0

5. ,

lim

x0

x2 + 1 1
= 0.
x

. x = 0


x2 + 1 1
(
=
x


x2 + 1 1)( x2 + 1 + 1)
x2 + 1 1

= 
=
x( x2 + 1 + 1)
x( x2 + 1 + 1)

=
x
x = 0


 x

2

x +1 +1

x2

x
+1 +1

x2 + 1 + 1 > 1,



 < |x|.


> 0 , , = /2.
x, 0 < |x| < ,






 x
0 < |x| < = < .

2

x2 + 1 + 1

, lim 


lim

x0

x0

x
x2 + 1 + 1

= 0, ,

x2 + 1 1
x
= lim 
= 0.
x
x0
x2 + 1 + 1

10

. 1. .

, , .
1. y = f (x) x a ,
.
2. y = f (x) x a , x = a
- (a ; a) (a; a + ),
f (x) .
3. lim f (x) = A A > 0 (A < 0),
xa
x = a, , x , ,
, x = a, f (x) > 0 (f (x) < 0).
4. f (x) C ,
lim f (x) = C .
xa
5. lim f (x) = A, y = |f (x)|
xa
x a, |A|, . .

lim |f (x)| = |A|.

xa

6. x = a
f (x),
f (x) x a, f (a), . .

lim f (x) = f (a).

xa

7. lim f (x) = A, lim g (x) = B , :


xa
xa
) f (x) + g (x) x a,
A + B , . .

lim (f (x) + g (x)) = lim f (x) + lim g (x) = A + B ;

xa

xa

xa

) f (x) g (x) x a,
A B , . .

lim (f (x) g (x)) = lim f (x) lim g (x) = A B ;

xa

xa

xa

) f (x)g (x) x a, AB ,
. .
lim (f (x)g (x)) = lim f (x) lim g (x) = AB ;
xa

xa

xa

, C , Cf (x)
x a, CA, . .

lim Cf (x) = C lim f (x) = CA;

xa

xa

) B = 0 f (x)/g (x) x a,
A/B , . .

lim

xa

lim f (x)
f (x)
A
= xa
= .
g (x)
lim g (x)
B
xa

1.

11

8. lim f (x) = A, lim g (x) = B


xa
xa
x = a, x , , , x = a,
f (x)  g (x), A  B , . .

lim f (x)  lim g (x).

xa

xa

, f (x)  g (x) f (x) < g (x), ,

lim f (x)  lim g (x).

xa

xa

, f (x) = | sign x| g (x) = 1 + x2


f (x) < g (x),

lim (1 + x2 ) = lim | sign x| = 1.

x0

x0

9. lim f (x) = lim g (x) = A


xa
xa
x = a, x , , , x = a, f (x)  h(x)  g (x),
h(x) x a, A.
6.


x1
lim 10 sin2 x + 3 cos3 x +
.
x+2

x0

lim sin2 x = ( lim sin x)2 = 0,

x0

x0

lim cos3 x = ( lim cos x)3 = 1,

x0

lim

x0

x0

lim (x 1)

x1
1
= x0
= ,
x+2
lim (x + 2)
2
x0

6 7


x1
lim 10 sin2 x + 3 cos3 x +
=
x+2

x0

= lim 10 sin x2 + lim 3 cos3 x + lim


x0

x0

7.

lim

x1

x0

x1
1
5
=0+3 = .
x+2
2
2

x2 1
.
x + 5x 6
2

. x2 + 5x 6 = (x 1)(x + 6) x = 1
x2 1
(x 1)(x + 1)
x+1
=
=
,
2
(x

1
)(x
+
6
)
x+6
x + 5x 6

12

. 1. .

lim

x1

lim (x + 1)
x2 1
x+1
2
= lim
= x1
= ,
lim (x + 6)
7
x1 x + 6
x + 5x 6
x1
2

lim (x + 6) = 7 = 0 lim (x + 1) = 2.
x1
x1
8. ,

lim

x0

(1 + x)m 1
= m,
x

m .
. x = 0
m(m 1) 2
x + . . . + xm 1
2

1 + mx +
(1 + x)m 1
=
x

=m+

m(m 1)
x + . . . + xm1 .
2

k lim xk = 0,
x0

lim

x0

(1 + x)m 1
m(m 1)
= lim m +
x + . . . + xm1 =
x
2
x0
m(m 1)
x + . . . + lim xm1 = m.
= lim m + lim
2
x0
x0
x0

.
sin x
= 1.
I. lim
x0

II. lim (1 + x)1/x = e.


x0

ln(1 + x)
= 1.
x
(1 + x) 1
= , = 0.
IV. lim
x
x0
ax 1
V. lim
= ln a, a > 0, a = 1.
x
x0

III. lim

x0

9.

lim

x0

sin x
,
sin x

= 0.

. ,
, lim sin x = 0. :
x0

sin x

sin x

sin x

lim x
x
sin x

lim
= lim sinxx
= lim sinxx = x0 sin x = .

x0 sin x
x0
x
0
x
lim
x0

1.

13

: x 0, x 0.

lim

x0

sin x
sin x
sin u
= lim
= lim
= 1.
x
x
x0
u0 u

10.

lim

x/2

1 + cos 2x
.
cos x

.
1 + cos 2x
2 cos2 x
= lim
= lim 2 cos x = 0.
cos x
x/2
x/2 cos x
x/2

lim

f (x) , a, , , x = a.
, f (x) x a +,

lim f (x) = +,
xa

E > 0 > 0,
x, 0 < |x a| < ,

f (x) > E.
f (x) , a, , , x = a.
, f (x) x a ,

lim f (x) = ,
xa

E > 0 > 0,
x, 0 < |x a| < ,

f (x) < E.
f (x) , a, , , x = a.
, f (x) x a , ,

lim f (x) = ,

xa

lim |f (x)| = +.

xa

. 1.2, , x a
+; . 1.2, , x a
; . 1.2, , x a
.
, x a f (x) + , .

14

. 1. .

. 1.2

f (x) x a ,
x a + (. 1.3).

. 1.3

11. ,

f (x) =

1
2

(x 1) (x 2)(x 3)2

:
) lim f (x) = ;
x1

) lim f (x) = +;
x3

) lim f (x) = .
x2

. ) x, 1,
, , , x, -

1.

15

0 < |x 1| < 1/2. x

f (x) <

(x 1)2

1
2

1
2

8
1
.
2 = 75
(x 1)2
3

E .
) , 0 < < 1/2,
x, 0 < |x 1| < ,

f (x) < E.
(3)

f (x) <

8
1

75 (x 1)2

0 < |x 1| < 1/2, 0 < < 1/2 ,


x, 0 < |x 1| < ,
E

8
1

< E ,
75 (x 1)2
1
>
|x 1|

75E
.
8

0 < |x 1| <


|x 1| <

8 1
2 2
1

= .
75 E
E
5 3

2 2
1
1
,
E 2
5 3

, min


,

(3) ; ) .
) ) , . ). ,
0 < |x 3| < 1/2

f (x) >

1
1
1
8
1

.
7/2 2 (7/2 1)2 (x 3)2
75 (x 3)2

) 0 < |x 2| < 1/2

|x 1|2 |x 2| |x 3|2 <

2

5
1
2

|x 2|

2

3
3
2

=
81
|x 2| < 6|x 2|,
16

0 < |x 2| < 1/2

|f (x)| >

1
.
6|x 2|

(4)

16

. 1. .

E .
, 0 < <

1
1
1
1

> E , . . 0 < < <


,
2
6
2
6E

(4) , E


1 1
, ,
> 0, , = min ,
2 6E

|f (x)| > E x,
0 < |x 2| < . ).
f (x) . 1.4.

. 1.4


.
f (x) g (x)
x = a, , , x = a
( x = a), :
10. lim f (x) = + lim g (x) = +,
xa

xa

) lim (f (x) + g (x)) = +;


xa

) lim (f (x)g (x)) = +.


xa

11. lim f (x) = + lim g (x) = ,


xa

xa

) lim (f (x) g (x)) = +;


xa

) lim (f (x)g (x)) = .


xa

12. lim f (x) = + lim g (x) = A,


xa

xa

) lim (f (x)g (x)) = +

A > 0;

) lim (f (x)g (x)) =

A < 0.

xa

xa

1.

17

13. lim f (x) = ,


xa

) lim f 2n (x) = +,

n N;

) lim f 2n+1 (x) = ,

n N.

xa

xa

14. lim f (x) = +,


xa

lim n f (x) = +,
xa

n  2, n N.

15. lim f (x) = +, :


xa

) g (x)  m > 0
x = a (. . x, , 0 < |x a| < ),

lim (f (x)g (x)) = +;

xa

) g (x)  M < 0
x = a,
lim (f (x)g (x)) = .
xa

16. lim f (x) = +,


xa

1
= 0.
f (x)

lim

xa

17. lim f (x) = 0 f (x) = 0 xa

x = a ,

lim

xa

1
= .
f (x)

, 11

lim

x1

1
= +
(x 1)2

lim

x1

1
1
= ,
4
(x 2)(x 3)2

12.) ,

lim

x1

1
= .
(x 1)2 (x 2)(x 3)2

12. ,

lim

x0

cos x
= +.
|x|

lim

x0

1
= +
|x|

x = 0 cos x  1/2,
15.) ,

lim

x0

cos x
= +.
|x|

2 .

18

. 1. .

13. 15.).
. g (x)  M < 0
x = a, , 1 > 0, ,
x, 0 < |x a| < 1 , g (x)  M .
E . lim f (x) = +, E/|M |
xa
2 > 0, x,
0 < |x a| < 2 ,

f (x) >

E
.
|M |

= min(1 , 2 ), x, 0 < |x a| < ,

f (x)g (x) <

E g (x)
E

M = E.
|M |
|M |

15.) .
[a; + )
f (x). A f (x) x +,

, x, x > , |f (x) A| < ;

lim f (x) = A.

x+

(; a]
f (x). A f (x) x ,

, x, x < ,
|f (x) A| < ;

lim f (x) = A.

14. ,

lim

x+

1
2

x +1

= 0.

. . , , x, 1
< .
x > ,
2
1 + x
, , , = 1/ ,
x, x > ( > 0),
1
1 + x2

<

1
1
1
< 2 = 
= .
x2

( 1/ )2

1.

19

(; a] [b; + ), b  a,
f (x). A
f (x) x ,
, x, |x| > , |f (x) A| < ;

lim f (x) = A.
x

15. ,
1
= 0,
xn

lim

n > 0.

. . , , x, |x| > ,

|1/xn | < .
, , , = 1/1/n , x, |x| > ,
 
1
1
1
1
= .
 n = n < n =
1/n n
|x|

(1/

, 19 x +, x x . , lim f (x) = A
x+

lim g (x) = B ,
x+

lim (f (x) + g (x)) = A + B ,

x+

B = 0,

lim

x+

. .
16. :
4x 1
;
x+ x 2

) lim

) lim

lim (f (x)g (x)) = AB ;

x+

f (x)
A
=
g (x)
B

x3 + 1
.
x + x2 + x + 1
3

. x = 0
4
4x 1
=
x2
1

1
x3 + 1
x
; 3
2 x + x2 + x + 1
x

=


1 + 13
x

1 + 1 + 12 + 13
x

1
2
lim
= 0, k N;
lim 1
x xk
x+
x


1
1
1

x+
2*

x+

= 1 = 0;

lim 1 + + 2 + 3 = 1 = 0;
x 

 x x

1
1
= 4;
lim 4
lim 1 + 3 = 1,
x

20

. 1. .

, ,
:


4 x1
4x 1
) lim
= lim
=
x+ x 2
x+
1 2
x

lim

x+

1 x2
1

 =

4 lim 1
x+

1 lim 2
x+

= 4;

1+ 3
x +1
x
= lim
= 1.
2
x
x +x +x+1
1 + 1 + 12 + 13
3

) lim

4 1

lim

x+

17.


lim ( x2 + x x).

x+

.



( x2 + x x)( x2 + x + x)
2

lim ( x + x x) = lim
=

x+

x2 + x + x
x

= lim 
= lim
=
x+
x+
2
x( 1 + 1/x + 1)
x +x +x
1
1
= .
= lim 
x+
2
x + 1/x + 1
x+

18. :


) lim

x+


4
9x2 + 1 x4 + 1

;
3
x3 + 2

) lim


4
9x2 + 1 x4 + 1

.
3
x3 + 2

.



4
9x2 + 1 x4 + 1

) lim
=
3
x+
x3 + 2




1
1
1
1
4
3|x| 1 + 2 |x| 1 + 4
3x 1 + 2 x 4 1 + 4
x
x
9x
9x


= lim
=
= lim
x+
x+
2
2
3
x 1+ 3
x3 1+ 3
x
x



 

1
1
1
1
4
4
3 1+ 2 1+ 4
lim
3 1+ 2 1+ 4
x+
x
9x
x
9x


= lim
=
=
x+

1+

lim

x3

x+

lim 3 1 +

x+

lim
x+

2
lim 3 1 + 3
9x2

x+

1+


4

1+

x3
1
x4

31
= 2;
1

1.


lim

21



4

9x2 + 1 x4 + 1

= lim
3
x
x3 + 2

3|x|

1+

1
9x2


1
|x| 4 1 + 4
x

1+

x3



1
1
3x 1 + 2 + x 4 1 + 4
x
9x

= lim
=
x
2
3
x 1+ 3
x


1
1
3 1+ 2 4 1+ 4
x
9x

= lim
= 2.
x
2
3
1+ 3
x

[a; + )
f (x). M N ,
, x, x > N , f (x) > M , , f (x) x,
+, , +;

lim f (x) = +.

x+

lim x2 = +,

M N = M + 1, , x > N

x2 > N 2 = ( M + 1)2 > ( M )2 = M.


,

x+

x x .
.
VI. lim

x0

C
C
= +, lim 2n1 = , C = const, C > 0, n N.
2n
x0 x
x

VII. lim Cx2n = +, lim Cx2n1 = ,


x

lim Cx2n1 = +, C = const, C > 0, n N.

C+

C
VIII. lim n = 0, C = const, n N.
x x
an xn + an1 xn1 + . . . + a0
IX. lim
=
x+ bm xm + bm1 xm1 + . . . + b0

0,

an ,
bm
=

+,
,

n < m; bm = 0, m, n N,
n = m; bm = 0, n N,
n > m; an bm > 0, m, n N,
n > m; an bm < 0, m, n N.

22

. 1. .

X. ) lim ax = +, 0 < a < 1;


x

) lim ax = 0, 0 < a < 1.


x+

XI. ) lim ax = +, a > 1;


x+

) lim ax = 0, a > 1.
x

XII. ) lim

x+

ax
= +,
xn

lim

x+

xn
= 0, a > 1, n N;
ax

ax
xn
) lim n = 0, lim x = , a > 1, n N.
x x
x a
ax
xn
XIII. ) lim n = 0, lim x = +, 0 < a < 1, n N;
x+ x
x+ a
ax
xn
) lim n = , lim x = 0, 0 < a < 1, n N.
x x
x a


f (x) x a,
:
f (x) x a

lim f (x) = lim f (a + |t|);

xa+0

t0

(5)

f (x) x a

lim f (x) = lim f (a |t|).

xa0

t0

(6)


x = a x = a ,
x a
:
x a,
x a (
(5), (6)).
, , f (x),
. 1.5, , lim f (x) = A, y = x
xa
0
(. 1.5, ) lim
x = 0.
x0+0

. 1.5

1.

23

: f (x)
x a A, ,

lim f (x) = lim f (x) = A.

xa+0

xa0

19. lim f (x),


x1
2
x + 3x + 4, x > 1,
f (x) =
7x2 + 1, x  1.
.

lim f (x) = lim f (1 + |t|) = lim ((1 + |t|)2 + 3(1 + |t|) + 4) =

x1+0

t0

t0

= lim (8 + 5|t| + |t|2 ) = 8,


t0

lim f (x) = lim f (1 |t|) = lim (7(1 |t|)2 + 1) =

x10

t0

t0

= lim (8 14|t| + 7|t|2 ) = 8


t0

lim f (x) = lim f (x), lim f (x) = 8.


x1+0

x1

x10

20. ,

sin x ,
x > 0,
x
f (x) =
1
cos x, x  0
2

x 0.
sin |t|
1
1
= 1, lim cos |t| = lim f (x) =
. lim

= 1 =

2
t0 |t|
t0 2
x0+
1
= lim f (x), x 0.
2
x0

, f (x)
x +, x x :

 

1
1
lim f (x) = lim f
,
lim f (x) = lim f
,
x+
x
|t|
|t|
t0
t0
 
1
lim f (x) = lim f
.
x

t0

, :
lim f (x) = +, lim f (a + |t|) = +;
xa+0

t0

xa0

t0

lim f (x) = +, lim f (a |t|) = +.

,
.

24

. 1. .

, , f (x) =

lim f (x) = ,

x10

lim f (x) = ,

x20

lim f (x) = +,

x30

1
2

(x 1) (x 2)(x 3)2

lim f (x) = ;

x1+0

lim f (x) = +;

x2+0

lim f (x) = +.

x3+0

.
XIV. ) lim loga x = , a > 1;
x0+0

) lim loga x = +, a > 1.


x+

XV. ) lim loga x = +, 0 < a < 1;


x0+0

) lim loga x = , 0 < a < 1.


x+

XVI. lim xn loga x = 0, a > 0, a = 1, n N.


x0+0




1 x
1 x
XVII. lim 1 +
= lim 1 +
= e.
x+

1. , . 1.6,
x = 1?
2. f (x) = x2 > 0 ,
, x, 0 < |x 2| < ,
|x2 4| < , :
1) = 1; 2) = 1/2; 3) = 1/4; 4) = 0 .
3. , , :
1) lim (2x 1) = 3; 2) lim (x2 + 2) = 6; 3) lim x3 = 1;
x2

4) lim cos x = cos x0 ;


xx0

x2

x1

1
1
= , x0 = 0;
xx0 x
x0

5) lim

6) lim x4 = x40 .
xx0

4. , lim f (x) = A y = f (x)


xx0

x = x0 , y =
= f (x) .
2

1. y = f (x), :
1) lim f (x) = 3;
x2

2) y = f (x) x = 2;
3) y = f (x)
.

1.

25

. 1.6

2. f (x) = 2x + 3 > 0
, , x, 0 <
< |x 3| < , |(2x + 3) 9| < , :
1) = 1; 2) = 1/2; 3) = 0,001; 4) = 0 .
3. , , :
1) lim (3x 7) = 2; 2) lim x5 = 1;
x1
x3

3) lim sin x = sin x0 ; 4) lim x = x0 , x0 > 0.


xx0

xx0

4. , lim f (x) = A, A > 0, y = f (x)


xx0

x = x0 f (x0 ) > 0,
y = f (x) .
3

1. , lim f (x) = A lim g (x) = B . :


xx0

1) lim f n (x), n N;
xx0

xx0

2) lim (f 2 (x) + g (x));


xx0

26

. 1. .

3) lim (f (x) + 1)(g (x) 2); 4) lim


xx0

xx0

f 2 (x) g (x)
;
g 2 (x) + 1

5) lim (xf (x) + x2 g (x)); 6) lim g (x) sin f (x).


xx0

xx0

2. :


1
1) lim 2x2 + + 3x 1 ; 2) lim (x3 + 2 cos x);
x

x1

x/4

x3 3x + 2
3) lim (sin x)(4x + 1); 4) lim
;
x+2
x2
 x1
1 + 3x + 1

.
5) lim (2 x)10 ; 6) lim
x1
x1
x +2
2

3. , lim f (x) = 0, lim sin f (x) = 0.


xx0

xx0

4. y = f (x) y = g (x),
x = 0, , 1) ;
2) x = 0.
4

1. , lim f (x) = A lim g (x) = B . :


xx0

xx0

f (x) sin x

1) lim (f (x) g (x) + 2); 2) lim 2


;
xx0
xx0 g (x) + 4

3) lim cos f (x); 4) lim f 2 (x) .
xx0

xx0

2. :
x2 + 4x + 1
;
1) lim (x3 3x2 + 2x + 1); 2) lim x sin x; 3) lim
x2

4) lim (x2 + 1)3


x1

x2

1
;
x+2

5) lim

x1

x +1
;
(x 2)20

x2

6) lim

x1

x2

x+2
+ 3x x3

x+2 7

3. y = f (x), , ,

lim f (x) = 0, lim f (x) = 1.


x0

x1

4. y = f (x) y = g (x),
x = 0, , 1) ;
2) x = 0.
5

1. :

x2 4
x5 + 1
x + x2 + x3 + x4 4
; 2) lim
; 3) lim
;
+1
x1
x1 x 
x1
x2 x 2
2
x2
1 + 2x 3
x 1
; 5) lim

4) lim
; 6) lim
;
x4
x1 3 x 1
x2 x 2
x 2

1) lim

1.

27

m
x x15
x 1
;
8) lim
, m, n N;
n
x1  x 1
x1 x 1

3
1
3
2

9) lim
+
; 10) lim
.

x1
x1 1 x3
x1 1 x
1 3x

7) lim

2. , :
1) A y = f (x) x x0 ;
2) y = f (x) x x0 .
3. , 1 y = f (x)
x 0, :

1, x  0,
1) f (x) = sign x; 2) f (x) =
0, x < 0.
6

1. :

x2 9
(1 + x)3 (1 + 3x)
; 2) lim
;
x3 x 3
x0
x2 + x3
4
x4 3x + 2
x 2
3) lim 5
; 4) lim
;
x1 x 4x + 3
x16
x 4


3
9 + 2x 5
x 4x
;
6)
lim
;
5) lim

3
x1
x8
x 2
x2 1
xm 1
x6 x3 + x2 5x + 4
7) lim n
, m, n N; 8) lim
;
x1 x 1
x1
(x 1)2


n
k

, n, k N;
9) lim
1 xn
x1 
1 xk

2
1
+
.
10) lim
x2 2x x2
x2 3x + 2

1) lim

2. , 0 y = f (x)
x 0, :


1, x > 0,
1 + sin x, x > 0,
0, x = 0,
2) f (x) =
1) f (x) =
cos x,
x  0;
1, x < 0.
3. ,

1
y(x) = sin x , x = 0,
x=0
0,
0.
7

1. :
sin 2x
;
1) lim

sin 5x
sin2 2x
; 3) lim
;
x
x0
x0 sin 3x
x0 sin2 3x
1 cos 5x
x
arcsin x
4) lim
; 5) lim
; 6) lim
;
x
sin
7
x
tg
2
x
x
x0
x0
x0

2) lim

28

. 1. .

sin x
cos x cos a
; 8) lim
;
sin 6x sin 7x  xa
xa
sin x
1 cos x2
; 10) lim
.
9) lim
x x
1
cos x
x0

7) lim

x0

2. :
1) lim (1 + 2x)1/x ;
x0

4) lim (x/(x + 3))


x

6) lim

x0

9) lim

x0

2) lim
x+2

x0

1+x
1x

2/x

3) lim (1 1/x)2x ;
x

; 5) lim x(ln(x + 1) ln x);


x+

2 1
3sin x 1
(1 + 2x)1/3 1
; 7) lim
; 8) lim
;
x
2x
x
x0
x0
5x 1 + x
lg(1 + x) lg 2
; 10) lim
.
x
x1
x1

1. :
sin 3x
;
1) lim

sin3 x
1 cos 4x
, = 0; 3) lim
;
sin 3x
x0 sin 7x
x0 sin3 x
x0
arctg x
arctg 2x
tg x sin x
4) lim
; 5) lim
; 6) lim
;
x
x0
x0 arcsin 3x
x0
x3
sin x sin a
cos mx cos nx
; 8) lim
;
7) lim
xa
xa
x0
tg2 x
sin x2
cos x
; 10) lim
.
9) lim
x1 sin x3
x/2 x /2

2) lim

2. :
1) lim (1 + 3x)1/(2x) ; 2) lim (1 x)1/x ;
x0
x0


2 x 1/ sin x
; 4) lim x[ln(2x + 1) ln 2x];
3) lim
x+
2+x


3
e2x e3x
1 + 2x 7 1 + x
5) lim
; 6) lim
;
x
x
x0
x0
x2
ln cos x
2 ln cos x 1
7) lim
; 8) lim
;
x0 ln cos 3x
x0
sin2 x
ln x ln 7
ax xa
; 10) lim
, a > 0.
9) lim
xa x a
x7
x7
x0

1. y = f (x) x = a,
:

2 x, x > 0,
1) f (x) =
a = 0, a = 1;
x3 4, x  0,

(sin x)/x, x  0,
2) f (x) =
a = 0;
cos x,
x < 0,
3) f (x) = x[1/x], a = 0, a = 1; 4) f (x) = sign(x2 ), a = 0, a = 2.

1.

29

2. , y = f (x) x a,
:

x > 0,
x,
1) f (x) =
a = 0;
1 + x, x  0,
3
x + x2 + x + 1, x  1,
2) f (x) =
a = 1.
0,
x < 1,
10

1. y = f (x) x = a,
:

1 + x, x > 0,
a = 0, a = 1;
1) f (x) =
1 x, x  0,

(sin x)/|x|, x = 0,
2) f (x) =
a = 0, a = ;
1,
x = 0,
3) f (x) =
[x], a = 0, a = 2, a = 5/2;
x < 0,
ex ,
a = 0, a = 1.
4) f (x) =
b + x, x  0,
2. , y = f (x) x a,
:

x2 , x  0,
a = 0; 2) f (x) = {x}, a = 0, a = 2.
1) f (x) =
1, x < 0,
11

1. y = f (x), :
1) lim f (x) = +; 2) lim f (x) = ; 3) lim f (x) = .
x1

2. , :
1) lim (1/x2 ) = ;
x0

x1

x1

2) lim 1/(x2 1) = ;

3) lim 1/(1 x)2 = +.

x1

x1

3. ,

f (x) =

1
(x 2)2 (x 3)3 (x 4)4

lim f (x) = ,

x2

4. :
1) lim

x0

x2 + 1
;
x

2) lim

x0

lim f (x) = ,

x3

x2 2
;
x2

3) lim

x0

lim f (x) = +.

x4

1
;
1 cos x

4) lim

x0

x
.
sin x

5. , lim f (x) = + lim g (x) = ,


xa
xa
lim f (x)g (x) = .

xa

30

. 1. .
12

1. y = f (x), :
1) lim f (x) = +, lim f (x) = ;
x1

x2

2) lim f (x) = , lim f (x) = +; lim f (x) = ;


x0

x1

x1

x1

x2

3) lim f (x) = , lim f (x) = .


2. , :
2
= +;
x0 x4

1) lim

2) lim

x0

1 + x2

x3 sin x

= ; 3) lim

3. :
x+1
cos x
cos x
1) lim
; 2) lim 3 ; 3) lim
;
3
x0

4) lim

|x|
1
5) lim (x + x + 1)
;
sin
x
x0

x
x0 x
1 cos 2x
2

3x

x0

x0

1
= .
sin x

x0

6) lim

x1

ln x
.
(x 1)2

4. , lim f (x) = + lim g (x) = B , B > 0,


xa
xa
lim f (x)g (x) = +.

xa

13

1. y = f (x), :
1) lim f (x) = 1; 2) lim f (x) = 2;
x+

3) lim f (x) = 0;
x

2. , :
1

1) lim

x2 + 1
= 1;
x x2 + 2
2
1+x
4) lim
= 1.
x
x2

= 0; 2) lim

1 + x2
1 + x2
3) lim
= 0;
x 1 + x4
x+

4) lim f (x) = 1.

3. : 2
x +1
x2 + 4x + 7
1) lim
;
2)
lim
;
x+ 2x2 + x + 1
x 3x2 2x + 3

3) lim ( x2 + 2 x); 4) lim ( x2 + 2 + x);


x+

5) lim

x+

7) lim



3
x+ x+ x
x2 + 2 x3 + 1


; 6) lim
;
4
x+
x+1
x4 + 8



3
3
x2 + 2 x3 + 1
x2 + 2 x3 + 1


;
8)
lim
.
4
4
x
x4 + 8
x4 + 8

4. y = f (x), :
1) f (x) =
3) f (x) =

x2 + 1
;
x

2) f (x) =

x3 + 1
;
x2 + 2
3

x2 + 1 2x; 4) f (x) =

2x3 + 1 1.

1.

31

14

1. , lim f (x) = A lim g (x) = B , :


x+

x+

1) lim (f (x) g (x)) = A B ;

2) lim f (x)g (x) = AB ;

x+

x+

1
1
3) lim
= , A = 0.
x+ f (x)
A

2. , :
1) lim

x+

x
= 1;
x+1

2) lim

cos x
= 0;
x2

3. :
(x 1)(x + 2)
1) lim
; 2) lim
x(x 3)
(x 1)20 (2x + 3)15
;
3) lim
x
(3x + 17)35
x+

3) lim

x2 + 1
= 1.
x

x2 + x + 1
;
2x2 + 3x + 4


4) lim ( x(x + 1) x);
x+

2
5) lim (x + ( x + 5 )); 6) lim ( x2 + 2x x2 + 1 );
x
x

3
7) lim ( x3 + 3x2 x2 2x ); 8) lim ( 3 x 3 x + 1 );
x+

9) lim

x+


4
x2 + 4 + 16x4 + 1

;
5
x5 + 2

x

10) lim


4
x2 + 4 + 16x4 + 1

.
5
x5 + 2

4. y = f (x), :
1) f (x) =

x2 + x + 1
;
x
+2

3) f (x) = x

2) f (x) =

x3
;
1 x2

x2 + x + 1 ; 4) f (x) = x + arctg x.

15

1. y = f (x), :
1) lim f (x) = +; 2) lim f (x) = ;
x0+0

3) lim f (x) = ;
x0+0

x0+0

4) lim f (x) = .
x00

2. , :
1) lim f (x) = 1, lim f (x) = , lim f (x) = ;
x

x1

x1

x1

2) lim f (x) = 1, lim f (x) = +, lim f (x) = ;


x1

3) lim f (x) = 1, lim f (x) = 1, lim f (x) = +,


x+

x1

lim f (x) = .

x1

3. , :
1) lim f (x) = +; 2) lim f (x) = ; 3) lim f (x) = .
x+
x
x
.
4. , :
1) lim x3 = +; 2) lim (x4 + x2 + x) = +;
x+
x

3) lim (x x3 ) = ; 4) lim ( x2 + 1 + 2x) = .


x

32

. 1. .
16

1. y = f (x), :
1) lim f (x) = ; 2) lim f (x) = +; 3) lim f (x) = ;
x0+0

x20

x1+0

4) lim f (x) = +, lim f (x) = ;


x0+0

x00

x0+0

x00

5) lim f (x) = +, lim f (x) = ;


6) lim f (x) = , lim f (x) = .
x0+0

x00

2. , :
1) lim f (x) = 0, lim f (x) = +, lim f (x) = +;
x+

x0+0

x1

x1+0

x10

x0+0

x00

2) lim f (x) = 1, lim f (x) = +, lim f (x) = ;


3) lim f (x) = 1, lim f (x) = +, lim f (x) = .
3. , :
1) lim f (x) = +; 2) lim f (x) = .
x
x+
.
4. ,
:

1) lim x2 + 1 = +; 2) lim (x2 + x + 1) = .


x


1. , , :
1) lim (2x 1) = 3;
x2

x3

3) lim

x1

x2 1
= 2;
x1

1
1
= ; 6) lim x3 = x30 ;
xx0
2
x0
x2 x

7) lim tg x = tg x0 , x0 = + k, k Z;
xx0
2

4) lim x cos

1
= 0;
x

2) lim x2 = 9;
5) lim

8) lim ctg x = ctg x0 , x0 = n, n Z.


xx0

2. , A = 1 y =
= f (x) x 0, :

1 + x, x > 0,
2
1) f (x) = x + x; 2) f (x) =
x 1, x  0.
3. , y = f (x) x = a,
:

2, x  0,
1) f (x) =
a = 0; 2) f (x) = sign(x3 ), a = 0;
2, x < 0,

1,
x  0,
3) f (x) =
a = 0;
x 2, x < 0,

x2 1, x  1,
4) f (x) =
a = 1;
x + 2, x < 1,
5) f (x) =

|x2 4|
, a = 2;
x2

1
x

6) f (x) = cos , a = 0.

1.

33

y = f (x)
x = a
, :
f (x) =
sign(sin x), a = 0, a = /2;
x + 1, x < 0,
2) f (x) =
a = 0, a = 1;
2x ,
x  0,

1
1
3) f (x) = x sin x , x = 0, a = 0, a = ;

x = 0,
2,
 2
x 9
, x = 3,
a = 0, a = 3;
4) f (x) =
|x + 3|
x = 3,
0,
cx2 + b, x  0,
5) f (x) =
a = 1, a = 0;
2 + x,
x < 0,

x
cos , |x|  1,
2
6) f (x) =
a = 1, a = 1;
|x 1|, |x| > 1,

dx + b, x > 0,
7) f (x) =
a = 0;
2 cx, x < 0,
8) f (x) = arctg(tg x), a = 0, a = /2, a = ;
 x
e 1
, x = 0,
9) f (x) =
a = 0;
x
x = 0,
1,
1, x ,
10) f (x) = xD(x), D(x) =
0, x ;

1/n, x = m/n,
m n ,
11) f (x) =
0, x .
5. :



1 2
2x + 1
1) lim
x x + 3 ; 2) lim (x x + 2 x2 x); 3) lim
;

4.

1)

2
x1 3x 1
x2
x2 + 3x + 4
x2 1
x2 5x + 6
; 5) lim
; 6) lim 2
;
4) lim
x+2
x1 x 1
x0
x2 x 3x + 2
3
n
x 1
x 1
x4 4x2 + 4
; 8) lim 2
, n N, n  2; 9) lim
;
7) lim 2

x1 x 1
x1 x 1
x3 2x
x 2



x1 2
5x 2
x 3x 2
10) lim
; 11) lim 
; 12) lim
;
x5
x1
x5
x
2
x2 4
2 x 1

3
3
6
1x 1+x
x 1
ln(1 + 2x)
13) lim
; 14) lim
; 15) lim
;
x
x
x1 x 1
x0
x0
x
x
x
x
log5 x 1
2 3
3 5
16) lim
; 17) lim
; 18) lim x
;
x
x5
x
x5
x0
x0 6 + 7 2
ln ln x
; 20) lim (1 + 2x)1/(3x) ; 21) lim (1 x)1/(2x) ;
19) lim
xe x e
x0
x0
x1

3 .

34

22) lim

x0

. 1. .

3
1 + x 1 + 2x
e2x ln(1 + x) 1
; 23) lim
;
ln(1 + 5x)
x
x0

24) lim (x + ex )1/x .


x0

6. :
sin x
sin 10x
1) lim (sin x + 2 cos x); 2) lim
; 3) lim
;

x1 x
x0 sin 3x
sin(x 2)
sin x + sin 1
; 6) lim
;
4) lim tg x ctg x; 5) lim
x+1
x1
x0
x2 x2 4
cos 2x cos 4
ctg x ctg 5
tg x tg 7
7) lim
; 8) lim
; 9) lim
;
14x + 28
x5
x7 tg(x 7)
x2
x5
cos x cos 3
cos 4x cos 4
x1

10) lim
; 11) lim
; 12) lim
;

x1 sin 4 + sin 4x
x1 sin x
x 3 sin 3 sin x
| tg 4x|
1 + cos 3x
1 tg x
; 14) lim
; 15) lim
;
13) lim
x0 1 cos 4x
x/3
x/4 cos(x + /4)
tg2 6x
1 + 2 sin x
sin(x /6)
; 17) lim
;
16) lim
x/6 sin(x + /6)
x/6 1 4 sin2 x
8 cos3 x 1
8 sin3 x + 1
; 19) lim
;
18) lim
6x +
x/3 x/2 /6
x/5
sin(x + /3)
; 21) lim (1 sin x) tg2 x;
20) lim
x/3 1 8 cos3 x
x/2

x+5
x
sin x sin 7
22) lim sin
tg ; 23) lim
;
3
10
2x 14
x7
x5

ctg x 1
sin 2x 1
24) lim
; 25) lim 
;
3
3
x/4
x/4
tg x 1
cos 2x



3
tg x tg 1
1 sin 3x
26) lim 
; 27) lim
.

3
3
x
1
x/6
3x
sin x sin 1
tg
1
x0

7. :

sin3 mx
x sin 2x
arctg(x 3)
, mn = 0; 2) lim
; 3) lim
;
x3
x0 sin3 nx
x0 x sin 5x
x3

cos x 3 cos x
tg x sin x
4) lim
; 5) lim
;
x0
x0
sin2 x
sin3 2x
x
ln
1 + x sin x cos 2x
2x 8

1) lim

6) lim

7) lim

; 8) lim

xe
x3 sin x
sin2 x
 xe
7
ln cos 3x
sin(sin x)
1 + 2x 1 + sin x
9) lim
; 10) lim
; 11) lim
;
ln(1 + sin x)
x0 ln cos 5x
x0 sin 5x
x0
2
cos(x + x ) 1
12) lim (1 + x + sin x)1/x ; 13) lim
;
x0
x0
sin x2
tg3 x 3 tg x
1 ctg3 x
; 15) lim
;
14) lim
x/3 cos(x + /6)
x/4 2 ctg x ctg3 x
x0

1.

35

2
2x 5x
; 17) lim (tg x)tg 2x ; 18) lim (cos x)ctg x ;
x0 sin x sin 2x
x0
x/4


x ctg(x/3)
ln cos x ln cos 2x
19) lim 2
; 20) lim 
;
3
3
x3
x0
1 + x2 x2


16) lim

x+3
1
3x



3
1
; 22) lim
+
;
x1
x1 1 x3
x0 x + sin x



1 cos x cos 2x cos 3x


23) lim
2x tg x ; 24) lim
;
21) lim

x/2

25) lim

x0

cos x

ln tg(4x + /4)
;
x

26) lim

x0

xe + 1
x x + 1

1 + cos x

1/x2

8. y = f (x), , ,
y = f 2 (x) .
9. y = f (x) x = 2 x 2. , y = (x 2)f (x) x = 2, 0. ,
f (x) .
10. , y = f (x) , A,
x a, y = g (x) y = f (x) ,
, y = g (x)
x a A.
11. y = f (x) y = g (x), ,
x = 0, :
1) lim (f (x) + g (x)) = 0; 2) lim (f (x)g (x)) = 1;
x0

3) lim (xf (x)) = 0;


x0

x0

4) lim (xf (x)) .


x0

12. , lim (f (x)g (x)) = 0. ,


x0

lim f (x) = 0 lim g (x) = 0?

x0

x0

13. , lim (f (x)g (x)) = 0 y = f (x)


x0

x = 0. , lim g (x) = 0?
x0

14. y = f (x) y = g (x), ,


f (x) > g (x) x = 0 lim f (x) =
x0

= lim g (x).
x0

15. , lim f (x) = A y = f (x) xa


x = a, x = a
y = f (x) . ?
16. , lim f (x) = lim g (x) = 0.
x0

x0

y = f (x) y = g (x), , :
3*

36

. 1. .

f (x)
f (x)
f (x)
= 1; 2) lim
= 0; 3) lim
= +;
g
(x)
g
(x)
g
x0
x0
x0 (x)
f (x)
f (x)
f (x)
= ; 5) lim
= ; 6) lim m
= 1, m Z.
4) lim
x0 g (x)
x0 g (x)
x0 x g (x)

1) lim

17. , y = f (x) y = g (x)


x = a , y = f (x)
, lim g (x) = 0, lim |f (x)g (x)| = 0.
xa

18. , :
1) lim

= ; 2) lim

xa

= ;

x1 x 1
x x
x2
x1
= +; 4) lim 2 = ;
3) lim
x2 (x 2)2
x0 x
1
1
= +; 6) lim
= .
5) lim 
x0
x/2 cos x
x2 + x4
x0

19.

lim f (x),

x1

:
1) f (x) =

1
;
(x 1)2 x(x 2)3
1
3) f (x) =
.
(x 1)2 x2 (x 2)

lim f (x),

x0

2) f (x) =

lim f (x),

x2

1
;
(x 1)x2 (x 2)2

20. :
sin x
x+1
; 2) lim (x2 ln |x|); 3) lim 2
;
1) lim

cos x 1
x0
x2 x 4
ln x
ex 1
1
4) lim
;
5)
lim
;
6)
lim
m ;
x1 (x 1)3
x0
x0 sin x
x2

3
1 + x 1
ln cos x
; 8) lim
.
7) lim
2
x0
x0
x
x
x0

21. , lim f (x) = lim g (x) = , :


xa

1) lim (f (x) + g (x)) = ;


xa

3) lim (|f (x)|g (x)) = .

xa

2) lim (f (x)g (x)) = +;


xa

xa

22. , lim f (x) = lim g (x) = A, :


xa

1) lim (f (x) + g (x)) = ;


xa

xa

2) lim (f (x)g (x)) = +,


xa

A < 0.

23. , lim f (x) = A (A = 0), :


f (x)
1) lim k = ,
x0 x

x0

k N; 2) lim (xk f (x)) = 0, k N.


x0

24. y = f (x) y = g (x), ,


lim f (x) = +, lim g (x) = 0, :

x0

x0

1.

1) lim (f (x)g (x)) = 0;


x0

2) lim (f (x)g (x)) = 1;

3) lim (f (x)g (x)) = +;


x0

37

x0

4) lim (f (x)g (x)) = .


x0

25. y = f (x) y = g (x), ,


lim f (x) = +, lim g (x) = , :

xa

xa

1) lim (f (x) + g (x)) = +;


xa

2) lim (f (x) + g (x)) = ;


xa

f (x)
xa
3) lim
= ; 4) lim
= 0;
xa g (x)
xa f (x)
xa
f (x) + g (x)
5) lim
f (x) = ; 6) lim
= 0.
xa g (x)
xa
xa
1
1
26. , y = cos
x
x

x = 0 (x = 0)
x 0.
27. , lim f (x) = +,
x0

(0; ).
28. , lim f (x) = A, lim g (x) = B , :
x+

x+

1) lim (f (x) + g (x)) = A + B ; 2) lim (f (x)|g (x)|) = A|B|;


x+
x+


f (x)
A
3) lim
f (x) = A , A  0; 4) lim
= , B = 0.
x+

x+

g (x)

29. , , lim f (x) = A, x


,
lim f (x) = A,
lim f (x) = A.
x+

30. , :

2x
= 2;
x+ x + 3
cos x

1) lim
3) lim

x+

1 + x2

31. :

x2 + 1
= 1;
x x x2

2) lim

= 0; 4) lim ( x2 + 2
x

2x + 3 + sin x
;
x
x2

x2 (x + 2)

1) lim

2) lim

x2 + 1 ) = 0.

2x2 3x + 4 + 2x

2
x
1 x + x + 2
2
x (x + 2)
; 4) lim
;
3) lim
x+
x
x2 + 4
x2 4
(1 + x)(1 + 2x) . . . (1 + 10x)
(2x 1)15 (3x 1)31
; 6) lim
;
5) lim
10
x+
x (x2 + 13x + 4)23
x +1



x+ x+2
x + 3x + 4x

7) lim
; 8) lim
;
x+
x+
1+ x
2x +1

9) lim (x
x+

x+

x2 + x + 2 ); 10) lim (x
x
2/3

11) lim x1/3 [(x + 1)2/3 (x 1)


x+

];

x2 + x + 2 ) ;

38

. 1. .




3
3
x2 + 2 8x3 + x
x2 + 2 8x3 + x


12) lim
; 13) lim
;
x+
x
x2+ 5
x2 + 5

3
x2 + 2 8x3 + x

14) lim
;
x
2 +5
x






x + 1 2x+3
x2 + x2 + x2 x2 ; 16) lim
;
15) lim
x
x x + 2

1x
2x 1
; 18) lim 2x[ln(1 + x) ln(2 + x)];
17) lim
x 2x + 3
 3
 x+
x + 3x2
2x + 3x
x ; 20) lim x
19) lim
x;
2
x+
x 4 + 5
1+x

21) lim

x+

ln(x2 + ex )
;
ln(x4 + e2x )

22) lim

ln(x2 + ex )
.
ln(x4 + e2x )

32. y = f (x), :


1 + x2
2
1) y = x + 3x + 2 ; 2) y =
;
x+1

2
3) y = x + 4x + 1 ; 4) y =x + arcctg x;
x
.
5) y = ln(x2 + ex ); 6) y = x
x+5

33.
 2 a b  :
x +1
ax b = 0;
1) lim
x
x+1

2) lim ( x2 + x + 1 ax + b) = 0;
x
3) lim ( x2 + x + 1 + ax b) = 0.
x+

34. , :
1) lim f (x) = +; 2) lim f (x) = +;
xa+0

3) lim f (x) = ;
xa+0

xa0

4) lim f (x) = ;
xa0

5) lim f (x) = ; 6) lim f (x) = ;


x+

x+

7) lim f (x) = ; 8) lim f (x) = ;


xa+0

9) lim f (x) = ;
x

xa0

10) lim f (x) = .


x

35. y = f (x)
x = 0, x = 1 x = 2, :
|x|(x + 2)
x(x + 1)
; 2) f (x) =
;
x(x 1)3 (x 2)2
(x 1)2 (x + 2)
x2 4
1
1
3) f (x) =

, m Z; 4) f (x) =
.
|x 2| xm (x 1)2
(sin x)(x 1)3 |x 2|

1) f (x) =

36. , :

1) lim (x2 x 2) = +; 2) lim 3 x + sin x = +;


x+
x+

x2 + x + 1 = +;
3) lim 5 x + 2 = ; 4) lim
x

x+

2.

x2 + 1
= +;
x+
x

5) lim

7) lim ( x2 + x
x

6) lim

39

x2 + 1
= ;
x

x2 + 1 + x) = .

37. y = f (x) y = g (x), :


lim g (x) = ,
1) lim f (x) = +,
x+

x+

lim (f (x) + g (x)) = 0;

x+

2) lim (f (x) = +,

lim g (x) = ,

x+

x+

lim (f (x) + g (x)) = 5;

x+

3) lim f (x) = +,
x+

lim g (x) = ,

x+

lim (f (x) + g (x)) = +;

x+

4) lim f (x) = +,
x+

5) lim f (x) = +,
x+

6) lim f (x) = +,

lim g (x) = +,
lim g (x) = +,

lim

x+

lim g (x) = +,

x+

x+

x+

x
8) lim
= +,
x+ f (x)

x+

x+

x+

7) lim f (x) = +,

lim

x+

lim g (x) = 0,

lim

x+

f (x)
= 2;
g (x)
f (x)
= 0;
g (x)
f (x)
= +;
g (x)

lim (f (x)g (x)) = 0;

x+

lim g (x) = +,
lim (f (x) g (x)) = 0;
x+


1
f (x) +
= A, A > 2;
9) lim (xf (x)) = +, lim
x+

x+

f (x)

x+

10) lim (f (x) g (x)) = 0, lim (f (x) + xg (x)) = 1.


x+

38. ,
[a; + ),

x+

lim f (x) = + y = g (x)

x+

lim (f (x) + g (x)) = +,

x+

lim (f (x) g (x)) = +.

x+

2.
,
.
, y =
= f (x), x (a; b), x0 (a; b) f (x0 ).
f (x) (a; b) x0
. x0 ,

lim f (x) = f (x0 ).

xx0

40

. 1. .

:
) y = x3 x = 2,

lim x3 = 8, y(2) = 8, . .

lim x3 = 8 = 23 ;

x2

x2

) y = sign x x0 = 0 ,
lim sign x:
x0

lim sign x = 1,

x0+

. .

lim sign x = 1,

x0

lim sign x = lim sign x;

x0+

x0

(sin x)/x, x = 0,
2,
x=0

y=

x0 = 0 , ,

lim

x0

sin x
,
x

( 1)
x = 0: y(0) = 2.
1. ,
x0 R

1 cos x
, x = 0,
y=
x2
A,
x = 0.
. x0 ,
. lim x2 = x20 = 0 lim (1 cos x) = 1 cos x0 ,
xx0
xx0

lim y(x) = lim

xx0

1 cos x

xx0

x2

1 cos x0

x20

= y(x0 ).

, x0 , x0 = 0.
x0 = 0.
 x 2
2 x
1 cos x

x2

lim

x0

1 cos x
2

2 sin

x2

1
= lim
2 x0

1
2

sin

sin

x/2

x 2
2

x/2

,
1
2

= .

y(0) = 1/2, x = 0,
y(0) = A = 1/2,
x = 0.
, A = 1/2
x R, A = 1/2 x R, x = 0.

2.

41

.
I. y = f (x), x (a; b), y = g (x), x (a; b), x0 (a; b), :
1) x0 (x0 ; x0 + ), > 0,
y = f (x) ;
2) f (x0 ) > 0 (f (x0 ) < 0), x0
(x0 ; x0 + ), > 0, , x
f (x) > 0 (f (x) < 0);
3) y = f (x) + g (x) y = f (x) g (x) x0 ;
4) y = f (x)g (x) x0 ;
5) y = g (x) x0 ,
y = f (x)/g (x) x0 ;
6) y = f (x) () (a; b), x = f 1 (y)
f (x0 ).
II. f (x) x0 , g (u)
u0 = f (x0 ), g (f (x)) x0 , . .

lim g (f (x)) = g ( lim f (x)) = g (f (x0 )).

xx0

xx0

, g (f (x)) : g (u) u = A
lim f (x) = A,
xx0

lim g (f (x)) = g ( lim f (x)) = g (A).

xx0

xx0

,
.
, , f (x) C g (x) = x , :
) Pn (x) = a0 xn + a1 xn1 + . . . + ai xni + . . . + an1 x +
+ an , ;
) y = Pn (x)/Qm (x), Pn (x) Qm (x)
, ,
, .
y = f (x) (a; b).
y = f (x) ()
x0 (a; b),

lim f (x) =

xx0
x>x0

lim f (x) = f (x0 ) ( xx


lim f (x) =

xx0 +0

x<x0

lim f (x) = f (x0 )).

xx0 0

42

. 1. .

:
) y = x2
x0 R,

lim x2 = x20 =

xx0 0

lim x2 ;

xx0 +0

x,
x  0,
1 + x, x < 0

y=

x = 0,

lim y(x) = lim y(x) = lim x = 0 = y(0),

x0+0

x0
x>0

x0
x>0

x = 0,

lim y(x) = lim y(x) = lim (1 + x) = 1 = y(0);

x00

x0
x<0

x0
x<0

) y = sign x x = 0
x = 0,

lim y(x) = lim y(x) = lim (1) = 1,

x0+0

x0
x>0

x0
x>0

lim y(x) = lim y(x) = lim (1) = 1,

x00

x0
x<0

x0
x<0

y(0) = 0.
y = f (x), x (a; b), x0 (a; b)
, y = f (x)
x0 .
y = f (x), (a; b)
( ), (
).
2.

y=

sin x
.
x 5x + 6
2

. , x = 2
x = 3. ,
. , y = sin x y = x2 5x + 6
, y = x2 5x +
+ 6 , x = 2 x = 3.
, x = 2 x = 3; ,
(; 2) (2; 3) (3; ).

2.

43

, . . , ,
.
, .
y = f (x) [a; b], :
1. y = f (x) .
2. y = f (x)
, . . m , M
y = f (x) [a; b], x1
x2 [a; b],

f (x1 ) = m, f (x2 ) = M.
3. f (a)f (b) < 0, x0 (a; b), ,
f (x0 ) = 0. , y = f (x),
[a; b],
Ox, (a; f (a)) (b; f (b))
Ox (. 1.7).

. 1.7

4. m , M y = f (x) [a; b],


c [m; M ] x0 [a; b], , f (x0 ) = c.
5. y = f (x) x = a x = b
(f (a) = f (b) = 0)
[a; b], (a; b) y = f (x)
, .
3.

(1 x2 ) arcsin x > 0.
. y = (1 x2 ) arcsin x,
[1; 1]. ,

x = 1, x = 0 x = 1. , 5
y = (1 x2 ) arcsin x (1; 0) (0; 1)
 


1
1
1
= 1
arcsin > 0, . f
2

44

. 1. .

(0; 1) y = (1 x2 ) arcsin x .
  

 
1
1
1
f
= 1
arcsin
< 0, (1; 0)
2

. , x (0; 1)
.
4. ,
2

(1 + x) 2x

+x+2

1 + x2 sin2 x = 0

.
.

2
y =(1 + x) 2x +x+2 1 + x2 sin2 x. y(0) = 4 > 0
y(1) = 2 sin2 1 < 0, 4 x0
(1; 0), , y(x0 ) = 0;
.
y = f (x) (a; b), ,
, x0 .
x0 lim f (x) = f (x0 ) ,
xx0

x0 y = f (x).
. 1.8 , x0
.

. 1.8

2.

45

1. y = f (x) x0 , :
1 x2

1) y = x2 + 2, x0 = 3; 2) y = |x|, x0 = 0; 3) y =
, x0 = 1;
1 + x2
 1
, x = 2,
x2
x0 = 2;
4) y =
x = 2,
5,
 sin x
, x = 0,
x
5) y =
x0 = 0;
x = 0,
2,
 2
x 4
, x = 2,
6) y =
x0 = 2;
x2
4,
x = 2,
 1
, x = 1,
7) y =
x0 = 1;
1 x3
2,
x = 1,

1, x ,
8) y =
x = 0?
0, x , 0
2. :
1) y = sign x; 2) y = {x}, x [2; 8]; 3) y = tg x;
4) y =

x+2
;
x1

x2 + x + 1
cos x
; 6) y = 3
;
x2 x 2
x 8
2
x 4
8) y = 2
.
|x 4|

5) y =

7) y = ctg x sin 2x;

3. A
x = 0:

(tg x)/x, x (/4; 0) (0; /4),
1) y =
A,
x = 0;

ln(x + 1)
, x (1; 1),
2) y =
2x
A,
x = 0?
4. ,
x0 , ,
x0 .
5. ,
:
1) ln x + x = 0; 2) 8x 3 2x 16 = 0;
3) x5 6x2 + 3x 7 = 0; 4) x3 |x| + 2 = 0.
6. : 
1) log2 (x + 5) log (3 x) (x + 5)(3 x) < 0;

2) (x4 1) 16 x2 log1/2 (10 x)  0.

46

. 1. .
2

1. x0 :
1) y = |x + 2|, x0 = 1; 2) y = 2x + sin x + 3, x0 = 0;
3) y = | sign x|, x0 = 0;
 2
x 4
, x = 2,
x0 = 2;
4) y =
x+2

4,
x
=

2,

1

cos , x = 0, x = 0;
x
0
x = 0,
1,

0, x ,
6) y =
x = 0?
x, x , 0
2. :
1
1) y = sign x; 2) y = ctg x; 3) y = 
; 4) y =

5) y =


5) y =

1
, x = 7,
x7

1
1
sin , x = 0,
x

x2

1
;
arcsin x

6) y =
x = 0.
2,
5,
x = 7;
3. A
x = 0:


1/x2
1/|x2 4|
, x = 0,
, x [0; 10];
1) y = e
2) y = e
A,
x = 0;
A,
x = 0?
4. ,
x0 , , x0 .
5. ,
:
1) x5 + x + 17 = 0; 2) 3 sin3 x 5 sin x + 1 = 0;
3) sin x x + 1 = 0; 4) x3 3x + 1 = 0.
6. :

1) (1 + x)2 4 x2 cos x > 0; 2) 4 x (log2 x) sin x < 0.



1.
:

2
1) y = x + 5 ; 2) y = 21/(1+x ) + sin x2 ;
1
1
; 4) y = x sin x , x = 0,
3) y =
2
(1 x)
x = 0;
0,

sin x, x ,
5) y =
0,
x ;

 |x|
x
cos , |x|  1,
, x = 0,
2
7) y =
6) y =
x + x2
|x 1|, |x| > 1;
1/2,
x = 0;

2.


sin x

8) y = e


10) y =

(1 + x + x + 5x ); 9) y =

x(x + cos x)
, x = 0,
x + sin x

0,
3x 2, x ,
x2 ,
x
 ;


11) y = [x] + {x}; 12) y = 1 tg x tg

47

x = 0;

+x .
2

2. :
 |x + 2|

1
, x = 1,
, x = 2,
x+2
1) y =
2) y =
(x 1)2
x = 2;
x = 1;
3,
 1,

cos

3) y =


5) y =

x2

, x = 0,

4) y =

1
;
x [x]

x = 0;
1,
x2 + |x| + x
21/x , x = 0,
6) y = 2
;
1,
x = 0;
x |x| + 3x

x2 |x|
x 1 + |x 1|
; 8) y =
;
x2 + x
x2 1
2(x x3 ) + |x x3 |
; 10) y = (x + 1)e1/x+1/|x| ;
9) y =
2(x x3 ) |x x3 |

7) y =

x2 , x ,
x2 , x ;

1/n, x = m/n ,
12) y =
0,
x .
3. y = f (x) (a; b) x0 (a; b). , y = f (x)
x0 .
4. y = f (x) (a; b) x0 (a; b). , f (x0 ) > 0, f (x) > 0
x0 .
5. y = f (x)
(a; b) x0 (a; b) .
y = g (x), (a; b) , y = f (x)g (x) x0 .
6. y = f (x) y = g (x)
[a; b], ,
x0 (a; b). , y = f (x) y = g (x)
x0 .
7. y = f (x) y = g (x)
(a; b), , x0 (a; b).
y = f (x) y = g (x) x0 ?
8. , y = f (x) x0 ,
y = |f (x)| x0 .
11) y =

48

. 1. .

9. , [2; 5] [2; 3) (3; 4) (4; 5].


10. y = f (x),
(0, 1), ,
y = |f (x)| (0; 1).
11.
y = f (g (x)) y = g (f (x)),

f (x) = sign x, g = 1 + x [x]?


12.

u=

f (u) = u2 + 1,
x, x ,
x, x ?

13.

u=

f (x) = cos u,
x, x ,
x2 , x ?

14. y = f (x) :
2
x + 4,
x [0; 2),
f (x) =
(x 4)2 + 6, x [2; 4].
1) x0 , x0 [0; 4] f (x0 ) = 1? 2) x0 , x0 [0; 4] f (x0 ) = 7?
15. y = f (x) :

5 |x| ,
x [1; 1],
f (x) =
3 + |x2 1| x2 , |x| > 1.

4
x0 , f (x0 ) < 15 ?
16. y = f (x) y = g (x)
[a; b], f (a) < g (a) f (b) > g (b). ,
c (a; b), f (c) = g (c).
17. , ,
, .
18. , x3 + px + 1 = 0, p
,
.
19. y = f (x), [0; 1],
[0; 1]. ,
x0 [0; 1], , f (x0 ) = x0 .
20. y = f (x) [a; + )
lim f (x) = A. , f (x) [a; + ).
x

2.

49

21. y = f (x) [2; 5]. ,


x, [2; 5], y = f (x)
. f (e) f (),
f (4) = 7/9.
22. ,
:
1) x3 + 12x 8 = 0; 2) x4 x3 + 2x2 + x 3 = 0;
3) 6x3 x2 20x + 12 = 0; 4) 5x4 14x3 79x2 + 84x + 180 = 0;
5) 27x3 + 8 (x 1)3 (2x + 3)3 = 0;
6) x5 6x4 9x3 6x2 + 8x + 8 = 0.
23. ,
:
1) x3 19x 30 = 0; 2) 9x2 27x4 + 4 14x = 0;
3) 30x4 17x3 228x2 + 17x + 30 =
0;
4) (x6 1) + 2(x4 1) + 1 = 0; 5) 2 2x2 x + 1 x 3 = 0;
6) |x| |x 2| |x + 2| + 3 = 0.
24. :
1) (x3 1)(x 1)  0; 2) (x6 1)(x3 1) < 0;


1
3) (x8 1) log2 x +
> 0; 4) (x2 2x 35) arcctg x < 0;
2


1
5) (x4 2x2 arctg x  0; 6) x2
arctg x  0.
4

4 .

1.
y = f (x) (a; b), x0 (a; b)
x , x0 + x
(a; b).
f (x0 + x) f (x0 )
x0 , x
x0 . y = f (x) x0
f (x0 ), y(x0 ), . .

f (x0 ) = y(x0 ) = f (x0 + x) f (x0 ).


x0 + x x, x = x x0 ,
x0 f (x) f (x0 ).
y = f (x) x0
f (x0 )/x x 0 ( ).
 y = f (x) x0
dy 
y  (x0 ), f  (x0 ),
.

dx

f  (x0 ) = lim

x0

x=x0

f (x0 )
f (x0 + x) f (x0 )
f (x) f (x0 )
= lim
= lim
.
xx0
x
x
x x0
x0

, x0 , x0 .
y = f (x) (a; b), , y = f (x)
.
1. y = x2 x0 = 2.
. f (x) = x2 x0 = 2:

y = f (2 + x) f (2) = (2 + x)2 22 = 4x + (x)2 .

lim

x0

f (x0 )
4x + (x)2
= lim
= lim (4 + x) = 4.
x
x
x0
x0

1.

51

, y = x2 x0 = 2
4, . . y  (2) = 4.
,
, , - .
2. ,

(x2 ) = 2x, x R.
. f (x) = x2 x:

f (x) = f (x + x) f (x) = (x + x)2 x2 = 2x x + (x)2 .


, f (x)/x = 2x + x, , ,
f (x)
= lim (2x + x) = 2x.
x
x0

lim

x0

, (x2 ) = 2x x.
3. f (x) = 1/x2 x, x = 0.
. x = 0 x + x = 0

f (x) =

x(2x + x)
1
1
2 = 2
,
(x + x)2
x
x (x + x)2

lim

x0

lim (2x + x)
f (x)
2x + x
2
x0
= lim 2
=

= 3.
2
2
x
x0 x (x + x)2
lim x (x + x)
x
x0

(1/x2 ) = 2/x3 , x = 0.

4. ,

(xn ) = nxn1 , n N, x R.
. x x; f (x) = xn

f (x + x) f (x) = (x + x)n xn =
= xn + Cn1 xn1 x + Cn2 xn2 (x)2 + . . . + Cnn (x)n xn =

= nxn1 x + Cn2 xn2 (x)2 + . . . + Cnn (x)n .

,
f (x)
= nxn1 + Cn2 xn2 x + . . . + Cnn (x)n1 .
x
4*

52

. 2.

x 0 , , ,

f (x)
f  (x) = lim
= nxn1 ,
x0

.
5. , :
) (sin x) = cos x, x R.
) (cos x) = sin x, x R;
. ) f (x) = cos x
x
f (x)
cos(x + x) cos x
=
=
x
x

=
,

lim

x0



2 sin x sin x + x

f (x)
= lim
x
x0

sin x
2

x
2

sin x
2

x
2



x
sin x +
.
2



x
=
sin x +
2

= lim

sin x

x0

2
x
2



x
lim sin x +
= sin x.
2

x0

, (cos x) = sin x x.


) f (x) = sin x
x


2 sin x cos x + x
f (x)
sin(x + x) sin x
2
2
=
=
=
x
x
x
sin x

sin
f (x)
2
lim
= lim
x
x0 x
x0
2

2
x
2



x
.
cos x +
2

x
=
cos x +
2

= lim

x0

sin x
2
x
2

, (sin x) = cos x x.



x
= cos x.
lim cos x +

x0

1.

53

lim

x0

cos(x + x) cos x
x

lim

x0

sin(x + x) sin x
x
sin u

: 1) lim
= 1;

 u0 u


x
x
= sin x; 3) lim cos x +
= cos x; 4) 2) lim sin x +

x0

.
6. ,

x0

(ex ) = ex , x R.
. f (x) = ex ;
f (x)
ex+x ex
ex 1
=
= ex
.
x
x
x

lim

x0

lim

x0

ex 1
= 1,
x

f (x)
ex 1
ex 1
= lim ex
= ex lim
= ex ,
x
x
x
x0
x0

.
7. , x = /2 + n, n Z,

(tg x) =

cos2 x

. tg x = sin x/cos x,
|x|
sin(x + x)
sin x

=
cos(x + x)
cos x
sin(x + x) cos x cos(x + x) sin x
=
=
cos(x + x) cos x
sin(x + x x)
sin x
=
.
=
cos(x + x) cos x
cos x cos(x + x)

tg(x + x) tg x =

lim cos(x +

+ x) = cos x, x =

+ n, n Z,
2

x0

tg(x + x) tg x
sin x
1
=
lim
= lim
x
x cos(x + x) cos x
x0
x0
1
sin x
1
1
lim
lim
=
,
=
cos x x0 x x0 cos(x + x)
cos2 x

. . .

54

. 2.

( ).
1. (c) = 0, c .
2. f (x) x c , cf (x) x

(cf (x)) = cf  (x).


3. f (x) g (x)
x, f (x) + g (x) x

(f (x) + g (x)) = f  (x) + g  (x).


4. f (x) g (x)
x, f (x) g (x) x

(f (x) g (x)) = f  (x) g  (x).


5. f (x) g (x)
x, f (x)g (x) x

(f (x)g (x)) = f  (x)g (x) + f (x)g  (x).


6. f (x) g (x)
x g (x) = 0, f (x)/g (x)
x


f (x)
f  (x)g (x) f (x)g  (x)
=
.
2
g (x)

g (x)

7. x = g (y) y , g  (y) =
= 0, y = f (x), x,
y = f (x) x

f  (x) =

1
.
g  (f (x))

8. g (y) y , y = f (x),
f (x) x, h = g (f (x)) x

hx = gy fx .


8. , x f (x)
g (x) ,

(f (x)g (x)) = f  (x)g (x) + f (x)g  (x).


.

lim

x0

f (x + x) f (x)
= f  (x),
x

lim

x0

g (x + x) g (x)
= g  (x).
x

1.

55

, ,
g (x + x) g (x)
= g  (x) + ,
x

0, x 0. , g (x + x) = g (x) +
+ x(g  (x) + ), x(g  (x) + ) 0, x 0, ,

lim g (x + x) = g (x).
x0

f (x + x)g (x + x) f (x)g (x) =


= f (x + x)g (x + x) f (x)g (x + x) + f (x)g (x + x) f (x)g (x)=
= (f (x + x) f (x))g (x + x) + f (x)(g (x + x) g (x)),

f (x + x)g (x + x) f (x)g (x)


=
x


f (x + x) f (x)
g (x + x) g (x)
= lim
g (x + x) + f (x)
=
x
x
x0
f (x + x) f (x)
g (x + x) g (x)
lim g (x + x) + f (x) lim
=
= lim
x
x
x0
x0
x0

lim

x0

= f  (x)g (x) + f (x)g  (x),

.
.
9.

Pn (x) = an xn + an1 xn1 + . . . + a1 x + a0 .


. 3, 2

Pn (x) = (an xn ) + (an1 xn1 ) + . . . + (a1 x) + (a0 ) =


= an (xn ) + an1 (xn1 ) + . . . + a1 x + (a0 ) .
1 4,

Pn (x) = nan xn1 + (n 1)an1 xn2 + . . . + 2a2 x + a1 .


10. f  (x), :
) f (x) = (x2 5x + 6) sin x;
. ) 5

) f (x) =

x2 2x + 3
.
x2 + x + 1

f  (x) = (x2 5x + 6) sin x + (x2 5x + 6)(sin x) .


(x2 5x + 6) = 2x 5, sin x = cos x, ,

f  (x) = (2x 5) sin x + (x2 5x + 6) cos x.

56

. 2.

f (x) =


f  (x) = 1 +

x2 + x + 1 3x + 2
2 3x
=1+ 2
,
2
x +x+1
x +x+1



2 3x

x2 + x + 1

= (1) +

2 3x



x2 + x + 1


=

2 3x

x2 + x + 1


,

, 6,

f  (x) =

(2 3x) (x2 + x + 1) (2 3x)(x2 + x + 1)


=
(x2 + x + 1)2

3(x2 + x + 1) (2 3x)(2x + 1)
=
(x2 + x + 1)2

3x2 3x 3 4x + 6x2 2 + 3x
3x2 4x 5
= 2
.
2
2
(x + x + 1)
(x + x + 1)2

11. ,

(ctg x) =

1
,
sin2 x

x = n, n Z.

. ctg x = cos x/ sin x


(cos x) = sin x, (sin x) = cos x, , 6,



cos x  (cos x) sin x (sin x) cos x
sin2 x cos2 x
1
(ctg x) =
=
=
= 2 ,
2
2
sin x

sin x

sin x

sin x

.
,

(tg x) =

1
,
cos2 x

x = /2 + k, k Z.

12. f  (x), :
) f (x) =

sin4 x cos4 x
, x = k, k Z;
sin2 x

) f (x) = tg 2x ctg 2x, x = k, k Z;


) f (x) = 

x
x
tg
2
2
,

x
x 2
ctg tg
4
2
2

ctg

x = k/4, k Z.

. )

sin4 x cos4 x
(sin2 x + cos2 x)(sin2 x cos2 x)
=
=
2
sin x
sin2 x
sin2 x cos2 x
= 1 ctg2 x,
=
sin2 x

1.

57

f  (x) = (1 ctg2 x) = (ctg2 x) = 2 ctg x(ctg x) =




1
2 ctg x
.
= 2 ctg x 2
=
sin x
sin2 x
)
sin 2x
cos 2x
sin2 2x cos2 2x

=
=
cos 2x
sin 2x
cos 2x sin 2x
2 cos 4x
=
= 2 ctg 4x,
sin 4x



1
8
f  (x) = (2 ctg 4x) = 2(ctg 4x) = 2 2
(4x) = 2 .
sin 4x
sin 4x

tg 2x ctg 2x =

) (. ))

ctg x tg x
1
2
2
=
1 =


2
x
x
x
x
ctg tg 4 ctg x tg x
ctg tg
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
tg 2x
=
=
=
,
2 ctg x 2 tg x
4 ctg 2x
4

f  (x) =


1
1
1
1
1
tg 2x = (tg 2x) =
(2x) =
.
4
4
4 cos2 2x
2 cos2 2x

13. , :
) (ln x) =

1
,
x

) (arctg x) =

x > 0; ) (arcsin x) = 


1
1 + x2

1
1 x2

|x| < 1;

, x R.

. 7

(ex ) = ex , (sin x) = cos x, (tg x) =


, :
1
1
) (ln x) = ln x = ;
e

) (arcsin x) =
) (arctg x) =

1
=
cos(arcsin x)
1

1
cos2 (arctg x)

1
1 sin2 (arcsin x)

1
,
cos2 x

=

1
1 x2

= cos2 (arctg x) =
=

, :

(arccos x) = 

1
1 x2

1
2

1 + tg (arctg x)

|x| < 1;

1
1 + x2

58

. 2.

(arcctg x) =

1
,
1 + x2

x R.

14. f  (x), :

) f (x) = ln3 x3 ,

x > 0; ) f (x) = arcsin4 2 , |x| > 1;


x

) f (x) = arccos 1 x2 , 0 < |x| < 1.


. )
ln3 x3 = (3 ln x)3 = 27 ln3 x,

f  (x) = (27 ln3 x) = 27(ln3 x) = 81 ln2 x(ln x) =


) f  (x) = 4 arcsin3

1
2

81 ln2 x
.
x



1 
arcsin 2 =
x

1
= 4 arcsin 2 
 1 2
x
1
2
3


1 
x2

8 arcsin3 2
x .
= 
x x4 1

1
) ( 1 x2 ) = 
2

f  (x) = 

1 x2

(2x) = 

x
1 x2


1
x
sign x
( 1 x2 )  = 
=
.

2
|x| 1 x
1 x2
1 ( 1 x2 )2

15. , :
) (ax ) = ax ln a, x R, a > 0, a = 1;
1
) (loga x) =
, x > 0, a > 0, a = 1.
x ln a

. )
x

ax = eln a = ex ln a ,
, 8, 2,

(ax ) = (ex ln a ) = ex ln a (x ln a) = ax ln a(x ) = ax ln a.


)

loga x =

ln x
,
ln a

, 2,


ln x 
1
(loga x) =
=
(ln x) =
ln a

ln a

1
.
x ln a

1.

59

16. f  (x), :

) f (x) = log5 3 7x ; ) f (x) = 2 53x+1 ;


7
x

) f (x) = 5 cos 3 log3 .


. )

1
1
1
3
log5 7x = (log5 7 + log5 x) = log5 7 + log5 x,
3

 

 
1
1
1
1
1
1
log5 7 + log5 x =
log5 7 +
log5 x = (log5 x) =
.
3
3
3
3
3
3x ln 5

2 53x+1 = 10 53x/2 ,

 

3x
3 10 ln 5
( 10 53x/2 ) = 10 (53x/2 ) = 10 53x/2 ln 5
=
53x/2 .
)

log3

7
= log3 7 log3 x,
x

(5 cos 3 + log3 7 log3 x) = (5 cos 3 + log3 7) (log3 x) =

1
.
x ln 3

(x) = 1;
(x ) = x1 ;

1
( x ) = ;
2 x
 
1
1
= 2;


(ex ) = ex ;
(ax ) = ax ln a;

1
;
x
1
(loga x) =
;
x ln a

(ln x) =

(sin x) = cos x;

(arcsin x) = 
(tg x) =

1 x2
1

cos2 x
1
(arctg x) =
;
1 + x2

(cos x) = sin x;

60

. 2.

(arccos x) = 

1 x2
1

(ctg x) =

sin2 x
1
(arcctg x) =
.
1 + x2


, ,
f (x):

(f (x) ) = f 1 (x)f  (x);




1
f  (x);
f (x) = 
2 f (x)


1
1
= 2
f  (x);
f (x)

f (x)

f (x) 

(e
(a

f (x) 

) =e
f (x);
f (x)
) =a
(ln a)f  (x);

f (x) 

1
f  (x);
f (x)
1
(loga f (x)) =
f  (x);
f (x) ln a

(ln f (x)) =

(sin f (x)) = cos f (x)f  (x);

(arcsin f (x)) = 

f 2 (x)

(tg f (x)) =

f  (x);

f  (x);

cos f (x)
1

(arctg f (x)) =
f  (x);
1 + f 2 (x)

(cos f (x)) = sin f (x)f  (x);

(arccos f (x)) = 

1 f 2 (x)

f  (x);

1
f  (x);
sin2 f (x)
1
(arcctg f (x)) =
f  (x).
1 + f 2 (x)

(ctg f (x)) =

17. :

1
) y = 5x2 + x + 2 ; ) y = log2 x + log3 x + 2x ;
x

ex
) y = sin 3x x cos2 x; ) y =
x2 + x ;
2
1+x

1.
1
x

) y = cos3 (ln 2x) tg ;

) y =

61

arctg x3

.
ln(x + 1 + x2 )

. , :
1
1
1
) y  = 10x + 2x3 ; ) y  =
+
+ 2x ln 2;
2 x

x ln 2

x ln 3

) y = 3 cos 3x (cos x + 2x cos x( sin x));

ex (1 + x2 ) ex 2x
1

(2x + 1);
2 2
(1 + x )
2 x2 + x


1
1
1

) y  = 3 cos2 (ln 2x)( sin(ln 2x)) 2


;
1
2x
x2
cos2

) y  =

) y  =
1

1 + x6

3x2 ln(x +




1
2x
1+ 
1 + x2 ) arctg x3

x + 1 + x2
2 1 + x2

.
2
2
ln (x + 1 + x )

18.

y = (1 + 4x)ctg x .
. . y = ectg x ln(1+4x) ,


ln(1 + 4x)
ctg x
y  = ectg x ln(1+4x)
+
4 =
2
1 + 4x
sin x


ln(1 + 4x)
4 ctg x
+
.
= (1 + 4x)ctg x
2
sin x

1 + 4x

. :

ln y = ctg x ln(1 + 4x).


x ,
ln y(x) ,
1 
1
4
y = 2 ln(1 + 4x) + ctg x
,
y
1
+
4x
sin x

, ,



ln(1 + 4x)
4 ctg x
y  = (1 + 4x)ctg x
+
.
2
sin x

1 + 4x


.
19.


7 3 4 x1
y= x
(x2 + 2x)3 x > 1.
x+1

62

. 2.

. :

ln y =

3
1
1
ln x + ln(x 1) ln(x + 1) + 3 ln(x2 + 2x).
7
4
4

,
1 
3
1
1
1
1
3(2 x + 2 )
y =
+

+ 2
.
y
7x
4 x1
4 x+1
x + 2x




7 3 4 x1
3

y = x
(x2 + 2x)3
+
x+1

7x

20. ,


1
cos f (x)

1
1
3(2 x + 2)
.

+ 2
4(x 1)
4(x + 1)
x + 2x

f  (x)
tg f (x).
cos f (x)

. 6
, ,


1
(cos f (x))
=
.
2
cos f (x)

cos f (x)

(cos f (x)) = sin f (x)f (x),




1
sin f (x)f  (x)
f  (x)
=
=
2
cos f (x)

cos f (x)

cos f (x)

tg f (x).

21. , f (x)
f  (x),
(f (sin t)) = f  (sin t) cos t.
. , f  (. . .)
sin t, .
y = f (sin t) , ,
x = sin t, y = f (x). 8

(f (sin t)) = f  (x)xt = f  (x) cos t = f  (sin t) cos t.


x0 (a; b),
: ,
x (a; b),
y  (x) x x0 ; x0 , .
22. f (x) = x2 + x :
) x = 1; ) x = 1/2; ) x = 0.
. f  (x) = 2x + 1, :
) f  (1) = 3; ) f  (1/2) = 0; ) f  (0) = 1.

1.

63

23.

1
2
f (x) = x sin x , x = 0,
x=0
0,
x = 2 x = 0.
. x = 0,
,




1 
1
1
1
1
1
f  (x) = x2 sin
= 2x sin + x2 cos
2 = 2x sin cos ;
x

f  (2) = 4 sin cos .


2
2
x = 0 :
1

f  (0) = lim

x0

(x)2 sin
0
f (0 + x) f (0)
x
= lim
=
x
x
x0

= lim


1 

x 0, sin
  1,
x


1
lim x sin
= 0.
x0

x0



1
x sin
.
x

, f (0) = 0.
f (x) (a; b) x (a; b).

lim

x00

f (x)
,
x

lim

x0+0

f (x)
.
x

, y = f (x) x

f
(x) f+ (x).
f  (x) x 

(x) f
(x) , f+


x , . . f+
(x) = f
(x).
, y = f (x) (a; b)
x (a; b), .
, , .
24. , y = |x|
x = 0.
. f (x) = |x| x = 0

f (0) = f (0 + x) f (0) = |0 + x| 0 = |x|.

64

. 2.

, :
|x|
x
= lim
= 1,
x
x00 x
|x|
x
f+ (0) = lim
= lim
= 1.
x0+0 x
x0+0 x


f
(0) =

lim

x00



f+
(0) = f
(0), y = |x| x = 0 ( ).
25. , y = |(x 1)(x 2)| x = 1 x = 2.


. f
(1), f+ (1) f
(2), f+ (2). f (x) x = 1 x = 2 :

f (1) = f (1 + x) f (1) = |x(x 1)|,


f (2) = f (2 + x) f (2) = |x(1 + x)|.
,
|x(x 1)|
x(x 1)
= lim
= 1;
x
x
x00
|x(x 1)|
x(x 1)
f+ (1) = lim
= lim
= 1;
x
x
x0+0
x0+0
|x(1 + x)|
x(1 + x)

f
(2) = lim
= lim
= 1;
x
x
x00
x00
|x(1 + x)|
x(1 + x)
f+ (2) = lim
= lim
= 1.
x
x
x0+0
x0+0

f
(1) =

lim

x00



f
(1) = f+ (1) f
(2) = f+ (2), f (x) = |(x 1)
(x 2)| x = 1 x = 2.
26. , f (x) = x|x|
x = 0, .
.

x|x|
= lim (x) = 0;
x
x00
x|x|
f+ (0) = lim
= lim (x) = 0.
x
x0+0
x0+0


f
(0) =

lim

x00


, f
(0) = f+ (0) = 0, , , x = 0 f  (0) = 0.

, , ,
. , f (x) = |x| g (x) = 1 |x|, f (x) + g (x) = 1.
f (x) g (x) x = 0 ,
f (x) + g (x) x = 0 .

, , .

1.

65

.
1

1. y = x2 + 2 x = 1 :
1) x = 0,01; 2) x = 0,5.
2. , :
1
1) y = x + 3; 2) y = x2 x; 3) y = + 1
x
x = 1.
3. , , :

1) y = x3 ; 2) y = cos 2x; 3) y = x , x > 0.


4. f  (1), f  (2), f  (2), f (x) = 3x2 + x + 1.
5. ,
y = tg x.
6. :

1
1
1) y = x3 x4 + x2 ; 2) y = x + 3 x + 4 x ;
3
4

3) y = (1 x)2 ; 4) y = (x + x )3 ;
5) y = 2x + 3x + 4x + 2x 3x ; 6) y = log2 x + 2 log4 x ln x;
1
x

7) y = sin x 3 cos x ;

8) y = 3 tg x + 0,1 ctg x;

9) y = arcsin x e cos x; 10) y =


x

11) y =

sin x cos x
;
sin x + cos x

1 + x2
2x
12) y = x
.
arctg x

+ 22x + x3 sin x;

1. y = x x2 x = 0 :
1) x = 0,01; 2) x = 1/10.
2. , :

1) y = 2x + 1; 2) y = x2 + x; 3) y = 3 x
x = 1.
3. , , :
1) y = sin 3x; 2) y = x3 + x2 ; 3) y = 1/x2 .
4. f  (1), f  (1), f  (0), f (x) = (1 x)3 .
5. ,
y = ctg x.
6.

u(x)v(x)w(x).
5 .

66

. 2.

7. :

1
1
1
1) y = 5x4 2x ; 2) y = 2 + 3 ;
x

4) y =

x
x

3) y = 3x log1/3 2x;

5 x cos x + ctg x; 5) y = 2 + ln x + 1 ; 6) y = ex sin x;


x
2

7) y = x arcctg x;
tg x ctg x
;
tg x + ctg x
1
12) y = 2 arccos x;
x

10) y =

15) y =

 2x
1
3

x
x2
1
9) y =
+ x+1 ;
1 3x
3

x ln x
8) y =
;
1 + x2

11) y = (1 + x + x2 )2 ;
13) y =

arctg x
;
2x + x2

x sin x

14) y =
;
x 4x 9x

2 5


2
2x 3x2 + 1
1
1
1

; 16) y =
x+
x
.
5
x

1. :

1) y = cos 5x; 2) y = (1 + x)100 ; 3) y = 2x 1 ;


2
4) y = tg2 3x; 5) y = 2xx +x+1 ; 6) y = 
ex ln(x+2) ;


3
7) y = sin (x x2 ) + ctg 1/x ; 8) y = 1 + 2x + logx 2;
1

9) y = sin2 (cos3 4x); 10) y = 2


;
x x+2

x
11) y = arcsin(1 + 2x) ; 12) y = x .
2. ,
:
1) y = x2 |x|; 2) y = x2 sign x;
2

0, x  0,
x , x > 0,
3) y =
4)
y
=
x2 , x < 0.
x4 , x  0;
3. ,
.
4. ,
x = 1, , :
1) x = 1;
2) x = 1.
5.

1
4
y(x) = x sin x , x = 0,
x=0
0,
x = 2 x = 0.

1.

67

1. :
1) y = ctg(2x + 3); 2) y = sin3 x2 ;

3) y = arcctg4

1
;
x+2

; 6) y = log2 (log3 (log4 x)));


4) y = x2 e1/x ; 5) y =
arccos(ln x)
 



1
1
2
;
7) y = sin cos 2 ; 8) y = tg ctg

x
log1/2 (x + x2 )

;
9) y =
x

11) y = (sin x)cos x ;

10) y = logx2 4 + logx 2;





x + 2 6/7
5
12) y = x4
(x + x2 )8 .
x1

2. ,
:
4
1) y = |x|
sin x; 2) y = x sign x; 3) y = x| sin x|;
1,
x  0,
4) y =
x4 + 1, x > 0.
3. ,
.
4. ,
x = 2, , :
1) x = 2;
2) x = 2.
5.

1 cos x
, x = 0,
y=
x
x=0
0,
x = 1 x = 0.

1. , x0 :
1) y = 2 x, x0 = 1; 2) y = x2 4, x0 = 0;
3) y = x3 x, x0 = 1; 4) y = sin 2x, x0 = /4;
5) y =
cos 2x, x0 = /4; 6) y = 2x , x0 = 1;
x2 , x  0,
7) y =
x = 0; 8) y = ctg x, x0 = /4.
x4 , x < 0, 0
2. ,
:

1) y = x2 + x + 1; 2) y = x + 1 , x > 1;
1
3) y = x3 + 2; 4) y =
; 5) y = sin 5x;
x+2

5*

68

. 2.

6) y =
cos 7x; 7) y = log1/2 x; 8) y = (1/3)x ;
1,
x  0,
x  0,
ex ,
9) y =
10) y =
2
x + 1, x < 0.
1 x , x < 0;
3. :

3
(1 + 2x)2
1
1
1

1) y =
; 2) y = x + 2 x ; 3) y = sin2 + cos2 ;
x
x
x
x



x + 1 2 x2
e ; 5) y = (ln 1 x2 ) 1 + x2 ;
4) y =
x2

6) y = logx 2 logx 3 logx 4; 7) y = arcsin x + arccos x;

8) y = ln( 1 + x2 x) + ln( 1 + x2 + x);

ex ex
;
ex + ex
sin x + cos x
x
11) y = arctg
; 12) y = ln tg cos x ln tg x;
2
sin x cos x
1 sin 2x
x

13) y = log2
; 14) y = arcctg
;
1 + sin 2x
1 + 1 x2

9) y = 2log2 x + x2 + x; 10) y =

x
ex
15) y = ln(ex + 1 + e2x ); 16) y = ex + ee + ee ;



3
3
x6
3
17) y = x + x + 1 + x2 ; 18) y =
arcctg x6 ;
1 + x12



2
1
2
2
+ ex ex ;
19) y = arctg(x + 1 + x ); 20) y = ln arccos
x




1
1
1
1
; 22) y = ln
+ ln
+ ln
;
21) y = x3 arcsin x + 2
x cos x

23) y = logx 2 + logx2 (x2 + 1); 24) y = 2log4 (x +x+1) ;


x
25) y = x + xx ; 26) y = x1/x ; 27) y = xcos x ; 28) y = x(x ) .
4. ,
x:
2
2
1) y = x
 | sin x|; 2) y = |x| sin x;
1
x4 sin , x = 0, 4) y = x3 sign x.
3) y =
x
x = 0;
0,
5. :
1) y = x2 + 2x + 3; 2) y
= |x + 2|; 3) y = |x| + |x + 1|;
x2 , x  0,
4) y = tg x ctg x; 5) y =
6) y = ||x| 1|.
x6 , x < 0;
6. ,
x = x0 , , :
1) , x0 ;
2) , x0 .
7. ,
x0 x1 , x0 = x1 , , :

1.

69

1) , x0
x1 ;
2) , x0
x1 , x2 , x2 = x1 , x2 = x0 ;
3) , x0 x1 .
8. , :
1) ;
2) ;
3) n .
9. f  (a), f (x) = (x a)(x), (x)
x = a.
10. f  (0), f (x) = x(x + 1)(x + 2) . . . (x + n), n N.
11. x0 :
2
1) y = |x
+ 1|, x0 = 1; 2) y = x 1, x0 = 2;
x, x  0,
3) y =
x = 0;
4) y = | sin x|, x0 = ;
5x, x < 0, 0
x
x  0,
e ,
5) y =
x = 0;
6) y = |x| |x + 1|, x0 = 0;
cos x, x < 0, 0

7) y = |x2 x|, x0 = 1; 8) y = sin2 x sin x, x0 = ;
9) y = tg x ctg x, x0 = /4; 10) y = arcsin(sin x), x0 = /2.
12.

x  x0 ,
x2 ,
f (x) =
ax + b, x > x0 .
a b , f (x) x = x0 .
13.
2
ax + bx + 1, x  0,
f (x) =
(x + a)ebx , x < 0.
a b , f (x) x = 0.
14. , () () .
15. , , .
16. ,
f (x) , f (x) .
17. ,
.
18. :
1) 1 + 2x + 3x2 + . . . + nxn1 ; 2) 12 + 22 x + 32 x2 + . . . + n2 xn1 ,
x + x2 + x3 + . . . + xn .

70

. 2.

19.

sin x + sin 2x + . . . + sin nx =

sin n + 1 x sin nx
2

sin x
2

cos x + 2 cos 2x + . . . + n cos nx.

2.
,
,
. y = x2 (. 2.1),
;
, .
M0 (x0 ; y0 ) y = f (x),
(a; b). M0
M (x; y), y = f (x),
M0 M , . M (x; y) .
M M0 , ,
,
, M M0
(. 2.2).

. 2.1

. 2.2

y = f (x)
M0 = (x0 ; f (x0 )) M0 M
( ), M (x; f (x)) M0 .
,
, ; y = f (x) .

2.

71

. 2.3 ,
x0 , 0, x1 x2 ,
,
, , , M
M0 .

. 2.3

, ,

; , . 2.4 y = x3
M0 M1 .

. 2.4

. 2.5

, . . ,
M0 (x0 ; f (x0 )) M (x0 + x; f (x0 + x)) (. 2.5), :

y f (x0 ) =

f (x0 + x) f (x0 )
(x x0 ).
x

y = f (x) x = x0 , M0 M M M0
( x 0) , (
y = f (x) (x0 ; f (x0 )) :

y = f  (x0 )(x x0 ) + f (x0 ).


Ox A (. 2.6),
,
A Ox, ,

72

. 2.

Ox.
Ox, .

. 2.6


y = f (x) x = x0 :
f  (x0 ) Ox
y = f (x) (x0 ; f (x0 )).
, f  (x0 )
y = f (x) x = x0 .
y = kx + b y = f (x) x = x0 ,

k = tg = f  (x0 ). ,

f  (x0 )  0,
arctg f  (x0 ),
=
+ arctg f  (x0 ), f  (x0 ) < 0.
1. y =
= x2 x x0 = 1.
. y  (x) = 2x 1, y  (1) = 1, : y = y  (1)(x 1) + y(1). , y = x 1
.
2. :
) y = x2 ; ) y = x3
x = x0 .
. ) (x2 ) = 2x, y = x2 x = x0 :

y = 2x0 (x x0 ) + x20 ,

y = 2x0 x x20 .

) (x3 ) = 3x2 , y = x3 x = x0 :

y = 3x20 (x x0 ) + x30 ,

2.

73

y = 3x20 x 2x30 .

, , y = x2 y = x3 x = x0
x0 /2 2x0 /3.

.
y = x2 (y = x3 ), [0; x0 ] ()
(x0 ; f (x0 ))
y = x2 (y = x3 ) (x0 /2; 0) ( (2x0 /3; 0)) . 2.7.

. 2.7

3.
y = x2 4x 17
x0 = 2,5.
. y  = 2x 4, y  (2,5) = 1. tg = 1, = /4.
Ox
y = f (x) x = x0 , f (x0 ) = 0,
x0 .
4. y = sin x
x = 0?
. (sin x) = cos x cos 0 = 1,
y = sin x Ox x = 0 ,
tg = 1. , = 45 .
x+2
5. y =
,
x2
, ,
135 Ox.
. (x0 ; f (x0 )) f (x) =
x+2
, =
x2

74

. 2.

Ox 135 , y = kx + b
. k = f  (x0 ) = tg 135 = 1.


 

x+2 
4
4
f  (x) =
= 1+
=
,
2
x2

x2

(x 2)

(1)

x0 4/(x0 2) = 1; x0

= 0

(2)
x0

= 4. , (0; 1) (4; 3)
.
, .
. ,
|1 2 | |1 2 |, 1 2
Ox.
6.
f (x) = x3 x 1 0.
. f  (x) = 3x2 1, f  (1) = 2 f  (0) = 1.
, y = 2x + 2
y = x. tg 1 = 2 tg 2 = 1.

1 = arctg 2, 2 = 3/4.
arctg 2 < /2 < 3/4, 3
2 1 (2 1 ), . . arctg 2

+ arctg 2.
4

, + arctg 2 > , , ,
4
4
2
3
arctg 2.
4

arctg 2 > arctg 1 =

y = k1 x + b1 y = k2 x + b2 (k1 = 0, k2 = 0),
, 0   /2,
:


 k k1 
tg =  2
 , k1 k2 = 1;
1 + k1 k2

= /2, k1 k2 = 1.
y = f (x) y = g (x)

(. 2.8).
, ,
.

7. f (x) = 2x
g (x) = x2 /2 ( ).

2.

75

. 2.8

2x = x2 /2
:

x  0,
2x = x4 /4.
, ,
0 2. 2. :

f  (x) =

1
1
1
2= ,
2
2x
2x

g  (x) =

1
2x = x.
2

f  (2) = 1/2 g  (2) = 2. f (2) = g (2) = 2,


y = f (x) y = g (x) (2; 2)

y=
. .

1
(x 2) + 2
2

y=

y = 2(x 2) + 2,

1
x+1
2

y = 2x 2.



 1 2 
 3
 2
= ,
tg = 

1 + 1 2 4
2

f (x) g (x) x = 2
3

, arctg .
4
8. ,

x2 + y 2 4x = 1,
2

x + y 2y = 9.

(1)
(2)

76

. 2.

.

2
x + y 2 4x = 1,
x2 + y 2 2y = 9.
, 4x + 2y =
= 8, . . y = 2x 4. 2x 4 y
, ,
3 1. ,
(3; 2) (1; 2). A
B (. 2.9) (
O1 O2 , ), , (3; 2).
x = 3 (1) (2)
y1 (x) = 1 + 4x x2

y2 (x) = 1 + 10 x2 .

y1 (x) = 

=

x + 2

1 + 4x
1 + 4x x2
2x
x
y2 (x) = 
=
,
2
2 10 x
10 x2
2

. 2.9

2x + 4
x2

y1 (3) = 12 y2 (3) = 3. ,





 3 1/2 
 = 1,
tg = 

1 + 3 /2

= /4.
9. f (x) = x2 7x + 3
, y = 5x + 2.
. y = k1 x + b1 y = k2 x + b2 (
) , k1 = k2 . y = f (x) x0

y = (2x0 7)(x x0 ) + (x20 7x0 + 3),
y = 5x + 2 ,
2x0 7 = 5. x0 = 6. ,
y = f (x) y = 5x + 2
(6; 3).
10. , y = x2 2x y + 1 = 0.
. y = k1 x + b1 y2 = k2 x + b2 (k1 = 0, k2 = 0)
, k1 k2 = 1.

2.

77

y = x2 (x0 ; x20 )
:
y = 2x0 (x x0 ) + x20 = 2x0 x x20 .
y = 2x +
+ 1, , 4x0 = 1.
, ,
y = x2 , (1/4; 1/16).
11. b c,
y = 2x + 2b f (x) = x2 + bx + c
(2; 0).
. :
b c,
y = x2 + bx + c (2; 0) y = 2x + 2b.
:
1) (2; 0) f (x) = x2 + bx + c,
. . 4 + 2b + c = 0;
2) f  (2) = 2, . .
(2; 0) 2 ( y = 2x + 2b).
f  (x) = 2x + b

4 + 2b + c = 0,
4 + b = 2,
b = 2, c = 0.
12. a (a > 0, a = 1),
y = ax y = x.
.
x0 :
1) x = x0 ;
2) x = x0 .
, a ( x0 )

x
a 0 = x0 ,
ax0 ln a = 1.
ax0 = 1/ ln a. 1/ ln a ax0 ,

x0 = 1/ ln a.
1/ ln a x0 ,

a1/ ln a ln a = 1,

1
ln a + ln ln a = 0.
ln a

78

. 2.

ln ln a = 1,

ln a = 1/e, . . a = e1/e . ,
a = e1/e .
13. y(x) = x3 3x2 7x + 6
,
Ox , Oy . .
. y(x)
(x0 ; y(x0 )) :

y = kx + b,


k = y (x0 ), b = y(x0 ) y (x0 )x0 . Ox


(b/k; 0) Oy
(0; b). , ,
:

b/k > 0,
b < 0,
2(b/k) = b.
, b < 0, k = 2,
k = 2, b < 0.
,

y (x0 ) = 2,
y(x0 ) y  (x0 )x0 < 0.
y  (x) = 3x2 6x 7, 3x2 6x 9 = 0. x1 = 3 x2 = 1.
x . :

y(3) y  (3) 3 = 15 2 3 = 21 < 0,


y(1) y  (1)(1) = 9 > 0.
, , .
x0 = 3, y0 = y(3) = 15. ,
(3; 15) Oy Ox,
b b/k, b = y  (x0 )x0 y(x0 )

b
y(x )
=  0 x0 ;
k
y (x0 )

, 21 21/2.
14. ,
(1/2; 2), y =

x2
+ 2
2

y = 4 x2 .
. (; ) ,
f (x) =

x2
+ 2.
2

2.

79

f  () = ,

y = (x ).
(1/2; 2);
2 = (1/2 ), . . + 2 /2 = 2.
(; ) f (x),
: = 2 /2 + 2.

+ 2 /2 = 2,
= 2 /2 + 2,
: (0; 2), (1; 3/2). y = f (x) : y = 2
y = x + 5/2 . ,

y = 4 x2 .

y = 4 x2 ,
y=2

y = 2
(0; 2). ,

y = 4 x2 .

y = 4 x2 ,
y = x + 5/2.
5

x + y ,
2

x + 5/2 = 4 x2 ,
y = x + 5/2,
. 2  x  2.
,

(x + 5/2)2 = 4 x2 .
:

x1 =

5 7
4

x2 =

5+ 7
,
4

2  x  2.
:




5 7 5+ 7
5+ 7 5 7
.
;
,
;
4

80

. 2.

,
y = x + 5/2

y = 4 x2
.
15. ,
1
y = x2 .
4
. (a; b) , x1
x2
1
y = x2 (. 2.10).
4

. 2.10

, :


1
1
1) y = x2 x1 ; x21
4
4
(a; b);


1
1
2) y = x2 x2 ; x22
4
4
(a; b);
3) .
1
y = x2 ,
4

 

1
1
x1 ; x21 x2 ; x22 , :
4

1
x1 x
2
1
y = x2 x
2

y=

1 2
x,
4 1
1 2
x .
4 2

1)3) :

1
1

b = x1 a x21 ,

2
4

b = x2 a x22 ,

2
4

1 x 1 x = 1.
1
2
2

, ,
0=

a
1
(x1 x2 ) (x1 x2 )(x1 + x2 ),
2
4

2.

. .

81

(x1 x2 )(2a (x1 + x2 )) = 0.

, x1 + x2 = 2a. ,
2b =
. .

2b =

a
1
(x1 + x2 ) (x21 + x22 ),
2
4

a
1
(x1 + x2 ) ((x1 + x2 )2 2x1 x2 ).
2
4

, , x1 x2 = 4 x1 + x2 = 2a,
2b =

a
1
2a (4a2 + 8),
2
4

. . b = 1. , ,
y = 1.
, (a; 1), a , .

. .
y = f (x) (a; b)
.
() f (x) (a; b) ,
( )
, . . , ,

f (x)  f  (x0 )(x x0 ) + f (x0 )


x x0 (a; b) (. 2.11, ), ,
,

f (x)  f  (x0 )(x x0 ) + f (x0 )


x x0 (a; b) (. 2.11, ).

. 2.11

16. ,

eb  ea + ea (b a)
6 .

82

. 2.

a b.
. y = ex ,
, (a; ea ),
, , b

eb  ea (b a) + ea ,
.
, a = 0, ,
eb  1 + b b.
17. ,

ln n  1 +

1
1
1
+ + ... +
,
2
3
n1

n  2.

. , .
y = f (x)
(a; b), x1 , x2 , . . ., xn
d.

f (xn )  f (x1 ) + d(f  (x1 ) + f  (x2 ) + . . . + f  (xn1 )).

(3)

, y = f (x) ,
, (xk ; f (xk ))
y = f (x); ,

f (xk+1 )  f (xk ) + f  (xk )(xk+1 xk ), k = 1, 2, . . . , n 1,


. .

f (xk+1 )  f (xk ) + df  (xk ), k = 1, 2, . . . , n 1.

k = 1, 2, . . . , n 1 , ,

f (xn )  f (x1 ) + d(f  (x1 ) + f  (x2 ) + . . . + f  (xk1 )).


f (x) = ln x, xk = k (k = 1, 2, . . . , n), (3) ,

f (n)  f (1) + f  (x1 ) + f  (x2 ) + . . . + f  (xn1 ),


. .

ln n  1 +

1
1
1
+ + ... +
,
2
3
n1

n  2.

1. y = f (x)
x0 :
1) f (x) = x3 , x0 = 2;
2) f (x) = cos x, x0 = /4.
2. y = f (x),
M :

2.

83

2
1) f (x) = x
, M = (1; 1);
2) f (x) = x 1 , M = (5; 3).
3. y = x3 x2 , 45
Ox.
4. y = f (x)
x = 1 x = 1:
1) f (x) = x2 1; 2) f (x) = x3 x.

1. x0 :
1) f (x) = ex , x0 = 1; 2) f (x) = x2 + x + 1, x0 = 0.
2. y = f (x),
M :
1) f (x) =
1/x, M (1; 1);
2) f (x) = 1 x2 , M (0; 2).
x+2
, 3. y =
x+1

135
Ox.
4. y = f (x)

x0 = 0 x1 = 1/2:

1) f (x) = 4 x2 ; 2) f (x) = log3 (x + 2).


3

1. y = f (x)
x = x0 :
1) f (x) = cos 2x, x0 = /4;
2) f (x) = x4 x2 , x0 = 1?
2. y = f (x) y = g (x)
:

1) f (x) = 1/x, g (x) = x; 2) f (x) = x2 , g (x) = x .


3. y = f (x) , 3 = 0:
y + 2x
1) f (x) = ex ; 2) f (x) = 1 3 x .
4. y = f (x) , y 2x + 1 = 0:

1) f (x) = x3 x + 1; 2) f (x) = 2x + 1 .
5. a, , y = x3 a2 x , /4.
6*

84

. 2.
4

1. y = f (x)
x = x0 :
, x0 = 0;
1) f (x) = tg 2x
2) f (x) = 1 3 x , x0 = 1?
2. y = f (x) y = g (x)
:

1) f (x) = 1 x2 ; g (x) = x ;
2) f (x) = x3 x, g (x) = 12/x.
3. y = f (x) , 2y x + 2 = 0:
1) f (x) = ex ; 2) y = x3 3x2 + 1.
4. y = f (x) , x + 2y + 1 = 0:
1) f (x) = x2 ; 2) f (x) = log2 x.
5. , a
y = x3 a2 x, y = x.

1. y = f (x)
x = x0 :
1) f (x) = x2 2x, x0 = 0,5;
1
2) f (x) = 4 + 2, x0 = 1;
x

3) f (x) = x2 + 1 , x0 = 2;
4) f (x) = x ln x, x0 = e;
1
5) f (x) = sin2 (4x /3), x0 = /6.
2
2. y = f (x),
M :
1) f (x) = x2 + 1, M = (1; 1);
2) f (x) = x3 , M = (2; 4);
2
3) f (x) = x
x, M = (1; 1);
4) f (x) = x , M = (1/4; 1/2);
5) f (x) = 1/x, M = (1; 1).
3.
y = cos x x = /3 x = /3.
4. y = f (x)
:
1) f (x) = x2 4x + 5, x = 0;
2) f (x) = 4 x2 , y = 0;
3) f (x) = tg x, y = 0.
5. y = ex + ex .

2.

85

6. Ox
x+1
y =
, 135 x3

Ox.
7. y = f (x) ,
, , :
1) f (x) = x3 3x2 + 2, y = 3x;
2) f (x) = x2 7x + 3, 5x + y 3 = 0;
1
3) f (x) = sin 2x sin x, y + x 1 = 0;
2

4) f (x) = ln(4x 1),

y = x;

1
3
cos 3x,
5) f (x) = sin 3x +
3
3

y = x.

8. y = f (x) ,
, , :
1) f (x) = x3 + 2x 1, x + y = 0;
2) f (x) = x2 + x + 1, y + 5 = 0;
3) f (x) = sin x, x 10 = 0;
4) f (x) = tg x, y + x = 0;
5) f (x) = ln x, 2y + x + 1 = 0.
9. , x2 + 1

x = 4
y =
x3
x = 2.
10. , y = sin 3x x = /18
x = 5/18.
1
11. f (x) = x3 2x2 22x 28
3
, .
12. f (x) = x3 3x2 7x + 6
,
Ox , Oy .
.
13. y = x2 + bx + c,
y = x (1; 1).
14. , (1/2; 2),
y = x2 /2 + 2
(x 2)2 + y 2 = 1.
1
18
14
15. f (x) = x3 x2
x+
3
5
5
,
5x 3y + 2 = 0.
16.
y = x2 4x 17, x0 = 5/2?

86

. 2.

17. f (x) = 3x2 4x2 + 7


, Ox /4.
18. y = 2x3
4x 3y + 2 = 0?

19. f (x) = 2x
f (x) = x2 /2, , .
20. f (x) =
= 3x3 7x2 + 3x + 5, 0 1.
3
3

21. , y = x
4

32

f (x) = x4 x. .
2
22. , M (0; 1) y = x2 .
23. , x y

xn  y n + ny n1 (x y), n N.
24. , x y



1
1
1
x +  y + + 1 2 (x y).
x

25. , x y [0; ]

sin x sin y  (x y) cos y.


26. , x y

x
y ln < x y.
y

27. , :
1
k1
+ . . . + (n 1)k1 ), n  2, n, k N;
1) nk > 1 + k(1k
 +2

3
1
1
1
1
+ + ... +
2) n < +
, n  3, n N;
2

3) nn > en1 (n 1)!,

n  2, n N.

n1

3.
,
, , . .
.
.

3.

87

1. f (x) (a; b). f (x) (a; b) ,


f  (x) = 0 x (a; b).
(a; b) f (x)
g (x) x (a; b)
f  (x) = g  (x), f (x) = g (x) + C , x (a; b), C
.
2. f (x) ()
(a; b), f  (x)  0 (f  (x)  0) x (a; b).
3. ( )
:
) f (x) (a; b)
f  (x) > 0 (f  (x) < 0), x (a; b), f (x) ()
;
) f (x) [a; b], (a; b) f  (x) > 0 (f  (x) < 0), x (a; b),
f (x) () [a; b].
, ) ) , f  (x) ()
(a; b), , f  (x)
. , , y = x + sin x
(100; 100) f  (x) = 1 + cos x  0, f  (x) = 0 ; f (x) = x + sin x
(100; 100).
4. . f (x) (a; b) x0
. f (x)
x0 , f  (x0 ) = 0.
, , (x0 ; f (x0 )), x0
, (. 2.12).

. 2.12

,
. , f  (x0 ) = 0
, y = x3 ,

88

. 2.

x = 0, x = 0
, .
, f (x), x (a; b), x0
,
. , x0 = 0
y = |x|, x (1; 1), .
, f (x)
, . . , .
5. .
) f (x) (a; b)
x0 (a; b). f  (x) < 0 (a; x0 ) f  (x) > 0
(x0 ; b), x0 f (x)
(a; b).
) f (x) (a; b)
x0 (a; b). f  (x) > 0 (a; x0 ) f  (x) < 0
(x0 ; b), x0
f (x) (a; b).
, , x = x0
, :

x < x0

x > x0

x0

. 2.13.

. 2.13

6. . f (x)
(a; b).
f (x) () (a; b), -

3.

89

, f  (x)
() (a; b).
1.

f (x) = x +

1
.
x2

. (; 0) (0; + ). f (x)
(; 0) (0; + )

f  (x) = 1

2x
2
= 1 3,
4
x
x

3
3
f  (x) = 0 x0 = 2 . x0 = 2

: (; 0),

3
(0; 2 ) ( 3 2 ; +).
f  (x)
(. 2.14). , 3
(; 0) ( 2 ; + ) .

3
f (x) 2 , ,
f (x) . , f (x)
3
(; 0) [ 2 ; + ).
3
f  (x) < 0 x (0; 2 )

3
(0; 2 ],

3
(0; 2 ]. . 2.15.
2.

. 2.14

. 2.15

f (x) = (x 1)2 (x + 1)3 .


. f (x) , x.

f  (x) = 2(x 1)(x + 1)3 + 3(x 1)2 (x + 1)2 = (x 1)(x + 1)2 (5x 1),
f  (x) = 0 x1 = 1, x2 = 1, x3 = 1/5.
, f  (x) > 0 x (; 1/5) x (1; + ) f  (x) < 0
x (1/5; 1). ,
x, (; 1/5] [1; + )
[1/5; 1]. , x = 1/5
, x = 1 .

90

. 2.

, , f  (1) = 0, x2 = 1 f (x).
. 2.16.
3. ,

. 2.16

f (x) = (1 + cos x) sin x.

. x,

f  (x) = sin2 x + (1 + cos x) cos x = 2 cos2 x + cos x 1.


f  (x) = 0,
2 cos2 x + cos x 1 = 0.

x = /3 + 2n, x = + 2k, k, n N.
f (x) 2 ,
x 0  x  2 .
, f  (x) = 0, [0; 2]
 x1 =
1

= /3, x2 = x3 = 5/3. f (x) = 2 cos x
(cos x + 1),
2

f  (x) < 0 x (/3; ) x ( ; 5/3), f  (x) > 0 x [0; /3)


x (5/3; 2].
, [0; /3] [5/3; 2] f (x)
, [/3; 5/3] . ,
x = /3 (f (/3) = 3 3 /4),

x = 5/3 (f (5/3) =
= 3 3 /4). x = ,
.
f (0) = f (2) = 0, ,
x = /3 + 2n, n Z,
, x = /3 + 2k, k Z,
.
, [/3 + 2n; /3 + 2n], n Z,
, [/3 + 2n; 5/3 + 2n], n Z,
.
[0; 2] . 2.17.
4.

f (x) = 1 3 (x 1)2 .

3.

91

. f (x)
x. ,
f (x) ,

3
g (x) = (x 1)2 .
x = 1
2
2
1
(x 1)1/3 =
.
3
3 3x1

g  (x) =


. 2.17

g (x) > 0 x > 1 g (x) < 0 x < 1,


g (x) x = 1, x = 1
, g (x) g (1) = 0.
(. 2.18), f (x) ,
, x = 1 , f (1) = 1.
5.

f (x) = 3x4 4x3 + 1.

. 2.18

. f (x) ,
f  (x) = 12x3 12x2 .
f (x),

g (x) = f  (x) = 12x3 12x2 .


:


2
g  (x) = 36x2 24x = 36x x
.
3

g (x) = 0 x = 0 x = 2/3,
g  (x) > 0 x (; 0) x (2/3; + ),
g  (x) < 0 x (0; 2/3), g (x)
(; 0] [2/3; + ) , [0; 2/3] . , (; 0] [0; 2/3]
f (x) ,
[0; 2/3] . . 2.19.
6.

f (x) = 2 + 3 x 4 .

. 2.19

92

. 2.

. f (x)
x = 4.

f  (x) =

1

3 3

(x 4)2

x = 4.

g (x) = f  (x) = 

3 3 (x 4)2

x = 4.

(x 4)2 x > 4, y = 3 x 
, y = 3 (x 4)2
x > 4; , g (x) =
1
= 
(4; + ). 3 3 (x 4)2

, g (x) (; 4).
, f (x) x = 4,
, f (x)
[4; + ) (; 4].
. 2.20.

. 2.20

7.

f (x) = x3 9x2 + 24x 1


.
.
, (. 3, 1) , ,
.
f (x)
.
f (1) = 15 f (1) = 35, f (x)
, . , f (x) 0 , .

lim

x+

f (x)
= +,
x

lim

f (x)
= +
x

3.

93

, , y = f (x) .
.
, f (x) . f  (x) =
= 3x2 18x + 24 = 3(x 2)(x 4), :
) f  (x) = 0 x = 2 x = 4, ) f  (x) > 0
x < 2 x > 4, ) f  (x) < 0
2 < x < 4. ,
f (x) (; 2]
[4; + ) [2; 4].
x = 2 f (x) (f (2) = 19),
x = 4
(f (4) = 15).
,

g (x) = f  (x) = 3x2 18x + 24.


g (x)
x2 , . 2.21
(; 3]
[3; + ). , f (x)
(; 3] [3; + ).
2.1

x


f (x)


g (x) = f (x)

f (x)



(; 2)

(2; 3)

(3; 4)

(4; + )

max

min

f (x)
. 2.1, . 2.21.
8.


3
3
f (x) = x2 x2 1
.
. f (x) .





3
3
f (x) = 3 (x)2 3 (x)2 1 = x2 x2 1 = f (x),

94

. 2.

f (x) . f (x) = 1
: x = 0, x = 1 x = 1, f (x) .



3
3
3
3
lim ( x2 x2 1 ) = lim ( x2 x2 1 ) =
x


3

= lim

x+

x2

x+





3
1 )( x4 + 3 x2 (x2 1) + 3 (x2 1)2


=

3 4
x + 3 x2 (x2 1) + 3 (x2 1)2


3

x2

= lim
x+ 3

x4 +


3

x2 (x2 1) +


3

(x2 1)2

= 0,

y = 0 ( )
y = f (x) x ,
x +.
f (x) ,

3
3
x2 > x2 1 x.
x, 0, 1 1,

f  (x) =

2 1/3
1
x
(x2 1)2/3 2x =
3
3
2


2/ 3

4/ 3

2 (x 1) x
=
3 x1/3 (x2 1)2/3

2
=
3

3
(x2 1)2 x4

.

3
x 3 (x2 1)2

, (. 2.22),
f  (x) > 0

(; 1), (1; 1/ 2 ), (0; 1/ 2 )


f  (x) < 0

(1/ 2 ; 0), (1/ 2 ; 1), (1; + ).

. 2.22

,
f (x)
x = 1/ 2 ,
x = 0 x = 1/ 2 , , x = 1/ 2 x = 1/ 2
, x = 0
.

3.

95

, f (x) (; 1]
[1; +) , [1; 0] [0; 1]
.
, , [0; 1]



3
3
3
3
f (x) = x2 x2 1 = x2 + 1 x2 ,

f (x) ,
. .

3 2
x 3 1 x2 .
f (x) . 2.2,
. 2.23.

. 2.23

g (x) = f (x)



f (x)

x
f  (x)


g (x) = f (x)

f (x)



2.2


1
1

; 0

(; 1)

f (x)

1;


1

0;

min

max

max

1
;1
2


1

(1; + )

96

. 2.
1

1.
1)
3)
2.
1)
3)
3.
1)
3)
4.

:
f (x) = 2x2 8x + 11; 2) f (x) = x3 2x2 ;
f (x) = x/3 3 x ; 4) f (x) = x ln x.
:

x4
3
f (x) =
x2 ; 2) f (x) = x2 1;
x x
f (x) = xe ; 4) f (x) = x sin x.
:
f (x) = x + 1/2x; 2) f (x) = (1 + 2x2 )ex ;

f (x) = 3 x (1 + x); 4) f (x) = |x|/(1 + x).


:

1) f (x) =

1 5
1
x x3 ;
5
3

3) f (x) = x2 ex ;

x2

2) f (x) = 2
;
x 1

4) f (x) = x( 3 x + 1).

1. :
1) f (x) =

1 5
1
x + x3 ;
5
3

x2

2) f (x) = 2
;
x 1

3) f (x) = x2 ex ; 4) f (x) = x( 3 x 1).


2. :

3
1) f (x) = x2 (1 x); 2) f (x) = x2 x;
ln x

; 4) f (x) = x + cos x.
3) f (x) =
x
3. :
x2 + x

;
1) f (x) = 2x3 x2 ; 2) f (x) = 2
x +
1

3) f (x) = x2 ln x; 4) f (x) = 3 x 3 x + 1 .
4. :
1) f (x) = (x + 1)(x 2)2 ; 2) f (x) = x3 3x 1;

x3
; 4) f (x) = 3 x (1 x).
3) f (x) =
x+1

1.
:
(x 2)(1 x)
;
1) f (x) = x5 5x4 + 5x3 + 1; 2) f (x) =
2
3) f (x) = sin x + cos 2x, x [0; /2];


4) f (x) = 3 (2x 1) 3 (x 1)2 .

3.

97

2. :
2
1) f (x) = x2 ex ; 2) f (x) = sin x + sin 2x;

x2
8
3
3) f (x) = 1 x2 ; 4) f (x) =
+ 2.
2
x
3. :
1) f (x) =

x2
1
+ ;
2
x

2) f (x) = xex ;

3) f (x) = 2 sin x + cos 2x;

4) f (x) =

3 x + 3 x + 1.

1.
:
1) f (x) =

(1 x)3
;
1 2x

2) f (x) = (x + 1)2/3 (x 5)2 ;

3) f (x) = sin 2x x, x [/2; /2]; 4) f (x) = 2ex + 3ex .


2. :

x+1
1) f (x) = 2
; 2) f (x) = 2 + 3 (x 1)2 ;
3)
3.
1)
3)

x +x+1

f (x) = sin3 x + cos3 x; 4) f (x) = x/ ln x.


:
2 x2
f (x) = x2 + 1 + 1/x; 2) f (x) =
x e ;
f (x) = sin x sin 2x; 4) f (x) = x2 (1 + x).


1. :
1) f (x) = 3x4 8x3 + 6x2 + 1; 2) f (x) = 2x3 3x2 ;

1
3) f (x) = x3 x2 7x 3 ; 4) f (x) = x +
;
3

5) f (x) = x ax; 6) f (x) = ax x;


8) f (x) =

1
2x
+ 2
;
x
x 1

11) f (x) = xe5x ;

9) f (x) =

x1
3x 7
7) f (x) = 2
;
(x 1)2

2x3 + 9x2 ; 10) f (x) =

12) f (x) = 21/x ; 13) f (x) = x2 ln x;

x
;
x+2

3
14) f (x) = ex /x; 15) f (x) = x2 ex ; 16) f (x) = (x 2)3 x2 ;

17) f (x) = x sin 2x; 18) f (x) = (x + 1) x2 1 ;

19) f (x) = ln2 x/ x ; 20) f (x) = xx ; 21) f (x) = x2 ln x2 ;


22) f (x) = /(2x) x arctg x; 23) f (x) = arctg x ln x;

24) f (x) = arcsin 1 4x2 2 1 4x2 .


2. :
1) f (x) = x3 + 6x2 3x + 3, x (5; 1/5);
2) f (x) = 2x3 + 3x2 12x + 5; 3) f (x) = (x 2)2 (x + 4)/4;
2
4) f (x) = |x 5|(x 3)3 ; 5) f (x) = x2 ex , x [0; + );

3
6) f (x) = x + 5 x ; 7) f (x) = x2 (|x + 1|);
2

7 .

98

. 2.
2

8) f (x) = x + 1/x2 ; 9) f (x) = xexx ; 10) f (x) = x + sin 2x;

11) f (x) = xe5x + 2; 12) f (x) = 2x2 x + 2 ;


13) f (x) = (2x 1)e3x ; 14) f (x) = x2 + 1/x2 ; 15) f (x) = |x3 x|;

2
16) f (x) = sin
;
x cos x 1; 17) f (x) = sin 2
x +1

3
1
5x
sin 2x + cos 2x +
;
4
4
2

x
x
x3
;
19) f (x) = 3 cos + sin
2
2
2

18) f (x) =

20) f (x) = (x 1)2 x2 2x + 3 , x [0; 3];


21) f (x) = ln cos x cos x; 22) f (x) = ln(x2 + 1) 2 arctg x;

23) f (x) = 3 (1 x)(x 2)2 .
3.
:
1) f (x) = (x 1)e3x ; 2) f (x) =

3 x2
;
x+2

3) f (x) =

2x 1

(x 1)2

4) f (x) = |x2 5x + 6|;


5) f (x) = x3 2x|x 2|, x [0; 3];

6) f (x) = 5x3 + x|x 1|, x [0; 2];


7) f (x) = 8x2 x4 ;

x
1
; 10) f (x) = x 2 x2 ;
8) f (x) = 2 ; 9) f (x) =

x ln x
ln x
11) f (x) = 2 ln(x 2) x2 + 4x + 1; 12) f (x) =
4. :
1) f (x) = (x 1)x2 ;

2) f (x) =

x3
;
1 x2

x2 + 1

3) f (x) = 2
;
 x 2+ x + 1
x
; 6) f (x) = 3
;
2

x1
x4
; 5) f (x) = 3
2
x 1
x 2

2

1x
3
7) f (x) = 3
; 8) f (x) = x2 e2x/3 ;
2
x


4) f (x) =

x2
.
2+x

1x


9) f (x) = (x 6)e1/x ; 10) f (x) = 3 (x 2)2 3 (x + 2)2 ;



11) f (x) = 3 (x + 2)2 + 3 (x 2)2 ; 12) f (x) = 3 x(x 3)2 ;

13) f (x) = x2 (2 + x); 14) f (x) = cos x cos 2x;


15) f (x) = 2 sin x cos 2x; 16) f (x) = x2 ln2 x;

17) f (x) = x ln x; 18) f (x) = (ln2/3 x)/x;


x3

19) f (x) = 2x + 4 arcctg x; 20) f (x) = 2 +


.
x6
5. a,

y = 2x5 + 5ax4 + 10x3


.
6. a,

y = a sin 4x 10x + sin 7x + 4ax


.

4.

99

7. a,

y = 0,5e2x + (1 a)ex ax + sin 2


, .
8. a,

y = sin 2x 8(a + 1) sin x + (4a2 + 8a 14)x


.
9. a,

y = 16(a + 1) sin x sin 2x (16a2 + 32a 10)x


.
10. a,

x3 ax 1 = 0
.
11. a

1
a2
y=
, x [2; 3].
x

6x

12. a [3/4; + ),

y = x3 2ax2 + 1
[0; 1].
13.

f (x) f  (x) = 0,
f (x) = (x x1 )(x x2 )(x x3 )(x x4 ) , x1 , x2 , x3 , x4
(x1 < x2 < x3 < x4 ) .
14. a,

x3 + 2x2 + = a
.

4.


( , , . .).
() [a; b]
f (x)
(. . , f  (x) , ),
.
7*

100

. 2.

,
[a; b], (a; b)
, ,
(a; b), .
f (x) ,
[a; b), [a; + ), (; b], (a; + ), (; b), (a; b],

() .
, , y = x [0; 1) , (0; 1] (0; 1) , .
y = x2 , y = arctg x
, .
, y = ax2 + bx + c a > 0
(a < 0) () ,
x =

b
.
2a

4ac b2
,
4a

f (x) [a; b) [a; + )


(),
() , x = a.
,
(a; b] (; b].
f (x) (a; b) x0 , ,
() (a; x0 ] ()
[x0 ; b), f (x)
() x0 .
f (x) (a; b) : a < x0 < x1 < . . . < xn < b,
() (a; x0 ] ()
[xn ; b), (a; b) f (x) () ,
.
f (x)
(; + ) ([a; b), [a; + ) . .) (
) x x + (x b 0), , f (x)
,

( x b 0 x = a)
(. 2.24).

4.

101

. 2.24

1. x,

f (x) = (x a1 )2 + (x a2 )2 + . . . + (x an )2 ,
a1 , a2 , . . ., an , .
.

f (x) = nx2 2(a1 + a2 + . . . + an )x + (a21 + a22 + . . . + a2n )


x, 2(a1 + a2 + . . . + an )
, . .
f (x)
2n

a + a + ... + a

n
2
x= 1
.
n
2.

f (x) = 4x +

9 2
+ sin x
x

(0; + ).
.

f (x) =

(2x 3)2
+ 12 + sin x.
x

x > 0

f (x)  0 + 12 1 = 12 1,
. . f (x) (0; + )
12 1. , x = 3/2 f (3/2) =

102

. 2.

= 12 1. , (0; + ) 12 1.
3.
f (x) = x3 + 3x2 72x + 90
[5; 5].
. [5; 5],
,
(5; 5), .
.
f (x) = x3 + 3x2 72x + 90
, , f  (x) = 0, . . 3x2 + 6x 72 = 0.
x1 = 4 x2 = 6.
x1 = 4 (5; 5). x = 4, x = 5 x = 5:

f (4) = 86, f (5) = 70, f (5) = 400.


, 400,
86.
4.
1
2

f (x) = sin2 x + cos x .


. .
2 ,
f (x) [ ; ] . f (x) ( ; ).
f  (x) = 2 sin x cos x sin x,

2 sin x cos x sin x = 0.


:

sin x = 0

cos x = 1/2.

( ; )
x1 = 0. :
x2 = /3 x3 = /3. f (x)
[ ; ]:

f (0) = 1/2, f (/3) = 3/4, f (/3) = 3/4, f () = f () = 3/2.


, f (x) 3/4,
3/2.

4.

103

. sin2 x + cos2 x = 1, ,


1
1
3
1 2
f (x) = sin2 x + cos x = 1 cos2 x + cos x = cos x
.
2

, x f (x)
3/4



1
3/4, , x = /3 cos =
; 3 2

1 2
, f (x) 3/4. cos x
2

(3/2)2 , , x = (cos =
 2
3
3
=
= 1); , f (x)
4

3
2

= .
5.

f (x) = x3 2x|x 2|
[0; 3].
. f (x)
0  x  2 2 < x  3.
) x [0; 2]. |x 2| = x + 2,

f (x) = x3 2x(x + 2) = x3 + 2x2 4x.


,
(0; 2) f  (x) = 3x2 + 4x 4. 3x2 + 4x 4 = 0
x1 = 2 x2 = 2/3,
(0; 2), . : f  (2/3) = 0, f  (x) < 0
0 < x < 2/3 f  (x) > 0 2/3 < x < 2. ,
(0; 2) x = 2/3.
) x (2; 3]. |x 2| = x 2,

f (x) = x3 2x(x 2) = x3 2x2 + 4x.


,
(2; 3) f  (x) = 3x2 4x + 4.
3x2 4x + 4 32, , , f  (x) = 0 .
, (2; 3) ;
f (x)
.
f (x) [0; 2] x3 + 2x2
4x, [0; 2]
(0; 2), f  (2/3) = 0. ,
[0; 2] f (0), f (2/3), f (2).

104

. 2.

, f (x) [2; 3]
f (2) f (3). f (x)
[0; 3] f (0), f (2/3), f (2), f (3).
: f (0) = 0, f (2/3) = 40/9, f (2) = 8, f (3) = 21. ,
[0; 3] 21.
6. , f (x) = cos x sin 2x

min f (x) > 7/9.

x[ ; ]

.
f (x) [ ; ].
:

f (x) = 2 sin x cos2 x = 2 sin x(1 sin2 x) = 2 sin x 2 sin3 x.


f (x). f (x) , f (x)
f  (x) = 0. f  (x):

f  (x) = 2 cos x 6 sin2 x cos x = 2 cos x(1 3 sin2 x).


[ ; ] cos x = 0 1 3 sin2 x = 0, :
1

x1 = /2, x2 = /2, x3 = arcsin ,


1

x4 = arcsin , x5 = arcsin , x6 = + arcsin ,


3

. f (x)
[ ; ]:

f (x1 ) = f (x2 ) = 0;

3 

1
1
4
= ;
f (x3 ) = f (x5 ) = 2
3

3 3


3 

1
1
4
= ;
f (x4 ) = f (x6 ) = 2
3

3 3

f () = f () = 0.
f (x) [ ; ] . ,
4

min f (x) = f (x4 ) = .

x[ ; ]

3 3

4/(3 3 ) > 7/9.


,
,
3 < 7/4. -

4.

105

3 < 49/16. ,
,

min f (x) > 7/9.

x[ ; ]

7. ,
4
y(x) = x +
2
(x 2)

[0; 5].
.
(0; 5), x = 2, x

y  (x) = 1

(x 2)3

, 0 < x < 2
y  (x) > 0. ,
0 < x < 2. , [0; 2) y(0) = 1.

8
= 0 (x 2)3

y  (x) = 0, 1

x = 4. 2 < x < 4 y  (x) < 0,


4 < x < 5 y  (x) > 0.
y(x) x = 4, , :
1) 2 < x  4 y(x) ;
2) 4  x  5 y(x) ;
3) x = 4 .
, y(x) x > 2 y(4) = 5. x = 4
(2; 5), y(4) y(x) (2; 5). ,
y(x) [0; 5] y(0),
y(4), . . y(0) = 1.
8.

y=

x
1 + x2

[1; + ).
. x > 1 ,

1 x2
y =
.
2 2
(1 + x )

, 1 < x < 1
, x > 1 x = 1 . , [1; 1] ,
[1; + ) .

106

. 2.

[1; 1] 1/2 lim f (x) = 0,


x+
[1; + ) 1/2 (. 2.25).
9.

y(x) = |x2 + 2x 3| +

3
ln x
2

[1/2; 4].
.
x2 + 2x 3 x1 = 3,
. 2.25
x2 = 1. x2 = 1
[1/2; 4]. y(x)
[1/2; 1] [1; 4]. 1/2  x  1
x2 + 2x 3  0, ,

|x2 + 2x 3| = x2 2x + 3, y(x) = x2 2x + 3 +

3
ln x.
2

f (x) = x2 2x + 3 + ln x x > 0
2
,

f  (x) = 2x 2 +

3
4x2 + 4x 3
(2x 1)(2x + 3)
=
=
.
2x
2x
2x

, 1/2 < x < 1 f  (x) < 0, . . f (x) .


f (x) x = 1/2 x = 1,
[1/2; 1]. y(x) f (x) ,
y(x) [1/2; 1].
 
1
7
3
= ln 2.
min y(x) = y(1) = 0,
max y(x) = y
x[1/2; 1]

x[1/2; 1]

1  x  4 x2 + 2x 3  0,
,

|x2 + 2x 3| = x2 + 2x 3, y(x) = x2 + 2x 3 +

3
ln x.
2

g (x) = x2 + 2x 3 + ln x x > 0
2
,

g  (x) = 2x + 2 +

3
4x2 + 4x + 3
(2 x + 1 )2 + 2
=
=
.
2x
2x
2x

, x > 0
g  (x) > 0. , g (x)
x > 0, , , [1; 4].

4.

107

y(x) g (x) , y(x)


[1; 4].

min y(x) = y(1) = 0,

max y(x) = y(4) = 21 + 3 ln 2.

x[1; 4]

x[1; 4]

, y(x) [1/2; 4]
y(1/2) y(4), . . y(4) = 21 + 3 ln 2.
y(x) [1/2; 4] y(1) = 0.
10. a [1; + ),

x2 6x + 2ax + a 13 = 0
.
. D :

D = (2a 6)2 4(a 13) = 4a2 28a + 88 = (2a 7)2 + 39.


, D
a,
:


x1 = (3 a) a2 7a + 22 , x2 = (3 a) + a2 7a + 22 .
:
a [1; + ) , (3 a) + a2 7a + 22 ,
. . f (a) = (3 a) +
+ a2 7a + 22 [1; + ).
(1; + ). f (a)


2a 7
2a 7 2 a2 7a + 22


f (a) = 1 +
=
.
2 a2 7a + 22
2 a2 7a + 22




2 a2 7a + 22 = (2a 7)2 + 39 > |2a 7|  2a 7,

a 1 < a < +
f  (a) < 0, . . f (a) .
f (a) a = 1, f (a)
[1; + ). ,
f (a) a = 1.
11. M (0; 2) (x; y),
16

y=

3 x3

2, x > 0.

108

. 2.

. M
(0; 2) A (x; y) : AM 2 =
= (x 0)2 + (y + 2)2 . x y A
16
y = 3 2,
3x

AM 2 = x2 +

16
3
3x

2

= x2 +

256
3x6

,
256
f (x) = x2 + 6
3x

0 < x < +. f (x)


. :


256 
2(x8 28 )
f  (x) = x2 + 6 = 2x 512x7 =
.
7
3x

, f (x) 0 < x < 2 , 2 < x < + . ,


f (x) 0 < x < 2
2 < x < +; , f (x) x = 2.
, f (x) 0 < x < +

1
f (2) = 5 , 4/ 3 .
3

12.

an = n1/n , n N.
. f (x) = x1/x , x  1,
[1; + ). f (x) = e(ln x)/x ,
x > 1


ln x
1
1
f  (x) = e(ln x)/x 2 + 2 = 2 e(ln x)/x (1 ln x),
:

f  (x) = 0 x = e;
f  (x) > 0 1 < x < e;
f  (x) < 0 x > e.

f (x) [1; e] f  (x) > 0


(1; e), f (x) [1; e];
f (x) [e; + ) f  (x) < 0 x > e,
f (x) [e; + ). , [1; + )
x = e e1/e .
, 2 < e < 3,
f (x) ,
an = n1/n ,

4.

109

3
, . . 2 3 .

3
, 3 > 2 ,

3
a3 = 3 .
13. a,
4
1
+
=a
sin x

1 sin x

(0; /2) .
. y = sin x
(0; /2) (0; 1),
a,

4
1
+
=a
y
1y

(1)

(0; 1).

f (y) =

4
1
+
y
1y

(0; 1). 0 < y < 1

f  (y) =

(1 y)

y 2 4(1 y)2
3y 2 8y + 4
= 2
=
2
2
y (1 y)
y (1 y 2 )



2
3(y 2) y

y 2 (1 y)2

f  (2/3) = 0, f  (y) > 0 2/3 < y < 1 f  (y) < 0 0 < y < 2/3.
,
min f (y) = f (2/3) = 9.
x(0; 1)

, a = 9, (1)
y = 2/3 (0; 1), a < 9, (1)
(0; 1) .
, a = 9 ,
(0; /2).
14. a. ,
.

110

. 2.

. M ( BC )
N ( AC ) (. 2.26) , CM N ABC .


1 1
1
CA CB sin 60 = CM CN sin 60 ,
2

. 2.26

a2

, , CM CN = CA CB = .
2
2
|CM |  a, x, 0 < x  1,
a
. CN  a CM  a,
, CM = ax. CN =
2x
, 1/2  x  1.
CM N ,

N M 2 = CM 2 + CN 2 2CM CN cos 60 ,



1
1
N M 2 = a 2 x2 + 2 a 2 .
2

4x

,
1
f (x) = x2 + 2
4x

[1/2; 1].
1/2 < x < 1

f  (x) = 2x

1
2x3

f  (x) = 0 x = 1/ 2 (1/2; 1). f (x) [1/2; 1],


f (1/2) = 1/4 + 1 = 5/4, f (1) = 1 + 1/4 = 5/4,

f (1/ 2 ) = 1/2 + 1/2 = 1.

min f (x) = f (1/ 2 ) = 1.

x[1/2; 1]

2
,
a /2,

a.

2
15. a
b (. 2.27). ,
.
. . 2.27 AB

. , A B

4.

111

C
.
AB

d = AB = AC + BC =

a
b
+
,
sin
cos


.
. 2.27
d ,
. (0; /2). d > 0,
d
d2 ;




a
b 2
1
2
2
.
d =
+
= (a + b tg ) 1 + 2
sin

cos

tg

tg = x, 0 < x < +.



1
f (x) = (a + bx)2 1 + 2
x

(0; + ).




1
f  (x) = (a + bx)2 1 + 2
=
x 



1
2x
= 2b(a + bx) 1 + 2 + (a + bx)2 4 =

 x

  x

1
a + bx
a
= 2(a + bx) b 1 + 2
=
.
2
(a
+
bx)
b

3
3
x



, f (x) = 0 x = 3 a/b , f  (x) > 0 x > 3 a/b ,

f  (x) < 0 0 < x < 3 a/b .



lim f (x) = +

x0+

lim f (x) = +,

x+

min

x(0; +)


f (x) = f ( 3 a/b ).

d2
0 ,

3
; tg 0 = a/b . 0 (0; /2),

sin 0 = 

tg 0
1 + tg2 0

cos 0 = 

1
1 + tg2 0

112

. 2.

, ,


3

3
a/b
a

=
,


3 2
3
a + b2
1 + 3 a2 /b2

3
1
b
cos 0 = 
= 
.


3 2
3
a + b2
1 + 3 a2 /b2

sin 0 = 

, d0 ,

d0 =

a
b
+
= (a2/3 + b2/3 )3/2 .
sin 0
cos 0

1. f (x)
, :
1) f (x) = x3 3x2 + 3x + 2, x [2; 2];
x
2
2) f (x) = + , x [1; 6];
8 x 
1 + x
3) f (x) = 
, x [2; 0];
1x


1
1
4) f (x) = |x2 + x 2| ln , x ; 2 .
x
2
2. a
, .
3. y = x2 y = x 1.
4. , R ,
.
2

1. f (x)
, :
1) f (x) = 3x4 + 4x3 + 1, x [2; 1];
x
3
2) f (x) = + , x [5; 1];
3
x

3) f (x) = 1 2x + x2 + 1 + 2x + x2 , x [2; 0];


4) f (x) = 4x3 x|x 2|, x [0; 3].
2. ,
9

85

<

2x + 3
9 + 85
<
.
2
x2 + 6x + 10

3. y = x y = 1/x.
4. ,
R.

4.

113

1. f (x)
, :
1) f (x) = 

x2 + 16

x [3; 3];

2) f (x) = tg x + ctg 2x, x [/6; /3];



3) f (x) = x(10 x) , x [0; 10];
4) f (x) =

x1
,
x 3x + 3
2

x (; + );



2 + cos x 2
2. f (x) =
sin x
(0; ).
3. a,

x2 (a 2)x a 1 = 0
.
4. y = x , x [1; 9], M ,
AM B ,
A B 1 9 .
5. ,
?
4

1. f (x)
, :



1) f (x) =

x2
3
, x ;3 ;
2x 1
2

2) f (x) = 2

x2

3) f (x) = (x 1) x2 2x + 3 , x [0; 3];


4) f (x) = sin 2x x, x [/2; /2].
2.

f (x) =
n

1
1
+
,
n
1+x
1x

n N,

(1; 1).
3. , x [0; /3),
sin

1

3

1
4 3
 +

 
.
3
+x
sin
x
3

4. x

f (x) = |x 1| + |x 2| + . . . + |x 1986|
?
8 .

x [8; 1];

114

. 2.

5. ( R, ) .
.

1.
:
4
2) y = x3 4x, x [0; 2];
1) y = x3 x, x [0; 4];
3

3) y = x4 8x2 9, x [1; 3];


4) y = 2x3 9x2 + 12x + 1, x [0; 2];
5) y = x 2 ln x, x [1; e];
6) y =
3

x
,
x2 + 4

x [4; 0];

7) y = 2 ln x 9 ln x + 12 ln x, x [e3/4 ; e3 ];
8) y = x2 4|x| + 4, x [3; 3];
9) y = |(x + 1)(2x 5)2 |, x [5; 4];
10) y = sin 2x x,

x [0; ];

11) y =

2x + 2x
,
ln 2

x [1; 2];

= e2x1 + 2e12x + 7x 3, x [0,14; 1];


= 2 23x 9 22x + 12 2x , x [1; 1];
= 2 sin 2x + cos 4x, x [0; /3];
= | log22 2x log2 8x|, x [1/2; 2 2 ];



x2
3
3
16) y =
, x ;2 ;
12)
13)
14)
15)

y
y
y
y

2x 1

17) y = |x3 + 6x2 + 9x + 1|, x [3; 1];


18) y = |2x3 + 15x2 + 36x 30|, x [3; 2];
2
x
19) y = cos2 sin x, x [0; ];
20) y = 3x +2x1 , x [2; 0];
2
1
21) y = x ln x x ln 2,
2

22) y = 2x ln x x ln 49,

x [1; 4];
x [1; 7];


1
1
23) y = |x + x 2| ln , x ; 2 ;
x
2 

3
1
2
24) y = ln x |x 2x 3|, x ; 4 ;
2
2
2

25) y = (x 3)e|x+1| , x [2; 4];


26) y = (x 3)2 e|x| , x [1; 4];

27) y = x + (x2 + 6x + 9)(x2 + 2x + 1) , x [4; 5/4];

28) y = 2x + (x2 10x + 25)(x2 4x + 4) , x [9/4; 6].
2. :
1) y = ln x x, x (0; + );
2) y = 2 tg x tg2 x, x (/2; /2);
3) y =

x2 + x + 1
,
x2 + 3

x (; );

4.

3
4) y = x2 x, x [1; + );
1
1
5) y = x ln x x ln 9, x (1; 3];
3

x
,
6) y = 2
x +1

x [5; 0);

7) y =

115



1
x 1; .

1 x2
,
|x|

3. :
1) y = 2x + 2 ctg x, x (0; /2); 2) y = x ln x x ln 5, x (1; 5];

9
25
x2 + 1
+
, x (0; 1); 4) y = 2
, x (; + );
x
1x
x +x+1

2
2 + cos x
, x (0; );
5) y = x
sin x

3) y =

6) y = 2
x3 + 3x2 120x + 100, x (4; 5];
x
7) y = 3
+ x10 , x [1; + ).
1+x

4. ,

max f (x) < 0,77, f (x) = sin x sin 2x.

x[ ; ]

min f (x) > 7/18, f (x) = cos2 x sin x.




2

6. , sin 2 <
,

0;
.
2

5. ,

x[ ; ]

7. :
2x
1) f (x) = 2 arctg x + arcsin
;
2
1+x

2) f (x) = 7 + 2x ln 25 5x1 52x ;


3) f (x) = 10 + 4x ln 9 3x1 33x ;
4) f (x) =

10

+ cos x; 5) f (x) =

x + 4x + 41

4
2

x + 3x + 23

+ sin x.

8. :
1) f (x) = cos2 x + cos2 (/3 + x) cos x(/3 + x);
2

2) f (x) = 2x 1 +

x2

+2

3) f (x) = 3x + 2 33x x ln 27 9;

4) f (x) = 2x + 18 2 /x + cos x, 0 < x < .


9. :
2x
= x2 2x + 2; 2) ln x x = 1 + (x 1)2 ;
1)
2
1
+
x


16
3) x2 + 2 (1 + sin2 (x 2)) = 1 + 7 cos2 (x2 4x + 4);
x


1
2
4) x + x + 1 + 2 = x + 3 ; 5) (x3 + 4)(x2 4x + 5) = 3x2 .
x

10. M
f (x) = f (x), :

2) f (x) = x2 + 6x + 10 , M (1; 0);


1) f (x) = 2x + 3, M (3; 2);
3) f (x) =

1 2
1
x + ,
2
2

4) f (x) = e ,
x

8*

M (2; 0);

M (2; 1); 5) f (x) = sin x, M (1; 1).

116

. 2.

11. M
y = f (x), :
1
1) f (x) = 1 + 3/2 , M (0; 1);
2) f (x) =

4 3x
27

2 (x + 1)2

x (1; + ), M (1; 0).

12. (0; ) y = 1 cos x.


Ox.
13. M ,

y = 1 + cos x 0  x  x 3 +
+ 2y + 4 = 0.
14. M ,
y =
1 sin x /2  x  3/2
x 2 y 5 = 0.
15. M ,
y = 2 + cos x 0  x  x + 2y +
+ 3 = 0.
16. M ,
y=

= cos2 x 0  x  x 3 2y
7 = 0.
17. A(0; 3) B(4; 5). Ox
M , A B .
18. ,
(2; 2) ,
y = 4 x2 ,
.
19. , y = x2 , y = 2x2 , x = 6,
,
x = 6, y = x2 y = 2x2 .
.
20. , y = 3x y = x2 ,
,
, . .
21. y = x2 + 1
y = 0, x = 1, x = 2. M
y = x2 + 1, x [1; 2], ,

?
22. S , .
23. ,
V ,
.

5.

117

24. 8.
.
25. a,
30 . ,
?
26.
a. ,
.
27. , l.
28. R .
, .
29. ,
8, .
30. 36.
,
.
31. 10. ,
.
32. , 6 12, (
). .
33. M ABC  = 90 , M A
ABC , C

, M O = 4 3 , O AB . ,
.
34. M ABCD ABCD,
AB = 3BC , M D M D + BC = 12.
BC , .
35. .
, .

5.
. , , ,
, , ,
, , ,
, . .
, .

118

. 2.

1. f (x) g (x) (a; b)


f (x) g (x), x (a; b), f  (x) g  (x), x (a; b).
2. f (x) g (x) (a; b)
f  (x) g  (x), x (a; b), f (x) g (x) + C , C
.
, f (x)
(a; b) f  (x) 0, x (a; b), f (x) (a; b)
, . . f (x) C .
3. f (x) x0 (a; b),
x = x0 .
4. f (x) (a; b)
f  (x) > 0 (f  (x) < 0), x (a; b), f (x) ()
(a; b).
5. f (x) [a; b) ([a; b], (a; b])
() (a; b), f (x)
() [a; b) ([a; b], (a; b]).
6. f (x), g (x) [a; b] (a; b), f  (x) < g  (x), x (a; b),
f (a)  g (a), f (x) < g (x), x (a; b).
7. . f (x)
[a; b], (a; b) f (a) = f (b),
c (a; b), , f  (c) = 0.
,

, ,
(c; f (c)), , , . . f  (c) = 0.
, ( (c; f (c))
), Ox (. 2.28).

. 2.28

8. . f (x) [a; b] (a; b),


c (a; b), ,

f (b) f (a) = f  (c)(b a).

5.

119

.
AB , A(a; f (a)) B(b; f (b))
(. 2.29).

f (b) f (a)

ba

. 2.29

, A B , Ox, f  (c)
y = f (x)
(c; f (c)). ,
[a; b] (a; b)
(c; f (c)), , AB .
, .
1.

xy(x y) + yz(y z) + xz(z x).


. x ,
f (x) = xy(x y) + yz(y z) + xz(z x).

f  (x) = 2xy y 2 + z 2 2xz = (y z)(2x y z).


(x2 (y + z)x) = 2x y z ,
((y z)(x2 (y + z)x)) = (y z)(2x y z),
,

f  (x) = ((y z)(x2 (y + z)x) .


2

f (x) = (y z)(x2 (y + z)x) + C ,


C x, , , y z .
x, ,
, , x = 0 , f (0) = yz(y z),
C = yz(y z).

120

. 2.

f (x) = (y z)(x2 (y + z)x) + yz(y z) =


= (y z)(x2 (y + z)x + yz) =
= (y z)(x(x y) z(x y)) = (x y)(y z)(x z).
,

xy(x y) + yz(y z) + xz(z x) = (x y)(x z)(y z).


2.

(y z)(y + z)3 + (z x)(z + x)3 + (x y)(x + y)3 .


. x ,
f (x) = (y z)(y + z)3 + (z x)(z + x)3 + (x y)(x + y)3 .
:

f  (x) = (z + x)3 + 3(z + x)2 (z x) + (x + y)3 + 3(x + y)2 (x y) =


= (z + x)2 (3z 3x (z + x)) + (x + y)2 (x + y + 3x 3y) =
= 2(z + x)2 (z 2x) + 2(x + y)2 (2x y).

f  (x) = 2(z 3 y 3 + 3(y z)x2 ).


((z 3 y 3 )x + (y z)x3 ) = z 3 y 3 + 3(y z)x2 ,

f  (x) = (2((z 3 y 3 )x + (y z)x3 )) ,

, , 2 ,

f (x) = 2((z 3 y 3 )x + (y z)x3 ) + C ,


C x, , , y z .
, , x = 0 , f (0) = (y z)(y + z)3 +
+ z 4 y 4 ,

C = (y z)(y + z)3 + z 4 y 4 .
,

f (x) = 2((z 3 y 3 )x + (y z)x3 ) + (y z)(y + z)3 + z 4 y 4 ,

f (x) = 2(y z)(y 2 x xyz z 2 x + x3 + y 2 z + yz 2 ).

5.

121


, . y ,

g (y) = y 2 x xyz z 2 x + x3 + y 2 z + yz 2 ;

g  (y) = 2xy xz + 2yz + z 2 = 2y(z x) + z(z x) = (z x)(2y + z).


g (y) = (z x)(y 2 + zy) + C1 ,


C1 , , x z y . ,
, y = 0 , g (0) = z 2 x + x3 ,
C1 = x(x2 z 2 ). ,

g (y) = (z x)(y 2 + zy) + x(x2 z 2 ) = (x z)(x2 + xz y 2 zy) =


= (x z)((x y)(x + y) + z(x y)) = (x z)(x y)(x + y + z).
,

f (x) = 2(x y)(x z)(y z)(x + y + z).


3. :
) (x + y + z)3 (x + y z)3 (y + z x)3 (z + x y)3 ;
) sin3 x(1 + ctg x) + cos3 x(1 + tg x).
. ) x ,

f (x) = (x + y + z)3 (x + y z)3 (y + z x)3 (z + x y)3 .


, ,

f  (x) =
= 3(x + y + z)2 3(x + y z)2 + 3(y + z x)2 3(z + x y)2 = 24yz.
, f (x) = 24xyz + C , C x,
y z . , , x = 0,

C = f (0) = (y + z)3 (y z)3 (y + z)3 (z y)3 .


(y + z)3 (y z)3 (y + z)3 (z y)3 = 0, C = 0. ,
f (x) = 24xyz.

122

. 2.

) f (x) = sin3 x(1 + ctg x) + cos3 x(1 + tg x)


f  (x) = 3 sin2 x cos x(1 + ctg x) sin3 x


+ cos3 x

sin2 x

3 cos2 x sin x(1 + tg x) +

1
= 3 sin2 x cos x 3 cos2 x sin x sin x + cos x +
cos2 x

+ 3 sin x cos2 x 3 cos x sin2 x = cos x sin x.

, (sin x + cos x) = cos x sin x ,

f (x) = cos x + sin x + C ,


C . , , x = /4, , C = 0. , f (x) = sin x + cos x
x, , x = k/2, k N.
4. :
2x

) 2 arctg x + arcsin

1 + x2

= , x  1;

) 1 + 3x2 + 5x4 + . . . + (2n 1)x2n2 =


(2n 1)x2n2 (2n + 1)x2n + x2 + 1
,
(x2 1)2

|x| = 1.

. )

f (x) = 2 arctg x + arcsin

2x
1 + x2

, x  1.

x = 1 f (1) = 2 arctg 1 + arcsin 1 = 2


(2 arctg x) =


arcsin

2x
1 + x2



2
1 + x2

=

1


=

+ = . x > 1;
4
2


2x

2



2x
1 + x2

1 + x2

1 + x2

(1

x2 )2

2(1 x2 )
2 2

(1 + x )

=2

1 x2

|1 x2 |

1
1 + x2

2
1 + x2

f  (x) 0, x > 1.

, f (x) x > 1
. , , , f ( 3 ); :

f ( 3 ) = 2 arctg 3 + arcsin
= 2 + = .
2

, x  1.

5.

123

)
1 + 3x2 + 5x4 + . . . + (2n 1)x2n2 = (x + x3 + . . . + x2n1 ) ,
, n
|x| = 1,


x x2n+1
1 + 3x2 + 5x4 + . . . + (2n 1)x2n2 =
.
2
1x


(1 (2n + 1)x2n )(1 x2 ) + 2x(x x2n+1 )
x x2n+1
=
=
2
2 2
1x

(1 x )

1 (2n + 1)x2n x2 + (2n + 1)x2n+2 + 2x2 2x2n+2

(1 x2 )2

1 + x2 (2n + 1)x2n + (2n 1)x2n+2

(1 x2 )2

.
, . )

. , , x = 2,

x = 1/ 2 , :
99 2102 101 2100 + 5
=
9
5
= (1 + 59 2100 );
9

3
5
101
1
1
1
1 + + 2 + . . . + 50 = 4 101 52 103 51 + + 1 =
2
2
2
2
2
2


101
1
105
103 49 + 6 = 6 50 .
=
2
2
2

1 + 3 4 + 5 42 + . . . + 99 449 =

5.

Sn (x) = 1 2 + 2 3x + 3 4x2 + . . . + (n 1)nxn2 + n(n + 1)xn1


x = 1.
.

fn (x) = 1 + x + x2 + . . . + xn + xn+1 .

gn (x) = fn (x) = 1 + 2x + 3x2 + . . . + nxn1 + (n + 1)xn ,

gn (x) = 1 2 + 2 3x + 3 4x2 + . . . + n(n 1)xn2 + (n + 1)nxn1 ,

Sn (x) = gn (x).

124

. 2.

fn (x) (n + 1)
x, x = 1,

fn (x) =

1 xn+2
.
1x




1 xn+2
(n + 2)xn+1 (1 x) + (1 xn+2 )
gn (x) =
=
=
2
1x

(1 x)

(n + 1)xn+2 (n + 2)xn+1 + 1
,
(1 x)2

=


(n + 1)xn+2 (n + 2)xn+1 + 1
Sn (x) =
=
2
(1 x)

((n + 1)(n + 2)xn+1 (n + 2)(n + 1)xn )(1 x)2


=
+
(1 x)4

2(1 x)((n + 1)xn+2 (n + 2)xn+1 + 1)


=
(1 x)4

n(n + 1)xn+2 + 2n(n + 2)xn+1 (n + 1)(n + 2)xn + 2


.
(1 x)3

6.

Sn = 21 1 2 + 22 2 3 + 23 3 4 + . . . + 2n n(n + 1).
.

f (x) = x2 + x3 + . . . + xn+1 .
:

g (x) = f  (x) = 2x + 3x2 + . . . + (n + 1)xn ,


g  (x)x = 2x + 2 3x2 + . . . + (n + 1)nxn ,
Sn = 2g  (2). ,

f (x) =

xn+2 x2
x1

n
x2 x, x = 1.

 n+2
x
x2
((n + 2)xn+1 2x)(x 1) (xn+2 x2 )
g (x) =
=
=
2
x1

(x 1)

(n + 1)xn+2 (n + 2)xn+1 x2 + 2x
=
;
(x 1)2

5.

g  (x) =

125

((n + 1)(n + 2)xn+1 (n + 2)(n + 1)xn 2x + 2)(x 1)2

(x 1)4

2(x 1)((n + 1)xn+2 (n + 2)xn+1 x2 + 2x)


.
(x 1)4

Sn = 2((n + 1)(n + 2) 2n+1 (n + 2)(n + 1) 2n 4 + 2)


2((n + 1) 2n+2 (n + 2) 2n+1 ) = 2n+1 (2(n + 1)(n + 2)
(n + 2)(n + 1) 4(n + 1) + 2n + 4) 4 = 2n+1 (n2 n + 2) 4.
7.

Sn = Cn0 + 2Cn1 + 3Cn2 + . . . + (n + 1)Cnn , n  1,


Cnk n k .
.

pn (x) = Cn0 + 2Cn1 x + 3Cn2 x2 + . . . + (n + 1)Cnn xn .


x = 1 ,
. . Sn = pn (1).

qn+1 (x) = Cn0 x + Cn1 x2 + Cn2 x3 + . . . + Cnn xn+1 ,


pn (x).
,

qn+1 (x) = x(Cn0 + Cn1 x + Cn2 x2 + . . . + Cnn xn ) = x(1 + x)n .


n 
n
n1
pn (x) = qn+
,
1 (x) = (1(1 + x) ) = (1 + x) + nx(1 + x)

, ,

Sn = pn (1) = 2n + n 2n1 = (n + 2) 2n1 .


8. (a; b), a > 0, b  0, ,

a ln x + b ln(ax + b), x > 0.


. (a0 ; b0 ) ,

a0 ln x + b0 ln(a0 x + b0 )
x > 0.
x > 0
a0
a0

.
x
a0 x + b0

126

. 2.

(a; b), a > 0, b  0,


(1; 0). , (1; 0)
.
9. f (x),
x R
f (2x) 2f (x), x R.
. f (x) .
f (2x) 2f (x) f (0) = 0 2f  (2x) 2f  (x),

f  (2x) f  (x).
x ,
 
 
 
x
x
x
f  (2x) = f  (x) = f 
= f
= . . . = f  n = . . . , x R.
2

x/2 0 n y = f  (x)
R,
 


x
x
f  (x) = lim f  n = f  lim n = f  (0), x R.
n

, f (x), x R, , f (x)
ax + b, a = f  (0). , , x = 0,
f (0) = 0 , b = 0. ,
f (x) = ax. , f (x) = ax
.
, ,
.
10.
2x9 x5 + x > 2.
.
f (x) = 2x9 x5 + x 2. f  (x) 18x8
5x4 + 1. 18y 2 5y + 1
y 2 , x
f  (x) > 0.
, y = f (x) ;
Ox . , f (1) = 0, ,
x
(1; + ).

5.

127

11.

x2 +

1
3
<
.
3
x
4

(1)

3
x2 + 1/x = 3/ 4

(2)


f (x) = x2 +

3
+ 1/x y = 3/ 4 .
y = f (x), .

f  (x) = 2x 1/x2 ,

3
f  (x) > 0 x > 1/
2;
3

f (x) = 0 x = 1/ 2 ;

f  (x) < 0 x < 0 0 < x < 1/ 3 2 .

,
y = f (x) (; 0)

3
3
(0; 1/ 2 )
(1/ 2 ;+ ). f (x)
3
3
x = 1/ 2 , x = 1/ 2 ,

3
3
3
(1/ 2 )2 + 2 = 3/ 4 .

3
, x = 1/ 2
(2) (. 2.30)
, , x > 0 .
1
f (x) = x2 + x

(; 0),
, f (x0 ) = 3/ 3 4 , x0 (; 0),

(x0 ; 0).
. 2.30
, x0
(; 0) ,

3
(2). x = 1/ 2
(2),

3
x3
x + 1 = 0.
(3)
3
4

128

. 2.

(3) 3

. x3
x + 1
3
4
1
x
. :
3
2
3
1
x2
x+1
x
3
3
4
2

x3
x2
3

2
1
3
x2
x+1

3
3
4
2

x2 +
x
3
3
2

1
1
x2
x

3
3
4
2
2
x+1

3
4

2
x+1

3
4

0.

, (3)



1
1
2
2
+
x

x
x
= 0,

3
3
3
2




1
2
1
2
x
+
x2 +
x

=
x

3
3
3
3
2

(3)

2 

1
2
x
x
+
= 0.

3
3
2

(4)

3
(4) x0 = 2/ 2 .
,
(1) x
3
(2/ 2 ; 0).
12.

4
x2 x + 2 = 2 2x 1 .
.

4
x2 2x + 2 = 2 2x 1 x,

(5)

,

f (x) = x2 2x + 2 g (x) = 2 4 2x 1 x. -

5.

129


.
f (x) = (x 1)2 + 1, , 1, x = 1 .

g (x) = 2 4 2x 1 x x, x  1/2.

g  (x) = 2

1
1 (2 x 1 )3/ 4
(2x 1)1/41 2 1 =
,
4
(2 x 1 )3/ 4

1
2

x> ,

g  (x) > 0 1/2 < x < 1,


g  (x) = 0 x = 1,
g  (x) < 0 x > 1.
y = g (x)
[1/2; + ), ,
g (x) [1/2; 1] [1; + ). ,
x = 1 g (x), 1,
.
, x [1/2; + ):

. 2.31

x2 2x + 2  1,

4
2 2x 1 x  1.
, (5) , ,
x = 1.
y = f (x) y = g (x)
. 2.31.
13.
12x4 14x3 3x2 5 = 0.

(6)

. f (x) = 12x4 14x3 3x2 5.





1
f  (x) = 48x3 42x2 6x = 48x x +
(x 1),
8

, (; 1/8] [0; 1]
f (x) , [1/8; 0] [1; + ) .
9 .

130

. 2.

, x = 1/8
x = 1
f (x),
x = 0 f (x) (. 2.32). :
 
1
5137
f
;
=
3
8

28

f (0) = 5; f (1) = 10.


, f (1) = 18
f (2) = 63. f (x)
[1; + ),
[1; 2].
[1; 2]
f (x) ,
, f (x) [1; + ) ,

. 2.32
x = x1 , , 1 < x1 < 2. ,
x2 , 1 < x2 < 1/8,
y = f (x) .
, (6)
.
14. a

x3 3x2 a = 0.
(7)
.
f (x) = x3 3x2 . f  (x) = 3x2 6x = 3x(x 2),

f  (x) < 0 0 < x < 2;


f  (x) = 0 x = 0 x = 2;
f  (x) > 0 x < 0 x > 2.
, y = f (x) x = 2
, x = 0 ,
f (0) = 0, f (2) = 4. , y = f (x) [0; 2] (; 0] [2; + ).
lim f (x) = + lim f (x) = .
x+

,
(7) a
y = f (x) y = a, a
(; + ).

5.

f (x) ,
f (x)
, ,
,
,
(. 2.33), :
a > 0
;
a = 0
(x1 = x2 = 0, x3 = 3),
;
4 < a < 0
;
a = 4
(x1 = 1, x2 = x3 = 2),
;
a < 4
.

131

. 2.33

x1 , x2 , . . ., xn

f (x) = an xn + an1 xn1 + . . . + a0 = 0, an = 0,

(8)

, ,

an xn + an1 xn1 + . . . + a0 = an (x x1 )(x x2 ) . . . (x xn ).


x1 , x2 , . . ., xn , ,
, (8) ;
x1 = x2 = . . . = xk = a a,
, x = a k. ,

x4 7x3 + 9x2 + 27x 54 = (x 3)3 (x + 2),


x = 3 3, x = 2
1 ( ).
, (8),
( ),
, .

. f (x)
f  (x) f (x),
, 2.
f (x)
. f (x)
9*

132

. 2.

f (x)
f  (x).
(8):
1) f  (x);
2) f (x) f  (x);
3) f (x)
f  (x).
f (x) f  (x) f (x),
.
, f (x)
f  (x) , f (x) = 0 .
15.

x3 8x2 + 13x 6 = 0.
.

f (x) = x3 8x2 + 13x 6,


f  (x) = 3x2 16x + 13.


f (x) f  (x). :

x3 8x2 + 13x 6
16 2
13
x +
x
3
3
8
26
x2 +
x6
3
3

x3

8
3

x2 +

3x2 16x + 13
1
8
x
3
9

128x
104

9
9
50
50
50
x+
= (x 1),
9
9
9

3x2 16x + 13 x 1
3x2 3x
3x 13
13x + 13

13x + 13
0.

, f (x)
f  (x) x 1 ( ).
x = 1 , x = 1 , ,

5.

133

, f (x) (x 1)2 . f (x)


(x 1)2 , , f (x) = (x 1)2 (x 6). ,
x1 = x2 = 1, x = 6 .
16.
2
x y + 2xy 2 + y 3 = 9,
(9)
x3 y y 4 = 7.
.

y(x + y)2 = 9,

y(x3 y 3 ) = 7.

(10)

,
(x, y), y > 0.
x> y > 0,
(10). t = y ;
, x = 3/t t2 .
3/t t2 x t2 y ,

t2 ((3/t t2 )3 t6 ) = 7,

(3 t3 )3 t9 7t = 0.

(11)

((3 t3 )3 t9 7t) = 9(3 t2 )2 t2 9t8 7 =


= (9(3 t2 )2 t2 + 9t8 + 7) < 0,
(11) . ,
t = 1 . ,
x = 2, y = 1.
,
(9).
17. , x  0

x2 x3 < 1/6.

(12)

f (x) = x2 x3 = x2 (1 x), x  0.
f  (x) = 2x 3x2 = x(2 3x),

f  (x) > 0 0 < x < 2/3;


f  (x) = 0 x = 2/3;
f  (x) < 0 x > 2/3.
f (x) [0; + ); [0; 2/3] [2/3; + ). ,

134

. 2.

x = 2/3
f (x) (. 2.34).

. 2.34
2

f (2/3) = (2/3) (2/3)3 = 4/27 < 1/6, (12)


.
18. , x  0 :

x x3 /6  sin x  x,
2

1 x /2  cos x  1.

(13)
(14)

. sin x  x x  /2, x sin x  1 < /2.


h(x) = sin x x, x [0; /2). h(x)
[0; /2), h(0) = 0 h (x) = cos x 1 < 0 (0; /2), ,
6, , h(x) < 0 (0; /2), . . sin x < x
x (0; /2). sin x = x x = 0, sin x  x
x  0 .

cos x  1 x2 /2

(15)

x  0

f (x) = cos x + x2 /2 1.
f (0) = 0 f (x) ,
(15) , f (x)
(0; + ), . . ,

f  (x) = sin x + x > 0


x > 0.
sin x < x x > 0
, (15).

sin x  x x3 /6, x  0,

g (x) = sin x x + x3 /6, x  0.

(16)

5.

135

g (0) = 0 g (x) [0; + ),


(16) ,
g (x) (0; + ), . .,

g  (x) = cos x 1 + x2 /2  0
x > 0.
.
(16).
(13) (14)
. 2.35, , .

. 2.35

19. ,

1 + x  1 + x/2
x  0.
.

f (x) = 1 + x + x/2 + 1
x  0.
f (0) = 0 f (x) x  0,
,
f (x) (0; + ), . .,
1
1
+ =
2
2 1+x

f  (x) =

1+x 1

>0
2 1+x

x > 0.

, 1 + x > 1 x > 0. ,
.

x
y = 1 + x y = 1 +
2
. 2.36.

136

. 2.

. 2.36

20.

ln2 n > ln(n 1) ln(n + 1), n > 2.


.
ln n
ln(n + 1)
>
.
ln(n 1)
ln n

f (x) =

ln x
,
ln(x 1)

x (2; + ),

.


f (x) =

ln(x 1)
ln x

x
x1
2

ln (x 1)

(x 1) ln(x 1) x ln x
.
x(x 1) ln2 (x 1)

f (x) < 0 x > 2, y = f (x) (2; + ), , , f (n) > f (n + 1), n > 2, . .


ln n
ln(n + 1)
>
,
ln(n 1)
ln n

.
21. a, b, c, d
. ,


 a  b
a + b a+b
a
b

.
(17)
c+d

.


1 b
(1 + t)a+b
f (t) = (1 + t)a 1 +
=
b
t

t > 0.
f (t),

f  (t) =

(a + b)(1 + t)

a+b1 b

b1

t bt
t2b

(1 + t)

a+b



(1 + t)a+b1 a t ab

tb+1

5.

137

, :

f  (t) < 0 0 < t < b/a;


f  (t) = 0 t = b/a;
f  (t) > 0 t > b/a.
, f (t) t = b/a (0; + ), , ,
 
b
f
(18)
 f (t), t > 0,
a

t = b/a. (18)
t = d/c,

 

 


d a
c b
b a
a b
1+
1+
 1+
1+
,
c

(17).
, (17) ,
a/c = b/d.
. (17)
:
, ,
.
, (17)


 x1  x2
x1 + x2 x1 +x2
x
x2
 1
y1 + y2

y1

y2

x2 x2 + x3 , y2 y2 + y3 ,
 x1 
 x1  x2  x3



x1 + x2 + x3 x1 +x2 +x3
x
x2 + x3 x2 +x3
x
x2
x3
 1
 1
.
y1 + y2 + y3

y1

y2 + y3

y1

y2

y3

, , ,
, x1 , x2 , . . ., xn y1 , y2 ,
. . ., yn ,


 x1  x2  xn
x1 + x2 + . . . + xn x1 +x2 +...+xn
x
x2
x
 1
... n
,
(19)
y1 + y2 + . . . + yn

y1

y2

yn


x1
x
x
= 2 = ... = n .
y1
y2
yn

, (19) xi = pi yi = pi ai (i = 1, 2, . . . , n),


p a + p2 a2 + . . . + pn an p1 +p2 +...+pn
ap1 1 ap2 2 . . . apnn  1 1
;
(20)
p1 + p2 + . . . + pn

138

. 2.

(20) p1 = p2 = . . . = pn = 1,
a1 , a2 ,
. . ., an :


a + a2 + . . . + an n
a1 a2 . . . an  1
.
(21)
n

(20) pi , p1 + p2 +
+ . . . + pn = 1,

ap1 1 ap2 2 . . . apnn  p1 a1 + p2 a2 + . . . + pn an .

(22)

(20)(22)
a1 = a2 = . . . = an .
(22)

a
1 b1 + a2 b2 + . . . + an bn  (a1 + . . . + an ) (b1 + . . . + bn ) ,

(23)

> 0, > 0 + = 1.
, (22) ,



a
1 b1 + a2 b2 + . . . + an bn

(a1 + a2 + . . . + an ) (b1 + b2 + . . . + bn )

 

a1
b1
=
+ ...
a1 + a2 + . . . + an
b1 + b2 + . . . + bn

 

an
bn
a1

+
... +
a1 + a2 + . . . + an
b1 + b2 + . . . + bn
a1 + a2 + . . . + an
b1
an
bn
+ ... +
+
=
+
b1 + b2 + . . . + bn
a1 + a2 + . . . + an
b1 + b2 + . . . + bn


a1
an
=
+ ... +
+
a1 + a2 + . . . + an
a1 + a2 + . . . + an

b1
bn
+
+
b1 + b2 + . . . + bn
b1 + b2 + . . . + bn

= + = 1.

(23) = 1/p, = 1/q ai = xpi , bi = yiq (i = 1, 2, . . . , n),


x1 y1 + x2 y2 + . . . + xn yn 
 (xp1 + xp2 + . . . + xpn )1/p (y1q + y2q + . . . + ynq )1/q . (24)
(24) p = q = 2

(x1 y1 + x2 y2 + . . . + xn yn )2 
 (x21 + x22 + . . . + x2n )(y12 + y22 + . . . + yn2 ). (25)
(24) (25) xi yj
, x1 /y1 = x2 /y2 = . . . = xn /yn .

5.

139

22. ,

a3 + b3 + c3  3abc
a, b c.
. , ,
0 < a  b  c.

f (x) = x3 + b3 + c3 3xbc.

f  (x) = 3x2 3bc = 3(x2 bc),


f  (x) < 0 0 < x < b  c.

, f (x) [0; b].


, f (x)  f (b), . .

x3 + b3 + c3 3xbc  2b3 + c3 3b2 c.


g (x) = 2x3 + c3 3x2 c,


c 0 < x < c.

g  (x) = 6x2 6xc = 6x(x c).


g  (x) < 0 0 < x < c, , , g (x)
[0; c]. , g (b)  g (c), . .
2b3 + c3 3b2 c  2c3 + c3 3c2 c = 0.
.
23. , x  0, y  0 n N,


x+y n
xn + y n

.
2

f (x) =

xn + y n

x+y
2

n

y ( y = 0, , ).



 
n n1
x + y n1
f  (x) =

,
x
2

x+y

f  (x)  0 x 
, . . x  y .
2
, f (x)
[y ; + ). , f (x)  f (y) = 0, x  y .

140

. 2.

x+y

x  y , x 
, f  (x)  0. , 2
f (x) [0; y]. ,
x  y , f (x)  f (y) = 0.
, f (x)  0 x  0, .


.
24. : cos 1988 1 + cos 1989?
. f (x) = x + cos x. f  (x) =

= 1 sin x  0, f  (x) = 0 x = + 2n, n Z,


2
y = f (x) .
f (1988) < f (1989), . . cos 1988 < 1 + cos 1989.
25. ,
4 tg 5 tg 9 < 3 tg 6 tg 10 .
.

f (x) = tg x/x, 0 < x < /4.



x sin x cos x

, 0<x< ,
4
x2 cos2 x
1

x sin x cos x = (2x sin 2x) > 0, 0 < x < ,


2
4

f  (x) =

f (x) (0; /4).


,
5
180
5
180

tg

, ,

6
180
6
180

tg

<

9
180
9
180

tg

f (x) =

<

4 tg 5 tg 9 < 3 tg 6 tg 10 .

26.
(sin /3)sin /6 ?
.

10
180
10
180

tg

ln x
,
x

f  (x) =

x > 0.

1 ln x

x2

f  (x) > 0 0 < x < e,


f  (x) = 0 x = e,
f  (x) < 0 x > e.

(sin /6)

sin /3

5.

141

, f (x) (0; e]
[e; + ).
, 0 < x < y  e,
ln x
ln y
<
,
x
y

. .

xy < y x

0 < x < y  e.

, e  x < y ,
ln x
ln y
>
,
x
y

. .

xy > y x

e  x < y.

sin /6 =
,

1
< 3 /2 = sin /3
2

(sin /6)sin /3 < (sin /3)sin /6 .

, ,
, :


10001001 > 10011000 , e > e , ( 2 ) 3 < ( 3 ) 2 .
27. a > 0,

ln(1 + x)  x ax2
x.
. (1; + )
f (x) = ln(1 + x) + ax2 x

f  (x) =

1
2ax2 + (2a 1)x
+ 2ax 1 =
.
1+x
x+1

2a 1  0,

f  (x) > 0 x > 0.


f (x) [0, + );
,

f (x) > f (0) = 0 x > 0.


2a 1 < 0 a > 0; f  (x) x1 = 0
1 2a
, x = 0 f  (x)
x2 =
2a
. , x = 0

142

. 2.

f (x). , x f (x) < f (0) = 0.


, a  1/2.
28.

f (x) = cos x sin(x 2 )?


. :
T , T .
, f (x)
T .

cos a sin b =

1
(sin(a + b) + sin(b a)),
2




1
1
sin x( 2 + 1) + sin x( 2 1) = (sin x + sin x),
f (x) =
2
2

= 2 + 1, = 2 1.
:
1
( cos x + cos x),
2
2
2
f  (x) = (f  (x)) =
sin x
sin x.
2
2

f  (x) =

f (x) T , 2
f  (x), , g (x) = f  (x) = sin x
2

2
sin x T .

g (x) + 2 f (x) =

2 2
sin x
2

T . , k, k Z,
k = 0, , T = 2k/. ,
n, n Z, n = 0, , T = 2n/ .

. .

2 +1
= =
,
n

2 1

2 +1

2 1

, . -

, .
29. ,

P (x) = x(x 1)(x 2)(x 3)(x 4)


.

5.

143

. y = P (x) [0; 1]. P (0) = P (1) = 0 y = P (x) [0; 1] (0; 1),


x1 (0; 1),
, P  (x1 ) = 0. ,
y = P (x) [1; 2], [2; 3] [3; 4], ,
P  (x) = 0.
P  (x) 4,
. x1 , x2 , x3 , x4
P  (x) , 0 < x1 < 1 < x2 < 2 < x3 < 3 < x4 < 4.
30. , a
b, , b > a, n  2

n(b a)an1 < bn an < n(b a)bn1 .


. f (x) = xn , x > 0.
f (b) f (a)
bn an
=
.
ba
ba

f (x) = xn [a; b] (a; b),


(a; b), ,
bn an
= f  () = n n1 .
ba

an1 < n1 < bn1 ,

nan1 <

bn an
< nbn1 .
ba

.
31. ,

ex > 1 + x x > 0.
. b .
f (x) = ex [0; b].

. .

f (b) f (a)
= f  (),
ba

(0, b),

eb 1
= e ,
b

(0; b). e > 1 > 0,


eb 1
> 1,
b

. . eb > 1 + b b.

144

. 2.

, , (12). ex > 1 + x x = 0, y = ex
, x = 0
y = 1 + x,
y = ex (0; 1).
.

ex1  x,
x,
, ,
x1 ,
x2 , . . ., xn ( ). x1 , x2 ,
1
. . ., xn Sn = (x1 + x2 + . . . + xn ).
n

x1
 ex1 /Sn 1 ,
Sn
x2
 ex2 /Sn 1 ,
Sn

..........

xn
 exn /Sn 1 ,
Sn

, ,
x1 x2 . . . xn
 e(x1 +x2 +...+xn )/Sn n = 1,
. .

Snn

x1 x2 . . . xn  Snn ,

n x x . . . x  x1 + x2 + . . . + xn .
1 2
n
n

32.

(x y)2 + (ex y)2 = 1/2.

. 2.37

. ,

A(x; ex ) y = ex
B(y ; y), .
ex  1 + x
y = 1 + x y = x
, OAB
(. 2.37) ,
M -

5.

145

y = ex N y = x 1/ 2 .
ex = 1 + x x = 0.
x

y = e
1/ 2 x = 0. y
y 2 + (1 y)2 = 1/2, y = 1/2.
, (x0 ; y0 ), x0 = 0 y0 = 1/2,
.
33. ,
1
52
1
< ln
< .
52
51
51

. f (x) = ln x [51; 52].

f (52) f (51)
= ln 52 ln 51.
52 51

, ,
51 < < 52,

ln 52 ln 51 = f  ()(52 51) = 1/.


51 < < 52, ,
1/52 < ln 52 ln 51 < 1/51,
. .

1
52
1
< ln
< .
52
51
51

34. ,
3x+2 26x = 29
.
. x1 , x2 , x3 , , x1 < x2 < x3 .
f (x) = 3x+2 26x 29 [x1 ; x2 ] [x2 ; x3 ], , 1 (x1 ; x2 )
2 (x2 ; x3 ) , , f  (1 ) = f  (2 ) = 0.
f  (x) = 3x+2 ln 3 26 = 0 ,
y = 3x+2 .
,
.
, x1 = 1
x2 = 2.
1

1. :
1) x(y 2 z 2 ) + y(z 2 x2 ) + z(x2 y 2 );
2) x4 (y z) + y 4 (z x) + z 4 (x y).
10 .

146

. 2.

2. :
xy
yz
zx
1)
+
+
;

x+y
y+z
z+x
(y z)2
(z x)2
(x y)2
2)
+
+
.
(z x)(x y)
(x y)(y z)
(y z)(z x)

3. :
1) arctg x = arcsin 

1 + x2
1
3
2) sin6 x + cos6 x = + (cos2 x sin2 x)2 ;
4
4

3) cos2 + cos2 + cos2 = 1 2 cos cos cos , + + = .

1. :
1) cos2 x + cos2 (x + y) 2 cos x cos y cos(x + y);

1
1
1
+
+
;
x(x y)(x z)
y(y x)(y z)
z(z x)(x y)
1
1
1
+ 2
+ 2
.
3) 2
x (x y)(x z)
y (y z)(y z)
x (z x)(x y)

2)

2. :

1) arctg x + arctg 3x = arccos 

3x
1+

9x2

+ arccos 

2) 1 (sin6 x + cos6 x) = 3 sin2 x cos2 x;


1
1
5
3) cos4 x cos 4x = 2 cos2 x cos 2x ;

x
1 + x2

8
2
8
(x b)(x c)
(x c)(x a)
(x a)(x b)
+b
+c
= x;
4) a
(a b)(a c)
(b c)(b a)
(c a)(c b)

5) 2(sin6 x + cos6 x) 3(sin4 x + cos4 x) + 1 = 0;


6) sin 2 + sin 2 + sin 2 = 4 sin sin sin , + + = ;
n
n
n



1
1 k k
1
7)
(1 + x)k =
Cn x +
.
k=1

k=1

k=1

1. , 0 < x < y < /2,


sin x
sin y
>
.
x
y

2. ,

x x2 /2 < ln(1 + x) < x


x > 0.
3. a,
3x4 + 4x3 6x2 12x + a = 0

5.

147

.
4. a
x ln x = a.
5. ,

x3 + 9x2 + 2x 48 = 0
.
6.

x2 + x + 12 x + 1 = 36.

1. , 0 < x < y < /2,


tg x
tg y
<
.
x
y

2. ,

x+

x3
< tg x
3

0 < x < /2.


3. a,
3x4 14x3 45x2 + a = 0
.
4. a
aex = x3 .
5. ,

x4 15x2 10x + 24 = 0
.
6.

3x 2

x2

1
.
x1

1.

x9 + x6 + 448 < 0.
2.

n+1 +

n  2, k  2; n, k N.
10*

n1

1
n

>
k

148

. 2.

3.

x4 7x3 + 9x2 + 27x 54 = 0.


4. , a > 0, b > 0, c > 0,
2
2
2
9
+
+

.
a+b
b+c
c+a
a+b+c

5.

x + ex = y + ey ,
x2 + xy + y 2 = 12.

6. ,



3
3
3
3
3
3 + 3 + 3 3 < 2 3.
6

1.

log5 (1 +
2.

x ) > log16 x.

1
1
< ln 1 +
n+1
n


<

1
,
n

n N.

3.

x4 5x3 9x2 + 81x 108 = 0.


4. , a > 0, b > 0, c > 0,
 2
a+b+c
a + b2 + c2
 aa bb cc .
a+b+c

5.

tg x tg y = x y ,

sin x + sin y = 2 ,

x (/2; /2), y (/2; /2).


6. ,
cos 200 < 1 + cos 201.
7

1.

ex ex = 2 ln(x +


1 + x2 ).

5.

149

2.

x + 2x2 + 3x3 + . . . + nxn , x = 1.


3. , |x|  1/2
3 arcsin x arccos(3x 4x3 ) = .
4. a,

x3 + ax + 2 = 0
.
5. ,

f (x) = sin x + sin(x 2 ) + sin(x 3 ) + . . . + sin(x n ),


n  2, n N,
.
6. ,

3
3
3
sin 3 cos 2 sin 2 cos 3 > cos 2 cos 3 .
8

1.

1
log12 ( x + 4 x ) = log9 x.
2

2. :
1) x + 22 x2 + 32 x3 + 42 x4 + . . . + n2 xn ,

x = 1;

n(n 1)
21
32
43
54
2)
+
+ 2 + 3 + ... +
.
1
2
2n1
2
2

3. a,

x3 + ax2 + 2 = 0
, .
4. ,

f (x) = cos x + cos(x 2 ) + cos(x 3 ) + . . . + cos(x n ),


n  2, n N,
.
5. ,

1. :
4
1



1)
x+

x2 + x

ee > e2 .

x2 + x

3
;
x

2) xex + ex +

1 2
x 1 = 0;
2

150

. 2.

1
3) 4x2 + 2x + 1 + 2 = 2x + 3 ;
4x

4) log3 (2n + 1) + log5 (4n + 1) + log7 (6n + 1) = 3n, n N;




5) (4x + 2)(2 x) = 6; 6) x + 3 + x = 3;

1
4
7) log12 ( 2x + 2x ) = log9 2x;
2


5
6
8) 4x + 3 = 27 2x ; 9) xx + x1x = x + 1;

x
1
10) |6x 5| = 4 sin ; 11) + 2 x = 3y(1 ln y);
12)
2.
1)
2)
3)
3.

ln x
= ecos y ;
x

13) 4x + 1 = 2x+1 sin y .

:
(a b)(a + b c)2 c + (b c)(b + c a)2 a;
(1 + x2 )y 2 + 2(x y)(1 + xy) + 1;
(x2 1)2 + (y + 1)(4x y 1).

4.
1)
3)
5.

x2 = y 3 , 
x + y 2 + 3 x2 y = 26.

5
x + 4 + 3x + 1= 9; 2) x
+ x2 + 1 = 0;
x 1 +
4x + 1 + x 2 = 1; 4) 3x + 2 2x 1 = 4.
:


1) x3 + 4x 16 > 0;

2) x3/2 (1 x) <

2
5

27
;
125

3) x 1 < log6 (x3 + 3), x Z;


4) log5 (1 + 4x ) > log16 4x;

5) x27 + x18 + 448 < 0; 6) 4x + 5 + 3x + 12 > 4;


6
1 + log2 (2 + x)
>
;
2x + 1
x
1 + log3 (x + 6)
9
10)
>
.
3x + 2
x

7) 2x + 3 < ln(x3 + 9), x Z;


9)

6 3x+1
10
>
;
x
2x 1

8)

6. , 0 < x < /2, :




2x2

2
1) sin x > x
; 2) x + cos x >
1
;

2
24

1
2
x
3) tg x + sin x > x; 4) cos x < 2 cos ;
3

5) sin 2x <

3x x2

sin x
x2
6)
>1 ;
x
4

7) sin 2x <

8) tgn x + ctgn x  2 + n2 cos 2x, n N;


x3
< tg x;
3

1
1
+ = 1, p > 0, q > 0;
p
q
2
1
11) sin x > x; 12) tg x tg3 x < x;

9) p tg1/p x + q ctg1/q x  1,
10) x +

2
3x x2

5.
1
1
tg3 x + tg5 x;
3
5
1
1
1
3
5
14) tg x tg x + tg x tg7 x < x;
3
5
7

151

13) x < tg x

15)

sin x
x

3

 cos x.

7. :

1) n x n a < n x a x > a > 0;


2) (1 + x) + (1 x)  2 |x| > 1 0   1;
3) 2ab ln

b
< b2 a2 b > a > 0;
a

4) e2x <

5) ex > 1 x x < 0;
6) 2x4 4x3 + 3x2 + 4x + 1 > 0 x > 0;

1+x
0 < x < 1;
1x

x2 ex
x  0;
2
1
1
1
8) sin
2 sin + sin
> 0 n  2, n N;
n

1
n
n
+
1

1+x
a + bx
 abx a > 0, b > 0, x > 0;
9)
1+x


a + 2b + 3c + 4d 10
a > 0, b > 0, c > 0, d > 0;
10) ab2 c3 d4 
10
2
2
1

11) (sin2 x)sin x (cos2 x)cos x  x = n, n Z;


2
2
x3
12) x
< arctg x < x x > 0; 13) ex > ex x > 1;
3

ln2 a
a2 1

a  1;
14) (ln a) 2 +
3
a
2x
x2
x  0; 16) ex  1 + x +
x  0;
15) ln(1 + x) 
2+x
2

7) ex  1 + x +

17) a4 + b4  a3 b + ab3 ; 18) (a + b + c)2  3(a2 + b2 + c2 );



 

1 2
1 2
25
+ b+
 , a + b = 1, a > 0, b > 0;
19) a +
a

20) (a + b)p  ap + bp , a > 0, b > 0, 0  p  1;


2
2
2
9
21)
+
+

, a > 0, b > 0, c > 0;
a+b

b+c

c+a

a+b+c

22) cos(sin x) > sin(cos x);


1
1
23) 2x + 2 > 5 0 < x < ;
x

24) x5 + (1 x)5  1/16, x R;


25) 2x4 4x3 + 3x2 + 4x + 1 > 0 x > 0;
26) ln(1 + x) < x x > 0.
8. , : 



1) tg 55 > 1,4; 2) 6 + 6 + . . . 6 + 6 < 3;





1986

3) sin3 1 + sin3 4 > sin3 2 + sin3 3 ; 4) ln 2 < 0,72.

152

. 2.

9. :
1) x3 7x2 + 16x 12 = 0; 2) x4 6x2 8x 3 = 0;
3) x4 + 6x3 + x2 24x + 16 = 0; 4) x4 9x3 + 23x2 3x 36 = 0;
5) x4 6x3 + 10x2 8 = 0; 6) x5 x4 5x3 + x2 + 8x + 4 = 0;
7) x5 15x3 + 10x2 + 60x 72 = 0.
10. a
:
1) x4 4ax3 2 = 0; 2) 2x3 3ax2 + 1 = 0; 3) ln x = ax;
4) ex = ax2 ;
5) cos3 x sin x = a, x [0; ];
6) x3 3x = a;
5
3
2 x
x
7) 3x 50x + 135x = a; 8) x e = a; 9) a = loga x;
x
10) ex = ax; 11) 3x4 + 4x3 36x2 = a; 12)
= a.
ln x
11. a,
:
1) 2x3 13x2 20x + a = 0, ;
2) 2x3 4x2 30x + a = 0, ;
3) x2 x ln x + a = 0, ; 4) 10x = ax, ;
5) ax = x, ; 6) 6 arctg x x3 + a = 0, .
12. ,

2 2 cos x + 10 6 cos x = 10 6 cos 2x


[/2; ].
13. ,
4x3 5x2 6x + 3 = 0
[2; + ).
14. ,

x4 3x3 6x2 + 14x + 12 = 0


.
15. , 4q 3 + r 2 = 0,

x3 + 3qx + r = 0
2.
16. , r(4p3 + r) = 0,

x3 + 3px2 + r = 0
2.
17. ,

x3 + px + q = 0
4p3 + 27q 2 > 0
4p3 + 27q 2 < 0.
18. ,
, , .

5.

153

19.

y=

ax2 + bx + c
,
px2 + qx + r

, A, ,
B , A < B .
20. ,
x = 0 x = 1
,
0 1.
21. Pn (x) n n .
, Pn (x) + aPn (x) = 0, a = 0,
n ( ).
22. :
1) 1 2 3 + 2 3 4 + 3 4 5 + . . . + (n 2)(n 1)n;
2) x + x2 (1 + x) + x3 (1 + x + x2 ) + . . .
. . . + xn (1 + x + x2 + . . . + xn1 ), x = 1.
23. 1
f (x), |f (x)|
[1; 1] .
24. , , , ,
.
25. , pn qn , R
, n  3

2
1
pn < 2R < pn + qn .
3

26. :
1) y = x y = 1/x;
2) y = x2 y = x 1;
3) y = x2 y = 2x 4.
27. , ln x = sin x [3/2; 7/2]
.
28. ,
3x tg x > 1,75
[0; /2] .
29. a,

x 2 + 8 2x = a
.

154

. 2.

30. a,

2x 1  x + a
.
31. a,

x>a

3x 1 > 2a.

32. , :
1) | sin sin |  2| |, 0   1, 0   1;
2)

< tg tg <
, 0 < < < .
2
cos2
cos2

33. (a; b), :


1) aex + b = eax+b ; 2) a sin x + b = sin(ax + b)
x.
34. f (x) = (x3 3x2 + 2) ln(x2 2x + 3). , 

f (x) + f  (y) = 0,
x2 + y 2 = a
a  2.
35. f : R R, :

f (1) = 1, f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y) + xy


x y .
36. (a; b)

f (x) = A sin x + B sin 2x + C sin 3x


. A, B C .
37. , , [0; 1]
(0; 1), f (0) = 0. , a, 0 < a < 1, f (a) < f  (a).
38. f (x) [0; 1] (0; 1), f  (x) = 0 x (0; 1). ,
a, 0 < a < 1, |f (a)| < |f  (a)|.

1.
f (x) [a; b]. n
x0 , x1 , . . ., xn1 , xn , . .

a = x0 < x1 < x2 < . . . < xn1 < xn = b.


xk [xk1 ; xk ]; xk = xk xk1 .
, dn ,
[xk1 ; xk ], . .

dn = max xk .
k

[xk1 ; xk ], k = 1, 2, . . . , n, k ; k = 1, 2, . . . , n f (k )
f (x) k xk , Sn
f (x) , . .

Sn = f (1 )(x1 x0 ) + f (2 )(x2 x1 ) + . . . + f (n )(xn xn1 ) =


n

=
f (k )(xk xk1 ).
k=1

, n N Sn =
n

=
f (k )xk [a; b]
k=1

k .
f (x), [a; b],
: n
, [a; b], dn
, Sn
, [a; b] n
n N 1 , 2 , . . ., n .
f (x)
b
a b f (x) dx; b a a

156

. 3.

, f (x)
.
,
n
b

f (x) dx = lim
f (k )xk .

;
dn 0

k=1

;;;;;;;
;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;;;

,
,
.
.
, [a; b] y = f (x),
( ) , x = a x = b Ox (. 3.1, ).
. ( , . 3.2.)

. 3.1

, ,
n

Sn =
f (k )(xk xk1 ).
k=1

k- Sn xk xk1
f (k ), k = 1, 2, . . . , n; Sn
, n
(. 3.1, , n = 5). , , [a; b] dn ,
Sn
.

-

1.

157

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;;;;;;
. 3.2

b

f (x) dx, S

, , . . S =

b

f (x) dx.


, ,
y = x2 [a; b] Ox.
1.
b

xm dx, m = 0, 1, 2, b > 0.

. y = xm
[0; b] ,
b m
x dx 0

.
) m = 0 (. 3.3, ),
b 1. b.
b
1 dx . 0

[0; b] n 1 ,
2 , . . ., n (. 3.3, , n = 6), Sn

. 3.

; ; ; ; ;; ;;
; ; ; ; ;; ;;
; ; ; ; ;; ; ;
; ; ; ; ;; ;;
;;;;;;;;
; ;; ;; ;;
;;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;;;
; ; ; ; ;; ;;
;;;;;;;;

158

. 3.3

Sn =

n


f (k )(xk xk1 ) =

k=1

n


1 (xk xk1 ) = (x1 x0 ) +

k=1

+ (x2 x1 ) + . . . + (xn xn1 ) = xn x0 = b 0 = b.

, n N Sn = b,
b
1 dx = lim Sn = lim b = b.
0

b
0

dn 0

1 dx = b.

) m = 1 ,
b (. 3.4, ). b2 /2.

;;;;;;;;
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. 3.4

b
0

x dx . -

Sn

1.

159

[0; b] n 1 , 2 , . . ., n ,
n N [0; b] n (. 3.4, ,
n = 4); xk = b/n xk = kb/n. k = xk = kb/n;
f (k ) = kb/n, Sn
Sn =

n


f (k )xk =

k=1

1 + 2 + . . . + n =

Sn =

n

kb
k=1

b
b2
= 2 (1 + 2 + . . . + n).
n
n

n(n + 1)
,
2

b2 n(n + 1)
b2 n + 1
b2

=
=
2
2
2
n
2
n



1
b2
b2
1+
= + ;
2

2n

b
0

b
x dx = lim Sn = lim
dn 0

b

, x dx =
0

b2
b2
+
2
2n


=

x dx,

b2
b2
1
b2
+
lim
= .
2
2 n n
2

b2
.
2

) m = 2 , y = x2 , Ox x = b
(. 3.5, ). . , , b
x2 dx, .
0

[0; b] n (. 3.5, , n = 5).


xk = b/n xk = kb/n. k = xk = kb/n,
f (k ) = k2 b2 /n2 . Sn

Sn =

n

k=1

f (k )xk =

n

k 2 b2
k=1

12 + 22 + . . . + n2 =

b
b3
= 3 (12 + 22 + . . . + n2 ).
n
n
n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
,
6

Sn =

b3 n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
b3 (n + 1)(2n + 1)
b3

=
6
6
6
n3
n2




1
1
.
1+
2+
n

160

. 3.

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. 3.5

b

x dx = lim Sn = lim
0

b
0

dn 0

b3
6



!
1
1
b3
= .
1+
2+
n

x2 dx = b3 /3; y = x2

Ox [0; b] b3 /3.

1.

161

, . . ,
y = f (x), x [a; b],
,
x = a x = b Ox (. 3.6, ). , ,

n

Sn =
f (k )(xk xk1 ).
k=1

k- f (k )xk Sn xk xk1
f (k ), k = 1, 2, . . . , n, n Z. Sn ,
, (. 3.6, , n = 2); , ,

;;;;;
;;;;;
;;;;;
;;;;;
;;;;;

;;;;;
;;;;;
;;;;;
;;;;;
;;;;;
;;;;;
. 3.6

b
f (x) dx, S .
a

, f (x)  0 [a; b], ,

b

f (x) dx,

S y = f (x)
b
[a; b] Ox, , . . f (x) dx = S .
a

,
y = f (x), x [a; b], , . , (. 3.7, ), a < c < d < b, f (c) = 0,
f (d) = 0; [a; c) (d; b] f (x)
, (c; d)
.

Sn =

n


f (k )xk .

k=1

, Sn [a; b]
11 .

162

. 3.

;;;
;;;
;;;

. 3.7

Sn . n N n  3
[a; b] ,
c d. Sn , , [a; c] , [c; d]
(1)
(2)
(3)
[d; b], Sn , Sn , Sn .

dn [a; b].
n ,
[a; b], dn ,

. S1 (S2 , S3 )
y = f (x), x [a; c] (x [c; d], x [d; b]) Ox
(. 3.7, , n = 9),

lim Sn(1) = S1 ,

lim Sn(2) = S2 ,

(1)

(2)

(3)

Sn = Sn + Sn + Sn
,
b

lim Sn(3) = S3 .

f (x) dx = S1 S2 + S3 .

, y = f (x), x [a; b],


, , b
f (x) dx
a

y = f (x), x [a; b], Ox, Ox,


, Ox.
, y = f (x), [a; b],
. 3.8,

1.

163

;;;;
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;; ;;
;; ;;
;; ;

;; ;;
;;;;;;
;;;;
. 3.8

b

f (x) dx = (S2 + S4 ) (S1 + S3 + S5 ).

y = f (x),
[a; a],
Oy ,
a

a

f (x) dx = 2 f (x) dx.

, y = f (x), [a; a],


. 3.9, ,

a

a

f (x) dx = (S1 + S1 ) (S2 + S2 ) = 2(S1 S2 ) = 2 f (x) dx.

y = f (x), [a; a],


,
a

f (x) dx = 0.

, y = f (x), [a; a],


. 3.9, ,

a


f (x) dx = (S1 + S2 ) (S2 + S1 ) = 0.

y = f (x), T ,

a+T

a

T


f (x + a) dx = f (x) dx.
0

, y = f (x) T , . 3.9, ,
11*

164

. 3.

a+T


f (x) dx = (S5 + S2 ) (S4 + S6 + S1 + S3 ) =

a
T


= (S2 + S5 ) (S1 + S3 + S4 + S6 ) = f (x) dx.


0

;;
;;
;;

;;
;;

;; ;
;; ;

;;
;;;;
;;

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;;; ;;;
;;
;;
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;;;;

;;;

;;;
. 3.9


a

f (x) dx = f (x) dx, a > b;

b

f (x) dx -

, b > a.
b

b

a

f (x) dx = f (x) dx = 0, a = b.


( ).
1. a < b < c, (. 3.10)
c

b

2.
k .

c

f (x) dx = f (x) dx + f (x) dx.


a

b
a

b

kf (x) dx = k f (x) dx,


a

1.

165

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. 3.10

3. f (x) = g (x) + h(x),


b
a

4.

b

b

f (x) dx = g (x) dx + h(x) dx.


b

b

b

f (x) dx = f (y) dy = f (z) dz ,

. .
.
5. f (x)  g (x), x [a; b], a < b,
b

b

f (x) dx  g (x) dx.

, f (x)  0, x [a; b], a < b,


b

f (x) dx  0.

6. f (x) < g (x), x [a; b], a < b,


b

b

f (x) dx < g (x) dx.

, f (x) > 0, x [a; b], a < b,


b

f (x) dx > 0.

7. a < b,

 b
b


 f (x) dx  |f (x)| dx.
a

166

. 3.

2.
b

xm dx, m = 3, 4, 5, . . . ,

a b , b > a > 0, m
.
. .
a

xm dx.

, [0; a] n .

x0 = 0, x1 =

a
,
n

a
n

x2 = 2 ,

... ,

a
n

xn1 = (n 1) , xn = a;

k = xk (k = 1, 2, . . . , n).
dn = a/n n .
Sn
k
n 


k ma
1m + 2m + 3m + . . . + nm
Sn =
a
= am+1
.
m+1
n

k=1

(. , . 1, 4)
1m + 2m + 3m + . . . + nm
1
=
,
n
m+1
nm+1

lim

a
xm dx = lim Sn =
n

b

xm dx =
0

1
am+1 .
m+1

1
bm+1 .
m+1

1 ,

b

b

a

x dx = x dx xm dx =
m

bm+1 am+1
.
m+1

. [a; b]

x0 = a, x1 = aqn , x2 = aqn2 , . . . , xn1 = aqnn1 , xn = aqnn = b,



qn = n b/a > 1, k = xk1 , . . k = aq k1 (k =
= 1, 2, . . . , n). dn = aqnn aqnn1 =

1.

167


= b(1 n a/b ) n + .
n + :
Sn =

n


(k )m (aqnk aqnk1 ) =

k=1

= am (aqn a) + (aqn )m (aqn2 aqn ) + . . . + (aqnn1 )m (aqnn aqnn1 ) =

= am+1 (qn 1)(1 + qnm+1 + qn2(m+1) + . . . + qn(n1)(m+1) ).

n qnm+1 ,

Sn = am+1 (qn 1)

qnn(m+1) 1
bm+1 am+1
= (qn 1) m+1
.
m+1
qn 1
qn 1

b

xm dx = (bm+1 am+1 ) lim

qn 1
.
1

m+1
n qn

n
qn
qn 1
1
=
;
qnm+1 1
1 + qn + qn2 + . . . + qnm

, , qn 1 n (. , . 1,
4),

b
xm dx =

1
(bm+1 am+1 ).
m+1

3.

b

1
dx,
x

0 < a < b.

. 2, [a; b]

x0 = a, x1 = aqn , x2 = aqn2 , . . . , xn1 = aqnn1 , xn = aqnn = b,



qn = n b/a >
1. dn = aqnn

n
n1
aqn = b(1 a/b ) n + .

168

. 3.

Sn ( k = xk1 ):

Sn =

n
1 
k=0

1
aq k

(aq k+1 aq k ) =

n
1

(qn 1) =

k=0


= n(qn 1) = n

b

1
dx = lim n
n
x


n

b
1 .
a

b
1 .
a

(. , . 1, 4)


b
b
lim n n
1 = ln b ln a = ln
a

b

1
b
dx = ln .
x
a

1. ,

lim

x1

b

x1
1
=
,
m+1
xm+1 1

1
1
dx =
(bm+1 am+1 ),
xm
m + 1

m = 2, 3, . . . .

2. 2
3 (b > a > 0, R)
 1
b
(b+1 a+1 ), = 1;

+1
x dx =
ln b ln a,
= 1.
a
4.
2

(5x + 2) dx.

. 3, 2,

2
3

(5x + 2) dx =

2
3

5x dx +

2
3

2 dx = 5

2
3

x dx + 2

2

dx.
3

1.

169

2
x dx =

1 2
1
5
(2 (3)2 ) = (4 9) = ,
2
2
2

2

dx = 2 (3) = 5,

2
(5x + 2) dx =

25
5
1
+ 10 = = 2 .
2
2
2

5.

2

x3 + x + x2 + 1
dx.
1 + x2

I=
2

.
x(x2 + 1) + (x2 + 1)
x3 + x + x2 + 1
=
= x + 1.
2
1+x
1 + x2

2
I=

2
(x + 1) dx =

2
x dx +

dx =

1 2
(2 (2)2 ) + (2 (2)) = 4.
2

6.
x+
1

(y 3 + 4) dy =

11
.
4

.
x+
1

x+
1

(y + 4) dy =
x

x+
1

y dy +
x

4 dy =

1
((x + 1)4 x4 ) +
4

+ 4(x + 1 x) =

(x + 1)4 x4 + 5 = 0.

1
((x + 1)4 x4 ) + 4,
4

170

. 3.

t = x + 1/2; :

(t + 1/2)4 (t 1/2)4 = 5,
2

[(t + 1/2) (t 1/2)2 ][(t + 1/2)2 + (t 1/2)2 ] = 5,


2t(2t2 + 1/2) = 5,
4t3 + t + 5 = 0.
t = 1,
4t3 + t + 5 = (t + 1)(4t2 4t + 5).
x = 3/2.
7. , y =
= 2x2 + x + 1, x = 1, x = 3 .
. y = 2x2 + x + 1
[1; 3], S
3

(2x2 + x + 1) dx.

3, 2,
3

3

3

3

3

3

S = 2x2 dx + x dx + 1 dx = 2 x2 dx + x dx + 1 dx.

3

1
26
x dx = (33 13 ) = ,
3
3
2

3
x dx =

1 2
(3 1) = 4,
2

3

1 dx = 3 1 = 2,

S=

52
52 + 18
70
1
+4+2=
=
= 23 .
3
3
3
3

8. ,

y=

1 2
x + 1 y = x + 3.
2

. S ,
1
. 3.11. x2 + 1 = x + 3 2

: 1 5 1 + 5 . ,

1+ 5

S = S1

1 5

1 2
x +1
2

dx,

1.

171

;;;;
;;;;
;;;;
;;;;
;;;;
. 3.11

S1 ABCD. (. 3 2)

1
S = (1 + 5 + 3 + 1 5 + 3)(1 + 5 (1 5 ))
2

1+ 5

1 5

1 2
x dx
2

1+ 5

1
1 dx = 4 2 5
2

1 5

1+ 5

x2 dx

1 5

1
(1 + 5 1 + 5 ) = 6 5 ((1 + 5 )3 (1 5 )3 ) =
6

16
20
10
5 =
5 =
5.
=6 5
6

9. P (x0 ; y0 ) ,
y = x2 ,
,
.
. , P ,
y = k(x x0 ) + y0 , y = x2


y = k(x x0 ) + y0 ,
y = x2 .

;;;;;
;;;;;
;;;;;
;;;;;
;;;;;
;;;;;
;;;;;
;;;;;
;;;;;

, x1 x2
. 3.12
x2 kx + kx0 y0 = 0 (. 3.12).
k
,

k2 4(kx0 y0 ) = k2 4kx0 + 4y0 = (k 2x0 )2 + 4(y0 x20 ) > 0;


P (x0 ; y0 ) y = x2 ,
y0 > x20 .

172

. 3.

(. 3.12)

S = S1

x2

x2 dx,

x1

S1 ABCD.

S=

1 2
1
1
(x + x22 )(x2 x1 ) (x32 x31 ) = (x2 x1 )3 .
2 1
3
6

x2 x1 =



1
1
(k + k2 4kx0 + 4y0 ) (k k2 4kx0 + 4y0 ) =
2
2

=

S=

k2 4kx0 + 4y0 ,


3
1  2
k 4kx0 + 4y0 .
6

, S
k = 2x0 ,
k2 4kx0 + 4y0 ;

3
1
Smin =
y0 x20 .
27

, k = 2x0 , P (x0 ; y0 ), y = x2
(x0 ; x20 ).
10.
, . .

(a + b)n = an + Cn1 an1 b + Cn2 an2 b2 + . . . + Cnn1 abn1 + bn .

(1)

. .
n = 2 .
k > 2 , (1) n = k 1
(1) n = k. ,
b

k(a + x)k1 dx = (a + b)k ak ,

b

(a + b)k = ak + k(a + x)k1 dx.


0


k2
1
k2
k2
(a + x)k1 = ak1 + Ck
x + . . . + Ck
+ xk1 .
1a
1 ax

1.

173

(. 3, 2 2)
b

k2
1
k2
k2
(a + b) = a + k (ak1 + Ck
x + . . . + Ck
+ xk1 ) dx =
1a
1 ax
k

0
1
k2
= ak + kak1 b + kCk
1a

k1
b2
k2 b
+ . . . + kCk
a
+ bk .
1
2
k1

0  m  k
k m
k(k 1)(k 2) . . . (k m + 1)
k(k 1)(k m + 1)
C
=
=
= Ckm ,
m k1
m(m 1)!
m!

(a + b)k = ak + Ck1 ak1 b + . . . + Ckm akm bm + . . . + bk .


, (1) n.
11. , 0 < a < b,
2ab ln

a
< b2 a2 .
b

. (x 1)2 = x2 2x + 1 > 0 x > 1, ,


2x2 ,
2
1
x +1
<
x
2x2

x > 1.

6 , c > 1

c
1

1
dx <
x

c
1

c
1

x2 + 1
dx =
2x2

c 
1

1
1 1
+ 2
2
2 x

c
1

x2 + 1
dx.
2x2

dx
= ln c,
x

c
1
1
dx = +
2
2
2

c
1

dx
=
x2

c
1
1
1
c2 1
+1 =
,
= +
2
2
2
c
2c

ln c <

c2 1
2c

c > 1.

c = b/a .

174

. 3.

12. f (x) [a; b],


a < b. (. 7)

 b
b


 f (x) dx  |f (x)| dx.
a

|f (x)|  f (x)  |f (x)|, x [a; b],


5 ,
b

b

b

b

|f (x)| dx = (|f (x)|) dx  f (x) dx  |f (x)| dx.


,

 b
b


 f (x) dx  |f (x)| dx,
a

.
1

1.
:
/
2
2
2
1)
sin x dx; 2) 2x dx; 3) x4 dx;
1

4) x(1 x2 ) dx; 5)
0

2
1

dx
;
x

1
e

6) ln x dx.
1

2.
3

x3 dx

n

k=0

f (k )(xk+1 xk ) -

:
1) [0; 3] k
, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n;
2) [0; 3] k
, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n;
3) [0; 3] k
, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n;

n
4) [0; 3] xk = q k , q = 3 ,
k , k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n;

1.

175

5) [0; 3] , . 4), k , k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n;
6) [0; 3] , . 4), k
, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n.
2

1.
:
b
x
b
a
1) ekx dx; 2) cos x dx; 3) xn dx; 4) xex dx;
0

5)

b

ln x
dx, 0 < a < b;
x

b

6)

dx
, 0 < a < b.
x2

2.
4

x4 dx

n

k=0

f (k )(xk+1 xk ) -

:
1) [2; 4] k
, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n;
2) [2; 4] k
, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n;
3) [2; 4] k
, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n;

n
4) [2; 4] xk = 2q k , q = 2 ,
k , k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n;
5) [2; 4] , . 4), k , k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n;
6) [2; 4] , . 4), k
, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n.
3

1. , :
1
2
|x 1| dx;
1) arccos x dx; 2)
3

3)

1
1

x4

x dx; 4)

2/2
( 1 x2 x) dx.
0

176

. 3.

2. :
1)
3)

1

1/2
1

dx

1

1/2

arccos x dx

dx
;

3
x

1

2)

1
1
1 + x2 dx x dx;
0

arcsin x dx; 4)

1
1/2

ln x dx

1
1/2

ln2 x dx?

3. , {an }, n N, ,
:



1

2
n1
n!
+ . . . + sin
; 2) an =
;
sin + sin
1) an =
n
n
n
1 1/n
2/n
+ e + . . . + en/n );
3) an = (e
n 

1
1
1
4) an =
1 + + ... +
.
n
n
2

4. ,

1
lim

n
0

xn
dx
1+x


= 0.

1.
, :

2/2
4
1)
arcsin x dx; 2) ||x 2| 1| dx;
2

3)

0
2

x2

0
dx; 4) ( 1 x2 x 1) dx.
1

2. :
1/2
2 2
dx
1

; 2) ex x dx 2e;
1)
3)

0
1
0

1 x2

x+1
dx 9;
x+2

4)

/
2

e sin x dx /2?

3. , {an }, n N, ,
: 



1
1
2
n
1) an =
1 + + 1 + + ... + 1 +
;
n
n
n
n


n

k
k
1
2
2n 1
2) an =
1+
;
sin 2 ; 3) an = 2 + 2 + . . . +
2
k=1

4) an =

1+

n
n

3
2 + 3 + ... + 3 n
.

3 4
n

1.

177

4. ,

 x
1
x

lim

x0

cos t dt = 1.
0


1.
:
/
b
b
1
2
cos x dx;
1) sin x dx; 2) xk dx; 3) ex dx; 4)
a

1

5) (x3 + x) dx; 6)
0

/
2

sin x

2x

dx.

2. , {an }, n N, ,
:
1
1
1
1) an =
+
+ ... +
;
n+1
n+2
n+n
13
23
(4 n 1 )3
;
2) an = 4 + 4 + . . . +
n
n
n4
n
n
n
3) an = 2
+ 2
+ ... + 2
;
n + 12
n + 22
n + n2
1
1
1
+
+ ... + 
;
4) an = 
4n2 
1
4n2 
22
4n2 n2

5) an =

3
1+
n

6) an = n

n
+
n+3

7) an = n2

+ ... +

n
;
n + 3(n 1)


;
2

(n + 2)2
(n + n)

1
1
n
+ 2
+ ... + 2
;
(n2 + 1)2
(n + 2)2
(n + n)2

(n + 1)

n
+ ... +
n+6

1
1
1
;
8) an = 1 +
+ ... +
2
2 n
n
cos
cos

9) an = 
10) an =

4n

n2 0
1

+1

+

n2 1

+

4n

n2 4

+ ... + 

(1 + 2 + . . . + n ), > 1.

3. :

1 0
1
1
1
C Cn1 + Cn2 . . . + (1)n
C n;
2 n
3
4
n+2 n
1
1
1
1
2) Cn0 + Cn1 + Cn2 + . . . +
C n;
2
3
4
n+2 n

1)

12 .

n2

(n 1)2

178

. 3.
1 1
1
1
C + Cn2 . . . + (1)n
C n;
3 n
5
2n + 1 n

2
m
+ . . . + cos
.
4) cos + cos
n
n
n

3) Cn0

4. , :
1

9 tt2

1) (2t 1) e
3)

0
/
8

/8

5)

2

dt = 0; 2)

1

x6 sin x dx = 0; 4)

sin3 x dx = 0; 6)

1

1

1

0
/
2


0

dt
=
1 + t2

dt
, x > 0;
1 + t2

1
ecos x dx = 2 ecos x dx;

cos5 x dx = 0; 7)

0
1/2

cos x ln

1/2

8) (1 x)m xn dx = xm (1 x)n dx =
9)

1/x


m! n!
, m, n N;
(m + n + 1)!

cosn x cos(n + 2)x dx = 0, n N;

n1
10) In =
In2 n  2, In =
n

/
2

sinn x dx;

1

3 2
11)
x sin5 x dx = 0; 12) arctg(cos x) dx = 0;
13)
15)
16)

1
2

1/2
1


0

x2 1

dx = 0;
1 + x8

14)

0
10


0,1

1

17)

5. , :
1)
3)

<
128
e
<
3

5)

ln x
dx = 0;
1 + x2

(cos x) ln(x + 1 + x2 ) dx = 0;

x sin x
2
dx = ;
2
4
1 + cos x

e
1

/
2

sin10 x dx <

/4

dx
e
< ;
ln x + 2
2

2
<
11

1
1

;
4

ln(1 + x)

dx = ln 2.
8
1 + x2
2
1

1
5

4) <

sin x
2
dx < ;
x + 10
9

2) 2 < 2x dx < 16;

6)

3
2

dx
1 + x 2x2

3
<
2

2
1/2

1+x
dx = 0;
1x

<

1
;
14

4x
dx < 48;
x

1.

7)
9)

3

2
<
25

dx
2
< ;
16
(x2 4x + 8)2

1

1 + x4 dx <

11)

1

x2

dx < 1; 14) sin 1 <

1

0
/
3
0

cos x
dx < 2 sin 1;
1 + x2

x dx
1
< ;
20
x x + 20

10

2

1

16)

1
<
5

sin(x2 ) dx > 0; 18) 0,7 <

0
/
2

dx
3

>
;
2
2
cos x 3 + sin x

1
20) ln2 2 <
2

1
0

xex

3)


0

5)

x2 sin x dx
x2

1

3 11

5

21) ex dx > 5 +
0

3
2

1

53
55
+ .
3
10

x sin2 x dx;

cos x dx

2

ex cos2 x dx; 4)

cos x
2 + x2

7)

1
0

dx


1
3

2 ; 6)

x2

arctg x dx

x3

2
3

; 8) x2 ex dx
0

arcctg x dx?

sin x


dx
;
5
5
2
2
x +2

e dx
1
(e 1);
(x + 1)(2 x)
2

1

dx


0

1

7. :
3
3
1) sin 3x cos
x + cos
 3x + sin x; 

;
2) tg x + tg x
+ tg x +
12*

dx <

9)

x2

sin(x2 ) dx < 1,3;

6. :
1
1
2
1) ex sin x dx ex sin x dx;
2)

25 x +

ln(1 + x)
1
dx < ln 2;
2
2
1+x

42

1+x

1

5
3

x3 + 1 dx  ;

6
2 5
; 10) x2 sin x dx 
;

20


19)

1

4
1 + x20
43
(1 + x3 ) sin x dx  2 + ; 12) 1 <
dx < ;
10

2
13) <
3

17)

1 + x2

15)

1

8)

179

1
;
3

180

. 3.
3
cos 2x;
4

3) sin 3x sin3 x + cos 3x cos3 x

4) 1 3(sin4x + cos4 x) +2(sin6 x + cos6x);




2
3
;
5) tg x + tg x +
+ tg x +
+ tg x +
6)

sin2 x

4
1

sin2 x +


+
3

4
1

sin2 x

8.
:
1

arccos 
1 + x2
1) arctg x =
1

arccos 
1 + x2

arcctg ,
x 
2) arctg x =
arcctg 1 ,
x


.
3

, x  0,
, x  0;

x > 0,
x < 0;

3) arcsin 
arccos 
= 0, x  0;
2
1 + x2
1 + x
1+x
4) 4 arctg
2 arcsin x = , |x| < 1;
5) arcsin

1x
2x

1 + x2

= 2 arctg x, |x|  1;

6) 2 arctg x + arcsin

2x
1 + x2

= , x > 1.

2.
. 2 . ,
,
.
F (x) f (x) , x

F  (x) = f (x).
, , a,
,
F (x) x = a f (a); , b
, F (x)
x = b f (b).
(. . 2, 1) ,
. , F (x) = x2 f (x) = 2x (; + ),

2.

181

F (x) = cos x f (x) = sin x (; + ).

1. f (x) = 1/ 3 x
(0; + ).
3
. F (x) = x2/3 . (x ) = x1 ,
2
x > 0
F  (x) =

3 2 2/31
1
x
= x1/3 =
.
3
2 3
x
3

F (x) = x2/3
2

f (x) = 1/ 3 x x> 0.
,
3 2/3
3 2/3
3 2/3
x + 1,
x + 7,
x + 2
2
2
2

f (x) = 1/ 3 x x > 0.
3
C x2/3 + C
2



3 2/3
1/ 3 x ,
x +C =
2


3 2/3 
1
1
=
x
+ C =
+
0
=
.

3
3
2
x
x

2. f (x) = x
[0; + ).
2
. F (x) = x3/2 . x > 0
3



2
2 3
F  (x) =
x3/2 = x1/2 = x ,
3

F (x) f (x) (0; + ). , F (x)


f (x) [0; + ), ,
F+ (x) F (x) x = 0 f (0) = 0.

F (x) F (0)
2
2
F+ (0) = lim
= lim
x = lim x = 0.
x0
x>0

x0
x>0

3 x0
x>0

3. , F (x) = 5 ctg x
f (x) = 1/ sin2 x (0; ).
. x (0; )


1
1
F  (x) = (5 ctg x) = 5 (ctg x) = 0 2
= 2 = f (x).
sin x

sin x

, ,
f (x) , , .

182

. 3.

.
F (x) f (x)
I . :
1) C

F (x) + C
f (x) I ;
2) G(x) f (x) I

G(x) = F (x) + C ,
C .
, f (x)
I F (x), f (x)
F (x) + C , C .
:
y = f (x)
Oy (. 3.13).

. 3.13

4. f (x) = x , x  0, ,
(9; 7).
.
2
, x
F (x) =

2
x x + C,
3

C .

2.

183

. 3.14.
,
(9; 7),

2
9 9 + C = 7,
3
C = 11. , 2
F (x) = x x
3
11.
5. f (x) = sin x F (x), , F (1) = 3.
. (cos x) = sin x,
C F (x) = cos x + C
. 3.14
f (x) = sin x. F (1) = 3 , 3 = cos 1 + C .
, C = 3 + cos 1 ,
. . F (x) = 3 + cos 1 cos x.
.
f (x) , f (x), ;
, f (x).
F (x) - f (x);
F (x) + C , C ,
1
f (x). , x3 + C
3
x2 .
f (x)
f (x)


. .

f (x) dx,

f (x) dx = F (x) + C.

,
. C ,
, . ,
. 
f (x) dx f (x) .

184

. 3.




f (x) dx = f (x),
. . .
,
, , ,
.

:


1) dx = x + C ; 2) x dx =
3)

dx

 x

x+1
+ C,
 + 1

= ln |x| + C , x = 0; 4) ax dx =


= 1;
x

a
+ C , a > 0, a = 1;
ln a

5) ex dx = ex + C ; 6) cos x dx = sin x + C ;


7) sin x dx = cos x + C ;


dx

= tg x + C , x = + k, k Z;
2
2
cos x

dx
= ctg x + C , x = k, k Z;
9)
2
sin x
dx
x
10) 
= arcsin + C , a > 0, |x| < a;
a
a2 x2

dx
1
x
= arctg + C , a = 0;
11)
a
x2 + a2
 a 

dx
1
x a
12)
=
ln 
 + C , a = 0, |x| = |a|.
2
2
2
a
x+a
x a

8)


,
.
, , 3). x > 0 ln |x| = ln x

(ln |x| + C) = (ln x + C) = 1/x.


x < 0 ln |x| = ln(x)

(ln |x| + C) = (ln(x) + C) =

1
1
(1) = .
x
x

, x = 0

(ln |x| + C) = 1/x,


. . 3) .
, , .

() .

2.

185

1. , . .


(f (x) + g (x)) dx = f (x) dx + g (x) dx.

2. k, k = 0, , . .


kf (x) dx = k f (x) dx.
. , , ,


(f (x) + g (x)) dx = f (x) dx + g (x) dx

. T (x)
f (x) + g (x) F (x) G(x)
f (x) g (x) , T (x) = F (x) + G(x). , - F (x) G(x) f (x) g (x) T (x)
f (x) + g (x), T (x) = F (x) + G(x). ,
:


(f (x) + g (x)) dx = F (x) + g (x) dx,




f (x) dx + g (x) dx = F (x) + g (x) dx,

F (x) f (x).
, 
g (x) dx, . ,


x dx = (x + 0) dx = x dx + 0 dx = x dx + C.

, ,


x dx = x dx + 5,

x dx = x dx + 7.

, ,
0 = 5, 0 = 7.



kf (x) dx = k f (x) dx, k = 0;

,


kf (x) dx = k f (x) dx = kF (x) + C ,

F (x) f (x).

186

. 3.

6.



x2


4 sin x dx.

. . 1 2 (
),





1
1
1
4 sin x dx =
dx + (4 sin x) dx = + (4 sin x) dx =
x
x2
x2

1
1
1
= 4 sin x dx = 4( cos x) + C = + 4 cos x + C ,
x

C .
. f (x) = 1/x2
g (x) = 4 sin x , , F (x) = 1/x
G(x) = 4 cos x. F (x) + G(x) =



x2

x2

1
+ 4 cos x
x

4 sin x. ,


1
4 sin x dx = + 4 cos x + C.
x

 7. :

1) (x2 + px + q) dx; 2)

5
2

2x + 7

dx.

. 1) 1 2,


(x2 + px + q) dx = x2 dx + px dx + q dx = x2 dx + p x dx + q dx.
, 2) ,


2)

(x2 + px + q) dx =

5
dx =
2
2
2x + 7

1 3
p
x + x2 + qx + C.
3
2

5
=
7
2
2
x +

dx


x2 +

dx
 2 .
7
2

11)


5
5 2
2x
dx = arctg + C.
2
2x + 7

2 7

8. F (x), :
1) F  (x) = 6x + 3 F (2) = 4;
2) F  (x) = 9x2 + 4x 10 F (1) = 10.

2.

187

. 1) F (x)


F  (x) dx = (6x + 3) dx = 3x2 + 3x + C ,

C0 , F (x) = 3x2 + 3x + C0 .
C0 F (2) = 4; 4 = 6 + C0 .
C0 = 2. , F (x) = 3x2 + 3x 2.
2)


F  (x) dx = (9x2 + 4x 10) dx = 3x3 + 2x2 10x + C.

C0 ,

F (x) = 3x3 + 2x2 10x + C0 .


F (1) = 3(1)3 + 2(1)2 10(1) + C0 = 9 + C0 ,


F (1) = 10 C0 = 1. , F (x) = 3x3 +
+ 2x2 10x + 1.
.
1.


f ((x)) (x) dx,




f ((x)) d(x),

(x) y ( y ) ;
y (x).
d(x) =  (x) dx.
, ,




dx
d(ln x)
dy
1
1
 dx
=
(ln
x)
=
=
= +C =
+ C;
y
ln x
x ln2 x
ln2 x
ln2 x
y2



cos x dx
(sin x) dx
d(sin x)
=
=
=
1 + sin2 x
1 + sin2 x
1+ sin2 x
dy
=
= arctg y + C = arctg(sin x) + C.
2
1+y

188

. 3.

2.


f (x) dx,

x = (t), (t) ,
t = (x). ( t),
t (x).
9.

dx
.
1+ x

. t = x ; x = t2 dx = 2t dt.




dx
2t dt
1
=
dt = 2t 2 ln |1 + t| + C =
=2 1
1+t
1+t
1+ x

= 2 x 2 ln(1 + x ) + C.
 10. :

1) cos 4x dx; 2) (3x + 2)3 dx.
. . :



1
1
cos 4x d(4x) =
cos y dy =
1) cos 4x dx =
4

1
1
sin y + C = sin 4x + C ;
4
4



1
1
3
3
3
(3x + 2) d(3x + 2) =
y dy =
2) (3x + 2) dx =
3
3
1 4
1
y +C =
(3x + 2)4 + C.
=
12
12

. 1) t = 4x, x = t/4 dx = d(t/4);




 
t
1
1
1
cos 4x dx = cos t d
cos t dt = sin t + C = sin 4x + C ;
=
4

2) t = 3x + 2, x =

t2





1
1
1 4
(3x + 2)3 dx = t3 d
t3 dt =
t2 =
t +C =
3

12

1
(3x + 2)4 + C.
12

,

:

2.

1)

dx
=
x
 ln x

189

d(ln x)
= ln | ln x| + C ;
ln x 

1
sinn+1 x + C ;
n
+
1


1
1
sin mx dx =
sin mx d(mx) = cos mx + C ;
m
m




x dx
1
d(x2 )
1 d(1 x2 )



=
=
= 1 x2 + C ;
2
2
2
2
2
1x
1x
1x


(ax + b)n+1
1
n
n
(ax + b) dx =
(ax + b) d(ax + b) =
+ C;
a 
a(n + 1)

1
1
sin(ax + b) dx =
sin(ax + b) d(ax + b) = cos(ax + b) + C ;
a
a


dx
1 d(ax + b)
1
=
= ln |ax + b| + C ;
ax + b
a
ax + b
a





 d tg x
dx
dx
dx
 x
2
=
=
=
=
ln
tg
 + C.
sin x
2
2 sin x cos x
2 tg x cos2 x
tg x

2) sinn x cos x dx = sinn x d(sin x) =


3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

.
11.

F (x) = sin 3x cos3 x + cos 3x sin3 x.


. ;

F  (x) = 3 cos 3x cos3 x 3 sin 3x cos2 x sin x


3 sin 3x sin3 x + 3 cos 3x sin2 x cos x =
= 3(cos 3x cos x sin 3x sin x) = 3 cos 4x.
F (x)

3 cos 4x, 3 cos 4x dx, . .
3

sin 4x + C .
4
C , x
3
sin 4x + C = sin 3x cos3 x + cos 3x sin3 x.
4

, , x = 0, , C = 0. ,

sin 3x cos3 x + cos 3x sin3 x =

3
sin 4x.
4

12.

F (x) = (x + a + b)3 (x + a b)3 (x a + b)3 (x + a + b)3 .


. :

f (x) = F  (x) =
= 3(x + a + b)2 3(x + a b)2 3(x a + b)2 + 3(x + a + b)2 ,

190

. 3.

f  (x) = 6(x + a + b) 6(x + a b) 6(x a + b) 6(x + a + b) 0.



0 dx = C f (x) , C0 , x f (x) = C0 . , x = 0 24ab = C0 . ,
f (x) = 24ab. 
24ab dx = 24abx + C , C1 ,
x
F (x) = 24abx + C1 .
, F (0) = 0; , C1 = 0.
, F (x) = 24abx, . .

(x + a + b)3 (x + a b)3 (x a + b)3 (x + a + b)3 = 24abx.


13.

tg x + 2 tg 2x + 4 tg 4x + 8 tg 8x = ctg x 16 ctg 16x.


.

f (x) = tg x + 2 tg 2x + 4 tg 4x + 8 tg 8x



f (x) dx = tg x dx + tg 2x d(2x) + tg 4x d(4x) + tg 8x d(8x).

3)


f (x) dx = ln | cos x| ln | cos 2x| ln | cos 4x| ln | cos 8x| + C =


= ln | cos x cos 2x cos 4x cos 8x| + C =


 sin 2x sin 4x sin 8x sin 16x 
= ln 
+C =
 2 sin x 2 sin 2x 2 sin 4x 2 sin 8x
 sin 16x 
= ln 
 + C = ln | sin 16x| + ln | sin x| + ln 16 + C.
16 sin x

, 3),


f (x) = f (x) dx = 16 ctg 16x + ctg x.
.
f (x) g (x) , .

(f (x)g (x)) = f  (x)g (x) + f (x)g  (x),


, ,

(f  (x)g (x) + f (x)g  (x)) dx = f (x)g (x) + C ,

2.

. .

191

f  (x)g (x) dx + f (x)g  (x) dx = f (x)g (x) + C ,

f  (x) dx = df (x) g  (x) dx = dg (x), ,


. 185 ,


f (x) dg (x) = f (x)g (x) g (x) df (x).

; .
14.

x ln x dx.

. f (x) = ln x x dx = dg (x). df (x) = dx/x


g (x) = x2 /2.
 2


 2
x
x2
x
x ln x dx = ln x d
ln x
d(ln x) =
=
2
2
2

x2
x
x2
x2
=
ln x
dx =
ln x
+ C.
2


x ln x dx =

x2
2



1
ln x
+ C,
2

15.


eax sin bx dx.

.
(f (x) = eax , g (x) = cos bx)


1
a
eax sin bx dx = eax cos bx +
eax cos bx dx =
b
b

1
a
a2
= eax cos bx + 2 eax sin bx 2 eax sin bx dx.
b

,

1
eax sin bx dx = 2
eax (a sin bx b cos bx) + C.
2
a +b

16.



a2 x2 dx.

192

. 3.

. (f (x) =
a2 x2 , g (x) = x)




2x
a2 x2 dx = x a2 x2 x 
dx =
2 a2 x2

 2


x2
x a2 + a2
= x a 2 x2 + 
dx = x a2 x2 + 
dx =
a2 x2
a2 x2

 2

dx
a x2
= x a 2 x2 + a 2 

dx.
a2 x2

a2 x2

,



x
2
2
2
2
2
a x dx = x a x + a arcsin
a2 x2 dx.
a



x 2
a2
x
a2 x2 dx =
a x2 +
arcsin + C.
2

, :

x ln x dx = ln x d

1)

x4
4


=

2)

3)

1
4

1 4
x ln x
4

x4 d(ln x) =

1 4
1 4
x ln x
x + C;
4
16

arctg x dx = x arctg x x d(arctg x) =




x
1 d(x2 )
dx = x arctg x
=
= x arctg x
2 1 + x2
1 + x2

1 d(x2 + 1)
1
= x arctg x
= x arctg x ln(1 + x2 ) + C ;
2


x +1

x sin x dx = x d( cos x) = x cos x ( cos x) dx2 =




= x2 cos x + 2 x cos x dx = x2 cos x + 2 x d(sin x) =





= x2 cos x + 2 x sin x sin x dx = x2 cos x + 2x sin x + 2 cos x + C ;
4)

x2 ex dx = x2 d(ex ) = x2 ex ex d(x2 ) = x2 ex 2 ex x dx =




= x2 ex 2 x d(ex ) = x2 ex 2 xex ex dx =
= x2 ex 2xex + 2ex + C = (x2 2x + 2)ex + C.

2.

193

xn lnm x dx,

xn ex dx,

xn sinm x dx,

enx cos mx dx,




xn cosm x dx,

enx sin mx dx.

1. x :


dx
2
1)
= ln x + C ; 2)
x dx = x x + C ?
3

2.
1)
3.

:


(f  (x) + g  (x)) dx; 2) (f  (x)g (x) + g  (x)f (x)) dx.
:

x
x
cos t2 dt, x > 0.
1) ln t dt, x > 0; 2)
1

1/x

4.
ex

f (x) =
0

t4 16
dt.
1+t

5. :
1) cos2 (/4 x) sin2 (/4 x) = sin 2x;
1

2) cos4 x = cos 4x + cos 2x + .


8
2
8
6.

Cn0

1 1
1
1
1
C + Cn2 Cn3 + . . . + (1)n
C n.
2 n
3
4
n+1 n

1. x :
1)

dx
= ln |x| + C ;
x

2. :
1)

f  (x)
dx;
f (x)

2)

dx
= tg x + C ?
cos2 x

2) f (x)f  (x) dx.

13 .

194

. 3.

3.
:

1)

x
2

sin t
dt,
t

x > 0; 2)

x2
1

dt
.
1 + t3

4.
x

f (x) = (t 1)(t 2)2 dt.


0

5. :
1) tg x + 2 tg 2x + 4 tg 4x + 8 ctg 8x = ctg x;
1

2) sin4 x = cos 4x cos 2x + .


8
2
8
6.

Cn0 +

1 1
1
1
C + Cn2 + . . . +
C n.
2 n
3
n+1 n

1. :

x
1) arcsin x = arccos 1 x2 = arctg 

1 x2

2) arccos x = arcsin 1 x2 = arctg

=


= arcctg
1 x2
=
x

= arcctg 

3) 2 arcsin x = arccos(1 2x2 ), 0  x  1;


4) 2 arccos x = arccos(2x2 1), 0  x  1;


1 x2
, 0 < x < 1;
x

x
1 x2

1
1+x
arccos x = arccos
, 0  x  1;
2


2
arccos x + /4, x  1/2 ,
x + 1 x2

6) arccos
=
arccos x /4, x  1/ 2 .
2

5)

2. :
1) x sin x  1 cos x  x 2 sin x,
1
2) sin x  x( x),
2

0  x  /2;

0  x  /2;

3) cos x + ln cos x  1 x2 , 0  x < /2;


4) x + cos x > /2(1 2 /24), 0 < x < /2;
5) sin x > x

x3
,
4

0 < x < /2.

, 0 < x < 1;

2.

195

1. :
1
x
1) arctg x = arcctg = arcsin 
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

1
= arccos 
, x > 0;
x
1 + x2
1 + x2
1
1
x
arcctg x = arctg = arcsin 
= arccos 
, x > 0;
x
1 + x2
1 + x2
1 x2
2 arctg x = arcctg
, x > 0;
2x
x2 1
, x > 0;
2 arcctg x = arcctg

2x
1
1+x + 1x
arcsin x = arccos
, 0  x  1;
2
2
/4, x > 1,
1x
arctg x + arctg
=
3/4, x < 1.
1+x

2. :
1
5 2

, <x< ;
1) ln(2 sin x) > x( x)
2
1
2

72

;
2

2) ln(cos x)  x2 , 0  x <
3)
4)
5)

2 sin x  /2 + (x /2) cos x, 0  x  /2;


sin x > x 2x2 / , 0 < x < /2;

2 1 + x  1 + x/2 x2 /8, |x| < 1.

:

1) (3x + 4x2 3x3 + 2) dx = 3x2 /2 + 4x3 /3 3x4 /4 + 2x + C ;



2) (x + 2)2 x dx = (x2 + 4x + 4)x dx = (x3 + 4x2 + 4x) dx =
= x4 /4 + 4x3 /3 + 2x2 + C ;



x2
+ 4x x + 9x + C ;
3) ( x + 3)2 dx = (x + 6 x + 9) dx =

 


3x x
x2 x

dx =
+2

4
3
x
x 4x

4)


= ( 3 x1/2+1/31/4 + 2x2/5+1/21/31/4 )dx = ( 3 x7/12 + 2x19/60 )dx =




"
5)

12 3 12
120 60
=
x x7 +
x x19 + C ;
19
79

#

3
x x2
12x + 15x

dx =
+
6x
x4x


 x 
5
5x1/6+2/91/31/12 + 2x +
dx =
2

 x 

5
36 36
2x
(5 /2 )x
dx =
= 51/36 + 2x +
x35 +
+
+ C;
=

13*

ln 2

ln(5/2)

196


6)

. 3.


3

(2 x )
8

12 + 6 x x dx =
dx =
x
x

x2
+ C;
= 16 x 12x + 4x x
2

 2
 2

x dx
x +11
1
7)
dx = x arctg x + C ;
=
dx =
1 2
2
2
x +1
x +1
x +1





dx
cos2 x + sin2 x
1
1
=
dx =
+
8)
dx =
2
2
2
2
2
2
sin x cos x

sin x cos x

sin x

cos x

= ctg x + tg x + C ;



2
3
dx
=
+
dx = 2 tg x + 3 ln |x| + C ;
2
x
cos2 x
 x cos x  

1
10) tg2 x dx =
dx = x + tg x + C ;
1 +
2
cos x


 
1 x2 x2 + x4
1 x2
x2 (1 x2 )
dx =
dx
=

11)
1 x2
1 x2
1 x2



1
x3

=
x2 dx = arcsin x
+ C.

9)

2x + 3 cos2 x

1 x2

:


1
3
1) (x 4) dx = (x 4)3 d(x 4) = (x 4)4 + C ;
4

2)

x(x + 1)5 dx = (x + 1 1)(x + 1)5 dx =




= (x + 1)6 dx (x + 1)5 dx = (x + 1)6 d(x + 1)



1
1
(x + 1)5 d(x + 1) = (x + 1)7 (x + 1)6 + C ;
7

3) (4 3x)7 dx = (4 3x)7 d(4 3x) = (4 3x)8 + C ;


3
24

 



17 2x 3
3
17 2x 3
17 2x
dx =
d
4)
=
3
2
3
3


3 17 2x 4
+ C;
=

8
3

1
1
(x2 + 3)5 d(x2 + 3) =
(x2 + 3)6 + C ;
2 
12

1
1
6) sin(4x + 3) dx =
sin(4x + 3) d(4x + 3) =
cos(4x + 3) + C ;
4
4



 


5 7x
3
5 7x
5 7x
7) sin
sin
dx =
d
=
3
7
3
3


3
5 7x
+ C;
= cos
7
3


5) x(x2 + 3)5 dx =

2.


8) cos(4 5x) dx =

1
5

197

cos(4 5x) d(4 5x) =

1
sin(4 5x) + C ;
5

 





3x + /12
5
3x + /12
3x + /12
dx =
d
=
cos
9) cos
5
3
5
 5

3x + /12
5
= sin
+ C;
3
5


dx
1
d(3 2x)
1
=
= ctg(3 2x) + C ;
10)
2 sin2 (3 2x)
2
sin2 (3 2x)


dx
d(x/2 + 4)
=2
= 2 ctg(x/2 + 4) + C ;
11)
sin2 (x/2 + 4)
sin2 (x/2 + 4)


dx
4
d(5 3x/4)
4
=
=
tg(5 3x/4) + C ;
12)
3 cos2 (5 3x/4)
3
cos2 (5 3x/4)


dx
d(x/4 1)
=4
= 4 tg(x/4 1) + C .
13)
2
cos (x/4 1)
cos2 (x/4 1)

:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

7)








dx
1 d(14x 3)
1
=
=
ln |14x 3| + C ;
14x 3
14
14x 3
14

dx
5 d(4 2x/5)
5
=
= ln |4 2x/5| + C ;
4 2x/5
2
4 2x/5
2


1
1
e53x dx =
e53x d(5 3x) = e53x + C ;
3
3


5
3 + 4x
5
(3+4x)/5
(3+4x)/5
= e(3+4x)/5 + C ;
e
dx =
e
d
4
5
4

1
1
27x+3 dx =
27x+3 d(7x + 3) =
27x+3 + C ;
7
7 ln 2 

15
1 9x
(19x)/15
(19x)/15
5
dx =
5
d
=
9
15
15
5(19x)/15 + C ;
=
9 ln 5


1+

4
 3x + 1 2 = 3

dx

3x + 1
4
 3x + 1 2
1+
4

4
3x + 1
arctg
+ C;
3
4

dx
1
d(5x + 4)
1
8)
=
= arctg(5x + 4) + C ;
5 1 + ( 5 x + 4 )2
5
1 + ( 5 x + 4 )2


dx
1
d(5 7x)
1

=
= arcsin(5 7x) + C ;
9) 
7
7
1 (5 7x)2
1 (5 7x)2

198

. 3.

10)


1

1
5




12)

dx
16 (5x +

1


 5x 

=
 5x + 1 2
5
4

x dx
1 (x2 1)2

1
=
2

+ C;

5x + 1
4

+ C;

d(x2 1)
1

1 (x2 1)2

7
3 8x
arcsin
8
7

= arcsin
 5x + 1 2
5

d(x2 )

1
2

1
4
 5x + 1 
d

 3 8x 2

dx
=
 5x + 1 2

 3 8x 

1
4

1 )2


11)

dx
7
=
 3 8x 2
8

(x2

1 )2

1
arcsin(x2 1) + C .
2

d(x/a)
dx
1
dx
1
1
x
= 2
=
= arctg + C ;
2
2
2
a (x/a)2 + 1
a
a
x
+
a
a
(x/a)
+
1



dx
1
dx
d(x/a)

2) 
=
= sign a 
=
|a|
a2 x2
1 (x/a)2
1 (x/a)2


x
= sign a arcsin
+ C;
a


dx
dx
1
x

=
= arctg + C ;
3)
x2 + 10
x2 + ( 10 )2
10
10



dx
dx
d(x + 2)

4)
=
=
=
x2 + 4x + 9
(x + 2)2 + 5
(x + 2)2 + ( 5 )2
1
x+2
= arctg + C ;
5
5


dx
dx
=
=
5)


3 2
35
x2 3x + 11
x
+

1)

6)

dx
=
x2 6x + 19

 4 
d x 3
x 3
2
2
2

=
arctg
+ C;
 2


35
35 /2
3 2
35
x
+
2

dx
=
(x 3)2 + 10

d(x 3)

=
(x 3)2 + ( 10 )2
1
x3
+ C;
= arctg
10
10

2.

7)
8)

dx
3

dx
5 4x2

dx
x

= arcsin + C ;
3
( 3 )2 x2


1
dx
1
dx


=
=
=
2
2
5
( 5 /2)2 x2
x2

x2

199

9)

dx
3 2x x2

dx
4 (x + 1)2


=
10)

dx
15 + 4x x2


11)

3x2

d(x + 1)
22

dx

(x +

= arcsin

1 )2

x+1
+ C;
2

11 (x 2)2

d(x 2)
x2
= arcsin
+ C;
= 
11
( 11 )2 (x 2)2

1
=
3

dx
14 6x

1
2x
arcsin + C ;
2
5

dx
17
(x + 1)2
3

dx

14
2x x2
3

d(x + 1)
 
=
( 17/3 )2 (x + 1)2
1

x+1
+ C.
17/3

arcsin 

:




1 cos 2x
1
1
2
1) sin x dx =
dx =
dx
cos 2x d(2x) =
2

2) cos2 x dx =

1 + cos 2x
1
dx =
2
2

dx +

1
4

cos 2x d(2x) =
=

x
1
sin 2x + C ;
2
4
x
1
+ sin 2x + C ;
2
4

1
1
(2 sin2 x)2 dx =
(1 cos 2x)2 dx =
3) sin x dx =
4
4



1
1
1
1
= (1 2 cos 2x + cos2 2x) dx =
1 2 cos 2x + + cos 4x dx =
4
4
2
2



3
1
1
=
dx
cos 2x d(2x) +
cos 4x d(4x) =
8
4
32
4

= 3x/8 sin 2x/4 + sin 4x/32 + C ;

200

. 3.



1
1
sin6 x dx =
(2 sin2 x)3 dx =
(1 cos 2x)3 dx =
8
8

1
(1 3 cos 2x + 3 cos2 2x cos3 2x) dx =
=
8



1
3
3
dx
cos 2x dx +
(1 + cos 4x) dx
=
8
8
16

1
(1 sin2 2x) cos 2x d(2x) = x/8 3 sin 2x/16 + 3x/16 +

4)

16

+ 3 sin 4x/64 sin 2x/16 + sin3 2x/48 + C = 5x/16 sin 2x/4 +


+ sin3 2x/48 + 3 sin 4x/64 + C ;



1
1
4
2
2
(2 cos x) dx =
(1 + cos 2x)2 dx =
5) cos x dx =
4

 4
1
1
= (1 + 2 cos 2x + cos2 2x) dx = (1 + 2 cos 2x + 1/2 + cos 4x/2) dx =
4
4



3
1
1
dx +
cos 2x d(2x) +
cos 4x d(4x) = 3x/8 +
=
8


6)

32

+ cos 2x/4 + cos 4x/32 + C ;

1
1
cos x dx =
(2 cos2 x)3 dx =
(1 + cos 2x)3 dx =
8
8

1
(1 + 3 cos 2x + 3 cos2 2x + cos3 2x) dx =
=
8



1
3
3
dx +
cos 2x d(2x) +
(1 + cos 4x) dx +
=
8
16
16

1
(1 sin2 2x) cos 2x d(2x) =
+
16
6

x
3
3x
3 sin 4x
sin 2x
sin3 2x
+
sin 2x +
+
+

+C =
8
16
16
64
16
48
3
5x
sin 2x
sin 2x
3 sin 4x
=
+

+
+ C;
16
4
48
64


1
(cos 8x + cos 2x) dx =
7) cos 5x cos 3x dx =
2


1
1
cos 8x dx +
cos 2x dx =
=
2
2


1
1
sin 8x
sin 2x
cos 8x d(8x) +
cos 2x d(2x) =
=
+
+ C;
16
4
16
4

1
(cos 3x cos 11x) dx =
8) sin 4x sin 7x dx =
2


1
1
cos 3x dx
cos 11x dx =
=
2
2


1
1
sin 3x
sin 11x
cos 3x d(3x)
cos 11x d(11x) =
=

+ C;
6
22
6
22

2.

201

cos 8x sin 5x dx =
(sin 11x sin 3x) dx =
2


1
1
sin 11x dx
sin 3x dx =
=
2
2


1
1
cos 11x
cos 3x
sin 11x d(11x)
sin 3x d(3x) =
=
+
+ C;
22
6
22
6


1
(sin 5x + sin x) cos 4x dx =
10) cos 2x sin 3x cos 4x dx =
2

1
(sin 5x cos 4x + sin x cos 4x) dx =
=
2

1
(sin 9x + sin x + sin 5x sin 3x) dx =
=

9)

11)

cos 9x
cos x
cos 5x
cos 3x

+
+ C;
36
4
20
12

cos3 x sin2 x dx = cos2 x sin2 x cos x dx =




= (1 sin2 x) sin2 x d(sin x) =




sin3 x
sin5 x

+ C;
= sin2 x d(sin x) sin4 x d(sin x) =
12)

sin x cos x dx = cos x sin x sin x dx =




= cos4 x(1 cos2 x) d(cos x) =




cos7 x
cos5 x

+ C;
= cos6 x d(cos x) cos4 x d(cos x) =
13)

cos x sin x dx = cos x sin x sin x dx =




= cos5 x(1 cos2 x) d(cos x) =




cos8 x
cos6 x

+ C;
= cos7 x d(cos x) cos5 x d(cos x) =


14) cos x sin x dx = (sin x cos x) cos x dx =





1
1
1
3
3
sin 2x(1 + cos 2x) dx =
sin 2x dx +
sin3 2x cos 2x dx =
=
16
16
16


1
1
sin2 2x sin 2x d(2x) +
sin3 2x d(sin 2x) =
=
32
32

1
sin4 2x
=
(1 cos2 2x) d(cos 2x) +
=
32

128

cos 2x
cos3 2x
sin4 2x
=
+
+
+ C;
32
96
128

202

. 3.


15)



1 + cos 2x 2 1 cos 2x
cos4 x sin2 x dx =

dx =
2
2

1
(1 + cos 2x cos2 2x cos3 2x) dx =
=
8



1
1
1 1 + cos 4x
dx +
cos 2x d(2x)
=
dx
8
16
8
2

1
x
1
cos2 2x cos 2x d(2x) = +

sin 2x
16
8
16

1
1
1
(1 sin2 2x) d(sin 2x) =
x
sin 4x

16

64

16

x
sin 4x
sin3 x

+
+ C.
16
64
48

10

:


d(x2 + 1)
1
= ln(x2 + 1) + C ;
2
2
x
+
1

1
1 2
x 3
x2 3
2
2) xe
dx =
e
d(x 3) = ex 3 + C ;
2
2


1
cos(2 x2 ) d(2 x2 ) =
3) x cos(2 x2 ) dx =
2
1
sin(2 x2 ) + C ;
=
2


2
x dx
1
dx
1
4)
=
= arctg x2 + C ;
2 1 + (x2 )2
2
1 + x4


arctg3 x
1
dx = arctg x d(arctg x) = arctg4 x + C ;
5)
2
4
1+x


dx
d(ln x)
=
= ln | ln x| + C ;
6)
x ln x
ln x

sin(ln x)
7)
dx = sin(ln x) d(ln x) = cos(ln x) + C ;
x



sin x dx
d(cos x)
8) tg x dx =
=
= ln | cos x| + C ;
cos
x
cos x



cos x dx
d(sin x)
9) ctg x dx =
=
= ln | sin x| + C ;
sin
x
sin
x


dx
dx
d(tg x)
10)
=
=
= ln | tg x| + C ;
sin x cos x
tg x
tg x cos2 x


x



 d tg x
d
dx
1
dx

1)

x dx
1
=
2
2
1
+
x

2

11)

sin x

sin x cos x
2

=
tg x cos2 x
2

tg x
2



 x
= ln tg  + C ;
2

2.

203

dx
1
dx
=
=
sin(/2 x)
2 sin(/4 x/2) cos(/4 x/2)


d(/4 x/2)
d(tg(/4 x/2))
=
=
=
tg(/4 x/2)
tg(/4 x/2) cos2 (/4 x/2)
dx
=
cos x

12)

13)

= ln | tg(/4 x/2)| + C ;

sin3 x dx = sin2 x sin x dx = (1 cos2 x) d(cos x) =


= cos x +

cos3 x
+ C;
3



cos3 x dx = cos2 x cos x dx = (1 sin2 x) d(sin x) =
= sin x (sin3 x)/3 + C ;
 4

 5
2
15) cos x dx = cos x cos x dx = (1 sin x)2 d(sin x) =
14)

= (1 2 sin2 x + sin4 x) d(sin x) = sin x

2
1
sin3 x + sin5 x + C .
3
5

11

:



1) xex dx = x d(ex ) = xex ex dx = xex ex + C ;
 2

 2 x

2) x e dx = x d(ex ) = x2 ex ex dx2 = x2 ex 2 xex dx =


= x2 ex 2 x d(ex ) = x2 ex 2 (xex ex dx) = x2 ex 2xex + 2ex + C ;
3) x cos x dx = x d(sin x) = x sin x sin x dx =
= x sin x + cos x + C ;
 2
 2

2
4) x cos x dx = x d(sin x) = x sin x sinx d(x2 ) =
= x2 sin x 2 x sin x dx = x2 sin x + 2 x d cos x =
2
= x2 sin x + 2 (x cos
 x cos x dx) = x sin x + 2x cos x 2 sin x + C ;
5) x sin x dx = x d(cos x) = (x cos x cos x dx) =
= x cos x + sin



 x + C;
6) x2 sin x dx = x2 d(cos x) = x2 cos x cos x d(x2 ) =


= x2 cos x + 2 xcos x dx = x2 cos x + 2 x d(sin x) =
= x2 cos x + 2 (x sin x  sin x dx) = x2 cos x + 2x sin x + 2 cos x + C ;
1
x

7) ln x dx = x ln x x d(ln x) = x ln x x dx = x ln x x + C ;





1
1
x ln x dx =
ln x d(x2 ) =
x2 ln x x2 d(ln x) =
2
2


1 2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
x dx = x ln x
x dx = x2 ln x x2 + C ;
= x ln x


8)

9)

arctg x dx = x arctg x x d(arctg x) =




1
1 d(x2 + 1)
= x arctg x x
dx
=
x
arctg
x

=
2
2
1+x

x +1
1
= x arctg x ln(x2 + 1) + C ;
2

204

. 3.


1
arctg x d(x2 ) =
10) x arctg x dx =
2




1
1
1 2
1 x2 + 1 1
2
2
x arctg x x
dx = x arctg x
dx =
=
2
2
2
1 + x2
1 + x2


1
1
1
1
1
1
dx = x2 arctg x x + arctg x + C ;
1
= x2 arctg x
2
2

11)

1+x

arcsin x dx = x arcsin x x d(arcsin x) =




1
1 d(1 x2 )

dx = x arcsin x +
=
= x arcsin x x 
2
1 x2
1 x2
1
(1 x2 )1/2 d(1 x2 ) =
= x arcsin x +
2

= x arcsin x + (1 x2 )1/2 + C = x arcsin x + 1 x2 + C.

12

, ,
(a > 0)


x a2 x2
a2
x
2
2
a x dx =

arcsin + C
2

:


x 4 x2
x
4 x2 dx =
2 arcsin + C ;
1)

2
2
2
x
11

x
11
x
2) 11 x2 dx =

arcsin + C ;
2
2
11


2
x
13

x
13
x
13 x2 dx =

arcsin + C ;
3)
2
2
13



4)


x tg2 2 x2
tg2 2
x
tg2 2 x2 dx =

arcsin
+ C;
2


tg 2


x log21/7 5 x2
log2 5
5)
log21/7 5 x2 dx =
1/7 arcsin


6)



x sin2 11 x2
sin2 11
sin2 11 x2 dx =

arcsin
2

x
+ C;
log1/7 5

x
+ C;
sin 11



x2
1
7)
3x
dx =
18 6x x2 dx =
6
6


1
1
27 (x + 3)2 dx =
(3 3 )2 (x + 3)2 d(x + 3) =
=
6

 6
(x + 3) (3 3 )2 (x + 3)2
27
x+3

=
arcsin + C ;
2 6
2 6
3 3

2.

8)

205



5 (x + 4)2 dx =
5 (x + 4)2 d(x + 4) =

(x + 4) 5 (x + 4)2

x+4

arcsin + C ;
=
2
2
5


11 (x 5)2 dx =
11 (x 5)2 d(x 5) =
9)
=

10)

11
x5
arcsin
+ C;
2
11

19
x+3
arcsin
+ C;
2
19

15
x2
arcsin
+ C.
2
15



10 6x x2 dx =
19 (x + 3)2 d(x + 3) =
=

11)


(x 5) 11 (x 5)2


(x + 3) 19 (x + 3)2
2



11 + 4x x2 dx =
15 (x 2)2 d(x 2) =
=


(x 2) 15 (x 2)2
2

13

:



1) (2x + 3) dx; 2) (x2 3x + 5) dx; 3) (1 x)2 x dx;



 

1
2
2
1
(1 2x)2
4)
+

;
5)
x
+
;
6)
dx;
dx
dx

4
2
3
3
x

2x

7) (4 e ) dx; 8) (2 + 2
x

3x

+ 2 ) dx; 9)

x x
3 2x 2 3x
dx;
2x

dx

x
dx; 12)
;
2
sin2 x cos2 x



dx
dx
dx
dx
13)
; 14)
; 15) 
; 16) 
;
2
5x2 + 7
3x2 4
2x + 1
3x2 4


 2

dx
x4
x +3
dx
17) 
; 18)
dx
;
19)
dx
;
20)
.
1 x4
1 + x2
x4 + 2x2 3
2 5x2

10) (2 sin x 3 cos x) dx; 11) cos2

14

:


1) (2x3 3x2 + 6x 6) dx; 2) (1 x)(1 2x) dx;






3
1
1
(1 + x )2
x 3 x2 1
3)

2
;
4)
dx
;
5)
dx;
dx

3
x
x
x2
x3





ex
6) (e2x 2 3x ) dx; 7) 2x 3x 5x dx; 8) ex 2
dx;
x


sin2 x 4 cos2 x
x
cos
2
x
9)
dx; 10) sin2 dx; 11)
dx;
2
sin x 2 cos x
2
sin2 x cos



 x
dx
dx
dx
dx
12)
; 13)
; 14) 
; 15) 
;
2x2 + 3
5x2 7
1 + 3x2
1 3x2


206

. 3.


dx
x4 dx

; 17)
;
2 5
1 x2
2
x

 
1 + x2 + 1 x2

dx.
20)
1 x4

16)

18)

1 + 3x2
dx;
x4 1

19)

dx
;
x4 + x2 6

15

:


dx
; 2) sin 5x dx; 3) (1 x)7 dx; 4) x(1 2x)5 dx;
2x + 3




(x + 2)2
dx
dx
dx
dx; 6)
;
7)
;
8)
;
5)
2
2
x1
x +x+1
2x + 4x 7
1 + 2x x2



(x + 1) dx
2x 1
; 10)
dx; 11) x 1 x2 dx;
9)
x2 + 1
x2 + 3x + 4


 3
1 dx
x dx
dx
;
12) cos3 x dx; 13) sin
;
14)
; 15)
8
x x2
(
1
+
x) x
x 2


 3

sin x
ln x dx
dx
16) tg x dx; 17)
dx; 18)
; 19)
;
x
x ln x
1 + cos2 x




2
x3 dx
dx
2x + 3
; 22)
; 23)
dx;
20) xex dx; 21)
4
7
sin x
4x 7
(x + 1)

dx

24)
.
1+x x1

1)

16

:
1)

dx
;
1

3x


2) cos 7x dx;

5) x2 1 x dx; 6)


3) (x + 3)11 dx;

dx
; 7)
2
x x+1


dx
2x2

x+6


4) x(2x 3)8 dx;


; 8)

2x 3

x2 4

dx;

(1 2x) dx

; 10) x 1 + x2 dx; 11) sin3 x dx;
x2 2x + 4

 2


1 dx
x dx
dx

12) cos 2 ; 13)


;
14)
;
15)
ctg x dx;
x x
(1 x) x
x6 + 4




3
cos x dx
ln x dx
dx
16)
;
17)
;
18)
;
19)
x2 ex dx;
2
x
x ln x ln(ln x)
4 + sin x



x2 dx
dx
3x 4
; 21)
; 22)
dx;
20)
cos x
5x + 3
(x3 + 2)3


dx
ex dx

23)
, x < 0; 24)
.
1 + ex
x 1 + x2
9)

2.

207

17

, :




1) ln(x + 1) dx; 2) x ln x dx; 3) x2 ex dx; 4) x sin x dx;




x
5) x cos2 x dx; 6)
dx; 7) ex cos x dx; 8)
x2 4 dx;
2
sin
x


2 x2 dx; 10) arccos x dx.
9)
18

, :




1) ln x dx; 2) x ln(x + 1) dx; 3) x 3x dx; 4) x cos x dx;




x
dx; 7) ex sin x dx; 8)
x2 + 3 dx;
5) x sin2 x dx; 6)
2
cos

 x
5 x2 dx; 10 arcsin x dx.
9)
19

:




sin2 x
1) x2 1 x dx; 2) cos x sin x dx; 3)
dx;
cos4 x





dx
x
; 7)
4)
4 + x2 dx; 5)
2 3x2 dx; 6)
dx;

3
8)

x2
dx;
(1 + x2 )3/2

9)

ex + 1
dx;
ex 1

10)

1+

x
dx


.
x x2 1

20

:




cos2 x
1) x2 3 1 x dx; 2) sin2 x cos5 x dx; 3)
dx;
sin4 x




dx
dx
; 7)

3 x2 dx; 5)
5 + 2x2 dx; 6)
;
4)
4
8)

dx
;
(1 + x2 )3/2

9)

2ex 1
dx;
3ex + 1

10)

1 x
dx

.
x 1 + x2

x+


1. :
1)
4)
7)

1 x3
dx; 2)
1x


x4 + x4 + 2


x3
2 3 4 3x
dx;
5 x 6 2x
x

2x

1+x

3
dx; 3)




1 
1 2
x x dx;
x

dx; 5) (5x 2x )2 dx; 6)


8)

22x1 32x+5
6 2x

1 sin 2x dx, x (0; /2); 9)

dx;

dx
;
sin2 2x

208

. 3.

10)





11) 3 sin x +
dx;

sin2 x dx
;
 1 cos x

12)

x4
dx;
x 4
2

dx
;
(x2 1)(x2 3)


 
dx
1 + 2x2
1 x2

;
17)
dx
;
18)
dx.
16)
4
2
2
2
x + 4x + 3
x (1 + x )
1 x4

13) tg2 x dx;

14) ctg2 x dx; 15)

2. :



(x + 3) dx
x dx
(2 + x) dx
1)
; 2)
; 3) (3x + 5)11 dx; 4) 
;
(x + 2)(x 1)
1 + 2x
1 5x
 



5) 17 (1 + 4x) dx; 6) x 1 3x dx; 7) x2 1 + x dx;





2x 3
2x 3

8)
dx
;
9)
dx
;
10)
x 1 x2 dx;
2
x +4

x2 + 4


x dx
x+2
;
13)
dx;
1 + x4
x2 4x + 7


 x
dx
dx
e + e2x

; 15)
; 16)
dx;
14)
x(2 + ln x)
1 ex
x ln x



1
17) sin2 x cos 3x dx; 18) sin x sin 4x dx; 19) sin x dx;
x



11) x 1 + x2 dx; 12)



21) (sin x + 3 cos x)2 dx; 22) ex sin ex dx;

20) sin2 x dx;

23)

dx
;
sin2 7x

24)

3. :

1) x2 2 x dx;

1
dx;
cos 3x

2)

x3

25)

dx
;
sin x + cos x

26)

1
dx.
1 + cos x

dx; 3) sin3 x 3 cos x dx;

1 x2



1
1
sin2 x
dx
4)
dx; 5)
dx; 6)
dx; 7) x/2
;
4
4
6
cos
x
sin
x
cos
x
e
+ ex



dx
dx
8) 
; 9) x5 (2 5x3 )2/3 dx; 10)
;
3 + sin x
1 + e2x





x2 dx
1 x2
1 + x2
; 12)
dx
;
13)
dx
;
14)
tg5 x dx;
11) 
x2
x3
4 x2



cos x dx
dx
dx

; 16)
; 17)
;
15)

3
1 + cos x
1+ 1+x
1+ 1+x


 2
dx
1 x7
x +1
; 19)
dx; 20)
dx;
18)
7
3
x(1 + x )
x4 + 1
x(x + 2)



x2 + 1
dx
dx


21)

x4 + x2 + 1

4. :

1)  ln2 x dx;

dx; 22)

; 23)

(1 + x2 )3/2


x2 ln(1 + x) dx; 3) arctg
x dx;

1
4) arcctg x dx; 5) x ln 1 +
dx; 6) x arctg x dx;
x



7) x arcsin x dx; 8) sin(ln x) dx; 9) x2 sin 2x dx;
2)

(x2 + 1)2

3.



11) x2 arccos x dx; 12) arctg x dx;





2
13) e2x sin2 x dx; 14) x2 e2x dx; 15) x3 ex dx;




1+x
16) x ln
dx; 17) e x dx; 18) x sin x dx;

10)

19)

209

arcsin x
dx;
x2

1x
1
x arccos dx;
x

5. , :
1) xk lnm x dx =

20)

x2
dx.
(1 + x2 )2

1
m
xk+1 lnm x
k+1
k+1

xk lnm1 dx,
k R, k = 1, m N;

b sin bx + a cos bx ax
2) eax cos bx dx =
e
+
C
;
2
2

a +b
a sin bx a cos bx ax
e + C;
3) e sin bx dx =
a2 + b2


dx
1
x
2n 1 1
dx
4)
=

, n N;
2n
(x2 + a2 )n+1
2na2 (x2 + a2 )n
a2 (x2 + a2 )n


xm
1
5) 
dx = xm1 1 x2 +
m
1 x2

m1
xm2

dx, m  2, m N;
+
m
1 x2

a sin bx b cos bx
6) xn eax sin bx dx = xn eax

a2 + b2


na
nb
xn1 eax sin bx dx + 2
xn1 eax cos bx dx.
2
2
2
a +b
a +b


ax

3.
f (t) [a; b] , a < b;
x (a; b) [a; x].

x

f (t) dt, a  x  b,

x [a; b].
,
,
:

#
"x


f (t) dt

= f (x), a  x  b.

14 .

210

. 3.

,

.
,
. ,
f [a; b]
.

x


(x) = f (t) dt, a  x  b.


a

(x) , y = f (t) y = 0, t = a, t = x
(. 3.15, ).

. 3.15

x x ( . 3.15 x > 0);


(x) :

(x) = (x + x) (x) =

x+x


x

x+x


f (t) dt f (t) dt =

f (t) dt.

(x) , . 3.15, .
x f (x), (x) f (x)x; ,
(x)
f (x).
x

, f (x)
, x. ,
(x)
f (x) = lim
,
x0

3.

211

, , :
x
x t


e dt
ex
2
2

cos t dt = cos x ,
=
5

1 + t2

1 + x2

. .
, . .
.

b

I = f (t) dt, a < b,


a

f (t) [a; b].


x

(x) = f (t) dt, a  x  b.


a

I = (b). , (x) ,
I = (b).
,

 (x) = f (x),
(x)
f (x) [a; b]. , F (x) - f (x),

(x) = F (x) + C0 ,
C0 . (a) = 0, , C0 = F (a);

(x) = F (x) F (a).


, x = b
b

I = f (t) dt = F (b) F (a).


a

.
,
a < b. . , a = b :
a

0 = f (t) dt = F (a) F (a) = 0.


a
14*

212

. 3.

a > b a < b
: a > b,
b

a

f (t) dt = f (t) dt = (F (a) F (b)) = F (b) F (a),

.
,
F (b) F (a)
b
F (x)a = F (b) F (a).

b

b
f (x) dx = F (x)a .

.
,
b

b

f (x) dx,

b

f (t) dt,

f (u) du,

b

f (y) dy ,

...

.
. ,


1
1
x2 dx = x3 + C ,
z 2 dz = z 3 + C.
3

sin2 x cos x dx,

z = sin x


z 2 dz.

x3 /3 + C ,
z 3 /3 + C , z = sin x, . .

1
sin2 x cos x dx = sin3 x + C.
3

.
b
b
1. kf (x) dx = k f (x) dx, k = const.
a

b

b
b
2. [f (x) + g (x)] dx = f (x) dx + g (x) dx.
a

3.

3.

b
a

213

b b
f (x) dg (x) = f (x)g (x)a g (x) df (x).
a

4. (t)  (t)
[; ], a = (), b = () (t)
[a; b].
[a; b] y = f (x)
b

f (x) dx = f ((t)) (t) dt.

b

1
f (kx + c) dx =
k

kb+c


f (x) dx,
ka+c

k c , k = 0.
1. , n
:
) ln(1 + x) = x

x2
x3
xn
+
. . . + (1)n1
+
2
3
n

x

+ (1)

n
0

yn
dy ,
y+1

x (1; + );

x3
x5
x2n1
) arctg x = x
+
. . . + (1)n1
+
3
5
2n 1

x

+ (1)

n
0

y 2n
dy ,
y2 + 1

x R.

.
1 (x)n
, x = 1;
) 1 x + x2 . . . + (1)n1 xn1 =
2

) 1 x + x . . . + (1)
:
)
)

n1 2(n1)

1+x
1 (x2 )n

1 + x2

, x R,

1
xn
= 1 x + x2 . . . + (1)n1 xn1 + (1)n
, x = 1;
1+x
1+x
2n
1
2
4
n1 2(n1)
n x
1 + x2

= 1 x + x + . . . + (1)

+ (1)

1 + x2

x R.

1 2 :

214

. 3.

x

dy
x2
x3
xn
= ln(1 + x) = x
+
. . . + (1)n1
+
1+y
2
3
n

)
0

x
+ (1)

x
)

dy
1 + y2

= arctg x = x

yn
dy ;
y+1

2n1

x
x
x
+
. . . + (1)n1
+
3
5
2n 1

x
+ (1)

n
0

y 2n
dy ,
y2 + 1

.
2.

(x) =


t
t + z 2 dz dt.

x
0

t

z 2 dz =

1 3 t
1
z  = t3 .
3
3
0

x 
x
x

1 3
1
t + t dt = t dt +
(x) =
t3 dt =
3

1 2 x
1 4 x
1
1 4
t  +
t  = x2 +
x .
2
12
2
12
0
0

3. :
2 4

x dx; ) sin x dx.
)
1

. ) y = x4 1
y = x5 ,
5

2

1 2
1
33
x4 dx = x5  = (32 + 1) = .
5

3.

215

) , ( cos x) =
= sin x,


sin x dx = ( cos x)0 = cos + cos 0 = 2.

4.
/
4

dx
.
cos2 x

.
1
y =
y = tg x,
2
cos x

/
4

dx

/4
= tg x
= tg tg 0 = 1.
2
4
0
cos x

5.
4

1 cos 2x dx.

.
4

1 cos 2x = 2 sin2 x = 2 | sin x|,

1 cos 2x dx = 2

4

| sin x| dx.

1;
4
0

2

| sin x| dx = sin x dx

sin x dx +

3

sin x dx

4

sin x dx =


2
3
4




= ( cos x) ( cos x) + ( cos x) ( cos x) =
0

8 2 .
6.
2
0

|1 5x| dx.

= 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 8.

216

. 3.

|1 5x| =

1 5x, x  1/5,
5x 1, x > 1/5,

1
2

|1 5x| dx =

1/5

2

(1 5x) dx +

(5x 1) dx =

1/5

1
= 5
5

1/5

2
x dx + 5

0
1/5

x dx
1/5

1/5

dx =
1/5

1/5
2
x2 
x2 
dx 5  + 5 
2
2

2



1
=
2
5

1
1
54
51
9
10 5 + 500 5 90
410
41
5
+

=
=
= .
5
25 2
2
2 25
5
2 25
50
5

7.


x2/3 dx.

1
1

. x2/3 = |x|1/3 y = |x|1/3


, 8
1
1 
1
1
1+1/3 
x
23
3

1
/
3
1
/
3
x2/3 dx = |x| dx = 2 x dx = 2
= .
 =
4
2
1 
1+
1

3 0

8.

2
1

ex dx
.
1 + ex

. t = ex ; x [1; 2], t [e1 ; e2 ],


4

2
1

ex dx
=
1 + ex

2
1

d(ex )
=
1 + ex

e
2

e 1

dt
=
t+1
2

e
2

e 1

d(t + 1)
e
= ln(t + 1) 1 =
t+1
e
1

= ln(1 + e ) ln(1 + e

1 + e2
) = ln
= ln
1 + e1

e + e3
1+e


.

3.

217

9. :


sin2 nx dx; )
sin nx sin mx dx, n = m.
)

. )


1
sin 2nx 
1
= (1 cos 2nx) = sin2 nx,
x
2

2n

sin2 nx dx =



1
sin 2nx 
x
 = .
2
2n

sin nx sin mx =

1
[cos(n + m)x cos(m n)x].
2

n = m,

1
sin nx sin mx dx =
2

1
cos(m + n)x dx
2

1
=
2(m + n)

1
2(m n)


cos(m n)x dx =

cos(m + n)x d[(m + n)x]

cos(m n)x d[(m n)x] =

1
1


=
sin(m + n)x
sin(m n)x = 0.
2(m + n)
2(m n)

. ,
, .
, , [a; b] y = f (x) f (x) = F  (x)
x [a; b]. , ,


1 
1
arctg
=
, x = 0,
2
x

1+x

a, b, , ab > 0,

b
a

1
1 + x2



1 b
dx = arctg  ;
x

218

. 3.

a b, , ab < 0,


b
1
1 b
dx arctg  ,
2
1+x



1 
x = 0 arctg
=
a

, ,

b
a

1
1 + x2



dx
1
b
= (x 3)3 
4
3
a
(x 3)

a b, , [a; b]
x = 3, a b, , a < 3 < b,

b
a

dx
(x 3)4

, x = 3
.
10. a, a > 0, :
a
2
3
ex dx > ; ) (a2 (4 4a)x + 4x3 ) dx  12.
)
a

. )
a

a

ex dx = ex  = ea ea ,
a

ea ea > 3/2.
y = ea , y > 0, :

1
3
> .
y
2

(0; + ) y > 2; ea > 2. ,


a > ln 2.

3.

219

)
2

2

2

2

(a2 (4 4a)x + 4x3 ) dx = a2 dx (4 4a) x dx + 4 x3 dx =

x2 2
1 2
= a2 (4 4a)  + 4 x4  = a2 (4 4a) 2 + (2 2a) + 16 1 =
2 1
4
1

= a2 8 + 8a + 2 2a + 15 = a2 + 6a + 9 = (a + 3)2 .

, a, a > 0,
(a + 3)2  12.



a > 0,
a > 0,
a > 0,

(a + 3)2  12
a+32 3
a2 3 3

0 < a  2 3 3,

a (0; 2 3 3].
11. A B , f (x) =
3
= A 2x + B f  (1) = 2 f (x) dx = 7.
0

. f  (x) = A 2x ln 2, f  (1) = 2
1
1
, 2A ln 2 = 2, A =
. , f (x) =

ln 2

ln 2

2x + B . , F (x) = 2 2x + Bx
ln 2
f (x); ,
3
f (x) dx =
0

1
2

ln 2

3

2x + Bx  =


7 1

8
1
+ 3B 2 = 7.
ln2 2
ln 2

ln 2 = 7 (1 log2 e).
2
3
3
7
, A = log2 e B = (1 log22 e).
3

B =

12. :
) I1 =

/
4
/8

ctg2 2x dx; ) I2 =

3 

31x +

 2x1 
1
3

dx.

. ) x [/8; /4]

ctg2 2x =

cos2 2x
1 sin2 2x
1
=
= 2 1,
2
2
sin 2x
sin 2x
sin 2x

220

. 3.
/
4

I1 =
/8

sin2 2x

/
4

1 dx =
/8

dx
/4 1
x
=
2
2
/8
sin 2x

/
4

/8

d(2x)

=
8
sin2 2x

/4


1


= ctg 2x = ctg ctg
= .
2

/8

)
31x + (1/3)2x1 = 3 3x + 3 32x = 3(3x + 32x ),

3

3

3

I2 = 3 (3x + 32x ) dx = 3 3x dx + 3 32x dx =


0

3

= 3 3x d(x)

3
2

3

32x d(2x) = 3

1
3
3
3 33 + 3 36 +
=
ln 3
2
2

3x 3
3 3 2 x  3

 =
ln 3 0
2 ln 3 0

1
1
1
9

+
ln 3
9
18 27
2

1
1066
(54 1 + 2187) =
.
18 27 ln 3
243 ln 3

13.
1

I = x 1 + x dx.
0

. x 1 + x = (x + 1 1) 1 + x = (x + 1)3/2
(1 + x)1/2

2(x + 1)5/2
(x + 1)3/2 dx =
+ C,
5

2(x + 1)3/2
(x + 1)1/2 dx =
+ C,
3

I=



2
2
2
2
2
1 2
(x + 1)5/2 (x + 1)3/2  = 25/2 23/2 + =
5
3
5
3
5
3
0

8 2
4 2
4
4 2
4
4( 2 + 1)

+
=
+
=
.
=
5
3
15
15
15
15

14.

I=

a 

a2 x2 dx, a > 0.

3.

221

. 4 ;
x = a sin t, 0  t  /2. ,
. dx = a cos t dt,

I=a

/
2

cos2 t dt =

a2
2



sin 2t /2
a2
t+
=
.

2

.
b

f (x) dx = f ((t)) (t) dt,

. . x = (t), (t) ,

a = (),
b = ().
x = (t) , , .
[; ] ,
x = (t) .
.
15.

3/2

I=
1/2

dx

.
x 1 x2

. x = sin t, dx = cos t dt.




1
/2 = sin ,
3/2 = sin .
(; ),

= (1)k + k, k Z, = (1)m + m, m Z. ,
6

, = /6, = /3; [/6; /3]


x = sin t . , = /6 = /3
.

222

. 3.

[/6; /3] cos t > 0,


,
/
3

I=
/6

cos t dt
=
sin t cos t

/
3

/6


1 sin2 t = cos t. -


dt
t /3
2+ 3
= ln tg 
= ln
.
sin t
2 /6
3

, , = 5/6, =
= 2/3. t 5/6 2/3 x = sin t

, cos t < 0; , 1 sin2 t = cos t
2/
3

I=
5/6



dt
t 2/3
2+ 3
= ln tg 
= ln
.
sin t
2 5/6
3

, , = /6, = 2/3 ,
[/6; 2/3] x = sin t .
= /3 = 2/3 .
.
b

I = f (x) dx
a

t = (x), (x) , (a; b)


[a; b], :
= (a) = (b),
f ((t))  (t) dt, ((x)) = x. t = (x)
[a; b] , t = (x) I [a; b]
.
2 2
x dx
16.
1

t = x2 .
. t = x2 [1; 2]
, [1; 0]
[0; 2].

2

x2 dx =

0

2

x2 dx + x2 dx.

1
x2 = t, x = t [1; 0] dx = dt,
2 t

1
[0; 2] x = t dx = dt.
2 t

3.

223

0



0
0
2
1
1
1 2
1

dt =
x dx = ( t )
t dt = t3/2  = ,
0

2

2 t

4
4
4
1
1
1 2
8

2
x dx = ( t ) dt =
t dt = t3/2  = ,
2

2 t

, ,

2

x2 dx =

1
8
+ = 3.
3
3

2

x2 dx =

x3 2
8
1
 =
3 1
3
3

= 3.

17.

e
I=
1

dx

.
x 1 + ln x

. t = 1 + ln x. y = 1 + ln x
[1; e] , . ,
x , 1 e, t
[1; 2]. dt = dx/x,

2
I=
1

dt
1
2
=
t11/2  = 2( 2 1).
1 1 /2
1
t

18.
/
3

I=



x
x10 sin 3x + cos + tg11 x dx.
3

/3

y = x10 sin 3x y = tg11 x

224

. 3.

,
/
3

/
3

x10 sin 3x dx = 0,

/3

tg11 x dx = 0.

/3

,
/
3

I=

/
3

x
cos dx = 3
3

/3

cos

x x
d .
3 3

/3





x /3

I = 3 sin 
= 3 sin sin
= 6 sin .
3 /3

19. ,
[0; 1] y = f (t)
/
2

f (sin x) dx =

/
2

f (cos x) dx.

. x = t, dx = dt. x
2

0 /2 t /2 0.
/
2

0
f (cos x) dx =

 


f cos
t dt =
2

/2

0

f (sin t) dt =

/
2

f (sin t) dt,

/2

.
20.
1

1

xm (1 x)n dx = xn (1 x)m dx.

. 1 x = t; dt = dx.
1

0

1

xm (1 x)n dx = (1 t)m tn dt = tn (1 t)m dt,

3.

225

21.
2

I = x ln x dx.
1

. , f (x) = ln x
g (x) = x2 /2.

2 2 2
 2
2

x
x2
x 1
=
I = ln x d
ln x
dx =
2
2
2 x
1
1

1
= 2 ln 2
2

2
1

2

x2 
1
x dx = 2 ln 2  = 2 ln 2 1
4 1
4

3
4

= 2 ln 2 .

22.

I = x sin x dx.
0

. ,
f (x) = x, g (x) = cos x.
 



I = x cos x + cos x dx = + sin x = .
0

23.

I = ex sin 2x dx.
0

. f (x) = sin 2x, g (x) = ex . ,





I = ex sin 2x 2 ex cos 2x dx = 2 ex cos 2x dx.
0

(f (x) = cos 2x, g (x) = ex ):





ex cos 2x dx = ex cos 2x + 2 sin 2xex dx = e 1 + 2I.
0

I = 2e + 2 4I ,
15 .

226

. 3.

I=

2
(1 e ).
5

24. :
/
2

/
2

cos x dx

cos10 x dx?

. cos2 x  cos10 x x [0; /2] x


(0; /2) ,
3 ,
/
2

cos2 x dx >

/
2

cos10 x dx.

25. ,

<
2

/
2


5
1 + cos2 x dx <
.
8

. , (. . 2, 5)
1<

1
1 + t < 1 + t, t > 0.
2

f (x) =

1 < f (x) < 1 +

1 + cos2 x -

1
cos2 x,
2

0<x<

.
2

(. 3)

=
2

/
2

/
2

dx <
0

/
 2


1
2
1 + cos x dx <
1 + cos2 x dx.

3.

227

/
2

1
1 + cos2 x
2

/
2

dx =

1
dx +
2

/
2

1
= +
2
4

1 + cos 2x
dx =
2

/
2

1
(1 + cos 2x) dx = + +
2
8
4

/
2

cos 2x dx =
0

5
1
+
8
8

/
2

cos 2x d(2x) =

5
1
/2 5
+ (sin 2x)
=
,
8
8
8
0

.
26. ,

1

<
(n + 1) 2

xn dx
1

<
,
n+1
1+x

n N.

. 0 < x < 1

1 < 1 + x < 2,
. .

1
1
<
< 1,
1+x
2

3 ,
1

1

xn dx =

1

1
n

x dx <
0

xn

dx <
1+x

1
xn dx.
0

1
1
1
xn+1  =
,
n+1
n+1
0

.
27. : f
g [a; b] ,

b
a

f (x)g (x) dx

2

b
a

f 2 (x) dx

b


g 2 (x) dx .

(f (x) g (x))2  0, x [a; b],


15*

228

. 3.

3 ,
b

(f (x) g (x))2 dx  0,

. .

b

(f 2 (x) 2f (x)g (x) + 2 g 2 (x)) dx  0,

b

g (x) dx 2

b

b

f (x)g (x) dx + f 2 (x) dx  0.

, ,
, .
0, . .

 b
b
2
b

2 f (x)g (x) dx 4 f 2 (x) dx
g 2 (x) dx  0,
a

.
28. ,
1

x ex dx <

e 1.

I=

1

x ex dx

.
2

1

I 

( x )2 dx

1

2x

e
0


dx

1 1
=
2 2

1

e2x d(2x) =

1
e+1
1 1
= e2x  = (e2 1) =
(e 1) < e 1,
4
4
4
0

.
29. :
) cos x  1

x2
,
2

x  0; ) cos x  1

x2
x4
+ ,
2
24

x  0.

. )

sin t  t, t  0.

3.

229

, 0 x, x  0, 2

x
x


sin t dt  t dt,

x
x


( cos t)  (t2 /2) ,

. .

cos x + 1  x2 /2,

.
)

cos t  1

t2
,
2

t  0,

. ). 0
x; 2 ,

x
x 
x
x
t2
1
cos t dt 
1
t2 dt,
dt = dt
2

x
x3

sin t  x ,
6

. .

sin x  x

x3
,
6

x  0.

x 

x
sin t dt 
0

. .

t3
t
6

x
dt =

1
t dt
6

x

t3 dt,

x
1
1 4

( cos t)  x2
x .
0

24

cos x + 1 

1 2
1 4
x
x ,
2
24

x  0,

.
. )
. 2, 5 ( 18).
30. , 0  x < /2,

tg x + sin x  2x.

230

. 3.

. , 1
,
+ cos x 2.
2
cos x

0  x < /2

1
1
+ cos x 
+ cos2 x  2,
cos2 x
cos2 x

1
+ cos x  2,
cos2 x

0x<

.
2

0 x, 0  x < /2;
2

x 

cos2 t

x

+ cos t dt  2 dt = 2x,
0

tg x + sin x  2x, 0  x < /2,

.
31. , f
[a; b], :
) lim

b

f (x) sin nx dx = 0; ) lim

b

f (x) cos nx dx = 0.

. ) ;
:

b
a

1
f (x) sin nx dx =
n

b
f (x) d(cos nx) =
a

1
b
= f (x) cos nx
n
a

b

cos nx f (x) dx =
a

1
= f (b) cos nb f (a) cos na
n

b


cos nx f (x) dx .


f (x) f  (x) [a; b],


;

M = max |f (x)|, M  = max |f  (x)|.


[a; b]

[a; b]

3.

231

b



b

 1
1

 f (x) sin nx dx 
2
M
+
M
dx
= (2M + M  (b a)),

 n
n
a

.
) .

, :
2

0

1) (2x x2 ) dx; 2)

4)

1/2

1/2

7)

1/2

dx
1

x2

5)

3
2

x
dx;
1x

4

9) f (x) dx,

8)

x
(2 3 x 1) dx; 3) sin2 dx;

dx
;
1 x4

9
0

6)

/
2

cos3 x dx;

x1

dx;
x +1

f (x) =

1, x  0,
2, x > 0;

10)

2
0

|1 x| dx.

, :

1

2

1) (x + 2x ) dx; 2) ( 3 x 5 x ) dx; 3)
4)

3

1/ 3

7)

0
1

5

dx
;
1 + x2

5)

cos2

x
dx;
2

log
5 3
log5 2

x(1 + x)10 dx; 8)

9) f (x) dx,
2

/
2

2
(5x + 5x )2 dx; 6) ( 1 + 4x )3 dx;
1

/
3
0

sin3 x dx;

f (x) =

0, x  0,
x + 1, 0 < x  2,
2x, 3 < x;

10)

3
0

|2 x| dx.

232

. 3.
3

, :
/
/
2
2
1
4
x cos x dx; 3) xe2x dx; 4)
arctg x dx;
1) ln x dx; 2)
1

5)

1
0

1

e cos x dx; 6)
x

2

arccos x dx; 7)

x ln x dx.

, :
1

1
1) ln(1 + x) dx; 2) x sin x dx; 3) arcsin x dx;
4)

0
ln
5
0

xex dx; 5)

/
4
0

2

x arctg x dx; 6)

x2 ln x dx; 7)

/
4
0

arcctg x dx.

, :

1)
3)

3

1
3
/2
1

5)

/
2
0

7)
9)

1
1/2
ln 8

ln 2

x dx
, x2 = t ;
1 + x2
4x + 3

(x 2)

2)

2

x dx

, 2x + 5 = t;

2x + 5

dx, x 2 = t; 4)

/
2
0

cos5 x sin x dx, cos2 x = t; 6)

sin2 x cos x dx, sin x = t;


1
0

dx
, x = t6 ;
x (1 + 3 x )

dx
, ex = t;
1 + ex

10)

8)

/
4
0

1/2

x2 dx

, x = 2 sin t;
4 x2

dx
x
, tg = t;
3 sin x + cos x
2

1 x2

1/3

x2

1
t

dx, x = .

, :
1)
3)

1/2

0
/
2
0

x dx
, x2 = t ;
1 x2
4

2)

1
1

x dx
5 4x

cos x sin x dx, cos x = t; 4)

, 5 4x = t;

/
2
0

sin3 x cos x dx, sin x = t;

3.

5)

ln 5
ln 3
3

7) x

dx
, ex = t;
ex 2

x2

6)

2

3 + x2 dx, x =

/
4

dx, x = 3 sin t; 8)

9)

3

dx
1

,t= ;
x
2
x x 1

10)

2

233

3 tg t;

dx
x
, tg = t;
5 3 cos x
2

dx
, x = t4 .
x + 4x


1. :

2 
1
1
1)
2x 2 dx;
x

4)

1/2

8)

1 2x dx; 5)

10)

1
2

||x| 1| dx; 11)

x dx
;
x2 + x + 1

15) [ex ] dx,

14)

x dx
4x + 5

4

x sign(sin x) dx; 9)

1/2
1

13)

5
1

3

9 
4

0
4

2)

x +1

2

sin3 x dx; 7)


f (x) dx, f (x) =

2
100


/
2
0

1 cos 2x dx; 12)

sin

/6
2

6)

/
3

dx; 3)

x
x
cos dx;
2
2

/
2
0

cos5 x dx;

x, x < 0,
2x, 0  x  1,
5, x > 1;
sin4 x dx;

sin x sin 2x sin 3x dx;

[a] a.

2. :
/
1
2 5
1) x(1 + x)5 dx, 1 + x = t; 2)
sin x cos4 x dx, cos x = t;
3)
5)

0
/
2

7)

a2 x2 dx, x = a sin t; 6)

ln
2
0

9)

sin2 x cos3 x dx, sin x = t; 4)

0
a
0

0
3

2
0

ex

a
0

1 dx, e 1 = t ; 8)
x

dx
(1 + x2 )3

, tg t = x;

x2 a2 x2 dx, x = a cos t;
3/4
0

dx
x
, tg = t.
3 + cos x
2

dx
1

,
= t;
x
+
1
2
(x + 1) x + 1

234

. 3.

3. , f (x) , :
/
/
2
2
f (sin x) dx =
f (cos x) dx;
1)
2)
3)

xf (sin x) dx =

0
1
0

f (sin x) dx =

/
2

f (sin x) dx;

4) x3 f (x2 ) dx =

7)

1
1
f (x) dx = f (1 x) dx = f (1 + x) dx;

1

5)

0
1

1
2

1

xf (x) dx;

1
1
cos f (x2 ) dx = 2 cos xf (x2 ) dx; 6) sin xf (cos x) dx = 0;

1
/
2
0

f (sin 2x) cos x dx =

/
2
0

f (cos2 x) cos x dx.

4. , f (x)
, a, a > 0,
x

f (t) dt =

x


f (t) dt.

5. , f (x) , [a; b],


f (a) + f (b)
(b a)
<
2

b
f (x) dx < (b a)f (b).
0

6. :
e
1) x2 ln2 x dx;
1

4)
7)

1

2)

2
0

x2 cos x dx; 3)
1

x arctg x dx; 5)

0
/
3

/4
3

x
dx;
sin2 x

10) arcsin
0

x
dx.
1+x

1/e

arcsin x dx; 6)

| ln x| dx;
e2

cos(ln x) dx;

e
2

8) (x sin x) dx;
0

e

9)


0

sin x
1 + cos2 x

dx;

4.

235

7. (m, n N):
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
9)

/
2
0
/
2
0
/
2
0
/
2
0
/
2
0
/
2
0
/
2
0
/
2

10)
11)

sinm x dx =
cosm dx =
sin2n dx =

m1
m

/
2

0
/
2

sinm2 x dx;

cosm2 x dx;

(2n 1)(2n 3) . . . 3 1
;
2n(2n 2) . . . 4 2
2

sin2n+1 dx =

2n(2n 2) . . . 4 2
;
(2n + 1)(2n 1) . . . 3 1

cosn x sin nx dx =
cosn x sin nx dx =
cosn x cos nx dx =

1 1
+
2 n
1

2n+1

n+1

0
/
2

/
2

2
22
23
2n
+ + + ... +
1
2
3
n
/
2
0


;

cosm x cos(m + 2)x dx = 0;

1
;
m+1

sin x cos(m + 2)x dx =


m

sin x sin(m + 2)x dx =


m


cosn1 x sin x dx ;

; 8)

cosm x sin(m + 2)x dx =

0
/
2

m1
m

sin

m
2 ;

m+2

cos

m
2 .

m+1

4.

.
y = f (x) [a; b]. S ,
(. 3.16), y = f (x),
x = a x = b, , 1,

236

. 3.
b

S = f (x) dx.
a

, [a; b]
f (x) g (x), f (x)  g (x) x [a; b], (. 3.17) , y = f (x),
y = g (x) x = a x = b,
b

S = (f (x) g (x)) dx.


a

. 3.16

. 3.17

1. , :
a
2
) I1 =
a2 x2 dx, a > 0; ) I2 = ||x| 1| dx.
a
1
. ) y = a2 x2
a (. 3.18).

. 3.18

. 3.19

,
I1 = a2 /2.
) y = ||x| 1|, x [1, 2], . 3.19.
, :
1
1
1
1
I2 = 2 1 + 1 1 = 1 + = 1 .
2

4.

237

2. , :
1
8

) I1 = arccos x dx; ) I2 = ln(1 + 1 + x ) dx.


1

. ) I1 , . 3.20. ,
x = 1, x = 1, y = 0, y =
2 , y = arccos x
(0; /2) , I1
;
I = .

) , y = ln(1 + 1 + x ) [3; 8]. I2 , ,


. 3.21, , I2

. 3.20

. 3.21

ECBF ,
y = x. , . 3.21, ,
ABCD. ,

SECBF = SOECD SOF BA SABCD .

2y
y = ln(1 + 1 + x ), x  1, , x = e
2ey .
, , y = ln(1 + 1 + x ),
x  1, y = e2x 2ex , x  0.
B C x1 x2 ,

y = ln(1 + 1 + x ) x = 3 x = 8,
. . x1 = ln 3, x2 = ln 4. :

238

. 3.
ln
4

(e2x 2ex ) dx;

SOECD = 8 ln 4, SOF BA = 3 ln 3, SABCD =




ln 3

1 2x
48
1 2 ln 4
ln 4
I2 = 8 ln 4 3 ln 3
e 2ex  = ln 3
e
2eln 4 +
2
2
ln 3
3


1 2 ln 3
216
9
216
3
+
e
2eln 3 = ln 3 8 + 8 + 6 = ln
.
2
2
27
2
3

3. , y = x2 2x + 2 y = 2 + 4x x2 .
. (. 3.22) -

. 3.22

x2 2x + 2 = 2 +
+ 4x x2 . , x = 0 x = 3.

3

S = ((2 + 4x x2 ) (x2 2x + 2)) dx =


0

3

3

= (2 + 4x x2 x2 + 2x 2) dx = (6x 2x2 ) dx =
0

3

3

3

2 3

= 6 x dx 2 x2 dx = 3x2  x3  = 27 18 = 9.
0

4. , :
) y = sin x, y = cos x, x = 0, x = 2 ;
) y = x , y = x1/ , x = 0, x = 1 ( > 1);
) y = ln(x + 6), y = 3 ln x, x = 0, y = 0;

4.

) y = tg x, y =

239

cos x, x 0;
, x = 0;
3
2

) y = 6x2 5x + 1, y = cos x, x = 0, x = 1.
. ) (. 3.23)
/
4

5/
 4

/4

(cos x sin x) dx +

(sin x cos x) dx +

2

(cos x sin x) dx =

5/4

5/4
2
/4



+ (sin x + cos x)
=
= (sin x + cos x) + ( cos x sin x)
/4
5/4
0
 



2
2
2
2
2
2
+
+
1 +
+
+
+
=
2
2
2
2
2
2




2
2
= 2 1 + 2 2 + 1 + 2 = 4 2.
+
+ 1+
2

. 3.23

) (. 3.24)
1
0

1

1

(x1/ x ) dx = x1/ dx x dx =
0

1
1

1
1
1
1
x1/+1 
x+1  =

=
.
=
1/ + 1
+1
+1
+1
+1
0
0

. 3.24

240

. 3.

) ln(x + 6) = 3 ln x, , x = 2. ,
. 3.25,
2

2

2

2

ln(6 + x) dx 3 ln x dx = ln(6 + x) d(6 + x) 3 ln x dx =


1
1
0
2
2
= ((x + 6) ln(x + 6) (x + 6))0 3(x ln x x)1 =
= 8 ln 8 8 6 ln 6 + 6 6 ln 2 + 3 = 12 ln 2 6 ln 3 + 1.

. 3.25
2

) tg x = cos x, . . 2 sin2 x + 3 sin x 2 =


3
= 0, sin x = 1/2. ,
x [0; /2), , x = /6.
(. 3.26)
/
6

2
cos x tg x
3

2
dx =
3

2
/6
sin x +
3
0

/
6

/
6

cos x dx

0
/
6


tg x dx =
0

/6
d(cos x)
2 1
1
3

= + ln cos x
= + ln
.
cos x
3 2
3
2
0

) 6x 5x + 1 = cos x, , , : x = 0 x = 1/2.
(. 3.27)
1/2

1

1/2

(cos x 6x2 + 5x 1) dx +

(6x2 5x + 1 cos x) dx =

1/2
1/2

1

1
5 1/2
1
5 1



= sin x 2x3  + x2  + 2x3  x2  +

2
2
2
0
0
0
1/2
1/2
1




1
1
1
2
5
1
5
1
1
2
1

+ sin x = + + 2 1
1

+ = + .
2

1/2

4.

. 3.26

241

. 3.27

5. y = x2 A,
BC . ,
, BC BAC
, 4/3 ABC .
. (. 3.28)
A(a; a2 )
y = 2a(x a) + a2 .

. 3.28

, ,
B C ,

y = 2ax + d.
B C
2ax + d = x2 ;
16 .

242

. 3.

x1 x2 , x1 < x2 . BOAC
x
2

SDBCE

x2 dx =

1 2
1 x2
(x1 + x22 )(x2 x1 ) x3  =
2
3
x1

x1

1 2
1
(x + x22 )(x2 x1 ) (x32 x31 ) =
2 1
3

1 2
1 2
2
(x1 + x2 ) (x1 + x1 x2 + x22 ) =
= (x2 x1 )
2
3
1
1
1
2
2
= (x2 x1 )(x1 + x2 2x1 x2 ) = (x2 x1 )(x2 x1 )2 = (x2 x1 )3 .
6
6
6

(. 3.28)

SABC

ABC .

SABC = SDBCE SDBAF SF ACE =

1 2
1
1
(x + x22 )(x2 x1 ) (x21 + a2 )(a x1 ) (x22 + a2 )(x2 a) =
2 1
2
2
1 2
3
3
2
2
3
= (x1 x2 + x2 x1 x1 x2 ax1 a + x31 + x1 a2 x32
2
1
2
x2 a + ax22 + a3 ) = ((x21 x2 x1 x22 ) + a2 (x1 x2 ) + a(x22 x21 )) =
2
1
= (x1 x2 )(x1 x2 + a2 a(x1 + x2 )).
2

x1 x2 x2 2ax d = 0, 2a = x1 + x2 .
,


1
1
1
SABC = (x1 x2 ) x1 x2 + (x1 + x2 )2 (x1 + x2 )2 =
2
4
2
1
2
2
= (x1 x2 )(4x1 x2 + x1 + 2x1 x2 + x2 2x21 2x22 4x1 x2 ) =
8
1
1
= (x2 x1 )(x2 x1 )2 = (x2 x1 )3 .
8
8
1

(x2 x1 )3 = (x2 x1 )3 ,
6
3 8
.
6. ,
1+

1
1
1
+ + ... +
> ln n,
2
3
n1

n N.

.
1+

1
1
1
+ + ... +
2
3
n1

(n 1) ,
. 3.29. -

4.

243

(. 3.29), ,
n

1

dx
. ,
x

1
1
1
1 + + + ... +
>
2
3
n1

n
1

dx
= ln n,
x

n N,

. 3.29

7. ,
m

n=2

1
2
2 ,
n n
m

m  1, n N, m N.

.
1
x x

f (x) = , x  1.
f (x) , :
1
1

x x
2 2
1
1

x x
3 3

1  x  2,

2  x  3,

......................................
1
1

m 1  x  m.
m m

16*

x x

244

. 3.

,
1

2 2
1

3 3

2
1

3
2

1
dx,
x x
1
dx,
x x

......................
1

m m

m


m1

1
dx.
x x

,
1
1
1
+ + ... + 
m m
2 2
3 3

3
+
2

1
dx + . . . +
x x

m


m1

2
1

1
dx +
x x

1
dx =
x x

m


1
2 m
2
dx =  = 2 ,
x x
x 1
m

.
8.

n! < nn+1/2 en+1 , n N.


. A1 , A2 , . . ., An Ox, 1, 2, . . ., n, B1 , B2 , . . ., Bn

. 3.30

y = ln x (. 3.30).
n
A1 Bn An , . . ln x dx,
1

4.

245

A1 B2 A2 A2 B2 B3 A3 , . . .,
An1 Bn1 Bn An . ,
n
ln 2
ln 2 + ln 3
ln(n 1) + ln n
+
+ ... +
< ln x dx.
2

,
n
n
n n



ln x dx = x ln x x d(ln x) = n ln n dx = n ln n n + 1.
1

ln 1 + ln 2 + . . . + ln(n 1) +

1
ln n < n ln n n + 1,
2

ln n! < (n + 1/2) ln n n + 1,

ln n! < ln(nn+1/2 en+1 ),

n! < nn+1/2 en+1


.
1

,
x x
, x = 1, x = 4, y = 0;
x

1) y =
4

2) y = 2
x2 + 1, y = 0, x = 1, x = 1;
3) y = 2 x , 6 y = 0, x = 0; 4) y = 1/x, y = x, x = 2;
x
5) y = 3x , x = 1, x = 3, y = 0; 6) y = sin , x = , x = 2 , y = 0;
1

, y = 0, x = 0, x = ;
7) y =
2
4
cos x

1
8) y = x + , x = 2, x = 3, y = 0;
x

9) y = x4 2x2 + 5, y = 1, x = 0, x = 1;

10) y =

x2 + 3x 1
, x = 1, x = 2, y = 0.
x

, 3
2
1) y = x
, y = 8, x = 0; 2) y = 4x x , y = 0, x = 2;
3) y = x , y = 2 x, y = 0; 4) y = 9/x, y = x, x = 9, y = 0;

246

. 3.

5) y = ex , y = 0, x =2;
x
x 2

6) y = sin + cos
, x = 0, x = , y = 0;
2
2
2
7) y = (x 2) 3x 1 , x = 1/3, x = 5/3, y = 0;
1
8) y =
, x = 0, x = 3 , y = 0;
2
cos (x/9)

9) y = x4 10x2 + 9, x = 0, y = 0;
10) y = 1/x, y = 0, x = 0,5, x = 2,5.
3

, :
1) y = x2 y = x + 2; 2) y = x2 2x + 3 y = 3x 1;
3) y = x2 y = 1 +

3 2
x;
4

6x2 x4
y = 1;
9
x
7) y = sin
y = x2 ;
2

5) y =

5
2

4) y = 2/x y = x/2 ;
6) y = x3 y =

x;

8) y = 2 cos2 x(1 + sin2 x), x [0; 2], y = 0;


9) y =

|4 x2 |
y = 7 |x|;
4

10) y = 4

6
y = | x + 2|.
|x + 1|

, :
1) y = x2 x y = 3x;
3)
5)
7)
8)
9)

y
y
y
y
y

2) y =

1 2
x 2x + 4 y = 10 x;
3

= x2 y = 2x x2 ; 4) y = 3/x y = 4 x;

= x2 y = 2 2x ; 6) y = x2 y = 3 x ;
= cos x, x [ ; /4], y = 1 + 2x/ ;
= 4 sin2 x(1 + cos2 x), x [ ; ], y = 0;
= 2 |2 x| y = 3/|x|; 10) y = 6/|x + 1| y = 3 |3 x|.

1. , :
1
1) |y| +  1 + |x|; 2) |y 2 + x2 2|  2(x + y).
2
2. , :
1) y = 0,5x2 2x + 2
(1; 1/2) (4; 2);
2) y = x2 x + 2 y = ln x + 3
(1; 3).
3. ,
y = tg x, y = sin x x = /3, x = /4.
4. y = (x + 3)2
x = 0, y = 0. Ox

4.

247

(0; 9),
?
6

1. , :
1
1) |y| +  e|x| ; 2) x2 + y 2  2(|x| + |y|).
2
2. , :
1) y = 16 x2 ,
;
2) y = cos
x, x [0; /2],
(/4; 2 /2) x = 0, y = 0.
3. ,
y = cos x, y = ctg x x = /6, x = 3/4. 

 x 
4. y = sin 
2
y = 0, x = 1. Ox
(0; 0),
?

1. ,
:
1) y = 3x + 18 x2 , y = 0; 2) y = x2 , y = 0, x = 3;
3) y =

x2
x + 2, y = x, x = 0;
2

4) y = 2(1 x), y = 1 x2 , x = 0;

5) y = x2 , y = 2 x, y = 0; 6) y = 4(x 2), y = (x 1)2 , y = 0;


7) y = x2 + 1, y = 4 2x, y = 0, x = 0;
8) y = 2 x2 , y = 1 x, y = 0, x = 0;
9) y = x2 + 2, y = 1 x2 , x = 0, x = 1;
10) y = x3 3x2 9x + 1, x [0; + ), y = 6;
11) y = cos x, y = 0, x = 3/4, x = /4;
12) y = x2 , y = 2ex , x = 0, x = 1; 13) y = 4/x2 , x = 1, y = x 1;
14) y = 1/x, x = 1, x = 2, y = 0; 15) y = 5/x, y = 6 x, x = 6;
x2

, y = 0, x = 4;
16) y = x2 , y =
x
2

17) y = x , y = 4 3x , y = 0;
18) y = sin x, x [0; ], y = 0; 19) y = sin 6x, y = 0, x = 0, x = ;
20) y = 8 sin4 x + 4 cos 2x, x [0; ], y = 0.
2. , :
1) y = 1 + x2 , y = 2; 2) y = x2 + 2, y = x + 2;
3) y = x, y = 2x x2 ; 4) y = 7x 2x2 , y = 7/2 x;
5) y = x2 2x + 2, y = 2 + 4x x2 ; 6) y = x2 , y = 3x + 4;
2
7) y = x2 /4, y =
3 x; 8) y = x 2x + 3, y = 4 2x;
4
9) y = x , y = x ; 10) y = 5 x, y = 6/x.

248

. 3.

3. , :
1) 4  x2 + y 2  2(|x| + |y|); 2) |y| + 2|x|  x2 + 1.
4. , :
1) y = 2x2 8x, (2; 8)
;
2) y = x2 + 10 ,
(0; 1);
3) y = x2 2x + 2, (0; 2)
x = 1;
4) y = 1/x, (2; 1/2)
x = 1;
5) y = e3x , (0; 1)
x = 3;
6) y = arcsin x y = 0, x = 0, x = 1/2;
7) y = ln(1 + x) y = x, x = 2;
8) y = ex , y = ln x y = 1, x = 0, x = 1.
5. , (1/2; 1), .
.
6. y = x2 + 1
, ,
y = 0, x = 0, x = 1,
?
7. y = 1/x , ,
y = 0, x = 1, x = 2, ?
8. p, p < 0, , y = (1 + p2 )2 x2 + p y = 0, .
9. ,
y = x2 + 2x 3 y = kx + 1.
10. , :

1)
2)
y  x + 1,
y  arccos x,
x  sin(y),
y  0,
y  0,
y  arcsin x,

x  1;
x  2;

2
arcctg x  y ,
1
+
x
,
y

4)
3)

arctg x  y ,
y  1 x2 ,
x  1.
y  x + 1,

y  1 + x,
1  x  1;
11. , y = x2 + bx + c y = 4x 13, y = 4x + 3,
.

4.

249

12. (x0 ; y0 ), y = x2 ,
, , ,
13. f (x) = x2 + px + q f (x) > 0, a  x  b. ,

b
f (x) dx =

1
(b a) f (a) + f (b) + 4f
6

a+b
2


.

14. , A,
y = x2 B C . , ABC , BC AB
1
AC , AB AC sin(BAC).
6
15. , f (x)
f  (x) [a; b],
b

xf  (x) dx = (bf  (b) f (b)) (af  (a) f (a)).

16. , :
x
x
1) sin5 x dx; 2) cos11 x dx
0

.
17. , f (x)
[0; + ) lim f (x) = a,
x+

lim

1

f (nx) dx = a.

18. ,
.
19. , a b ab.
20. , f (x) g (x)
() [a; b],
b
a

f (x)g (x) dx 

b
a

f (x) dx

b
a


g (x) dx .

250

. 3.

21. ,
:
x


1) lim

x+

x

(arctg t) dt


x2 + 1

2
;
4

2
2
et dt

2) lim

= 0;

x

x+

2t 2

dt

0
2

3) lim ex
x

x
0

1
T + t

et dt = 0; 4) lim

T


sin ax sin bx dx = 0, |a| = |b|.

22. , f (x)
[a; b],
b

(b a)f (a) < f (x) dx < (b a)f (b).


a

23. f (x) [a; b] f (x)  0,


x [a; b]. ,
b

f (x) dx = 0,

f (x) 0.
24. , f (x)
[0; + ) lim f (x) = 1,
x+

1
lim
a+ a

a
f (t) dt = 0.
0

25. f (x) [a; b] , f  (x)


[a; b] , , f (1) f (0) = 1. ,
1

(f  (x))2 dx  1.

26. , f (x) [a; b],


1) lim

b 
n
n
|f (x)| dx = 1;
0

b

1/n
|f (x)|n dx
= max |f (x)|;
x[a; b]
    
 
%
$1
1
2
n
... f
3) lim n f
f
= exp ln f (x) dx ,
2) lim

n a

f (x) > 0, x [a; b].

4.

251

27. , p(x) n
b

xk p(x) dx = 0, k = 0, 1, . . . , n 1,

[a; b].
28. , (; + )
f (t)
x+
1

f (t) dt 0, x (; + ),

f (x) .

1
1
1


1. ); ); ); ).
 2. : 1) 0 <  5 2; 2) 0 <  9/2
2; 3) 0 <  17/4 2; 4) 0 <  min{1; 0 /3}.
2


x, x > 2,
1. : 1) f (x) = 5x 7; 2) f (x) =
1 + x, x  2;

1, x ,
2.
:
3)
f (x) =
2, x .
1) 0 <  1/2; 2) 0 <  1/4 ; 3) 0 <  1/200; 4) 0 <  0 /2.
3

AB

1. 1) An ; 2) A2 B ; 3) (A + 1)(B 2); 4) 2
; 5) x0 A + x20 B ;
B +1

3
6) B sin A. 2. 1) 5; 2)
+ 2 ; 3) 17 sin 2; 4) 0; 5) 1; 6) ( 13 + 1)/4.
64
4. : 

x + 2, x < 0,
x + 1, x < 0,
x = 0, g (x) = 2,
x = 0,
1) f (x) = 1,
x + 3, x > 0,
x,
x > 0;


1, x < 0,
x, x < 0,
2) f (x) =
g (x) =
1, x > 0.
x, x  0,
4

A sin x0
; 3) cos A; 4) |A|. 2. 1) 1; 2) 2 sin 2;
B2 + 4
1
. 3. , f (x) = |x 1| 1.
3) 13/4; 4) 8/3; 5) 2; 6)
3 7

1. 1) A3 B 2 + 2; 2)

4. : 

x,
x > 0,
2,
x = 0, g (x) = 1 + f (x);
1 x, x < 0,

x, x > 0,
2) f (x) = g (x) = 5, x = 0,
1, x < 0.
1) f (x) =

253

1. 1) 4; 2) 5; 3) 10; 4) 2 2 ; 5) 4/3; 6) 6; 7) 44/3; 8) n/m; 9) 1;


10) 1/2. 2. 1) , ,
x0 , , x: 0 < |x x0 | <
|f (x) A|  ; 2) A , ,
x0 , , x: 0 < |x x0 | < |f (x) A|  .
6

1. 1) 6; 2) 3; 3) 1; 4) 1/4; 5) 12/5; 6) 1/24; 7) m/n; 8) 13;


9) (n k)/2; 10) 1/2.
7

10)

1. 1) 2; 2) 5/3; 3) 4/9; 4) 25/14; 5) 1/2; 6) 1; 7) 1; 8) cos a; 9) 0;

2 . 2. 1) e2 ; 2) e4 ; 3) e2 ; 4) e3 ; 5) 1; 6) ln 2; 7) ln 3/2; 8) 2/3;

9) ln 5 1/2; 10)

1
.
2 ln 2

1. 1) 3/7; 2) 3 / 3 ; 3) 0; 4) 1; 5) 2/3; 6) 1/2; 7) cos a; 8) (n2 m2 )/2;


9) 2/3; 10) 1. 2. 1) e3/2 ; 2) e1 ; 3) e1 ; 4) 1/2; 5) 1; 6) 11/21; 7) 1/9;
a
e

8) ln 2; 9) 1/7; 10) aa ln .
9

1. 1) f+ (0) = 2, f (0) = 4, f+ (1) = f (1) = 1; 2) f+ (0) = f (0) =


= 1; 3) f+ (0) = f (0) = 1, f+ (1) = 0, f (1) = 1; 4) f+ (0) = f (0) = 1,
f+ (2) = f (2) = 1.
10

1. 1) f+ (0) = f (0) = 1, f+ (1) = f (1) = 2; 2) f+ (0) = 1, f (0) =


= 1, f+ () = f () = 0; 3) f+ (0) = 0, f (0) = 1, f+ (2) = 2, f (2) =
= 1, f+ (5/2) = f (5/2) = 2; 4) f+ (0) = f (0) = 1 b = 1; f+ (0) = b,
f (0) = 1 b = 1; f+ (1) = f (1) = b + 1.
11

1. : 1) f (x) = 1/(x 1)2 ; 2) f (x) = 1/(x 1)2 ; 3) f (x) =


= 1/(x 1). 4. 1) ; 2) ; 3) +; 4) 1.
12

1. : 1) f (x) =

3
x
2

; 2) f (x) =

3
x
2

(x 1)2 (2 x)2
x(x 1)2 (2 x)2
x
. 3. 1) ; 2) ; 3) +; 4) 4/3; 5) ; 6) .
3) f (x) = 2
x 1

254


13

1
x

1. : 1) f (x) = ex + 1; 2) f (x) = 2 + ; 3) f (x) =


2

x
;
x2 + 1

4) f (x) = | arctg x|. 3. 1) 1/2; 2) 1/3; 3) 0; 4) 0; 5) 1; 6) 0; 7) 2; 8)

. 4. 1) y = x ; 2) y = x; 3) y = x x ; y = 3x

x ; 4) y = 3 2 x 1.
14

3. 1) 1; 2) 1/2; 3) 215 /335 ; 4) 1/2; 5) 0; 6) 1; 7) 2; 8) 0; 9) 3; 10) 3.


4. 1) y = x 1; 2) y = x; 3) y = 1/2 x +; y = 2x +

x ; 4) y = x +

x +; y = x x .
2
2

15

1. :
1/x; 2)
1) f (x) =
1,
x
3) f (x) =
1,
x
2,
x
4) f (x) =
4,
x

f (x) =
 1/ sinx;
1
1
x
;
, k N;
k
+
1
k


1
1
x
;
, k N;
 k + 2 k +1
1
1
x ;
, k N;
k
k
+
1


1
1
x
;
, k N.

2. : 1) f (x) =
3) f (x) =

k+1
k+2
(x + 4)(x 2)
x(x2 + 1)(x 2)
; 2) f (x) =
;
2
x 1
(x 1)2 (1 + x)2

(x 2)x(x + 3)|x|
. 3. 1) M
(x2 1)2

x0 , , x, x > x0 , f (x) > M ; 2) M x0 ,


, x, x < x0 , f (x) < M ;
3) M x0 ,
x, |x| > |x0 | , |f (x)| > M . :
1) f (x) = x2 ; 2) f (x) = x3 ;

n, 2n 1 < |x|  2n, n N,


n, 2n < |x|  2n + 1, n N,
3) f (x) =

0, |x|  1.
16

1. :
1
1) f (x) = ctg x; 2) f (x) =
;
2x

255

1
1
1
, x 1 + 2k1 ; 1 + 2k2 , k N,
x1
2
2


3) f (x) =
1

1 , x 1 + 12k ; 1 + 2k
, k N;
1x
2
2 1

4) f (x) =
1/x3 ;
1/x2 , x < 0,
5) f (x) =
1/x, x [1/22k1 ; 1/22k2 ], k N,

1/x, x (1/22k ; 1/22k1 ), k N;


6) f (x) =

1/x, x [1/22k1 , 1/22k2 ] [1/22k2 , 1/22k1 ], k N,
=
1/x, x (1/22k , 1/22k1 ) (1/22k1 , 1/22k ) k N.
2. : 1) f (x) =

x (x 1)

; 2) f (x) =

x+2
1
; 3) f (x) = 1 + .
x1
x

3. 1) M x0 , ,
x, x < x0 , f (x) > M ; 2)
M x0 , ,
|f (x)| > M . :
x, x > x0 ,

x2 , x [2n 1, 2n], n N,
x
1) f (x) = 2 ; 2) f (x) =
2x ,
x (2n, 2n + 1), n N.

4. 1) f (0) = 1, f+ (0) = 1, f (/2) = f+ (/2) = 1; 2) f (0) =
= f+ (0) = 1, f (1) = f+ (1) = 0; 3) f (0) = f+ (0) = 0, f (1/) =
= f+ (1/) = 0; 4) f (0) = f+ (0) = 3, f (3) = 6, f+ (3) = 6;
5) f (1) = f+ (1) = b + c, f (0) = 2; f+ (0) = b; b = 2 c x = 0; 6) f (1) = f+ (1) = 0,
f (1) = 2, f+ (1) = 0; 7) f (0) = 2, f+ (0) = b b = 2
c d x = 0; 8) f (0) = f+ (0) = 0,
f (/2) = /2, f+ (/2) = /2, f () = f+ () = 0; 9) f (0) = 1,
f+ (0) = 1; 10) f (0) = f+ (0) = 0; 11) f (0) = f+ (0) = 0. 5. 1) 5/2;
2) 2; 3) 3/2; 4) 2; 5) 2; 6) 1; 7) 3/2; 8) n/2 ; 9) 0; 10) 1/4;
1

; 17) ln ;
11) 1/2; 12) 1/16; 13) 2/3; 14) 1/6; 15) 2; 16
5 ln 5
3
&
3
2/3
1/2
18) ln
ln 42; 19) 1/e; 20) e ; 21) e
; 22) 7/75; 23) 1; 24) e2 .
5

6. 1) 2; 2) sin 1; 3) 10/3; 4) 1; 5) 1/4; 6) cos 1; 7) sin 4/7; 8)


;
sin2 5

2
9) sec 7; 10) tg 3 ; 11) tg 4; 12) 1/ ; 13) 0; 14) 2 ; 15) 2; 16) 1/2;

10
17)
3 ; 18) 6 3 ; 19)
3 /2; 20) 1/(3 3 ); 21) 1/2; 22)
;
3

6
cos 7
3
sin 1
3
; 24) 0; 25) 0; 26) 0; 27)

. 7. 1) m /n3 ;
23)
2 cos2 1 cos 1
4 7

2) 1/4; 3) 1; 4) 1/12; 5) 1/16; 6) 3; 7) 8 ln 2/ ; 8) 1/e; 9) 9/25;


5
10) 1/5; 11) 6/7; 12) e2 ; 13) 1/2; 14) 24; 15) 3/4; 16) ln ; 17) e1 ;
2

256

18) e1/2 ; 19) e1/ ; 20) 0; 21) 1/6; 22) 1; 23) 2; 24) 6; 25) 8;
1, x ,
26) e/ . 8. , f (x) =

1, x .

5,
x = 2,
1
9. , f (x) =
11. : 1) f (x) =
sin
, x = 2.
x2

= g (x) = sign x; 2) f (x) = g (x) = sign x ; 3) f (x) = sign x; 4) f (x) =



1, x = 0,
1
1
12. . f (x) =
=
sin , x = 0.
x
x2


0, x  0,
5, x  0,
=
g (x) =
13. . 2, x < 0,
0, x < 0.

1
0, x  0,
g1 (x) =
f (x) = sin , g (x) = x2 ; f1 (x) =
1, x < 0,
x


2, x  0,
1
x2 , x = 0,
=
14. , f (x) =
g (x) = x2 .
0, x < 0.
1, x = 0,
2
15. : ,

f (x) =

x,
x > 0,
2,
x = 0,
1 x, x < 0

x = 0,
x 0. 16. : 1) f (x) = g (x) = x; 2) f (x) = x2 , g (x) = x;
3) f (x) = x, g (x) = x3 ; 4) f (x) = x, g (x) = x3 ; 5) f (x) = x,
g (x) = x2 ; 6) f (x) = x+1 , g (x) = x, > 0; f (x) = x, g (x) = x1 ,
 0. 19. 1) lim f (x) = , lim f (x) = , lim f (x) = ;
x1

x0

x2

2) lim f (x) = , lim f (x) = , lim f (x) = ; 3) lim f (x) = ,


x1

x0

x1

x2

lim f (x) = , lim f (x) = . 20. 1) ; 2) +; 3) ; 4) +;

x0

x2

5) ; 6) +, m ; , m ; 7) ;
8) 0, = 1; 1/2, = 2; , = 2k, k
N; , = 2k + 1, k N. 24. : 1) f (x) = 1/x2 ,
g (x) = x3 ; 2) f (x) = 1/x2 , g (x) = x2 ; 3) f (x) = 1/x4 , g (x) = x2 ;
2
4) f (x) = 1/x4 , g (x) = x2 . 25. : 1) f (x) =
,
(x a)2

2

2
1
1
1
g (x) =
; 2) f (x) =
, g (x) = 2
; 3) f (x) =
2
xa
xa
(x a)



2
2
4
1
1
1
1
, g (x) =
; 4) f (x) =
; 5) f (x) =
,
=
4
xa
xa
xa
(x a)

2
1
1
1
g (x) =
; 6) f (x) =
, g (x) =
. 27. ,
2
2
xa

(x a)

(x a)

257

1/|x|, x ,
31. 1) 2; 2) 1; 3) 1;
2/|x|, x .

4) 1; 5) 10!; 6) 215 331 ; 7) 1; 8) 1/ 2 ; 9) 1/2; 10) ; 11) 4/3;


12) 1; 13) 3; 14) , lim f (x) = lim f (x);

f (x) =

x+

15) 1/2; 16) e2 ; 17) e2 ; 18) 2; 19) 3; 20) ,


lim f (x) = 0, lim f (x) = +; 21) 1/2; 22) 1/4. 32. 1) y = x + 3/2

x+

x +; y = x 3/2 x ; 2) y = 1 x +;
y = 1 x ; 3) y = 3x x +; y = x x ;
4) y = x x +; y = x + x ; 5) y = x
x +; 6) y = x 5/2. 33. 1) a = 1, b = 1; 2) a = 1, b = 1/2;
3) a = 1, b = 1/2. 34. 1) M
> 0, , x, 0 < x a < , f (x) > M ; 2)
M > 0, , x, < x a < 0,
f (x) > M ; 3)
M > 0, , x, 0 < x a < ,
f (x) < M ; 4)
M > 0, , x, < x a < 0,
|f (x)| > M ; 5)
M x0 , , x, x > x0 ,
f (x) < M ; 6) M
x0 , , x, x > x0 , |f (x)| > M ; 7) M
, , x, 0 < x a < ,
|f (x)| > M ; 8)
M > 0, , x, < x a < 0,
f (x) < M ; 9)
M x0 , , x, |x| > |x0 |, f (x) < M ; 10)
M x0 , , x, x < x0 , |f (x)| > M . 35. 1) f+ (0) = 1/2, f (0) = 1/2;
f+ (1) = +, f (1) = ; f+ (2) = f (2) = +; 2) f+ (0) = f (0) = 0;
f+ (1) = f (1) = +; f+ (2) = f (2) = 3/2; 3) f+ (0) = f (0) =
; f+ (0) = , f (0) = + ; f+ (1) = f (1) =
= ; f+ (2) = 4/2 , f (2) = 4/2 ; 4) f+ (0) = , f (0) = +;
f+ (1) = +, f (1) = ; f+ (2) = f (2) = +. 37. :
1) f (x) = x, g (x) = x; 2) f (x) = x + 5, g (x) = x; 3) f (x) = 2x,
g (x) = x; 4) f (x) = 2x, g (x) = x; 5) f (x) = x, g (x) = x2 ; 6) f (x) = x2 ,

g (x) = x; 7) f (x) = 3 x , g (x) = 1/ x ; 8) f (x) = g (x) = x ;


9) f (x) = 2; 10) f (x) = 0, g (x) = 1/x.
17 .

258

2
1

1. 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) . 2. 1) x = 0 ;

2) x = 2, x = 3, x = 4, x = 5, x = 6, x = 7, x = 8; 3) x = k + , k Z;
2

4) x = 1; 5) x = 1, x = 2; 6) x = 2; 7) x = k, k Z; 8) x = 2, x = 2.
3. 1) A = 1; 2) A = 1/2. 4. ,


1, x < 0,
3, x < 0,
f (x) = 2, x = 0,
g (x) = 2, x = 0,
3, x > 0,
1, x > 0.
6. 1) 5 < x < 4, 2 < x < 3; 2) 1  x  1.
2

1. 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) . 2. 1) x = 1; 2) x = n,
n Z; 3) x = 1, x = 1; 4) x = 0; 5) x = 7; 6) x = 0. 3. 1) A = 0;
2) A = e1/4 . 4. ,


1, x = 0,
1, x = 0,
f (x) =
g (x) =
1/2, x = 0,
2, x = 0.
6. 1) /2 < x < 1, 1 < x < /2; 2) 0 < x < 1, < x < 4.

1. 1) x  5; 2) x R; 3) x (; 1) (1; + ); 4) x R;
5) x = k , k Z; 6) x (; 1) (1; + ); 7) x (; 1)
(1; 0) (0; + ); 8) x R; 9) x (; 0) (0; + ); 10) x = 2,
x = 1; 11) x R; 12) x R \ {/2 + k/2}, k Z. 2. 1) x = 2;
2) x = 1; 3) x = 0; 4) x = k, k Z; 5) x = 0; 6) x = 0, x = 4;
7) x = 0, x = 1; 8) x = 1, x = 1; 9) x = 0, x = 1, x = 1; 10) x = 0,
x = 1; 11) x R \ {0}; 12) .
5. 1, x > 0,
, g (x) = x x0 . 7. ; , f (x) =
2, x  0,

(2 x)(5 x)
2, x > 0,
9. , f (x) =
. 10. 1, x 
(x 3)(x 4)
0.
1, x ,
11. . 12. .
, f (x) =
1, x .
13. : x = 0. 14. 1) ; 2) :
, x0 = 3. 15. . 21. f (e) = f () = 7/9. 24. 1) x = 1;
2) x < 1; 3) 1/2 < x < 1/2, x > 1; 4) 5 < x < 7; 5) 2  x  0,
x  1; 6) x  1/2.

g (x) =

259

2
1
1

1. 1) 0,0201; 2) 0,75. 2. 1) 1; 2) 1; 3) 1. 3. 1) 3x2 ;

1
. 4. f  (1) = 7, f  (2) = 13, f  (2) = 11.
2 x
1
1
1
1

. 6. 1) x2 x3 + 2x; 2)
+
+
;
5.
4 3
3 2
2 x
cos2 x
4 x
3 x



1
3) 2(1 x); 4) 3(x + x )2 1 +
; 5) 2x ln 2 + 3x ln 3
2 x
1
2
1
1
+
; 7) cos x + 3 sin x + 2 ;
4x ln 4 + 6x ln 6; 6)
x ln 2
x ln 4
x
x
3
0,1
1
1 x2
x
x

8)

;
9)

e
cos
x
+
e
sin
x
;
10)
+
2

cos2 x
sin2 x
(1 + x2 )2
1 x2
2
1

22x ln 2 + 3x2 sin x + x3 cos x; 11)
; 12)

2
2 x
(sin x + cos x)

2) 2 sin 2x; 3)

2x
+ x

arctg x

2x ln 2 arctg x 2x
arctg2 x

1 + x2

1. 1) 0,0099; 2) 0,101. 2. 1) 2; 2) 3; 3) 1/3. 3. 1) 3 cos 3x; 2) 3x2 +

+ 2x; 3) 2/x3 . 4. f  (1) = 0, f  (1) = 12, f  (0) = 3. 5.


6. (uvw) = u vw + uv  w + uvw . 7. 1) 20x3

sin2 x
1
1
2
3
; 2) 2 + 3 4 ;
x
x
2x   x
2 x 2
1
1
5)
ln + 2 ;
3
3
x
x
ln x + 1
2x2 ln x
8)

;
2
1+x
(1 + x2 )2

1
1
1
; 4)
+ sin x
;
5
x ln 3
sin2 x
5 x4
x2
;
6) ex (sin x + cos x); 7) 2x arcctg x
1 + x2
6x 5x4/3
ln 3
9)
x+1 ; 10) 2 sin 2x; 11) 2(1 + x + x2 )(2x + 1);

3
3 (1 3 x )2
1
(2x + x2 ) arctg x(2x ln 2 + 2x)
2
1
1 + x2
12) 3 arccos x 2 
; 13)
;
x
(2x + x2 )2
x 1 x2

1
x cos x sin x x sin x ln 6
2x 3x2 + 1
2 x

; 15) 9x ln 9
+
14)
x
x6
x
2
5
2x 3x 1
4 5

+ 9x
; 16) 6 .
2x x
x

3) 3x ln 3 +

17*

260

6 tg 3x
1. 1) 5 sin 5x; 2) 100(1 + x)99 ; 3) 1/ 2x 1 ; 4)
;
cos2 3x


2
x
5)
2x +x+1 (2x + 1) ln 2;
6)
ex ln(x+2) ln(x + 2) +
;
x
+
  2

1
1
7) 3 sin2 (x x2 ) cos(x x2 )(1 2x) + 2 
x3/2 ;
ln 2


x ln2 x
2 2x(1 + 2x )
2x 1
2
;
11)
(x x + 2)2
1

8)
10)

sin

6 sin(2 cos 4x)(sin 8x)(cos 4x);

9)


1/x

arcsin(1 + 2x)

1
1 (1 + 2x)2 ms

0, x = 0 x = 1,
1, x =
 0 x = 1,
0, x = 1,
2
f (x) = |x x|. 4. : 1) f (x) =
1, x = 1,



1, x = 1,
1, x = 1,
1, x = 1,
g (x) =
g (x) =
2) f (x) =
0, x = 1;
1/2, x = 1,
2, x = 1.
12)

xx (1 + ln x).

5. y  (2) = 32 sin
4

3.

f (x) =

1
1
4 cos , y  (0) = 0.
2
2

1. 1)
; 2) 3x sin(2x2 ) sin x2 ; 3)
arcctg3
sin2 (2x + 3)
(x + 2)2

1
1
1

;
4)
e1/x (2x + 1);
5)

2
2

x + 2 1 + (x + 2)
arccos ln x
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

; 6)

;
2
x
log
(log
x)
log
x
x
ln
2
ln
3
ln
4
3
4
4
1 ln x





1
1
1 2
1
 
7)

cos cos 2 sin 2


; 8) 2 tg ctg

x
1
x
x
x3
2 sin cos 2
x

1
1
x

cos2 ctg

"

1
1
sin
x
2

# 

1
1
x3/2 ; 9)
2

10)

2x + 1
x
x (x + x2 ) ln 1
2

1
log1/2 (x + x2 ) ;
2 x

'

ln 4
1
2
1
2 2x + 2

;
x
ln2 x2
x
ln (x)




x + 2 6/7
5 4
11) (sin x)cos x ( sin x ln(sin x) + ctg x cos x) ; 12)
x

x1


4
18
8(1 + 2x)

+
.
3.
,
(x + x2 )8
5x
(x + 2)(x 1)
x + x2

1, x = 2,
f (x) = |x(x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 3)|. 4. : 1) f (x) =
2, x = 2,

261


0, x = 2,
2, x = 2,
2) f (x) =
1, x = 2;
3, x = 2,
5. y  (1) = sin 1 + cos 1 1, y  (0) = 1/2.

g (x) =


1. 1) 1; 2) 0;

2.

8)
5)

2.

5 cos 5x;

0,
x
2x, x

+ 6x

1/2

3)

2;

4)

0;

g (x) =

1,
x = 2,
3/2, x = 2.

2; 6) 2 ln 2;

5)

7)

0;

1
1

1) 2x + 1; 2)
; 3) 3x2 ; 4)
;
2 x+1
(x + 2)2
 x
ln 2
1
6) 7 sin 7x; 7)
; 8)
ln 3; 9) y  =
x
3
x
 0,
1
e , x > 0,
10) y  =
3. 1) x3/2 + 2x1/2 +
1, x  0.
< 0;
2




2
1
1
1
; 2) 3 x + 2 x
1 2
; 3) 0 x = 0;
x


2

2
x+1
3
x+1 2
x

ex + (2x)ex
; 5)
1 + x2 +
2
x 2 (x 2)
x2
1 x2

x
3 ln 2 ln 3 ln 4
+
ln 1 x2 ; 6)
; 7) 0 x (1; 1); 8) 0;
x ln4 x
1 + x2
4

9) 2(x + 1) x > 0; 10)


; 11) 1 x =
+ k,
4
(ex + ex )2
1
1
1
1
2
k Z; 12)
; 13)
;
x
x + sin(ln tg x) tg x
ln 2 cos 2x
cos2 x
2 tg
cos2

4) 2

ex

ex

15) 
; 16) ex + ee ex + ee ee ex ;
2 1 x2
1 + e2x

2/3 



3
1
1
3
17)
1 + (x + 1 + x2 )2/3
x + x + 3 1 + x2
3
3


5
1
12
x
1
1 + (1 + x2 )2/3 2x ;
18)
;
19)
;
12 2
2
14)

3


20)

1
ln arccos
x
arccos 1
x

(1 + x )

x3 x2

2
+ exx (1 2x); 21) 3x2 arcsin x +

x3
2x cos x x2 sin x
+

;
2 x 1x
x4 cos2 x

1
1
+ ln x1
x

22)

1
+ ln
x

#



1
1
ln 2
2x
; 23)
+
2
2
2
x

2(1 + x )

x ln x

1
1
+ ln x1
x

x2

2
ln x ln(x2 1)
x
x +1

1
1 + 2x

; 24)
; 25) 1 + xx (1 + ln x);
2 2
ln
x
2 x2 + x + 1



1
1
cos x
;
2 ln x + 2 ; 27) xcos x sin x ln x +
x
x
 x
x
x
xx (1 + ln x) ln x +
.
x

"

26)

x1/x

28)

xx

262


1, x > 2,
5. 1) y  = 2(x + 1); 2) y  =
1, x < 2;

2, x > 0,


0, 1 < x < 0, 4) y  = 0, x = k, k Z;
3) y =
2
2, x < 1;


2x, x > 0,
1, x (1; 0) (1; + ),
5) y  = 6x5 , x < 0, 6) y  =
1, x (; 1) (0; 1).
0,
x = 0;
6. :

0,
x ,
1) f (x) =
1/2, x ,

0,
x ,
g (x) =
1/2, x ,

0,
x ,
2) f (x) =
1/2, x ;

1, x ,
g (x) =
0, x .
7. :

0, x (1; 1),
1) f (x) =
1, x (; 1] [1; + ),

1, x (1; 1),
g (x) = 0, x (2; 1] [1; 2),
5, x (; 2] [2; + );

0, x ,
2) f (x) =
1, x ,

f (x), x = x2 ,
g (x) =
2,
x = x2 ;

1, x ,
3) f (x) =
2, x ,

1,
x ,
g (x) =
1/2, x .
8. :
2
x , x ,
1) f (x) =
0, x ;
2
x (x 1)2 , x ,
2) f (x) =
0,
x ;

2
2
x (x 1) . . . (x n + 1)2 , x ,
3) f (x) =
0,
x .




= 1, y
= 1; 2) y+
= y
= 4;
9. (a). 10. n!. 11. 1) y+






3) y+ = 1, y = 5; 4) y+ = 1, y = 1; 5) y+ = 1, y = 0;






= 0, y
= 2; 7) y+
= 1, y
= 1; 8) y+
= 2, y
= 0;
6) y+

263





9) y+
= y
= 0; 10) y+
= 1, y
= 1. 12. a = 2x0 , b = x20 . 13. a = 1,

b = 1/2. 15. , f = x3 + 2. 18. 1)


2)

1 + 2x (n + 1)2 xn + (2n2 + 2n 1)xn+1 + nxn+2

(1 x)3

1 (n + 1)xn + nxn+1

(1 x)2

( :

xf  + f  , f (x) = x + x2 + . . . + xn ).
2
1

2
1. 1) y = 12x 16; 2) y =
x+
2

2
4+

. 2. 1) y =
2
4

= (2 + 2 2 )x 3 2 2 , y = (2 2 2 )x 3 + 2 2 ; 2) y =
1
5
1
= 
x + 3 
, y = 
x + 3
2
14
+
6
5
14
+
6
5
14 6 5
2
2

5
1
4
1

.
3.
(1;
0),
;

.
4.
1)
2
arctg
; 2) 0.

14 6 5

27

, y =
x+
1. 1) y = ex; 2) y = x + 1. 2. 1) y =
3+2 2
1+ 2

1
2
; 2) y = 3 x + 2, y = 3 x + 2. 3. (0; 2),
x+
=
32 2

2
1
ln 3
(2; 0). 4. 1) arctg ; 2) arctg
.
2 + 10 ln2 3
15
3

1. 1) arctg 2; 2) arctg(2). 2. 1) /2; 2) 1 = /2, 2 = arctg .


4
 3/2
   3/2

1
1
1
1

;1 ,
;1 + .
3. 1) ( ln 2; 2); 2)
6
6
6

 
6 

1
5
1
5
3
1
1
4. 1) ; 1 , ; 1 + ; 2)
; 2 . 5. ; .
6

6 6

6 6

1) arctg 2; 2) arctg
. 2.
 3



1
7
3. 1) ln 2;
; 2) 1 +
; 1
2
6
 

13
7
1
. 4. 1) (1; 1); 2)
; log2
+
1.

2 ln 2

7
arctg 5 ; 2) arctg .
16

  
13
7
7
,
1
; 1+
6
6
6

1
.
1)

2 ln 2

264


1
2
1
1. 1) y = x ; 2) y = 4x + 7; 3) y = x + ; 4) y = 2x e;
4
5
5

3
3
5) y = 3 x +
. 2. 1) y = 1, y = 4x + 5; 2) y = 3x 2,
6
8

y = 3(4 + 2 3 )x 12 3 20, y = 3(4 2 3 )x + 12 3 20; 3) y =

1
= (3 + 2 3 )x 4 + 2 3 , y = (3 2 3 )x 4 2 3 ; 4) y = x + ;
4

5) y= (3 + 2 2 )x + 2 + 2 2 , y = (2 2 3)x 2 2 + 2. 3. (0; 1/2 +


+ 3 /6). 4. 1) y = 4x + 5; 2) y = 4x + 8, y = 4x + 8; 3) y = x k ,


k Z. 5. y = 2. 6. (8; 0), (0; 0). 7. 1) (1 + 2 ; 2 ), (1 2 ; 2 );
Z,
2) (1; 3); 3) (2n; 0), n Z, (/3 + 2m; 3 /4), m
(/3 + 2l; 3 /4), l Z;
4) (5/4; ln 4); 5) (/9 + 2k/3; 1/ 3 ),
k Z; (/3 + 2l/3; 1/ 3 ), l Z . 8. 1) ; 2) (1/2; 3/4); 3) (2k; 0), k Z; 4) (m; 0) , m Z;

5) (1/2; ln 2). 9. (11/2; 7/2). 10. (/6; 1/2 + /2 3 ). 11. (3; 11).
+ 5/2. 15. (1; 76/15),
12. (3; 15). 13. y = x2 x + 1. 14.
 y = x 
1
9

230
. 18. (1/8; 1/16).
243
1
4
19. y = x + 1, y = 2x 2. 20. /4. 21. (1/2; 15/32). 22. arctg .
2
3

;6

(3; 8). 16. /4. 17. (1; 6),

3
1

1. 1) [2; + ) , (; 2] ; 2) (; 0)
[4/3; + ) , [0; 4/3] ; 3) (; 1] [1; + )
, [1; 1] ; 4) (0; 1/e] , [1/e; + )

.
2. 1) x = 0 , x = 2
x = 2 ; 2) x = 0 ; 3) x = 1 ; 4)
. 3. 1) (0; + ) , (; 0) 

!

; 2)

4
2

4
2

4 +
2

; +

!
6 4 + 6
;
; 3) (; 0] [1/2; + )
2

, [0; 1/2] ; 4) (; 1) [0; + )


, (1; 0] .
2

1. 1) (; 1] [1; + ) , [1; 1] ; 2)
(; 1), (1; 1) (1; + ) ; 3) (; 0] [2; + ) , [0; 2] ; 4) (; 27/64] , [27/64; + )
. 2. 1) x = 0 , x = 2/3

265

; 2) x = 0 ,
x = 8/27 ; 3) x = e
; 4) . 3. 1) (; 1/6]
, [1/6; + ) ; 2) (; 0] [0; + )
; 3) (0; e3/2 ] , [e3/2 ; + ) ;
4) (; 1] [0; + ) , [1; 0] .
3

1. 1) (; 1] [3; + ) , [1; 3] ,
x = 1 , x = 3
; 2) (; 0) [4/3; + ) , (0; 4/3] ,


1
x = 4/3 ; 3) 0; arcsin
4


1
1
, arcsin ;
, x = arcsin
4 2

; 4) (; 2/3] [1; + ) ,
[2/3; 1] , x = 2/3 , x = 1


1
. 2. 1)
5 + 17 ,
;


  2


1
1
1
5 17 ;
5 + 17

5 + 17 ; +

2
2
2



1
1

5 + 17 ;
5 17

2
2
 


1
1
5 17 ;
5 + 17 ; 2) [2k; 2/3 + 2k],
2

k Z, [ + 2k; 4/3 + 2k], k Z, ,


[2/3 + 2k; + 2k], k Z, [4/3 + 2k; 2 + 2k], k Z,
; 3) (; 1] [1; + ) , [1; 1]
; 4) (; 0) (0; + ) .
4

1. 1) (0; 1/2) (1/2; 1] , (; 0) [1; + )


, x = 0 , x = 1 ; 2)
(; 1] [1/2; 5] , [1; 1/2] [5; + ) ,
x = 1 , x = 1/2 , x = 5
; 3) [/2; /3] [/3; /2] , [/3; /3]
, x = /3 , x = /3 ;




1
3
1
3
1
3
,
ln ; + , x = ln
4) ; ln
2

. 2. 1) (; 2] [2; + ) ,
[2; 2] ; 2) (; 1] [1; + ) ; 3)
[(2k 1) ; 2k], k Z, , [2k ; (2k + 1)] , k Z,
; 4) (0; 1) [e2 ; + ) , (1; e2 ]
.

266


1. 1) [0; + ) , (; 0] ; 2) (; 0]

!
1 22
[1; + ) , [0; 1] ; 3) ;
3


!
1 + 22
1 22 1 + 22

; + ,
;
; 4)
3

(; 0] [2; + ) , [0; 1) (1; 2] ; 5)


a  0 ; a > 0




(; a/3 ] [ a/3 ; + ), [ a/3 ; a/3 ]; 6)
a
 0 
; 
a > 0
(;

1/(3a) ] [ 1/(3a) ; + ), [ 1/(3a) ; 1/(3a) ] ; 7)
(; 0) (0; 1/2] , [1/2; + ) ; 8) (; 1),
(1; 1) (1; + ) ; 9) [9/2; 3] [0; + ) , [3; 0] ; 10) (; 2) (2; 2] ,
[2; + ) ; 11) (; 1/5] , [1/5; + )
; 12) (; 0) (0; + ) ; 13) (0; 1/ e ) ,

[1/ e ; + ) ;
14)
(; 1/ 2 ] [1/ 2 ; + )
, [1/ 2 ; 0) (0; 1/ 2 ] ; 15) (; 0] [2; + )
, [0; 2] ; 16) (; 0] [4/11; + ) ,
[0; 4/11] ; 17) [/6 + k; /6 + k], k Z, ,
[/6 + k; 5/6 + k], k Z, ; 18) (; 1] [1; + )
; 19) (0; 1] [e4 ; + ) , [1; e4 ] ; 20)
(0; 1/e] , [1/e; + ) ; 21) (; 1] (0; 1]
, [1; 0) [1; + ) ; 22) (; 1), (1; 0),
(0; 1) (1; + ) ; 23) (0; + ) ; 24) (; 1]

[1; + ) , [1; 1] . 2. 1) x = 2 5
; 2) x = 1 , x = 2 ;
3) x = 2 , x = 2 ; 4) x = 9/2
, x = 5 ; 5) x = 1 ; 6) x = 19/4 ; 7) x = 1/2
3
, x = 1 x = 0 ; 8) x = 2
; 9) x = 1 , x = 1/2 ;
10) x =

5
+ k, k Z, , x =
+ k, k Z,
12
12

; 11) x = 1/5 ; 12) x = 1/4


; 13) x = 1/6 ; 14) x = 1 x = 1
; 15) x = 1 , x = 0 x = 1 ,

x = 1/ 3 x = 1/ 3 ; 16) x = + 2k,

k Z, , (1)k+1

+ k, k Z, ;
6

17) x = 0 , x = 1 x = 1 ;

+ n, n Z, , x = + l, l Z,
18) x =
12

267

; 19) x =
+ 4k, k Z, ,
3
x = 4m, m Z, ; 20) x = 1 ;
21) x = 2k, k Z, ; 22) x = 1 ;
23) x = 4/3 , x = 2 . 3. 1)
(; 2/3] , [2/3; + ) , a = 2/3 ; 2) (; 3] [1; + ) , [3; 2) (2; 1]
, x = 3 , x = 1 ;
3) (; 0] (1; + ) , [0; 1) , x = 0
; 4) (; 2] [5/2; 3] , [2; 5/2] [3; + )
, x = 5/2 , x = 2 x = 3 ; 5) [0; 2/3] , [2/3; 3] , x = 2/3
; 6) [0; 1/5] ,
[1/5; 2] , x = 1/5

[
2
2
;

2
]
[0; 2] , [2; 0]
;
7)

[2; 2 2 ] , x = 0 , x = 2 x = 2
; 8) (0; 1) [e2 ; + ) , (1; e2 ] , x = e2 ; 9) (0; 1/e] , [1/e; 1)

(1;
+ ) , x = 1/e ; 10) [ 2 ; 1]
[1; 2 ] , [1; 1] , x = 1 ,
x = 1 ; 11) (2; 3) , (3; + ) , x = 3 ; 12) (2; 0]
,
(0; + )

, x = 0 . 5. a [ 3 ; 3 ]. 6. a < 3/8 .

7. a (0; + ), x = ln a. 8. a (; 2 5 ) ( 5 ; + ). 9. a

 


1
1
; ( 7 + 3)
( 7 1); + . 10. a (; 3/ 3 4 ).
11.

2
2
1 a2
|a| [0; 1), (1 + a)2 /6 |a| [1; 2), (2 + a2 )/4
3

|a| [2; + ). 12. a [3/4; + ) . 13. .




32 3
+ ; = 0: a ; < 0:
14. > 0: a ;
27


32 3
a
+ ; .
27

4
1

1. 1) 4, 24 ; 2) 2,125, 1; 3) 1, 0; 4) 21 + 3 ln 2, 0. 2. a = x + y ,

x = y = a/2. 3. 3 2/8. 4. 4R 5/5, R 5/5.


2

1. 1) 17, 0; 2) 2, 10/3; 3) 4, 2; 4) 105, 1/3. 3.


3

2 . 4. 4R.

1. 1) 1, 0,8; 2) 2 3 /3, 1; 3) 5, 0; 4) 1, 1/3. 2. 3. 3. a = 1.


4. M (4; 2). 5. /3.

268

 4

9
3
1. 1) 3 , 9 /2; 2) 16, 2; 3) 4 6 , 0; 4) /2, /2. 2. 2. 4. 993,5.
5

5. R2 tg .
2


1. 1) 60, 2 3 /9; 2) 8/3, 8/3; 3) 0,
25; 4) 6,
1; 5) 1, 2 ln 4;
6) 0, 1/4; 7) 9, 4; 8) 4, 0; 9) 900, 0; 10)

3 3
3 3 + 5
17
,
; 11)
,
6
6
ln 16

2
e2 + 4e + 2 10 7 ln 2
; 12)
,
; 13) 5, 4; 14) 3/2, 1; 15) 7/4, 9/4;
ln 2
2
2

16) 36 /3, 1; 17) 17, 0; 18) 57, 118; 19) 3 3 /8, 0; 20) 1/3, 1/9;
21) 0, 2/e; 22) 0, 14/e; 23) 4 + ln 2, 0; 24) 0, 3(7 + ln 2); 25) e5 ,
7 +4

e3 ; 26) e4 , 0; 27) 3/4, 3; 28) 15/4, 10. 2. 1) 1; 2) 1; 3)


;
6

1
6
6
5
2
. 3. 1) 3 arcsin
+ 2 ; 2) ; 3) 64; 4) ;
4) 2; 5) 0; 6) ; 7)
2

2
3
e
3

3
2+ 4
10
. 7. 1) ; 2) 1 + 8 ln 5; 3) 24 ln 3; 4) 1 +
;
5) 3; 6) 204; 7)
2
41 4 2
16

5) 1 +

92 9 2

. 8. 1) 3/4; 2) 2/3; 3) 6(1 ln 3); 4) 12 1. 9. 1) x = 1;

2) x = 1; 3) x = 2; 4) x = 1 ( :
); 5) x = 2 ( :

x3 + 4
3
7 5
= 2
). 10. 1)
; 2) 3; 3) 2 ; 4) 2 2 ;

2
5
x
x 4x + 5



5
27
2
3 2 2
; 2)
. 12.
. 13. M (0; 2). 14. M
;
.
5) 2 . 11. 1)
12  2
2
4
2


5 4 3
;
. 16. M ( ; 1). 17. M (3/2; 0). 18. 32 3 /9. 19. 32.
15. M
2
6

20. 3 3 /2. 21. M (3/2; 13/4). 22. S . 23.

1 3
3

2V , 2V . 24. 32. 25. a/2,


2


a/2, a 2 3 /2. 26. 2a. 27. l 3 /3. 28. r = 6 R/3,


H = 2 3 R/
3,
V = 4 3 R3 /9. 29. 64 3,2 /75. 30.
2. 31. R = 5 2 , l = 5 2 .
32. R = 4, H = 4. 33. 4. 34. 8. 35. arctg

2
.
2

5
1

1. 1) (z y)(x y)(x z); 2) (y z)(z x)(y z)(x2 + y 2 + z 2 +

+ xy + xz + yz). 2. 1)

(x y)(y z)(x z)
; 2) 3.
(x + y)(x + z)(z + y)

2
2

1. 1) sin2 y ; 2)

269

1
xy + xz + yz
; 3)
.
xyz
(xyz)2

3. a (; 11). 4. a (1/e; 0),


a = 1/e a [0; + ), a < 1/3 . 6. x = 3.
4

3. a (0; 621/16). 4. a (0; 27/e3 ),


a (; 0] a = 27/e3 , a > 27/e3 . 6. x = 2 (
x2
).
: y = 3x 2 y =
x1

1. x (; 2). 3. x1 = x2 = x3 = 3, x4 = 2. 5. x1 = 2, y1 = 2;
x2 = 2, y2 = 2.
6

1. 0 < x < 16. 3. x1 = x2 = x3 = 3, x4 = 4 5. x = /4, y = /4.


7

1. x = 0. 2.

x(1 (1 + n)xn + nxn+1 )


. 4. a = 3.
(1 x)2

1. x = 81. 2. 1)
2) 16

x(n2 xn+2 (2n2 + 2n 1)xn+1 + (n + 2)2 xn x 1)


;
(x 1)3


n2 + 3n + 4
. 3. a = 27/2 .
n2
2


1. 1) x = 1; 2) x = 0; 3) x = 1/2; 4) n = 1; 5) x1 = 0, x2 = 1/2,
x3 = 1; 6) x = 1; 7) x = 40,5; 8) x = 16; 9) x = 1; 10) x1 = 1/2, x2 =
= 3/2; 11) x = 1, y = 1; 12) x = e, y = + 2k, k Z; 13) x = 0,

y = + 2k, k Z. 2. 1) b(a c)(a + c b)2 ; 2) (xy y + 1)(xy +


2
+ 2x y + 1); 3) (x2 + 2x y)(x2 2x + y + 2). 3. . 4. 1) ;
2) ; 3) ; 4) . 5. 1) x > 2; 2) 0  x < 3/5, 3/5 < x <

< +; 3) x1 = 1, x2 = 0, x3 = 1, x4 = 2; 4) 0 < x < 4; 5) x < 3 2 ;


6) x > 1; 7) x1 = 2, x2 = 1; 8) 1/2 < x < 0; 9) 0 < x < 1/2;
10) x (2/3; 0). 9. 1) x1 = x2 = 2, x3 = 3; 2) x1 = x2 = 1, x3 = 1,
x4 = 3; 3) x1 = x2 = 4, x3 = x4 = 1; 4) x1 = 1 , x2 = x3 = 3, x4 = 4;

5) x1 = x2 = 2, x3 = 1 + 3 , x4 = 1 3 ; 6) x1 = x2 = x3 = 1, x4 =
= x5 = 2; 7) x1 = x2 = x3 = 2, x4 = x5 = 2. 10. 1) a
; 2) a < 1 , a > 1 , a = 1

270

(x1 , x2 = x3 ); 3) a  0 a = 1/e,
0 < a < 1/e, a > 1/e ; 4)
2
a  0, 0 < a < e2 /4,
a = e /4,
a > e2 /4 ; 5) |a| > 3 3 /16,

|a| = 3 3 /16, 0 < |a| < 3 3/16 ,


a = 0; 6) |a| < 2 , |a| = 2 ,
|a| > 2 ; 7) |a| > 216 , |a| = 216
, 88 < |a| < 216 , |a| = 88
, |a| < 88 ; 8) a < 0 ,
a = 0 a > 4/e2 , 0 < a < 4/e2 ,
a = 4/e2 ; 9) a  0, a = 1 a > e1/e ,
0 < a < 1/ee , 1/ee  a < 1 a = e1/e ,
1 < a < e1/e ; 10) a < 0 a = e ,
a > e , 0  a < e ; 11) a < 189
, a = 189 , 189 < a < 64 a > 0
, a = 64 a = 0 , 64 < a < 0
; 12) a < 0 a = e , a > e
, 0  a < e . 11. 1) a < 188/27, a > 175;
2) a1 = 122, a2 = 800/27; 3) a > 0; 4) a > e ln 10; 5) 0 < a < 1, a =
3
x2
1. 19. , 2
. 20. 2x3 + 3x2 .
2
x 5x + 6
(n 2)(n 1)n(n + 1)
x(1 x4 )
x2 (1 x2n )
22. 1)
; 2)

. 23. f (x) = x2
2
4
(1 x)
1 x2

1
3
3
. 26. 1) 2 ; 2) ; 3) . 29. 2  a  6 . 30. a  0. 31. a  0,
2
5
4 2
x + x2
a  1. 33. 1) a = 1, b = 0; 2) a = 1, b = 0; a = 1, b = 0. 35.
.
2

= e1/e ; 6) |a| <

36. A = B = C = 0.
3
1
1

1. 1) 1; 2) 2/ ln 2; 3) 15/4; 4) 1/4; 5) ln 2; 6) 1. 2. 81/4.


2
1
1
1. 1) (ekb eka ); 2) sin x; 3)
(bn+1 an+1 ); 4) aea ea + 1;
k
n+1
1
b
1
1
5) ln ab ln ; 6) . 2. 992/5.
2
a
a
b
3

1. 1) 1; 2) 0; 3) 4; 4) /8. 2. 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) . 3. 1) 2/ ;
2) 1/e ( : ln an ); 3) e 1; 4) 2.

271

4



2

1
1. 1)
+ 1 1; 2) 4,5; 3) ; 4)
1 . 2. 1)
2
4
2
2 2

; 2) ; 3) ; 4) 2
5
3
. 3. 1) (2 2 1); 2) ; 3) 2; 4) .
3


1. 1) cos a cos b; 2)

1
5
(bk+1 ak+1 ); 3) e 1; 4) 1; 5) ;
k+1
4

1
1
4
6) 1 . 2. 1) ln 2; 2) 16; 3) ; 4) ; 5) 2; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ;
4
4
6
2
4

1
1
1 + n2n+1
(2n)!!
. 3. 1)
; 2)
; 3)
,
9) ; 10)
2
1+
(n + 1)(n + 2)
(n + 1)(n + 2)
(2n + 1)!!

(2n)!! = 2 4 6 . . . 2(n 1) 2n (2n + 1)!! = 1 3 5 . . . (2n 1)

(2n + 1); 4)





cos m + 1 sin m
2n

sin
2n

2n

. 6. 1) ;

2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) ; 7)
3
; 8) ; 9) . 7. 1) sin 4x;
2) 3 tg 3x; 3)

1
9
cos 6x; 4) 0; 5) 4 ctg 4x; 6)
.
4
sin2 3x

2
1

1. 1) x > 0; 2) x  0. 2. 1) f (x) + g (x) + C ; 2) f (x)g (x) + C .


cos x
1
1
3. 1) ln x; 2) + 2 cos 2 . 4. 1/3 15 ln 3. 6. 1/(n + 1).
2 x

1. 1) x = 0; 2) x = /2 + n , n Z. 2. 1) ln |f (x)| + C ; 2) f 2 (x) +
2

17
+ C . 3. 1) sin x /x; 2) 2x/(1 + x6 ). 4. . 6. (2n+1 1)/(n + 1).
22

13

3 2
x3
x + 5x + C ; 3)
x2 + x + C ;
2
3
2 3/2
4) 1/x 1/x2 + 1/x3 + C ; 5)
x + ln |x| + C ; 6) 3x1/3
3
12 5/3
6x2/3 +
x
+ C ; 7) 4x ex + C ; 8) 2x / ln 2 + 22x / ln 4 +
5
&
3
+ 23x / ln 8 + C ; 9) 3x 2(3/2)x ln + C ; 10) 2 cos x 3 sin x + C ;
2

1
1
5
11) x + sin x/2 + C ; 12) tg x ctg x + C ; 13)
arctg x + C ;
2
7
35

1) x2 + 3x + C ; 2) x3 /3

272




2 3 x
1
1
 + C ; 15)
ln 
ln | 2 x + 2x2 + 1 | + C ;
14)
4 3
2 + 3x
2

1
1
5
ln | 3x + 3x2 4 | + C ;
arcsin x + C ;
17)
16)
3
5
2



x3
1
1 + x
1 x
x + arctg x + C ; 19) ln 
18)
 + arctg x + C ; 20) ln 

3
1

4 3

1x

1+x

arctg + C .
3

14

1) x4 /2 x3 + 3x2 6x + C ; 2) x3 x2 + x + C ; 3) 1/x +
3
2

6
9
3
+ 1/x2 + C ; 4) ln |x| + 4 x + x + C ; 5) x7/6 x4/3 x2/3 + C ;

7
4
2

30x
x
7)
+ C ; 8) 2e 2 x + C ;
6)
ln 30
1
sin x
9) cos x + 2 sin x + C ; 10)
x
+ C ; 11) ctg x tg x +
2
2



 7 5x
1
2x
1
 + C ;

+ C ; 12) arctg + C ; 13)


ln 
6
3
2 35
7 + 5x

1
1
ln | 3 x + 1 + 3x2 | + C ;
arcsin 3 x + C ;
15)
14)
3
3



1
x3
1
1 + x
16) ln | 2 x + 2x2 5 | + C ; 17) x + ln 
 + C;
2
1x
2
 3 


 2 x
1
1 x
 1 arctg x + C ;
18) arctg x + ln 
 + C ; 19) ln 

1 + x
10 2
2 +x
3
3

e2 x
2

3x + C ;
2
ln 3

20) arcsin x + ln |x +

1 + x2 | + C .

15
1
1
1
1)
ln |2x + 3| + C ; 2) cos 5x + C ; 3) (1 x)8 + C ;
2
5
8
1
1
2
(1 2x)7
(1 2x)6 + C ; 5)
(x 1)5/2 + 4(x 1)3/2 +
4)
28
20
5


 3/ 2 x 1 
2
2x + 1
1
1/2

+
+ 18(x 1) + C ; 6) arctg
+ C ; 7) ln 

3
3
2
6
3
/
2
+
x
+
1




1
2 + x 1
1
2
+ C ; 8) ln 
 + C ; 9) 2 ln(x + 1) + arctg x + C ;
2 2
2 x+1
4
2x + 3
1
10) ln(x2 + 3x + 4) arctg
+ C ; 11) (1 x2 )3/2 + C ;
3 
7
7

 2 x4 
1
1
3
 + C;
12) sin x sin x/3 + C ; 13) cos + C ; 14) ln 

x
8 2
2 + x4

15) 2 arctg
18)

x + C ; 16) ln | cos x| + C ; 7) arctg(cos x) + C ;

2
ln x
1
1
+ C ; 19) ln | ln x| + C ; 20) ex + C ; 21)

4
2
24

3
1



1
13
 x
+ C ; 22) ln tg  + C ; 23)
x+
ln |4x 7| + C ;

2
(x + 1)
1
1
3/2
3/2
24) (1 + x) + (x 1) + C .
3
3
4

273
2

16
1
sin 7x
(x + 3)12
1) ln |1 3x| + C ; 2)
+ C ; 3)
+ C;
3
7
12
1
1
2
4
4)
(2x 3)10 +
(2x 3)9 + C ; 5) (1 x)7/2 + (1 x)5/2
40
12
7
5
2
2
2x 1
1
4x 1
3/2
(1 x) + C ; 6) arctg
+ C ; 7) arcsin
+ C;
3
47
3
3
2



3
1
2 x
8) ln |x2 4| ln 
 + C ; 9) 2 |x2 2x + 4| +
4
2+x
3
x1
1
cos3 x
2
3
/
2
(1 + x )
+ C ; 11)
cos x + C ;
arctg + C ; 10)
3
3

 3
3

1
1
x
1+ x 
+ C ; 15) ln | sin x| +
+ C ; 14) ln 
12) sin + C ; 13) arctg
x
6
2
1 x 
1
sin x
2
arctg
+ C ; 17) (ln x)3/2 + C ; 18) ln | ln ln x| + C ;
+ C ; 16)
2
2
3
 

1 x3
1 3
x

3

2
19) e + C ; 20) (x + 2) + C ; 21) ln tg
+
 + C ; 22) x
3
6
2
4
5



1

29
1 
x


ln |5x + 3| + C ; 23) ln  + 1 + 2  + C ; 24) 2 1 + e + C .


25
x
x
17

1) (1 + x) ln(x + 1) x + C ; 2)

x2
2



1
ln x
+ C ; 3) ex (2 + 2x +

2
x2
x
1
+ sin 2x + cos 2x + C ;
+ x ) + C ; 4) x cos x + sin x + C ; 5)
4
4
8
ex (cos x + sin x)
x 2
6) x ctg x + ln | sin x| + C ; 7)
+ C ; 8)
x 4
2
2

x
x
2 x2 + arcsin + C ; 10) x arccos x
2 ln |x + x2 4 | + C ; 9)
2
2

1 x2 + C .

18

x2 ln(x + 1)
1
ln |x + 1|
(x 1)2
+ C;
2
4
2
x
2
3
x
1
3) 2 (x ln 3 1) + C ; 4) x sin x + cos x + C ; 5)
x sin 2x
4
4
ln 3
ex (sin x cos x)
1
+ C;
cos 2x + C ; 6) x tg x + ln | cos x| + C ; 7)
8
2

x
3
x
5
x
x2 + 3 + ln |x + x2 + 3 | + C ; 9)
5 x2 + arcsin +
8)
2
2
2
2
5

1) x(ln x 1) + C ; 2)

+ C ; 10) x arcsin x +

1 x2 + C .

18 .

274

19
2
4
2
2
1) (1 x)7/2 + (1 x)5/2 (1 x)3/2 + C ; 2)
sin3/2 x +
7 3
5
3
3

tg x
x 2
1
+ C ; 4)
x + 4 + 2 ln |x + x2 + 4 | + C ; 5)
+ C ; 3)
3
2
3



3
3
2

x 2 3x + arcsin
x + C ; 6) 2 x 2 ln(1 + x ) + C ;

2
2

6 6 5
3 3 2
x
x +
x + 2 x + 3 6 x + 6 ln |1 6 x | + C ; 8) 

7) x +
5
2
1 x2
1
+ C.
arcsin x + C ; 9) ln(ex 1)2 x + C ; 10) arcsin
|x|
20
3
6
1) (1 x)4/3 +
4
7
2
1
5
7
sin x + sin x +
5
7
3
x
+ arcsin + C ; 5)
2
3

3
sin3 x
(1 x)10/3 + C ; 2)

10
3
3

ctg x
x
C ; 3)
+ C ; 4)
3 x2 +
3
2


x 5 + 2x2
5
+ ln | 2 x + 5 + 2x2 | + C ;
2
2 2

(1 x)7/3

6) 2 x 2 ln |1 x | + C ; 7) 2 x 4 4 x + 4 ln |1 + 4 x | + C ;





 1 + x2 + 1 
x
5
 x 1
 + C.

+ C ; 9) ln e +  x + C ; 10) ln 
8) 

1 + x2

x3
x2
6
2
+
+ x + C ; 2) 2 x + 2x3/2 + x5/2 + x7/2 + C ;
3
2
5
x7
4 7/4
1
25
2
x
+ x1/4 + C ; 4) ln |x| x4 + C ; 5)

3)
7
4
ln 25
ln 10
 x
 x
 x
x
4
1
1
27 1
32
1
10x +
+ C ; 6)
+
+ C ; 7)
+ C;
ln 4
2 ln 9 9
ln 4 4
5
ln 32
5
1
3 2
8) cos x sin x + C ; 9) ctg 2x + C ; 10) x + sin x + C ; 11)

2
2


2 x
3
( cos x + sin x) + C ; 12) x + x + 4 ln 
 + C ; 13) tg x x + C ;
2+x 



 3 x
1
 1 ln  1 x  + C ;
ln 
14) ctg x x + C ; 15)

4
1+x
4 3
3 +x
1
1
x
1
16)
arctg x arctg + C ; 17) + arctg x + C ; 18) ln |x +
2
x
3
3

1
4
1
1
+ 1 + x2 | + C . 2. 1) ln |x + 2| + ln |x 1| + C ; 2) x ln |1 +
3
3
2
4
1
2
22
(3x + 5)12 + C ; 4)
(1 5x)3/2
(1 5x)1/2 + C ;
+ 2x| + C ; 3)
36
75
25
17
2
2
2
18/17
5/2
5)
(1 + 4x)
+ C ; 6)
(1 3x)
(1 3x)3/2 + C ; 7) (1 +
72
45
27
7
4
2
3
x
7/2
5/2
3/2
2
+ x) (1 + x) (1 + x) + C ; 8) ln(x + 4) arctg + C ;
5
3
2
2
1. 1)

9)

2 x2 + 4 3 ln |x + x2 + 4 | + C ;

275

10)

1
3

(1 x2 )3/2 + C ;

1
1
1
(1 + x2 )3/2 + C ; 12)
arctg x2 + C ; 13)
ln |x2 4x +
3
2
2

4
x2
+ 7| + arctg + C ; 14) 2 ln x + C ; 15) ln |2 + ln x| + C ;
3
3
1
1
1
cos 5x + C ; 18) sin 3x
16) 2 ln |1 ex | x + C ; 17) cos x
2
10
6

1
sin 5x + C ; 19) 2 cos x + C ; 20) x/2 sin 2x/4 + C ;

10
3
1
21) 5x + 2 sin 2x cos 2x + C ; 22) cos ex + C ; 23) ctg 7x + C ;
4
7

1
2
24)
ln | tg(3x/2 + /4)| + C ; 25)
ln | tg(x/2 + /8)| + C ;
3
2
x
2
8
8
26) tg + C . 3. 1) (2 x)7/2 + (2 x)5/2 (2 x)3/2 + C ;
2
7
5
3
1
3
3
2)
(1 x2 )3/2 (1 x2 )1/2 + C ; 3)
cos10/3 x cos4/3 x + C ;
3
10
4
1
1
1
1
4) tg x + tg3 x + C ; 5) ctg x ctg3 x + C ; 6) tg3 x + tg5 x + C ;
3
3
3
5

11)

7) x 2ex/2 + 2 ln(1 + ex/2 ) + C ; 8) x ln |1 +

1 + e2x | + C ;

3 tg x + 1
6 + 25x
1
2
3 5/3
arctg

(2 5x )
+ C;
10)
+ C;
9)
1000
2
2
2

x
x
1 x2
4 x2 + C ; 12)
arcsin x + C ;
11) 2 arcsin
2
2
x




4
2
 1 + 1 + x2 
1 + x2
1
 + C ; 14) tg x tg x ln | cos x| +


ln
13)


2
x
4
2
2x2

x
3
+ C ; 15) x tg + C ; 16) 2 1 + x 2 ln(1 + 1 + x ) + C ; 17) (1 +
2
 3 2
 x 

1
 + C;
ln  3
+ x)2/3 3(1 + x)1/3 + 3 ln |1 + 3 1 + x | + C ; 18)
6
x + 2
3

1
|x7 |
1
x2 1
1
x2 1
ln
+ C ; 20) arctg + C ; 21) arctg +
7
2
7
(1 + x )
3
x 3
2
x 2
x
1
x

+
arctg
x
+
C
;
23)
+
C
.
4.
1)
x
ln2 x +
+ C ; 22)
2
2(1 + x2 )
1 x2
x3 + 1
x3
x2
x
ln(1 + x)
+

+ C;
+ 2x ln x + 2x + C ; 2)
3
9
6
3
1
1
3) x arctg x ln(1 + x2 ) + C ; 4) x arcctg x + ln(1 + x2 ) + C ;
2
2

x2
1
1
1
x
1 + x2
+ x ln |1 + x| + C ; 6) +
5)
ln 1 +
arctg x + C ;
x
x
2
2
2
2
2
x
1
x
x
arcsin x arcsin x +
1 x2 ; 8)
(sin ln x cos ln x) + C ;
7)
2
4
4
2



2
 1 + 1 x2 
1 2x
x
arcsin x
 + C;

cos 2x + sin 2x + C ; 10)
ln 
9)

4
2
x
x
2
3

2+x
x
1 x2 +
arccos x + C ; 12) (1 + x) arctg x x + C ;
11)
9
3

19)

18*

276

e2x
e2x
1
(2 sin 2x cos 2x) + C ; 14)
x2 + x +
+ C;
8
2
2
2
2

x + 1 x2
1x
1+x
15)
e
+ C ; 16) x
ln
+ C ; 17) 2( x 1)e x +
2
2
1x

x2
1
arcsin
+C ; 18) 2(6 x) x cos x 6(2 x) sin x + C ; 19)
2
x
1 2
x
1
x 1 sign x + C ; 20)
+ arctg x + C .

2
2
2(1 + x)2

13)

3
1

1) 2/3; 2) 1/2; 3) /2; 4) /3; 5) ln + /2 arctg ; 6) 2/3;


4
3
2
7

7) 4/3 5 2 /6; 8) 23/8; 9) 7; 10) 1.


2
3
5
185
3
5
1) 5/3; 2)
2
2 + 1/12; 3) /4 + 1/2; 4) /6; 5)
+
2
3
36 ln 25

3
1
+ 2 log5 ; 6)
(35 25 5 ); 7) 1/132; 8) 5/24; 9) 19,5; 10) 2,5.
2
10
3

 2
2
3
1

1) 2 ln + 1; 2) /2 1; 3) 1/4 e2 ; 4) /4 ln
+1 ;
e
4
2
16
cos 1 + sin 1
e 1/2; 6) 1; 7) 4 ln 2 15/16.
5)
2
4
4
ln(5e)
1) ln ; 2) ; 3) /2 1; 4) 1
; 5) 1/2 + 2 /32 /8;
e
5
8
1
6) (ln 2 1/3) + 1/3; 7) 2 /8 /4 + ln( 2 /16 + 1).
3
2
5
1
1)
ln 2; 2)
2

3/4

7 /12;

3)

12,5;

4) 1/3; 5) 1/6;


 tg 3 10 



1
1
6) /3 3 /2; 7) 3 3/2 + 6 arctg ; 8)
ln  8
 +
2
10
 tg 8 3 + 10 





1
3 + 10 
3
1
; 9) ; 10) 3 /6 + 2 2 + arcsin .
+ ln 
2
3
10
3 10
6

1
4
1
9
3
2 + 17
1) ln ; 2) 1/6; 3) 1/5; 4) 1/4; 5) ln ; 6) 7 + ln
;
2
3
2
5
2
3



1
1

1
4
arctg
tg
; 9) /3 arccos ; 10) 2 2 4 2 +
7) 81/16; 8)
2
2
8
3

4
1+ 2
+ 4 ln
+ 2.
2

277

3 1
1
17
8
; 4) ; 5)
; 6) 0; 7)
;
4
3
6
15

7
1
8) 2 2 ; 9) 14; 10) 2 ; 11) 200 2 ; 12) 3/8; 13)
ln 3 /(2 3 );
8
2

1. 1) 2,5 ln 2; 2)

74
; 3)
3

14) 1/6; 15) 14 ln(7!) . 2. 1) (27 1)/7 (26 1)/6; 2) 8/315; 3) 2/15;

1
9+4 2
2
2 4
;
4) ( 3 2 )/2; 5) a /4; 6) a /16; 7) 2 /2; 8) ln
7
2

1
(5e3 2); 2) 4 ; 3) 2(1 1/e); 4) (4 ) + ln 2;
9) / 2 . 6. 1)
27

5) 2 /2 4; 6)

16
2
e

[e(sin 2 + cos 2) (sin 1 + cos 1)]; 7) /4 +


2
3 3

1
3
ln ; 8) 3 /6 /4; 9) 2 /4; 10) 4/3
2
2

3.

1) 4(8 2 1) /7; 2) 10/3; 3) 18; 4) 3/2 ln 2; 5) 80/ ln 27; 6) 3; 7) 1;

8) 2(6 3 5 2 )/3; 9) 53/15; 10) 3/2 ln 2.


2

1) 12; 2) 16/3; 3) 7/6; 4) 9(1/2 + ln 3); 5) e2 1; 6) /2 + 1; 7) 9 3 ;


8) 1/3; 9) 88/15; 10) 8/5.
3

1) 9/2; 2) 9/2; 3) 8/3; 4) (15 16 ln 2)/4; 5) 16 3 /15; 6) 1/3;


6
7)
; 8) 5/2; 9) 16; 10) 11 6 ln 3.
3

1) 32/3; 2) 81/2; 3) 1/3; 4) 4 3 ln 3; 5) 8/3; 6) 5/12; 7) (3 4)/4;


8) 5 ; 9) (4 ln 27)/2; 10) 90,5 6 ln 2.
5

3
2
1. 1) 5/6; 2) 2 + 4. 2. 1) 9/8; 2) 4/3. 3.
(ln 2 1) +
.
2
2

4. arctg(27/2) arctg(27/4).
6

1. 1) 2(1 ln 2) ; 2) 4 + 8. 2. 1) 128/3; 2) (4 2 + 2 16)/16.

3.

3
2
4
8
(ln 2 1) +
. 4. arctg
arctg .
2
2
3
3

1. 1) 121,5; 2) 9; 3) 4/3; 4) 1/3; 5) 4,5; 6) 2/3; 7) 7/3; 8) (8 2 3)/6;


9) 5/3; 10) 7/4; 11) 2; 12) (6e 5)/3; 13) 3/2; 14) ln 2; 15) 5 ln(6/5)

278

0,5; 16) 14,5 + ln 16; 17) 8/9; 18) 2; 19) 1/3; 20) 3 . 2. 1) 4/3; 2) 1/6;
3) 1/6; 4) 9; 5) 9; 6) 125/6; 7) 64/3; 8) 4/3; 9) 7/15; 10) 2,5 6 ln(3/2).
3. 1) 4/3; 2)8. 4. 1) 16/3; 2) 18; 3) 1/3; 4) ln 2 5/8; 5) (2e9 101)/6.

+63 3
; 7) 4 ln 3; 8) e e1 . 5. 1. 6. (1/2; 5/4). 7. (3/2; 2/3).
6

2
(1 /8); 3) 11/3; 4) .
8. p = 1 . 9. 32/3. 10. 1) 4 2/ ; 2)
2
1
1
3
11. 5 . 12. (x2 x1 ) , x1 , x2 x2 2x0 x +
3
6

6)

+ 2x20 y0 = 0.




. . .

1. x,

f (x) = 4x sin 2x + 4 2 cos x


.

: (1)n + n, n Z.
4

2. x,

f (x) = 3x2 ln x 36x ln x 7x2 + 108x


.
: x {2, e2 }.
3.

f (x) = x/ ln x.
: (0; 1) (1, e] , [e; + ) ; xmin = e.
4.

f (x) = x ln x x ln 5
[1; 5].

5
e

: fmin (x) = .
5.

f (x) = 5 cos x cos 5x


[/4; /4].
: fmax (x) = 3 3 .
6.

f (x) = x3 2x|x 2|
[0; 3].

2
3

: xmin = ; fmin (x) = 21.


7.

f (x) = |x2 + 2x 3| +

3
ln x
2

280

[1/2; 4].
: fmax (x) = 21 + 3 ln 2; fmin (x) = 0.
8.

f (x) = |2x3 + 15x2 + 36x 30|


[3; 2].
: fmin (x) = 118.
9.

f (x) =

1
3

2x 9x + 12x + 1

[0; 3].
:

1
.
10

10. a,

f (x) = sin 2x 8(a + 1) sin x + (4a2 + 8a 14)x


.

a<
2 5 ,
:
a > 5.
11. ,

f (x) = cos x sin 2x


[ ; ] 7/9.
12.

f (x) = 4x x3
3.
9
2

: x = .
13. x,

f (x) = x3 3x2 7x + 6
x
, .
: x = 3.
14. ,

f (x) =
1.
: S = 2.

x
2x 1

281

15. ,

f (x) = 6x + x2 :
2.
: S =

25
.
4

16.

f (x) = sin 3x
/18 5/18.



3
1
:
;
+
.
6

17. ,

f (x) = x2 /2 x + 5,
(0; 3).
: S = 6.
18.

f (x) = x2 /2 + 2,
(1/2, 2)

g (x) = 4 x2 .
5
2

: e = x + .
19.
x

(2 4t + 3t2 ) dt  x,

x > 0.
: x = 1.
20. a b,

f (x) = a sin(x) + b

f  (1) = 2

2
0

: a = , b = 2.

f (x) dx = 4.

282

21. ,

y = 2(x 1)2 8.
: S =

64
.
3

22. ,

y = x2 2x + 2, y = x2 + 4x + 5 y = 1.
9
4

: S = .
23. ,

f (x) = 4x x2
, (5/2, 6).
9
: S = .
4
24. x [1; 2] x,

y = 4 2x x2 /2 + x3 /3 ,
?
: x = 1.
25. ,

y = 1 + cos x

0  x  , 3x + 2y + 4 = 0.
: (0; 2).
26. a [3/5; 3/2] ,
,
a
y = 3x2 10x + 2 y = 2x2 + 5x 10,
?
3
: a = .
5

27. a > 0 ,

y=
?
4
: a = 3 .

x2 + 2ax + 3a2
1 + a4

y=

a2 ax
1 + a4

283

28. a > 0,

2x3 + x2 x a 1 = 0

12x3 7x > 6a + 1.
: 0 < a <

1
.
54

29. a,

(2a + 4)x2 + (5a + 10)x + a + 10 = 0



(a 1)x4 (a 1)x3 (z 7)x2 + (10a + 5)x a + 12 = 0.


a < 3,
a > 6.
30. A 8 , B .
, . A
C , ,
B , , A B
. AB .

: 0  AB  16 3 .
: