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..
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536.2
12

1.2.1253-03, 30 2003 . (
29.12494). -

77.99.60.953..014367.12.09

.., ..
12

:
- (- ). 2010. 9. 98 . .:

ISSN 0236-1493

.
.

. .

536.2
ISSN 0236-1493

.. , .. , 2010
, 2010
. , 2010

536.2

.. , .. , 2010

.
.
.
.
: , , ,
,

1.


. . ,
, ,
,
.
.
, , .
5


, r.
j
, , .
r
T . ,
,
r
r
j T , r
. j r
T , , , . ,
:
r
r
j = k T ,
(1)
k , .
, (1)
, k .


, :
ji = kij

T
,
x j

(2)

kij ,
: kij = k ij .
(2) ,
,
.
,
6

,
.
:
r
S%
T
= div k T + q ,
(3)
t
S% ,

, q .
S% :
S%
S% T cV T
=
=
,
(4)
t
T t
T t
, cV

U
cV =
.
T V
(3) (4) :
r
T
(5)
= div k T + q .
cV
t
c c
p V = 1 ( c p
cp
)
,
:
r
T
(6)
= div k T + q .
c
t

. , (6),
, .

, , ,
.

.. .. .
, (2), (7)

:
c

T
T
=
kij
.
t xi x j

(7)

(6), (7) , , , ,
.
, , ,
.
, . ,
,
(, ) , (7).
8

.
, ,

. ,
,
. .
,
, ,
,
( c p cV ) c p = 1 , (7).

,

.

.
2.


.
.
9

1907 1912
.
.. , .. . .
, .
, ,
V N , r . 3rN ,

3rN .
3r , :
r
= ksr , , ( = 1, 2,3; s = 1, 2,3,..., r; ) .

a ,
r. , 1/.

r , ,
= 0 .
.
(. 1) , (3r3) . . ,
r
r
( , s ) , .
, r
( , s ) ,
.

10

r
r
Wr , s = h ( , s ) ( n ( , s ) + 1/ 2 ) .
, , 3rN :
3r

W = Wr = Wa + Wo ,
s =1

Wa

Wo -

(. 1):
r
3
h ( , s )
Wa =
,
r
r
h ( , s )
s =1
exp
1
kT
r
3r
h ( , s )
.
Wo =
r
r
h ( , s )
s=4
exp
1
kT

(8)

(8)

(8) (8)
r

s (k ).
, N ,
,
.
,
. N (8). ( N),
11


Lo
T1
L

. 1. :
1, 2, L
, 1, 2, L ( )

T2

T1

-/a

+/a

r
, ( ) . ,
r
0 max , (8) :
h
dN ,
h
exp
1
kT
dN
+d ( ).
dN ,
+ d . dV
dV 4 2 d .
, . ,
Wa =

( 2 )

. dV
V
:
12

dN = dV

( 2 )
:
V

4V 2 d V 2 d
.
=
=
83
2 2

,
,
.. r
( , s ) = s ( s = 1, 2,3) , s
. V 2 d
+ d dN = 2
.
2 ( )3
s

dN
2
=
Vd 22 ( )3
s

. , .. ,
.
l t ( ). ,
d
2
22
32
g ( ) = 2 3 + 2 3 = 2 3 ,
2 l 2 t 2 s

(9)

1 1 1 2
= + , 3s 3 3l 3t
, -

s ,

13

. (9)
W :
Wa =

D = s D

Vg ( )

h
h
exp
kT

d .

(10)

(10)
D , ,
r
N .
,

( 2 ) , ( 2 ) = 4 3
D = N
3
V
V
, .
3

D = ( 62 N V ) .
13

N/V = 1023 3, D=2108 -1,


, D = 2 D = 3108
a. < 2a,

D = s D 71013-1.



3
2 , D

g ( ) = 22 3s
0,
> D .

14

(11)

max

g ( ) = 3 N .

(10)


(11) :
Wa =

3V h
22 3s

3 d
.
exp ( h ( k T ) ) 1

:
x = h ( k T ) ,

TD = hD k .

(12)

3V h k T
Wa = 2 3
2 s h

4 TD T

x 3 dx
.
ex 1

(13)

(10), (11), (13)


:
W = Wa =

9 Nk T

TD T

3
(TD T ) 0

x 3 dx
= 3Nk T D (TD T ) .
ex 1

(14)

(14) ,
D (TD T ) =

TD T

3
(TD T ) 0

x 3 dx
ex 1

(15)

.
(14) , ,
TD , . , k TD = hD
, 15

.
TD 100400 ()

TD , ,
TD = 2230 , TD = 1440 .
D (TD T ) ,



.
h k T ( x 1 ) (1.2.16) e x 1 1 + x 1 = x ,
W = Wa =

9 Nk T

TD T

(T T )
4

x 2 dx = 3Nk T = 3RT ,

R .
, :
cV = 3R ,

(16)

..
.
h k T ( x 1 ) (15) 0 . , :

x 3 dx 4
0 e x 1 = 15 . :
4

9 Nk TD 4 T 34 Nk TD
W = Wa =
=
15
5
TD
16

T
.
TD

T3:
cV =

124 Nk 3
T = DT 3 .
5TD3

(17)

, (
). , r ,
. . 1 , . ,
.
T , :
k T = h .
, 102 .
(, ), T ( 1000 ).
i

Wi =

( N r ) h
h
exp
kT

N/r .
(3r3) ,
, ,
:
17

h
h

exp

kT
N kT

= ( 3r 3) k
.
2
r

h
exp
1
k
T

( T ) V .
( T ) ,
,
.
,

. , ,
,
.
: , .

WF
, . ( > TF = WF/k ~ 104 K)

. , . TF ,
- 18

.
( ) ,
0 , , W = WF (. 2).
, ,
k
WF. .

, .
.
dp
dV 4p2dp.
-
(2 h )3/V (V ). dV

dz =

dV

( 2h )

4p 2 dpV

( 2h )

1
T=0K

T1

T2>T1
0

WF

. 2.
19

W = p2/2m,
dz =

32

2m
W 1 2 dW .
2
2
( 2 ) h
V

, W W+dW,
32

dz
1 2m
12
=

W dW = N (W ) dW .
V ( 2 ) 2 h 2

32

2m
N (W ) =
W1 2
2
2
( 2 ) h
1

(18)


. . 3.
. , ,
W
f (W ) =

1
W WF
exp
kT

(19)

+1


2m
dN = 2 N (W ) f (W ) dW =
2
2
( 2 ) h
2

20

32

W 1 2 dW
W WF
exp
kT

+1

N(W)
N(W)
N(W)f(W),T=0K

N(W)f(W),T>0K

Wf

. 3. N(W) N(W)f(W) ( = 0 >0 )

,
.

32

2V 2m
N = 2VN (W ) f (W ) dW =

2
2
( 2 ) h
0

W 1 2 dW

W WF
0
exp
kT

+1

(20)

=0, f(W)=1, 0
W = WF(0).
N=

2V 2m

2
( 2 ) h 2

3 2 WF ( 0 )

W 1 2 dW =

32

2m
WF3 2 ( 0 ) ,
2
2
3 ( 2 ) h
4V

n = N/V
:
WF ( 0 ) =

23
h2
32 n ) .
(
2m

21

T > 0 (20). ,
, f(W) W = WF ,
:
2 k T 2

WF (T ) = WF ( 0 ) 1 + ... .
12 WF ( 0 )

(21)

n ~ 1029 -3
WF(0) = 5 , kT
= 300 0,03 .
(21) , .
We(T) :

We (T ) = W f (W , T ) N (W ) dW

(22)

(20) (22),
We (T ) = We0 +

2
2
( k T ) N (WF ( 0 ) ) ,
6

(23)

We0 = 0 .
(23) , :
W (T )
2 2
V = e
=
k N (WF ( 0 ) ) T =

V
k T
2
= k n = T .
2
WF ( 0 )
22

(24)

cV
cV 2 k T
2

cV , =
10 (T =
cV
3 WF ( 0 )
300 ), ,
.
,
, T 3 ( ), , ( ), . ,
:
c = T + DT 3 ,

(25)

= 0.
,
, . ,
, , . 0,1D.
,
( ).

,
, , :
k = 1/3V <v>l = 1/3cV <v>2,

(26)
23

cV , ( ), <v> (),
( ), l (), , , = l/<v>
, ().

.
, ().
T TD , ,
.
k T
1
n =
,
exp h ( kT ) 1 h


. l ~ 1/T.
, T TD k 1 T .
( < D)

n =

exp h ( kT ) 1

exp ( TD T ) .

( ) : l ~ exp(D/T).
24


c ~ T3.
, < D
k ~ T3exp(D/T).


.

, k ~ T3.
. 4 .
, , , (26),

:
1
2 n k
k = cV F l = e l T .
3
3 me F

(27)

vF = (h/m)(32n)1/3
<v>, WF (n m
);
2 k T
cV = ne k 2 WF
; l
. ,
.

,
.. ,
.
( >>TD)
l ~ 1/T, .
25

. 4.

T3exp(D/T)

k
3

1/

( < D)
l ~ 1/T3 , k ~ 1/T2. , ,
, l , , .. k ~ T.


. 5.
, , D.
, 250 , ,
, ,
.
. , (6) :
26

. 5.
()

1/T

k=const

T
= T ,
t
=

(28)
k
c

.
(28) . (28)
, ,

.
3.
.


. ,
, . 27


, .
.

,
,
.

. ,
. ,
. , , ..
.. ,
.. , .. , .. , .. ,
, . -, .-. .
.


, ,
. , . ,
,
28

. , , .. ,
. , .
, G . , , (), l . ,
L G
l L .
,
= l L , xi ( ), i = xi () i = 1,
..., ( ). ,
.
, 29

, , .
x = x1 ,..., x -
Akj ( x ) ( k , j = 1,..., ), Akj () ( = 1 ,..., ) -

l - , l , . Akj () :

Akj () = Ajk (),

Akj ()k j k j , = (1 ,..., ) R ,

> 0 , , .
G
G

xk

x T
Akj
xj

f ( x) = 0, x G

(29)

T
G
T

= 0,

(30)

, l ,
Akj ,
:

[T ]l


T
= 0 , Akj
nk = 0 .
k , j =1 xi l

(31)

(31)
, nk
30

k- .
(1) (3)

T ( x) = T (0) ( x, ) + T (1) ( x, ) + 2T (2) ( x, ) + ...

(32)

, = l L , T ( i ) ( x, ) x , l
.
(32) (29) (30)-(31), . ,
2 , 1 , 0 .

2 . T ( 2)
0
1
2
. T ( ) , T ( ) , T ( )
L T (0) = 0 ,
LT (1) = L xT (0) Lx T (0) ,

(33)

LT (2) = L xT (1) Lx T (1) LxxT (0) + f ,

T (0)

= 0, T (1)

T (0) ( x, )
T (1) ( x, )
T

(2)

( x, )

= 0, T (2)

= 0,

kj

= 0,

= 0,

=0

T (0)
nk
j

(34)
l

= 0,

T (0)
T (1)
nk + Akj
nk
kj
x j
j

T (1)
T (2)
nk + Akj
nk
kj
x j
j

(35)

= 0, (36)

= 0. (37),
31

x ,

T ( x, )

Akj ()
.
j
k , j =1
k
..
, , Akj (), 0 ( ) , k ( ) l - , , l -

()

N ()
L N =
(38)
Akj ( )
= 0 () + k
k
j
k
LT ( x, ) =


N
A
0,
(
)
(
)
=

nk l = 0 kj
k
l
j


, 0 ( ) ,

l , [ N ]

1
0 = ... 0 ( ) d 1.....d ,
l 0 0

(39)

0 = 0 . l -

(38)

N ( ) = N ( ) + C , N ( ) (38) : N = 0 , C .
, l-
T ( x, ) (5)(9)
..
(0)

T (0) ( x, ) = 0 ( x ) .

T (1) ( x, ) :
32

(40),

T (1) ( x, ) = N i1

d 0
,
dxi1

(41),

N i1 () , (i1=1,..., ) -, l-

L N i1 +

Aki ( ) = 0 L N i1 + i1 = 0, l
k 1

N i1
=0 ,
l

A (N + ) n

i1

ik

kj

(42)

= 0.

(43)

(42) . . (42) (43)


, N i1 = 0 .
(33)
(40)-(41), ,
0

Ai1i2

2 0
= f ( x) ,
xi2 xi1

Ai1i2 = Ai1 j ()

(44),

N i2 ()

+ Ai1i2 () ,
j
(34)
(40)
0

= 0.

(45)

.. , ..

, Ai1i2
33

. (44) (45), ,

Ai1i2 .
, T (1) ( x, ) ,
T (2) ( x, ) = N i1i2 ()

2 0
,
xi2 xi1

N i1i2 () l-

Ai1i2 = L N i1i2 + Bi1i2 ()

(46)

N i1i2

N i1i2
nk
= 0 , Aki1 N i2 nk + Akj
j

= 0.

(47)

, (29)-(31)
2
x
x 0
, (48)
T ( x) 0 + N i1 0 + N i1 i2
xi1
xi1 xi2

(32) ,
, (29)-(31)
m , m .

4. ,


34

.
, , .
:

T ( x, t ) T ( x, t )
=
kij
.
t
xi
x j

(49)

,
, . , ,
c
kij x = ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) .
(49)
, :
T ( x, t )
T ( x, t ) S = T1 (t ), ni kij
=0
x j

S
[T ( x, t )]

T ( x, t )
= 0, mi kij

x j

T ( x, t ) t =0 = T0 ( x)

=0

(50) ,

S ,
;
35

; ni ; mi -
.

(49)(50)

T ( x, , t ) = T (0) ( x, , t ) + T (1) ( x, , t ) + ... +


+ nT ( n ) ( x, , t ) ,

(51)

, ( = 1 ),
= x .

, . (49) (51)

:
T (0) ( x, , t )

T (1) ( x, , t )
( ) c ( )
+
+ ...
t
t

T (0) ( x, , t ) 1

k
(
)
ij

xi
j

T (0) ( x, , t )

k
(
)
ij


T (0) ( x, , t ) 1

k
(
)
ij

i
x j
i

T (1) ( x, , t )

k
(
)
ij

36

xi

T (0) ( x, , t )
(
)
k

ij

x
j

xi

T (1) ( x, , t )
(
)
k

ij

T (1) ( x, , t )
(
)
k

ij

x
j

T (2) ( x, , t )
(
)
k

ij


T (3) ( x, , t )

kij ()

i
j
i


T (2) ( x, , t )
k
(

)
ij

xi
j

xi

T (2) ( x, , t )
kij ()

x j

T (1) ( x, , t )
kij ()
... = 0
x j

(52)

, c, kij .

, :


T (0)
kij ()
=0
i
j

(53)


T (0)
T (1)
T (0)
k

+
k

+
k

(
)
(
)
(
)
ij

ij

ij
= 0 (54)
i
x j i
j xi
j

( ) c ( )

xi

T (0)

T (2)
(
)

ij

t
i
j xi

T (1)
kij ()

T (0)
(
)
k

ij

x

T (1)
kij ()
= 0 .

x
j

(55)

(51) (50)
:
37

T (0) ( x, , t )

= T1 (t ), T (1) ( x, , t )

= T ( n ) ( x, , t )

= T (2) ( x, , t )

= ... =

=0

T (0) T (1)

T (0)
ni kij ()
+
= 0, ni kij ()
= 0,
x
j
j

S
S

T (1) T (2)
ni kij ()
+
= 0
x
j
j

(56)

..................................................
[T ( n ) ( x, , t )] = 0, n = 0,1, 2......

T (1) T (0)
T (0)
0,
=

+
mi kij ( )
m
k

(
)

= 0 (57)

i
ij
j

j
j


.........................................................................................

T (0) ( x, , t )
T (1) ( x, , t )

t =0
t =0

= T0 ( x),
= T (2) ( x, , t )

t =0

= ... = T ( n ) ( x, , t )

t =0

=0

(58)

(53) T (0) . kij ()



T (0) , ..

T (0) = 0 ( x, t )

(59)
(0)

T (54) :

0 T (1)

+
kij ()
= 0 .
x
i
j
j
38

(60)

(60) , (51) , , :
(1)
(1)
T ( x, , t ) = N i ()

0 ( x, t )
,
xi

(61)


N i( ) ( ) :
1

N (1)
kli ( ) = 0
klj ( ) i +

j
l

N i(1) + i

Ni
ml = 0

= 0, klj

(1)

(62)

N i(1)
,
.
(55) (61) (51)
:


T (2)
kij ()
= ( ) c() 0
i
j
t

( + Nl(1) ) 0

(1) 0
kij () l

kij ()
Nl
(63)
xi
j
xl i
x j
xl

,
(63) :
39

( ) c ( )

0 2 0
= k ij
t
xi x j

(64),


(39),

( j + N (1)
j ())
k ij = kil ( )
l
.
(64)
0 ( x, t ) .
0 ( x, t ) t =0 = T0 ( x), 0 ( x, t ) S = T1 (t ),
( x, t )
ni k ij 0
= 0, [0 ( x, t )]
x j

( x, t )
mi k ij 0

x j

= 0,

=0

(65),

(56)(58).
(64)(65)
0 ( x, t ) , (61) (51), .
5. ,

40

, ,

(. 6). .

, t = 0 T1 t > 0 . , T1 T0 ,
.
,
. (49)(50) :
c

T ( x, t ) T ( x, t )
= k

t
x
x

(66)


T ( x, t )

t =0

= T0 , x > 0

T ( x, t )

x =0

= T1 , t 0

[T ( x, t )]

T ( x, t )
= 0, k

=0

(67)

(66)(67) . (51). (51) (66),


, :

T (0)
(68)
k

(
)

=0


41


T (1)
T (0)
T (0)
k

+
k

+
k

(
)
(
)
(
)

= 0 (69)


x x


T (2)
T (1)
T (1)

k
k
k
(
)
(
)
(
)

+


x x


T (0)
T (0)
=0
k ()
( x)c( x)
x
x
t

(70)

T (n+2)
T (n+1)
T (n+1)

k
k
k
(
)
(
)
(
)

+


x x

+


T ( n )
T ( n )

= 0,
(
)
(
)
k
x
c
x
( )

x
x
t

(71)

n>0 ,

( ) , c ( ) , k ( ) H (. . 6).

. 6.
42

(51)
(67) :
T , n = 0
n
, x > 0,
T ( ) ( x, , 0) = 0
n

0,
1

T , n = 0
n
, t 0,
T ( ) (0, , t ) = 1
0, n 1

(72)

T ( n ) ( x, , t ) = 0, n = 0,1, 2,... ,

T ( n ) ( x, , t )
k
x
( )

= 0, n = 0,1, 2,... .

x ,
(68)(71) T ( i ) ( x, , t ) , i = 0,1, 2,..., n . x
. T ( i ) ( x, , t ) , i = 0,1, 2,..., n
, , (68) (39) T ( 0) :
T (0) = 0 ( x, t )
(73)
(69)
T ( 0) , ,
(51) :

0 ( x, t )
k

1d , (74)
T ( x, , t ) = N1 ()
, N1 () =

x
(
)
0

(1)

43

k = 1 k () .
(39)
(70)

(1)
( 2)
T ( x, , t ) , T ( x, , t ) k ( ) H,
(73) (74) 0 ( x, t )
2
0 ( x, t ) 0 ( x, t )

=
(75)
x 2
t

= k c . -

0 ( x, t ) (72)(73)
0 ( x, 0) = T0 , x > 0
0 (0, t ) = T1 , t 0

[ 0 ( x , t ) ] = 0 ,

(76)

(75)
(76),
x
0 ( x, t ) = T1 (T1 T0 )erf

2 t

(77)

2
exp( 2 )d .

0
(77) (66)(67). (74)
:

erf ( y ) =

x2

exp

4 t k

(1)

T ( x, , t ) = (T1 T0 )
1
0 k () d
t

44

, , , (x, t),
:
T ( x, t ) T1 (T1 T0 )

x2

exp


4 t x k
x

(78)
erf
+
1 d .

k ( )
t
0
2 t


,
, . T ( n ) ( x, , t ) , n-

(51), (n 1) :
n 0 ( x , t )
T ( n ) ( x, , t ) = N n ()
(79)
x n
N n ( ) H. ,
,
, (66)(67) :

T ( x, t ) = 0 ( x, t ) + nT ( n ) ( x, , t ) ,

(80)

n =1

x
0 ( x, t ) = T1 (T1 T0 )erf

2 t ,
n 0 ( x , t )
, n =1, 2, 3,... ,
x n
N n ( ) :
T ( n ) ( x, , t ) = N n ()

45

k 1 d , n = 1
0 k ()

N n () =

N ()d (1) n an 1 ()d , n 2


0 k ()
0 n 1

(81)

1
c
N
k

( c ()c() ) d

1
k ()

+ c ()c() d , n = 2
)
(

an1 =
n
n 1
( an2 (1) ()c() N n2 ) d + (1) c N n1

k 1 ( a (1)n ()c() N ) d , n 3
n2
n2

k ()

(80) (80)(81)

.
,
: 1 = 1930 /3 , c1 =
690.822 / , k1 = 2.954 / , 2 = 1660 /3,
c2 = = 774.558 / , k2 = 0.582 / , 3 = 2050
/3, c3 = 921.096 / , k3 = 1.160 / .
(. 1).
= 6 . 46

h1 : h2 : h3 = 1:2:3 (h1 +h2


+h3 =H) (. . 6).
. 710 t =
= 12 ,
T0 = 265 . x = 0
T1 = 270 .
(77) , x (. .7).
, .8 .9 .
1
,

270.5

, /3

, /

k, /

2000
1660
1640
1930
900
1000

751.800
774.558
732.690
690.822
2100
4200

1.113
0.582
1.163
2.954
2.226
0.567

T, K

269.5
268.5
267.5
266.5
265.5
0.0

x, c
6.0

12.0

18.0

24.0

30.0

. 7. T (0) ( x)
47

. 8.

20.0

2
(2)
3
T .10

5.0
0.0
-5.0
-10.0
-15.0
-20.0
0.0
6.0
18.0
12.0
. 9.

x, c
24.0

30.0

,
. 10. ,
(51), . 10 T/T1 ~
T/T0 ~ 0.1 % . ,
48

T(n), n = 3, 4, 5, ... T(x, t).


, (78)
(51),
( .10), , 2 % .
270.5

T, 0K

269.5
268.5
267.5
266.5
x, c
265.5
0.0
6.0
18.0
24.0
30.0
12.0
. 10. ,

6. ,

,

, . 49


, .
, ,

.
, ,
.
.
,
,
. - .


--

,
, .
, R1
R2 R1 (. 11). .11 ,

X 1OX 2 , .
50

. 11

k ,
, .
, ,
, .

k , , , (.12). 0 r R1
;
R1 < r R2 ; R2 r < R3 - , , r > R3 51

. 12

.

x1 . , , ,

. , ,
, , R3
, , .
.

:
1 T
r
r r r

2
2
2
1 T T 1 T 1 T
+
=
+
+
= 0.
2 2
r 2 r r r 2 2
r

:
52

(82)

T
T ( r , )
= 0, k
=0
r = R1
r r = R1
T
T ( r , )
= 0, k
=0
r = R2
r r = R2

(83),

T
T ( r , )
= 0, k
=0
r = R3
r r = R3
.
(82)-(83)
B

T = Ai r + i
r

sin + C0

(84),

C0 ,
; i = 1, 2,3, 4 ,
, .
Ai Bi (83)
r 0 ,
r .
Ai , Bi
. , , , r = R3 .

k ,
.
53

k
R
R
1
= 2 1, = 3
( n - ),
R1 n
R1
k
k
= 2 , = 3 , k1
k1

k , , .
, ,

k .

. 13.

k = k

54

. 13 ,
.
.

, ,

k
.
. 14

.

. 14.

k = k

55



.
. ,
.

(. 15).

. 15.
56

, , , ,

.

, , R1 ,
R2 R1 (. 11). , , ,
, . L , l ,
(. 16).

. 16
57

,
, (49)(50).
(49)-(50)
, ,
,
.

,

,
. l = L , , ,
= l L ,
x = { x1 , x2 , x3 } , , = x ,
= {1 , 2 , 3 } ,
0 l .
(49)(50) (51). (51) (49) (50)


58

(51). x
. T ( )
(39) , :
n

1
f = 3
l

f ( )d d d
1


(51) , .. 0
T ( ) (.
(59)). ,
(51) (61), Ni( )
(62) .
1
Ni( ) , .
. 11,
,
(. 11).
T1 ,
T0 . 250900 , ,

(.
). ,
OX1
, X 2OX1 .
1

59


T = T ( x1 , x2 , t ) . v0
(51)
(64)(65) , ,
v0 ( x1 , x2 , t ) = T1 (T1 T0 ) erf x1 2 t
(85)

(85)

k
=
, c

k
N (1) ( ) N (1) ( )

+ k ( )
k = k ( )
+
(86),
1
2

.
(59), (61)
(51)
:

T ( x1 , x2 , t ) = T1 (T1 T0 ) erf x1 2 t

(T1 T0 )

exp x12 4 t

) N( ) (x , x )
1

(87)

(85)(87) N ( ) , (62),

, 1

60

,
, .
(62) , - .
-,
,
,
.
, .
,
,
, N ( )
. 17, . ,
,
. 17, .

, ,
(. . 2).

, , . 3.

l = 0.2 t = 0.5 ,
T0 = 300 .
x = 0
T1 = 900 .
1

61

. 17:

(1)

Ni 1.1 (. . 2);
N

(1) 2.3 (. . 2)

62

62

1.1
1.2
2.1

Ti-6Al-4V
Ti-6Al-4V
SiC

2.2

SiC

2.3

SiC

R1 ,

R2 ,

k , /(
)

SiC
SiC
Ti-6Al4V
Ti-6Al4V
Ti-6Al4V

Al
Al
Al

0.06
0.05
0.06

0.06002
0.08
0.06002

132.066
142.764
216.292

Al

0.06

0.066

123.712

Al

0.05

0.08

78.205

,
/3

c , /

k,
/( )

Ti-6Al-4V

4429

625.30

1.2095

SiC

3210

750

183.8

Al

2700

900

235

. 18 , 1.1. , v0
(51)
x , , T0 = 300 .
,
,
(. .19). v0
1
T v0 + T ( ) , .
18. , , 63

. 18 ,
( v0) ( T)
1.1

. -
.
1
( ) , l = 0.2 , , (. .20).
,
2 = , , ( ) 1 = ,
, ,
1

64

. 19.
1.1

(1)

. 20. 1.1
65

65

. 21. ,

1.1

, . .20.
(87) , ,
.21, T x2 = y l ,
y (. . 22).
66

1.2
1.1
. (. 23).
(. 24; . 25).
, (. . 2).
2.12.3
,
. ,
2 105 3 102 .

. 22. ,

1.1
67

. 23. ,

, 1.2

,
, 2.12.3 , 1.1 1.2.
216.292 /( ) 2 105
78.205 /( ) 3 102 .
,

2.1, , ,
68

. 24. ( ) 1.2
1

. 25. ,

1.2
69

69

. 26 ,

2.1

. 27 ,
( v0) ( T) 2.1
70

70

. 28. ,

, 2.3

. 29. ,

2.3
71

71

. 30 ,

2.2
,

. 31. ( ) 2.2
1

72

72

. 32. ( ) 2.3
1

(. 26, . 27).
2.2
2.3 (. 28, . 29, . 30).
28 29 30 ,

.

(51) (. . 31
. 32).
, ,
,
73

, ,
.
, ,
.
7.




, (49)(50)
, c kij ,
x = ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) , T . (51). ,
:

c(, T ) = c , T (0) + c
T
2
+ 1 c2
2 T

T = T (0)

(T

(1)

(, T ) = , T (0) +
2
1
+
2 T 2
74

+ T

(2)

+ ...

(0)

+ ...

T (1) + T (2) + ... +


T =T

(0)

2 T (1) + T (2) + ...


T =T

T (1) + T (2) + ... +

T = T (0)

+ ...

k (, T ) = k
ij

2k
ij
1
+
2
2 T

ij

, T (0) +

ij

T (1) + T (2) + ... +


T =T

(0)

2 T (1) + T (2) + ... + ...

(88)

T = T (0)

(51) (88) (49),



2 , 1 , 0 ,
(0)

(0 ) T
k ij ( , T )
= 0 ,

(0)
(1)


(0) T
(0) T
kij ( , T )
+
kij ( , T )
+
i
x j i
j

(0)

kij
(0) T
kij ( , T )
+

xi
j i T

T (1)
T =T (0)

T (0)
=0
j

(89)

(90)

(2)
T (0)
(0) T
( , T ) c( , T )

kij ( , T )

t
i
j
(0)

(0) T
kij ( , T )

xi
x j
(1)

T (1)
(0) T
kij ( , T (0) )

,
)
k
T

ij

xi
j i
x j
(0)

xi

kij

(0)

T
T =T ( 0 )

(1)

T (0)

j i

kij

T
T =T ( 0 )

(1)

T (0)

x j
75

kij

(0)
(1) T (1)
(2) T
+T
T

j
j
T =T ( 0 )

(0)
2 kij
(1) 2 T

T
( ) = 0
(91)
T 2
(0)
j
T =T

...........................................................

, 2 ,.... n .
(51) (88)
(50) :

1
2 i

T (0) ( x, , t ) = T1 (t ), T (1) ( x, , t )
S

= T ( n ) ( x, , t )

= T (2) ( x, , t )

= ... =

= 0,

(0)

(0) T
ni kij ( , T )
= 0,
j

T (0) T (1)
(0)
+
ni kij ( , T )
x j
j

T (1) T (2) kij


(0)
ni kij ( , T )
+
+
x j
j T

kij
+
T

T
T =T ( 0 )

(1)

T (0)

=0
S

T (1) T (0)
T
+
= 0
j
x j
T =T (0)

S
(1)

..

[T ( n ) ( x, , t )] = 0, n = 0,1, 2...... ,

T (0)
mi kij ( , T (0) )

76

= 0,

(92)


T (1) T (0) kij
(0)
+
mi kij ( , T )
+

x j T
j

T
T =T ( 0 )

(1)

T (0)

=0

T (0) ( x, , t )
T (1) ( x, , t )

= T0 ( x ),

t =0

t =0

= T (2) ( x, , t )

t =0

= ... = T ( n ) ( x, , t )

t =0

=0.

(89) T (0) . kij ( , T (0) )


,
, .3,

T (0) :
T (0) = 0 ( x, t ) .

(93)

(93) T(0)
(90)
:

T (1)
kij ( ,0 ) 0 +
x j

= 0 .

(94)

(94) , (51) , , :
T ( ) ( x, , t ) = N i(1) ( ,0 )
1

0 ( x, t )
xi

(95)


N i(1) ( ,0 ) :
77

( N l(1) + l )

k
(
,
)
ij
= 0,
0

l = 1, 2,3 .

(96)

,
(93) (95) (92):

( N l(1) + l )
(1)
mi kij ( ,0 )
= 0, N l = 0
j

(97)

(96)(97)
. ,

.
(93), (95)
(91) :

T (2)
(

)
k
ij
= ( ,0 ) c( ,0 ) 0
0
j
t

xi

(l + N l(1) ) 0
kij ( ,0 )

j
xl

kij ( ,0 )
x j

(1) 0
Nl

xl

kij

2
(l + N l(1) ) 0


j
xl

N
T =0

(1)
l

(98)


c ,
kij.
78

.
1. , :
kij ( , T ) = kij* ( ) D (T ) ,

(99)

kij* ( ) , , D (T ) -
.
(99) (96), :
D (0 )

*
( N l(1) + l )
kij ( )
= 0, l = 1, 2,3 .

(100)

(100) ,
(99)
kij ( , T ) , N l(1) (95)
.

(97) (99) :
*
( N l(1) + l )
(1)
mi kij ( )
= 0, N l = 0 .
j

(101)

, , (99), (100)
(101) N l(1) , . (98) :

* T (2)
1
( ,0 ) c( ,0 ) 0
kij ( )
=

i
j D(0 )
t
79


20
(l + N l(1) ( ))
*
(1)
kij* ( )
+
k
(

)
N
(

)
( ij l ) x x

j
i

j l

kij

(1)
l

T =0

2
(l + N l(1) ) 0

.
j
xl

(102)

(102)
:

( ,0 ) c( ,0 )

20
0
= k ij D(0 )
t
xi x j

k ij = kil*

( j + N (1)
j ( ))
l

(103)

, .
(103) :

0 ( x, t ) t = 0 = T0 ( x);

0 ( x, t ) S = T1 (t )


ni k ij D(0 ) 0 = 0
x j

(104)

0 ( x, t ) , .
0 ( x, t ) (95)
,
.
80

2.
(99). ,
.. .., k
,
,

k ( , T ) = k

( ) 1+
0

()
,
T

(105)

k ( ) , ( ) , 0

( ( ) T  1 ).
, , (. .6). , x , . t=0 T1 t > 0. , T1
T0 (T1 > T0 ) -

,
.
,
.

. , ,
(93) , (95)
81

T ( ) ( x, , t ) = N (1) ( ,0 )
1

0 ( x, t )
x

(106)

, (96)-(97) (105)
N (1) ( ,0 )
:

( ) ( N (1) +
k0 ( ) 1 +

( ) ( N (1) +
k

0 ( ) 1 +

)
= 0,

(107)

)
(1)
= 0, N = 0

(93) (106) (98)


.
T

(2)

, N (1) , -

c ( ) , ( ) , k ( ) , ()
0
(105) , ( x, t ) 0


( )c( )

= k

1
0

0
1 +

x 2
0

(108)

0 ( x, 0 ) = T0 , x > 0
0 ( 0, t ) = T1 , t 0
0 ( x, t ) = 0 .

82

(109)

(108)-(109) ,
( x, t )
0

. z = x
(108)-(109)
c 0
z

= k 1
0
2
z

( z ) z =0 = T1

( z ) z = T0

0
1 +

z 2
0

(110),


z
ydy
( z ) = A exp
1
0

0 2 1 +
0
0

= k

d+ T
1

(111),

c A -

( z ) z = T0 .

(110)

T T erf
0
0
1

c
4 k

1
0

(1 + T )
1

x
t

+ T1 (112)

2
erf ( y ) = 2 exp ( ) d .
0

, ( ) T  1
83

(110) , 0

(112), .
(106)
( 1)
T ,
T

( 1)

= T T
0

exp
4 k 1
0

1
0

1+ T

c
1

(1 +

))

x2
t

1 1

1
k
(
z
)
1
z
+

(
)

0
0

dz .
1

(113)
0 k ( z) 1 + ( z ) 1

0
0

, (51)
:

T ( x, t ) T + T T erf
1
0
1

84

c
4 k

exp
1
1
1
4 k 1
k
1 + T t
0
1
0

1
1

1
k ( z) 1 + ( z )

0
0
1 dz.

k ( z) 1 + ( z ) 1
0
0

(1 + T )
1

))

x
t

c
1

(1+ T )
1

x

t

(114)


.
:

T = k (T ) T
t x
x
T ( x, t )

t =0

),

=T , x > 0
0

: T ( x, t )
T ( x, t )

k (T ) x

= 0, [T ( x, t )]

x =0

=T , x >0
1

=0


- ,

n +1
j

n
j

=k

n
j +1

j
2

j 1

2T + T

j +1

2x

j 1

n
j +1

n
j 1

2x

T1 =T T N =T ,
j
0
1
1
T

n
j +1

k
k

1
j
2

(T

n
j

T n

j 1

) +T ,
n

j = 1, 2...J , n = 1, 2...N
.
, n T n j,
j

j.
85

) + (1 2 s ) T
)( T T ) ,

T n +1 = s T n + T n
j

+ 0.25 s

j +1

j +1

j 1

j 1

j +1

j 1

n
j

k t
j

s =

.
cx 2
,
n + 1,
n.
,

.
, (114)
(51) ,
, 0,5 %.
3. ,
,

j

ij

( , T ) = k ij( 0 ) ( ) + k ij(1) ( ) T + k ij( 2 ) ( ) T 2 + ... +

+k
k (
ij

(N)
ij
n)

( ) T N = k ij( n ) ( ) T n

(115),

n=0

()

.

, , ,
, ,
. (. . 4).
86

,
/3

,
//

,
//

, 1/

, Al
, SiC
, ZrO2
Ti-6Al-4V

2700
3210

235-0,0305
183,8-0,157

900
750

2105
3106

5700

1,7+0,00022

487+0,149

1,3105

4429

1,21+0,0169

625-0,264

7,6106

,
(93) (95) ,
(1)
N l ( ,0 ) (96)-(97)
:

= 0 i
M

(1)
( )

( N l + l )
kij ( )0
= 0,
j

M
( N l(1) + l )
mi kij( ) ( )v0
= 0,

=0

l = 1, 2,3

(1)
N l = 0

(116)

(116) N l(1) 0 .
(93) (106) (98)
.
T (2) , N (1) , c ( ) , ( ) , k

( ) , ( )

( x, t )
0

( ,0 ) c( ,0 )

0
=
t

( N (1)
j +j )

=0

kil( )0

20
(117)
xi x j
87

0 ( x, t ) t = 0 = T0 ( x);

0 ( x, t ) S = T1 (t )

M

ni kij( )0 0 = 0 .
x j
=0
S

(118)

,

. , H (.
.6). , t=0

T1 t > 0. ,
T1 T0.
, T0 T1 ,

. (117)(118) 0
0 ( x, t )
c
= 1
t

0 ( x, t ) t =0 = T0 ;

k 0
( )

=0

20 ( x, t )
x 2

0 ( x, t ) S = T1

M ( ) 0
k 0
= 0.
x S
= 0
z = x
(119) :
88

(119)

t ,

d
1
z 0 =
2 c
dz

k ( )0

=0

d 20
.
dz 2

(120)

0 (0) = T1
0 () = T0

(121)

(120) (121) :

0 = A exp
1
1
(0 ) =
c

zdz
d + T1 ,
2 (v0 )
M

(122)

( )

=0

0 () = T0 .
, : k ( , T ) = k ( 0) ( ) + k (1) ( )T , (122)
:

0 exp 4 y( ) d
(123)
0 = T1 (T1 T0 )
c

0 exp 4 y( ) d
2

y ( ) = C 2 + Derf ( 2 + 2 ) 2 D e
2

C=

k ( ) ( ) + k ( ) ( )T1
0

,
89

k ( ) ( )
1

D = (T1 T0 )
erf ( y ) =

(k ( ) ( ) + k ( ) ( )T1 ) 2
0

exp(

)d ,

1
1 (k ( 0 ) + k (1)T0 )
c

(95)
:

T (1)

exp y ( x t )
4

= (T1 T0 )

y
exp
(
)
0

1
( 0 )
k + k (1)0
0

d .

1
0
1
k ( ) + k ( )0

(124)

. 33 . 34

0 t = 100
, , T0 =
300 . x = 0 T1 = 700. , 0.1,
9:1. (77) (123) 0 ,
x. c90

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20

40

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78

80

150

,
250 400
600

1000

1500

376 675 858 951 1037() 1177()

15,9 57,2 99,2 119 127 131


3,37 44 188 426 648 794
7,0 57 230 406 498 548

135
871
597

146() 159()
946
1013
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687

p, /( ),

,

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293
2731473
273
273473
2731073
300
300
296373
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298
2731073
273373
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0,651,30
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93

, /( )
,

10

20

40

80

,
150 200 300 400 600 800 1000

- 15700 23500 11700 2400 430 248 237 237 240 230 220 93

2100 3200 1580 520 332 325 323 317 311 298 284 270
300 2300 5000 3500 1340 410 260 150 99 62 42 31

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28
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t = (255)

, /3

,
/( )


():


1,8
1,25
1,6
2.0
1,6
2,0
2,0
2,4
0,95
1,6

0,72
0,35
0,87 (1,7)
1,7 (2,6)
1,1 (1,9)
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,
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1. .., .. . .: , 1984. 352 .


2. - . .
.: , 1984. 471.
3. Bensoussan A., Lions J.L., Papanicolaou G. Asymptotic Analysis
for Periodic Structures. North Holland, Amsterdam, 1978. 721 p.
4. .., .., .., . G- . // , 1979. . 34. . 65133.
5. .., ..

. , 2003. 376 .
6. .., .. . .: , 1963.
7. ., . . .: , 1964. 104 .
8. . . .: ,
1978. 478 .
9. .., .. .
: - -, 1993. 491 .
10. .., .. . .: , 1953. 679 .
11. .., .., .. . .: , 2009.
258 .
12. - .. // XII . c.
.
. . .: , 2006. . 4147.
13. .., .. . : , 1980. 27 .
14. .. // . : . : , 1991. 237 .
15. : . . .. ,
.. . .: , 1991. 1232.
95

1.
.........................................5
2.

.....................................................................................9
3.
.
................................................27
4. ,

........................................34
5. ,

..................................................................40
6. ,
,
...................49
7.


........74
...........................................................................................93
...........................................................................95

96

96

CONTENT

V.L. Savatorova, A.A. Beliy


Mathematical modeling of heat transfer in heterogeneous media
with periodic structure
In this work we performed mathematical modeling of heat transfer in heterogeneous media with periodic structure. Homogenization procedure was applied to deduce averaged heat conduction equations in medium with effective
properties. Effective material properties were determined in case of materials,
consisting of several components and having heterogeneous structure. Numerical simulations were used in order to find temperature distributions for
several cases of structures with differences in geometry and materials of heterogeneities.
1. HEAT TRANSFER IN HOMOGENEOUS MEDIA ..................................5
2. HOW CAN TEMPERATURE AFFECT HEAT CAPACITY
AND HEAT CONDUCTIVITY ......................................................................9
3. HETEROGENEOUS MEDIA WITH PERIODIC STRUCTURE.
ASYMPTOTICAL AVERAGING TECHNIQUE ........................................27
4. HOMOGENIZATION OF THE EQUATIONS OF CONDUCTIVE
HEAT TRANSFER IN HETEROGENEOUS MEDIUM
WITH PERIODIC STRUCTURE .................................................................34
5. HETEROGENEOUS MEDIUM, COMPOSED OF PERIODICALLY
REPETITIVE LAYERS OF MATERIALS WITH DIFFERENT
GEOMETRY AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES...........................................40
6. HETEROGENEOUS MEDIUM WITH PERIODIC STRUCTURE,
COMPOSED OF MANY ISOLATED CYLINDRICAL INCLUSIONS
LIN UNIFORM MATRIX, SEPRATED FROM MATRIX BY
CONTACT LAYERS ....................................................................................49
7. CONDUCTIVE HEAT TRANSFER WITH TAKING INTO
ACCOUNT, HOW CAN TEMPERATURE AFFECT MATERIAL
COEFFICIENTS OF PARTICULAR COMPONENTS APPENDIX ...........74
REFERENSES...............................................................................................93
97

, ;
- , .

98

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