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1

.., ..

2012


()

.., ..



,
-210300,
210400

2012

621.371(075.8) + 537.8(075.8)
:
.. - ,
.., - .-. , . .
. . -:

.., ..
. 1. : . :
2012. 222 .


,
,

. , , c . , .
,
-210300; . .

.., .., 2012


. -
, 2012.


.
1 ...
1.1 ...
1.2
...............................................
1.3
. , ...
1.4 ,

1.5 ..
1.6 , .
.
1.7 ..
2 .
2.1 .
2.1.1 ...
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.1.4 ..
2.2 ...
2.2.1
2.2.2 ...
2.2.3 .
2.3 .
2.3.1 .
2.3.2
2.3.3 ...
2.4
2.4.1
2.4.2 ..
2.4.3 ..
2.4.4
2.5 .
2.5.1 ..
...
2.5.2 ..
2.5.3 .
3
3.1 .

6
7
8
8
9
11
12
14
16
17
20
21
21
25
28
28
32
32
37
39
41
41
43
45
48
48
53
56
58
61
62
64
65
68
68

3.1.1 . 68
3.1.2 ...
3.1.3 .
3.2
3.3 ..
3.4
3.5
3.6 ..
4. .
4.1.
4.2. ..
4.3. .
4.4. ().
5. ..
5.1 .
5.2 ...
5.3. ..
5.4.
6.
6.1. ..
6.2.
6.3. , ..
6.4. [ S ]
6.5. [ S ]
6.6. ..
6.7. .
6.8.
6.9. .

.1. ..
.3.

71
72
75
80
84
102
110
119
119
122
126
127
134
134
137
138
149
160
160
161
163
166
167
174
176
182
207
212
215

221


;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
... ;

[V ] ;
[V0 ]* ;

[S] ;
~
S ;
Sii i- ;
Sik k- i-;
[t] ;
[~t ] ;
Z ;
zc ;
z0 ;
z Tc ;

[]

( ), ;
, ;
;
( );
;
;

;
;
r r ;
0 0 ;

;
S ;
;
0 ;
;
. , ;
0 ;
mn ;
mn ;
0 ;
;
;
= ;
(l) ;
;
() ;
(1/) .

1. , , . ,
E& = E& m exp( j t ) , E& m

E , E = Re E& .
2. *
.
3. ,
, .


, - , .


. ,
.
.
.
100 300
. :
;
;
;
.
, ,
. , , , .
: .
. : , , .
.
, , .
,
, .
. ,
.
: , , , , .

1

(). [1-5] , .
.
, , ,
.
1.1.
. , ,
- (
, , , .). . .
, .

t=const.
, .

.
(-)
r
, H Z 0 .

r
E Z 0 , -

().
, ,
,

. , H Z = 0 E Z = 0 ,
(-). .
Z (. . 1.1, ), -

10

z . ,
z H , E .
1.2

, Z. , 1.1
. , .

, ,
, ,

E m = E m (, ) e jz ;

H m = H m (, ) e jz ,

(1.1)

= const (
,),
- .
. exp(-iz)
, Z,
exp (iz) , . , Z. , , .
E m H m
.
.
Ez- Hz- .
(1.1, )
2 + 2 = 0 ,

& (, )
= H
mZ
.

= E& mZ (, ) , 2 -

E m H m (1.1) ,

2 E mz + 2 E mz = 0;
2 H mz + 2 H mz = 0,

11


- -.
X ,
Z (- i),

&z
&
H
& y = j E& x ; H z jH
& x = j E& y ;
+ jH
y
x
E& z
E& z
&
&
& y.
+ jE y = j H x ;
+ jE& y = j H
y
x

(E ) (Ez Hz). ,

r
r
r r0
H = grad H Z j grad E Z , z ,
r
r r0
2
E = grad E Z j grad H Z , z ,
r
r
( ) j( t z )

E = E 0 x, y e
,
r
r
H = H 0 (x , y ) e j( t z ) ,
r
r
H Z = H 0 Z (x , y ) e j( t z ) ,
r
r
E Z = E 0 Z (x, y ) e j( t z ) ,

E = x 0 E x + y 0 E y ;

(1.2)

H = x 0H x + y0H y ,


. (.
1.2);
,

= k 2 2 ,

. 1.2
(1.3)

k a a, a=0 a=0 , ;
; (0):
k 2 = 2 ,
a

12

0 = 8,854 10 12

1
10 9 ( )
36

(0):
0 = 4 10 7 = 1,257 10 6 ( ) .
k
k = 2/,
(1.4)
a a (
,
k ( z + ) kz = 2 ). (1.4) , = 2 k = f , a a .

a a

(1.5)

, a = 0 a = 0,
: c = 0 = 1 0 0 = 3 108 / .
1.3 . ,

(1.3)

k 2 > 2 ,

(1.6)
z c (
).
= /.
(1.7)

k 2 < 2 ,

, ( ).
k = = 0 ( )
(1.4)

(
1.8)

, (1.8),

13

.
(1.8, )
0

f =
=
,

2 0 0

(1.3)
:

(1.8),
2

2

2

,
= k 1
= a a

= 0

(
1.9)

0 .
(1.6), ,
(f > f < ).
.
() , z, 2. j z

z e
, =2/.
(1.9),
.
2


.
B = / 1

(
1.10)

, .
1.4 ,
(). , : Hz = 0, Ez = 0.

2 = 0 .

1.11)
= f = 0. , , ,

14

. k

= 2 a a = k .

(1.7)

= 0 ,

(
1.12)

.
,

( E& = Z CT H& ):

H& =
Z C =
T

a
[z0 , E& ] = 1T [z0 , E& ],
a
ZC

a
a
=
c ,
a

a a, ZC.

(a
=0), ,

Z CT =

0
120
(1 jtg ) 1 / 2 =
(1 jtg ) 1 / 2 .
0

tg ( )

ZC

120

Z0

(
1.13)

Z 0 = 0 0 = 120 = 377 .

(
1.14)

r&
() () . H E&

, , .
-
2

,
Z CE =
= ZC 1

a

(
1.15)

(1.15), , ,

15

< , - .
= .
.
, ( > ),
,
. -
.
-

Z CH =

a
=

ZC

(
1.16)

(1.16),
- c ( Z CT = Z C ). H

, ( > ), Z C , Z C ,
, .
1.5 .

. (1.7), k

(
1.17)

- -
(1.17), , , , ,

0 .
(1.17) - , (. 1.3) (f).
f=f .
.

16

. .
. . ,
.

( , )
, ,
.
. ,

S ( ) =

s(t ) e

j t

dt

- z=0,
z,

1
s(t , z ) =
2

S ( ) e

j z

e j t d .

, s(t,z)
, ,

d
.
d

1.18)

(1.9). (1.9) (1.18),

(
1.19)
< 0 , = 0 .
(1.19) (1.17), ,

= 02 = 1 a a .
, ,
. ,
,
. ,
, .. .

17

02

= 0


.
1

(1.19, )

= .
0
. , z, , , z. . , z,
,
< 0.
1.6 ,
.
, , :

P = Re Z dS =
S

E& 0

{ [

]}

1
1
0 & &*
Re
z
E
H
dS
=
2 S
2Z C

E& 0 dS ,

(1.20)

;
Z .
, -, - - Z Z, ZC ZCH .
(1.20),
02, .. ,
.
,
.. . (10-15/2 ), .
, (
105 /3) ,
, . -

18

, , . , ,
.
, . ,
, ,
(, ) .
, .
. () , ,
. ()
: = (0,2...0,3) . ,
, .
1.7

(, 5,510 1 ),
, . , ,
,
= +j.
(
E = E ( x, y ) e j ( t z ) = E ( x, y ) e z e j ( t z ) ,
1.21)
,
. . 1,2
(1.21) z = z1 z2 = z1 + 1 ,

E1
e z1
= ( z +1) = e .
1
7

E2

P1/P2 = e2, . . 2 = =12,


1, 2 .

19

= 1 12,
2 = 1 /1.
,
( , ..). - (, , ), .
/ 1 << 1, 2 << 1, 2
1 / 1 =1 2 + 22 ,

1 P
.
2 P1

1.22)

(1.22) , (
) P1 .

P =

2 l

RS dl ,
2

(
1.23)

l . ,
() , . .

= n 0 , H .

a
f a
a c
=
=
Rs =
,

2
0

(
1.24)

, f ,
, 0 [1].
- :
Z S = RS + jLS [],
,
a f
RS = 1 / =
, LS = 1 = RS ,

).
2
- ( =
=
a
c a

20

RS =

1,987

10 3 , .

, RS, , ,
, , RS. ,
ZS, -, , , . ,
, .
. ,
, .
.
. , , . ,
.

(1.23) RS ,

1 1
2

H dl .
2

(1.25)

(1.20) (1.25)

H dl
1 l
.
=
2 Re [EH *]dS
2

(1.26
)

(1.26)
.
.
E0 / E .

[ / ] . , L = 10 lg(P0 / P) [], [/].


1 = 0,115 ; 1 H = 8,68 .

21


,
: = + .
[1]
(
tg << 1 (1.27) :

tg
k 2 tg

1.27)

(1.27, )

2

[1]. ,
. ,
, .
() . , , ..
.
,
, .

. 2.1

22

. 2.1
: (), (), (), : () (); (); : (), ().

2.1
, .

, ,
(, ), -, , -, , , , , .
c (
z c ), -.
2.1.1
, r r
, : E, H ,
.
.
,
,
. 2.2
(Hz 0, Ez 0). , ,
r
( E
= 0 ). . 2.2
S

E& z = 0
E& z = 0

y = 0 y = b,

x = 0 x = a,
, b .

23

mn:

m
mx ny j z
E& x = j 2 E0 cos
;
sin
e
a
a b

n
mx ny j z
E& y = j 2 E0 sin
;
cos
e
b
a b
mx ny j z
E& z = E0 sin
;
sin
e
a b
n
mx ny j z
H& x = j a 2 E0 sin
;
cos
e
b
a b

(2.1)

m
mx ny j z
H& y = j a 2 E0 cos
;
sin
e
a
a b
H& z = 0 ,

m n ( m = 1,2,3, n = 1,2, 3 ). m = 0 n = 0 E& z ,


.
(2.1), , m , , n
, b
(. 2.2). , m n ,
mn. , 11 , m =1 n=1.
(Hz 0, Ez=0).

H& z
=0
n

, .. x, y x =0
x=a; y=0 y=b .
mn :

24

n
mx ny j z
E& x = j a 2 H 0 cos
;
sin
e
b
a b
m
mx ny j z
E& y = j a 2 H 0 sin
;
cos
e
a
a b

E& z = 0 ;
m
m x nx j z
H& x = j 2
H 0 sin
;
cos
e
a
a b
n
m x ny j z
H& y = j 2
H 0 cos
;
sin
e
b
a b
m x ny j z
&
H z = H 0 cos
cos
e
a
b

(2.2)

m=1,2,3 n=0,1,2,3. m n.
(2.1) (2.2) 0 0 , ,
. z .

(

= x2 + y 2 ,

2.3)
x , y x y,

x =

m
n
; y =
.
a
b

2 =

kp

m
=
a

2 n
+

(
2.4)

. Emn Hmn
, , b (.
. 2.2). ,
(2.4),

25

(m a )

+ (n b )

2.5)

, .
.
2.3 ,
, b=0,5a,
10 2a ; 10, 20, 01 = a ; 10, 20,
01, 11, 11

= 2a

5.

, :
, .

10. > b ,
= 2. , ,
.
,
10 20, 10.
11

( = 2ab

a2 + b2 ) .

10

H20 ( = ),

H01 ( = 2b),

H11 ( = 2ab

a 2 + b 2 ).

26


, , , (11 11; 21
21 .). , , .

. 2.4
. 2.4. : ,
.
-, ,


, , .
, 20
. () , . ,
, . .
-

. -
,

( ).
2.1.2

10. 10
:
,
,

27

(
),
- ,
,
,
,
, , .
:

E x = 0,
x
E y = E0 sin
a
E z = 0,
Ey

Hx =

Z XH

exp( jz ),

(2.6)

x
E0 sin
exp( jz ),
a
a

H y = 0,
Hz = j

E0
x
cos
exp( jz ).
a a
a

10,
(2.6), . 2.5. , . , , y .
,
. ,

E&
, ,
= a
t
= i a E& , , -

/2,
/4.
10, (1.9) (2.5),

28


= k 1 .
2a
2

2.7)

(. (1.17) (1.19, )
:

0

1
2a

= 0


1 .
2a
2

(
2.8)

(1.10)
(. (1.16))

B =

Z CH

1
2a
ZC
=
.
2

1
2a

(2.9)

(
2.10)

, (2.10),
,
, . , Z .
,
.

10 .. ,
.

ZB =

120

b
a


1
2a

2.1.2

(2.10, )

29

, ,
. ,
S
S = [n0 , H ] . (2.6) 10. ,
: (y=0)

0 Z =

ja

H 0 Z sin

x
a

0 X = H 0 Z cos

x
a

2.11)

(=0)
(2.12
0Y = H 0 Z .
)
S 10
. 2.6, a . 2.6, . E11 (. 2.6, ).

. 2.6
2.1.3
(1.20),
2


ab
,
P =
1

4Z

E02

(
2.13)

0 .

P =

2
E
ab

4Z


597ab 1 ,
1

(2.1
4)

30

, a b .
, 0 ( ,
=30 /) (2.13) (2.14),
() , .
35
(= /4).
:


2
ab 1
P = 6,63 10 4
2a

.
2.15)

. 2.7 .
,


2
, , ,
. ,
.

. 2.1 .
2.1
a x b,

, /

7234
2310
7,23,4

14,4
4,6
1,42

137,7
2,324,1
0,731,2

0,02
0,12
0,51

3000
300
40

31

,
.
= 1 30...45 .
,
,
, 10.
.
,
, .
, , (1.26). (1.26)
.
.. .. :

2
2
2 RS a y + b x
,
= E
ZC
2 ab
E

(
2.16)

=
bZ C

m 1, n = 0;

2 a n 2
=
m = 0, n 0;
1 +
,
2
b
2
b

n
aZ C 1
2b
2
2
2
2

m
+
+ b

2 RS a
+
2a
2b





,
=
m 0, n 0.
2

abZ C 1


H

2b m 2
,
1 +
2
a
2
a


m
1

2a
RS

RS

(2.17)

(2.18)

(2.19)

32

. 2.8
. (2.16) (2.172.19), .
, , , /
0,20
( ).
0,16
11

0,12

0,08
0,8.
0,04
10
(f > f) , ,

, . 2.8
- - ( RS
).
(2.16)(2.19),
. : , , .
.
1. .
1 .
2.

(
= 8,68 2 / .
2.20)
3. ,
.
4. .
, -
.
(2.16), . ,
= 0,55 /, 10
6,5 (
70 % ).
,

. -

33

1 . ,
, .
. 50
1 . , ,
6 . ,
10. : ;
- .
2.2

(. 2.9), ,
, - -
.
r, , z,
z (.
2.9).
2.2.1

. 2.9


r, , z, z (. 2.9).
(Hz 0, Ez 0). :

2 E& z 1 E& z 1 2 E& z


2 &
+
+
+

Ez = 0 .

r r r 2 2
r 2

(2.21)

(2.21)

d 2
+ m 2 = 0 ,
2
d

d 2 R 1 dR
m2
2
+
+ ( 2 )R = 0 ,
2
r
dr
dr
r

(2.22)

(2.23)

34

( ) = A sin m + B cos m

A1 =

A 2 + B 2 ; = arctg

A
m (m=0,1,2 ).
B

. , =0
( ) = B cos m( 0 ).
(2.24)
(2.23) .

R(r ) = C J m ( r ) + D N m ( r ) ,
(2.25)

J m ( r )

N m ( r ) m-

. N m r m , D . [6].
r0 .
, D/ = 0. ,

E& z = E0 z J m ( r ) cos m (

)e j z ,

(2.26)
0z=1/ .

E& z (2.26) (1.2) ,

E& z
1 E& z
&
,
grad E z = r0
+ 0
r
r

(2.27)

.
mn

Er = j
E0 J m' ( r ) cos(m) exp( jz ),

m
E = j 2 E0 J m ( r ) sin (m) exp( jz ),
r
E z = E0 J m ( r ) cos(m) exp( jz ),

H r = j 2 a mE0 J m ( r ) sin (m) exp( jz ),


(2.28)
r

H = j a E0 J m' ( r ) cos(m) exp( jz )

H z = 0.

35

(2.28) . ,
2.
z r=a= 0.
29
(2.29) (2.28),
(2
J m ( a ) = 0 .
.30)
, .
. n- m-
mn, (2.30)
a = mn ,
(2.31)
m=0,1,2,3 ; n=1,2,3 . J0(x) ,
2,4. 01,
5,52 02. mn-, , (2.30). , 01
01, 12 12 .. m
, , ..
, n r.
(2.31) (1.8)
. , , mn

2a

mn

(2.32)

a ; mn n- Jm() = 0.
vmn

, -

(2.32), . 2.2. ( ) 01,

=2,613 . 11.

36

2.2 Jm(x)
-

vmn

E01
2,405

E11
3,832

E21
5,135

E22
5,520

2,613

1,640

1,223

1,138

01 (. 2.10)
, m = 0.
E01 E02
, (2.31)
,
Z.
C Em0 , m0 = 0 , m 0.
.
m0 ,
. m=0
;
. n
. 11
. 2.10, , .
- (Hz 0, Ez0). Z (2.21) Z Z:
2 H& z 1 H& z 1 2 H& z
(2.33)
+
+ 2
+ 2 H& z = 0.
2
2
r r
r
r

.
:
(2.34)
H& z = H 0 z J m ( r ) cos m( 0 )e j z .

H& z

(2.34) (1.2) ,

H& z
1 H& z
,
grad H& z = r0
+ 0
r
r

(2.35)

.
mn

37

a
mH 0 J m ( r ) sin (m) exp( jz ),
2 r

E = j a H 0 J m/ ( r ) cos(m) exp( jz ),

Er = j

E z = 0,
Hr = j
H = j

H J / ( r ) cos (m) exp( jz ),


0 m

m
H 0 J m ( r ) sin (m) exp( jz )
2

H z = 0.

(2
.36)

(2.36) .

H& z
= 0 . (2.35)
n

(1.2) ,
,
(2.37)
J m/ ( a ) = 0 .
, (2.37) (2.36)

E&

. (2.37),
, mn
mn:
a = mn .
(2.38)
Hmn

mn

(2.39)

( x) = 0 . ,
mn n- J m
J1(x) x1,8;
11; 12 x 5,3 ..
H
mn
H
,

(2.39), . 2.3.

38

( ) 11, H

H =3,413. 21.

(x) 2.3 J m
H-

mn
H 1

H11
1,84

H21
3,05

H01
3,83

H31
4,20

3,41

2,06

1,64

1,50

, 1n H0n , .. 1n=0n.
2.3, 11, =3,413. .
11 01 . 2.11. 11, 01,
21,(01 11), 31, 21, 12, 02.,
m n .
2.2.2
,
.
. 2.2 2.3,

,
, .
1- 11=1,841, 11.
(2.39),
=3,41, .. 01 =2,61, 21 =2,06, 01 =1,64.
. 2.12, . ,
11.

39


H01, =1,640.
H11 H01 . 2.11.
. 11

H& & z ,

[n0 , H1 ] = S

( n0=-r0), Sz S., .. , (. 2.13, ).


01 , , (2.34), H& z = H 0 z J 0 ( a )e j z
(2.40)
S ( ) (. 2.13, ).

(2.40).
01 .
01 , (. 2.13, ).

40

- - , , , (1.17) ,
(2.32) (2.39).
,
, (1.15) (1.16).
2.2.3
, 11 , :
2


a 2 E02
.
P=
1

4,28Z C

(2.41)

mn :

m2

=
+
.
2 m 2
2

mn

ZC b 1

RS

(2.42)

Emn :
=

(2.43)

RS

ZCb 1

. , , .
11 .
- . ,
11 ,
.
, , , 11
-. ,
11, 900, . .
, -

41

. .
,
01.
.
, , , .
,
. 01
,
.
, , .
. , 11-.
,
.
, .
2.3
()
d (2R1) D(2R2),
(. 2.14), R1 R2 - .


35
. , , , ,
. 2.14
.
2.3.1

42

,
.
, ,
: -, - -. H mn

Emn . .
-. , .
, , .
-. , , ,

(z =Hz =0). ,
, ,
= 0. = 0,
, .
, ,
. ,
, .
, , :

r
2 E = 0 ;

r
2 H = 0 .

(2.44)

r A j (t z )
e
,
r

: E = E = Er = r0

r
r
r
H = H = H =

r r
[z0 , E ],

..

r r
r A j (t z )
H = H = 0
e
,
r
r
r A
Er = r0 cos( t z ) ,
r

(2.45)

43

r
r
H = 0 A r cos( t z ) .

(2.46)

,
, .

= k = aa .
(2.47)
2.15.

. 2.15
2.3.2
. . (. 2.16):
(2.48)
U& =
E& dl.

L( P,Q)

,
, - :
. 2.16
D2

U=

r =d

D2
r r
dr
D
Edr = A cos( t z )
= A ln cos( t z ) .
d
d r
2

(2.49)

r J l

r
J
=
H

dl .

r, H =
const. , H 2 r .

44

(2.46), :

J = A

a
2 cos( t z ).
a

2.50)
ZB,

U&
1 a D 120 D 60 D
ZB = =
ln =
ln =
ln .
J& 2 a d 2 d
d

2.51)
,
= 1. , :

ZB =

138

lg

D
, ().
d

L1
.
C1

2.52)

L1 C1 :

Z =

2.53)

L1 = a (2 )ln (D d ), .

1 =

2 a
, .
ln (D d )

(
2.54)
(
2.55)

1
1
=
.
L1C1
a a

= 120
, .
a

2.56)
:

ZC =

2.57)
, .
. . 2.17
,
.

45



. , , 11. 11

> H11 (R1 + R2 ).

2.58)
, ,
. (2.58) , , min
(
R2 + R1 min 3,14 .
2.59)
, , , .

2.3.3
. ,

P=

2
1
& H * dS , P = 1 a E& dS .
Re
E
2 a S
2 S

2.60)

46

1
1
1 2
2
P = U I =
U = I Z B , .
2
ZB
2

2.61)

. , -.
. . ,

.

E = 120I / d
, I = d

). -

/120 .

U = I Z B = E

d
ln (D d ), .
2

(
2.62)
(=30

/) U = 15 10 d ln (D d ) .
3

D/d=e=2,718. ZB= 60 .
(2.61) (2.62), ,
2
P = U / 2 Z B = E
d 2 ln (D d ) / 480 .

2.63)
( ) P
, N:

1
.
N

,
, . 3 4 .

Pmax

D
= 1,65 , d

Z B = 30
. ,
,

47

, .
. , ,
=
+,

= (R 2) L C

2.64)
, , R .
(2.64), ,

1,898 10 4 f (1 + D d )
, /.
=
D ln(D d )

(
2.65)

,
RS,
:

Rs (D + d )
.
D
4 Z B D d ln
d

(
2.66)

, :
(2.66, a)
R d+R D

S1

S2

120 ln (d D )

, 1 .

RS1 RS2
.

.
(tg <10-2), ,
, , , . tg , .
:

= 12 0 0 tg

(
2.67)

tg ,

tg tg 10

(
3

2.68)

10 4 .

48

1, .1.1.
D/d :
.

D
(3,6 3,0) .

d

2.69)
.
(1.91) , Rs. , ,

-1/2. : ? , ,
, .. -

> H11 . , -,

. , 2
, 2 . , , ,

. . 3 .
, ,
. ,
. ,
.
:
1. , ..

2. ,
, .. . .
:
, .

2.4
2.4.1
, -

49

[2,3,5,11],
.
: , ,
, , .
: ,

(

,

),

.

. .
, . 2.18 :
) (),
) (),
) () .
.
. .
, , . 2.18, ,
. ,
, , .
: 1) ; 2) ,
(,

50

, .); 3)

(,
, , ).
.
, .
,
, , , :
.
.

5%. 23%. ,
0,1 , 5%.
. , ( = 10 tg =
(12)10-4).
.
,
8 16 . , , , .
, , .
, .
-4 (). ,
, , 2600 , . =2, tg= 3104, U=25 / .
:
, .
. .
1400 .

51

.
-5 =5, tg= 9104, U=21 / .
. ,
, ,
. , .
-10
=10, tg= 20104, U=15
/ .
. , , ,
. - =3,8, tg= 40104.

, ( 10), ,
[5].

.
.
,
--.
. , , 100
.
, .
.
(
)
, .. ,
-. ,
, . , ( ) . ,
-.

52

,
: > 2b(1 +

4b

) , .. b< 2.

2.4.2
.

, , , . .
.
,
z .
.
, .

. 2.19, .

. 2.19
() ()
.
, , .
Q ,
, : Q 8,68/2, , /, , -1, Q = 27,3 / B .

( ) ,
. (, . 1.16, ) (, ), , , -

53

,
.

. ,

,
f / 4d 1 = 75 / d 1 ,
(2.70)
f , d .
.
, .

v :

= c 2 / v2 .

, ,

+1
1
+
.
2
2 1 + 10d / b

(2.71)

,
,
ZB [] = U/I;
2
2
ZB = 2/I , ZB = U /2,
, . -
, :
(2.72)
Z B [] = (L 0 ) C 0 = 1 v 0 = 120 [1 ( r )],

L C .
(t<<d)
:
Z B 200 / (1 + 2b d )
(2.73)
b/d>0,5, ZB<100 .
[/] ,
,
. 1 (8,686 ). , , , .
,

54

, .
z exp(-z).
,
,
, ,
;
= 8,7 RS / (Z B b ) ,
(2.74)
, ,
= 27,3 tg ,

(2.75)

, :

320 d
=
.
Z B 2

(2.76)

B = 0 / .

(2.78)

( =j + ), [-1] ,
:
= = 2 / ,
(2.77)

[/] ( ) z .

= / = 3 108 / ,

(2.79)

= c(LC )1 2 ,

(2.80)

=1 ( 00 ) .

= ( )

= ( ) 2 ,

(2.81)

a a , .
ZC [] , ,

Z C = E H

2
2
2
2
= E x + E y 1 2 / H x + H y

12

(2.82)

Z C = ( a a )1 2 = 120 ( )1 2 377 ( )1 2 .

(2.83)

55


=1 :

ZC =

1
=
.
3 108

(2.84)

() ,
0,
U 1 :

0 C = U = 2W U 2 ,

(2.85)
W ,
.
() L W ,
0, I,
1 :

0 L = 2WM I 2 = I ,

(2.86)
, .

, .
,
b/d. ,
, ,
, . , - .
. , ,

.
.
,
, . . 3,5% .

56

,
.. , .. , .. [4].
(. . 2.19, ) (/) :

C1 = 1.06 10 11 (1 + b d ) (t d << 1, b d > 0,6 ) ;


1
C1 = 1.06 10 11 (1 + b d )
( b d < 2 );
1 t d

1
( b d > 2) ;
C1 = 1.06 10 11 1 + b d
1

t
d

(2.87)
(2.88)
(2.89)

(. . 2.19, )

C1 = 1.54 10 11 (1 + b d ) (t d << 1, b d > 0,6 ) ;


1
C1 = 1.54 10 11 (1 + b d )
( b d < 2 );
1 t d

1
( b d > 2) .
C1 = 1.54 10 11 1 + b d
1

t
d

(2.90)
(2.91)
(2.92)


t :

(1 t d ) ( b d < 2);
(1 + b d )
1

Z = 314
( b d > 2) ;

1

Z = 314

(2.93)
(2.94)

1 + b d

(
1

t
/
d
)

Z = 216

Z = 216

(1 t d )
( b d < 2 );
(1 b d )
1

1
1 + b d

(
)
1

t
d

(b

d > 2) .

(2.95)

(2.96)

57

314
;
(1 + b d )

Z =

(2.97)

216
.
(1 + b d )

Z =

(2.98)

2.4.3

2 2 r
E 0 d ln
, ,

P = 8 . 44 10 4

(2.99)

0 , /.
rA rB b/d .2.4
2.4 rA rB t/d=0,025
b/d

rB

rA

b/d

rB

rA

5,128

1,03 10 1

14,56

1,78 10 4

7,67

2,01 10 2

16,77

3,71 10 5

10,04

4,14 10 3

18,95

7,71 10 6

12,32

8,59 10 4

21,11

1,6 10 6

b d 1 (2.99) ,
:

P = 8.44 10 4

2 2
E d r ,
0

ln
.

r
r ,
r
(2.100)


. , .

P = 16.88104

2 t 2
E d r ,

(2.101)

58

P=

1
60 2

2 2 2 1 + rc
E k d ln
0 c
1 rc

(2.102)

2
c

t
t
t
t
1 +
2 +
4 +

d
d
d
2d

, . rc
b/d . 2.5.

2.5

bd

1,2

1,4

1,6

2,0

3,0

4,0

rc

0,890

0,920

0,945

0.948

0,980

0,990

0,9909

b d

5,0

6,0

9,0

14,0

rc

0,999

0,9996 0,9999 0,99999

20
0,999999

l/d<<0,3; b/d
> 1, , 0=:

P = 5 . 4 10 3

2
.
E d 2 (0 . 1 + t d )(4 + b d ),

(2.103)

,
,

RS
120 d

ln (rA k 2 )
.
ln (r rA )

(2.104)

kH t/d k H 2 2t / d , rB rA . 2.4.

59

, ( t/d < 0,3, b/d> 1),


=

RS
120d

r
7 50t / d + b / d
, -1
r 3,2(0,1 + t / d )(4 + b / d )

(2.105)

2.4.4
, .
[5].
.
,
.
, , .. - , (. 2.20, a), ((.
2.20, ) : . . 2.20, ( a , l )
, .
, .
c

Z B Z B
.

.
l
, l > (1<5-2<0)

a, .

E

E)

c .
,
.
E) Z
>
Z

.
. 2.20

60

(. 2.21) , .
.
.
(
H
b
>0),
.

, - d

.
H
.
.
E
2.21

. 2.21
.

(, , .).
, , .
,
.
: ) ; ) ; ) ; ) .

,
, . , (. 2.22).
.
. 2.22
. ,
, , -

61

.
,
[5] .

.
,
.
,
.. , -. , ,
, . . , 716 (, , , , ).
2.5
, , :
1. , .
2. . >1,
(,
), .
3. , . , , .
.
. , , ( ) Zs,
, ,
.
-,
, ,
, .

62

, Zs , .
.


, . -
, .

2.5.1


(. 2.23) 1 1, 2 2 (, ).
(2.26) (2.27) , m0 , , , , .. .
= 0 Hz , ..
- -
( ).
- .
,r Jo(,r) J1 (,r ), .. 2,405<
mn<3,832, 5,520<mn <7,016 ..
, -, (2.28), . ,
(m = 0). , , , 1,
2, r

63

Er1 = A1

1 J 0' ( r ) exp( z ),
1

E1 = 0,
E z1 = A1

k12 + 2

J 0 ( r )exp( jz ),

(2.106)

H r1 = 0,
H 1 = j 1 A1 J 0' ( r )exp( jz ),
H z = 0,
1 , 1 = k1 + ,
Im=0, = 0, j ,
2

k12 2 .

1 =

(2.107)

1 2 (2.85) 1


1 = 11 ,

2

(2.108)

2, 1/2 = 2 2,


2 = 2 2 .

2

(2.109)

, , . ,
=

11

(2.110)


(2.110), , , 11>22, , 2<1/22 1
.

2 = j

1
2 2 = jg , < 1 < 11 . (2.111)
2
c
v

64

, 1 ,
n-

R(r) = D5J0 (jrg) +DC6H(10)(jrg),

(2.112)

D5 D6 .
2 (2.112) D5 = 0, r J0 , 0(1) (jrg) 0.
,
. ,

H 0(1) ( jrg )e jz ,
2

g
Er 2 = A2 H1(1) ( jrg )e jz ,
2

jz
(1)
H 2 = A2 gH1 ( jrg )e
,

E 2 = H r 2 = 0, A2 = D2 D3 D6 .

E z 2 = A2

g2

(2.113)


. , ,
. = 0 .
11 ( =1 , .. n=1).
. 2.24.

,
.
2.5.2

65

E z1 ( a )
E (a )
= z2
.
H 1 (a )
H 2 (a )

(2.114)

. , ( ) ,
, .
(2.114) (2.106) (2.113) A1
= A2, , ( ):

ctg (a 1 ) + 1 ag 1

ctg a 1 =
=
.
(
)
4
1

ctg
a
a

1
1 2

(2.115)

1 / 2 >> 1 tg a1 1.

(2.116)

(2.116)

a 1 = a 11

= + n ,
4

(2.117)

0, 1, a1 > 4.
(2.117) ,

1
1 + 4n

8af

(2.118)

11

2.5.3

.
, 2. ,
(2.118)

9 1
1
c

= 11 1 = 11 ,
8 af af
af
a

66

,=

11

1
a

1
f 11

< a,

(2.119)

, f .

(2.118) (2.119) ,
,
, . (2.118) (2.119) . , ( )

.
(1)

H 0 (jrg) . , . .
.
. , 22.
,
1 / 2 2 . , (2.115) g 0 . J0 (a1) 0,

a1 = 0i,

(2.120)

0i . (2.120)
(2.117) :

0i
.
2a 11 2 2

(2.121)

1 >> 2
, :

0i
2a
c 11 .
,
2a 11
0i

(2.122)

67

, 01-

(. 2.25).
,

.
-,
.
,
. , ,
( 1) , , .
,
.
, . , ,
r0=1/. , , r0,
8090% .
(23) r0. . ,
, , r0, ..

. , 11 , ,
. Co f 01.
: f(f<fKp)
() ,
: 1, .

68


(), ()
, , .

3
3.1
3.1.1 .

,
(
),
,
.


[1,
3, 5, 7, 8, 9]. . 3.1, ,
, .
.?

(. 3.1, )
( ) ,
,
,

. ? , , . , .
,
,
, =0 .
, . .

69

, , ().
,
. . 3.1.
, , .
3.1, . , L (.
. 3.1, , , ). , .
(RLC)
() () .
E H E H - .

,
.
,

, ,

, ..


.
. 3.2.
.
. . 3.1,
. 1 2 ,
.
, , = ( t z ).
0 = t 0 z 0 .
(3.1)

k = (t0 + t ) (z + 2l ) + (1 + 2 ).

(3.2)

z0 ,

0 = + 2n .
(3.3)

70

(3.3) :

t0 z0 = t0 + t z0 2 l + (1 + 2 ) + 2 n ,

2n = 2 l (1 + 2 )K

(3.4)
d1 d2:
1 = d1 2 , 2 = d 2 2 ,

(3.4)

n2 = 2 2

l
(d + d 2 ) 2 .

l = (n + d1 + d 2 )

,
2

(3.5) (3.6),

n=0, 1, 2, 3, .

2 2

(3.6)

2 2
,

(
n + d1 + d 2 )2
+
2

(2l )2
1

(3.7)

d1<1 ; d2<1 ;
n=0, 1, 2, 3 ,
: , d1=d2=1/2;

d1+d2=1; n+d1+d2=n+1=p; p=1, 2, 3, l = p

2 2

p
+
2l

p=1,2,3 , 2

(3.8)

, ,

(3.5)

2 = 2 = 1 , -

71

=
1

p
+
2l

(3.9)

, :

0 =

= 2 /

n
+
b

p
+

(3.10)

a , a .

0 .
.
(!) (!).
, , , , .
. , :

= m1 n (TE ,TM ,TEM ), m= 0,1,2,3,

n= 0,1,2,3

3.1.2
, (W) , 101 :

1
2
W = E MAX
a b L,
8

W=W+W;

W = W =

2
2
2
m2 dV , E = E + E Z ,

2
V

W = WM =

H m dV ,

2
2

H 2 = H 2 + H Z2 ,

,
b y,
L z.
W(t) W.

72

1
W = W sin 2 ( 0t + ) = W 1 cos 2 ( 0t + ) .
2
1
W = W cos 2 ( 0t + ) = W 1 + cos 2 ( 0t + ) .
2

(3.11)
(3.12)

.
(),
. (3.11) ,

P =

W
= 0W sin 2( 0t + ) .
t

(3.13)

P MAX = 0W .
3.1.3
. . (Q)
, (Q0
).

Q0 =

0 2 0 dV
,

R 2 ds
s

W =WM=

2
H
m
dV ,

2V

0
.
2

R =

0
R

73

m dV
2

Q0 =

2
m dS

( )
( )

2 V 2m V
Q0 = 2
S m S

Q0 =

0 a a
8R

(3.14)


, 104.. Q0
.
:

Q0 = 2
= 2

W
(W.. )

=(

2
W
W
)
= 0
=
T ..
..

Q0 =

P
P.

CU m2
W =
,
2

0W
P..

(W . . )

= 2

W
(W.. )

(3.15)

U m2 G
=
T ,
2

, G .
(Q)

74

Q =

P
1
=
=
(P ) + (P ) P.. (P.. )
+
P
P

1
1
1
+
Q0 Q

Q0 Q
,
Q0 + Q

Q .

Q =

Q0Q
.
Q0 + Q

(3.16)

.

Gi .
3.4, G , , L
.

, :
C
a
(3.17)
Q0 = 0 Q0 = 0 a ;
G
8Rs

Q0 =

0 dB

) 0 , Q0 = dB
,
2G dV
2G d 0
(

02 =

1
;
LC

1
1 C 2
C

2
B = C = C
= 0 = ( 0 )( + 0 ) = 2C( 0 );
L
CL

B = 2C ( ), C = 1 dB

2 d 0


, -

75

Um, :

2 P .
1
P. . = U m2 G G =
.
2
U m2
Um ,
.
:

U m = m dl ,

m .

, :

G=

c =

1
2

H 0m

ds

S
,
2

E
dl
m

(3.18)

.

. G , ( ). G=10-410-5 1/.
( G
, - ).
3.2
-
,
.
. Z=0 Z=L,
, (2.1) (2.2), . -

76

, , .
-.
(2.4), :
2
p
m = n
; Y
; Z =
; =
.
X =
b
L
0
a
:
Z=0;

(3.19)

EZ = E0 sin( X x ) sin( Y y ) cos( Z z ) ,

E 2 = i gradEZ ,

(3.20)

H 2 = i a ( z0 gradEZ ) ,
m=1,2,3,

p=0,1,2,3,

n=1,2,3

-
Z=0;

H Z = H 0 cos( X x ) cos( Y y ) sin( Z z ) ,


H 2 = i gradH Z ,

(3.21)

E 2 = i a ( z0 gradH Z ) ,
m=0,1,2,3,

p=1,2,3,

n=0,1,2,3

z. , (. 3.4). f0
101, 011, 110.
m, n, (3.19) ,
,
, .
( , Emnp Hmnp),
, . ,
. ,
.
E
110
=

2ab
a +b
2

(3.21)

77


H101 H011:
H
011
=

2bl
b +l

H
101
=

2al
a +l
2

(3.22)

(3.23)

(3.9),

0 =

m
n
p
+ + .
a a
a
b
L

(3.24)

? a, b, L, mnp (3.24) m, n . , , , .
. . 3.5 . :
110, 101, 011.
a>b>L
E110 (. 3.5,).

. 3.5
101. - y (n=0)
x (m=1).

ES = F ( x, y ) eit (2 i sin t ) ,
m
n
F ( x, y ) = sin
x cos
y.
a
b

78

L ( z) .

ES ( z , t ) = sin( z ) cos(t + ).

, ,
F(,).
z .

E S ( z , t ) = cos(t z + ) ,


(. 3.5, ),
,
/2 (. 3.5, ).

t (t=0), z . ,
. , 101 , 0/2, E =0. z
. 3.6, .
3.6, , .
(. 3.7, ).
, (-

79

)
(. 3.7, ).

E
(. 3.8, , ) z=const, t

.
,

E

t

, . (i) .
, ,
, (
,
). , . 3.8
,

.
. 3.9 101.

, -

80

. n =0 E =0.
z
( / 4 ). . .
- , ,
.
, , , . ,

(. .
3.10).

3.3
, .
3.3.1

,
, z=0 z=l.
V0 ,

= m ( g1 g 2 ) e

j ( t z )

(3.25)

.
, g1 g2 , , z , ( ), (g1g2). ,
-

81

: =0, =0 z= 0 z= l .
, .

E& 0 = Em ( g1, g 2)e j ( t

z)

+ Em ( g1, g 2)e j ( t + z ) ,

(3.26)

. (3.26) :
z=0
z=l

Em + E& m = 0

(3.27, )

Em e j l + Em e j l = 0 ,

(3.27, )

(g1,g2) .
(3.27, ) (3.26) :

E0 = ( Em cos rz jE m sin rz Em cos rz jE m sin rz )e jt ,


:

E& 0 = j 2 Em s sin rz e j t .

(3.28)

j t

H& = 2 H ms cos rz e
.
(3.27), sin l = 0 , ,
0

p
,
l

(3.29)

=0,1,2,3 , .
=0, (3.28),
, . , V0
2- , , (3.28), (3.27)
.
, .
(3.24) :
( > 0)

82

0 mnp =

2
p mn
+
l a
2

(3.30)

0Emnp

2
2
mn
p

+
=
,

a l

(3.31)

vmn , .
( >1)

0 mnp =

(3.32)

2
2
mn
p

+
=
,

a l

(3.33)

p mn
+
l a
2

0Hmnp

mn ,
;
l .
. 3.11, , ,

011, 101, 111. , .
,

; 0m=1m. . ,
(01/)2=(11/)2+(/l)2 ( l/a2,03) 111 010 ,
(3.30) (3.32). , .

83

,
111 . ,
(l/a<2,03) 010, (l/a>2,03)
111.

.
/4,
.
,
, :

Q0E010 = ( f 0 / RS ) al / (l + a ) ,

(3.34)

( ) /[( )

H
Q0H101 = ( f 0 / RS ) al /{(2a l )2 + al 11

H 2
11

1]}, (3.35)

Q0H 011 = ( f 0 / RS ) al /[ 2 (2a l )(0 / 2a ) 2 + l ] ,


Q0H111 =

2f 0
RS

al

( 2a l ) 0 + l
2l
2

(3.36)

(3.37)

. 010
01, , , . , (3.30),
H011 .

10000 100 .
011 .

,
. , .
, ..
. 111, ,
011. 11 , , 011
jz=0).

.

84

111
.
01 ,
. ,
H01,
.
011 , . , 111 .
010,
3.11, .
,
.

E
010

1
2,4048

.
=
01 =

a
a
00
0 0
1

(3.38)

3.4
,


, . 3.12:
)

4
2

;
;

) , .
) , .
. 3.12 :
1 ;
2 ;
3 ;
4 .

85

. 3. 13.
1
2 ,



Z1 Z2.

= 2 .
b

1. , ,
, 2l.
2. z2 2. ,
, , 2l + 2 .
3. z1 2l + 1 + 2 .
.
4. , 2, ..
2l + 1 + 2 = 2n , n=1, 2, 3.

, ,
, . ..
. : 2l + = 2n , n=1, 2, 3, ,
1, , -

86

2 = 0. () , =k=2/, :
4l/=2n1.
(l) 0
:

0 = 4l 2n 1 .

(3.39)

( l
):

l =

(2n 1) .

(3.40)

. .

B1 + B 2 = 0 ;

B =

1
2l
ctg
= 0,
Zc

(3.41)

Z c () .
(3.40), n=1 /4. n=1,
n=2,3,4, 3/4, 5/4 ..
n=1,2 . 3.14

( D + d ) < 0 . D (2R1) d(2R2)

,
G ( Q0 ). Q0
D/d, 3,6. D/d = 2,5
6,0.

87

, : l /4 (. . 3.15).
l l.
. ,
, /4 , .
:
2 + 2l = 2n; 2l = 2(n - 1); 2l = (n - 1);

0 =

2l
. (3.42)

n , .. ,
. .
,
, . ,
,

E R cos
z,
& = 0 1

Z
r

C
(3.43)
Z .

z = R0 2 (

nl 2
) .
a

2 2
R2 2 L
E0 R1
R2
2
&
H
dV
=
H
rdrd

dZ
=

L
ln
,


m
2
R1
V0
R 0 0
(Zc )
1
2 2 R2 2

2
E0 R1
drd 2 L 1
1

0
2
&

2
+
+
cos ZddZ =
H m dS =

2
r
R
R
R
S
0
0
0

(Zc )
1
2
1
2

88

2 2
E0 R1
=
4 ln
2
(Zc )

Q = Q0 =

0a
Rs

1
R2
1
,
+ L
+

R1
R1 R2
R
LR1R2 ln 2
R1

R
4 R1R2 ln 2
+ L ( R1 + R2 )
R1

(3.44)

(3.45)

, 10
.
, . , () (. 3.17, ), , ,
(. 3.17, ).

1
Zc

ctg

l
c

= 0,

(3.46)

. (3.46)
.
. 3.18.

89


() () . , , :
- . . 3.19
,
- , .
.
-


. , :
= .(3.47)
:

. :
1. , . 3.20.
2. l (. 3.21), ,
Va (3.48).

90

1
1
p
+
2 2l

(3.48)

0, l .
=0,
= const. (. 3.23).
3. ,

(. . 3.22).

4.

3.5
.

(. 3.24).

, :

R <<

l <<

d << l .

91

,
, .
, , .
, ,

1
.
LC

0 =

(3.49)

r2

0 0 ,
d

C=

(3.50)

L =

,
I
R
0 I l ln
R
r
Il dr
0
=
=
,
0 2 r
2

r
0

, , , H 2 r = I , r
, .

L=

0l
2

ln

R
.
r
0

(3.51)

(3.50) (3.51)

0 =

1
LC

2d

0 0l ln

r0

(3.52)

92

0 =

2c

=
0 0

1
c

, = r
0
0
2

2l
R
ln ,
d
r
0

(3.53)

.

2l R
ln .
= r
0
0 d r
0

(3.54)

= r

2l
4d
l R
1 +
ln ln .
0 d r
d r

0
0

(3.55)

1
,
Q =

(3.56)

C l
0

ld
R
+ 2 ln
r
r
0
0

; 0 .

G = 2

1 2 2 l l d
R
+ 2 ln .
C +
r0
r0
d
R

(3.57)

d, ,
, L.

, , . 3.25.
.
(. 3.26, ). -

93

. , .
3.26, , 0
Z = i tg l , 1 / i C0 ,

i tg

l+

1
= 0.
i C0

(3.58)

, .
0 1 / i C0 ,

l =

.
/2
.


, .

.

. 3.26

.
- .
() .
,

. .
,

94
=

1
2
2
2
m + n + p

2a 2b 2l

1
2
2
m + n 1+

2a 2b

p2
m 2 n 2
2
4l +
2a 2b

1
2

m + n 1+
2a 2b

(3.59)

p2

m 2 n 2
+
2a 2b

4l 2

(3.59) (+1), ,

( p + 1) . , a b , ,

1
2l
2l
1

= 2l
=

, (3.60)

.
.( + 1)

p
p p + 1 p ( p + 1)
p Z.
, l,
. .
,
, ..
.
Q, .. , .
2l
1
Q=
,
(3.61)
1 R +
p

R ; ; l ; ,

= 0,3 N

a2
N , N =
.
l

(3.62)

95

, = 0,1 ,
, Q = 3,14 105 , .
. : . , (. 3.27).

. 3.27
:

(3.63)
l

p 2
, =1, 2, 3.
L

= p =
= p = p


1 0

(3.63)

(3.64)

.
= 1/
+
2
0

R


1

Q = 2n
0

1 l

2 l

P
1
,
.
2
2

(3.65)

96

, ,
Z l , ..
Z=l,

W
P
= (1 R ) ,
(3.66)
nom
l
R .

W
l
0 = 2 l = 2 l 1 .
Q = 0 =
p
(1 R) (1 R) 1 R
nom
0
0

(3.67)

. : (),
..

.
,
. .


. y . . 3.28 .
h << W

m n
+
, (3.68)
= 2 /
W

h << l

= ,
2

(3.69)


>> 1 , l
.

.
=l

h
4

97

. 3.29
. 3.29 001- 102, .
3.6.1
. ( ) .
, ,
.
(.
3.30), ,
(), ,
.
.
(. 3.30, ) ()
, .

0 = 4l 2n 1 .

(3.39)

( l
):

l =

(2n 1) .

(3.40)

98

. .

B1 + B 2 = 0 ;

B =

1
2l
ctg
= 0,
Zc

(3.41)

Z c () .

(3.40),
n=1 /4. n=1, n=2,3,4,
3/4, 5/4 ..
n=1,2 . 3.14

( D + d ) < 0 . D

(2R1) d(2R2)
,
G
( Q0 ).

Q0 D/d,
3,6. D/d = 2,5
6,0.
, : l /4 (. . 3.15). l l.

. ,
, /4 ,
.
:
2 + 2l = 2n; 2l = 2(n - 1); 2l = (n - 1);

0 =

2l
. (3.42)
n

99

n , .. ,
. .
,
, . ,
,

E R cos
z,
& = 0 1

Z
r

C
(3.43)
Z .

z = R0 2 (

nl 2
) .
a

2 2
R2 2 L
E0 R1
R
2
L ln 2 ,
H& m dV = H rdrddZ =
2
R1
V0
R 0 0
(Zc )
1
2 2 R2 2

2
E0 R1
1
drd 2 L 1

2
0
&

2
+
H m dS =
R + R cos ZddZ =
2 R 0
r
0
0
S
(Zc )
1
2
1

2 2
1
E0 R1
R
1
,
=
4 ln 2 + L +
(3.44)

2
R
R
R
(Zc )
1
1
2

R
LR1R2 ln 2
a
R1
Q = Q0 = 0
.
(3.45)
R2
Rs
4 R1R2 ln
+ L ( R1 + R2 )
R1
2

, 10
.

100

, . , () (. 3.17, ), , ,
(. 3.17, ).

1
Zc

ctg

l
c

= 0,

(3.46)

. (3.46)
.
. 3.18.


() () . -

101

, , :
- . . 3.19
,
- , .
.


, :
= .
(3.47)
: -

, ,
. :
1.
, . 3.20.
2. l (.
3.21), Va
(3.48).
1
=
.
(3.48)
1
p
+
2 2l
0, l .

102

=0,
= const.
3. ,

(. . 3.22).

4.
(. 3.23).

3.5
.
(. 3.24).
, :

R <<

l <<

d << l .

, , -

103

.
, , .
, ,

1
.
LC

0 =

(3.49)

r2

0 0 ,
d

C=

(3.50)

L =

,
I
R
0 I l ln
R
r
Il dr
0
=
=
,
0 2 r
2

r
0

, , , H 2 r = I , r
, .

L=

0l
2

ln

R
.
r
0

(3.51)

(3.50) (3.51)

0 =

1
LC

2d

0 0l ln

r0

1
2l
2c
R
= , = r
0 =

ln ,
0 0
0
0 d
0
r
c2
0

(3.52)

(3.53)

104

2l R
ln .
0 d
r
0

= r
0

(3.54)

2l
4d
l R

= r
1+
ln ln .
0
0 d r
d r

0
0

1
Q =
,
0 C l ld
R
0
+
+ 2 ln
R
r
r
0
0

(3.55)

(3.56)

; 0 .

G = 2

R
1 2 2 l l d
C +
+ 2 ln .
d
r0
r0
R

(3.57)

d, ,
, L.
, , . 3.25.

105

.
(. 3.26, ). . , .
3.26, , 0
Z = i tg l , 1 / i C0 ,

i tg

l+

1
= 0.
i C0

(3.58)

, .
0 1 / i C0 ,

l =

.
/2
.


, .

.

. 3.26

.
- .
() .
,

. .
,

106

m + n + p

2a 2b 2l

m + n

2a 2b

1
2

p2

1+

m 2 n 2
+ 2b
2
a

(3.59)

4l 2

m + n 1+

2a 2b

p2

m 2 n 2
2
4l +
2a 2b

(3.59) (+1), ,

( p + 1) . , a b , ,

1
2l
2l
1

= 2l
=

, (3.60)

.
.( + 1)

p
p p + 1 p ( p + 1)
p Z.
, l,
. .
,
, ..
.
Q, .. , .

Q=

2l

1
,
1 R +
p

(3.61)

R ; ; l ; ,

= 0,3 N

a2
N , N =
.
l

(3.62)

107

, = 0,1 ,
, Q = 3,14 105 , .
. : . , (. 3.27).

. 3.27
:

l
(3.63)

= p =
= p = p

p 2
, =1, 2, 3.
L

0
,


1 0

(3.63)

(3.64)

1 p
.
= 1/
+
2
0

Q = 2n
0

1 l

2 l

(3.65)

108

P
1
,
.
2
2
, ,
Z l , ..
Z=l,
W
P
= (1 R ) ,
(3.66)
nom
l
R .

Q=

0W
p

nom

0l

(1 R )

2 l
2 l 1
=
.
(1 R )
1 R
0
0

(3.67)


: (),
..
. ,
. .


. y . . 3.28 .
h << W

m n
+
, (3.68)
= 2 /
W

109

h << l

(3.69)

>> 1 , l
= l . .

h
4

. 3.29
. 3.29 001- 102, .

3.6.
:
, ,
?
, . ,
.
, , , ,
. ..
, ,
.
. .
( -) . -

110

, ,
.
(.
3.30), ,
(), ,
.
.
(. 3.30,) () , .

. 3.30
, ( ), ,
, , .
, , , ,
, , ( ) , , . , , ,
.
, , .
, () , .
, , .
(<), ,
, , -

111

. .
.
, . , , .
, (. 3.31). (. 3.31,). ,
.

. 3.31
,
, , ,
. .
, . ,
r
r
= i E .
(3.70)
, , , . .. , ,
, .
: (. 3.31,). , , . , , . . ,
, . . . , ,

112

(, )? , . ,
, ,
.
, .
, . . .
1. ,
.
2.
( )
, , ( )
, .
3. ,

, .
4. , ,
, ,
.
, .
, .
5. ,
, , .
:
6.
7. .
8. , , .
.

113

H
10


(. 3.32).

. 3.32 4 :
1-
, .. . , , .
2-
, .
. , H ,
10

.
, 3 ,
4 ,
.
(. 3.32,),

. . 3.32, ,
. . ,
, , .. , . ,
, , ,
, , .
, ,
4

114

, , , . H .
10

11 . , (.. ) , , ,
, .. . . 3.33 ,
11.

, . , . 3.34 E . ,
21

. aa .

aa =

:
1. E .
2. , Er
.
max

115

10
.

. 3.35 10. . 3.35, ,


1 3 H , 10

, . 2 4 ,
. 5 . 3.35,
, , , 10 .
,
, ..
.
.
:
r
1. .. H .
2. , Hr
( ).
max

?
, . ,
, , ,
.
, ,
. ,
, , ,
, , .

116

, , .

. 3.36
. 3.36
10.
1 10 , . . , , , . 2,
, .
, 3
.
:
1. .. .
2. , r&
( ).
max

4.
4.1.

, , , , .
, , , , ..
. , ,

117

, .
. . (, ), - ( , . [4,5,8,9,17]).
, (, ..)
(. .4.1).

, .. ,
. 4.1

.
, . , .
,
, . ,
.
,
. ,
, . , ,
. , ( ).

i&+
U i&
U .i&

, Z
ZB ,
.

.
- i&
0
,
.4.2
l
, - -

118

, (. . 4.2).
+
+

l U
, U i& , i& .
+

U U+ - ; i& i& -
. l U U

i&
i& .
(
UE, IH).
l :
(4.1)
U& (l ) = U& + (l ) + U& (l )

i&(l ) = i&+ (l ) + i& (l )

(4.2)

l

U& (l )
&
(l ) = + .
U& (l )

(4.3)

i& (l )
, = &
(l ) = +
i& (l )

*)

(4.1) (4.2) *)

U& (l ) = U& + (l )[1 + & (l )]

(4.1/)

i&(l ) = i&+ (l )[1 & (l ) ]

(4.2/)


l , , l=0:

U& + (l ) = U& 0+ e jl& ;

i&+ (l ) = i&0+ e jl& ;

u&0+ ,i&0+

U& (l ) = U& 0 e jl&

(4.4)

i& (l ) = i&0 e jl&

(4.5)

- -

l=0;

u&0 ,i&0

- -

l=0.

119


(& = j + ) .
, () , . (=0)

( =

).
(2.3) (2.4)
& (l ) = & 0 e j 2 l
(4.6)
,
U& 0
&
0 = + - l=0.
U& 0
. , l =

B
2

3600,
. l =

B
4

, 2l = , /4 -

1800.

& 0 = & 0 e j 0 .

(4.7)

(2.1/)

U& ( l ) = U& + ( l ) 1 + & 0 e j( 2l + 0 )

(4.8)

, () 2 n 0
2l + 0 = 2n , n=0, 1, 2... l =
,
2
U& max = U& + 1 + & 0 .

() 2l + 0 = (2n + 1)

U& min = U& + 1 & 0 .

120

( ,
) ( , )

U min
= K =1/ .
U max

(4.9)

,
() - .
, 1/ .
U max
= K = .
U min

(4.10)

, (2.8),
l.

U& (l ) = U& (l ) e j (l )

(4.11)

4.2.
0
U& (l ) (l).
.
1) .
: 0=0, (.2.3),
(2.8) U& (l ) = U& 0+ e jl , U& (l ) = U& + (l ) ; (l ) = l .

(l)
U0+
i0+

. 4.3
+ jl

i( l ) = i0 e
.
.

121

. 4.3. ( ), ( ) .
2) (..).

& 0 = 1 ; 0 = 0 .
.
. (4.8)

U& ( l ) = U& 0+ e jl 1 + e 2 jl = 2U& 0+ cos l ,

i&( l ) = i&0+ e jl 1
e 2 jl. 4.3= 2 jI&0+ sin l .
l=0 (
) () (. 2.4). L :

& = e j 2 L .

(4.12)

.. . = 0 . , .

U(l),i(l)

(l)

2U0+
2 i0+

ll
. 4.4.
. 4.4. ( )
.

ll

122

3) (..).
& 0 = 1 ; 0 = - ..

,
1800.
(. . 4.5), , ,
..
(4.8)

]
] = 2i&

U& ( l ) = U& 0+ e jl 1 + e j( 2l + ) = 2 jU& 0+ sin l ,

i&( l ) = i&0+ e jl 1 e j( 2l + )

+
0

cos l .

.. E = 0 , ..
..
+

(). E = E + E =0, , 0=-1. (4.8) .. L

& = e 2 jL .

(4.13)

(l)

U+ , i+

2U0+
2 i0+

. 4.5.
. 4.5.
),
( )
4) .
0 1, 0 3600. -

123

0 ( ),
. , . .
, .

( , , ).

4.3.
I(l) U(l) () .
U& (l )
i&(l )
Z& (l ) =
;
Y& (l ) =
,
(4.14)
I&(l )
U& (l )
(2.3) (2.1/, 2.2/)
&
1 + & (l )
1 1 (l )
Z& (l ) = Z
; Y& (l ) = Z
(4.15)
1 & (l )
1 + & (l )

Z& (l ) & /
Z& / =
Y = Y& (l ) Z ,
Z
Z

1 + &
1 &
/
/
&
&
Z =
; Y =
.
1 &
1 + &

& (l ) Z(l)
Z& (l ) Z
& (l ) =
,
Z& (l ) + Z
Z& / (l ) 1
&
(l ) = /
.
Z& (l ) + 1

(4.16)

(4.17)

, l1 .
l = l1 l 0 . (4.15) (4.7)
Z& (l 0 ) cos l jZ sin l
Z& (l1 ) = Z
(4.18)
Z cos l jZ& (l 0 ) sin l

l0

124

Z& (l 0 ) + jZ B tgl
Z& (l1 ) = Z B
Z B + jZ& (l 0 ) tgl
.

1
&
1 Y ( l0 ) cos l jZ sin l
&
Y ( l1 ) = Z 1
Z cos l jY&( l0 ) sin l
.

(4.18)

(4.19)

(2.18) (2.19).
1) l1 = l 0

(l1 l0 ) =

Z& (l0 ) = Z& (l0 ) ,


2

(4.20)

.. 2 .
2) l1 = l 0

(l1 l0 ) =

Z& ( l 0 )Z& ( l 0 ) = Z 2 .
4

(4.21)

, :

Z& / (l0 ) = Y& / (l0 ) .


4

(4.22)

.. , 4.
3) Z ( l 0 ) = Z , Z ( l1 ) = Z , .. - , . , Z, .
4) Z& (l0 ) = 0 Z& (l1 ) = jZ tgl .
-
( ), , .
5) Z& (l0 ) = Z& (l1 ) = jZ ctgl .
-
, , .

125

6) ( )
U min U& (1 & )
Z =
=
= Z ,
imax
i& (1 + & )
Z

U max U& (1 + & )


=
=
= Z .
imin
i& (1 & )

(4.23)

(4.24)

4.4. ()
(l), (l), Y(l)
. [5].

, .

U( l )

= 1 + j( 2l 0 )
U& ( l ) = U& + 1 + j 2l
+
U
+

j
2
l

I( l )
I&( l ) = I& 1
j ( 2l 0 )

(4.25)

= 1


(.2.6).

+J

l
U/U .

1
0
2

I/I
.

. 4.6.

126

l , ..
, ,
, ( ).
U( l )
I( l )
,
. .. U
I
,
.
. 1. , .. l =
l =

. ,

, 3600.

2
, , .

=0
(
+

=const,

(-1)
().

. 4.7.

. -

127

, , C
,

0
.
R=const


A
,
(4.6) (4.18).
(4.16)

Z=R+jX.

. 4.8.
:

1) -

.

. (. 4.7).
( ).
. ,
( ).
j2 l

(l ) = 0 e
2 l ,
, .
:
. 4.7, (1+j0),
= 0 ( ); ( = 1).
2+j0, = 1; 0 = 0; Z =.
- (..).
0+j0, = 1; 0 = ; Z =0. ,
1800.
(..).

128

.
4.7 = 1.
, .
, ,
.

2)
.
,

Z ( l ) = Zc

1 + ( l )
,
1 ( l )

.2.9. -

Z = R + jX . R = const ,
( ), (. 4.8). R=1 ( ).
- R=0, - R = , - R=1. , , ( ).

3) .
=const ,
( =1 ).
( )
,
( ) (. 4.9).
, R=const
X=const.

Z = R + iX

Z R
X
=
+i
Z
Z
Z

( )
Z = R + iX .

Z 1
.
Z +1

(4.26)

129


= + i .

R2 1+ X 2
( R + 1 )2 + X 2

2X
.
( R + 1) 2 + X 2

R, X.
R
)2 + ( )2 = 1 2 .
(
R +1
( R + 1)
R.
2

(4.27)

( 1) + 1 = 12 .
(4.28)

X.
, R X . R=const, (4.27),
R
1
=
, = 0 . R=const
.
R +1
R +1
X=const, (4.28),
1
1
= 1, = ,
.
X
X
, R=const X=const.
,
. 4.10.
. 4.8 . 4.9.
X=const ,
R=const. X=const
, ..
.
R=const 2+j0,
. =const
( ).
2

Rmin =

Z
Z
= B , Rmax = Z K = Z B
K

130

=const , R=const, R=
R=1/.
, R=const, , . 0 ()0()
=const.
(0) R=X=0
+j

=nst
,
,

.


X=constt
,

R=X=0,

()
.. . 4.10.
.

.
, l
, l /.

.
2

Y=

1
= G + iB ,
Z

G=

R
R2 + X 2

B=

X
R2 + X 2

(. 4.10). ..,
.. , . (Y=0).
. (). (). .

131

(. 4.10). ..,
.. , . (Y=0).
. (). (). .

132

5.
5.1.
,
,
. [2,3,10,11].

(. 5.1).
2

Z ,

L
. 5.1.
... ()
z& = r + jx z
, z& = r + jx . Z Z Z,

.
, ,
, (
.5.1 L).
, 180.
, .
,
= 1. < 1,5,
:
= 1,1, - < 1,05.
, .

133


. ,
.
.
L=0 ( ), , r ,

2
2
r
r
,
(5.1)
P=
=
2
2
2
(r + r ) +(x + x )
z + z

r = r ; x = x .

(5.2)

, ,
. z = z ; x = 0 ,

z = z ;

x = 0 .

,
, .. (2.30) .
, , Z Z. . ,
, , . ,

u i u& 1+ & u& 1 & ,
(5.3)
P=
=
2
2z

) (

2
P = P 1 & ,

,
. , ,

134

.
4

P = P
+ 2+ 1

(5.4)

, ,

(5.3) (5.4) .
.
, , .
0
P
= .
0
( 1) . 5.1
P0 = P1 1 ,

( 2)

P = 2 2 ,

2
2
u&
=
, 2 = 1 2 L , P2 = 2 &
2z

2
1 = 2 2 L = P1 & 4 L

,

2
1 &
(5.5)
2 L
=
e
2
1 & 4 L
=0

0 = e 2 L .

(5.6)

, & .


2
2
u i u& 1+ & 1 & .
(5.7)
P=
=

&
2
2z
1+

135

2
U&
) , =
2z

u&
= u& (1 + & ) . (2.35)

P = P

1 &
= 1
&
1+

(5.8)

, 1 .
.

5.2.
,
, , .
5.2.

. :
-

.
.
.
, , .
1800. .

, .

.
, Z =Z. ,
, .
,
.

136

,
.
,
.
5.3
()
(=0)
.
, & .
0.

. , , . ,
, .
.

Y = G + iB ,

(5.9)

G 0, l Y1, ,
..

Y1 = G 1 + iB1 .

(5.10)

Y1
(-iB1).
11
1
(. 5.3)

,
Z1
-iB1
Z1

..
Z
, 1
l
, . 5.3.
.

137

, (-iX) .
.
.
. (4.18) (4.19) :

Z& = jZ B tgl ;
Z& X = jZ B ctgl ;

y& x =
y& x =

j
tgl ,
ZB

(5.11)

j
tgl .
ZB

(5.12)


, . .
-
.
. , , .
.
. 5.4, .
/ b. 10 , (. 5.4,a). . [3]

138

a/
b

b/

L
ZB

ZB

ZB

ZB

b)

. 5.4

2
X
a 2 a / 1 a /

1 +
=
tg
Z C B
2a 6

3 a / 2

X
a
a

1 +
=
ctg 2
Z C B
a 2

/ a << 1;
(5.13)

(a a / ) << 1.

. 5.4,b ,
10 .
. :

B 4b
b /
=
ln csc
,
YC B
2b
YB=1/ ZB .

(5.14)

. ,
, /4

139

Z1

(Z)

Z2

/4

. 5.5.

z2
z = .
z

(5.15)

, 1/ZH, , . ,
, .
Z , Z, .. , Z
.
Z1 Z2 (. 5.5).

(Z)aa =Z1.
,

( z/ ) 2 ,
( z ) a =
z 2

(5.16)
(5.17)

z / -
. (5.16) (5.17) :
(5.18)
z / = z 1 z 2 .

, .

140

.. ( )
4 .
4 . ,
, , ,

. o = 2v / B , v - ,

0 (2n + 1) , . .
, . ,
.
(4)
-
(). 4
( ).
,
, , 4,
, .
. . .
,
, . - ( ) .
5.6.
, .

2l
Z H + iZ B tg
B
Z = Z B
(5.19)
2l
Z B + iZ H tg

141

.. (Z=0)
2l
Z = iZ B tg
B
1
l=/4, Z .
,
-iB
. =1
>1

1
l
,

1
.
Z
11,
1
,
0

Y
1
G=const

. 5.7

. 5.6
5.16.
Y Y=G+iB.
Y
,
11.
, ..
Y=iB. ,
11

(Y )11 = iB + (G + iB )
= G + i ( B + B )

(5.20)
..
0 . ,
(Y)11,
GX=const. . 5.7 , , .
,
, R=const.
. 5.8.

a)

142

, Z
Z l
l.


: 1) -, Z
R = Z; 2) (), (. 5.8,). Z, ..
- . ,

- .
, .

, ,
. ,
Z =500 , Z =300-j640 .
1.
Z =

Z 300 j 640
=
= 0,6 j1,28
ZB
500

2. Z ( 1 . 5.9)

143

0,346 B

B
=const

- 1.28

1
+ 1.8

- 1.8

0,096 B

. 5.9.

3.
l 2, R=1. , l=0.346
1, X=+1.8
4. .3 R=1, , .2,
.
5. , ,
. 4, (.1). :
Y =(0.38+i0.9). 4 ,
(.2) 0.096.
.
6.
B=+1.8.
B= -1.8. l=0.082 ( . -
, . ),
() l=0.332 ( . B -
. ). .. , .

144

2-- . 5.10 (. 5.10,) (. 5.10,) .

1 ,

. , ,
, ( /2) . , Z = 1 j x ,
, .

:
(. 5.10,),
5
l = , Z=(200-j750) . 16
Z=500 .
1. Z =

Z
Zw

= 0,4 j1,5 .1 (.5.11).

2. ,

R1 R=1,

5
= 0,312 .
16

3. 1. ,
2, Z=(0,3+j1,2) . 2 R=1.2, .

145

4. 2 R=0.3 3 4. 3 =0,08, 4 =-0,92,


X = (0,92 1,2) = 2,12.
5. 1 . Z=Zw
. j2,12. l1=0,068 .
6. 4, . 5.
1+j2,05
7. .
8. ,
j2,05. l2=0,0705
N2 5 R=1
6. , .
. 2- . ,
,

, Z 0 .
2


(. . 5.10,), , , L, /2. .3 .
11'.
(Y)11 = 1+j0 (. 5.10,).

11'. Y 1, 1 (. 5.12,)
G=1 (. 5.12,).

146


2 2

L
.

, , |Y|22, G = 1,
. L /8.
, 2 2' , .
, |Y|22 , , Y
2 2' (. 5.18,).
const, |Y|22.
, 2--
" "
. L


, . 4

L , .
2--
, . L =


, =2.
4

2- .
, .

3
5
7
, , , . 8
8
8
8

- -.
3-- .
,

3-- (.
. 5.13).
3--

, 2-- . /4.
,

147

3 3' (G33<1), 2 , .
/4.
G33<1, 2- " ". , , 2 2' 3 3'
. ,
, , , 3 3'.
3-- - -, () .
, 3
, 1-
.
2-- , .
5.4.

()
,
, , <1.2,
2
> 5% ,
0

, (5 10)% (. 5.14). , .
, 4--
,
, .
-, .

,

148

.
-, ,
& = 0) ,
.
.
& , . . 5.15, .
-, 2 & . , . & ,
, .
.
. l
l2= /4
,
, . Z
Z 1
Z 2
Z 3
( /4)
.

2
1
. 5.16.
, Z= Z3, ..
. 5.16.

Z1 Z3. Z : 1, 2,
, 1 2. 1 :
Z Z B1
.
(5.21)
&1 = B2
Z B2 + Z B1
l2 2, 2l2.
2 :
Z Z B2
.
(5.22)
& 2 = B 3
Z B3 + Z B 2
, l2,
2l2. , -
.

Z Z B1 Z B3 Z B 2 2 j 2 l2
& = &1 + & 2 e 2 j 2 l2 = B 2
+
e
Z B 2 + Z B1 Z B3 + Z B 2

(5.23)

, & =0, .. ,

149

1 2, . l2=2/4
2
, .. 2 2 l 2 = 2
=
4
,
..
22l2,
2.
Z1, Z2 , . N ( ),
.
, , . 5.17 N .
,

( 2)
(1, 2 ) Z w
Zw =
(~10).
Z (w1)

N- :
= 0 + 1 2 j l + .... + N 2 j N l ,

Z w1 Z (w1)

Z (w2) Z wN
:
0 =
;
N =
.
( 2)
(1)
Z w1 + Z w
Z w + Z wN
0, 1,..., N ,
.
N

Z
Z w1
1 = w 2
;
Z w 2 + Z w1

= n e 2 j n l ,
n =0

(5.24)

150

||
().
.
5.18,.
e 2 j l = e 2 j( l m n ) , , :
1
1
m

=
(5.25)
1 2
2l
,
|| .
1. n,
(5.25);
2. (5.24) Zw ;
3. ;
, n
N

= cos( l) ,
: - , f1 f2 ||=,

N
,
cos( l) = , =
N
cos( l)

cos(1 l) = cos( 2 l) ,
1 l + 2 l = .
2
2
: 1 =
, 2 =
,
1
2

1 2
l=
= 0,
2 (1 + 2 )
4
: 0

0 =

2 1 2

(5.26)

(5.27)
1 + 2
, f = 0 . , 1, 2, 0

151

2 1 2

c
1 = 1 = ; 2 = 2 =
; 0 = 0 ; 0 =
.
=
f1
f2
1 + 2
f0
= cos( l)

e j l + e j l

A
2N

+A

N
(
1 + e 2 j l )
=
=

2N

N 2 j l
N( N 1) 4 j l
e
+A
e
+ ...
2N
2 N 2!
... +

A
2

e 2 j l +

A
2

e 4 j N l .

, :
A
0 = N =
,
(5.28)
2N
A
1 = N 1 =
N,
(5.29)
N
2
A N( N 1)
2 = N2 =

,
(5.30)
N
2
!
2
:

Z (w1,2) + 1

lg P
(1, 2 )

Z w 1

N=
lg cos(1 l)

(5.31)

cos( l)
= N
,
(5.32)
cos(1 l)
TN (x ) 1- N
cos( N arccos(x )); x 1
TN ( x ) =
ch( N arch( x )); x 1
.



, -

152

. 5. 18,.
.
(. . 5.19).
-

+
=
, , 1. L=0,
4 4 2
.

2. L = , .
4
, ,

=
(5.33)
2

1
2
, =()2,
, , .

. 1. , -

.
.
2. , , .
,
b1 b2 (. 5.20).

: ,
, .

.
, , ,
-

153

(. 5.21,) r C (.
5.21,),
:
1
r
(5.34)
ln d

L
0
1

,
ln d
Lr
0

(5.35)

: - .

.
1
||=f() (.5.22,) ln
, ,
, , , 1 2 1
ln
.

2

1
1
1
.
= 2 ln
ln d = ln



0
1

(5.36)

:
r

2
2

.
(5.37)
1
1
0
0
0 L ln
0 C r ln


,
L
Q = 0
Q = 0 r C
r

154

Q ln

(5.38)

.
1
, , ,
1/=0,8, Q = 2.8 .
. (5.38)

2
3.14

=
= 0 .6 ,
..
1 + 0 .8
0
1 + 1/
2.8 ln
Q ln
1 0 .8
1 1/

, 60%.
4--

, , ,
.
,


.

, 4--.
( ).
2. ,
2
= 30 % .
Z = 1.8 j 1.46
0
. - (. 5.23) 1
0 L =
= 0.86 R=0.3. 0 C
G
. 5.24,.
- (. 5.23) L/
C/ .

155

1
.
0 L
, 1=0,850; 2=1,150,
B1=1,45 B2=-1,35
, B1=-/1;
B2= -/2).
/0 ( ) '1 '2 .
0'=1,010. ' L'.
1

d L

dB
1
C

=
= L +
= 2 L
d =
d
2
0 C
0

B = 0 C

= 0

( )

,
(5.39)
, ,
2
2 1 1.35 ( 1.35)
dB
9
=
=
=
,
d =
2 1 (1.15 0.85)/
0
0
0

9
2 L =
;
0 L = 4.5 ;

0

0 C

1
= 0.22 .
0 L

, . -
2
= 30 % , +', 0. ,
0

Y=1 , . 5.24,, 2,6 3,4.
, - , 1.62 1.84,

156

1 2.6 = 1.62
Y = Y Yaa =
1 3.4 = 1.84
Y=1,62L. - -, G B . , ,
2
= 30 %
0
, 0.
, . 5.24,. ,
0,8.
2
= 60% .

0
. [13],
, [13]. ,
,
. (. .
.3.4). .
.
. , ZB ZH, . 5.25.

, ,
, n Ln.
Ln 2f 0 = 1 / L n C n f0-
. n RH ,

157

Q n = 2f 0 R H C n /(1 + R H / Z B ).
Q1, Q2, ....., Qn-1 (.3. 12.13), .
(. 3.12.13), (. 3.6 . 3.7), fB-fH L1
max
.
,
,
. , ,
Qn, (.3.13) (.3.7),

B
/ 10
f B f H = [(1 + R H / Z B ) sin( / 2n )]2 n (10 1 1) /( 2C n R H ).

(5.40)

(5.40) , , B1 ( max), . [14], , .


, , .

6.
6.1
,
,
. .
,
. ,
, , .
.
(6.1)

[ U ]=[ Z ][ I ],
[ U ] [ I ] ,
[ Z ] .

(6.2)

158

U1
U
[U ] = 2 ,
...

U N

I1
I
[I ] = 2 ,
...

I N

Z11 , Z12 ....Z1N

Z , Z ....Z
21
22
2
N
.
[Z ] =
.....................

Z N 1 , Z N 2 ....Z NN

(6.3)

[ Z ] . U I , .
.
,
,

[I ] = [Y ] [U ].

(6.4)

U1 A, B U 2
(6.5)
I = C , D I .
2
1
, , [ Z ] [ Y ] - 2N-.
[ Z ] [ Y ] , , .
[Z ] = [Z1 ] + [Z 2 ]
[Y ] = [Y1 ] + [Y2 ].
(6.6)
,
.
[A] = [A1 ] [ A2 ]
(6.7)

6.2.
. , ,
. [S] [t] (
)
, U I

159

, . , 1
U1 = U1 + U 10

I1 = I1 + I10 .

(6.8)

U10
U 1
= Z 1
= Z 1 .
(6.9)
I1
I10
. (6.9) I1 (6.8),
1
I1 =
(U1 U10 ) .
Z 1
, U1 I1 U1 U10. , ,
, (6.1) (6.4): UI II UI UI0 . , , , (.6.2).
U20

U2

U1

UN0
1

U10
UN

.6.2
.6.2 r
, .6.1, . E
, , ,
. ,
U 10 = S11U 1 + S12U 2 + ............ + S1N U N
U 20 = S 21U 1 + S 22U 2 + ............ + S 2 N U N
(6.10)
,
...................................................................

U N 0 = S N 1U 1 + S N 2U 2 + ............ + S NN U N

160

[ U0 ] = [ S ][ U ].
(6.10 )
U U0
[t].
U1 = t11U 20 + t12U 2
,
(6.11)
U10 = t 21U 20 + t 22U 2

U1
U 20
U = [t ] U .
10
2

(6.11)

, [t] .
[S].
(6.10) ,
S11 =

U 10
U
; S 21 = 20
.
U 1 U = ... =U
U 1 U =...=U =0
=
0
N
N
2
2

(6.12)

, S11 , ,
. ,
, , , .
, S21 . , . , Sii i- , , Sik k-
i-, .
[S] ,
.
.
[t], , Sik. [S] [t] :
U10 = S11U1 + S12U 2 U1 = t11U 20 + t12U 2

U 20 = S 21U1 + S 22U 2 U10 = t 21U 20 + t 22U 2


:
t
det(t) S11 S12
[S ] = 1 21
=
,
- t12 S 21 S 22
t11 1

(6.13)

161

[t ] =
det(t) = t11t22 t12t21
,

t12
t11
1 1 , -S 22
=
,

t 22
S 21 S11 , - det (S) t 21
- [t] det(S).

S
det(t )
t 21 = 11
t11
S 21
(6.13) . ,
Sik Zik Yik, ,
.
[4,6].
S12 =

6.3. ,
, ,
. .
, ,
~
-V, -i, - S [~
t ].
,

r r
1
r
P = Re E& H& n dS ,
(6.14)
2
S
r
S , n -
S, .
(6.14) r&
r
E H& . -

[]

Zx,
(6.14)
r 2
1
P=
E& dS .
(6.15)
2Z x

- , . ,
,

2

U
1 2
P=
= I Z.
(6.16)
2Z 2
,

162

P=V

=i ,

(6.17)

- E& U . V i - . ,
- V i
Z
U&
V& =
;
i& = I&
(6.18)
2
2Z
10
ab
V& = E& max
,
(6.19)
4 Z XH
m ( =/2)
y, b
, Z XH =

Z0

1
2a

10, Z0 = 120 ,
( ).
,
z

V& ( z ) = V& ( z ) + V&0 ( z )
(6.20)
(6.10)
. (6.18) U = V 2 Z B U 0 = V0 2 Z B .
.
V10 2 Z B1 = S11V1 2 Z B1 + S12V2 2 Z B 2 + ... + S1N V N 2 Z BN

Z BN
Z B2
V10 = S11V1 + S12V2
+ ... + S1N V N
=
Z B1
Z B1
~
~
~
= S11V1 + S12V2 + ... + S1N VN
, ~
( S ) ([S]) .

[]

Z Bk
~
S ik =
S ik .
Z Bi

(6.21)

163

[ t ], [ Z ], [Y ].

[~t ] =

Z B2
[t ] ;
Z B1

Z ik
;
Z Bi Z Bk

~
Z ik =

~
Yik = Yik Z Bi Z Bk

(6.22)

, ZB (
), , ..
~
S = [S ] .

[]

[4,6], :
~
~ 1 ~
~
~ 1
S = [E ] + Z
Z [E ] = [E ] Y [E ] + Y
~ 1
~
[E ] S~
Y = [E ] + S
~ 1
~
[E ] S~
Z = [E ] S
(6.23)

1
~
~
Z =Y ,

[
[
[
[

]
]
]
]

( [ ]) ([ ] ) (
( [ ]) ( [ ])
( [ ]) ( [ ])
[]

[ ])(

[ ])

[] N, -1 . , ~
~
(6.13) [S ] t .

[]

6.4. [S]
( )
, .. . Sik? (.6.3)
b

U1

U1
1

U10

l1

U2
U20

l2
.6.3

[ Sa ] - ,
[ Sb ] b.
a b , ,
l

164

e jl e + jl -
, .
a
b j 1l1
U10
= U10
e
U 2a = U 2b e j 2 l 2 ,

U1a = U1b e j 1l1

a
b j 2 l 2
U 20
= U 20
e
1 1 1 2,
.
a
b j 1l1
a a
a a
a b j 1l1
a b
U10
= U10
e
= S11
U1 + S12
U 2 = S11
U 1 e
+ S12
U 2 e j 2 l 2

b
a j 1 2l1 b
a j ( 1l1 + 2 l 2 ) b
U10
= S11
e
U1 + S12
e
U 2
,
b
a j 2 1l1
S11
= S11
e

(6.24)

b
a j ( 1l1 + 2 l 2 )
S12
= S12
e
b
b
S 22
S 21
.
, Sik, 1l1 2
l2 (6.24).
, Sik.

6.5. [S]
~

[ S ] , .
1.
~
S .
,

Yk i = Yi k,
(6.25)
.. .
~
~
~
(6.22) Y . ( 6.23 ) S Y
,
~
~
Sik = S ki
(6.26)
~
.. [ S ]
. (6.26) , i- k - .

[]

[]

[] []

165

: , ,
.
2. ~
[ S ] .
() , . ,
,
.
,

N

Vi

i =1

= Vi 0 ,

(6.27)

i =1

.. .
V1

[V ] =

V2

V N

[V ] = V1 V2 ... VN - - (
). , ,
N

Vi

i =1

= [V ] [V ]* ,

(6.28)

* .
,

i0

= [V0 ] [V0 ]* .

i =1

(6.29)

[ ][ ]

~
(6.27) [V0 ] = S V
,

N
2
T ~T ~*
*
(6.30)
Vi 0 = V S S [V ] .
i =1

[][]

(6.28) (6.30)
[V ] [V ]* = [V ]T S~ T S~ * V~ * .

[ ] [ ][ ]

(6.31)

166

, ()

:
( ), ..
~T ~*
S S = [E ] ,
(6.32)

[][]

[] , 1, 0. , (6.32), .
~
, S . , - ,
(6.32)
~ ~
~ ~
~ ~
S11 S12
~
~ T S11 S 21
~ S11 S12
S = ~
S = ~ ~ ,
S = ~ ~
~ ,

S 22
S 21 S 22
S12 S 22
S 21

[]

[]

[]

[]

,
~ 2 ~ 2
S11 + S 21 = 1
~ 2 ~ 2
S12 + S 22 = 1
(6.33)
~ ~ ~ ~
S11 S12
+ S 21 S 22 = 0
~ ~
~ ~
S11 S12 + S 21
S 22 = 0
(6.33) , . :
1.
1.
2. 0.
,
.
, , 1- 2N-
1 (.6.4), V1 = 1 . .
~ 2 ~ 2
~ 2
1 = S11 + S 21 + ... + S N 1 ,

167

.. , , 1
.
~ 2
S 21
2

P = 1
1

~ 2
S11
~
S N1

~
S 31

.6.4
, ,
.
~
S .
, ().

[]

6.6.

.
, .. , , . Z ,
.
2 .
: , , ..
, , .
, [2,4,5,6]
.
:

168

: , ..;
, , , ;
;
, , ;
, 2;
, .
, .
.
[2,3,4,5].
[S ] [t ] , () ( , ,
6.9).
~
~
S11 S 22 ,
~
~
S12 S 21 :
~
~
~
S12 = S 21 , - , S - ;
(6.33), , - ( );
~
~
~
~
S11 = S 22 S12 = S 21 ;
~
~
~
~
S11 = S 22 S12 = S 21 ;
,
.
[S ] .
.
) - l

[]

0 e - jl
[S ] = - jl
e
0

(6.34)

, , .
, .
) & = + j - l

169

0 e - j&l
[S ] = - j&l
e
0

& = + j

(6.35)

, , . , .
) n, Z1
Z2-

Z 1

n:1

[]

~
S =

Z 1 + n 2 Z 2

n 2 Z 2 -Z 1

2n Z 1Z 2

2n Z 1Z 2

Z 1 n 2 Z 2

(6.36)

, , .
, .
,
.
) ,
.
1

0
(6.37)

- j
0
e
, , .
, . - .

[S ] =

) ,
, .

0 e - j 1
[S ] = - j
(6.38)

2
e
0
, , . , .

) Z= R+jX ,
ZB.
0.

170

ZB

[S ] =

ZB

z =

1 z , 2
,
2 + z 2, z

(6.39)

Z
- ZB

Z.
, R 0
R= 0, . , R 0
R= 0.
) Y=G+jB, ZB.
0.

ZB

ZB

[S ] =

1 y , 2
2 + y 2, y

(6.40)

y = Y Z B - .
, G 0
G= 0, . , G 0
G= 0.
) . 0.
Z 2 Z 1 , 2 Z 1 Z 2

1
~
ZB1
S =
(6.41)
ZB2

Z 1 + Z 2 2 Z 1 Z 2 , Z 1 Z 2

,
. , .. .
, , .
, .
~
S (6.41).

. .

[]

[]

) ( ) , ~
~
~
S ( S12 = S 21 ),

[]

171

[]

~
S , . , ,
j

sin e j 2
~ cos e 1
S =
(6.42)
,
j 2
j ( 2 2 1 )
- cos e
sin e

- , .

.
e j
~ 0
0
1) = 90 ,
S =
.
e j 0
l .

[]

[]

cos
[S~] = sin

2) 1= 2 =0,

sin
- cos

.
~
~
3) S11 = S 22 (6.42) , 1 = + 2 2 1 ,
1 = e j . ,
, e

2 = 1 .
2

2 = j ,

jsin j1
[S~] = cos
e
.
j sin cos

(6.43)

S12 S 21 ~
. , S
Z Y , . , Z=jX
X
2
cos =
; sin =
; 1 = arctg ( X ) ,
2
2
4 + ( X ) 2
4 + ( X ) 2
(6.43) .

[]


, ZH.

172

U1

U20
1

U10
Z

[S~ ]

Z
U2

. 6.5

.
.
1 ( ) ZH.
[ U ] [ U0 ] .
U10 = S11U1 + S12U 2 ,
U 20 = S 21U1 + S 22U 2 .
(6.44)
U2 U20
.
U
Z ZB
= 2 = H
.
(6.45)
U 2O Z H + Z B
,
. (6.44) (6.45)
1
2.
U
S S
= 10 = S11 + 12 21 .
(6.46)
U 1
1 S 22
(6.46)
[S] . (S11 ,S12 ,S21,S22) , ZH.
Z .

( [4]).
,
, . 6.5. (6.46) . , [ S ] ( 6.43 ), .. , ( S11 = S22 ),

S11 = S 22 = Cos ( )e

j
1,

173

S12 = S 21 = jSin( )e

j
1.

(6.46) , = 0,

S11 e j 1 = = j H
,
( ) ,

S11 =

11 = -.
,
.
.

6.7.
, 3
(6 ). , , , ,
. ,
.
: .
: , ..
,
~
~
~
S11 = S 22 = S 33 = 0 .
2

.6.6
[S ] ,
~

174

~ ~
0 S12 S13
~ ~
~
S = S12 0 S23
(6.47)
~ ~

S13 S23 0
(), ~
[S ]
~ ~*
~ ~*
~ ~*
S13 S 23
=0 ;
S12 S 23
=0 ;
S12 S13
= 0.
, - (S12, S13, S23)
0. S12 S13,

~ 2 ~ 2
S12 + S13 = 1.

[]

, (6.47) , .
.
1: , . .
.

~
: (6.47) S 33 0
~
0 S12
~ ~
S = S12 0
~ ~
S13 S23

[]

~
S13
~
S23
~
S33

[]

~
S
~ ~*
S13 S 23
=0
~ 2 ~ 2
S12 + S13 = 1
~ 2 ~ 2
S12 + S 23 = 1
~ 2 ~ 2 ~ 2
S13 + S 23 + S 33 = 1
~
~
~
S 13= S 23 = 0 S12 = 1 . ~
S 33 = 1. ,

175

0 e j12 0

~ j12
S = e
0
0

j
0 0 e 33

[]

e j 1 , ,
, ~
~
~
~
( S12 = S 21 = 1 ) ( S13 = S 31 = 0 ).
. , ~
( S 33 = 1). , ,
,
1 - ,
, ..
.

2:
.
. , . ~
~
, , Sik S ki
~
0 S12
~ ~
S = S21 0
~ ~
S31 S32

[]

~
S13
~
S23

~ ~*
S 21 S 23
= 0;

~ ~*
S 31 S 32
= 0;

~ ~*
S12 S13
= 0.

~
~
~
~
S 21 = 0 , S 31 = 1 . , S 32 = 0 S12 = 1
~
S13 = 0 . ,

176

0 e j12 0

~
j 23
S = 0 0 e

j 31

0
0
e

[]

(6.48)

12 , 23 , 31 .
, ,
.
~
~
~
(6.48) . S11 = S 21 = 0 S 31 = 1 ,
3. ,
, ,
, . .
, , .
Y , ,
..



( H10 ) : E
(.6.7, )
3

1
2

. 6.7
a rb ,
r E - - (.6.7), H -
( 6.7). 1 2 , 3- - , -
. , 3.
r
E -

177

.6.8 ,
.
3

+
1

r
E

1
+

r
E

2
+

. 6.8
.6.8 ,
( S13 = S 23 ) , ( S13 = S 23 ). , S11 = S 22 . , [S ] :
S11 S12 S13
[S ] = S12 S11 - S13 - -;
S13 - S13 S 33

S11 S12 S13


[S ] = S12 S11 S13 - -.
(6.49)
S13 S13 S 33
( ), S 33 = 0 . :
1
1
2

1
[S ] = 1
1 2 - -;
(6.50)
2

0
2 2
1
1
2

[S ] = 1 1 1
2 - -
(6.51)
2

2
0
2
(6.50) (6.51) . . : -
, 3.
, 3.

178

()
6.9, .
2

1
3

. 6.9

- , .
120 90.
,
L C,
[8]. Z B , [S ]
:
1 2 2
1
[S ] = 2 1 2 .
(6.52)
3
2 2 1
~
(6.52), S
Z B , . , Z B ,

( 6.10)
2

[]

Z1

ZTP

ZB2

1
ZB3
3
. 6.10
Z

179

[]

~
l = . S ,
4

Z B1 Z1 , Z B 2 Z2 ..
~
S11 = 0 ;
~
S 22 =

~
~
S12 = S 21 =

Z2
;
Z2 + Z3

Z3
~
~
; S13 = S 31 =
Z2 + Z3

Z2
;
Z2 + Z3

Z2Z3

Z3
;
Z2 + Z3

~
~
S 23 = S 32 =

Z2 + Z3

~
S 33 =

Z
P
Z1 Z 2 Z 3
;
(6.53)
n= 2 = 3 .
Z 2 + Z3
P3 Z 2
n 2 3.
,
~
~
. S 22 S 33 ,
2 3 . ,
~
S 23 , 2 3 2
3 . , 2 3 , .. 1
( 1).
,
2 3,
~
S , - .
. 6.11.
Z =

[]

/4

Z
1

Z
Z1

B1

= Z

R = 2Z

(3.54)

6.11

[]

~
S
0 1 1
~ j
-S =
1 0 0
(6.55)

2
1 0 0

(
Z B )
[4,5,6]. R

[]

180

2 3. ,
.
, . 6.10 6.11, , ZB
.

6.8.


.
: , ,
, ( ).
.
, . .
~
~
~
0 S12 S13 S14
~
~
~
0 S 23 S 24
~ S12
S = ~
(6.55)
S13 S~23 0 S~34
~

~
~
0
S14 S 24 S 34
,
~
S , , 0.
,
.
~ ~* ~ ~*
S13 S 23
+ S14 S 24 = 0
~ ~* ~ ~*
S12 S 23
+ S14 S 34 = 0
(6.56)
~ ~* ~ ~*
S12 S 24
+ S13 S 34 = 0
(6.56)
~*
~
S 23
S14 . ,
, (6.56) :
~ ~* ~ ~*
S13 S 34
S12 S 24 = 0
~ ~* ~ ~*
S13 S 34
+ S12 S 24 = 0
,
~ ~*
~ ~*
S13 S 34
=0
S12 S 24
= 0.
~
~
, S14 S 23 0 , , ~ ~ ~ ~
0 - S13 , S 34 , S12 , S 24 .
, 0,

[]

[]

181

[]

~
S
:
0
0
0
e j12
j12

0
0
0
~ e
S =
(6.57)
0
0
0
e j 34

0
0
e j 34
0
~
S , ..
1 2 3 4.
~
, S ,
. , ~
S , ,
0 S13 S14
0
0
0 S 23 S 24
~

(6.58)
S =
S13 S 23 0
0

0
S14 S 24 0
~
, S (6.58) . , . 6.12

[]

[]

[]

[]

[]

[]

)
.6.12

1 (.6.12,). ( 6.58 )
3 4 S13

S14

.
2

3 (.6.12,), ( S13 )
2

( S 23 ). , 1 3 ,
4, 2,
1 3. . 1 2 3 4 , .. (, ).
.

182

~
S 23

~
~
: ( S13 = S14
~
= S 24 . 6.12) .

1. ,
, .
, 2 (. 6.13), . , ..
(6.58).

. 6.13
~
~
~
~
, , .. S13 = S 24 , S12 = S 34 ,
~
~
S14 = S 23 . , :
~
~
0
0 S13 S14

~
~
0 S14 S13
(3.59)
~ 0
S = ~
S13 S~14
0
0
~

~
0
0
S14 S13

[]


~ ~* ~ ~*
S13 S14
+ S14 S13 = 0

~ ~*
~ ~*
S13 S14
+ S13 S14

=0
~ ~
, S13 S14

.
~
~
~
~
S13 = S13 e j13 S14
= S14 e j14 ,

~ ~
Re S13 S14 e j (13 14 ) = 0

13 14 =

183

, , 1 3 4, 900. .
~ 2 ~ 2
~
~
S13 + S14 = 1 , S13 S14

~
~
S13 = cos e j13 S14 = j sin e j14 ,
- , , +
.
~
S , ,
:
jsin
0
cos
0

0
jsin
cos
~
j13 0

S =e
(6.60)
cos jsin 0
0

0
0
jsin cos

[]

[]

2. , , - .
.6.13.
~
~
~
~
S13 = S 24 , S14 S 23 .
~ ~ ~ ~
S13 S14
+ S14 S13 = 0
~ 2 ~ 2
S13 + S 23 = 1
~
S14

~
+ S13

=1


~
~
~
S13 = cos e j13 , S14 = sin e j14 , S 23 = sin e j ( 213 14 ) .
~
S :
0
0
cos
sin e j

j
0
0

sin

e
cos

~
S = e j13
(6.61)
,
j
sin e
0
0
cos

j
cos
0
0

sin e
= 14 13 .
.
,
=450 =0. ,
13 =0.

[]

[]

184

0 0 1 1

1 0 0 1 1
~
S =
(6.62)
2 1 1 0 0

1 1 0 0
, 1
2, V1 V2 .
[V0 ] = S~ [V ] ,
V1
0

V
1 0
2

V0 =
.
[V ] =
.

V
V

2 1
2
0

V1 + V 2

[]

[]

1
(V1 + V 2 ) ,
2
.. , 3 , ..
. , -
-.
, 4 V 40 =



:
.
.
. .
,
. .6.13
1-3 , 2-4
. 1 V1. :
1 ~
S13
~
P
C13 , = 10lg( 1 ) = 20lg( S13 ) .
P3
1 ~
S14

P
C14 , = 10lg( 1

P4

~
) = 20lg( S14 ) .

185

1 ~
S12
P
C12 , = 10lg( 1


P
C24 , = 10lg( 4

P2

P2

~
) = 20lg( S12 ) .

) = C12 , C14 , .


~
1 + S11
=
~ .
1 S11

~ 2
P3 S13
m=
=
.
P4 S~ 2
14

m=1 13=14=3 .
3 4 .
. .


1) , ,
R l . 10.
3

.6.14
(.6.15). , 1,

186

,
. 4 l , 1 4
. 2 ,

l=

(2n 1) ,
4
n=1,2, ..
, .. .

4
.6.15

,
2 , , , 15-20 .

2) ,
.
. , 2 . 2 . 6.16.

1
N
. 6.16
=

2l ,

- , l - . 2
N = 2
Nl =

.
2
.

187

[2] 10 ,
35 (fmax fmin1.6).
3) .
. , . , , ( 6.17).

3
.6.17

600 . ,
1. , 1-2, , 3 4
( ) (), .
6.18,.

3
r
H

3
r
E

)
r

.6.18

188


, , . ,
.

, . 6.18,. , ,
3 , 4 .
,
, , 1
4. (15-20 ).
4) - .
- , , ,
l ( ).
2
4
2
4

H10
H20
H10
3

3
)

.6.19
10. ,
1, 10 20,
2
20 . . 6.19,.
10 20 ,

V 10 =
V 20 =
,
(6.63)
2
2

1 (
)
1 (
)
4
2
- , a -
.

189

10 20.
1
1

=
l,
(6.64)
V 20 V 10

- .

2 4 10,
, 10,, 20 - 1800. . 6.20 2 4, 2 4 .

20

10

10

20

.6.20
2 4
, l . =900 -

2 4 , 900, .. .
.
5) .

.
2,
r
E
3

r
E

1,

. 6.21
1 2 -, 3 4 - .
2
-

190

. , : . , . 6.21. ,

S12 = S 21 = 0 .
, -.
S 33 = S 44 , S13 = S14 , S 24 = S 23 .
S13
S13
S11 0
0

S
S

S
22
23
23

[S ] =
(6.65)
S13 S 23 S33
S34

S
S
S
13
23
34
33
:

1 0
[S ] =
2 1

0 1 1
0 1 1

1 0 0

1 0 0

(6.66)

, .
,
( ) . , .

- -. , . , (6.65) S11 = S 22 = 0 ,
S13 = S 23 = 1
S 33 = S 34 = 0 .
2


, , .

191

1) .
(
) .6.22.

Z A

Z2

1
Z1

Z1

Z2

. 6.22
Z
Z1, Z2.
4, - .
,
.
Z1 Z2. , .
. 1 2, 3
4. 1. 2 . .
Z

Z2

1
Z1

Z1
2

Z2

D
, , .
Z A Z2
B Z
3

Z1
2

Z
: Z
D, Z. D
Z

192

Z12
Z D =
.
Z

Z A Z2

(6.67)

1
Z

Z D

.6.23

Z =

Z12 Z

Z12 + Z 2

,

Z 2 2 Z 2 2 (Z12 + Z 2 )
Z =
=
.
Z
Z12 Z
,
Z.

1
Z2

1
Z1

1
Z2

(6.68)

Z1 Z2
3 4.
P3 = m P4 . 3 4
(.6.23)
P3 =

U
2Z

P4 =

2 Z D

Z D Z 1 2
m=
= 2 .
(6.69)
Z
Z
(6.68) (6.69) Z1 Z2
Z m
. m=1 ,

193

Z1 = Z ; Z 2 =

Z
2

(6.70)

, 4. (6.68), . .
2) ( )
.6.24.
3

4
1

Z1

D
4
4

2
4

3
4

.6.24
3 / 2 Z1, Z.
Z1 Z. ,
. 1 3, 2 4,
2, 1800 .
1. 3 , . D

.

Z1
1 Z

Z 2

D
4

D 3 / 4 4 . .

194

Z12
ZA =
.
2Z
, ZA=Z.

Z1 = 2 Z .
(6.71)
,
- j

(6.66), j = e 2 - , 4. , .6.24,

0 1 0 1

j 1 0 1 0
[S ] =
(6.72)
2 0 1 0 1

1 0 1 0
3) .

. 6.25.

1 Z

l
3
4

2
.6.25

l ,
, ,
, ,
. l
. ,

.
. 1 U1=1, , Z. U1 :

195

U1

1 0.5 0.5
0 0.5 0.5

= = +
0 0 0

0 0 0

1 2 0.5 ,
, . . .
.6.26.

)
. 6.26


(.6.26,), (.6.26,). ,
- , Zev Zod. (
even-, odd-). ,
L + M1
L1 M 1
Z ev = 1
;
Z od =
,
C1
C1 + 2C12
L1,C1, ,
M1,C12
.
L1
Z =
, Zev > Z > Zod.
C1

[S ev ], [S od ] .
1, 2,3,4 . ,

196

U1 = 0.5 + 0.5
ev
od
U10 = 0.5( S11
+ S11
)

ev
od
U 30 = 0.5( S12
+ S12
)

ev
U 20 = 0.5( S11

ev
U 30 = 0.5( S12

od
S11
)

od
S12
)

(6.73)

ev , od
ev , od
S11
, S12
- [S ev ], [S od ] . 3 :
.

Z2, 2

Z od,ev

Z2, 2

l
.6.27

. Z 2, 2Z.
[S ev ], [S od ] .6.27 ,
. ,
[S ev ], [S od ] .
sin ( l)
ev, ,od
S11
= 2 j ev,od
e j l
ev,od 2 j 2 l
1 (
) e
(6.74)
ev ,od 2
1

)
ev,od
S12
e j l ,
=
ev,od 2 j 2 l
1 (
) e

Z ev Z
ev
2 od = Z od 2 Z
=

Z od + 2 Z
Z ev + Z
2
;
- .
, U10=0. , (6.73),
ev
od
S11
= S11
ev = od .

Z = Z ev Z od .

(6.75)

197
ev
od
ev = od , , S12
= S12
U40=0.
, 1 1 4,
.
(6.73)
ev
ev
S12 = S11
S13 = S12
.
(6.73) ,

jk c sin( l )
S12 =
1 k c2 cos( l ) + j sin( l )
(6.76)
2
1 kc
S13 =
1 k c2 cos( l ) + j sin( l )

k c =

4 Z ev Z

2 ev

=
- , 1 + ( ev ) 2 4 Z ev + Z

S12
0
l =
l = 90 . 4
S12 S13 l .6.28.

12
10 20
.
1
S13
kc

S12

900

.6.28
(.6.29).
1
3

198

.6.29

1- .
3 , ..
.
:
,
.
(j) S12 (6.76).
Zev Zod , -
1
,
Z =
V 1
V C1 - .

[5,8].
,
(6.75), -, . ()
,
- (- ).
, . [5].
,
.. 2-4 1-3 (.6.30).
1

.6.30
, (.6.31)

199

+
2

+
+

+
4

r
H

.6.31
,
.

( ) . 2 , 4 . (6.75)
.

6.
c
[6] :
,

200

( ),

-.

3.8.6.
1) , (.6.32). . , 1.
, .

- , , - , - , .

.6.32

201

,

1 2.
2. , , ,
.
2) . -
, , .., . - :
.

. 6.33 , ,
2())

Z
Z
Z
3
4
.
1()
- (),
(),
.6.33
. 1 3 4
. ,
. ,
- Z Z .
, , - .
3) , .. .
.

4
. 6.34

, .6.34,
, ,

202

1 2 .

. - 1 4
, - - . - 2 , - . , . - -1
, ,

,
4

- , .
, . .
- -1
- -2 . - 2 , . :
;
.
4)
.6.35. - ,
1 2, (V3 V4 ) , , , .
Uc1
2
1
V4

U4

U3

Uc2

V3

V
.6.35

U c1 U c 2 ,
U c3 U c 4 . V3 V4
V.

203


U c1 = U 10 e j (1t +1 ) U c 2 = U 20 e j ( 2t + 2 ) .
[S ] (6.66), . ,

1
1
U3 =
(U c1 + U c 2 ) U 4 =
(U c1 U c 2 ) .
2
2
.
.
, .

2

V3, 4 = A U 3,4 ,

.

1 = 2 = , . , 1 2 . U3 U4
1
2
U 3 = U 3 U 3 = (U c1 + U c 2 )(U c1 + U c2 ) =
2
1
2
2
( U c1 + U c 2 + U c1U c2 + U c 2U c1 ) =
2
1 2
2
(U10 + U 20
+ U10U 20 e j (1 2 ) + U10U 20 e j (1 2 ) ) =
2
1 2
2
(U10 + U 20
+ 2U10U 20 cos(1 2 )) V3
2
,
1 2
2
2
U 4 = (U 10
+ U 20
2U 10U 20 cos( 1 2 )) V4
2
V = V3 V4 = 4 AU 10U 20 cos( 1 2 ) .
, . , V .
.
. , Uc1- ,
, Uc2 . , U 20 >> U10 .
, 2 = 0 .

204

,
, .
1
2
2
V3, 4 = A U 3,4 = A ( U c1 + U c 2 U c1U c2 U c 2U c1 ) =
2
A
A

1 2
2
(U10 + U 20
2U10U 20 cos( t + 1 ) =
2

U 20
U
U
1 2 10 cos( t + 1 ) + ( 10 ) 2 ,
U 20
U 20
2

= 1 2
, , U20>>U10 ,
x
1 x 1 , x<<1, 2
U 10 2
(
) , .
U 20
V3, 4 A[U 20 U10 cos( t + 1 )] .
V = V3 V4 2 AU10Cos ( t + 1 ).
,
.
, V
. , , .
,
. (pin) , , ..[5].

6.9.
,
..
.
. , , , .. , ,
[4,6].

205

. . , . , ,

( ).
() - () . 6.36.
2
1

4
6

3
. 6.36

7
B

,
, . 1,6 7, . ,

(1,6,7)
.
.
-
,4.,8.

,3.,6.

,4.

D,11.,14.
F,8 .,8.

E,3 .,14.

[S ]

G,3 .,6 .
.6.37

[S A ] , 3- 6- - ( ).

206

[S B ] , 4- 8- (
). , 7- 14- .
2 4, 3 5 4 8- ( ):
U 2 = U 40 ; U 20 = U 4 ; U 3 = U 50 ; U 30 = U 5 .
(6.77)
D 11 14 ,
6
(1,6,7), 8 (2,3,4,5).
D ,
(1,6,7) .
F . F .
F E, G,
. .

. , ,
. , (,
..)

. 6.38.
1
2
m

n
.6.38

,
,
. m, - p, - n. U -

[ ]

207

U 1
2
U
U =
....
U m

- - , (-

[ ]

[ ]

, U 21

[ ]

), U12
- -
( ).
.
S A , - - S B . .

A
A
U 0 S
U
M S

......
L
L
L
......
=

,
A
A
U 21 S M S U12

[ ]

[ ]

A
S
- () mm, ,
A
S
- , m- ,

- ..
,
,
.

A
A
U 0 = S
U + S
U12


A
A
U 21
= S
U + S
U12

(6.77)

[ ] [ ][ ] [ ][ ]
[ ] [ ][ ] [ ][ ]

[U ] = [S ] [U ] + [S ] [U ]
[U ] = [S ] [U ]+ [S ] [U ]
U = S U + S {S U + S

12

21

21

21

21

B
U

U 21

A B
B
A B
( E S
S )U 21
= S
U + S
S U
,

(6.78)

208

[E ]- ,
, . :
[E ] [M ] = [M ] [E ] = [M ] , ..
;

.
(6.78)
A B
( E S
S ) .

A B 1
A B
).
U 21
= ( E S
S ) ( S U + S
S U

B
A 1
B
U12
= ( E S
S
) ( S U
+ S
S U ) .

[ ] [ ]

[ ]

U 12
U 21
. U 12

.
[ ] .


(6.77), [S ]


S
M S

U 0
U
(6.79)
= L L L ,
U 0

U
S M S
()

B A 1 B
S
= S + S ( E S
S ) S S

B A 1
S
= S ( E S
S ) S
(6.80)

A B 1
S
=
S
(
E

S
S
)
S


A B 1 A
S = S + S ( E S S ) S S
(6.80)
, , .. .
,
.
, ,
. , (6.79) (6.80) , -

209

..
[9]. ,
Z.

210

1
.1.
.1.1

3000

10000

/0,86610-11

tg

/0,86610-11 tg

3,80

0,26310-4

3,80

0,263104

4,38,3

77,0
2,6
2,55
2,1

4,710-4
3,110-4
1,9510-4
2,210-3
1,9610-4
0,71510-4

3,998,05

2,59

2,08

5,2510-4
610-4

2,6810-3

1,7710-4

.1.2
t=20C

()
-4


()

r
1,00058
2
2.. .2,5
2,25
2,55
2,5.. .2,8
3,8
4
5.. .6,8
5,7.. .7

211

-1-35

()

9,6

11,7

5. ..16

()

80,4
300...1500

.1.3
t=20

107, /
, /

(90 % )

(70 % )

()

6,1
5,8
4,13
3,54
2,41
1,69
1,45
1,25
1,71 0 - 3
3,3

()

()

3,3
2,13
10-4
10-9
10-1110-12
10-1110-12
10-1310-15
10-15
10-1210-14
10-1510-18

.2. []
.2.1

(mn) Jm(x)
m
1

n
3

212

0
1

2,405
3,832

5,520
7,016

8,654
10,173

11,792
13,324

.2.2
(mn) J / ( x)
m
n
m
0
1
2

1
3,832
1,841
3,054

2
7,016
5,331
6,705

3
10,174
8,536
9,965

m=
Jn (x) =
m=0

m x

( 1)

n + 2m


2
m! (n + m )!

(. 2.1)

n = 0,1,2,...

N( x ) =

cos nJ n ( x ) J n ( x )
.
sin n

(. 2.2)

H (n1) ( x ) = J n ( x ) + jN n ( x ),

( 2)
H n ( x ) = J n ( x ) jN n ( x ).

(. 2.3)

x
x

2
2
2
x

J0 (x) = 1 +
+ ...
2
(2!)2 (3!)2

(. 2.4)

213

x
x


x
2
2

J1 ( x ) = + ...
2!5!
2 (2!)

(. 2.5)

.3.
.3.1
, S21 ,
, ,
. ( ):

L = 10 lg( 1 / S 21

) = 20 lg S 21 .

(.3.1)

L = 0,
L=.
(), (), () ()
(). -
. .3.1.

214

, , .
, .
,
- . ,
, .
.
, , .
, ; , ,
. ,
, .
:

, ;
, ..
, . .
, L ;
" " .

.3.2.
, . , L , .
.3.2. Rr ,
, RH .

215

,
. .
(. .3.1,)
,
n.
: 0<f<fc ( )

L1, f3<f<<x> ( )
L2 (. .3.3). .
: . n- , [16]:
L = 10 lg[1 + h 2n ] ,

(.3.2)

h = 10L1/10-1, = f/fc. L f n . .3.4, . , ffc L0


. , - . f, L1 f n

216

L2 (. . .3.4,) fc, L1
L2- f3 f, .. .

[16]:
L = 10 lg[1 + hTn2 ()]

(.3.3)

n()- ,
cos[n arccos(x)] 0 | | 1 ,
Tn(x)=
ch[n arch(x)]
| |>1.

217


. .3.4, . .
, ,
.
-
L1, L2, fc f.
,
( )
() ; q>21 S21 =
lS21|exp(i21) . , .
.
, .
(.3.2) (.3.3)
:
n = lg (10 L 2 / 10 1) /(10 L 2 / 10 1) / lg( 3 );

(.3.4)


n = arch (10 L 2 / 10 1) /(10 L 2 / 10 1) / arch( 3 );

(.3.5)

Q3 = f3/fc- (14.8)
arch (x) = ln (x + x2-1).
, , - .
(..3.2)
, q1, q2,.. qn (q0
qn+1 ). ( q-) , =
1 / RH=Rr=1 . - q- :

q0 = qn+1=1, q j = 22n h sin[( 2 j 1) /( 2n )[

qo = 1, q1= 2a1/ , q j =4a j-1 aj /(b j-1 gqj-1),
qn+1=

j= 1,2 ..... , (.3.6)


j=2, 3, ...,;

1 ,
cth2(p/4) n;

(.3.7)

218

a j = sin[(2j-1)/(2n)], bj = 2 + sin2(jn/n), = sh [p/(2n)], p= ln[th(L 1/17,37)].


,
q (..3.2) , .

qo=qn+1.

. .3.5
, q0 qn+1. (,
)
.
(. . 3.3): fc, f, L1, L2, RH .
(.3.4) (.3.5) . (.3.6) (.3.7) q - . , q, ( RH)
, , ( RH) , ,
:
iC 2 j1R H = iq 2 j1 iL 2 j / R H = iq 2 j
(.3.8)
j=1,2, ...,; =n/2 n m = (n + 1)/2 .
, Q = f/fc, (.3.8)
L 2 j = q 2 jR H /( 2f C ) []

C 2 j1 = q 2 j1 /( R H 2f C ) []

(.3.9)

219

,
.
,
L ,
. .3.5. (. .3.6),
fHffB LL1, ff31 ff32
L L2.
(.3.2), - (.3.3),
:

= [f 2 f H f B ] /{f (f B f H )]

(.3.10)

, (.3.10) - ( . .3.7) ).

(. .
.3.6) : fH, fB, f31, f32, L1, L2, RH . (.3.4) (.3.5)

3 = [(f 2 ) 2 f H f B ] /{f 2 (f B f H )] n
, -.
(.3.6) (.3.7) q- -. , , q- -:

L 2 j1 = R H (f B f H ) /( 2f 02 q 2 j1 ) [] , C 2 j1 = q 2 j1 /( R H 2(f B f H ) []
(.3.11)

220

L 2 j = q 2 jR H /[2(f B f H )] [], C 2 j = (f B f H ) /[2f 02 q 2 jR H ] [], (.3.12)


j=1,2 . ,; =n/2 n m = (n + 1)/2 n;
f 02 = f B f H .

[16]:
Q j = q jf 0 /[2(f B f H )],

j = 1,2,...n .

(.3.13)

, ,
[16].

. ,
, .
, ,
.
, , - .
.

, , : , ,
.. . ,
( , ..).
..

221

(. .3.2)
,

,
.12.1 [13].
ZBB
ZBH ,

ZB, .. RH=Rr=ZB.
. .3.8
. ZBB ZBH

,

.
. .3.8.

[3,10,14,16].

222

1. .. .., .2001.
2. .. :
/-2- .-., -,2003.

3. .., .., .. / . .. , . .: ,2000.531.


4. .. . . . , , 2003.
5. .. .- .: ,1988. .-432.
6. ./ ... .- :
.1988-280 .
7. .. .1.-.: .1970
8. .., .., .. . .- .: , 1988.9. . . .: , 1976.
10. .., ., ... ,
.-.: , 1971-1972.-. 1.-440 .- .2.-496.

223


.. , ..


,
-210300,
210400

60x84 1/16. . . ..


.
634050, , . , 40.
. (3822) 533018.

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