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(5.1215.128) . . , . . ,
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1.
1.1. vk 0,1c
,
. ,
c 3 105 /
( ,
XIX
).
,

,
, .
- , , = 30 ,
= 500 .
1.2. , , , , . , ,

.

.
, T .
400 .
. ,

.
1.3. ,
.
45 , ,
. ,
,

45 . ,

.
,
. ,
.
1.4.
. 30 ,
60 .

,
? , .
,
.
1.5.
= 1,8 .

(V = 120 /),
r0 = 10 ,
= 3 000 /?
1.6.
,

, ( ) 12 %.
,
V = 180 /, r0 = 15 , = 3 000 /?
1.7. -
1,44 /. 1 200 /,
0,2 .
45 .
,
.
1.8. , -
30 .
,
60 ,
19,9 , 20,1 .

1.

1.9. R

= /4 (. 1).
l, ,
.
A.
1.10.
. 1
( )
= 6 ,
.
,
( ), ,
H 2,6 ,
a = 325 /.
1.11.
A
,
(. 2).
120 .
, ,
1,5 . -
, .
. 2
1.12. , V1 = 360 / V2 = 396 /, c R1 = 2 R2 = 2,2 ,
(. 3).


Ox,
.
L = 5 .
1.13.
. 3
, . 4.


Ox,
. V1 = 324 /,
V2 = 360 / R1 = R2 = 2 .
.
1.14. 2007 .
MAKC-2007
. 4
5 -27
4 -29 , V1 = 360 /
, 18
( 360 ).
,
-27

(
mg , m ).
, , , .
. -27 14,7 , -29
11,3 .
1.15. R .
, b = R
V0 = 10 /? .
1.16. R
, .
b , ,
V0 = 10 /? ?
1.17.
u , (. 5).

,

1.

V0 , ? .
1.18.
u
,
(. 6).
, V0 , ?
.

. 5

. 6

1.19.
V R.
.
,
0,4R? .
.
,
, .
1.20.
,
. ,

2
.
, ,
, ,
, .
?
1.21.
, 2 . ,
6
2 .

10

, ,
,
, ,
.
1.22.

.
k,
> 0.
M .
, p = p p ,
p(t) = p0 (1 t/ )2 , p0 S
> M g , S

k < 1, 0  t/  1 M g (k cos + sin )
p0 S .
?
1.23. L,
. M , S , , p = p p ,
pS > M g . m (m  M )
.
1.24. , , ,
V0 .
, , . . F = kmV , k
,
.
,
. .
1.25. m0 .
,
x
: V (x) = V0 x/ , V0 ,
, k
F = kmV

, L = 0,5V0

1.

11

.
.
1.26. -
V0 = 250 / t = 1
, 2/7
.
,
V0 .
, Y
- , Vy V0 , . . Y m0 g (1 Vy /V0 ), m0
, g 10 /2 ,
4. , .
. (1 t/ )y + ay = f (t) a = const
= const

t




f (t )dt
t a
y(t) = y(0) +
1

.
(1 t / )a +1

(, ,
t/  1 y(t) b2 (t/ )2 + b3 (t/ )3 + ..., ).
1.27. ( , R)

R < R/4
(. 7).
,
,
,
a.
. 7
1.28. , , ,
,
a (a  R).
1.29. R (

12

) R .
a < R R .
l (l  R)
?
1.30. R 1 (
)
R 2 > 1 ,
a < R R .

l (l  R)
?
1.31. , RC  R  RS , , (R) 0,04 (RS /R)1,8 M /3 , RC 1 , RS 8,5
(1 3,086 1016 ).
M ,
,
(R  RC ), ,
(R RC ),
TC 24 , (R = RS ) TS 245 .
1.32.
: n = x Vy y Vx , (x + l) Vx + d y Vy = 0,
n > 0, l > 0 d > 1 .
n, l d.
1.33. : n = x Vy y Vx , d x Vx + (y + l) Vy = 0,
n > 0, l > 0 d > 1 .
n, l d.
1.34.
R = 6 600 L = 100
.
(
) , (

13

1.

)
L = 100 ?
. .
1.35.
, R1 R2 R = R1 R2 = 0,2 . ,

,
,
.
L ,
?
?
. .
1.36.

V0 = 7,7 / L = 2
.

,
. 8
(. 8).
M 5,98 1024 .
. ,

e  1,
4e
.
S 0,5R2 1

1.37.
R = 6 600 .
V = 0,4 /
.
L
,

(. 9)? M 5,98 1024 .
. 9
. ,

e  1,
4e
2
.
S 0,5R 1 +

14

1.38. .
V  V0 , V0
.
,
L.
.
M .
1.39. R

, 2
. , , ,
.
,
,
, E  mM /R, m
, M .
1.40. .
, : M 5,98

1024 , M 7,35 1022 ,


rmin 356 410 ,
rmax 406 700 .
1.41.
.
,

, : M 6,05 1024 , ( ) T 27,32 ,
rmax /rmin 1,141.
1.42. - -612,
. - , - 328,
, -612
1,2 %.
,
( ) rmin = 5RB-612 ,
RB-612 -612.

1.

15

,
, ,
.
.
1.43. R , b 10R.
g .
,

. , ,

 u 2g R .
.
1.44.
.
, = 10 ,
u = 1 000 /,
M0 = 3,5 104 ,
g 0,38g .
1.45. ,
19691972 ., ,

.
, M0 = 104
= 5 ,
= 16 / ,
g 0,165g .
1.46. T
, r .
R (. 10)
.
1.47.
r . 10
R (. 11),
L (L > R + r) .

16

T ,
, ,
.
1.48. ,
, ,
.

100 . 11

.
,
, 2 108 /3 .
, . 3,19 108 , .
25 , 100 .
1.49. 1 , ,
50 .
, ,
10 , 2 0,5 , 10 , .
, .
1.50.
, 23,5 .
m (
)
, .
1.51. 0
M R l
m, .
,
k, .
.

1.

17

1.52. M l m,
.
, v0 .
. k, . .
1.53. M1 R1
.
M2 R2 < R1 a. ,
,
a .
, . ,
0
.
, ( k) .

?
1.54.
F .
, , M1 , M2 , R1 R2 .
01 ,
.
, (
k) . ?
1.55. , l = 30

a = l/ 3 , .
, ,
.
, A (. 12) . 12
.
1.56.
,

l = 50 3 a, .
,
, .

18

, B (. 11) .
1.57. 0
M R l
m, .
,
k, . .
1.58. V .
.
, ,
,
1/3
(. 13).

. 13
,
L.
1.59.
.
.
m. 3 (. 14). ,
. 14
V .
,

? .
1.60. m

L M = 3m.
, a = L/4 .
l
, .
, L3 /6 = M .

1.

19

1.61. m
( () ) L .
,
.
l
, . ,
L3 /3 = M , M = m/3 .
1.62.
R. , v0
(. 15).
0
.
. 15
, , RI ,
M0 .
R,
.
1.63.
(. 16) R L,
. L .
1 2 , . l.

0 . 16
.

. ,
.
1.64. (. 17)
a a L,
. .
,
.

20

l + a,
l. 0
.

.
,
.
1.65. ,
. 17
(),
,
L = 5 000 . V = 900 /
(
) K = 18. m0 = 250 .
u = 450 /.

Q = 99 .
g = 9,78 /2 .
?
1.66.
-
? ( )
K = 12 V = 900 /.
2 . - ,
u = 600 /.
Q = 19 .
g = 9,78 /2 .
1.67. 0,6c, t = 10

( ) . ,
, .
( ) ?

1.

21

1.68. 0,6c, t = 20

( ) .
( ) ,
?
1.69. V1 = V2 = 0,5c ,
b.
.

, ,


L =
139 /8 b (
)?
1.70. V1 = V2 = 0,6c.
.

, ,
L1 ,
L2 = 0,96L1
( )?
1.71. 1 V = 0,6c
2 .
.
?
.
1.72. 1 V = 0,5c
2 .
.
?
.
1.73. ,

2 1 c 0,414c,
V1 = V2 =
- . ,

,
.

?

22

1.74. ,
V1 =

= 0,5c V2 = 0,21 c 0,46c, ,


- . h = 106 .
= 60
.

?
1.75. (, max = v/c)

E m0 , e ?
, ?
1.76.
, E,
E0 e, ,
,
l0 ?
, ?
1.77. L
E .
B?
1.78. T ( ) E
.
B ,
R.
1.79. M = 103 ( ) .
, ,
0 = v0 /c = 0,6, 20 ? M
. .
1.80. M = 2 000 , ,
( ) max =
= 0,6.
( ),
40 .
M

1.

23

.
.
1.81.
m1 ,
m2 m > m1 + m2 , . .
: M1 + M2 M ?
1.82.
m1 m2 , m,
. . : M1 + M2 M1 + M2 + M ?
1.83.
m0 , V0 = 0,8c
, .
V
M0 .
1.84. .
V = 0,6c,
m0 , 45
.
VM ,
M0 .
1.85. , ,
, , p + p p + p + p +
p -.
= v/c = 5/13 ,
, .
E0 = 938 .
1.86.
1 = v1 /c = 12/13 2 = 0,8
p + p p + p + p +
p -
.

,
, , .
E0 = 938 .
1.87. , ,
.
a.
n = 1,25.
, m, .
.

24

1.88. ,
c , ,
M .
, r n = 1,5 .
,
. .
1.89.

C .
. , R,
, L m. l
. M .
,
,

?
1.90.

C . . , R, , L m.
h0
p . .
,

?

l .
1.91. ,
,
= 101 /2 . r0 = 1,55
l0 = 1,4
m.
k = 0,22.
, ,
= l/l0 F F = F0 exp(a2 ),
F  Fmax , a = 50, F0 /mg 16,5.
1.92. , .

1.

25

r0 = 1,2 l0 = 2
m.
k = 0,2.
,
, = l/l0 F F = F0 /(1 + b2 ), F  Fmax , b = 25, F0 /mg = 10.

2.

2.1. 10 /. 100 , 20 .
, 178 .

1,1
. (2/ ) exp(x2 )dx 0,8802.
0

2.2. 5 /. 100 10 .
, 60 .
1
2 
.
exp(x2 )dx 0,8427.

2.3. 1- , .
l = 2 .
3 .
r0 2 .
,
10 % R = 10
?
2.4. 1- , .
l = 1,5 .

2 . r0 2 .
180 .
, R = 5
?
2.5. a
.
(. 18) -

. 2.

27

D (a  D  )
.
(L  ).
, ,
. 18
. p.
2.6. a
.
(. 18) D
H (a  D H  ).

(L  ).

, ,
, .
p, T . m.
2.7. N  1 .
, ,
T ,
R(t) ,
0,1N .
m.
 0,5404
 2
: 4

x exp(x2 )dx 0,1.


0

2.8. N  1 .
, ,
T ,
R(t), ,

10 % N .
m.
 0,8974
 4
: 8 (3 )
x exp(x2 )dx 0,1.
0

2.9. a , .

28

. 2.


.
,
, ,
T = const,
I0 . .
m.
2.10. a , .

.
, ,
, T = const.
I0 .
. i .
2.11. , (), ().
,
,
V = 3 /.
Ts , ,
, .
.
2.12. , , .
. , ( 50 /)

. 1 Q 2,5 /.
,
Ts 400 . .
2.13. ,
, , f = 300 / ,

. 2.

29

? a = 0,5 ,
T = 300 .
.
2.14. , a = 20 ,
T = 20C p = 10 .

f = 200 /.
,
.
2.15. , ,
,
A, N2 d = 1,10
= 3,68
A?
2.16. n, ,
, ,
, N 12
? O2 d = 1,208
A.
2.17. EJ : EJ = Be J(J + 1),
Be , J .
gJ = 2J + 1.
, ,
, ,
T = 300
(J = 1), , Be (Be /k = 2,875 )
.
2.18. T = 300 ,

? Be (Be /k = 2,875 )
(.
2.17).
2.19. .
1,21 ,
100 .
, , .

30

. 2.

2.20. ,

9 (J  10).
EJ = Be J(J + 1), J = 0, 1, 2, ...; gJ = 2J + 1 .
Be /k 2,875 .
2.21. ,

.
1,5 ,
.
, ,
.
2.22. ,
, ,
1 (n  2).
En En = h(n + 0,5),
n = 0, 1, 2, .... = h/k 3 400 .
2.23. ,
2 960 .
, CO2 T = 320
, ? n-
: En k2 (n + 1),
n = 0, 1, 2, ....
gn = (n + 1) .
2.24. CO2
, ,
960 , (.
2.23).
2.25. T
. dn ,

r  r + dr , dn = n0 (r/) exp r 2 /(2) dr .

. 2.

31

, , c ,
.
2.26. N  1 .

, 100 .
: EJ = k J(J + 1),
, J .
gJ = 2J + 1.
2.27. N  1
.

,
.
2.28. V , (,
DCl C2 H2 )

(CV )1 1 (CV )2 2 . T0 .
r ,
.
,
CV 5 %.
, .
2.29. V ,
(,
Kr NO)
(CV )1 1 (CV )2 2 . T0 . r ,
.
,
2 . ,
.
2.30.
.
, , ,
.

, .
, , ,

32

. 2.

,
. p0 = 105 ,
29 / (

), He 4 /. ()
.
2.31.
.
, , ,

Kr .
, .
, , ,
,
. p0 = 105 ,
29 / ( ),
Kr 83,8 /.
()
.
2.32. . 19
(. 19).
2.33. ,

(. 20), = 2/13.
2.34. ,

(. 21), = 2/19.
2.35.
,




C(V ) = R 4 + V 2 /4V02 , V0
, R .
p V .
2.36.
,



C(p) = R 2,5 + 2p2 /p20 , p0 ,
R .
p V .

. 2.

. 20

33

. 21

2.37.
a = 40 /2 .
, L = 5 ,
20C.
, ,
.
2.38. H = 1 , T = 290 K, 15
. ,
a = 10g .

?
2.39.
, , 5 , .
,
, ,
.
,
.
2.40. , , 9 ,
. 3 .
, ,

, . ,
.
2 .. .

34

. 2.

2.41. T0 = 300
. T = 600 .

, ,
T = 300 = 2,27 105 /( ),
T = 600 = 3,83 105 /( )? ,
.
.
2.42. D
80 350 : D = D0 (T /273) , D0 , = 1,92.
O2 T .
2.43. 80 350 , ,
= 0 (T /273) , 0
, = 0,4.

N2 .
2.44.
,
T


 (T0 , T1 ) = 0 1 + a exp g 2 /g02 , g
, a, 0 , g0 .
2.45. , = 0 (1 + /g 2 ), 0 , g
.

?
2.46. ,





k = const T 1 + / T .
, = 0 (1 +
+ /g l ), g ,
l , ?
m.
2.47. ( )
,
, .

. 2.

35


( ) ,
10
? 1,3 1011
, , 8 (3 ) .
13 (1 = 3,0857 1016 ).
2.48.

a = 2 .
= 125 /3 , = 2,5 /3 .
,
A)
( 3,7

,
?
.
, = 1 /
,
(1 ) (
;
).
2.49.

a = 6 . = 0,925.
,

( 3,7
A)
(.
2.48)?
2.50.
,
,
. , -
( ),
.
, - ,
, 2*

36

. 2.

, t 13 4,1 1017 .
T 50 . 1,1
A.
2.51.
, ,
.
, -
( ),
.
, - , , t 13 4,1 1017 . T 50 . 3,0
A.
2.52. ,
t1 = 17C p1 = 745 . , , ,
Re = U a/ = 103 (U )
p1 = 200 . .
p2
t2 = 27C
p2 = 760 . .
0 (T /T0 ) , = 0,8, 0 1,812 105 ,
T0 = 293 .
.
2.53. , , ,
Re = U a/  5.
,
M 8 /3 a = 5 . ( 1,25 /3 )
, 293  T  303 : 0 exp {(W/k)(1/T 1/T0 )},
W 1,106 1019 , 0 0,60 , T0 = 303 .
2.54. .

. 2.

37

0,5 .
p = 1 . .
, , ,
,
t = 15C 1,79 105 /( ),


dU
i+1
(1) A
, i = 1 i = 2
dY W
, A = 1 , ,
( : 2/c, , c


dU

),
dY

i- .
2.55. , , p = 1 . .
0,5 .
, ,
,

p = 1 , k = 2,54 102 /( K)
.


dT
(1)i+1
, i = 1 i = 2
dY W
, A = 0,75 ,
,
( : = 8k/ [( + 1)ccV ],
, , c

,
dT
cV ),

dY

i- .
27C.
2.56. (. 22)
1 2.
, ,
p1 .
2.57. (. 23)
1 2. -

38

. 2.

,
.

. 22

. 23

2.58. CV ,
, ,

. .
.
,
,
. 2
.
. ,
,
. 5,5 %
.

. .
2.59. (N > 3,
)
,

. .
.
,
,
.
.
,

. 2.

39

.
5,47 % .
. .
2.60.
p.
T1 T2 .
.
2.61.

. n11 ,
,

.
.
2.62. ,
,
R1 R2 , ,
T1 T2 .


1
d 1
= (JQ )
,
= JQ
JQ

T
dr T
dT
= k
, dr

k .
2.63. , , ,

R1 R2 , T1 T2
.


1
d 1
= JQ
= (JQ )
,
JQ

T
dr T
dT
= k
, dr

k .
2.64.
R1 R2
L (R1  L) T0 p0 . T1 < T0 , ,
.

40

. 2.

R = R2 R1  R1 , .
.
2.65. R1 R2
T0 . p .
T2 < T0 , T1 > T0 .
R = R2 R1  R1 , .
.
2.66. , , 1 : 2. 1 ,
.
. , 2 .
,
.
, , ,
.
2.67. , , 1 : 3. ,
, 1 .
3
. ,
.
, , ,
.
2.68.
.
1 ,

1 = 0, 2 = ( )
3 = 2, . T0 . , .
.

, = 2kT0 .

. 2.

41

2.69.
. ,

1 = 0, 2 = , 3 = 2 4 = 3 (
), .
T0 . , .
.

, = kT0 .
2.70.
1 T0 = 200 .

1 : 2.
,
.
,
, 50 ,
.
2.71.
1 T0 = 300 .

1 : 3.
,
.
,
, 50 ,
.
2.72. V = 25
100 .
:
, ,

12

6 

, =
- (r  ), (r) = 4
r

= 124 , = 3,42
A,
-- (a = 1,1361 4 /2 ).
27C.
2.73. V = 25
20 .
, . :
, -

42

. 2.

((r) = , r < ; (r) =


, r > ), = 69 ,
r
k
, Ne = 20,17 /,
= 3,089 A
-- (a = 0,0211 4 /2 ).
27C.
2.74.
.
,
,
--, g .
2.75.
.
,
,
-:

RT
B
B
p=
1 + 2 + 32 + ... ,
V

B2 , B3 , ... , .
g .
2.76. (V , T ) ,
CV .
: p =

RT
a

, a b ,
V b
TV 2

i .
2.77. V (T ) ,
. :

p=

RT
a

,
V b
T V (V + b)

a b , i .
2.78. V1 V2

--. T1 , T2 .
.
, , .
-- , a = 0 b = 0.
2.79. V1 V2 --.
p1 , p2 .
.
, , .
-- , a = 0 b = 0.

. 2.

43

2.80. --, ,
,

?
s = 41,95 /( ). -- a = 0,02484 4 /2 , b = 26,635 3 /.
T0 = 273,15 p0 = 1,01325 105 .
2.81. --,
, 1 (p0 = 1,01325 105 , T0 = 273,15 )
T = 65 . 1
s = 47,68 /. --
a = 0,02484 4 /2 , b = 26,635 3 /.
2.82.
pV T , --,
, :


B+p
v = v0 1 C ln
,
B + p0

v ( /), p ; T ;
v0 , p0 , B , C .

p = 5 108 t = 50C
(C = 0,3678, p0 = 300 , B(50 ) = 142 ),
-- (T = 126,25 , p =
= 3,399 ) .
. V b -- .
2.83.
p = 500 t = 100C :


B+p
v = v0 1 C ln
,
B + p0

v (3 /), C = 0,3678, B(100 ) = 1,610

108 , p0 = 3 108 , --
(T = 150,65 , p = 4,86 )
.
. V b --
.
2.84. V0
1 : 2. ,

44

. 2.



: P + a/T (V + c)2 (V b) = RT ,
.
, , , ?
T0 . a, b c .
2.85. CV ,
 
, P + a/T V 2 (V b) = RT , T .
a b .
2.86. . V0 = 10
t = 100C.
, .
p0 = 2 p1 = 4 ,
V1 = 4 .
,
, q 2 260 /.
2.87. . t = 100C p0 = 4
. ,
.
p1 = 2 , V0 = 5 V1 = 12 .

, ,
,
. q 2 260 /.
2.88. m = 1,35
A = 1 2 . = 0,05
.. = 0,05 .
T = 2 .

- ,
p = 750 . .,
t0 = 100C p0 = 760 . . q 2 260 /?
.
2.89. m = 2
A = 1 2 . = 0,1 .

. 2.

45

T = 2 , .
,
, p = 745 . ., t0 = 100C
p0 = 760 . . q 2 260 /?
.
2.90. 100-
L = 2 . f = 50 %,
t = 0C, p = 750 . . t = 0C p0 6,1 102 , q 2 500 /
.
p, .
t = 15C. 29 /.
2.91.
(t = 30C),
, , ,
28,5C, p = 745 .
., f = 50 %.
t = 28,5C p0 3,89 103 . q 2 434 /
.
29 /.
2.92. t0 = 15C ( f 74 %).
() , (H  11 ) T T0 (1 0,02259 H), H , T K,
0 . p0 = 1,01325 105 ,
15C q 2,4658 106 /. H = 1 ,
-
, . 0,07443 /.
, ,
?
2.93. H = 1,5 .

46

. 2.

tH = 10C,
t0 = 20C. ,
, d = 0,5 .
(H  11 ) . . 0 (20 H)/(20 + H), H , 0 H = 0,

, ,

. , q 2,4540 106 /,
10C 0,07422 /.
. H/20 .
2.94.
,
.
T r = 2,5 ,
( f = 110 %)?
tH = 7C
: q 2,48 103 /,
75 /.
.
2.95.
R = 0,023 .
,
. h = 20 . ,
,
.
,
,
pa = 1,013 105 . ,
100C q 2,26 103 /,
= 59 /.
.
,
.
2.96. , =
= 50 % (N = 0,5 ) ,
(r = 1 ) -

. 2.

47

? ,
, ,
. , pa = 733 . . 99C,
q 2,26 /.
2.97. ,
, R = 1 . ,
, .
,
,
(t = 20C) = 40 /,
d
= 0,10 /( K).

dT

2.98. 0,2 T0 = 2C, ,


.
, , ?
(T ) = 0
a(T T0 ), 0 75,65 /, a 0,143 /( );
3
c
p 4,212 /( ), 10
3
/ . , ( )
, k 0,56 /( ).
2.99. m = 5 1010 T0 = 25C
.
,
,
. (T ) = 0 a(T T0 ), 0 465 /, a 0,12 /( );
c
p 137 /( ),
13,55 103 /3 . , ( )
, k 8,3 /( ).
2.100. 1,5 /, , , Re = 200.
, ,
17C?
2.101. .
.

48

. 2.

,
, ,
, ,
2 . 20 % .
2.102. v
, s
.
.
.
2.103. ,
M = 2.
,
, ,
= (T /T ) , T
, = 0,685.
2.104. ,
M = 2.
,

, ,
k = k (T /T ) , k T
, 0,8.
2.105. - (. 24)
1, 2 3.
(

q = u2 /2) (
,
. 24
) (

).

. 2.

49

, M = 0,3,
D2
D1 .
2.106. -
(. ) 1,
2 3.
( , )
( , ,
).
1 ( p 0,9 105 ), D1 = 1 ,
1,5 . F = 2 104 H.

. u2 /2
.
2.107. (. 25): 12 ;
23 ; 34 ; 45
; 51

.


. 25
M = 0,5,
, ,

. n = 10 .
2.108. : 12
; 23 ; 34

. 26
; 41 (. 26).

50

. 2.

, M
25 %? , ,
.
n = 4 .

3.
3.1. 4q +q ,
d . .
3.2. R, , , d
.
, d R, .

. 27

3.3. .
:
) ,
) .
3.4.

S , d  S ,
Q. d/3
, = Q/3S .
,
.
3.5.
S ,
d  S Q 2Q,
= 0 (x/d)2 , 0 = 3Q/d S .
, , .

52

3.6. (r)
E
:
)
) (E r).
3.7. , C , d Q+ Q , x v0 .
?
3.8. () .
()
. = kx4/3 ,
x .
,
(x) E(x) . - (
).
3.9. d . ,
= E
+ .
i
E(x), , E >

+ d2
.
20

3.10. ,
R1 < R2 < R3 . Q ,
,
+ .

E(r) (r) ,
i .
3.11. r Q
Pe .
,
,
) -;
) ?
3.12.
q .
, d ; ,
v = 0.

3.

53

3.13. e ,
,
? ?
3.14. .
. ?
3.15. a .
E
,
.
3.16.
,
? = 4 1028 . CGSE 3 ,
92e. , ().
3.17. q ,
m, l
.
, :
,
,
.
3.18.
: Q+
a. Q
a < r < 2a.
.
3.19. , q + ,
, r .
.
.
E ,
? .
3.20. R
r (r  R)
, q .
.
P .
3.21. (1872),
l = 6 z d = 2 . 0C
1
0 = (1/7) 103 ( ) .

54

t = 1 600C.
= 2 104 K1 .
3.22. , .
.

. 28

3.23. (. 28), ,
> , (, )
< . 1 2

+
0 0 .
j.
.
3.24.
d = 1 ,
I = 30 .
Ag = 6,14 107 ( )1

v 107 /, Le
a.
Ag = 10,5 /3 .
3.25. Q0 C R.

Q2 /2C ?
, R
; ,
( = 108 , = 4); 50 %-
= 0,54 ( )1 , = 10)?
3.26.
, .

3.

55

,

?
3.27. ,
1 = 109 ( )1 2 = 1012 ( )1
.
q
, I =
= 1 1 2.
3.28. n . ,
qi i .
, ,
i ?
3.29. 4,45 105 ,
2,35 105 .

.
3.30. , . 29.
A B ( ).
.

. 29

3.31.
. a,
d  a.
?
? , 1 ,

56

, 2 (. 30). .

. 30

. 31

3.32. ,
, , . .,
(. 31).
Rx
R0
: Rx = R0 Rx .
, G , , . . G, , Rx , , . . R1 = R2
(R1 + R2 = const). ,
? ?
3.33.
r (. . 32).
, I , . 32
. .
3.34. ()
, 0 = /12 (. . 33,
L = 0,2 , r1 = 10 , r2 = 30 ). -

3.

57

= cr 2
(c = 102 ( 3 )1 ). , , I0 = 20 .
V0 ,
R, E j N .

. 33

3.35.
( L = 20 , a = 0,5 ), 1
= cr 2 , c = 107
.
3
I = 10 .
E j , V0 , R .
3.36. e v .

, a; : t = 0
.
3.37. : ) l ) R,
Q, ,
.
.
3.38. a, h  a, Q
.
.
3.39. a
. Q.
r  a,
: ) , )
.
?

58

3.40. ,
a ,
I .
r  a. a = 1 , I0 = 1 , r = 1 .
.
3.41. a B0 .
.
I .
3.42. I a
, h  a.
.
3.43.
h = 5 R = 10 m = 1 . I .
I (
). ?
3.44. h
a  h
I .
, .
3.45. (, )
a b, a
c,
(. 34). I1 I2 .
.
3.46.
. 34
a b (a < b) l,
B0 , I .
,
?
3.47. l, B0 , .
, I .

.
3.48.
.
,
Q = 5
, N = 20 -

3.

59

.
m, B = 0,5 (1 = 104 )
.
3.49. a b,
B, . I B ( B
a).
p,
, a =
= 1 , I = 100 , B = 103 .
3.50.
a ( ) =
= 1 /3
. 35
= 0,2 1 1 (. 35). V = 30 ,
B = 98 . : a = 2 ,
b = 20 .
.
3.51.

v .
. d, ,
, I , .
, v = 1 /,
. 36
= 107 /2 , I = 10 .
3.52. R (. 36)
b  R.
, I . r  R.
3.53. a
v .

60


,
B = B0 (r/a) , B0 , ,
r < a. ,
.
3.54. j = (0, j0 , 0),
0 < r < a, . . .
.
3.55. I
B0 , . .
3.56.
a b  a, l, .
Im ,
,
[].
a = 1 , b = 1 , l = 1 , [] = 98 /2 .
3.57. 2a = 10 I ,
. p = 105 .
I , .
3.58. , a b,
, . a , R, n.
3.59.
I1 = 10 a b = 10
6,4 2 I2 = 1
c = 1 .

, (. 37).
3.60.
. 37

b, a .

4.
4.1. 1 .
J2 LC
1 ,
, R2 . :
E = 12 , R1 = 20 , r = 5 , R2 = 10 , L = 10 , C = 1
(. 38).

. 38

4.2. (m = 15 ,
R = 15 ), (l = 10 )
, /2, .

,

CD = 1/2 ( ).
4.3. m = 103
v
- , - . 39
: y0 (x) = h sin(2x/),
h = 0,05 , = 100 (. 39).
y(t),
k = 105 / , ,

62

. ?
,
= 5 ?
4.4. . .
(1899 .) .
( p = 1 )
( G = 107 /) ,
.
, .
( ) , ,
( I = 108 2 )
min = 0,01 . (T = 300 ).
4.5. R, r  R,
, N ,
J(t) = J0 cos t (J0 , ). h

a  h, .
,
, J(t) ,

, x0 .
4.6.
. b
3b/4 a,
q , , E = 3 106 /.
B0 eit .
B0 ,
xm  b. : b = 10 , a = 1 , xm = 102 ,
= 2 105 /( ).
4.7. ( = const) a
m, l k, ,
, ,
( 0 , B0 ).

(x  l) ( , ).
4.8. h = 1 , k = 4,9 /, , m = 5 = 4 /3 , = 200. = 0,5 , T = 1 c J0 .
, Q = 100.

4.

63

.
4.9.
. m = 104 , l = 100 , a = 10 ,
;
() .
( )
q = 1400 /2 , . 0 = 15 .
,
.
4.10. . R, M Q .
, m,
q + , V1 .
. . : R = 0,1 ,
Q = 108 , q + = 4,5 1010 , m = 105 , M  m.
4.11.

- (1 = 0,63 ). ,
= 5,7 . (2 = 0,49 ).
.
,
= 3,15 108 .
4.12. ,
h = 135 ,
( D = 10 , F = 30 ). ,
.
?
. d = 12 , N = 103 .
= 0,63 .
4.13. F = 50
( = 0,63 )
= 102 N = 100 (. 40). (. 40, a),
3
h = 4 . :
,

64

(. 40, ). , -
, .

.

. 40

4.14.

( = 10 ).
() . . n0 ( = 10 ) = 1,0005.
4.15. , . T0 = 290
T = 300 . ( )
.
.
L = 10
n0 = 1,0003, .
.
4.16.
0 = 300 a = 3
( b = 1,5 ),
. . ,
.
, ? , ,

4.

65

= 3 . H = 2 .
300 /.
:

 2 1011 2 2 / ,
.

. 41

4.17. ( v = 4 /) D = 3,3 ,
H = 2 J0 . h = 6 ,
45 (. 41).
, . ( 1 )
, ?
4.18. , a = 1
. ( 2002 .
30 /).

D = 1 ( = 0,1 ), (
x 100 . ),
Wmin = 1012 . (),
Re = 0,5.
4.19.
a a,
1 2  1 .
q0 , ( ,
. 42).
3 .. .

66

,
m  /2.
J .
4.20.
D = 2 f0 = 2 ,
10 %.
(. . 43).

. 42

. 43

(H = 20 )
1 = 1 /3 v1 = 1 /
2 = 5 /3 v2 = 4 /.
, , .
4.21. N
- .
= 33 .

, , 60 +60
. , R = 1
L = 100 ,
.
4.22. , l = 10 (. 44),
(
),

4.

67

. 44

, , .
,
,
, ,
.
,
, R = 2 000 ,
Q = 2 108 /2 ,
?
4.23.
S P , P S .
P ,
S , S ?
4.24.
.
,
. . = 10 100 .
R0 = 1 , R0 = 1400 , R = 380 000 ,
ne = 3 105 3 .
4.25. J0 ,
1500 /,
r = 5,025.

. :
= 0,78 /3 , E = 1,15 1011 /2 .
.
4.26.
= 1010 c, = 0,6 .
( d,
b, Nmin ), 3*

68

.
( ).
4.27. ,
d = 1 , 0 = (10 1)
1 (N0 = 50 /), 45 ( = 0 )
(. . 115 ).

2?
4.28. H

,
V = g H .

. ,
4 ?
4.29. , S1 < S2 < S3 (. 45),
.

. 45

S2
, ,
S1 = 1 2 , S2 = 4 2 , = 3,3 105 .
4.30. ABCD n = 1,5 ( ) (. 46). AB CD ,
R = 0,95. h = 8 , d = 1 .
AD = 60
J0 = 0,5 .

.
( , . .).

4.

69

. 46

4.31. ( ) ,
h = 1 . ,
= 30 ,
1/24 .
[1 ].
4.32. ( = 3) = 1 = 60
J0 (/2 ). (
) a  .
, , y .
4.33. h
, ( ) () .
T . , 1

T1 , T1 .

2 T2 T2
.
.
4.34. , = 1,5.
, .
4.35. ,
.
() (. 47),
, . .
x
, ? 0 = 3 109 , 72 34

70

L = 1 ,
ne = 1018 3 .

. 47

4.36. 1 = 30 2 = 33 . 7,2 3,4 .


, . ?
4.37. . 72 34 2 , 0 = 3000 ,
(. 48). ,
( E0 = 3 108 /).

. 48

,
107 ( ).
4.38. 0 = 10
. 49
,
a = 2,3 (. 49). .
.

4.

71

4.39. , ,
R,
S ,
, .
, h , h .
(/), Ag (/3 ).
4.40. T (1200 /),
, 1
2 (  ). . ,
60 45 10.
T , .
.
4.41. , ,
, Wmin = 1 ,
D = 10 .
T = 37C
T = 27C. (
.)
S = 0,6 2 .
4.42. 1965 . ,
3 .
?

, 300 ,
?
, D = 6 , 7
= 7 ?
4.43. b c = 2 0,15 2
( , . 50)
T = 1200 .
h = 0,16 a = 10 n = 1010 3 .
4.44. , T
() , l  RC
= kl = 7,5 104 ( ,

72

. 50

k ),

, (R = 9 108 , R = 6,4 106 ,
R = 1,5 1011 , T = 6 103 ).
4.45. , ,
a = 0,01 n = 1012 1/3
, n0 = 1,00028
T = 288 p = 1 .
4.46. ,
( B0 = 108 ), -
.
, 3 , 0 = 105 1 ,
a = 10 , = 45 . , = 1017 /3 . , ? , = 11,7 ,
B = 5 105 ,
= 5,52 103 /3 , a = 6400 .

5. , ,

5.1. 40
20 Ca ,
.
,
.
.
5.2. 0,75 .
, .
5.3. 24,5 .
,
.
5.4.
A,
= 1,178
, ( ).
.
5.5.
, 1 , .
,
, ,
1 1/3 4 : 9,
.
5.6.
,
c R1 =
= 13
A R2 = 23
A.
5.7. .
5.8.
( ).
5.9. .
5.10. .
5.11. ,
, ( (Mu) ).

74

5.12. , ,
.
5.13. , , R1 = 20aB R2 = 40aB .
5.14. , 0,14c
, a = 25aB ,
, , .
.
,

.
5.15. 31 H .
,
32 He.
, .
5.16. H2 HD , , 4,48 4,52 .
MuH (Mu ,
).
5.17. , H2 D2 ,
, 4,48 4,56 ,
Mu2 .
5.18. a E , (x) = Cx(a x),
0  x  a (C ); (x) = 0, x < 0; x > a.
E .
5.19. He+ , ,
(r) = C exp(r2 ).
.
5.20. , I .
5.21.
a.
U =

1 h2
.
50 ma2

, .

5. , ,

75

5.22. E = 1,5 104 2 Eat


L = 150aB , a a = 100aB 100aB
. .
, .
5.23. = 24,5 .

R = 0,1aB .
5.24. ,
H . , H ,
U = 1 , a = 1 .
5.25. .
,
,
,
.
5.26. ( +e),
.
,
, ,
me = 0,1m mh = 1,5m (m ), = 10.
5.27. , , , me = 0,1m
mh = 1,5m (m )
= 10.
5.28. CsI l = 3,3
A
d = 6 .
U = 1 . CsI p = 65 (1 = 1018 . ).
5.29. , HCl ,

2

1

U (r) = 2E

,
2

HCl
l = 10.
A.
HCl E = 4,62 , = 1,27

76

5.30.
, M = 2 1030 , B = 25 ,
He+ .
, ,
.
5.31.


1+i
=C
2 3i
(C ).

x .
5.32. 5.31
y
.
5.33. , 5.31,
z
.
5.34. , 1,65 106
,
?
5.35. .
, T = 300 . R = 25aB L = 125aB .
5.36.
D = 20aB L = 40aB ,
.
5.37. HeH :
HeH He + H,
HeH He + H .
( A A,
).
5.38. ,
T =
= 600 .
a = 1,4aB .

5. , ,

77

5.39. T = 1200 .
a = 1,4aB .
5.40.
= 0,004.
- .
5.41. , -,

12
6 

U (r) = 4E

,
r

. E =
= 0,01 , = 3,41
A.
5.42. , HCl ,

2

1

U (r) = 2E

,
2

HCl, E =
= 4,62 , = 1,27
A.
5.43. , H2
-,

12
6 

U (r) = E

,
r

E = 4,62 , = 1,25
A,
, .
5.44. . = 2,2 106 .
5.45.
+
+
c e . c - ,
2
13
.
, 2465 / 3 10
.
5.46.
- . + (1777) (105) 3 1013
2 106 ( /c2 ).
.
5.47. LiH E1 = 2,429 ,
LiD E2 = 2,451 ,
3aB . ,

78


En
1

U (r) =

, n1 n r
n
n.
5.48.

, r < ,
U (r) = E ,  r  + a,

0, r > + a,
Ne2 . Ne =
= 2,82
A, a = 0,69
A, E = 3,1 103 .
5.49. ,

, r < ,
U (r) = E ,  r  + a,

0, r > + a,

A, a = 0,63
A, E = 8,8 104 ,
= 2,56
.
5.50. 1993 .
4 He2 4 He.
,

, r < ,
U (r) = E ,  r  + a,

0, r > + a,
E = 10,9 , a = a0 ,
4 He2 . a a0 ,
1 ?
5.51. 4 He2 4 He. ,
4 He3 He .
,

, r < ,
U (r) = E ,  r  + a,

0, r > + a,
, E
A.
a = 1,65
5.52. E1 = 4,433 HCl
E2 = 4,485 DCl, HCl, , -

5. , ,

79

(. 5.29 5.42).
5.53. , -,

12
6 

U (r) = 4E

,
r

A, E = 0,02 ).
Xe2 . ( Xe = 3,97
5.54. , HCl
,

2

1

U (r) = 2E

,
2

l = 5.
HCl E = 4,62 , = 1,27
A.
5.55.
91+
238
.
92 U
.
5.56. ,

.
5.57. .

- 166
68 Er? .
5.58. : 1)
2)
.
5.59.
237
92+
Np
, ?
93
5.60. U1 = 24,5 .
.
5.61. Ea =
= 0,75 .
,
.
5.62. .
1,5 .
.

80

5.63. .
2,5 .
.
5.64. , a.
,
b = 0,1a,
, , ,
.
5.65.
R = 103 aB .
5.66. HF DF E1 = 5,880 E2 = 5,935 .
,
,

U (r) = 2E


2
1
2

,
r


HF.
5.67.
.
,

, , , .
5.68. HI (E1 = 3,059 ) DI
(E2 = 3,100 ), HI, , -.
5.69.
R = 30aB .

Eat = e/a2B .
5.70.
.
?

5. , ,

81

5.71.
9
E = Eat :
8

U (x) =

0,
Eat aB
(x) +
2
Eat ,

x < 0,
x  0.

5.72. ,


1, |v|  vat ,
dv
dn = n0
vat
0, |v| > vat
(n, n0 ), x < 0,
x = 0,
U (x) = Eat aB (x).
, x > 0.
aB , vat , Eat , .
5.73. ,


F () =

( iLz )() ( + iLz ) ()d

(Lz z ),
z :


h
L2z 2  .
2

2 = ( )2 = 2 = 0; L2z = (Lz Lz )2 = L2z


Lz = 0.
5.74.
- ( E 50 ) . E ,
( T = 2,7 )
-.
5.75. He+

.
= 70
A.
.

82

5.76. E =

1
= Eat :
2

E a
U (x) = at B (x) +
2

0,

x<0

3
2

x>0

Eat ,


.

5.77. 7 Li

B = (0, 0, Bz ),

Bz (r) = B0 +

b 2
r
2a2

(a = 0,1 , b = 4,5 ).
F = 2, MF = 2
(F , MF
). 7 Li i = 3/2.
5.78. - 23 Na

B = (0, 0, Bz ),

Bz (r) = B0 +

b 2
r
2a2

(a = 0,1 , b = 4,5 ).
( )
23 Na F = 1, MF = 1
. 23 Na i = 3/2. F , MF .
5.79. jz
z ,


 i
3e cos 2
() = C i
e
sin 3
(C ). jz .
5.80. , B = Bat ,
z , x,
+h/2.

Bat
B(t) =
. Bat = 12,4 , = tat /2 , tat
2
1 + (t/ )

, .
5.81.
r
-:

12
6 

U (r) = 4E

5. , ,

83

(E = 8,8 104 , = 2,56


A). , He2 ,
.

,
?
5.82. , (
= 671 ),
( A = 1,86 )
.
5.83. R = 137aB
B = 55 ; .

.
5.84. 1
n = 1016 3 E = Eat ,
4
U (x) = 2Eat aB (x).
5.85.
1
n = 1017 3 E = Eat ,
4
U (x) = Eat aB (x).
5.86. , 10 , .
,
?
.
5.87. ,
?
, .
5.88. 1967 . ,
133 Cs 9 192 631 770 6S1/2 (F = 4)
6S1/2 (F = 3).
,
( )
20 % ?
5.89. ,
.
M = 2 1030 R = 7 105 .
5.90. Li2+

84

n = 5 n = 4
(n ).
,
a=4
A?
82+
5.91. 209
.
83 Bi
,
82+
21 . 209
,
83 Bi
= 2,6n (n ),
i = 9/2. p = 2,79n .
5.92.
DH+
:
+
DH+
D + H ,
+
DH+
D + H .

A , .
5.93. , , C60
R0 = 3,5
A,
,
C60 ( H@C60 ).
 C-H-

, U (r) = 2E 1/2(/r)2 /r , E = 3,83 ,
= 1,12
A.
5.94. X ,
2.
2
,
1,0571 : 1, 1 : 0,1.
X
. ? ?
5.95. 9 Li E 200 .

9 Li.
5.96. , ,
, ,
,
. mp = 938 /2 .

5. , ,

85

5.97. ,
, u- d-,
,
.
X(uuuudd) B = 2
.
5.98. ,
, ,

6

Li + e 6 He + e .

6 He 6 Li M = 2,7 /c2 .
5.99.

3

He + e 3 H + e ?

, .
3 H 3 He M = 0,8 /c2 .
5.100. (958)- -.
E - -
- ?
5.101.
0c (2704)- .
pp-.
0c - .
5.102. : Ds , Bc+ , 0b , +
cb ,
+
cc ,
.
bb
5.103. , :
a) dsc, b) uub, c) ssc, d) scb.
5.104. , , .
= 2 106 c-
mc = 1,8 /c2 , Ds+ -.
5.105. e+ e -
, .

, m = 105 /c2
2 106 , c- mc = 1,8 /c2 .
5.106. -
, D0 -.

86


, 2 106 , b-
mb 5 /c2 , |Vab | =
= 0,05.
5.107. , t t U (r) = q 2 /r ,
t- 178 / 2 , tt
t-, q 2 tt.
5.108. 7 Li, T = 5
7 Li 6 Li , , C7 = 8,4 / C6 = 7,4 / .
5.109. ,
, a, U (a) a
(  1), , P1 = 200
P2 = 1,8 .
5.110. ,
T = 0 , a, U (a) a (  1),

= u2 /a
P2 = 1,6 , P1 = 0,1
8 %.
5.111. , , a U (a) a (  1), ,

P1 = 250 P2 = 1 .
.
5.112. T1 = 100
P1 = 400
P2 = 1,6 .
T2 . ,

U (r) r (  1).
5.113. P1 = 250 P2 = 1 .
, U (r) r
(  1), ,
.

5. , ,

87

5.114. , P1 = 200
P2 = 1,8 . ,
a U (a) a (  1).
5.115. ,
m .
,
, a, U (a)
a (  1), P2 =
= 1 , P1 = 500
T1 = 2000 .
5.116.
E0 = 1
a, ,
,
17

E1 (k) = E0 cos(kz a) E0 ,
4


9
2 kz a
E0 .
E2 (k) = 3E0 sin
2

5.117. a,
,

E1 (k) = E0 cos(kz a) 2,5E0 ,


k a
E2 (k) = 2E0 sin2 z 2,5E0 .
2

E0 = 1 .
5.118. ,
-,

12
6 

U (r) = 4E

,
r

E = 0,0137 , = 3,60
A, ,
(

, 8/3 )
.

88

5.119. ,

,



U (r) = 2E

1
2

,
r


20 Ne (E = 0,0031 ,
A) 131 Xe (E = 0,0196 , = 3,97
A)
= 2,82
.
5.120. .
,
, l l
(l = 1, 2, 3, ...) l = 0 e(l1) .
a, M .
5.121.
D-
.
.
B0 = 1,55 .
,
B = 1,5B0 Q = 5 104 ?
5.122. , vn = 50 /,
. B1 = 1
. a = 0,02 ,
B2 = 500 B1 .
,
B2 .
5.123. E = 0,5 D = 1,5
L = 100 .

.
5.124. E =
= 2,7 ,
.

, a a L =
= 10
A 10
A 1 .

5. , ,

89

5.125.
(CH2 )n , ,
0 = 10 .
, l0 = 3
A.
5.126. H2 O.
-
.
5.127.
DHO.
- .
5.128. M = 0,1 H = 1 .

, .


1.
(c v )T 2
4 520 . 4,27 1019 .
8 sin
c2 T 2
1.2. R
1,176 1011 0,786 ..
8L cos

1.3. = = 2.

1.1. L

,
.

= 3. . 1.3.

V V
V

12 %.
1.5. =
V
2r0

1.4.

1.6. 1,8 .
vh
v

= 4,5 , d1 =

= 19,9 , d2 =
+
=
1.7. R =
n

= 20,1 , = d1 d1 , n .


s1 + s2
D
n
h = 60 , v =
= (s1 + s2 ) = 0,72 /.
1.8. D =
s2 s1

1.9. . l sin R cos


, =
. A
R

VA = (l sin + R cos ) + R = 2l sin , . A


,
, ,

A:


2
2
WA = i 2 (l sin + R cos ) +
2R +

R
cos

R sin =

 2


2
2
i (3l R) + R + j R
2 /2 , j

, i .
1.10. , S ,
t (. 51).
a
1
a
, : sin =
=
, cos =
. :
M=

1
1 (a /H)2

1,5.

91

1.

. 51


sin
1.11. = arcsin
24,7 , M = V /a
M
. . 1.10.
1.12. , , (i , j , k ),
(i, j, k)
(i i , i k )
.
:


L R2

i + V21 ,
V2 = V2 i = V1 i + [ 1 r ] + V21 = V1
R1
 2
 2
V2
V1
k=
k 12 r + 2[ 1 V21 ] + W21 ,
W2 =

1 =

R2

V1
R1

R1

j, r = (L R1 R2 )k , V21 W21

,
. :


L R2
V21 =
V1 + V2 i = (900 /)i = (250 /)i ,
R1
 



W21 =

R2

1.13.

W21

V1
V
2
R1
R2

V12
L
R12

V1
V
2
R1
R2

k = (12,5 / )k .
2

i = (36 /)i ,
V21 = R2
 2

 2
 2
V2
V21
V1 R2
V1 V2

k+
k
k = (0,05 /c2 )k .
=

2
=
2
R2

R1

R1

R2

92

(i , j , k ) . V21 W21 .
(i, j, k)
(i i , i k )
(. 1.12).
1.14.
-27 
V 104 + (2 30/18)2 100 0,5 /. ,

13 .

2
2
30
nmax 1 +
1,4.
18

9,81

,
, :

L3 : L2 : L1 = (V3 /V1 ) : (V2 /V1 ) : 1 1,0055 : 1,0014 : 1.


1.15. (. 52) , sin 2 =

b
=
2R

= 0,5, 1 = , 2 = , V1 = V0 sin 2 = V0 = 5 /, V2 = V0 cos 2 8,66


3
6
2
/.

. 52

1.16. 1 = , 2 = , V1 = V0 sin 2 8,66 /, b = 2R sin 2 = 3 R


6
3
(. 1.15).
1.17. : 
V = V0 cos , V = V0 sin +
+ 4u, tg =

V
4u
= tg +
,V =
V
V0 cos

V02 + 8uV0 sin + 16u2 .

1.18. : V= V0 cos , V =


V
2u
V0 sin 2u, tg = = tg +
, V = V02 + 4uV0 sin + 4u2 .
V

V0 cos

1.19. .
L = (V 2 /g )| sin 4| = 0,5376V 2 /g , sin = 1 h/R = 0,6.

93

1.
(t
)1

S
1.20. 1 =
S2

V1 dt

0
(t
)2


0

V2

dt

(V )1
=
(V )2

2
= 2, k1 = k2 .


.
, ,

dV
= 1 V 2,
dt

, t = t / V = V /V

2
, V = mg /kD ,
k
(
2
2
), F = kD
(V ) , = V /g . k1 = k2
: (V )1 = 2 (V )2 , 
1 = 2 D1 = 2D2 .

1
m1
6
=
= 6 2.
1.21. . 1.20:
2
m2
 
2
M g (k cos +sin )
2
1.22. Lmax = 0,5g (k cos +sin )
1
+
p0 S





2


1
M g (k cos +sin )
M g (k cos + sin )
+
+
p0 S 2 3 4
p0 S

6M

p0 S

(. 1.23).
1.23. u2 = 2p,
:
dV
2pS
= g (k cos + sin ) +
,

dt
M 2p S t


, 0  t  m / 2p S .
,
,
 



m
2p
m

Vmax = g (k cos + sin ) 


ln 1 ,

2p S

2
m
, L = 0,5g (k cos +sin ) 
+
2p S



m
m
m
m
+ 1 ln 1 . +
S
M
M
M
 2 
Vmax
(k cos + sin ).
L = L +
1.24. L = V0 /k.
1.25. k = 2/ .

2g

94

1.26. :

(1 t)

dV
= (t V ),
dt

t = t/ , = m0 / = 3,5 , V = Vy /V0
.
,



(1 t) (1 t)
2
2

V =
t 1+
1
t + ... ,
( 1)

= g /V0 0,5. V 0,02 (V


1,4 /),
3
t

1 (1 t)+1
1 0,5t
t
H = Vy dt = V0

t V0

2
0

0,5 .

1.27. Vmin

( 1)

[() 1]

12


3
GaRC
=4
, G .
2
2

1.28. hmax

3(R a )
2a
.
3
R3 /RC
1

1.29.
, . .


4
R3
R
.
gmax =
2
(R a)

. g = 4a/3.
,



3l
1
Ra
T = T Tmax = 2
.

4

R(R a)2 R3

1.30. ,
, .



T = Tmax Tmin = 2

3l
4

R+a

3
1 R(R + a)2 + (2 1 )R


1.31. MC MCS

!

TC
TS

Ra
3
1 R(R a)2 + (2 1 )R


.


2


RS 3

1 4,85 1010 M .
RC

1.32.
.

95

1.

, , .
, :
(x + l)2 + d y 2 = C = const. ,
Ox l, .

,
:

T =

1.33. T =

2l2 d
.
n(d 1)

2l2 d
. , n(d 1)

d x2 + (y + l)2 = C = const (. 1.32).


1.34.

V
L

1,61 104 %.
V0
3R

. ,
: S S L R T = R2 V /V0 , T
, =
= 0,5RV , S = ab
R2 (1 + 4V /V0 ) ,
S = R2 , V0
.
1.35. L (3/4) R 471 .
. R12 /2 1 T2 /2 LR1 /2, 1 , .
1.36. V

LV03
0,57 /. 4GM


e =

b2
V
= . , V0
a2


 .


t
R3
1.37. L = R 2
1 4eR = 4V
760 . T

e=

b2
V
1 2 = = V
V0
a

GM

R
.
GM

, =
= R2 /T .
1.38.
.
.
L , :
0,5LR ( )T = RV T RV T0 , T0 = 2M /V03

96

, M , , , V
. , V = V V = (1 + m /m )V . ,
m /m V03 L/(4M V ) 1.

12R3/2 E
1.39. L
(. 1.38).
mM
M
M
0,988, m =
0,0122. 1.40. m =
M + M
M + M


a = 0,5m (rmax + rmin ) 4 636

, b = m rmax rmin
4 626 , a = 0,5m (rmax + rmin )
376 920 , b = m rmax rmin 376 100 ,
e 0,066.
"
#2/3
T
384 750 .
1.41. r = M
2

M q
1,094 /,
: umax =

umin

u
= max 0,959 /.
q

1/3
8
RB-612 .
1.42. R..
15




2
(g.. )max
MB-612
a.
R..

2 )2
g..
M
g..
(rmin R..
..
2
2
MB-612
R..
R..

2,1 %.

M..
rmin
(rmin R.. )2


2
gmax
a
R
R 2
R2
1.43.
=

0,33 %,
g
g
rmin
(rmin R)2
(rmin R)2


 

$

rmin = b

1+

2g R 2
b u2

2

2g R 2

b u2

9R, a

.
1.44. W = (M0 m( ))u2 /2 M0 gM u/2 650 .
 M 2g 2
g2
1.45. W = 2 M03 (M0 )3 0 41 .
2
6

2(R r)
1.46. T = 2
.
g

. ,
:

"

m
(R r)
2

#2
+

J0 2
+ mg (R r) (1 cos ) = E ,
2

97

1.

,

; J0 mR2 ,
= (1 r/R) .$



L
Rr 2
1 + 0,5
. . 1.47. T = 2
g

1.46.



R4 l
1.48.
exp(1) 0,368.
= exp
2
0

2M RI
9J 0
17 .

m
R
1.50.
0,8 sin 11,75 9,69 103 , M .
M
V1

1.49. t =

m ,

n,
 n.
m(m + M )R2 02
kmg l
1.51. ) V =
k <
;
2
m+M
(3m + M ) g l
m(m + M )R2 02
0 Rm
) V =
k 
.
3m + M
(3m + M )2 g l
m(6m + M )v02
mv0
k 
;
1.52. ) v =
m + 2M/7
(3,5m + M )2 g l

m + M 1 k(m + M )g l/mv02
m(6m + M )v02
) v = v0
k <
.
m+M
(3,5m + M )2 g l

1.53.


1
d1
2
M1 R12 + M2 a2
= kM2 g R2 ,
2

dt
3
1
d
2
M2 R22 2 = kM2 g R2 ,
2
dt
3

4kM2 g R2 t
1 =
,
3(M1 R12 + 2M2 a2 )

4k g
2 = 0
t.
3R2

t =

3R2 0 (M1 R12 + 2M2 a2 )


.
4kg (M1 R12 + M2 R22 + 2M2 a2 )


1
n2 =
2

t

(2 1 )dt =
0

4 .. .

3R2 02 (M1 R12 + 2M2 a2 )


0
t =
.
4
16kg (M1 R12 + M2 R22 + 2M2 a2 )

98

2
(2M1 + M2 )M1 M2 R1 01
M1 M2 R1 01
1 t
1.54. t =
, n1 =
1 dt =
,
2kF (M1 + M2 )
2 0
8kF (M1 + M2 )2

n2 =

2
M12 M2 R12 01
1 t
|2 | dt =
. . 1.53.
2 0
8kF R2 (M1 + M2 )2


3g a
1.55. VA = 0,5a =
0,626 /.
13

. .

48g a
1.56. (VB )y = l =
2,67 /.
19

.
.
1.57.

m(m + M )R2 02
kmg l
V =
k <
;
2
m+M

Rm
V = 0
3m + M


1.58. = 2 arcsin

(3m + M ) g l
m(m + M )R2 02
k 
.
(3m + M )2 g l

3V 2
3V 2
3V 2
,
 1.
> 1 32g L
32g L
32g L

.
.
.
1.59.

: 0 = 2mV y + J,




n2 + 1
n1
2
ml , y =
l, n = 3. :
J =

3
4
3(n 1) V
= 2
.
2(n + 1) l

:
1
2

K = m(V + y )2 + J0 2 = 0,85mV 2 ,
J0 = J 2my2 .
$



I
M
3M
M a2
3L
+
1.60. l =
=L
1+
=
.
m
12m
4
L3
mL2
$



1.61. l =

(2 )I
=L
m

1.62. (t) =

(2 )M
12m

1+

0 v0 t/R
M R2
, = 0 2I .
1 + t/
R

M
L3

L
.
3

99

1.


1.63. (max )i = 2 arcsin

0,50 i

% 
1 2
1 2
2
g l , 0 i
l + R + L
4

12

(i = 1, 2) . ,
, (.
1.64)
&

&&
& 32 1
1
&
(max )1 = 2 arcsin &
sin 0 && ,
1 + 2
2
&
&&

& 2 31
1
(max )2 = 2 arcsin &&
sin 0 && .
1 + 2
2
1.64.
:

2g l(1 cos 0 )
01 =
.
2
2
2
l + (a + L )/12

, .
(. 53).
G1 G2 ,

, . F,
, . 53

( ,
). T1 T2
.
, ,
, , :

Ji

di
= (1)i F li
dt

(i = 1, 2),



Ji = m li2 + (a2 + L2 )/12 , l1 = l, l2 = l + a.
F ,
J1
J
( 01 ) + 2 02
= 0.
l1 01
l2
4*

100

:
2
2
J1 02 = J1 01
+ J2 02
.



01

1Q
=
01 ,
1+Q


02

 
=2

l1
l2

01
,
1+Q

Q = J2 l12 /J1 l22 .



:

(max )i = 2 arcsin 0,5|0 i | Ji /mg li , i = 1, 2.
1.65. 580 .
.
dm
dm
dm
(V u)
u=
[(1 + Q)u QV ] = F ,
dt
dt
dt

F ,
(d/dt = V d/ds), .
, ,
, .
1.66. L- L- =

2V
4KV 2 [(1 + Q)u QV ]
(L- + L- ) =

g
g2 (2V )2

m0
11,5 (. 1.65).
m

1 + VA /c
= 20 .
1.67. = t
 1 VA /c
1 VA /c
1.68. = t
= 10 .
1 + VA /c

ln

1.69.

= arctg 

1 + V1 V2 /c

(L2 /b2 1) (1 V12 /c2 )


+ arcsin (V1 /c+V2 /c)


1 

,
(L2 /b2 1) (1 V12 /c2 )+(1 +V1 V2 /c2 )2


4
16
= arctg
+ arcsin
92,9 .
3
25


2
L
/L

V
V
/c
1
1 2
2

+ arcsin ((L2 /L1 )V1 /c V2 /c)


1.70. = arctg

1 V 2 /c2


1 
2
35,5 .
1 V1 /c2 + (L2 /L1 V1 V2 /c2 )2

1.71. , , .

101

1.

1+
1+
2 = 42 =
1 = 41 , . . 4 .
1
1

1.72. , , .

1
1
1
1
=
2 = 2 =
1 = 1 , . . 3 .
1+

1+

1.73.
= arccos 2 .







= arctg

sin

1 12

1 + cos

= arctg

(1 12 )(1 22 )
1 + 2

.
1.74.
= /2. 

L = h 1 + 22 = 1,1 106 .


eE
1.75. max = th
.
m0 c



max
m0 c
eE
=
th
(. 1.78).
N
eE
m0 c
 


eEl0
1.76. Kmax = E0 exp
1 . E0







2Kmax
E0
eEl0
exp
1 , vn =
2
E0 (vN /c)

eEl0

E0

, .
dE
= eEv , 1.77. v
dx


E = E0 + eEL

p = c1 eEL(2E0 + eEL) .


R =

p
=
eB

eEL(2E0 + eEL)
.
ceB

dp
m0 c
d
=
=
/2 dt
dt
(1 2 )3

eE
eET
,

=
th
=
m0 c
(1 2 )1/2

1.78.

102

p = m0 c sh


m c
eET
.
= 0 sh
eR

m0 c

TK

eET
m0 c


p
. , B =
=
eR

d
1 0
M
T
1 + 0
1.79.
+ K
T = 
= TK
ln

2
1
+

m(T
)
2
1 0
K
0
1
0




m2 (TK )
2
,

TK =
1
= 0,75 1 + ln 2 TK 317
3
M2

= 0,5M/ = 2,5 107 289


.
. m
.


TK

M c 1
Mc
3
1.80. L = c d / 1 2 =
ln 2

(m 1 m)dm =
2

0,5

2,39 10 0,252 . .
. m
.
c  2
1.81. pmin = p1 =
[m (m1 m2 )2 ][m2 (m1 + m2 )2 ] .
15

2m2

1.82. pmin = p1 = p2 =


c m(m + 2m1 )(m + 2m2 )(m + 2m1 + 2m2 )
.
2(m + m1 + m2 )

1.83.
: VX = 0,5V = 0,4c,
VY = 0,5V = 0,4c ( ,
). ,


M0
1

(VX2

:
M0
=
2m0

VY2 )/c2

=

1 V02 /(2c2 )
=
1 V02 /c2

2m0
1 V02 /c2

17
1,37.
3

V
M0
1 V 2 /(2c2 )
82
0,424c,
=
=
1,13.
2 /c2
2m0
8
1

V
2 




2
T
2m0 c2
1
2
=
2+
1 = 
2+ 
1.85. T = 2m0 c
m0 c2
1 2
1 2

1.84. VM =


 
2
c 1 =

481
=
m0 c2 6,27 . =arctg
72 

60
12 .
= arctg

13 481

103

1.

1.86.


= arctg y c2 1 53 . :

E = 

E0

0
0
969 , E = 
= 

2 2
2 )(1 2 )
1

(
1

c
y
c
y
$
 2
E0
E + 2 E2
1

, y =
1=
, c = 1 1
= ,


1 c2

1032
E


2
E = 0,5(E0 + (1 1 2 )E1 E2 ) E0 .


2 (n2 1)m
1,2
m
=
.
1.87. T =
na
g
a
g


(n2 1)g
3r
=
M
8

1.88. f =

nr
2

1.89. h =

2M g R 2
.
C mg R2 /L

1.90. h = 2R2
1
1.91. t0

E1 + E2

5g
.
M

p 2mg l/L
.
C mg R2 /L

g
k


+ +

F0
26,7 ,

rmax
mrmax 2ae
l
rmax = r0 + 0 , e = 2,72.
2a
$


g
Fmax
1.92. max
+ k 2,7 /,
rmax
mg
l
F
rmax = r0 + 0 , Fmax = 0 .
b
2 b

2.

2.1. N 6 (. 2.2).
2.2. , , , n = vt = 50  1.

( , D n):





f (n) 1/ 2n exp (n n2 )/2n , ,


N

100

2n

2.3. N




(n n)2

2n


dn

100



exp{x2 } dx 8.
1

60
2

0,1R
683. ,
r02 [1 exp(R2 /2l2 2 )]

. : N

N /2 2
2.4).

2l 2 2

0,1R2
0,1245  1 (.
[1 exp(R2 /2l2 2 )]

2.4. S /R2

R/l


exp(2 /2 2 ) d

r02 N [1 exp(R2 /2l2 2 )]


10,5 %.
R2

r02 N

2 R2

? ,
, ,
. N : N N /2 2 =
= N r02 /(2 2 l2 ) 0,1313  1.


2.5. F  = a2 p (1 cos3 max ) sin cos sin3 max sin ,
max = arctg {D/(2L + D ctg )}.
2.6. q =

2a2 pc sin2 max


, max = arctg{D/2(L + H)}.

D D 2 + 4H 2

2.7. c r = ct tc (c 0) . V 4c2 t3 c,
.




3/2
2
m
mc
c, N 4N c2
exp
2kT

2kT

105

2.




3/2
N
N
m
mr2
n(r , t) = lim
exp
. = 3
2
c0

2kT

2kT t

R

, : 0,1N = 4 n(r , t)r 2 dr =
0



= (4N/ ) 2 exp( 2 )d , =(r/t) m/2kT , D =(R/t) m/2kT .

D

0

, ,


v 0,5404 2kT /m .

2.8. v 0,8974 2kT /m (. 2.7).

2.9. F = 3/2 a2 bI0 2mkT /3, b .


2.10. W = abI0 (i + 1)kT , b .
( 1)V 2
361 K, = Cp /CV .
2.11. Ts
( + 1)R
7RTs
2.12. V 2Q +
2,34 /.

2.13. M /M 1 + 4 2 f 2 a2 /(5RT ) 1,0006.


2.14. T (af )2 /cV 0,006 , p = p0 (T /T0 ) 2 104 .
2.15. N = (4 3/2 d 2 n0 )1 112 ., n0 2,69 1019 3
.

3
3,0 1019 3 .
2.16. n = dN/ 2



2.17. T = 2T
2Be /kT + Be /kT 88,8 . .
2.18.
2.18. J -
,
,

(2J + 1) exp{Be J(J + 1)/kT }.


J
, 
: J kT /2Be 0,5.

+
(2J + 1)
: = (Be /kT )

exp{Be J(J + 1)/kT } (Be /kT )


[J ]+1

J=[J ]+1

(2J + 1) exp{Be J(J +

+ 1)/kT }dJ exp {Be ([J ] + 1)([J ] + 2)/kT } 0,585, [J ] = 6


J .
2.19. N2 /N1 = exp(11/10)/ exp(12/11) = exp(1/110) 0,99.
2.20. T 110Be /(k ln 2) 456 K.

106


n
2

n
1

2.21. N2 /N1 = q2 /q1 = e.


2.22. T = h/(k ln 2) 4900 K.
2.23. . , 1- , ,
2   CO



+
+
d
2
n
2
n
: = (1 q)
(n + 1)q = (1 q)
q 1 =
dq

n=1

n=0

= q(2 q) e3 (2 e3 ) 0,097, q = exp(2 /T ) e3 .

2
2R

2.24. C = 2
0,78R (. sh (/2T )

2T

2.23).


2.25. = 1 exp r 2 /(2) , d = [3kT /(( c )g )]1/4 ,
r = d /2.
!
2
2
2.26. EJ E J E J 1.

!
2

2
2.27. E E
E = 2 q /(1 + q) = ch1 0,5 0,887.
2.28.

dn1
dn2
6n 2 T
,
= n1 T , ,
=
,

5
dt
dt
3/2
d(n1 + 1,2n2 )T
6(n1 + 1,4n2 )T
ni
=
, ni =
(i = 1, 2),
:
5
n0i
dt

T
t
4V
m1
T =
, t = , =
. T0

r2 8kT0

,
3/2

dT
T
=
. , 5
dt

: T = (1 + 0,1t)2 , n1 = (1 + 0,1t)10 , n2 = (1 + 0,1 t)12 . 


(1 + 0,1t)2 + 1,2 = 0,95 1,1 (1 + 0,1t)2 + 1 .



t = 10
0,155/0,045 1 8,56.


2.29. t = 6 (n1 /n2 )1/4 1 1,135 . . 2.28.
2.30. : pHe (0) = p0 , p (0) = 0 , :
dnHe
n
= He ,
dt
He

dn
dt

n0 n
,

nHe n ,
,
  n0
  ,


4V
He
4V

He =
, =
, S
S

8RT0

8RT0

, V , T0 . ,

107

2.

p(t) = p0 {1 exp(t/ ) + exp(t/He )}. , ,


. , ,
,
 
He

tmin =
ln
,
He

He


1/ /He 1
pmax = p0
He /


1/

He /

He /

0,35 105 .

2.31. . 2.30:

5Kr
tmax = Kr ln
,
Kr
3



1/ 1 /Kr
umax = 2,5p0 1 0,6 /Kr
+



1/ Kr / 1
+ 0,6 0,6 /Kr
0,264 /3 .

2.32. =

1
0,44.
1 + 4

2.33. = 5/3.
2.34. = 7/5.
2.35. p = 

5 p0

4 + V 2 /V02

2.36. p = 0


1 + V02 /V 2 .

2.37. T

1 1 + 2 2
aL 0,14 .
5(1 + 2 )k

2.38. Q = U1 + U2 (1 1 + 2 2 )aH/2 23,5 .




a1
1 0 T1
5(9 + )
T
2.39.
=

=
(1 + ) 1 2,80, =
a0

T0

7(7 )

T0

= 0,5 .
2.40. = 1/3.
2.41.

(600 )
1,19. (300 )

108

273 0,42
.

T 1,9
T
.
2.43. D = D0
273
 1/2 !

T

1+
, 0
2.44. = 0
T0
(1 + 2kT /g02 )2

2.42. = 0

.
2.45.
.






3/2

g 2

dg = n0 g 1 +
Z1 = 40 n
g 3 1 + 2 exp
.
2kT

2kT

2kT

1
,
2 n0 (1 + /2kT )

T
m
= const
, =
.
1 + /T
4k

, =

2.46. l = 1, =
2.47.


m/16k . . 2.45.

10L3 N
10N
3,022 1015 108 ;

nR2
M R3/2

20 .
2.48. ,

Z1 2 n0 2 c, n0 2,69

1019 ./3 . , c
1

=
. Z1

2 n0 2

R .
2
a
2
1
=
, s 2
()
R =
s

=
1,69 103 .
2
2
R
2 an0
2 an0 2 ( )2

Z
2 n0 2 a
2.49. -
1 200 (. 2.48).
Z-
1

2.50. 2kT  GM mH /R,


4
mH , R , , M =
mH nR3

3
3kT
.

2Gm2H

3R 2
mH
3n 2 R2


c
4kT

9 2
kT
0,888 1019 22tB .

4GmH
mH

, nR2 

109

2.


2.51. 3n 2 R2

mH
9 2

2kT
16GmH

2kT
2,34 1019 57tB
mH

(. 2.50).
2.52.
. Re  103 :
2 p2 /22  1 p1 /12 . :
p2  p1 (p1 /p2)(T2 /T1 )2+1 214 . . 2,1 103 .
2.53. T  T0 {1 + (kT0 /W ) ln( /)} 301,6 .
2.54.
1 + 2A Kn 1,19 , Kn = / (.
2.55).

2.55. 1 + 2A
Kn 1,49 , Kn = / .

: T (Y ) = a + b(Y /), a b
.

: T (0) T1 =


dT
dT
=A
T () T2 = A
, : a = T1 +
dY Y =0
dY Y =
T2 T1
T2 T1
dT
T2 T1
A Kn, b =
, q = k
= k
=
+
1 + 2&A Kn
1 + 2A Kn
dY
(1 + 2A Kn)
&
q

1 + 2A Kn

T T1
T1 + 2
(S S 1 )
S2 S1

2.56.

pmax =

/(1)

exp(1) 1,32.

/(1)



S S1
=
exp
1




(p1 V 2 p2 V 1 )
+
= CV ( + 1) ln

2.57.
Smax Smin


p1 p2
5,89 /.
+ ln

( + 1)(p1 p2 )

2(V 2 V 1 )


  2

V1

V1
1,4, CV = R/(1 1)

2.58. 1 = 2 1 +
V2

V2

20,8 /( ). 1 , , 2 .
2.59.
2.59. , , 1,
2.

0 = p0 S 2 (1 /V1 +2 /V2 )/M ,

= 1 p0 S 2 V /M V1 V2 , 1 = 4/3, 2 = 5/3, V = V1 + V2 . V
m

: 2 = 2 1 = 1 .
V1

m1 2

110

,
V2 2 /1 2

=
, = 0
V1

2 1
2 /1 2
1,05785. , 1 2 2
44 /
1

0,94531

( ,
 3 8 ).
 ,
   
p
T2
T2
s0 + 1,25k ln
ln
.
2.60. s =
k(T2
T
)
T
1
 1
T1 
2

ln .
2.61. s = 0,5n11 (s01 + 0,5k) ( + 1) k
1

R
T
2
R R 2
1
(T T )2 R1 R2
2.62. 4 r 2 dr =k(T2 T1 ) 1 2
= 4k 2 1
d
.
2.63. 2

R1
R
2

R2 R1

R
2

r dr = W

R1

1

d
dr


1
T

T1

T1 T2

(T2 T1 )
ln1
T1 T2
2

dr = 2k

R2 R1

R2
.
R1

p
T
p
p
T
ln2 2 +
ln 0 ln 2
2( 1)(T2
T1 )
T1 T2 T1
p
T1

2.64. S 2R1 LR
=
   
p
T2 2(1) p0
= 2R1 LR 0 ln
.
T0
T1
p
 

s
1
T
1

2.65. S 4R12 Rpa 0


ln 1

k
T
T
T
T
2
(

1
)(T
1
1 T2 )
2
2
0

T
ln2 1 .
T2
 
1+V2 /V1 

3
V2
V1
7
1+

2.66. S = 1 R ln
= R ln 2
V2 (1 + p/p0 )

V1

9,61 /.

V2
2.67. S = 1 R ln
V1 +V2


1+

V1
V2 (1 p/p0 )

1+V2 /V1


= 4R ln

9
8

3,92 /.

2.68. S2 = 2,5R ln 2 + 2R 4[1 + exp(4)]1 2[1 + exp(2)]1 +
ln[1 + exp(4)] ln[1 +exp(2)]}.

2.69. S2 1,5R ln 2 + [1 + exp(0,5)]1 2 [1 + exp(1)]1

ln [(1 + exp(0,5))/(1 + exp(1))] .
  1/(1) 
  1/(1) 

2.70. S = kB N1 ln

n0
n1

T1
T0

+N2 ln

n0
n2

T2
T0

 
  1/(1) 

T2 + T1
T2
T
T1
T1
+
= R ln
ln 0

+
( + 1)T0
T2 + T1
T2 T0
T2 + T1
  1/(1) 


1 +T1 /T0
T0 T2
ln
= R ln(7/6) 1,28 /.
= R ln
T1

T0

+ 1

111

2.

. ,


n
: s1 = kB ln
+ s10 ,
T 1/(1)


 .
2.71. S = R ln

1 + T1 /T0
+1

= R ln

7
1,11 /. .
8

2.70.
 2


NA
2 16
3
3,188 105 .
2.72. U 1,5RT

V
2a
3,204 105 (.
-- U 1,5RT
V

2.73).
2.73.

2n 3
.
=
3



u 2n (r)r2 dt =

|u|
1,5kT + u

1
4,5kT /2n 3 1

1
29,2 %.
4,5Ne V T /(2M NA (/k) 3 ) 1
|u|
1
--
=
28,8 %.
1,5kT + u
1,5Ne V RT /aM 1

2.74. =

0 exp[g z/RT + ]
.
1 0 (b/)[1 exp[g z/RT + ]]

"
#
g z
2.75. = 0 exp
,

RT
1,5B3 (2 20 )
2B2 ( 0 )
, =
+
+ ....

2
i
2a
2.76. CV = R + 2 = const.
2
T

!
V


2b T iRT
2.77. V = b
exp
U 1 .
3a
2

2.78. S =

5(T2 V1 T1 V2 )
R ln
b(T2 T1 )

2.79. S =

2(p2 V2 p1 V1 )
R ln
b(p2 p1 )

T1 + T2

2 T1 T2

p1 + p2

2 p1 p2


.


.


s
a
2.80. p p0 exp
2 2,4 109 2,4 104 .
R

2.81. Q 6,93 /.

!

B+p
2.82. = C
1,469 109 1 .
(B + p) 1 C ln
B + p0
 
1
V

-- p  1 =
p V

112

8T
1,99 1010
p (p + 27)2

1 .

7,4 .
--
 .

3
p + 2 (3V 1) = 8T , , V

(1)

(1)

 .
V + V + ..., V
3
3




B+p
B+p
2.83. K = 1 C ln
619 .
B + p0

--, p  1, K p

(p + 27)2
4140
8T

(. 2.82).
6,7 (. 2.82).

0,6a
, W =
2.84. T = Z + Z 2 W , Z = 0,5T0 +
RT0 (V0 + 1,5c)

0,4aV0
=
.
R(V0 + c)(V0 + 1,5c)
3
2a
2.85. CV = R +
.
2
T 2

2.86.
.

V0 VK : S1 = {p0 V0 /T } ln(V0 /V ). VK V1 : S2 = R ln(VK /V1 ),
,
S3 = H2 O q/T . ,
, :
p0 = (0 + )RT /V0 , p1 = (0 + )RT /V1 , 0 . : (p0 V0 p1 V1 )/RT .
, ,
, ,
VK V1 :

VK =

0 RT
,
pK

(p1 pK )V1
,
RT

0 =

p0 V0 (p1 pK )V1
.
RT

, S = S1 + S2 + S3 17,7 /.


0 = 0 RT /pK V0 = p0 V0 (p1 pK ) /pK V0 80 %.


2.87. Q 6,91 , 0 = (0 + )RT /pK V1 = p1 V1 (p0
pK )V0 /pK V1 75 % (. 2.86).

113

2.

2.88. Q = q + 4( + .. )RT 2 041 , S = +


T

T
+ 4( + .. )R ln 1 +
5,47 /.
T
2.89. Q = 0,5 q 4 RT 2 041 ,
S = 0,5 q/T0 4 R ln(1 + T /T0 ) 5,47 /.
2.90.
.

p
T
, : p g H( ) H
1 +
RT
T
"

#

( H2 O )p0 T
q
T
+
exp H2 O 1
f
1,43 .
p

RT

2.91. ,

, . . > .





T

T
p
1
f > f exp H2 O qR1 (T1 T
) +
1

H2 O

p0

88 %.
2.92.

rmin 2/( RT ln fH ),
fH H = 1 .
,

= fH p.. /p. ,
, . . 0 = f p..
0 /p0 =
..
fH = f (p..
/p
)

(p/p
)
,

0 
0

1
..
1
, p..
/p

exp
(q/R)

(T

T
)
. p/p0
0
0
, dp = g dH :
p/p0 (1 H)l , l = g /RT0 5,247, = 0,02259 1 .


rmin 2/ RT [ln f + l ln(1 H) (q/R) (T01 T 1 )]
0,15 .
2.93. . 2.92,
f


exp 4/(d RT ) + (q/R) (T01 T 1 )

1 ( g H/RT0 )(1 0,05H)

63 %.

2.94. : 2/r 6 104 . RT /v H2 O ,



( 103 ).

p1 2v /rv .

qT
p2
.
TH (v v )

(f 1)p.. p1 + p2

114

"

T (f 1)p..

2v
rv

#

v TH
q

 

2 v
RTH2
f 1 H2 O
1,45 .
rRTH

H2 O q

2.95. .
: 2/R 5,1 103 .

, , ,
. 100C
RT
v
1,7 3 /.
H2 O p..

p1 =

gh
,
v

v 103 3 /, . , R
p2 =
2v
. , =
R (v v )

1
dp

T + (p1 + p2 )

T
dT



2
v gh
2v
T 1 +
373,5 .
1+
qv
v g hR


2 
1
N RT0
2.96. T T0 1 +
372,3 .
2
2q

H2 O r qp

2.97.


d
d

F = 2 T
U = 2 T
1 R2 0,936 105 ;
dT
4

dT
d
d 2
2
S = 2 F = 2
1 R 1,52 108 /.
dT

2.98. T =

dT

3(0 + aT0 )[1 (1/2)1/3 ]


0,17 .
c
p r0

2
7
c
.
p r /k 10

2.99. T =

3(0 + aT0 )(31/3 1)


0,17 .
c
p r0

2
6
c
.
p r /k 10

d
2Re 8RT

4,1 104 .
2.100.

2u


  ! 

p0 + 1
p0 1
p0 1
t1
2.101. 1 =ln
ln
0,067, t2 =ln
,
p 1
p 1
t2
p+ 1

(p + 1)(p0 1)
p
t
8V l
t1 = ln
,p= ,t= , = 4 .
(p 1)(p0 + 1)
pa

r0 pa

2
.
2.102. v = s

+1

115

2.


/(1)


(T ) (Ta ) p0
T /T
p
1 2
2.103. a =
= a 0 = 1+
M
=
(T ) (T0 ) pa
T0 /T
pa
2
 1,815 0
7
=
4,65.
3



z(Ta ) k(T0 ) pa
T0 /T
p
1 2 /(1)
=
=
a = 1+
M

2.104.
0,236.
2.105.


z(T0 )

k(Ta ) p0

D1
= 1 1+ M 2 1
2
D2

Ta /T

4 (1)/

p0

1 2
D1

M 1
2
D2

. 2.106.

4 
1,7 %.


D12 2 Dc2
u1
1 . 2.106. F =
4
D12
2
u1
8F
=
.
,
2
5D12

= 1 (p1 /p2 )(1)/ , p1 p2


,
.
,

u21
+ p1 p2 ,
2


=1 1+

2.107. = 1


,

8F
5D12 p

pa
np2

(1)/

(1)/

p2
pa $

2.108. M =

2
1

(1)/

=1+


1 8F
3,2 %.
5D12 p

51 %,

1
(M 2 /2) (. 2.106).
2

(n1/ 1)
1
(n 1)(1 )

0,51.

3.
3.1. 1. . 54 , +4q , +q . ,
. , A, +q +4q .
3d/4 4q . B D
A:


1
4q
q
9q
=
A =
+
.
40

2d/3

d/3

40 d

+4q D, d1 ,


1
4q
q
2 10 2
D =
+
d.
= A , d1 =
40

d1

d + d1

+q B , d2 =

13 2
d. r  d
9
5q
,
.
40 r

. 54

2. 4q , +q (. 55). , , ,
A, +q 4q , -

117

3.

. 55

. A
. A +q d.
B ,
( = 0) , 4d/15,
d/15 +q . r  d 3q ,
,

3q
.
40 r

3.2.
x = 0, x = d. C
0 < x < d  R ( ) :

 

!
!

R
R
E=
11
1+
1+
+ 11
=
20

xd

x
=
2
2
20

x + R2

xd
(x d)2 + R2

,
0

. .
x < 0 x > d:



x
xd
E=

.

20

x2 + R2

(x d)2 + R2

, x  R E
Pe = R2 d.

2Pe
, . .
40 x3

118

3.3. dx,
x ,

dEx =

2Rdx
x
(x)

=
"
40
40 (R2 + x2 ) (R2 + x2 )1/2

d (x/R)2
#3/2 .
1 + (x/R)2

0 + (x) = 0 = const,
:
&
&
0
1
0
&
Ex =
.
"
#1/2 & =
20
20
&
2
1 + (x/R)

( 0 )

, c + 0 .
20

x = 0 , E = 0,
, Ex = const
.


, (x) = 0 (x/R), dEx 0

, ,
2l l  R; ,
,
, ,
, Ex = const, 0 .
. (. . , . . .
. . 8. .:
, 2005. C. 33).
3.4. ,
(. . 56):

1
Q
E1 =
+ = E4 .
20

, ,

E1 =

1
,
0

E4 =

4
.
0

E2 , E3

E2 =

2
,
0

E3 =

3
.
0

119

3.

E3 E2 =

.
0

,
Q
= 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 ,
S


(!).
, E
, (?)
,
d
3

E2 + E3
:

2d
= 0,
3

E2 = E3 .

E1 = E4 =

,
0

. 56

2
,
3 0
2
2 = ,
3

E2 =

1 = 4 = ,

E3 =
3 =

,
30

.
3

3.5. (0 < x < d 0)


dE

d x 3
Q x 3
= , E = E(+0) + 0
= E(+0)
,
dx

30

S0

E(+0) .
:

d


1 Q1 + Q2
1
Q1 + Q2
d
Q
E1 = +E4 =
+ dx =
+ 0 =
.
20

20

20 S

E(+0)

E(+0) = E1 +

Q
Q Q2
d
= 1
0 = 0.
S0
S0
30

3.6.
1 d

(r Er ) = ,
r dr

= 1 = 2
.
E
) Er = E0 = const, = 0 0 .
r

120

, , r = 0,
.
) Er = r , = ( + 1)0 = const.
3.7.
, . ,
, x x = d/2:


me 2
d
Q
(v v02 ) =
x E e, E =
.
2

Cd

x .
x > d/2, .
3.8. E(x)=
4
3

d
4
dE
4 k
= kx1/3 ; (x)=0
= 20/3 , (0)=0 E(0)= 0;
dx
3
dx
9x

(d) = 0 E(d) = 0 kd1/3 .

j
(d) ,
:
d2

= ;
0
dx2

me v 2 = 2e;

j = v.

: x = 0, = 0 = 0 (
). :
d2
j
=
=
0 v
dx2

j
.
2e

me

= x ,

3/2 ( 1)x(3/2)2 = 
0

j
,
2e/me

4
3

= ,


=

3/2 =
9(j)
40

2/3

40

9j
,

2e/me

x4/3
,
(2e/me )1/3

. . , , k. ,
: j 3/2 (d).

121

3.

3.9. (. . 57),
dE
+
=
,
dx
0

+0 < x < d 0,

E45 =

+ x
+ E(+0).
0

E
E(+0):

d
E45 dx = E ,

(+ d2 /20 + E(+0)d = E ,

E(+0) =

E (+ d2 /20 )
.
d

, , E(+0) > 0. ,

4 = 0 E(+0),

E45 (d 0) =

+ d
E
+ = 0 5 .
20
d

E1 , E6 , ,
1 , 6 + ,
, , :

E1 = E6 =

1
20

d
dx =

+ d
;
20

+ d
1 = 0 E1 =
= 6 .
2

. 57

E23 :
E
,
d
E
2 = 3 = E23 0 = 0 .
d

E23 d + = 0,

E23 =

3.10. (R1 , R3 ) (
); , r  R3
,

"
#
4
Q1 + Q3 = Q + + (R33 R23 ) .
3

()

122

E4 r > R3 . R2 <
< r < R3
1 d 2
+
[r E(r)] =
,
2
0
r dr
+ r
C
E(r) =
+ 2,
30
r

+ r2
C
(r) = E(r)dr =
+ 0 ,
30 2
r

div E =

(R3 ) =

+ R32
C

+ 0 .
60
R3

R2

60

R1

R1 < r < R2
Q 1
E2 = 1 2 ,
40 r

Q
2 = 1
40

R2

1
1

r
R1

()
()

,


Q1
1
1
+ R22
C
=

+ 0 .
40

()

()


.

r = R2


+ R22
C
Q1
Q1
.
+ 2
=
2
2

( )

, r = R3 ,



 + 2
R2
C
1
Q1
.
+ 2 =
0
2

()

30

R2

30

40 R2

4R3

R3

4R3

(, , , ) Q1 , Q2 , Q3 0 , C .
3.11. 1.

WQ = Qd =

Q(Pe r)
QP cos
= e 2 .
40 r3
40 r

, ( )

W = WQ =

QPe cos
.
40 r2

2. , = 0;

W =

QPe
.
40 r2

3.12. , ,
x ,

F (x) =

1
q2
2,
40 4x

123

3.

x = x = d

d
F (x)dx =

q2
.
160 d

mv 2
q2
,
=
,v=
2
160 d

q2
80 d m

,

.
3.13. x, y e .
e (. 58).
,
,

1/2
.

. 58

e2
e2
2x
+

,
2
2
(2x)
(2x) + (2y)2 [(2x)2 + (2y)2 ]1/2
e2
e2 2y
40 Fy =
+
.
2
2
(2y)
[(2x) + (2y)2 ]3/2

40 Fx =


(. .
):


1 10
e2
1
1
1
.
W =
qi ik =
+ 2
2 1/2
4

160

i =k

(x + y )

3.14. E
x: E = (E0 , 0, 0), q
.
 
r 2 = x2 + y 2 + z 2 , cos = x/r :

q cos

q sin
= E0 +
, Ey =
=
.
x
40 r2
y
40 r2
q
= E0 r cos +
.
40

Ex =

. 59. R(x)
 ,
 A x,


xA =

q
40

, E,

124

. 59

, ,
R(x).
R(x),
R(x)


Ex 2y dy =

q
,
0

, Ex ,
q
R (x)E0 +
2
40

R(x)


xy dy
=
(x2 + y 2 )3/2

= R2 (x)E0

&R(x)

&
qx
21
&

2
2
1
/
2
20 2(x + y ) &0

= R2 (x)E0


R2 (x) E0 =

qx
20

1
1

x
(x2 + R2 (x))1/2


=

q
,
0

q
x
1
1+ 2
.
20
x
(x + R2 (x))1/2

, x

q
R =
= 2|xA |.
0 E0


, R(x) (xA < x < ).

3.

125

[, . ,
( )?].
( )
( ). ,
(. 59),
. ()
, , ().
3.15. r ,
(, , ,
. . 60) ,
; r1 = r cos .
, ,
, ,

E =

m 2 r1
(. . 60).
|e|

EK , :

= 0 div E =

0 d
2m 2
(r1 E ) =
= const > 0.
r1 dr1
|e|

. 60

126

(r < a) ,
d
= E(r1 ),
dr1

r
1

= E()d =

m 2 r12
m 2 2
+ 0 = 0
r cos2 ,
|e|
2
2|e|

r  a.

,
m 2 a2 2
(a) = 0
r cos2 ,
2|e|

= 2
r2
+ 2
cos
= 0.
r r

r cos

,
r  a


m 2 a2
(r, ) = R(r) 0
cos2 ,
2|e|

R(r) r , R(a) = 1. ,
r  a (
), ( cos ). ;

3
a
, R(r) =
. , (r , )
r
, 0 ,

3
a
r

(r, ) =

m 2 a2
(2 3 cos2 ),
6|e|

r  a.

() , :

() = 0 [Er (a + 0) Er (a 0)] =
"
#

m 2 a
= 0
(a + 0)
(a 0) = 0
(2 5 cos2 ).
r

2|e|


(r)dV = dS.

127

3.

3.16.
,


3 Q 2
1
3
Q2
W = 2

.
5

40 R1

40 R1

, ,
1/3

R
4
3Q
3
3
3
2R1 = R , R1 = 1/3 ,
R = Q, R =
,
2

1/3


1
1 2/3 =
2

1/3


3
4 4 1028
1
19
5/3
9
= (92 1,6 10

) 9 10
1

9
3
2/3
3
5

W =
5

Q5/3
40

4
3

3 3 10

0,65 1010 = 0,65 103 109 = 1 000 .


3.17. , , . 61.

. 61

128

3.18.


W =

0 E 2
1
dV = 40
2
2

2a

E(r)r2 dr =
0

2a

= 20 E12 (r)r2 dr + E2 (r)r2 dr = W1 + W2 .
a

r
0  r  a E1 (r) =
, ,
30

Q+ = |Q | = Q;

| | =

+
.
7

( a  r  2a)
 3


a
E2 (r) =
8 2 r .
210

W1 =

Q2
,
10 40 a

W2

Q2
,
7 40 a

Q2
> 0.
4 40 a

, , ,
, .
3.19. q + q + , , E .
A = q + E .
(. . 62):

W =

q2
2 40 r

. 62.

3.

129

q + E =

q2
;
2 40 r

E =

q
.
2 40 r

3.20. ,

(P ). A1 r .
A2 , ,
P ,
. . A1 = A2 .

r
q 2 r 2
A1 = F dr =
,
2
2
2 40 R(R r )

r  R,
q 2 r 2
.
2 40 R3

A1

A2

A2

qEd dP ,

Ed ,
Pe = P1 q1 .
q 2 R3
A2
.
4
20 4P

, A1 = A2 P 2 =

R3
.
r

U 2 0 (1 t )

d2
4

U2
=
=
R
l
36 2 105 (1 2 104 1600)(103 )2 2
=
18 .
7 6 102

3.21. N =

3.22.
. 63.
E : aa b b
, ab a b .

, .
3.23. ) > . j, E . 64, .
5 .. .

130

. 63

. 64

131

3.

jn = jn ,

jr

= ;
jr

En En =

,
0

E = E .

j E.
) < . . . 64, . -
. ,
. ,
.
4I
4I
(ne 3.24. j = Ve ne e = 2 , Ve = 2
d

d ne e

, Ve ). ,
,

ne =

N Ag
6 1023 1 10,5 103 3
=
6 1028 3
Ag
108 103 1

(NA , Ag ). ,

Ve =

4 30
4 103 1 .
106 2 6 1028 3 1,6 1019

Le =

2me
2 1030 105 1 6,14 107 1 1
=
108 .
2
ne e
6 1028 3 1,62 1038 2

a , . . a 1010  Le .
3.25. a) E H
, ,
E H , R ( ), . .

. 65

) ,
, ( );
5*

132

.
:
1) = 0 = 108 102  4

1
1 3 105 .
36 109

0
10 102
=
2 1012 .

36 109 0,54

= const, I = 2rj = const,


3.26. jE = E 2 = w
3
2
w
I
1
= 2 =
2.
E
(2)2 wr2
r

2) =

3.27. I = Sj = SE = const; j = E = const, E(x) =

I
.
S(x)

S . ,

q + Q1 + Q2 = 0.

Q1 = 1 S = 0 , Q2 = 0 ,
2

1
I
I
q = 0 I

,
2

Q1 =

10 10
1010 ,
36 109 109

Q2 = Q1 1 107 .
2

3.28. .
1.

,


Q = jE dV = E 2 dV ,

n
0 E 2
10
dV =
qi i .
2

i=1

, E ,
n
0
Q=
i qi .
0

i=1

2. Ii ;
Ri = i /Ii ;
Ci
i = Ri Ci = 0 /.

133

3.

, i-

2
Q
Q
q
q
Ii2 Ri = i = i i = i i = i i = i i
Ri

Ri Ci

( , Qi
, qi ). ,
Q.
3.29.
(4,45 2,35) 105 1 =
= 2,1 105 1 . , ,
Q

U Q = U 2NA e,
NA , e ,

U=

2,1 105 1
1 .
2 6 1023 1 1,6 1019

3.30.
) I

6E
E
= .
6r
r

VAB = 2E 2rI = 2(E Ir) = 0.


. 66, .
E + E2 + E3
;
) I = 1
r1 + r2 + r3

(E1 + E2 + E3 )r1
E r + E1 r3 E2 r1 E3 r1
= 1 2
;
r1 + r2 + r3
r1 + r2 + r3
E
E + E3
E
E
E
1 = 2
; 1 = 2 = 3 ; ViK = 0.
r1
r2 + r3
r1
r2
r3

VAB = E1 Ir1 = E1
VAB = 0
) I =

2E E
E
= ,
6r
6r

VAB = (3E + I 3r) = 3E

E
7
= E = VA VB .
2
2

3.31. 1) E , E :

E =

me a
;
e

E =

me a
2a.
e

, R =

E2
me a 2
d2
N = =
2a
.
R

2a
,
d2 /4

134

. 66

E =

EK = 0.

2)
:
j
Ei =
(i = 1, 2).
i

(. . 67),
.




a
1
1
4a
1
1
= 2
R=
+
+
,
2
d
4

2me a
,

e 1+ 1
2

E1 = 

2me a
.

e 1+ 2
1

E2 = 

(. 67) , ,

135

3.

= 0 (E2 E1 ) = 0 (E2K E1K ) = 0

2me a 1 2

.
e
1 + 2

. 67

EK1 = EK2 = EK = E E1 = E2 E


1
1
m a

.
= e  2
e
1
+1
2

V
( ) . 67.
3.32. , R1 , R2 Rx , R3 (. . 68),
, I1 I2 (
), C D

I1 Rx I2 R1 = UG = 0,
I1 R3 I2 R2 = UG = 0,
Rx =

R1
R3 . (R = R1 +
R2

+ R2 R3 )

Rx
R
R
= 1 2
Rx
R1
R2

R1 = R/2 = R2 . Rx = R3 .
UG /Rx
. Rx = R3 + dRx , R1 = R2 . , RG  Ri (i = 1, 2, 3, x),

(2R3 + dRx )I1 = 2R1 I2 , 2R1 I2 + (I1 + I2 )r = E ,


dUG = R1 I2 + Rx I1 = |C D |,

136

. 68

&
&
& UG &
&
&= 
Rx

. 69

R
2 r + (2R1 + r) 3
R1

 =

ER1
.
2[r(R1 + R3 ) + 2R1 R3 ]

, A B
- , .
. , R1 , Rx R2 , R3 , I1 I2 , ADCA BDCB
(R1 = R2 ):

I1 (R1 + Rx ) + (I1 + I2 )r = E ,

I2 (R2 + R3 ) + (I1 + I2 )r = E.

dUG = A B = R1 I1 R2 I2 =

R1 + R3 R1 Rx

(R1 + Rx )2 + r(R1 + Rx ) + r(R1 + R3 )


dRx
R1 E
;
(R1 + R3 )2 + 2r(R1 + R3 )
&
&
R1 E
& UG &
=
&
&=
Rx
(R1 + R3 )(R1 + R3 + 2r)
&
&
ER1
& U &
=
 & G& .
2
2
Rx 1
2r(R1 + R3 ) + 2R1 R3 + R1 + R3

= R1 E

3.33. , R1 , R R1 ,

R1 I1 + r(I1 I) = E , (R R1 )I + r(I I1 ) = 0,

137

3.

. 70

I=

Er
.
R1 (R R1 ) + rR

, I
I
Er(R 2R1 )
=
= 0,
R1
[R1 (R R1 ) + rR]2

&

2 I &&
2Er
= 
2 > 0 .
2
R12 &R1 = R
R
2
+ rR
4

3.34. V () =
j = E = c

R1 = ,
2
2

V0
V 1
; E = 0 ;
0
0 r

V0
r.
0
r
2

I0 =

Lc
r1

cL(r22 r12 )V0


V0
r dr =
;
0
20

R = V0 /I0 = 0,327 ,

V0 6,5 ,

N 130 .

3.35. :

E = V0 /L; j = E = cr2 V0 /L.


a
I = cr2

V0
cV a4
2r dr = 0
,
L
2L

V0 =

2LI
= 100 ,
ca4

R=

V0
2L
=
= 10 ,
I
ca4

N = 1 .

138

3.36. : Idl = ev. (. . 71)

Ha =

|Idl r|
|ev r|
eva
eva
=
=
=
.
4r3
4r3
4(x2 + a2 )3/2
4(v 2 t2 + a2 )3/2

. 71

3.37. ) .
dr

Q
dI(r) = 2
dr ,
2 l

dB(y , r) = 2

r2 dr
0 Q
.
2
2 l 2(r + y 2 )3/2


B(y) =

Q
dB(y , r) = 0
2l

l/
2

(r2

r2 dr
.
+ y 2 )3/2

:
l/
2

r2 dr
=
2
(r + y 2 )3/2

l/
2

[(r2 + y 2 ) y 2 ]
dr =
(r2 + y 2 )3/2

l/
2



r
= ln r + r2 + y 2 

l/2

r2 + y 2

l/
2

dr
dr
y 2
=
(r2 + y 2 )1/2
(r2 + y 2 )3/2
0

2
l
l
l
+
+ y2
4
= ln 2
 2
.
y
l2
2
+y
4


l
+
0 Q
2

B(y) =
ln
2l

y2 +
y

l2
4  l
2

y2 +

l
4

139

3.


, l/y  1. x = l/2y :
l
+
2
ln

y2 +

l2
4  l



x
= ln x + 1 + x2

1 + x2
l2
2
+
4




x2
x4
x2
3 4

+ ... x 1
+ x + ... =
= ln 1 + x +
2
8
2
8

y2

x2
x4
1
=x+

+ ...
2
8
2

1
3

3

x+

x2
x4

+ ...
2
8

2

x2
x4
x+

+ ...
2
8

1
4

x+

x+

+
4

x2
x4

+ ...
2
8

x3
3
x3
x5 + ... =
+ O(x5 ).
2
8
3


pm = 0

Q
r dI = 20

2 l

l/
2

r2 dr = 0

Q l3
.
l 24

B(y)

0 Q 1 l3
1 pm
=

2l 3 8y 3
2 y 3

pm .
) (. . 72).

dI =

Q
2r dr
=
r dr.
2
R2
R2

dB(y , r) =

0
r2
Q
r3 dr
dI = 0 2 2
.
2 (r2 + y 2 )3/2
2a (r + y 2 )3/2





r3 dr
1
r2 dr2
1 [(r2 + y 2 ) y 2 ]dr2
=
=
=
2 (r2 + y 2 )3/2
2
(r2 + y 2 )3/2
(r2 + y 2 )3/2


1
dr2
y2
dr2
=

=
2
2 1/2
2
2 3/2
(r + y )

2 1/2

= (r + y )

(r + y )
y2
r 2 + 2y 2
+ 2
= 2
.
2
1
/
2
(r + y )
(r + y 2 )1/2
2

140

B(y) :

B(y) = dB(y , r) =
 2

0 Q
R + 2y 2
2y .
=
2
2
2 1/2
(R + y )

2R

. 72


, R/y  1.
R/y = x:



x2
1+
R 2 + 2y 2
2
2y = 2y
1 =
(R2 + y 2 )1/2
(1 + x2 )1/2





x2
x2
13 4
= 2y 1 +
1
+
x + ... 1
2
2
24


x2
x2
x4
3
R4

x4 1 = 3 .
2y 1 +
2

4y

,
:

R
Q
QR2
2
pm = 0 r dI = 0 2 r3 dr = 0
.
4

, B(y) pm /2y 3 pm .
3.38. 3.2, :
h
h
< x < ( , . 73)
2



E=
20

!
11

+ 11
. 73

a
1+
xh/2

a
1+
x+h/2

h
 1 );
a

2 
+

2 

,
0

h
0
a

141

3.

|x| >

h
h

x+
x

2
2
E=
$
$
2
2
20 
h
h
x+
+ a2
x
+ a2
2
2

, E

2pe
, pe = Qh.
40 x3


2

a2 + 2 x


0 Q
h
2

B=
2 x
1

2 21/2
2
2a2

a2 + x h


2

a2 + 2 x +

2
h

2 x+
1
.

2 21/2
2

2
h

a + x+

, x = 0
&
&
& E(0) &
c2
/0
1
&
&
=
= 0
& B(0) & = 0 Q
0 0 h
h
2h

1
= c20 .
0 0

2 a2

x  a :

|B(x)| = 2pm

1

4

h
2

3 

x+

h
2

3
=

=
h
h
x3 3x2 + ...
x3 + 3x2 + ...
2
2

#
"

1 1
3h
3h

= 2pm
1
+
+
...

+
...
=
4 x3
2x
2x
1 3h
1 h
1

= 6pm
, pm = 0 Qa2 ;
= 2pm
4 x4
4 x4
4

= 2pm

, E/B x1 .

142

3.39. r  a :


1 3(p2m r)r
pm
.
B=

5
3
4

,
pm .
) (. . 74)

dQ =

Q
Q
2r1 a d = sin d
2
4a2

(r1 = a sin ).

dI =

Q
sin d ,
2 2


1
4

dpm () = 0 r12 dI = 0 Qa2 sin3 d.



pm =
0

= 0

Qa2
dpm () = 0
4

Qa
4

sin3 d =
0

(1 cos2 )d( cos ) =


0

Qa2
cos3
=0
cos +
4
3

. 74

=0
0

Qa2
.
3

Qa2 3( r)r

B= 0
3 .
4 3
r5
r

I =

dI
Q
B
=
sin =
.
a d
2 2a
0


:
2 I()
2
Q
B0 = 0
=
0 .
3

sin

3 2

2a

143

3.

)
:
Q
3Q 2
2r1 r d dr =
r dr sin d
2 a3
4a3 /3

(r1 = a sin ),
dI =

3Q 2
r dr sin d ,
2 2 a3

dpm (, r) = 0 r12 dI =
= 0
2 Q
pm = 0
4 a3

a

1
5

r dr sin3 d = 0 Qa2 ,
4

B=

3Q 2
r dr sin3 d ,
2 2 a3

0 Qa2
4 5

"

. 75

3( r)r

3 .
r5
r

3.40. .
1 , a (. . 76).

 
1
r
E =
,
20 r

ln r + const.
20

(ln r+ ln r ).
20
a
a
r+ = r cos , r = r + cos
2
2
a

 1,
2r

"

a
a
ln r 1 cos ln r 1 + cos
20
2r
2r

a cos
a
+O
20 r
r

(1)

pe = a,

(1)

pe r
.
20 r




I
B = 0
2r

144

. 76

(1)
(1)
1/0 0 , pe pm = 0 I0 a, :
(1)

m =

1 pm r
.
2 r 2

B = m =

(1)

(1)

1 r2 (pm r) 2rr (pm r)


.
2
r4

(r = ix + jy), :

(p r) = (px x + py y) =
=i

(px x + py y) + j (px x + py y) = ipx + jpy = p;


x
y


r2 = 2rr = 2r x2 + y 2 =


 2
 2
ix + jy
= 2r i
x + y2 + j
x + y 2 = 2r 
x

x2 + y 2

,
(1)

(1)

1 pm r2 2r(pm r)
1
B=
=
2
r4
2

(1)

(1)

2r(pm r)
p
m2
r4
r

= 2r.


.

, , (1)
, pm = I0 an,
"
#
I a 2r(n r)
n
B= 0 0

.
4
2
2


,
( r 3 ).

145

3.

I a 2 cos
cos
I a cos
= 0 0
Br () = 0 0

,
2
2
2
2

2
r
0 I0 a ( sin )
B () =
.
2
r2

,

I a
B = Br2 + B2 = 0 02 ,
2r

B=

I0 a
A 102 9 109 1
=
= 2 109 .
2
2
1
20 c0 r
16
2

2
2
9 10 1
2

3.41.
( ),
B () = 0 J(). B(r , ) ,
B0 . J()
B0 , B0 ; ,
B0 ;
pm = B0 .
, B0 sin (. . 77); J().
(r = a) (
3(pm r)
pm
sin

p
. ,
: Bd r
r
m
5
3
3
r

B0
pm = B0 :
"
#
3(B0 r)r
B
B = B0 0
3 .
5
4

, ,
= 0:


3B0
B0
0
2 3
0 = B 0

, =
a.
=
B
0
3
3
3
4

2a



a3
3 (B0 r)r
B = B0 1 + 3 a3
,
5
2r

I() =

3 B0
sin .
2 0

,
,
B0 , B0 .

146

. 77


E0 .
3.42. h  a:
2a.
, h,

B1 =

0 I
.
2h

, ,
a
F = B1 I 2a = 0 I .
h

(), (), . , , h/2; h


.
.
3.43. R  h,
( )
2R ,
2h:
I

F = 2RIB = 2RI 0 = 0 I 2
 mg ,
2 2h
2h


2mg h
2 103 10 5 103
I
=
30 .
7
1

0 R


1
2

B(y) = 0 IR2

4 10

10

1
1
2
[R2 + (y h)2 ]3/2
[R + (y + h)2 ]3/2

=

3/2 
3/2
2
2


2
2
2
IR
h
R
h
R
.
1
+ 2

1+
+ 2
= 0 3
y
y

2y
y
y

147

3.


IR2
B= 0 3
2y



h
R2 + h2
12 +
y
y2

3/2


R
 1
y


3/2 
2h
R2 + h2
1+
+
=
2
y


 

0 IR
h 3 R2 +h2
h 3 R2 +h2
=
1+3
+... 1 3
+...

3
2
2
2

2y

0 IR h
3 IR2 h
6 = 0 4 .
3
y
y
2y

, , ; (.
).
3.44. a  h , B , ,
"
#
1 3(pm r)r
pm
B =

,
5
3
4

pm = ey a2 I ,
r = ey 2h + e a (ey , e ,
).
, B
( ) B By

. 78

. 79

148

. (),
; ,
. : pm r = 2hpm ,

By =

pm
,
2(2h)3

B =

3apm
,
4(2h)4

Fy = 2aIB =

3
0 I 2
32

4
a
h

, .
, .
I
3.45. I1 B1 = 0 1 , r
2r
. , b, . a
( ) (
),


I
1
1
F = I2 [B1 (c) B1 (c + b)] a = I2 0 1 a

=
2

c+b

= I1 I2
3.46. j =

= jB0 =

ab
0
.
2 c(c + b)

I
; f =
2rl

IB0
,
2rl

r (. 79). m = r f ,

m = rjB0 =

IB0
, . , ,
2l

, M = m V ,

M = IB0

b2 a2
.
2

3.47. dm = 2rdrl
d
d
a =
r (

dt

dt

) dF = IB0 dr :
2rdrlr

d
IB0
=
,
dt
l2r2

d
= IB0 dr.
dt

IB0 t
.
2l r2

149

3.

, ,
.
3.48. N Ia d
dF = BN Ia d cos ,
.

dM = a cos dF = BN Ia cos2 d.

:

. 80

/
2

M = BN Ia

/
2
2

2 cos d = BN Ia
/2

(1 + cos 2)d = BN Ia2 .


/2



JM = M dt = BN a2 I dt = BN a2 Q,
2
5

JM = ma2 .

BN Q
5 0,5 104 20 5 3600

=
0,1
.
2/5m

2 103

3.49. , Idl , dF = Bi dl
(. 81). F = BIb = p ab,

p =

BI
103 104 102
=
= 103 .
a
102

3.50. j = E =
V B

V
,
a

, |j B| =
, a
b ,

. 81

150


V Bb
hg =
,
a

V Bb
0,2 10 1 1 30 98 104 20
=

= 6 .

g a
2
103 3 9,8 2

h =

3.51. I =v ,
v
B = 0 ,
2
I v. ,

F1 = IB =

0 vI

= 6 103 .
2

3.52.
Ib
. I =
2R

F1 =

0 I
Ib
I 2b

= 0 2.
2R 2R
(2R)

3.53.
, r :
r
2rB(r) = 0 j(r )2r dr .
0

r ,
d(Br)
= 0 j(r) r,
dr


1 d(Br)
B0 d +1
+1
r
j(r) =
=
(r
)
=
B
,
0
0 r dr
0 ra dr
0 r
a

, j = nev ,

n(r) =

+1
B0
ev0 r


r
a


1 d

e n(r)
v + 1 B0 r
div E =
(rEr ) =
=
=
;
r dr

0 0 v r

,
(v + 1)c20 B0
Er =
vr

r   
r
a

dr =

c20 B0
v


r
a

3.

3.54.
dr dz (. 82):
0  r < a,

151


B dl = 0 j dS -

(Bz + dBz )dz + Bz dz = 0 j0 dr dz ,

dBz = 0 j0 dr ,

Bz = 0 j0 r + Bz (0).

. 82

Bz (0) , , . , dz
, dz
(r = a + 0), .

Bz (0)dz = 0 j0 a dz ,

Bz (0) = 0 j0 a.

, 0  r < a, Bz = 0 j0 (a r), a < r , Bz = 0.


B = rot A , r , dr , (. 82). , 
e A (A = 0 j ).
A dl = B dS,
(r ,dr)

2(r + dr)(A + dA ) 2rA = 2r dr Bz ,

152

Bz =

1 d
(rA ).
r dr

:
0  r < a,

j0
A = 0
2

r2
C
ar
+ C1 + 2 ,
3
r
C3
A =
.
r

a < r < ,


:
( Bz ) ( Bz ). :
0  r < a,

j0
A = 0
2

a < r < ,

. 83

r2
ar a2 ,
3

A =

0 j0 a3
.
6
r


. 83. ,
,
. ,

r > a
2rA (r) = const,
.
3.55.

Iz


I
r
A = 0, 0, 0 z ln 1
2

r2

(. 84),

Iz = a2 jz0 ,


h 2
r12 = x2 + y
,
2


h 2
r22 = x2 + y +
,
2

153

3.

. 84

h . B0 (B0 , 0, 0),
x.
A = jz + ky.
,
z :

Ax = 0,

Ay = 0,


2
h
x2 + y
I
2
Az = B0 y 0 z ln

2 .
4
h
2
x + y+
2

Az (x, y) x y . r = (x2 + y 2 )1/2  h ( ). :



2
h
yh
x2 + y
2

1 2
2
r ln 1 yh
ln
=

2 ln
yh
r2
h
1
+
2
x + y+
r2
2


yh
yh
= 2 ln 1 2 2 2 . (3.1)
r

r  h,

I yh
Az B0 y + 0 z 2 = yB0
2 r

I h
1 + 0 z 2
B0 2 r


.

, , ,
(Az = 0),
1/2

0 Iz h
r0 =
.
2B0

154

L1 ,
A = const, ; ,


 B,
B dS = A dl. , B
r0 .
B v,
,
(, x,
y = 0 ), . 84.
3.56.

B0 = 0 J = 0 I

N
I
= 0 ,
l
b

r < a,

(l  a). Ja d dz ( . 85) B0 /2
, B0 /2,
.

. 85

dF =

B0
Ja d dz ,
2

pB =

. 86

B2
dF
B J
J2
= 0 = 0 = 0 2.
a d dz
2
2 0
2 b

,
wm = B02 /20
.
dT (. 86),
d
dT d = pB a d dz , dT = pB a dz.
2
dz
dz dN =
b2 dN =
b

2T sin

= b dz , dT  []b dz ,

pB a  []b,

0 I 2 a
 []b,
2b2

Im =

2[]b3
0,1 A.
0 a

3.57. ,
, (. 87):

B = 0,

r < a;

B =

0 I
,
2r

r > a.

155

3.

. 87

I2

02 2 = p,
8 a





8p
105
2
8
I = a
= ac0 2 40 p = 5 10 3 10 2
1,25 .
9
9 10

3.58. I1
I
B1 = 0 1 ,
2r
R+b




0 I1 a
dr
I a
b
(1)
12 = B1 dS2 =
= 0 1 ln 1 +
,
2


(1)

12 = n12 = I1

0 na
b
ln 1 +
2
R

L12 =

0 na
b
ln 1 +
2
R

= I1 L12 ,


= L21 .

3.59. . I
, I1 , B1 = 0 1 .
2r
2


12 =

I a
B1 dS2 = 0 1
2

b+c


L12 =

dr
I a
b
= 0 1 ln 1 + ,
r
2
c

0 a
b
ln 1 + .
2
c

156

W12 = I1 I2 L12 .
,


a
b
8 .
2W12 = I1 I2 0 ln 1 +

3.60. S , ,
z ( . 88). B B1
B2 , .
S B1
B2 ,
I1 = I2 , S . , S ,
x,
a x,


I 1
1
Bn (x) = 0
+
.

. 88

ax

B S

ab


S = B dS =
S

I
Bn (x)dx z = z 0
2

I
= z 0
2

(1)

Ll

ab


1
1
+
dx =
x
ax

ab
ln
ln
b

b
ab

(1)

= zILl ,

0
ab
2 ln
2
b

,
( ). b  a
(1)

Ll

0
a
ln .

.
(1)

Wi

1 (1)
2

= Li I 2 ,

157

3.
(1)

Wi .

B=

0 I r
,
2b b

b  a
. ,
,
1
2 0

b 2

b

B r dr d = 0
0 0

I
r

2b b

2
r dr =

0 I 2
.
16

(1)

Wi ,
(1)

Li

0
.
4

, (
)

a
1
(1)
L(1) = Le(1) + Li = 0 ln + .

4.
4.1. ,
ABCDA DCEF D (. 38):

E Jr = J1 R1 ,

(1)

q
+ LJ2 + J2 R2 J1 R1 = 0,
C

(2)

J = J1 + J2 ,
J2 = q,

(3)
(4)

q , .
E J2 r
(1) (3) , J1 =
, R1 + r
(2):
q
E J2 r
+ LJ2 + J2 R2
R1 = 0.
(5)
R1 + r

J2 q, :


1
rR1
q
E R1
R2 +
q +
q +
=
,
(6)
r + R1

LC

L(r + R1 )

, 02 =
,
LC


1
rR1
R2 +
, , 2 =
L

:


Q= 0 =
2

L
C

R2 +

rR1
r + R1


=

10 103

106

r + R1

1
7,1.
20 5
10 +
20 + 5

(6),
, t :

q =

CE R1
.
r + R1

J2 + 2 J2 + 02 J2 = 0, J2 (0) = 0. (5), :
E R1
.
J2 (0) =
L(r + R1 )

J2 (t) = et (A cos t + B sin t), = 02 2 ; A B

159

4.

. A = 0
( J2 (0) = 0), J2 (0) = B .
,
E R1
J2 (t) =
et sin t (. 89).
L(r + R1 )

. 89

Q, R2 ,
(6)

q + 2 q + 02 q = 02 q ;
q,

qq + 2 q2 + 02 q q = 02 q q,
,
:


02 q 2
1 d
q2
2
2
q =

0 q q
.
2 dt

, , R2 ,

q2 (t)R2 dt =

Q=

2
R2 02 q
CE2 R12 R2
=
.
2 2
2(r + R1 )(R1 R2 + r(R1 + R2 ))

r = 0, q = CE , Q =

CE2
.
2

4.2. (
. 93), v = l

160

. , , :

ml2 = mg l sin CD

2
(l)
S l ,
2

, S = a2
. ,


d m 2
S
(l) + mg l(1 cos ) = CD l3 3 .
dt


,
(F v). ,
,
. ,
, , ,
. ,
:

T
WT =
0

S
CD l3 3 dt = 4
2

/
2

CD

S 3 2
l d 
2

 4CD

S 3 2
l 20 = 2CD S g l2 .
2
2


, 2 0 , ,

. 90

161

4.

( ). ,
, WT ,
(t) = 0 sin 0 t:
T/4

T/4

3 dt = 03 03

2
3

cos3 0 t dt = 03 02 =

2 3 2
2 2
0 =
02 = 0,8202 ,
3 8
24

( )
02 . .
W0 = mg l,

Q

2 mg l
m
15
=
=
= 35.
CD S l
2CD S g l2
0,5 1,2 /3 (0,15 )2 10

. 90.
4.3. ,
x. ,  a, a
.

( ). , ,
, ( ),
. :

m
y + k(y y0 ) + (y y0 ) = 0,
, .
, ,
:

2
2x
2v
2vt
=h
= h cos(t),
y0 = h x cos
cos

x = v , = 2v/

.
0 = k/m , , :



v=

k
100
=
m
2

105 /
= 160 /.
103

( ) !

y + 2 y + 02 y = 02 h sin t + 2h cos t,
2 = /m.

y (t) = A sin t + B cos t.
6 .. .

162

, y (t) = A cos t
B sin t, y = 2 A sin t 2 B cos t, :

2 A sin t 2 B cos t + 2(A cos t B sin t)+


+ 02 (A sin t + B cos t) = 02 h sin t + 2h cos t.
sin cos,
A B :

(02 2 )A 2B = 02 h,
2A + (02 2 )B = 2h.

& 2
&
& 2 2 &
0
&
& = (02 2 )2 + 4 2 2 ,
=&
2
02 2 &
&
&


2 && h02
1 && 02 h
4 2 2
2
2
(0 ) +
A= &
,
=
2h 02 2 &

02
&
&


h02 2 2
1 &&02 2 02 h &&
2
B= &
(0 ) 2 ,
=
2
2h&

02


h02
4 2 2
2
2
(0 ) +
sin t+
y (t) = 2
(0 2 ) + 4 2 2
2

 0

2 2
(0 2 ) 2 cos t .
+
2
0

= 0 , y = h(sin 0 t Q cos 0 t), Q = 0 /2 . : Q = 0 /2 = 10 / 5 /2 = 25,


ym hQ = 1,25 . , .
, ( : l = v = 160 / 5 = 800 !),
. ,
,
,
.
4.4.
20 %. 1923 .
2 %. . ( ):
, , . . .
.
, , ,

.

4.

163

,
2q
q
F = S , F = S , q
c0
c0
, S , c
. l, :
2qS l
qS l
qS l
M =

=
.
c0 2

c0 2

c0 2

. 91

, , . u
, . 91. ,
v > u, ,
, (v u).
, .
(v u). m, , 2m(v u).
( ,
)
n(v u)

, v ,
4
n . ,
,

F+ =

mnS
(v u)2 .
2

,
v < u, 2m(v + u),
n(v + u)
.
4

mnS

F =
(v + u)2 . 2
, , FD = F F+ = 2Suv,
= mn . , , ( ,

6*

164

). ,

, . , , .
, ,

l
l
= Svl2 ,
M = 2Suv
+
2

I + Svl2 + G =

qSl it
e .
2c0

, Q = 0 =
2

I
G
qSl I
qSl
, , =
=
,
=
2
2Ic0 G

I Svl

2Gc0

, , max =

I
q

. = Q =
G

2c0 vl

, ,





q = 2vc0 l

8R T
c0 l

G
p
max = 2
I
R T

G
max =
I

102

8G

= 1 3 108 / 0,03

= 2pc0 lmax
IR T
180
$

8 107 / 0,029 /
= 54 /2 .
108 2 8,31 /( ) 300

4.5. , ,
rot B = 0 j (
) rot E = B/t ( ).
,
, :


[j r]
B= 0
dV.
3
4

165

4.

,
:

1
[B/t r]
E=
dV.
3
4

,
0 j  B/t,
B  E.
:
B/t,
E, :
1) ( ) j, , B/t;
2) 0 j 
B/t ( 0 J  /t), B  E;
3) E.

.
. j (. . , B/t )
.

Bx =

0 R2 r2 j
.
2 (x2 + R2 )3/2

2) ,
:

Ex =

1 R2 r2 B
.
2 (x2 + R2 )3/2

B
B
=

= J0 sin t
Ex =

0 N
,
2r

0 J0 N Rr2 sin t
A sin t
= 2
,
4(x2 + R2 )3/2
(x + R2 )3/2

A =

0 J0 N Rr2
.
4

, ,

Fx = p e

Ex
1
E
1 3A2 x
= 40 a3
Ex x = 40 a3
sin2 t =
x
+2
x
+ 2 (x2 + R2 )4
1 3A2 x
= 20 a3
(cos 2t 1).
+ 2 (x2 + R2 )4

166

. 92

, , x0 (. 92):

Fconst (h x0 ) = 60 a3

1
A2 (h x0 )
= kx0 .
+ 2 ((h x0 )2 + R2 )4

,  ,
: k/m = 2 , k = 4 2 m =
16

a3 2 . , =
3
, :
1
16 2 ((h x0 )2 + R2 )4 x0 1
16 2 ((h x0 )2 + R2 )4 x0
=
=

+2
18 0
h x0
18 0
h x0
A2
16
128 c20 ((h x0 )2 + R2 )4 x0

=
.
2
2
9 0 (J0 N Rr2 )2 (h x0 )
(0 J0 N Rr )

,
, , , ,
.

167

4.

,
x0 .
4.6. ,
, , . E(r , t)
r ,
E:
2rE(r , t) = r 2

B
= r2 B0 ieit ,
t

E(r, t) = i

B0 r it
e .
2

(. 93),
:

2
3b
3b
3b
3b
m
+ 6a
+ mg = q E(r, t).
4

Me =

3b
q E sin ,
4

, , = /2,
:

tg =

(3b/4) cos b
1
,
(3b/4) sin
3

sin

1
1.
1 + 9 2

, x 3b/4:

x +

6a
4g
q B0 r
x +
x=
ieit .
m
3b
m 2

. 93

168

. ,
F (t) = F0 eit ,

x + 2 x + 02 x = F0 /meit .
x =

F0
, m02

( 0 F F0 ),
xm xm = Qx ,
Q = 0 /2 . , 0 .
,
1 q B0 r

x = 2
0 m 2
0 m 1 q 0 B0 r
q B b
= 0 .
6a 02 m 2
48a

: xm = Qx =


, q = 40 a2 E ,
:
48a
12
= xm
=
ab0 E
b 40 a2 E
12 2 105 /( )
= 105 4 2
=
10 8,85 1012 2 /( 2 ) 3 106 /

B0 = xm

= 0,9 /( ) = 0,9 .

4.7. ,
,

pm (t) = 4a3

1 B0 it
e ;
+ 2 0

W12 = pm B 12 =

0 p2m
,
3
4r12

B12 ,
(, , . . 94), ,
() , r12 = l + 2a + 2x ,
x ,
2x  l.

F12 =

dW12
3 p2
= 0 4m .
dr
4r12

169

4.

. 94

x + 2 x + 02 x = Um

1 + eit
,
2

= 2 ,

2 =

6a
,
m

02 =

2k
.
m

,
( ),


1 + cos 2t
1 + e2it
p2m Re2 (eit ) = cos2 t =
= Re
;
2

,
, m/2 (. , ).
, ,
,
2

2

a6 B02
3 0
1 3 B0
2
24 1
Um =

=
,
4
4
4(l + 2a)

+2

Um /02 ,

m0

+2

(l + 2a)

x =
(. 95) xm = Um /40 ,
1/2 = 3a/m, 0 x Um /202 .

. 95

170


Um /202 .
4.8. ,
,

pm = V I = V H

1
m J 1
=
,

2r

V , I ,
H , J , r .
a = (m/)1/3 102 , , .
, (. 96),

Fm = (pm , )B = p
m

1
B e
p B
(e B ) = p
= m er ,
m
r
r
r

. . .
.
,
:

2F
cos 3t
cos 5t
x + 2 x + 02 x = m cos t
+
... ,
Fm =

J
2

0 ( 1)
, r3

.

0 =
k/m =

= 4,9/(5 103 ) 10 /.
= 2/T = 2 /. ,

. 96

171

4.

0 5 , . .
5 .
, ,
1 2Fm
5

( ,
: 2 = 4 /  1/2 = 0 /2Q = 10/200 = /20 /):

xm = Q x = Q
=

Q( 1)J 2
2Fm
= 0 3 2
=
5k
10 0 h3

4 107 /2 100 199 108 2


1
3 4 = 0,1 .
10 3 (10 /)2 200 4 103 /3 (1 )3
10


, .
4.9.
< 0 (. 97).

. 97


. ADC ,
. BC
. ,
( ) ,
AD. ,
, . ,
,

172

. , (. .
).
ds = al d ,
AD ( ), = /2 .
, , E , E
E
p = sin = cos ,
c
c
- a, . O ( )
.
, ,
q
ds sin ; , , E

q
c

, dF = al cos sin d . q

dM () = a2 l cos sin d ; = 0
c
= , , AD:
q 2
M = a l sin | sin |.
2c

, ,
. , < 0
M > 0 ( ), > 0, M < 0
( ).

d
d2
q
= J 2 = a2 l sin | sin |.
dt
2c
dt

, J
1 d 2

d
d d
d
= J
= J , ( < 0),
dt
d dt
d

=
a2 l sin2 .
2 d
2cJ
m .
= 0 = 0,
2
g = m
a=

qal
sin 20
0
=
2mc
2


1400 /2 10 100
3

= 2,7 109 /2 .
=
12
2 104 3 108 /

, , m = 1,7

105 /, vm = m a = 0,17 /.
g , . , m al,

4.

173

. ,
, ( q ), .

(. 98).
,
, (t)

( ).
4.10. (, ,

. 98

174

):


V1 =

Q q +
=
40 mR

mV12
1 Q q +
=
,
R
40 R2
9 109 2 /2 108 4,5 1010
= 0,2 /.
0,1 105

, .
. ,
, ,
h, (. ,

h/R, ).
h 0. T (A , C
, )
T1 = 2R/V1 , -,

( . 99) :
hR
hR +
T
2 = 1 + 1.
=
T1
hR

. 99

, m
r+
3Q

q + r
= 0, =
30

=

4R3
, 02 =
=

q+
q + Q
V2
=
= 12 .
3
3m0
40 mR
R


(, ): T = T1 . ,
t = 0 V1 ,
(, ,
). ,

175

4.

: r(t) = R(cos 0 t sin 0 t). T /8


,
(
T /8),
(
mV 2

Q q +

mV 2

m
1
, ):
+
=
2
80 R
2

Vm = V1 2 0,28 /.
T /4.
, e = T /2. , ,

T = e + 2T =

T1
+ 2T1
2

1
1
+

= T1

2
3
+

6,7 .

= T 1 = 0,14 .
(. 100).
 2
r
r  R
+ r2 = 2R2 .
0


:
mr 2
Q q +
mV12
Q q +
mV 2

= 1 ,
2
40 r
2
40 R
2
r

= R
0

2R
1 r  R. r

. 100

176

x,
.
4.11. ,
,
(. 101). , E =
= E 0 ei((k,r)t) , k = k cos
ex k sin ey k ex k sin ey , ex ey
x y , ,
E = E0 ei(kxky sin t) , , E = E0 ei(kxt) .
, . , ,

E = E + E = E0 ei(kxt) (1 + eiky sin ),


J EE = E02 (1 + eiky sin )(1 + eiky sin ) =


= E02 (2 + eiky sin + eiky sin ) = 4E02 cos2

ky sin
.
2

, (
1
.
) =
sin


2
2c
, 2 =
.
: E = E0 ei(k2 x2 t) , k2 =
2

. 101

177

4.

: J . :

E = E 2E2 ei(k2 x2 t) +E2 ei(k2 x+ky sin 2 t) +E2 ei(k2 xky sin 2 t) =


2
i k2 x+k2 y
sin 2 t

= 2E2 ei(k2 x2 t) +E2 e


2
i k2 xk2 y
sin 2 t

+E2 e

,
, , ,

sin = 2 sin ( ,
1


), ,
. ,
(m = 0, 1),
. 102

.
, .
2
(. . 102)


E ei(kx xt) 2 + ei(kx x+ky y) + ei(kx xky y) =


= 2ei(kx xt) 1 + eikx x cos(ky y) ,

J E E
1 + cos2 ky y + 2 cos ky y cos kx x =

= (cos ky y + cos kx x)2 + sin2 kx x.



.
x-, y -.
y -

y =

2
2

=
= 2 =
= 1 ,
ky
k2 sin
sin
(2 /1 ) sin
sin

. .
!

178

v=

y
1
0,63
=
=
= 200 /.

sin
3,15 108 0,1

4.12. ( ).
x,
:
1
1
1
= +
,
F
x
hx


h h(h 4F )
135 135(135 120)
x=
=
= 90 , 45 .
2
2


0,63
(m)
= m
sin max = m = m
d
12
0,0525, m = 0, 1, 2, ...
x = 90 , h x = 45 ,

, (. 103),
D/2
sin = 
=
(D/2)2 + (h x)2
5
= 0,1104.
=
52 + 452

m = 0, 1,
2. .


. 103
d, . . ,

m = 2 m = 2
d/4 ( , d/4) .
5
. x = 45 , h x = 90 , sin =
= 0,0556.
52 + 902

m = 0, 1;
d/2, ()
2 , .
,
.

179

4.

m = 0,
. , ,
.
4.13. , ,
(. 104)
, .
r = F = 5 103 ,
(. . 40)


r = 3h = 3 0,63 106 4 =
. 104

= 2,7 103 < r ,

. . .

cE 2
N
J0 = 0 0 =
,
2
2

E0 =

1
F

2N
1
=
0 c
0,5 102

(F )

2 0,1
=
8,85 1012 /2 3 108 /

= 0,98 103 /.
4.14. , x ,
(. 105).

1 dn
rxx
d2 r
d
=
2 = ,

2
3
/
2
n dr
dx
(1 + r )
dx

dr
 1 x.
dx

. 105

180


n = 1 + N (y)/2, ,

mg y
N (y) = N (0) exp

kT

y ,
.
n 1
: = 0
,
N (0)


n 1
mg y
n(y) = 1 + 0
exp
.
2

kT


kT
8,6 ( T =
H =
mg

= 300 ), . ,
.
, dn/dr dn/dy ,
h (. . 105):

x2
y = (R + h)2 + x2 R h +
,
2R

R ; x ,
. ,
x




d
dn
mg
mg y
n 1
1
x2
= 0

= (n0 1)
exp
exp
;
h+
dx

dy

kT

kT

2R

,
:

n 1
h
(h) = 0
exp
H
H


+



x2
dx =
exp
2RH

= (n0 1)

0 = (n0 1)

2R
= 5 104
H

2R
exp(h/H) = 0 exp(h/H),
H

2 6,4 106
= 0,034 = 1,95
8,6 103

, ( +
 x2

e dx = ).

F = R/0 = 188 000 .


(min)

r0 = F 1

1,22

(min)

=F
= 2 (1
2R

181

4.

),
, . 105.
N
4.15. n = 1 +
,
2

n = 1 + (n0 1)
n
,

1
R
,
dn/dy

N
T
= 1 + (n0 1) 0 .
N0
T

(. 106).
,
T T0
T = T0 +
y.
h
,
( ,
)

n = 1 + (n0 1)

. 106

T0
1
= 1 + (n0 1)

T T0
y T
y
T0 +
1+
h
h T0



y T
.
1 + (n0 1) 1
h T0

y ,

. , .

dn
(n 1) T
= 0
:
dy
h
T0
h
R=
.
(n0 1)T /T

(
, )
(. . 106):




R=h+

R2

l2
l2
h+R 1
,
4
8R

l2

R
.
8h
,


l (n0 1)T
0,0003 10
h=
= 5
1,1 .
2

2T 0

2 300

182

4.16.

(
p = H /a = 103 2 /3 103 = 15, p  1),
. 107.

. 107

kb sin m + = 2m, m = 0, 1, 2, ... ,


- sin 0 = /kb.
u = arcsin(u/c)
. ,
. . M, .

u = c /2b = 300 / (/60) 103 /(2 1,5 102 ) = 0,17 /.


, , ,
: Dmin = H/b = 13,3 .
4.17. (, ,
), H = /2,
, 0 = v /2H ,
= v /0 = 2Hv /v = 3,3 , v = 330 / . :

m=

D2
3,32 104
33
=
= 1.
4 h 2
4 3,3 103 6 102 2
24 2


p1 = 2p0 4J0 .

(. . 108). , -

183

4.



.
16J0 ,
 2p = 2p1 =
= 4p0 = 4 2v J0 .
. 108
,
: = /2 sin(/2).

/2 = 45 , = / 2 = 0,23 .
4.18. ,
,

dE
= B cos ,
ds dt d

B ( ). , ,
,
:
/
2
dE
=
2B cos sin d = B.
ds dt

: B 2a2 = Re Pa a2 ,
B = Re Pa /2 , Pa , ( ).
, , , , W0
: Pa =
. , ,
2
1,22(x/D)

.
,
,
dE
=B
dt d

/
2

2a2 sin cos d =


0

Re Pa a2
.
2

184

Wmin =

dE
E P a2 D2
= e a
,
dt
2
4x2

Pa ,
 W0 = Wmin



2
2

11 4
8 1,222 2 x 4
8

1,22
0,1
10
= 1012
= 2,4 1013 .

3
3
Re

0,5

10

10

4.19. , , ,
, . , ( ,
, t , sin = n sin t ,
. . 109)

&2
&

&
&
&
&2 & sin 1 sin2 cos sin &
&
&
&
&
sin( t ) & &
n & =
n2
Re = &&

=&
&
&
sin( + t )
sin2
sin &
&
+
cos

&
& sin 1
2
n

&
&
&
&
&
&
& n2 sin2 cos &2 & n2 cos2 sin &2 & 1 &2

&
&
&
&
&
&
= &
& = & n2 cos2 + sin & = & 1 + & =
n2 sin2 + cos
&
&2

&
&
&1
&
4
&
1 &
=&
.
& =1
&1 + &
1
&
&
1

. 109

185

4.


, :
&
&
&2
&
&
&
& tg( t ) &2

& cos( + t ) &
&
&
Re = &
& = Re &
& =
tg( + t )
&

&

cos( t )

&2
&
&
&
& cos 1 sin2 sin sin &

2 &2
&
&
&
2
2
2
&
& sin n cos cos &
n
n
&
= Re &

& = Re & sin n2 cos2 +cos2 &
sin2
sin &
&
& cos 1 2 +sin
&
n
n
&
&2 


& 1 1&
4
& 1 4
Re &&
1 4 1 1
.
&
1 +1

,
1 2 , :
dp1
q a2

= 0 cos [(1 Re1 ) + (1 Re1 )],
dt
2c 2
dp2
q a2

= 0 cos [(1 Re2 ) + (1 Re2 )],
dt
2c 2

, q0 /2c ,
. , ,


a
dp1
dp2 q0 a2 a 2
4
4
M = sin

+
=
4
dt
dt
2c 2 4
2 1
1 1



4
4
q
+1
+1
= 0 a3 3 1
=
+ 1 2
2
1 1

2 1

4c

2 1
1 1
d
d d
d
=J
=J
= J .
dt
d dt
d

, :


4
q0 a3 m
2 + 1
1 + 1
2
.
m =

8Jc

2 1

1 1

4.20. .
,
.
, , ,
.
:

H=

mm
mc
=
,
2
2m

m =

c
103
m=
m = 2,5 m,
2H
2 0,2

m = 1, 2, 3, ...

186

.
fmin = 1,8 , fmax = 2,2 ,
:

mmin = 1,8 106 /2,5 103 = 720,


mmax = 2,2 106 /2,5 103 = 880.
m = mmax mmin = 160 .
:
H
2H
=Q=
,
H
0 (1 R)


0 = v1 /f0 = 103 / 2 106 = 5 104
2



2 v2 1 v1
451 2
, R =
=
= (19/21)2 = 0,82
2 v2 + 1 v1

45+1

. ,
2 0,2
Q=
= 1,38 104 , H/H = 7,2 105 0,007 %.
4
5 10

0,18

: Q =

2W
2W
=
, WR
W
WR + WD

,
, WD , .

, 1
1
1
=
+
,
:
Q

. 110

QR

QD

QR QD , .
W
S
S
QD = 2
= 2
= 2 
,
WD
S
S S
S , S
(. 110).
,
,
: m =

D2
(2 102 )2
=
= 1.
4 0 H
4 5 104 0,2

4.

187

4 , J = 4J0 .
,
: J D2 /4 = J0 D2 /4, D = D/2. , ,
. ,
( )
: m =

D2
m
=
= 0,25. 4 0 H
4

!
:


H
1
4 H
D = D + 2,44 0 = D
+ 1,22 02
= 1,72D,
D
2
1
QD = 2 
= 3,2,
(D /D)2 1

D
H
1

= 31 %.
H
QD

-
. , , ,
m = 1/3 5/3 .
J0 ,
D = D,
, . . m = m.
!
.
,
.
4.21.
, ,
. ,
330 /
=
= 1 , ,
4
3,3 10

(min)

1 = arcsin (1,22/D) = /3,


D = 2,44/ 3 = 1,4 .
, , . 111 , .
( )
( 1 = arcsin(/D) = arcsin(5/7) 46 ).
(min)
, |1 | < 1
,
m = 1 .

. , ,
,

188

(t) .

2D
sin m (t) = 2m,

m = 0, 1, 2, ... ,

sin m = sin + m

, sin =
D

(t)
. (t) , 2D

,
,
, (min)
, |m | < 1
.
(t) . ,
.
2D
sin t;
(t) =

sin 0 sin t = 0,
+ t

sin 0
= 0.
2 cos 0
2
2
,
(. 111).
. t = 0 (0 = 0) (0 = ). t : 0 = t,
: 0 = t. .
. ( !)
, , ,
.
. , ,
, . .
(. 112). m = 0 ,
( ) .
m = 0 46
m = 1, m = 2 .
, , .
(
,

189

4.

. 111

, ),
, . ,

,
.
.

. m,

D sin =

(mN 1)
,
N

D sin =

(mN + 1)
,
N

190

. 112

N . ,

2
 
 + 

= sin sin = 2 sin


cos
2 sin
cos ,
ND
2
2
2

= 2 arcsin
. ,
N D cos


2
.

ND
, . ,

= 2 arcsin

2
R
= ,
ND
L

N=

2 200
= 286.
1,4

4.22. . , d, l D/d = 1 + l/d2 = 1 + p2 ,


p . p 0 D d, ( ), p , D l/d, . ,
d. , , : d = l .
: E53 = 13,6 Z 2 (1/32 1/52 ) = 654 = 1,05 1016 ,

4.

191

Z = 26 Fe26
56 ;


=hc/E53 = 6,62 1034 ( ) 3 108 (/) 1,05 1016 = 18,9
A,

. 
: d = 18,9 1010 10 = 1,4 104 .
N , m 1
= Q, m = d2 lFe /4 = 1,2
: N E53
m0 S

103 , m0 = Fe /NA = 9,3 1026


R 2
, S = 1,22
= 3,4 103 2
d
. ,
, . .  d.
, N = 5 105 , M = mN = 600 .
4.23. R, , S a. R2 = a/2. ,
P m = R2 /a = 1/2. P 2A0 , A0 ,
, m = 1/2 A0 2 .
, 2 .
. . Ws , J0 = Ws /4a2 , J0 = W0 /4(a/2)2 = W0 /a2 = 4J0 .
P 2 .
4.24. ,
,
, , , . 113.
, .
( ) , .
,
, .

x
=
R


R : = /R = 1,6 104
= 10 = 5,1 104 = 100 .

192

. 113

(, ,
), DA = 1,22/ = 76 ( = 10 ) 240 ( = 100 )!
,
, ,
. 2
2
2
2
: rm+
1 rm = R ; rm+1 rm 2rm rm ,
rm R /2R0 = 1,4 R0 = 10 ,
, = 100
rm = 14  R0 , . ? p2 = ne e20 /me 0 , e0 = 1,6 1019 ,
me = 9,1 1031 . , p = 3,1 107 /, p = 61 , . .
= 100 .
, , ,
.
4.25.
, ,
:

x1 = [(5 + 1/40)]2 / = 25(1 + 1/200)2 25 + /4.

193

4.

,
2x1 + /2 = 51, .
.
.
,
.


R = E = 1,15 1010 780 /(2 ) = 2,9 106 /(2 );

RH2 O = 1,5 103 / 103 /3 = 1,5 106 /(2 ).


Ra = (RH2 O R )/(RH2 O + R ) = (1,5 2,9)/(1,5 + 2,9) 1/3.


x1 = 101/4


 2
J1 =
J0 + 2/3 J0 = 25J0 /9.
4.26.



A = Nmin =

c
c
=

= 5 104 .


0
.
,
,
m = 1 m = 3,
(. 114):
(max)

sin 1

+ sin 0 = 1,
d

. 114

(max)

sin 3

3
+ sin 0 = 1.
d

4/d = 2, sin 0 = 1/2, . . d = 2 = 1,2 , 0 = /6.


( ,
), ( )
, , b.
7 .. .

194

,
, m = 2:
(min)

sin 1

(max)

= + sin 0 = sin 2

2
+ sin 0 ,
d

b = d/2 = .
4.27. , d = N01 = 1/50 = 20 ,
1 0 (. .
115) = 0 : d (sin 0
sin ) = , sin 0 = /d + sin = 1/ 2 1/2 0,7 0,5,
0 = arcsin 0,2 = 11,5 . , m = 1
, m = 1.
, .
m = 1:
= + = 45 + 11,5 = 56,5 :

=
(sin sin ) = (sin sin( )) = 2 cos sin

cos =
,
2
2
d
56,5
45
1
cos
cos
=
= 0,05,
2
2
20

= cos

5 102
= 6,2 102 = 3,5 .
0,88 0,92

A = |mN | = N0 d 2 = 50 1 10 2 = 500 2 = 0 / ,
=

0
,
500 2

. ,

2
2
21
F =
=
500 2 =
500 2 = 100 2 = 141.

10

. 115

195

4.

4.28.
% , k = /V =
g H %

= 2 g H . x = 0 (. . 116).
h1 = h1 ei(k1 xt) ,
h1 .

h2 = h2 ei(k2 xt) , i(k1 x+t)

h3 = h3 e
. + ,
. x = 0
, . ( x = 0 ): h1 + h3 = h2 .
,


h

h
= gH
= const. V : V
y

  ,
g H1 (h1 h3 ) = g H2 h2 . ,
:

Da =


h2
2 H1
=
,

h1
H1 + H2

Ra =



h3
h
H H
= 2 1=  1  2 .
h1
h1
H1 + H2

. 116

, H2 > H1 , ,

.
:
 

2

H1 H2
4 H1 H2
2
R = Ra = 
, D = 1 R =


 2 .
H1 +

H2 = H1 /4

H2

H1 +

H2

h2
2
4
=
= . 
h1
3
1 + 1/4

(
), . , ,
7*

196


 ( H = 5000
V = g H = 9,8 2 / 5000 = 221 /!), ,
, , .
, ,
, , .
, H2  H1 .
1,
. . ,

.
4.29.
S1
S2 . ,
, . .
(. ,
!): 1 = 1 ei(kxt) ( ), 2 = 2 ei(kxt)
( ), 3 = 3 ei(kx+t) ( ).

c S
t

( ,
), ,
:

1 + 3 = 2 ,

S1 (1 3 ) = S2 2 .

2
2S
=
,
1
S1 + S2

S S2
= 2 1= 1
.
1
1
S1 + S2

,
.
, . . S2 > S1 .
,
, ( ,
).

2 = 1 1 2 (1 + 1 2 e2ik+i + 21 22 e4ik+2i + ...) = 1

1 2
.
1 + 1 2 e2ik

1 1 S1 S2 ; 2 , 2
S2 S3 , ei

197

4.

.
:
 2
12 22
12 22

T= 2
=
=
=
2ik
2ik
2 2
1

(1 + 1 2 e

)(1 + 1 2 e

1 + 1 2 + 21 2 cos 2k

12 22
(1 21 )(1 22 )
=
=
.
2
2
(1 + 1 2 ) 41 2 sin k
(1 + 1 2 )2 41 2 sin2 k

S2
, , ,
. = (2m + 1)/4,
m + /2 ( ) +/2 ( ) = (m + 1),
. , ,
, , .
sin2 k = 1. 1 2 ,
T 1:

(1 21 )(1 22 ) = (1 + 1 2 )2 41 2 ,
1 = 2 ,

S1 S2
S S3
= 2
. S1 + S2
S
2 + S3

: S2 = S1 S3 = 2 2 .
,
. S2 (
), . , ,
, ,

. , , , . ,
. , , . ,
,
S(x + /4) S(x /4) = S 2 (x). S(x) = S(0)ex ,
. , .
,
. ( )
(
).

198

4.30. L = 2d tg 3,46, h/2L 2,3,


(. 117), ,
,
.

. 117

= k =
= 2knd cos , = 2nd cos ,
k = 2/ . z
, ,

E = E0 ei(kzt) (1 + 2 ei + 4 e2i ) = E0 ei(kzt)

1 6 e3i
,
1 2 ei


. 2 + 2 =
= 1.
6
12
1 6 e3i 1 6 e3i
2 2 1 2 cos 3 +

=
E

=
0
1 2 ei 1 2 ei
1 22 cos + 4
(1 6 )2 + 46 sin2 3/2
(1 R3 )2 + 4R3 sin2 3/2
= E02 2
= E02 2
.
2
2
2
2
(1 ) + 4 sin /2
(1 R)2 + 4R sin2 /2

J EE = E02 2

, , ,

J = J0 (1 R)

(1 R3 )2 + 4R3 sin2 3/2


=
(1 R)2 + 4R sin2 /2


= J0 (1 R) 1 + R2 + R4 + 2R(1 + R2 ) cos + 2R2 cos 2 .


E -. sin /2 = sin 3/2 = 0,
(. 118):

Jmax = J0 (1 R3 )(1 + R + R2 ) = 0,407J0 .


, ,
= m (m = 0, 1, 2, ...), . . -

199

4.

. 118

. = (m + 1/2) (m = 0, 1, 2, ...),

sin2 /2 = sin2 3/2 = 1 Jmax
= J0 (1 R)(1 R + R2 )2 = 0,045J0 .
,
() . ,

. :
, .
, , ,
. .
,


dJ
= J0 (1 R) 2R(1 + R2 ) sin + 4R2 sin 2 = 0,
d


1 + R2
2
4
8
10
arccos(0,5) = , , ,
min = arccos
, ...
4R

, .
J 0.
. =
= 2nd cos = m, m = 2nd cos / = 3 104 . A = / = 3m = 0,9 105 , G = =
= 0,56
A,

m
2nd cos
1
ctg
=
=

=
= 1,15 106 1 .

2nd sin

2nd sin

4.31. ,
.

n = tg = tg(/2 ) = tg 60 = 3 1,73 (. 119).

200

. 119

, :

n sin 2 = sin = 3 /2, sin 2 = 1/2, = 30 ,


2 
2

sin(2 1 )
sin(30 )
1
R =
=
= .

sin(2 + 1 )

sin(90 )

,
, R = (R + R )/2 = R /2 =
= 1/8. , . C
(. 119) = 2h/ cos = 4h = 4 , J /J0 = 1/8e = 1/24,
= ln 3/ = 0,28 1 .
4.32. , , ,
. , . 120.
B , = AB BC ,
DAB = 30 , AB = y/ sin 30 = 2y , BC = AB sin 30 = y , = y .
= 3, tg = tg = n = 3 , E , . :
sin 2 = sin 1 /n = 1/2, 2 = 30 .

E
sin(1 2 )
sin 30
1
=
=
= ,
1

sin(1 + 2 )

sin 90

1
1
, : E = E
+ E
= E
1 + eiky /2 . , ,

201

4.

. 120

, ,
( ):

Ps =

pe )2
0 (
sin2 .
(4)2 c r2

pe
, (r , ) , . , (
).
, :

(
p )2
(
p )2 8
Ps 2r sin d = 0 e2 2 sin3 d = 0 e2
=
3
(4) c
(4) c
2

Ws =
0

0 (
pe )2
(
pe )2
=
.
6c
60 c3

, ,
,
. Eeit

1
pe = 40 a3
E eit .
+2


1 2 4 E 2

p2e  = (40 )2 a6
.
+2

202


40 c 4 1 2 6 2
Ws =
k
aE ,
+2

k = 2/ .
,


1
1
1 2
E 2 = (E1 )2 + (E
) 1 + eiky 1 + eiky =
2

2

1
1
1 2
) 1 + + cos ky = (E1 )2 2 + + cos ky =
= (E1 )2 + (E
4
4

1 2 9
+ cos ky ,
= (E )
4

( ) (E1 )2 =
= R J0 = J0 /(0 c).

4
1 2 9
Ws = J0 a6 k4
+ cos ky .
+2

4.33.
, , ,
4.30, .
:
1
T =
,
2
1

4R
sin2 k
(1 R 2 )2

R .
m

H=
, H = (2m + 1), m = 0, 1, 2, ... 2
4
1 ,

1 m = H , 1 =  , v 2
1
, m .

H = 1 (2m + 1),
, v
1 =
4
1
. (
, )
2 :

H=

1

(2m + 1), H = 2 (2(m + 1) + 1).


4
4


m
m
1
=  +
,
21
22
42

m =

1
.
2(2 1 )

203

4.



2 H
E
v = 1 = 4H(2 1 ) =
,
m

E = 16H (2 1 ) .
,



(2m + 1) + 2
2m + 1
1
1
1
1
= ,
=
,

m +
2

41

42

2
1
1
1
m + =
= 2m ,
2
2 1

v =

41 H
= 2H(2 1 ) =
2m + 1

G
,

G = 4H 2 (2 1 )2 = E/4.
4.34. , ,

= n2 ( = 0) = 1 +

ne e20
= 1 + n, n = 1.
m0 02

n2 ( = 20 ) = 1 +

ne e20
n
1
5
=1
= 1
= ,
3
3
6
m0 (02 402 )

n( = 20 ) =


5/6 .

4.35. ,
,
/2,
x = /4 + m /2.
2x + /2 = (m + 1) , ,
, .
, . ,

xmin = /4 = 
4

0
1 (0 /2a)2

= 
4

0,1
1 (0,1 /2 0,072 )2

= 3,5 .

p2 =

2
ne e20
1018 3 1,62 1038 2
21
=
=
3,1

10
.
m0
2
9,1 1031 8,85 1012 2 /( 2 )

2
p

p2  02 , n2 () = 1
p ,

n = in ,

204

= kn =

0 p
= p , c 0
c


ep L/c = e7,4 = 6 104 .
4.36.
. 1/ ,
,
,
.
u = d/dk,
v() = /k, .
.
, +
x:

() = t kx [( + )t (k + k)x] = kx t =

dk
d2 k ()2
d2 k
1
= x k
= x 2
x 2 2;
= x k
u


(
). ,
,
. .
( )


2
2

dk2

1
k() =

,
=
.


2

3/2
c

ac



2  3 2 3/2
3/2
2 3,3 1010
10
2 2
2

8

7,2
3

10
()1 |k (1 )|
c
a
= 
= 

3/2 = 
=


 3/2
()2 |k (2 )|
10 2
3 2
1 2
2
2

10
10

c
a
7,2
3 108


2,22 1,382
22 1,382

2

= 1,67;

.
4.37. Lmin = /2,
0
= 
= 0,14 , 0 = c/0 =
1 (0 /2a)2

= 0,1 .

4.

205

. 121

(. . 121),
E(x, z) = E0 sin(2z/ ) sin(x/a).
w = 0 E 2 /2 , :

W =
=

0 E02
0
ab 
=
16
1 (0 /2a)2
8,85 1012 9 1020
72 34 106 0,14 = 0,17 ,
16

P = W/ = 1,7 1012 , S = P/ab = 7 1014 /2 .


, ,
(,

).
4.38.
( ).
, ,
c
vy = 
, 1 (0 /2a)2

, ,
, vx = c.
x- y -


2
2

L = , 0 =

2
0
= 4 , L =
= 3 .
4(1 0 / )

L =

= c/0 = 3 , = 

0
1 (0 /2a)2

206

4.39. ; , ,
T 4

dW ()
=
d

=
S cos ,

.
= 2
, (. 122),

dW () =

T 4
T 4
S cos 2 sin d =
S sin d .

dS( ) =
= 2R2 sin d .
dW ( )
T 4
=
S ,
dS( )
4R2

. 122

dm
T 4
= Ag h = 106 S
,
dS
4R2

.
, h
h !
h
:

T =

4 106 Ag hR2
.
S

4.40. ,

d = N01 = 1/1200 = 0,83 ,


:

1 = 0,83 sin 60 = 0,71 ,


2 = 0,83 sin 45 = 0,59 .
, , 1 2 :


 5

J(1 )
J (1 )
2
hc
1
1
=
=
exp

,
J(2 )

J (2 )

kT

207

4.

T =

hc 2 1

k
1 2

ln

J1
J2

1


1
2

5 2 =

6,62 1034 3 108 / 0,71 0,57 1

0,71 0,57
1,38 1023

1

5 2 = 1375 .
0,71
ln 10
0,57
1


hc
6,62 1034 3 108
=
15 18,
kT
1,38 1023 (0,59 0,71) 106 1357


.
4.41. , T 4

D2

, W =

()2 , ()2

4
,
1,22/D,  ,
.
(
) S ,
L, , ,
( S/L2 )

T4 D2

(()2 S/L2 ),
4
4
T
D2
S
, . 123. W =

4L 2

W =

, ,

. 123

208

,
.

Wmin = W + W W =

L =

D
2

4
(T
T4 )
D2
S
,

4L 2

4
S(T
T4 )
= 310 .
Wmin

4.42. , , : m = 0,0029 K /3 1 . , S ,
S
T = 300 , (1 )S
T = 3 .

(1 )u (T )  u (T ).
:
hc
6,62 1034 3 108
= 3
= 4,8
kT
10 1,38 1023 3

hc
= 4,8 102 .
kT

,
,
. ,


hc
kT
exp
,

kT

hc

 4 10 .
, ,
D2

W = I
, I =
u
4
4
,


2
, = 1,22
, D

.
(1,22)2

W =
kT = 4,6 1015 . ,
2
.
4.43. :
dE
= B cos ,
ds dt d

dE , ds dt
d, ,
B -

209

4.

. ,
:
/
2
dE
=B
cos 2 sin d = B = T 4 ,
ds dt

B = T 4 / . , ,
,

J(/) =

T 4
bc cos .


.
, :
m = 0,0029 /1200 = 2,4 . , p = 2a/m  1, .
, . S
, W1 = S a2 . ( = + )
W1 = S a2 ( ) +S a2
( ) = 2a2 S . ,
= 2a2 .
, , a 2 , ,
. , , , x
.
S(x + dx) S(x) = S n dx,
S(x) = S(0) exp(nx) = S(0) exp(x/l ),
l = 1/n , -
.
,
, h/ sin .


T 4
nh
J(/) =
bc cos exp
.

sin

, ,
: 3 + 2 1 = 0, = sin
, nh 1.
= 0,755, m = 49 . ,

210

. 124

(. 124) , , , .
4.44. . l, a,
n,
T .
. , 4.43,

(
dJ

I =
d

ds ,
dI
T 4
= a2 n I + 4a2 n
.
ds
4


, 2,
( , ,
, , ,
, 4.43 ,
). ,
. ,
4a2 T 4 ,
4 , . k = a2 n
, B = T 4 / () .
(
) ,

I() = B(1 ekS ) = B(1 ekl/ cos ),


S = l/ cos ,
(. 125).

4.

211

. 125


I(/2) = T 4 / ,
T 4

(1 ekl ), : I(0) =

. , kl  1
.
kl = a2 nl = l/l , l 
. ,
, ,
.
,
k . k . ,

,
dE
T 4
T 4
T 4
= (1 ekl/ cos ) cos kl = ,
ds dt d

2 2T4 .
:

(T4 + 2T4 )4R2

R2
= 4R2 T 4 ,
2
4R

T = 2T ,

R2
T4 4R2
= 4R2 T4 .
2
4R

,
4
. , (T /T )4 = 1 + 2(T /T )4 ,


T = T 4 15/2 = 6 103 4 15/2 7,5 104 = 6 104 .

212

4.45.
(. 4.43): s = Ws /J0 .
, ,
. 4.32,


40 c 4 1 2 a6 E 2
8 2 2a 4 1 2
s =
k
=
a
,
3

+2

cE

J0

+2

.
, J0 = 0
2
, , 2a/  1,
. , , ,
, , . ,
( ), .
,
, (
,
)
(, ).
,
.
,

4 
2
8
1,332 1
8 2 2 0,01
s =
(10 )
2 = 1,6 1016 2 ,
2
3

0,5

1,33 + 2

: l = 1/ns = 6,2 .
, s a6 .
: a = 0,02 , 26 = 64 : s = 64 1,6 1016 2 1014 2 ,
1/(1014 2 1012 3 ) = 100 ! ,
, , 0,01 1 ,
a  0,5 /2 0,08 ,
.
,
.
, , ,
. , = 4a3

1
2 k4
, s =
.
+2
6

213

4.


(
).

N n20 = 1 + N ,

=(n20 1)kT /p=(1,000282 1) 1,4 1023 288/105 3 = 2,25 1029 3 .


s =

2,252 1058
6

2
5 107

2 = 6,7 1031 2 ,

l=

1
kT
1,4 1023 288
=
= 5
= 60 .
N s
ps
10 6,7 1031

, ,
, ,
100 ,
, .
4.46. , ,
,
, , ,
2|
p|2

. ,
: P =
3c2
p = Is/c,
q
I
I = q = = ,
40
40
0 |
pm |2
=
.
6c3

P
,
, .
,

dpm
d2 pm
= pm ,
= pm ,
dt
dt2

pm | = 2 pm sin ,
, , |
P =

0 4 p2m sin2
. , ,
6c3

, , .
:


d J 2
= P .
dt

, J = a2 a3 , sin2 =
5
3
= 1/2,

214

pm = 2a3 B0 , :
d 2
15 0 aB02 4
=
= 4 .
dt
12 c3

(t) =  0

1 + 02 t

3 ,

1/3 =
=

8
960 c3
=
=
2
15 a02 B02
0

96 4 107 /2
1017 /3 (3 108 /)3
4
= 2,2 107 = 251 .
15
10 (105 1 )2 (108 )2


2

0 B0 sin
a

1/3 = 1/3
= 2,2 107

B sin

105 108 12 3600

5 105

2

1
5,52 103 104
17
1028 ,
2

10 6,4 106
2 sin 11,7

5. , ,

5.1. E0 = Z 2 Eat /2. ( ,
Z = 20, Z  1,
K - , ,
.) E = 2E0 = Z 2 Eat .
K -.

, E = E0 + Te , Te

.
Te = Z 2 Eat /2,


pe = 2mTe = Z mEat
p = E /c = Z 2 Eat /c.
,


c
m
c
1
137
tg = pe /p = Z mEat c/(Z 2 Eat ) =
=
=

6,9,
Z

Eat

Zvat

20

82 .
a m

5.2. r B
2 m

(m ).
, Z = 1.
. E1 = 0,75
. ,
(E2 = Eat /2 = 13,6 ).

Z = 2 .
E3 =

Z 2 m
Eat 11,3 .
2 m

5.3. U1 =

= 24,5 , U2 =

22 Eat
32 m Eat
54,4 , U3 =
25,3 .
2 e
2 m e

5.4. , Z = 2


hc
Z 2 Eat m
1
=
1 2 . m
n.

216

. n = 4. ,
,
n = 3


Z 2 Eat m 1
1
E
mv 2

.
= at +
2
2
2 m 3
2
2
4

v = c

7Z 2 m
1 0,046c
144 m

1,37 107 /.
5.5.
, U0 (U0 < 0). ( jr
j ) E :

2
jr
E U0 E
R=
= 
.

E U0 +

U0 =

4 R
E.

(1 R )2

E = E1 = 1
R = R1 = 1/4 U0 = 8 .
E2 = 1/3 R2 = 4/9. j
:
4R1 jE1 + 9R2 jE2
7
E=
=
.
4R1 j + 9R2 j

15

5.6. l = 0 = (r)
h2 d2

(r) = E.
2
2mr dr

= r ,

h2 d2
= E
2m dr2

, k2 = 2mE/h2 ,
d2
+ k2 = 0.
dr2

(r) = C1 cos(kr) + C2 sin(kr).



1
r

(r) = (C1 cos(kr) + C2 sin(kr)).

5. , ,

217

(R1 ) = (R2 ) = 0

C1 cos(kR1 ) + C2 sin(kR1 ) = 0,
C1 cos(kR2 ) + C2 sin(kR2 ) = 0.
C1 C2



cos(kR1 ) sin(kR1 )
= sin(k(R2 R1 )) = 0,
det
cos(kR2 ) sin(kR2 )
k = n/(R2 R1 ) (n = 1, 2, 3, ...),

En =

2 h2 n2
.
2m(R2 R1 )2

E2 1,5 .
5.7. 1
er/aB .
= 
a3B

n(r) = |(r)|2 .




2

n = n|| dV =

1
|| dV = 2 6
aB

e4r/aB 4r2 dr =

5.8. Pat =

1
.
8a3B

Eat
(Eat
Vat

, Vat = a3B ).

Pat =

Eat
me4 /h2
m4 e10
= 2
=
= 294 .
3
2
3
aB
(h /(me ))
h8

5.9.

Eat =

e
e
m2 e5
(e2 /aB )/e
= 2
= 4 =
= 5,14 109 /.
2
2
2
aB
aB
h
(h /(me ))


, :
4
j.
rot B =
c

|rot B|

Bat
j
n ev
1
at at 3 e
aB
c
c
aB

1
vat = c a3B
e
). Bat = 2 = Eat 12,4 .
aB

( nat =

218

4
m4 e10
m
5.10. Pat = 8 =
Pat 5,4 1011 ( m
m
h
).
5.11. m
= 207m  m,
.
v .
mp v
=
vH = v
=

mp + m
m v
mp v
, v =
.
mp + m
mp + m

T =

mp
2

m v
mp + m

2
+

m
2

mp v
mp + m

2
=

mp m v 2
.
mp + m 2


mp m v 2
E
1
3
= 2 at 1
= Eat . mp + m 2

Tth =

mp v 2
3 mp + m
=
Eat
2
4
m

7,4Eat 201 .
5.12.
v . 2mp v
v
vD = v
= , :
mp + 2mp
3
2mp v
2
= v . mp + 2mp
3


2mp v 2
+
T =
2
3

2
2
m 2v
1 2mp v
=
.
+ p
2
3
3 2

vH =


1 2mp v 2
E
1
3
:
= 2 at 1
= Eat .
3

Tth =

2mp v 2
9
= Eat = 2,25Eat 61 .
2
4

5.13. l = 0, n = 1, 2 h2
(. 5.6).
2m(R2 R1 )2
&
&
& E1 (R1 , R2 ) &
&=
&
F = &
&
R1
&
&
2 2
& E1 (R1 , R2 ) &

h
&=
.
= &&
&
R2
m(R2 R1 )3

E1 (R1 , R2 ) =

5. , ,

219

, ,

p1 =

F
h2
1 h2
1
=
=
=
Pat 72
2
2
3
4 205 ma5B
4 205
4R1
4m(R2 R1 ) R1

p2 =
Pat =

F
h2
1
=
= p1 18 .
2
4
4R2
4m(R2 R1 )3 R22

h2
294 .
ma5B

5.14. v1 v2 ,

v1 + v2 = v ,

mv22
mv12
2 h2 22
mv 2
2 h2
+
+2
=
+2
,
2
2
2
2
2ma
2ma2
$

2
h
v v 2 12
ma
v1 =
= 0,06c,
2
$

2
h
v + v 2 12
ma
v2 =
= 0,08c.
2

5.15.
1
er/aB ,
H = 
a3B

3
2 He

$
He =

23 2r/aB
e
.
a3B

H
.

+
32 He: H = c1 He +
ci i ( {i }
i =1

). ,
32 He,

2
&
&2



3
&
&
3
2
8

w1 = |c1 |2 = && H He
dV && = 3 e3r/aB 4r2 dr =
.
9
a
B

, -3

3
8
, wex = 1 w1 = 1
= 0,30.
9

5.16. U0
, H2 .
h
.
H2 : UH2 = U0
2

220


M : = /M . ,
m mp m  m, mp  m
,
. h

HD UHD = U0
2
UHD ,

U0 =

3 UH2
4,78

2 3

2UHD

3
. UH2
2

2(UHD UH2 )
h
=
0,30 .

2
2 3

MuH:

UMuH = U0

h
2

MH2
=
MMuH
h
= U0
2

mp mp + m
h
U0 2,22
4,11 .
2 mp m
2

5.17.
Mu2 UMu2 3,95 (.
5.16).
5.18. C :

a
C2 5

2
dx = C x2 (a x)2 dx =
a = 1,
30


C = 30/a5 . E
,


a
h2 d2
h2 2
5h2

dx
=
E=
C
x(a

x)
2
dx
=
.
2
2
a

2m dx

2m

ma

E1 =

E
10
= 2 1,013.
E1

5.19. C :
$

 3



2
2r 2
2
2
dV = C
e
4r dr = C
= 1.
2

2 h2
,
ma2

221

5. , ,

3/2
2
C 2 =
.

E()
T U Z .




h2 d2

T =
(r) 4r2 dr =
2
2mr dr

h2 C 2
=
4
2m

U=

er

2
d2
3 h2
(rer )r dr =
,
2
2 m
dr






2
Ze2
Ze2
4r2 dr = C 2 e2r

4r 2 dr =

Ze2 C 2
= 2Ze2

2
.

3 h2
2
E() = T + U =
2Ze2
. E(). 2m



2

dE
3h
2
2 2 Zme2
2Z
2 1
2

=
Ze
= 0 =
=
.
d
2m

3 h2
3
aB
2
8 Z Eat
E E =
. 3 2
Z 2 Eat
. E1 =
2
E E1
8

=1
0,15.
E1
3

5.20. M
L = M ,

M 2
.
I 2

L  L.

h
h
h

=
.  .
: 
2L
2L 
2M
2
h
M
hI


M
.
3
2M

I 2

5.21.
,


1 =
sin
x (0  x  a), 1 = 0 (x < 0, x > a),
a

.

+
: 1 = C1 1 (x) +
Cn n (x). 1 (x)
n =1


, n (x) (n = 1)
.

222

a
C1 = 1 (x)1 (x)dx. 1 (x)
= const = k 0  x  a,

2mE

k =
, E < 0 h
(
).
 2
h2
T0 U0
, T0 =
,

E
=

(U0
4
T0
2ma2



a 2

2 2ka
). C1 =
sin
x
k dx =

0



 
8(ka)
8
E
4
U0
2
0,016.
w1 = |C1 | =
= 2
= 2
2

T0

T0

, , w =
= 1 w1 = 98,4 %.
5.22.

4k12 k22
4ET2
=
.
4k12 k22 + (k12 k22 )2 sin2 (k2 L)
4ET2 + (E T2 )2 sin2 (k2 L)

2mE
2mT2
k1 =
, k2 =
h
h

D=

, T2
.
2 h2 2
(n + n22 ) (n1 = n2 = 1), 2ma2 1
2 h2
U0 =

ma2
2 h2
. T2 = E U0 = E 104
=
ma2B

E = T2 +

= 1,5 104 2 Eat 104 2 Eat = 0,5 104 2 Eat .


(k2 L)2 =

D=

2mT2 L2
2m 0,5 104 2 Eat (1,5)2 104 a2B
=
=
h2
h2
3
k2 L =
; sin(k2 L) = 1,
2

3
2

2
;

4ET2
4ET2
4 1,5 0,5
=
=
= 0,75.
4ET2 + (E T2 )2
(E + T2 )2
(1,5 + 0,5)2

5.23. U = E 2EH , E(R)


,
EH . R  aB
R E(R) =

= EHe +

e2
, EHe .
R

223

5. , ,

e2

U (R) = EHe 2EH + . EHe


R
, 22 E

Z = 2, EHe = at e1 ,
2


e2
E
e2
U (R) = EHe 2EH +
= 2Eat e1 2 at +
=
2

Eat e1 +

e2
= 220,3 .
R

5.24. x ,
h2
(mp
2mp x2
h2
eU
). E(x)
+
x
a
2mp x2

p h/x, T

h2 a
eU mp

1/3

A.
700

5.25. e2

c E U (r , ) =
 er
eEr cos r =
,
E cos

U () = 2e eE cos . (
) U0 = 2e eE = 0.
U0 ,

1E
1 Eat2
1
2e eE = at , E =
= Eat 8 107 / (Eat 5,14
3
2 2

64 e

64

109 / ).
4
5.26. rot B =
j
,

c
B
1 v
e 3 (c , v
a
a c

(), a ).


m
v

e v
e me 2 1
a E
aB , . Bex 2 2

2
me

a c

aB

105 Bat 104 (Bat 12,4


).
5.27. ,
, ,
v
c

: e B

e2
(v
Ea2

, c , a ).
2
m
v
B
me
1
, a E
aB , , B at2
Bat 10 .
2
me

224

5.28.
, pU
, M =
.

d
d2
d2
Up
=
M
,

+
= 0,
Id
dt2
dt2
Up
h
pU 2
=
.
=2
. Id
2
2d

, I

2 =

h
2

d
0,08,
U pI


2 16 .


5.29. U (r) = 2
r
 r

2
2A
d U
2 3A
B
2A
B4
r0 =
= 4 =
.
(r0 ) = 2

.
2
2
3
B

dr

r0

r0

r0

r0

8A


1 d2 U
(r0 ) =
r0 =
dr2

4
B
=
A3/2 ( , 3
8A

HCl 0,97mp , mp ).

3 A

=
.
A

2 A
l = 10
l = 0,

A: A = E 2

3 h2 l(l + 1)
=
0,047.

2 2E 2

h2
l(l + 1). 2

5.30. , ,
v
E = B , c
,
,

,
U
=

2
e
eE (. 5.25 ).
0

evB
U0 = 2e
. U0
c
22 E
c Eat2
Eg = at = 2Eat , B =
. v
2
v e3

mHe R
( )
:


2
mHe v 2
M mHe
2GM
2GM e3 B
G
= 0, v =
, R= 2
630 .
2
2

Eat

5. , ,

225

5.31. :


1+i
1
2
C (1 i, 2 + 3i)
= 15C 2 = 1, C = .
2 3i
15



  x, s8x =
1
h 0 1
1
h
=
, x+ =
+
1
2 1 0
2
2
 
1
1
h
x =
. 2
2 1

x+ x :

 
 

1+i
1
1
1
1
1
+ C2
= C1
. C1 C2

15 2 3i
2 1
 2 1

2
2
: C1 + C2 =
(1 + i), C1 C2 =
(2 3i),
15
15
3 2i
1 + 4i
C1 = , C2 =
.
30
30
h
13
h
x, , wx+ = |C1 |2 = , ,
2
30
2
17
wx = |C2 |2 =
.
30
h
h
h
x sx = wx+ wx = .
2
2
15

5.32.

y ,

 
8s8y = h 0 i , y+ = 1 1 + h
2 i 0 
2
2 i
1
1
h
y =
. 2
2 i


 
  y+ y :

1+i
1
1
1
1
1
= C1
+ C2
. C1 C2

15 2 3i
2 i
2 i

2
2
, C1 + C2 =
(1 + i), C1 C2 =
(3 2i),

15
15
4i
2 + 3i
C1 = , C2 =
. y ,
30
30
h
17
h
, wy+ = |C1 |2 = , ,
2
30
2
13
wy = |C2 |2 = . y
30
h
h
h
sy = wy+ wy = .
2
2
15
h
5.33. z ,
,
2
1
2
h
2
wz+ =
|1 + i| =
, wz =
15
15
2
1
13
= |2 3i|2 = . z
15
15
8 .. .

226

h
h
11h
wz+ wz =
. ,
2
2 
 30
h 1 0
s8z =
z :
2 0 1

sz =


1+i
=
2 3i



1 0
1+i
1 h
(1 i, 2 + 3i)
=
=
0 1
2 3i
15 2


1+i
h
11
= h.
= (1 i, 2 + 3i)
2 + 3i
30
30

1
1
sz = (1 i, 2 + 3i)8
sz
15
15

5.34.
LP : LP
h2

e2 ,
me2
, . . :
LKr hc

h2
L
e4 . P e2 , me4
LKr

-
.
5.35.

En,M

h2
=
2m

2 n2
M2
+ 2
2
L
R

E
= at
2

aB
R

2 

R
L


n +M ,
2

(n = 1, 2, ... , M = 0,
1, 2, ... ).
En,M = 0,022(0,4n2 + M 2 ) . E1,0 ,
E1,1 , E = E1,1 E1,0 0,022 . Ng , , N1 ,
E
Ng
= e kB T 2,4.
N1

5.36.

En,M =

2h2
mD2

D
2L

= 2Eat


n2 + M 2 =

2 

2
2

aB
R

D
2L


2

n +M

0,136(0,62n2 + M 2 ) .

E1,0 0,084 ,
E1,1 0,220 , E2,0 0,337 .
E1,1 0,136 , E2,0 0,253 .

5. , ,

227

5.37.


E
E
Z 2 m
Z2
E m
E = at at
Eat Eat E1 at =
2
2
2 m
2
2 m
 2



m
m
Z
=
1
1 Eat + E1 .
+
2

2m

m , Z = 2 , E1 = 24,5
. E 8394 .
5.38. , (

1) 
l,

m
h2 l(l + 1)
wl = A(2l + 1) exp
. I = p a2 2IkB T

, A . l =

= 1, 3, 5, ... . =

h2
.
mp a2 kB T

wl = A(2l + 1) exp(l(l + 1)). wl


dwl
= A(2 (2l + 1)2 ) exp(l(l + 1)) = 0,
dl

mp kB T
1
1
a
1
l=  =
1,35.
2
aB 2m Eat
2
2

l, :

l = 1.
5.39. (. 5.38). T = 1200
l

mp kB T
1
2,11. 2m Eat
2

1
1
a
=
2
a
2
B

l = 

( 0) : l = 0, 2, 4, .... l = 2.
5.40.
rp l = 0. r0 , l, U (r0 ) = E +

2
(r0
2

h2
l(l + 1) ( ). 2r02
h2
r0 rp = 2 2 3 l(l + 1).
rp

rp ) 2 +

l = 1, - 1 22

r0 rp
h2
=2 2 2 4 =8
rp
r0

u20
r02

= 8 2 1,2 104 .

, u20 =
8*

h
.
2

228

5.41. -
E r0 =
72 E

d2 U

21/6 .
(r0 ) = 1/3 2 ,
dr2
2


1 d2 U
72 E
=
(r0 ) =
( ,
dr2
21/3 2

= 20mp , mp ).
E = E

E=E

h
2

h
Ar2
2

18
E
a
E B
2
5 21/3 mp 2

18EEat m

5 21/3 mp

(0,01 0,0016) 0,0084 .


5.42. E

r0 = .


1 d2 U
(r0 ) =
dr2

2E
.
2

HCl 0,97mp ,
h
h
E=E
E
2
2

2
E
a
E B
0,97 mp 2
2

2EEat m

0,97 mp

(4,62 0,08) 4,54 .


h2

me4

5.43.
m1 , E 2 m.
me2
h


12

6 

U (r) = 4E


r

: =

m
m
0,006
A, E = E 956,3 .
m
m

5.44. a
. t
v
aB m
m
aB
h3
17

tat , tat =
=
= 2,4 10

c m
m
c
me4

. t 1019 . /t 1013 ,
.

5.45. +
c e
+
c -. 1
h
h3

=
at
Eat
me4
4
E
me
= 2,4 1017  = 3 1013 . E = at =
=
2
2h2
2
h
A.
= 0,53
= 13,6 , r aB =
me2

tat

5. , ,

229

5.46. + ,
,
, -,
, .
+

1
h m
m
1

tat =
2,4 1017 1019  = 3 1013 .

Eat m
m
207

m
1
aB =
0,53
A 2,5 1011
m
207

E=

m Eat
= 207 13,6 2,8 .
m 2

5.47. E r0 = .
 
2
1d U
nE
(r0 ) =
.
=
2
2
7

dr

LiH 1 mp , 8

h
h
nE
=E
. LiD
E = E
2
2 2

14
h
nE
2
mp . B =
. 2
9

LiH LiD c 1 2 B
B
, E2 = E .
1
2

1 2
E2 2 E1 1
B=

(E2 E2 ), E =

2 1
2 1

E1 = E

n(E2 2 E1 1 )( 2 1 )
h
h
r0 = =
,
nE =
2(E2 E1 )

2B

n=

h (E2
2

1 2

41 2 r02 (E2 E1 )2
6,5.

2 E1 1 )( 2 1 )

5.48. E (E < 0). < r < + a



1
r

1 = (C1 sin(k1 (r )) + C2 cos(k2 (r )))

230


( k1 = 2(E + E) /h). 1 () = 0
C
C2 = 0, 1 = 1 sin(k1 (r )).
r

C
r > + a 2 = 3 ek2 (ra) ( k2 = 2E /h).
r
r r = + a

C1 sin(k1 a) = C3 , k1 C1 sin(k1 a) = C3 k2 ,


k2
E
E+E
ctg(k1 a) = =
< 0, sin(k1 a) =
=
k
E
+
E
E
1

h2
A
= k1 a
. = mp ,
2
2

2Ea

A
, mp . 

h2
aB Eat m
=
=
. 20
10 Ne
2
a

2Ea

E Amp

0,37. sin(k1 a) = k1 a ctg(k1 a) < 0.


k1 a 2,2. E = E +

ED = E

h2 k12
,
2

h2 (k1 a)2
= E 1 2 (k1 a)2 1,0 .
2a2

5.49. (. 5.48). 4 He-4 He-


1,70, 4 He-3 He 1,83, 3 He-3 He
1,96. --  1,70
. , sin(k1 a) = k1 a ,
 1, ctg(k1 a) < 0, ,

 1,70  2,6.
2
2
.
5.50. (. 5.48). sin(k1 a) = k1 a ctg(k1 a) < 0.
h2

T =
.
2
 2a


T
h2
aB Eat m
=
=
=
.
2
E

a
E Amp
2Ea
A
= mp , A (A = 4), mp
2

. < 1,
2


h2
4

m Eat

m Eat


a
>
a
=
a
=
a

3,12
aB 1,65
A.
B
B
0
2
2
2Ea

2 E

mp E

5. , ,

h2

4E

231

a = a0 , T = T0 =
= 2,
=
E = 0. ,
T0
4
2a2



E+E
E+E
, E sin
=
k1 a =
T
T



T E+E
E + E T0
E+E
=
sin
=
. a, E T
T0 T
E


T0
a
a
|E|
a0 ,
a  a0
=
=1+
 1 .
T
a0
a0
E 




E
a
E
E sin
1+
1+
=1+
2
2
E
a
2
E
0


E
a
E
= 1 + . ,
cos
+
2 2E
a0
2E




2
2
1
a
E
a
2
E
2 103
1
= 1 + ,
=
=
= 0,6 %.
2 4

2E

a0

a0

10,9

5.51. (. 
5.50). -

T
h2
4E
< 1,
< 2 . 4 He2 E 2
2a2

4mp 4mp
= 2mp ,
44 =
4mp + 4mp
4mp 3mp
12
4
He3 He 34 =
= mp (mp ).
4mp + 3mp
7

He2

h2
4E
h2
<
<
,
4 He3 He
244 a2
2
234 a2


2 h2
7 2 h2
2 m aD 2
7 2 m aB 2
<
E
<
,

E
<
E
<
Eat .
at
16 mp a2
96 mp a2
16 mp a
96 mp a

3,45 105 Eat < E < 4,03 105 Eat ,

9,38 104 < E < 11,0 104 (10,89 < E < 12,77 ).

h 2E
5.52. (. 5.42). B =
.
2
2

HCl DCl c 1
B
B
2 E1 = E , E2 = E .
1
2

1 2
E2 2 E1 1
B =
,
(E2 E1 ), E =

2 1
2 1





(E2 2 E1 1 )( 2 1 )
h E
h
r0 = =
=
1,02aB 0,54
A.
B

E2 E1

2 1 2

5.53. u0

232

2 u20
h
=2
, u0 =
2
2

h
2

( , ,
Xe2 A = 131, = Amp /2,
mp ). 5.41 72 E
,
21/3 2

- =

$

u0 =

21/3 h2 2
= aB
144A Emp

aB

21/3 Eat m
A.
0,23aB 0,12
144A E mp

5.54. U (r) =
2A

A
B


r
r2

A.
r0 =
B
l = 5
l = 0,
, A : A = E 2

h2
l(l + 1) ( ,
2

HCl 0,97mp , mp ).
r0
A
h2 l(l + 1)
=
=
0,0086.
r0
A
2E 2

5.55. p
r Z ,

Ze2
, E = p2 c2 + m2 c4
r

pr = h. , x =
,
mc



Ze2 p
E = p 2 c2 + m 2 c4
= mc2
1 + x2 Zx .
h


dE
x
E(x):
= mc2
Z =
dx
1 + x2
Z
,
= 0. x = 
1 (Z)2


E = mc2 1 (Z)2 .
. ( )

2hc
+ mc2 1 (Z)2 = mc2 + T , T

. 0 , T = 0

2hc
+ mc2 1 (Z)2 = mc2 .
0

5. , ,

233

0 =

2h
1
2h
A.
3,86
= 3,86ce = 3,86 2aB 0,093

mc 1 1 (Z)2
mc

5.56. (. 5.55).
x =
Z
p
=
(p ), p =

1 (Z)2
Z
mc,
= 
1 (Z)2

mc

pr = h,
h
r=
mc

1 (Z)2
a
= B
Z
Z


1 (Z)2 .

a =

Z

1
114.
2 + (m/m )2

m
aB . r a
m

5.57.


E
1
1
5
5
E = at

= Eat = 2 mc2 . p.
2
2
2

72

72

E P E1 p1 , E1 P1 . E1 = E + E
E1 , P1 = p P + p1 . , E12 P12 c2 = E 2
E + pc
P 2 c2 = m2 c4 , E pc = E1 p1 c = 0, E1 = E
.

2E + E P c
mc2 mc2
,
E P c
2 E
2

2E
2E
E1 = E
. 2E  E P c, E1 = E
.
mc2
mc2 mc2
2E +
2 E


E1 + mc2 1 (Z)2 = mc2


(Z = 68 , . 5.55).



5 2
2E 2
2
mc2
+
mc
1 (Z)2 = mc2 ,
2
72

mc

$
2

mc
E=
2



72 1 1 (Z)2

94mc2 48 .

234

, ,
2E
2E
52 E
235 2

1,4 103  1.
2
2
E Pc
18 mc2
9
mc mc
2 E

5.58. 1.


1
E
n Mn = 2 (mp + m)c2 at2 (mp ).
2n

M2
M1


Eat 1
1

M2 M1
2
3
m
12
22

= 2
1,4 108 .
M1
8 mp + m
(mp + m)c2

2. n = 2

M2 M1

M1

1 Eat
2 2

1
1
2
11
2
2mc2

3 2
5,0 106 .
32



Mn c2 + mc2 1 (Z)2 (Mn
237
93 Np).

Mn M = m 1 (Z)2 0,73m.
5.59. M =

1
c2

5.60. E = eU1

Z 2 Eat
2

(Z = 2 ). E 78,9 .


m E
m
E
Eat
5.61. E = Ea at 22 at = Ea 1 + 4
11 275,2 .
2

m 2

5.62. ,


0 (x) =

2
x
sin
,
a
a

0  x  a;

0 (x) = 0,

x < 0,

x > a,

.




0 (x) =

4
2x
sin
,
3a
3a

3
2

0  x  a;

0 (x) = 0,

x < 0,

3
2

x > a.

5. , ,

235

,
&a
&a
&2
&2
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
8
2x
x &
w = && 0 0 dx&& = 2 && sin
sin dx&& =
3a
a
3a &
&
&
&
0
0
&2
&a
&

&&
2 &&
x
5x
162
dx&& =
cos
0,66.
= 2 & cos
3a
3a
3a &
25
2
&
0

5.63.
,

r

0 (r) =

1 sin R
,
2R
r

0  r  R,

0 (r) = 0,

r > R,

.


2r


0 (r) =

1 sin 5R
,
5R
r

5
2

0  r  R;

0 = 0,

5
2

r > R.


&R
&R
&2
&2
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
8 &
2x
x &&
w = && 0 0 4r2 dr && =
sin
sin
dr
=
5R
R &&
5R2 &&
&
&
0
0
&2
&R
&

&&
&
2 &
3x
7x
1000
cos
dr && =
=
cos
0,23.
5R
5R
5R2 &&
441 2
&
0

2 h2

5.64. E0 =
2ma2



2
x
0 (x) =
sin
.
a

b

3E0 , 0  x  b,
U (x) =
0, b  x  a.
:
b



2
x
x
(3E0 ) sin
dx =
E = 0 U 0 dx =
sin
a

= 3E0

b
a
2b
1
sin
.
a
2b
a

236

2b
2b 2b
1 2b 3
= 0,2  1, sin

,
=
a
a
a
6
a

3
b
E0 .
= 2 2
a

3
E
b

= 2 2
2 %.
E0
a

E =

5.65.
, .
22 m

EHe
=
Eat at . R ,
2 m
2
, e2 /R = 103 Eat .


m
E
E
E m
U (R) = 2Eat at + 103 Eat at at =
m
2
2
2 m

1
3 m
= Eat 103 +
690Eat 18,8 .

2 m

h
5.66. (. 5.42). B =
2

2E
.
2
19
mp
HF DF c 1 =
20
38
2 =
mp (mp )
21

1 2
B
B
E1 = E , E2 = E , B =
(E2
1
2
2 1

E E
E1 ), E = 2 2 1 1 ,
2 1

r0 = =

h
B

E
h
=
2
E2 E1

(E2 2 E1 1 )( 2 1 )
1,09aB .
2 1 2

HF

Er =

h2
20h2
20
m
2=

Eat 0,013 .
2
19 1,092 mp
21 r0
19mp r02

5.67.
sin(kr)
, R (r) = C
kR = , C =
E =

r
1
.
2R

2 h2
. 2mR2

0,1R

237

5. , ,

U = 2E .

0,1
R

E =
0

2E
R

2
(r)U (r)4r dr =
R

0,1
R

2E sin2 (kr)dr =

0,1
R

(1 cos(2kr))dr =

2E
R


sin(0,2kr)
=
0,1R
2k





sin(0,2)
sin(0,2)
= 2E 0,1
= 0,2E 1
=
0,2

2

1
1

= 0,2E 1 1 (0,2)2 = 0,2E (0,2)2 .


0


E
4 2
=
103 0,013.
E
3

5.68. u0 
:

2 u20
h
=2
. u0 =
2
2

h
(
2

, ; HI 1 mp , DI 2 2mp , mp
). E1 HI E2 
DI
E1 = E

h
h
E2 = E
2
2

1
,
2


E2 1 /2 E1
h
E2 E1
=
, E =
.


2
1 1 /2
1 1 /2

r0
 72E
- =
(.
2
5.41).

u0
1
=
r0
12

r0

h
1
=
E
12

2(E2 E1 )
0,025.

E2 1 /2 E1

5.69.
1 sin(kr)

(r) =
, k = . r
2R

r

2e
e|(r)| 4r dr =
R
2

Q(r) =
0

r
sin2 (kr)dr =

e
sin(2kr)
r
.
r
2k

238

r




Q(r)
sin(2kr)
ek
1
2ek 1
sin
=
E(r) = 2 =

2
2
R

2(kr)

kr

( = 2kr ).

cos
dE
4ek
2
=
d
R

tg
2
2
,
3

dE

R
2ek 1
2e
= 0 cos = 0, = , r = . Emax =
= 2,
d
2
2
R
R

Emax
2e/R2
a
=
=2 B
2
Eat
R
e/aB

2
2,2 103 .
302

5.70. E


2E 2
E E1 = E
(. 2
mc


E
1
1
5
5 2
5.57). , E = at
2 =
Eat =
mc2 , 2 22
72
72
3


5
2E 2
E1 =
mc2
.
2
72

mc

m (Z)2

mc2 (Z = 4
, E1 
m
2

m
3
). E  Zmc2
77mc2 39 .
m

5.71. : x < 0

1 = Aeik1 x + Beik1 x , x > 0, 2 = Ceik2 x .

2mE

k1 =
h

, k2 =

1 (0) = 2 (0),

2m(E Eat )
. h

h2
2m

d2
d
E a
(0) 1 (0) + at B 2 (0) = 0.
dx
dx
2

A, B C :
C

ik2 C ik1 (A B) = ,
aB

i
. -

A + B = C,

C
k
A =
1+ 2 +
2
k1
k1 aB

& &2
4 k1 k2
&C & k
D=& & 2 =
A

k1

1
(k1 + k2 )2 + 2
aB

E(E Eat )
3
= .
2

5
E + E Eat + Eat
8

5. , ,

239

5.72. x < 0
1 = Aeik1 x +

2mE

. + Beik1 x , x > 0, 2 = Ceik2 x . k =


h

h2 d2
d
1 (0) = 2 (0),
(0) 1 (0) + Eat aB 2 (0) = 0.
2m

dx

dx


 A, B  C : A + B = C ,
2C
i
ikC ik(A B) =
, A = C 1 +
.
aB

kaB

x = 0
& &2
k2 a2
2E
&C &
D=& & = 2 2 B =
.
k aB + 1

2E + Eat

x > 0

vat
dv


ED(E)vn0
vat
ED(E)dj1
ED(E)v dn
0
E= 
= 
= vat
=
D(E)dj1
D(E)v dn
dv
D(E)vn0
vat
0

Eat/2
Eat/2 
2E 2
Eat
Eat2
dE
E
+
dE
2E + Eat
2
2(2E + Eat )
E 2 ln 2 1
= E 0/2
= 0 E /2 
= at
.

at
at
4 1 ln 2


2E
Eat
dE
1
dE
2E + Eat
0 2E + Eat
0

5.73. F ()

8 z ) ( + iL
8 z ) d =
( iL

F () =

d + i

8 z L
8 z )d +
( L

8 z d.
8z L
L

8 z ,
L

F () =

d + i

8 z )d +
( Lz L
8

8 2z d.
L

8 z = ih.
8 z L
L

F () =

d+h

d+

8 2z d = 2 2 +h +L2z  0.
L

240


 ,
h2
h
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
h 4Lz  0, Lz 
Lz  .
4

5.74.


2E 2
E = kB T E1 = E
2
mc

(.
5.57). E1 E , E =

E
mc2
=
2,3 105 mc2 120 .
2

kB T

5.75.



(Z 1)2 m Eat
2
, Z = 2, m
. E = Z +
2
m 2

. n -

2hc
(Z 1)2 m
=
Eat . n = 4.

m
2n 2
m 2
r aB
A,
n 0,077aB 0,04
m
Z 2 m
2hc
E=
Eat
(11 261 177) = 11 438 .
2 m

ik1 x
+
5.76. x < 0 1 = Ae

+ Beik1 x , x > 0 2 = Ceik2 x . (k1 =


$

k2 =



3
2m E + Eat
2

2mE
,
h

). x = 0:

1 (0) = 2 (0),

h2
2m

d2
d
E a
(0) 1 (0) + at B 2 (0) = 0.
dx
dx
2

A, B , C :
C

A + B = C , ik2 C ik1 (A B) = ,
aB




C
k
i
C
k
i
1+ 2 +
, B=
1 2
. A =
2

k1

k1 aB

k1

k1 aB

1
22

3
1
2
E + Eat E
+ Eat
& &2 (k1 k2 ) + 2
2
aB
1
&B &
R=& & =
= 1
= .
22

1
A
5

(k1 + k2 )2 + 2
3
2
E + E + Eat
+ Eat
aB
2
2

5.77. L = 0,
S = 1/2 J = 1/2 .
F = 2; 1. -

5. , ,

241

E = B B g MJ = B B g

F 2 + J 2 i2
2F 2

MF . MJ

, F 2 = F (F + 1),
J 2 = J(J + 1), i2 = i(i + 1)
,
. MF . F

MF = F , F 1, ... , F ; g = 1 +

J(J + 1) + S(S + 1) L(L + 1)


2J(J + 1)

.
:



J(J + 1) + S(S + 1) L(L + 1)

E = B B 1 +
2J(J + 1)

F (F + 1) + J(J + 1) i(i + 1)
MF .
2F (F + 1)

L = 0, S = 1/2, J = 1/2, i = 3/2, F = 2, MF = 2


b
E = B B = B B0 + 2 r 2 . 2a

:
Amp 2 r2
3
3h
h = 2
. r 2 =
. A = 7
2
2
2
Amp
B b
, mp , =

a2 Am
p
3ha
3
2 m Bat
. r 2 = 
=
aaB 7,1 108 2
2 A mp b
2
Am

b
p
B

e

r2 2,7 104 . (Bat = 2 = 12,4


aB

).
5.78.
F MF
B


J(J + 1) + S(S + 1) L(L + 1)

E = B B 1 +
2J(J + 1)

F (F + 1) + J(J + 1) i(i + 1)
MF
2F (F + 1)

(L, S , J ,
, i (. 5.77)).

242

23

Na


1
1
b
E(r) = B B(r) = B B0 + 2 r2 .
2
2
2a

B b
=
(A = 23
2
2a Amp

, mp ),


3
3h
B b
3 aB
m b
E0 = h =
= Eat
0,34 1012 4,0 .
2

2a

2Amp

4 a

Amp Bat

5.79. :
2
C 2 (9 cos2 2 + sin2 3)d = C 2 10 = 1.
0

1
C =
.
10


 3i

3ei (e2i + e2i )
3e + 3ei
1
=
=

2i
+ ie4i
iei (e3i e3i )
2 10 ie

 
 
1
0
1
=
(3e3i + 3ei )
+ (ie2i + ie4i )
=
0
1
2 10
1
2 10

1
2 5

= (33,+1/2 + 31,+1/2 i2,1/2 + i4,1/2 ).


 
 
1
0


0
1


h 1 0
,
z , s8z =
2 0 1
sz = +1/2 sz = 1/2 ( h). 

z , 8
lz + s8z , jz = 8

1 iM 1
sz = +1/2
M ,sz = e
0
2
 
1 iM 0
sz = 1/2
jz = (M + 1/2)h M ,sz = e
1
2
jz = (M 1/2)h. ,
z : 7h/2 h/2
2
2


3
9
3
9
1
1
w1 =
=
h h w2 =
= .

20
2
2

20
2 5
2
5


7
1
9
3
9
1
6
h h
+ h h
= h.
jz =
2
2
20
2
2
20 5
u(t)
.
5.80. =
v(t)
-

243

5. , ,

8=
B ,  z ( H
1 0
8z =
z - ), = B Bz ,
0 1
 
u

z , ih
=
, ih = B B8
v
 

1 0
u
. 0 = B Bat /h, = B B(t)
0 1
v
 

 

u
u
1 0
0
= i
,
v
v
1 + (t/ )2 0 1

t/

 dx
t
  u0 exp i0

exp
i

arctg
u
0
0
2
u


0 1+x
=

.
=

t/
v
t
 dx

v0 exp i0 arctg
v0 exp i0

2
0

1+x

u0 exp i 0

2
=

v0 exp i 0
2
 
 
1
u0
1
t = 0,
=
, v0
2 1
x, +h/2.
x:





 
 
u0 exp i 0
exp i 0
1
1
1 1
1
2
2


 =
 = C1 1 +C2 1 .

2
2
2
v0 exp i 0
exp i 0
2


C1 C2

: C1 + C2 =

= exp i 0 , C1 C2 = exp i 0 .
2


exp i 0 exp i 0

2
2
C2 =
= i sin
0 .
2
2

w = |C2 | = sin
2

0
2


= sin

B Bat tat
2 h 2


= sin

2 Eat tat
2 2h 2

= sin2

1
= .
4
2

5.81. E r0 = 21/6 .

244

72 E

d2 U

(r0 ) = 1/3 2 ; =

dr2

 2
1 d2 U
72 E
(r0 ) =
( ,
=
2
1/3
2
dr

He 2mp , mp ).
4

, He2
, E = E
2


1
E
aB EEat m
E = E 3h

3
(8,8 19,9) 104
1/3
2
1/3
2

mp

mp

11 104 .

. - (. 5.68)
9 $
$

:
u0
1
h
1:
h 72E
h2
;
=
=
= 4
=
2
1/3
2
r0

12

12

r0

288 2

1
m Eat
288 21/3 E

aB

0,18,

He2 - E .
2hc
5.82. E =
1,85 .

,
2hc
+ B B  A.


1
2hc
A
171 .
B
B

.
h2 2
M + B B(M + ),
5.83. EM , =
2I
M = 0, 1, 2, ... (
), = 1
+h/2 h/2,
I = mR2 . = 1, M :

2

h2
Eat
aB
2
2
2 B
E(M ) =
M + B B(M 1) =
M +
(M 1) ,
2
2mR

Bat

5. , ,

, Bat =
2

245

e
= 12,4 ,
a2B

B Bat = Eat .
2

1
E
2
E(M ) = at
+
4,4
(M

1
)
= 2,66 105 Eat f (M ),
M
2
2 137

f (M ) = M + 4,4(M 1).
df
= 0, f (M ),
dM
M = M0 = 2,2. M0
M : f (2) = 9,2 , f (3) = 8,6
, f (3) = 7,8
. , , f = f (3) f (2) = 0,6,
2

E = 2,66 105 Eat (f (3) f (2)) 1,6 105 Eat 4,3 .


f = 4,4 2 = 8,8
.
5.84. :
x < 0, 1 = Aeikx + Beikx ; x > 0, 2 = Ceikx .

2mE
. x = 0 :
h

h2 d2
d
1 (0) = 2 (0),
(0) 1 (0) + 2Eat aB 2 (0) = 0.
2m dx
dx

k =

A, B C :

4C

A + B = C , ikC ik(A B) =
,
aB


2i
A = C 1 +
.
kaB

E
2m at a2B
(kaB )
1
2
4
. (kaB ) =
= .
2
A
2
(kaB )2 + 4
h
1
D = .
9

& &2
&C &
D=& & =

.
j p, R
, D
,

P = jp (Djp Rjp) = jp(1 + R D) = 2jp(1 D) =


p
= 2n p(1 D) = 4nE(1 D) 0,39 .
m

5.85. x < 0
1 = Aeikx + Beikx , x > 0 2 = Ceikx

246

(k = 2mE /h ).
x = 0:


h2 d2
d
1 (0) = 2 (0),
(0) 1 (0) Eat aB 2 (0) = 0.
2m

dx

dx

A, B C :
2C

A + B = C , ikC ik(A B) = ,
aB


i
A = C 1
. kaB
& &2
(kaB )2
&C &
D = & & =
. (kaB )2 =
2
=

2m

A
(kaB ) + 1
Eat 2
aB
1
1
4
= . D = .
2
3
h2


. : j
p, R , D
,

P = jp (Djp Rjp) = jp(1 + R D) = 2jp(1 D) =


p
= 2n p(1 D) = 4nE(1 D) 2,9 .
m

5.86. H P = g H . aB3 ,
g = G

aB =

M
R2 aB2 , P aB5 H . ,
R2

h2
, P e10 H ,
me2

H2 = H1 (e1 /e2 )10 . H1 = 10 , e2 /e1 = 2, H2 1 .


5.87.
 L T =
= 2 L/g (g ).
M
L aB . g = G 2
R

R2 aB2 (G , M 3/2
, R ). T aB e3 . e2 /e1 = 1/2,
T2 /T1 = (e1 /e2 )3 = 8.
5.88.
 2 2
B n
m
e
me4 m
2
Esf 3 Eat

m2 e8 ,
2
hc

mp

aB

mp

mp , n .
T = h/Esf m2 e8 .
 2  8
 10
T2
m
e
1
t2 = 1
= 1
= 1
= 9,3 .
T

m2

e2

0,8

247

5. , ,

5.89. E
, m = E/c2 = 2h/c, ,
R
 Mm
M m
U = G 3 r dr = G
. , 2R

r
M
r, G .
R3
GM E0
E0 , E , E0 = E +
,
2R

E E0
GM

=
=
1,1 106 .

E0
2Rc2

g (r) = G

5.90. v Li2+ Z = 3, = v/a.


n = 1 n = 5

E15 =

Z 2 Eat
2

1
1
2
12
5


= j 2h

(j = 1, 2, 3, ...).

108
v
108 Eat a 1
108 Eat a
Eat = j 2h , v =


. 25
a
25 2h j
25 2h

T =

M v2
12
 2
2
8

108
25

M
m

a
aB

2
Eat 4,7 .

M = 7mp 7 Li.
82+
5.91. 209
83 Bi
, : L = 0, S = 1/2, J = 1/2. - .
F = J + i, J + i 1, ..., |J i| = 5 4 8
8sf = A B J 8i = AB J
88i
. U
rB3 i

(rB =

rB3 i

aB
8
, Z = 83 , , J
Z

, 8i
, A > 0 ,
).
> 2
?
< =
8 J
8 2 8i2
AB 8 8
AB F
=
Esf = 3
Ji = 3
rB i

rB i

AB F (F + 1) J(J + 1) i(i + 1)
.
2
rB3 i

248

Esf = Esf (F + 1) Esf (F ) =


=

AB (F + 1)(F + 2) F (F + 1)
A
= 3B (F + 1).
2
rB3 i
rB i
1
, F = 1/2 1/2 = 0, rB =
2
9
a
= 2,6n , i = , F = 4, rB = B . 2
83

H = 2,79n , i =

= aB .

209 82+
83 Bi

Bi

Esf (H)
(Bi)
(0 + 1) 9/2 (aB /83)3
=
= H
= 3,4 106 ,
Esf (Bi)
(H)
Bi (4 + 1) 1/2
a3B
82+

209
83 Bi
A.
(Bi) = 3,4 106 (H) = 3,4 106 21 7000
.
5.92. E1 E2
:

E1 = E(H ) E(DH+
),

E2 = E(D ) E(DH+
).

m mp
Eat

(m + mp )m 2
2m mp
Eat
, E(D ) =
(m + 2mp )m 2

E(H ) =

(m mp ).
DH+

E2 E1 = E(D ) E(H ) =
=

m
m mp
Eat m m Eat
5,83Eat 158 .
=
m (m + mp )(m + 2mp ) 2
m mp 4

5.93. . r . z ,
. i i-
N = 60.

N 
0
1
2

.
U (r) = 2E

2
2
i=1

2 R0 + r 2R0 r cos i

R02 + r2 2R0 r cos i

q = r/R0 , ci = cos i .
N 
0
2
U = 2E

2
2
i=1

2R0 (1 + q 2qci )

R0

1 + q 2 2qci


.

249

5. , ,

q

 2
N  2
0

qci +
U 2E

2
2

R0

2R0

i=1

2

(4c2i 1)
(3c2i 1) q 2
2R0
2R02

N
2

+ 2E
2
R0
R02
2

q
2R0


= 2EN

R0

R0

1

1

q
1

2
c dc + 2 q 2
2R0

(3c 1)dc = 2EN

= 2E
1

R0
2R02


N+

(4c2 1)dc
1

+ 2 q2
2
R
2R0
6R0
0


=

+ 4 r2 .
2
R0
6R0
2R0

i
R0 :
1
1
N
0
N
N
f (ci )
f (c)2 dc =
f (c)dc.
4

i=1

N = 60, U (r) = 120E

1
2

R0
2R02


+

1 40E 2 2
r .
2 R04


(
)


40E 2

40E
=
, =
= 2
(mp
4
mp

R0

R0

mp

).
3h
,
r 2 =
2mp
$
$

r2
3
h2
3aB
1 Eat m
r2
=
=
0,00697,
0,083.
2
2
R0

40Emp

40 E mp

R0

5.94. X A1 A2 1 .
X2 A
A1 A2
A
11 = 1 mp , 12 =
mp , 22 = 2 mp (mp
2

A1 + A2

) p11 = 2 , p12 =
= 2(1 ), p22 = (1 )2 .
, E
I 1 1 (0 E0
= 0
E0
, E

250

, I ). A2 = A1 + 2, 11 < 12 < 22 ,

11
11
11 > 12 > 22 .
=
=
1
22

22
!
2
2
A
A +2
=
= 2 = 1
= 1,0571. A1 = 35, A2 = 37.

A1

A2

A1

A1

:
35
37
17 l 17 Cl.
J11
p
2
1
= 11 =
=
. = 0,76, . .
J22
p22
0,1
(1 )2

35
17 l

76 %, 37
17 Cl 24 %.
5.95.
-

ekr
2mn E
(C , k =
).
r
h

1
m Eat
1,2 1012 .
R = aB
k
mn E

5.96. ,
u, u, d , R. l = 0. kR = (k ). E = hkc = hc/R. ,
E0 , hc
4
E(R) = 3
+ R3 E0 . R R

dE
3hc
4R2
= 2 +3
E0 = 0.
dR
R 1/4 3
3hc
,
R0 =
4E

1/4 0
4hc
4
, E(R0 ) =
= 4 h3 c3 E0
= mp c2 (mp
R0
3
3 (mp c2 )4
3 mp c2
). E0 =
=
(
4
3
4(4)
4(4)4 3
h
cp
h
cp =
).
mp c

E(R).

R0 =

3hc
4 E0

1/4

= 4cp = 2cp = 2,6 1013 = 2,6 .

5.97. R

l = 0.
N ,
,
kR = (k ).
E = N hkc = N hc/R.
E0 ,

5. , ,

hc

251

E(N , R) = N
+ R3 E0 .
R
3
R0 E(N , R).
1/4

dE
N hc
4R2
N hc
= 2 +3
E0 = 0. R0 =
, -

3
4 E0
4 N hc
4
3 3 3 1/4
= (4E0 h c N ) .
E(N , R0 ) =
3 R0
3
4
E0 , A = (4E0 h3 c3 )1/4 .
3

dR

E(N , R0 ) = AN 3/4 , X
E6 = A 63/4 ,

E3 = A 33/4 .

E6
63/4
=
= 21/4 < 1,
2 E3
2 33/4

X pp .
5.98. (
) ( )

E=

2
MHe
(MLi2 + m2 ) 2
M 2 MLi2 2
(MHe + MLi )M c2
c He
c

2MLi
2MLi
2MLi

M c2 = 2,7 .
MHe MLi 6 He 6 Li. , , , 
EF : EF  E .
EF = p2F c2 + m2 c4 , pF = h(3 2 n)1/3
, n .

3/2


3/2

(M )2 m2
c3
1
M 2
n
=
1
3
3
3 2 h

3 2 ce

(ce = h/mc ).
A Z
A
= n mp (mp ).
Z
A 2Z ,


3/2

2 m
M 2
= 2nmp  2 3p
1
2,7 108 3 .
m

3
ce

5.99. (. 5.98)
,


3/2

2 mp
M 2
0 = 2 3
1
3,5 106 3 .
3

252

5.100. - E1 E2 ,
E = E1 + E2 ;
p2 c2 = E12 + E22 + 2E1 E2 cos (E -, p ). (M

-): E1 + E2 = E ; E1 E2 =

M 2 c4
. -

4 sin2
2

9
:
2 4
1
M c
:
E1 = E ;E 2

2
2
sin

9
:
2 4
1
M c
:
E2 = E + ;E 2
.
2
2
sin

= - E1 =
1
= (E pc), -
2

E2 = (E + pc). - Mn
2
-
,


1
m
m
E1 = (E pc)  2mc2 1 +
.
 1,
2
Mn
Mn
1
M c2 M c2
(E pc)  2mc2 . , E  pc, E pc
,
2
2
E
2
2
Mc Mc
M
 2mc2 , E 
M c2 450 .

2
E
4m

5.101. -
- ss, ss
cc. s, s c- 0c -. s, s
c- u, u d-
.
p + p 0c (2704) + p(938) + K+ (494) + K+ (494) + D (1870),
0

p + p 0c (2704) + p(938) + K+ (494) + K0 (498) + D (1865)


,

Tth1 =

(M c2 + mp c2 + 2MK c2 + MD c2 )2 (2mp c2 )2
= 20,7 .
2mp c2

(M c2 = 2704 , mp c2 = 938 , MK c2 = 494 , MD c2 = 1870


0c -, , K+
D -.
0c -

0
p + p p + p + 0c + c .
, ,
0

p + p p + p + 0c + c (1315) + D0 (1865),

p + p p + p + 0c + c (2466) + K+ (494),

5. , ,

253
0

. 0c c

Tth2 =

(2M c2 + 2mp c2 )2 (2mp c2 )2


= 2M c2
2mp c2

M
+2
mp

26,4 .

, . 0
0c c -
0
, p + p 0c + c ,


m
Tth3 = 2M c2 2mp c2 = 2M c2 1 p 3,5 .
M

Tth1
20,7

5,9.
Tth3
3,5

+
0
+

0
+
5.102. D
s : cs, Bc : cb, b : udb, Bs : sb, cb : ucb, cc : dcc, bb : dbb.
+
5.103. a) 0c , b) b , c) 0c , d) 0cb .

5.104. w = 1/ ( )
+ e+ e 3
GF 1,0 105 mp c2 cp , (cp = h/mp c ).
, 3

m . w G2F

(mp c2 cp )2 m c2
m5
3
(m c2 )2 h
c

(c = h/m c ). D+
s -,
cs,
c-, s-: c sl l l+ c sud ( l = e, -).
c- ,
c- s-
c- mc : wc m5c .  5
m
+
Ds - D c =
. ,
mc

c- mc 1,8 , D 1 1012 .
5.105. - D0 , D0 .
e+ e D0 D0 . D0 - cu, D0 cu. D0 , D0 .
c-: c sl+ l (l = e, -)
c sud. c-:

254


wc = w

mc
m

5


|Vcs | w
2

mc
m

5
. w

,
1
|Vcs | 1. D0 - D = c =

w
c
 5
m

1,1012 .
mc

5.106. - B+ B -.
pp B+ B + pp B+ B 0 0 . B -
bu
b-. b cl l
(l = e, , -). b-  5
mb
|Vcb |2 (w
wb = w
m

, m , |Vcs | 0,05). B -

5
m
1
1
B = b =

3 1012 .
2
wb

mb

|Vcb |

5.107. , tt- U (r) = q 2 /r ,  4


h3
m e
( ) at =
=2
tat .
4
mt q /2
mt q
h3
= 2,4 1017
mt t-, tat =
me4

. t- t bl l+ t bud.

5
m
t- =
. tt
mt
,  at ,
 2 
mt
m tat
q 2  e2
2
1,0e2 .
m

5.108. EF
7 Li.
7 
7
6
Li 7
.
6


T  7
 3
2 kB T
12 4
T
C7 = R
+
R
,
2
EF
5
7


3
3/2
2 k T
12 4
T
6
C6 = R B +
R
2

EF

255

5. , ,

(R ). ,


2 1 (6/7)3/2

R
4,98 ,
C6 C7 (6/7)3/2
1/3


12 4 1 (6/7)3/2
R
7 = T
370 .
5
C7 C6

EF = kB T

5.109. v a3 ,
E a v /3 . (dE
) P =
v (+3)/3 ,
dv

v P 3/(+3) . D D

1/2 (D , M , ).

d2 E
(a) a2 v (+2)/3 . D
da2

v (+2)/6 P (b+2)/(2(+3)) .  1 D P 1/2 .


 1/2
D2
P2
=
= 3.
D1
P1

5.110. u = u2 .
p h/u
p2

h2

kB D

(M ). u2 D1 . M
M u2
5.109, , v a3 P 3/(+3) ,
D P (+2)/(2(+3)) (a , v , , P ). u2 D1 P (+2)/(2(+3)) ,
u2
u2
P (2)/(2(+3)) .  1, 2 P 1/2 ,
2
a
a

 1/4
u
u
u
P1
1/4
P
.
=
4 %.
a
a 2
a 1 P2

a P 1/(+3)

5.111. 1
k = CV s (CV
3
, s ,
). , L = N a (N
a). N , L a.
D
D = hskD (kD 1/a ). s D a. , T , ,

( ,

256

12 4
), T  D , CV =
nkB
5

T
D

3

nD3 a3 D3

(n ). k a3 D3 D a a
D2 a1 . 5.109, a3 P 3/(+3) , a P 1/(+3) , D P (+2)/(2(+3)) .
k P (+2)/(+3) P 1/(+3) P (+1)/(+3) . ,  1,
k P 1 . 250
1 4 .
5.112. T
T /D (D ).
T /D = const.
109, D P (+2)/(2(+3)) (P ).
T P (+2)/(2(+3)) = const,
T2 = T1 (P2 /P1 )(+2)/(2(+3)) .

 1 T2 = T1 P2 /P1 200 .
5.113. .
( ) , ,
3
. nph 1/T ,
T
h
h
hs

(pT
T . T
pT

ET /s

kB T

, ET T , s ).


3

3
 3 
3


k T 3
1
kB T
1 kB T
1
T
T
nph B
3
3
3

.
hs

(h/a)s

ED

aD

a , D ED = kB D .
 3 
3
nph2
n2 D1
a1 D1
=
=
. 5.109 a
nph1

n1

D2

a2 D2

P 1/(+3) , D P (+2)/(2(+3)) (P ). nph P 3/(2(+3)) .  1


n
nph P 3/2 ph2 = (P1 /P2 )3/2 1/8.
nph1

5.114. . T nph (T /aD )3


(a , D , . 5.113).
T /D = const. nph a3 P 3/(+3) .
 1 nph const.

5. , ,

257

5.115. T
u2T kB T ( , u2T

u2T
k T
k T
B 2 B (
E
a2
a
dE

/3
). P =
v (+3)/3 , E a v
dv
k T
v P 3/(+3) E P /(+3) . B m
E

).

T P /(+3) .  1 ,
P
T P T2 = 2 T1 = 4000 .
P1
5.116. N N N .
kz ,

,  kz  ,
a
a
2N :

E1 (kz ) = E0 cos kz a

17
E0 ,
4

3
2

E2 (kz ) = E0 cos kz a 3E0 .

E1 E2 ,
cos kz a = 1/2. N kz , - . 1
17
15
EF = E0 E0 = E0 .
2
4
4
15
E0 ,
4
2hc
2hc
=
=
3307
A.
A
15/4E0

A = 0 EF =

5.117. , N N N . kz , ,

 kz  , 3N :
a

E1 (kz ) = E0 cos kz a 2,5E0 , E2 (kz ) = E0 cos kz a 1,5E0 .


, N kz ,
- ,
EF = 1,5E0 . A = 0 EF = 1,5E0 ,
2hc
2hc
.
=
8267 A
=
A

1,5E0

5.118. - U = E
r0 = 21/6 . (
) , , E = zE/2 (z
). (z = 8)
E = 4E 0,0548 ,
(z = 12) E = 6E 0,0822 .
5.119. , .
9 .. .

258

U = E r = .
N Est = (1/2)N 2E = N E .
= 2E/ 2 . M =
= Amp (A , mp ) n-
M u
n = (un un1 ) (un un+1 ). i(knt)
un un =
u0 e && k &&
(k ), (k) = 2
&sin &.
M
2

E =

0 h(k)
k

/


=
/

h(k) N
dk =
2
2


= 2h

N
2
M 4

/


k
2N
sin dk =
h
2

2N h
=
M

2E
.
M




E
2h
2
2 aB
2m Eat
=
=
.
2
|Est |

M E

Amp E

(A = 20) E /|Est | 0,0826, (A = 131)


E /|Est | 0,0091.
5.120. n-

+
M u
n = (l (un unl )l (un un+l )). l=1

un un = u0 ei(knat) (k

+
). M 2 =
l (2 eilka eilka ),

2 =

0 e 0

l=1

(2el e(+ika)l e(ika)l ) =



0 0
2
eika
eika
=

=
M
1 e
1 e(+ika)
1 e(ika)
l=1

l=1

sin2 (ka/2)
= 0 cth
,
M
2 1 2e cos ka + e2

&
&

0 &
ka &
(k) = 2
&sin &
M

cth(/2)
.
1 2e cos ka + e2

 1, ,
&
&

0 &
ka &
(k) = 2
&sin & .
M

5.121. , , L = 2
S = 1/2. J1 = 5/2,

5. , ,

259

J2 = 3/2. -
, , E1 E2 (E1 < E2 ). ,
g =1+

J(J + 1) + S(S + 1) L(L + 1)


, (
2J(J + 1)

) g1 = 6/5 J = 5/2 g2 = 4/5 J = 3/2.


MJ = 5/2 J = 5/2 ,
MJ = 3/2
J = 3/2. B0
5 6
3 4
: E2 B B0 = E1 B B0 ,
2

9
5

9
5

E = E2 E1 = B B0 = B Bat
( Bat =

B0
9 2
B
= Eat 0 = 1,6 104 .
Bat
5 2
Bat

e
= 12,4 ). B =
a2B

= 1,5B0


3 4
5 6
9
9
E = E1 B B E2 B B = B B E = B (B B0 ) =
2 5
9
1
= B B0 = E .
10
2

E = E/Q,
1/ E/h = E/hQ.
B0 / :
 2
dB
B
B E
B E
92
B0
Bat
> 0 = 0 = 0
=
= 1,5 107 /
dt

hQ

2hQ

20Q

Bat

tat

h
h
=
= 2,4 1017 ).
Eat
me4
3

(tat =

5.122. z B1 , x
B2 .
, , B2
.

 u(t)
.
=
v(t)
8 = B1
B1 H
8z (


1 0
8z =

= 1,91n , n ;
0 1
z - )  
 

1 0
u
u
ih = B8
z ih
.
= B
0 1
v
v
 
 

1 0
u
u
= B/h,
,
= i
0 1
v
v
9*

260

   it 
u
u0 e
=

, v
v0 eit

 
u0
1
1
=
, ,
v0
2 1  
u

x, h/2.
v
x:
 it 
 it 
 
 
u0 e
e
1
1
1
1
1
=
=
C
+
C
.

1
2
it
v0 eit
2 e
2 1
2 1
C1 C2 C1 + C2 = eit , C1 C2 =
= eit , C1 = i sin(t). , t = a/vn B2 ,


B a
B2 , w = |C1 |2 = sin2 (t) = sin2
. h vn
,


B a
w = sin2
sin2 (0,37) 0,13.
h vn

5.123.

H =

h2 2
h2 2

( , z
2I 2
2m z 2

, I = mD2 /4 ).
h2

mv 2

M2 +
, M = 0, 1, 2, ... E =
2I
2
.
, v
 
E

h2 2
M  0 |M | 
2I

mD2 E
D
=
2
a
B
2h

E
2,72.
2Eat

,
9 |M | = 0, 1, 2.
m
:
L
m
t =
= L: 
.

t
=
L


min
;
v
2E
2h2
2
2 E

2,4 1013 M = 0, tmax

mD2

9
:
= L: 
;

8h2
2 E
mD2

 3,5 1013 .

5.124.

=E

mv 2
=
2

2 h2
(n1 + n22 ).
2ma2

(n1 = 1, n2 = 1), (n1 = 2, n2 = 1), (n1 = 1, n2 = 2).


$
v(n1 , n2 ) =

2
m



2 h2 2
2) .
E
(n
+n
1
2
2
2ma

5. , ,

261

: v(1, 1) =
= 8,3 107 /, v(2, 1) = v(1, 2) = 5,6 107 .
L
L
t =

5,8 107 .
v(2, 1)

v(1, 1)

5.125. L
2

I = M g .
, I = M L2 /3 , M = N m0
N (CH2 ),
m0 = 14mp (mp
L = N l0 .

 ),
=

MgL
=
2I

3g
. 0
2L

, ,
1/5

h
MgL 2
3
3h2
=2
0 . g M 2 L3 40 = h2 , N =
660.
2 3 4
2

2g m0 l0 0

5.126. I , 1, z 2I + 1 = 3. 0, 1.
- kB T (T
), .
- 3 : 1.
5.127.
1
3
I = 1 + = ;
2

z 2I + 1 = 4. I = 1

1
1
=
2
2

2I + 1 = 2.
, - , , - 2 : 1.
5.128. a. 
vx h/M a, H
t = 2H/g ,

$



x=

a
a
h
+ vx t = +
2
2
Ma

2H
2
g

h
2M

2H
1013 .
g

,
, .

1. . . . . 15. .: , 2002.
2. . ., . ., . . .
. . 1. , , ,
/ . . . . .: , 2007. 704 .
3. . ., . ., . . . . . 2. / . . . . .: , 2007. 608 .
4. . . . ,
. .: , 2007. 656 .
5. . / . . . . .: - , 1998 (. 1 2); 2001 (. 3).


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

61

5. , , . . .

73


1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
5. , , . . . 215
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262