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ATT NTT a TR TT TTS TTT rar ae rar TT CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS 7 Which is more difficult to do? Give or take? Listen or ae eee AN eeu’ pees eee eee er Ae eos er ath aN influence on your opinions? Would your ideal friend Peet te) ee renee ny eee ea ee ey ee resource book of specking activities designed to encourage lively and meaningful discussion among prereset eee Pe tec eet eats medical ethics, freedom of the press and moral ee een eyes as running from A to Z, each filled with a variety of stimulating activities. The units contain authentic reading and listening texts which are intended to be Peer ec ete Peet ee eae oy cctivity, as well as providing a wealth of Pee ne eee eon ee eee ADVANCED Nn eas UL i in + offers a fresh perspective on a variely of discussion topics ‘encourages fluency through personalised activities See de ee a eos * flexible and freestanding: activities can either be fee rete eg + easy-louse format: leacher’s notes and Sees eee ean) eed « subject index: enables teachers to search for topics which fitin with the student's main coursebook The accompanying cassette features a good variely Career ee epee CAMBRIDGE SMES Ue eed Pere oe on ttt Acknowledgements _ Introduction to the teacher Advice Body English Fear Gender Home _ Intelligence Justice Kids Language ‘Memory Contents Personality Quizzes _ Revolution Science Talk Utopia Value War _ ca X-certificate You Zodiac Subject index Links index Acknowledgements T wold ike to thank above all Angie Graham for getting this project started and forall her subsequent advice. Thanks also 0 ‘my father, Basil Wallwork, for doing alot ofthe legwork and ddogwork and for pasing on to me his interestin words; 10 ‘Andreina Marchest and Tommaso for being constant source of inspiration; tothe many students who were guinea pigs for my ideas; to Francesco Oriolo for his immense knowledge and wit; toLIST SpA forletting me use their equipment; to International ‘House in Psa, in particular Chris Powell, Lynne Graziani and Antonia Clare to Tau Pet Lin, Honor Routledge and Marcheline Frontini for their voices an ideas; to Robin Routledge for reading the early proofs; to my American, Dutch, South Affican and ‘Ugandan neighbours for accesso their brains nd book shelves; and to Lindsay White fr help and patience in the ealy stages, I would also like to thank the following people at Cambridge University Press who suffered alot of burning e-mails and faxes: Jeannie McCarten, Geraldine Mark, Néirin Burke and Isabella Wigan. Thanks also to James Richardson, who produced the recordings, for being amazingly patient. would also like to thank Felicity Curve for providing the listening extract of old English on p. 24, Particalar thanks are duc tothe following institutions and teachers for their help in testing the material and for the invaluable feedback which they provided: Jonathan Beesley, ‘The British Council, Kuala Lumpur; Chris Evenden, Centro Britinico-Centro Espafol, Oviedo, Spain; Bob Hastings, urolingua, Cérdobs, Spain; Sue Fase, LALS, Edinburgh; Elizabeth McCallan Executive Language Service, Paris, France; ‘Sean Power, ELCRA Bell, Geneva; Tony Robinson, Eurocentres, ‘Cambridge; Zofia Bermacka Wos, Poland. Possibly my greatest thanks should goto the authors of the 200 or so books that I read while preparing this hook and its accompanying volume. I would particularly lke to thank the following sources which provided me with a wealth ofideas: Time magazine, The Sunday Times, The Times, R. Ash: The Top 10of _Evaything, The Oxford Enh Dictionary, The Penguin Theseus, Webster's New World Dictionary (‘hitd college edition), C. Wade and C. Tavis: Pyeholey ‘The author and publisher are grateful to the following for ‘permission to use copyright material in Discussions AZ ‘Advanced. While every effort has been made, thas wot been possible wo identify the sourees of ll dhe material used and in such cases the publishers would welcome information from the copyright owners: Mel Smith and Griff Rhys-Jones fr the extract on .9 fom The Sith and Joes World Ads, Laurence Pollinger Ld. forthe extract on prom the Ltrs of Scot “Ficgerld (UK and Comraonwelth right); US and Canada Fgh tothe extract on p.9 exerted with pemaisson of Serbner, Division of Simon de Schuster from F Scot Fitzgerald ‘A Lifin Ltrs by Matthew) Brueol, Copyright © 1994 by the Trustees under Agreement dated 3rd July, 195 created by Frances Scott Fitgerald Smith; Reed Books (UK snd Common: wealth rights) and Simon & Schuster (US and Canada rights) for the exact on pI fom How to Win Friends and nflaene Pape by Dale Camegi; Virgin WH Allen forthe extact on p11 fiom The At of Living by Princes Beri Kandaourfl HarperCollins Publishers forthe extracts on pp. 16nd 76 from Kenwords the extract on p. 93 from The Book of Tass by M. Nathenson and the extract on p.29 from Pcholegy, 2nd ed. bby Carole Wade and Carol Travis Ancient Arte Architecture Gallectin forthe photo (Mereworth House)on p17; Acknowledgements, Popperfoto for the photos (The Beatles, Johann Sebastian Bich) ‘on p. 17 and p. 97; Prentice-Hall for the extract on p. 17 fom SOCIOLOGY Understanding Society; the estae of GL. Brook for the extracts on pp. 25 and 105 from An Introduction to Ol Eglsh by GIL. Brook; Oxford University res forthe extracts on pp. 28 and 29 ftom Phobia ~ the Facts by D. Goodwin; the University of Natal for the extract on p. 31 from Focus, 194, Vol. 5,no. 4; Plenum Publishing Corporation for the extract on p32 ftom Sex Roles, Vol. 23; Simon & Schuster for the extsst (on p.33 from I've done so ell~ Why do Ifo bad? by Cla Hallas and Roberta Matteson; The Reader's Digest Association Lx for the extract on p, 35 from The Right Word at the Right Time 199 Panos Pictures for the photos on pp. 39 and 99; Funk & ‘Wagnalls Corporation fr the information on p. 39 from The World Almanac and Book of Facts: Express Enterprises or the extract on p. 41 fiom the Sunday Expres, 19 July 1992; Express Newspapers pe for the photo on p. 41; Open Un Press for the extract on p.42 from The Skid Mind by A. Gellatly; Prion for the extract on p. 47 fiom Mindinatchingby Hi & M. Eysenck; Little Brown (UK) Led. for the extract on p47 fiom Book of Childcare by H. Jolly; the British Association of Non-Parents for the extracts on pp. 48 and 49 from ther leaflet [No Regrets (The Cate fr Remaining Chiles); the British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering (BAP) for the extract on p. 50 frm ther leaflet; Souvenir Pres Ltd. forthe illustrations from Signs ‘Make Senseby C. Smith on p. $5; Penguin UK forthe extract on .58 from Conceptual Blctbustng by James L. Adams (UK and ‘Commonwealth tights) and the extracts on pp. 85 and 104 from Sociolinguistics by Peter Trudgill; Addison: Wesley forthe exteuct (mp. 58 from Conceptual Blockbusing by James L. Adams (US and (Canada sights); Routledge forthe extract on p. 65 from Pros and ‘Cons by M.D. Jackson; National Magazine Company forthe extract on p. 67 from Cosmopolitan magazine; Omnibus Pres for the extract on p. 69 from Bob Dylan in bis oxn words; Econ for the extract on p. 71 tom The Personality Test by Peter Laster; British Telecommunications ple forthe extracts and illustrations on pp. 2, 73 and 75 fiom their booklet The Language of us, School of Living for the extract on p. 77 from Go Abad and Live by Mildred J. Loomis; the Equal Opportunities Commision for the extract on p. 78 from The Inequality Gap; the Academic Pres forthe definitions on p. 81 fiom the Academic Press Dictionary of Science and Tebnology; Vietor Gollancz and Virgina Kidd Literary ‘Agency forthe extract on p. 83 from The Disposwssed by Ursula Le Guin; MIT Press for the extracts on pp. 84 and 104 from ‘Silein Language by T.A. Sebeok;Piatkus Books and Dr Lilian Glas for the extract on p. 86 from Confident Conversation by De Lillian Glass; Stanley Thornes forthe excract on p. 87 fiom Teaching Children to Think by Robert Fisher; W.W. Norton & ‘Company forthe extract on p. 89 from Robert Adams" tra lation of Utopia by Sir Thomas More; Brooks/Cole Publishing ‘Company forthe extract on p. 95 from Social Prycology on te {80s by Deaux/ Wrightsman; WWE UK for the extract on p. 99 from The WWF Environment Handbook; Mary Evans Pictute Library for the photos (UFO and When Martians landed) on p. 111; Planet Earth Pictures forthe photos (satellite, cluster ‘of colliding galaxy, Var telescope, pace telescope) on p. 11 Ilustrations by Graham Cox: pp. 29,33, 63,65, 85, 95; (Chris Pvely: pp. 13, 5, 57,61, 81; Graham Puckett: pp. 33 (op), 37 (bottom); David Seabourme and Tommaso Wallwork: p. 83; Peter Seabourme: pp. 49,51; Gary Wing: pp. 17,37 (top) 45, 67, 71,71, 108. Page layout by David Seabourn. iy Introduction Summary for those ahurry + Structure: There are 26 topic-telated nits — one for each letter ofthe alphabet. Topics overlap between units, which means that you can pass from one unit to another, and so give your students a sense of thematic continuity + Level and use: Use the book both for back-up material to your coursebook, or independently a the bass of a ‘conversation course and try itwith lower levels a well. + Where to begin: If your class not familiar with discussion activities, the best entry point is Talk which has several activities to get students thinking about how to conduct a discussion, Otherwise star with the warm-ups from Advice or Zodiac, Subject and Links index: Use the subject index to decide what exercises to use. This index is designed to help you locate exercises which will ie in with your coursebook; ‘many unit titles and headings of ypical upper level ‘coursebooks are covered in this index. You can use the links index to plan a conversation course ~ it tells you the various connections among units + Choosing exercises: Don't feel you have to do every exercise from every unit. Combine exercises from various tunis 28 you choose both from this book and fiom Discssions AZ, Intermediate. Don’t follow the order ofthe exercises unless you want t0 (or unless advised in the teacher's note) Timing: Exercises vay in length from five to about ninety minutes depending on your students’ level and interest in the topic. Don’t impose any rigorous time limits unless you have to, but don’e persevere with a discussion that’s getting nowhere, However, itis important that students fel they've completed an exercise and been linguistically productive in the process. «* Personalisation: Try and relate exercises to current events and things relevant to your own students’ lives, ‘+ Taboo: Some topics may be sensitive for your students — they are marked with a %B. Don't let this put you off doing. them unless you're sute they will react badly. Ifyou think they might, make sure you have back-up material ready (for example, exercises from the Quizzes unit). + Discussion groups: Most ofthe discussion exercises work best in pairs or small groups. Explain to students that you ‘won't interrupt them while they talk (unless you notice them repeatedly making the same mistake), but that you'll note down mistakes they make for analysis ta later point. In any case, before embarking on an exercise you should anticipate any vocabulary and grammar problems that are likely to arise, and revise these beforehand if necessary. ‘With more reticent classes you may need to dill or feed them with relevant structures useful for the specific discussion task, Introduction + Other uses: Don’t think that you have to use this book ust for discussions. Some ideas could lead you on to other areas: ‘vocabulary, grammar, composition writing et. + Flexibility: Be flexible. Choose your own path through the book. Use the link cross references on the teacher's pages to ‘guide you. Select and adapt the tasks to suit your students? needs, Rework the exercises or use them as models for your con ideas. ‘© Comments: Pease write to me at Cambridge, or email me {adrian @list.t} and let me know your opinions and criticisms on the book. Speaking ‘Most exercises on the student's page consist ofa set of questions to discuss. When these questions are preceded by an introductory reading passage they should not be treated as comprehension questions but as a springboard to discussion. Ifyou see no logical ordering in the numbering ‘of the questions let students read all the questions, and then just select the ones they wish to discuss. Altematively divide students into small groups and ask them to discuss, say, only the fist five often questions, Those who finish their discussion quickly can be atked to move on to the other questions, whilst the more loquacious groups ae given enough time to finish their debates Don’t lt students think they have to stick to answering the questions directly. Let them float around the questions and bring in their own ideas. ‘Questions not discussed inthe lesson can be seta titles for compositions for homework; or summaries can be made of those questions that were infact answered during the lesson, Reading Most ofthe texts are authentic and come from a variety of sources; some have been condensed or slightly modified ‘They have been kept deliberately short and are not designed for developing specific reading sills. Encourage students to guess: «were the texts come ftom — newspapers, scientific journals, women’s magazines letters, interviews literary works (or sources see p.) + why they were writen ~ to inform, instruct, convince, advise, shock, amuse, deceive * who they were written for — age group, sx, nationality, specialist, casual reader + when they were written (where applicable) Although the aim of the text is not to act as comprehension exercise, students should obviously ‘understand most of what they read. Before photocopying, underline in pencil any parts that you feel are essential For an understanding ofthe text. Check the meaning ofthese before going on to look at the text in more detail Introduction Depending on the type of ext asa written follow-up, students can: ewrte the text ftom a different point of view ‘imagine and recount what happened either before or after the event described in the text. Alternatively they write up an interview with the people mentioned in the text. This Interview could even take place ten yeats late, to find out their new situations or feelings. summarise the text, or simply delete any words or phrases that they consider could be redundant. Listening The listening exercises ary in lve toa much greater extent than inthe reading and speaking exercises and canbe used with a good range of clase Thve eerie ae also designed qo provide information and provoke dscusion but some Tisenings can also be used a frestanding exercises improve listening sis. None of the listenings are referred to om the student’s pages, s0 you should give clear instructions for the exercises. You will also need to dictate the comprehension questions, or ‘write them on the board for students to copy. Feel fee to adapt the questions or invent your own to suit the level or interests of your students. Pre-teach any essential vocabulary that has not already come up during the preceding discussion exercise Some listening exercises feature native speakers doing the exercise on the students page. Ask students to read all the questions but without answering them. Then get them to listen tothe fist two speakers. On the first listening they identify which point i being discussed. After the second, listening elicit the structures and vocabulary used ~ this will then serve at a basis forthe students’ own discussions. The other speakers can then be used at the end ofthe exercise, purely asa comprehension test. Culture and maturity Tam) ish, but you will notice that there i a considerable ‘American input too, Most of the subjects covered thus reflect a fairly liberal Anglo-Saxon background, and my age (born 1959). Some subjects may encroach on taboo areas in your students culture and you should take care to consult students in advance about any potentially delicate topics ‘where they might fel embarrassed or exposed. A very simple way to check possible problems areas, isto give each student a copy of the subject index (page 112) and get them to tick any subjects they would feel uneasy about. I would also get them to write their name, so that you know exactly who has problems with what. This means that such subjects could be discussed in such people's absence. This is a good introductory exercise in itself, and combined with the Talk unit, should get your students analysing what verbal communication isall about. Also, check out any extreme or Introduction prejudiced opinions your students may have, whilst there could actually be used to good effect (as a kind of devil's advocate), they might upset other students Don’t attempt subjects that are simply outside the realm of ‘your students experience ~ no amount of imagination is ‘going to be able to surmount the problem, But if you ask them to pretend tobe part ofa doctors’ ethics committe, ‘obviously they can’t be expected to know what a real doctor ‘would do, but that shouldn't stop them saying what they ‘would do if they were in such a position, Ifyou do unwittingly embark on an exercise which students find too difficult or embarrassing, or which promotes little more than uneasy silence, just abandon it~ but try and predict such events and have backup exercises a the ready, Feel free just to ignore some exercises completely, bt tll students that the nature ofthe book isnot to cover every exercise systematically and in order, You'll soon lear the types of exercises that wll go down well with your students would suggest letting the students decide which exercises they want to do. ‘Most exercises in this book have been designed tobe very flexible, and an exercise that might appear o be too dificult or delicate can often be adapted to suit your students’ needs In countries where students ae key to seize on a writing ‘exercise, however bre the writing, and use i as a substute for speaking rather than a prelude toi, you may need to rethink some ofthe exercise instructions. For example in one exercise students are asked toate some moral ales (Values) fiom one to ive aecording to unacceptably Don't let them get hold oftheir pen and merely write ‘numbers, but give them clearcut instructions to which they can't avoid talking: ‘Look at the situations below and decide if they are wrong If they are wrong, how wrong are they? “Tal your partner what you think and give reasons for yout opinion’. (Lam indebted to Jonathan Beesley ofthe Bish CCouncilin Kuala Lumpur for these and other suggestions) Ifyou feel students cannot cope with a certain exercise because they wouldn’t know what o say, then you might Ihave to provide them with a concrete stimulus. For example, students are asked to answer the question ‘What difficulties ddo homeless people have?" If they have difficulty in putting themselves in other people's shoes, you could put them into pairs — one journalist and one homeless person and give them role cards. On the journalist's eard you specify ares to ask questions about (eg. sleep, Food, clothes, money, friends, consideration of and by others ~ but ina ile more detail than this). On the homeless person’s card put information that could answer such questions (eg. sleep under a bridge a the station, hospice, et.) Altemativey, in pairs again, they imagine they are both homeless people, but from two diferent parts ofthe world (eg. New York and Calcutta). By giving them such obvious differences (limate lifestyle, culture), you get them focusing their ‘ideas more clearly. Tis principle can be applied to many of the exercises. Introduction How to conduct a discussion ‘The word ‘discuss’ originally meant to ‘cu’ with a similar origin as ‘dissect. This meaning, along wit its current use of ‘examining the pros and cons’ gives a good idea of what a discussion isall about, ie. a dissection of an argument into various parts for analysis, followed by a reassembling of all the relevant elements to a draw a conclusion from the whole. Discussions A-Z is based om this principle, (One problem with question answering is that without some coaching on how to answer questions, students may simply. answter ‘yes, ‘no’, ‘it depends’ et, and then move on to the next question. Many ofthe questions in this book have been formulated so that they avoid a simple ‘yes/no’ answer. Others are designed to be deliberately provocative. ‘Consider the following case. Students are asked whether it should be up to the government or the people to decide on where people can smoke, If students simply answer ‘the government’ or ‘the people, there won't be much to discuss Alternatively, students (either alone or in groups) should fist write down a set of related questions, e.g, Where are smokers free to smoke now? Why do we need to change this? Why do we need a law to tell us we can’t smoke in certain places? Who would object to anti-smoking legislature? Who would benefit? What should be done with offenders? ete. The process of formulating and answering these types of questions wil get the students really thinking, and along with some examples from their own personal ‘experience, should lead to intense language production. ‘The same kind of approach can be used for brainstorming. Suppose you're brainstorming the students on the ideal qualities ofa judge. Without any prior instruction, most people will come up with personality characteristics such as intelligent, well-balanced, rational, experienced ~ which is fine. But it would be more productive if students frst wrote down a set of questions related to judges: Why do we need judges? What is a judge? How old should he be? Even the phrasing of questions can be indicative of how we see a judge — why do we refer to ajudge ashe’ and not ‘she’? Are ‘men more rational, and therefore better judges than women, and why isi that there ae so few female judges? You should add other, less orthodox questions, to provoke your students into thinking about other aspects of being a judge, e.. how relevant are race, height and physical appearance, hobbies e.? Students may think that the height of a judge is totally itrelevant; this is probably tue (though research has shown, that there isa link between height and intelligence), but Introduction often by saying what isnot important we get a clearer idea of| what is important. Asa follow-up activity students could design a training course for judges. Now let us see how we can apply the same approach to problem-solving activities. Suppose your students are part of a government board which gives funding to scientific research projects. Tei tasks to decide which one ofthe following projects to give money to: (I) group of marine archaeologists who have found Atlantis; (2) some alchemists who have found a way to convert the Grand Canyon into ‘gold; and (3) some genetic engineers who have developed a way to produce square fruit. In order to generate a valuable discussion students should begin by weting down a series of related questions: Why did the scientists involved propose the projects Is there areal need forsuch a project? Is it practical? Do we have the necessary technology to carry it ‘out? Should such projects be funded by the government or by private enterprise? Who would benefit and why? ee. Then, when they are into ther discussion, they should try and extend ther arguments and reasoning and see where it takes chem, Forexample, a discussion on Atlantis might, if pre-questions have been writen, lead naturally into an analysis of what we can lear from history, how and why legends aise, why archaeology of any kind is important, what things we can learn from past civilisations, how our past affects the Present, et In summary, this approach to discussion involves: A prediseussion activity where students ether in groups or individually, write down related questions, some of which you, the teacher, can feed. AA discussion initiated by answering such questions, and if possible, drawing on students’ own personal experiences The logical or illogical extension of ideas brought up by the discussion, A round-up of conclusions involving cross group. ‘questioning followed by whole class feedback. Avwritten summary for consolidation, ‘The result is obviously a much fuller and productive discussion, in which you have more time to note down any recurrent mistakes, and students to let themselves go and. practise their English. Nor are the benefits solely linguistic: there isa great deal of satisfaction in having your mind stretched and producing interesting and often unexpected ideas and results Warm-up + This exercise can be usd a ist eson with anew group. + Ina monolingual las tell your students i groups) £0 discus and write down some advice for forsigners(¢4 yO) about living and surviving inther country. Some should be rel advice and some shouldbe invented They then read cout their advice and you have to tell them whether you think its eal advice or invented ~ tht wll obviowely work patcularly well you really have jst rived in thee country. Then you do the sae to them, i give them advice about your country and they have t identify from what you say whether the advice ere or invented tis is your ft lesson they can ao identify which country you are fom + Asa follow-up reading exercise, photocopy the introduction from a tourist guide (writen in English, eg. Te Rongh Guide whereas about the general characteristics ofthe peopl of your hos country. Student ead the extract and ‘hen discuss inialyn groups and then with you, whether they agree wth what the guide sys Ina mullingual clas, before students have ha the chance to get to know each other and discover where they come from, tell them to write some advice for visitors to thei ‘country (only true information). In groups they then read tout their advice and the other students have to guess their country of origi. Writing Students imagine a foreigner has come to their country. They are in three different historical periods: stone age, riddle ages and 19th century. Theit tak sto write down two oF three pieces of advice foreach period that they would give to this imaginary foreigner. In groups they then read ‘out at random the pieces of advice. The others have to decide which period the advice refers to and whether they agree with it ornot 1 _Tips for tourists Students st dentfy the maps and flags ofthe various counties shown in the illustrations. Get feedback and give Australia b Saudi Arabia Kena ANoreay @Peu EUSA gMalaysia bnJopan i Switzerland j Denmark Advice + Students now read the advice for tourists and in groups identify which country is being referred to (note that there ate three extra countries illustrated), Give answers 9 Ausiraia 2 Saud Arabia 3,Japan (sb) 6USA 7 Kenya 4 Pon § Noreay ‘+ Finally, students discuss whether they have already visited or ‘would like to vist those countries 2 Good advice? ‘Tell students to read the extracts and in groups to work out where the passages might have come from (book, magazine play, etc), who wrote them, who they were for, and when they were writen. Get feedback and give them the information below. NB Ifthe Shakespeare extract is to0 difficult ust use the Fitzgerald one. @ The first advice is from a letter written in 1933 by Scott Fitzgerald (author of The Great Gatsby) to is 12-year-old daughter who was away at school. The second is from ‘Shakespeare's Hamlet and is Polonius's advice to his son Laertes before Laertes departs for France. Tel students that ‘even most native speakers find Shakespeare's English hard to understand without alte practice. Inform students thet ‘the fibou = you, thy/thine = you. + Now ask them to decide whether the advice is good. + Finally, do the listening Listening + Students hear some possible modem interpretations of six of the seven extracts from Polonius’s speech. Their taskis to ‘match the version with the original. "0 Ie 2a 3 Af Sb bg [21 Basically suppose it means um, wel don't get into arguments, butif you do, make sure that the person you're arguing wit knows whe they'e dealing with 2.1m not sure em, something ike, don't say whot you're thinking ‘nd think hord before you do anything; is that t@ 3 Buy expensive but nol ostentatious clothes as people often judge ‘youn the way you look; not sure | agree with thot one. 4 Don't giv or ask for money: one, you might lose the money or your fend, end two you might nt keep within your dg. 5 Don't let goof loyal fiends —to0 right 4 Actually this is pretty much my motto: be true to yourself you do, you wil be sincere wit everybody alee 1_Tips for tourists 1 Think hefore you go. Conviets used to beg to be executed rather than exiled to this English-speaking island. 2 When cating in someone's home: Eat only with your right hand, Do not sit withthe soles of your feet facing anyone. Do not ask for alcohol 5 Don't expect to find a husband or wife inthis Eastern country Fall the peoples of the world, they are the least inclined to marry foreigners. Don't worry about being mugged. There is very litle violent crime here compared with other advanced counties. 4 Ride on the highest standard gauge railway in the world at 15,801 A Avoid the Amazon jungle ~ itis said to contain vibes of cannibals and head-shrinkers, sv i this European capital, the fourth largest city In the world in size, with a population of less than half million, This isthe result ofa decision in 1948, to simply make it 27 times larger. Most of the city is forest and park. h 6 Respect the fag. It must not be let in the dark or get wet or touch the ground, Be careful ofthe phone. Although there are as many as 550 million cals every day, they may be ‘monitored. Do not be lured into marviage. There are half as many divorces as marriages. 1 Enjoy the wildlife Visitthe Great Ri Valley, where some anthropologists believe the ‘human race began. This country has the world’s highest birth rate and rape rate, and the lowest rates for suicide and car accident deaths 2 Good advice? | phings worry about Give thy thoughts no tongue. Worry about courage. Worry about cleanliness Nor any unproportion’> thought his act. Worry about efficiency, Worry about horsemanship. Be thou familiar, but by no means vulgar. (a) | rhage met ory abo | Those friends thou hast, and their adoption tried, eee ee Grapple them to thy soul with hoops of steel: (b) Don't worry about del Beware of entrance to a quarrel; but. being in, Dowie worry about the past Bear't that th’opposed may beware of thee. (c) Deo ory abot the fre. Give every man thy car, but few thy voice: Don terry about growing up Take each man’s censure, but rescrve thy juosment. (0) Don't worry about anyone geting ahead of yo Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy, Dow t worry about triamphs But not express’d in fancy: rich, not saudy: Dan't worry about failure unless it comes through your For the apparel oft proclaims the man: (e) coun aul Neither a borrower nor a lender be: Don't worry about parents. For loan oft loses both itself and friend. Don't worry about boys. And borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry. (f) eer eee eee This above all — to thine own self be true, Dent worry about pleasures. An it must follow. as the night the Day, Dent worry about stisfctons. | me she | Tho canst not then be false to anny man. (s) Discussions A-Z Advanced GTICIMIITIY © Cambridge University Press 1997 Re 3. How to win friends ‘Before eading the text ask students to discuss in groups. some ofthe best ways to win and keep friends. ‘+ Tell students that there are 12 pieces of advice, on winning and keeping friends, from two very different books: one is called The av of iving by someone with the unlikely name of Princess Beris Kandaouroff (basicaly a book on social etiquette), the other is one of the world’s most success business books, called How to win friends and influence people bby Dale Carnegie (originally published in 1936, with nearly ten million copies now sold. ‘+ Students’ initial raskis to decide which pieces go with which book. However, it wll soon become apparent that most pieces could fit both books, and the prime aim should be to discuss whether the advice is good or not. Students may like toadd some more oftheir own rules of friendship. Carnegie: 16: Bers: 712. Don't students beforehand that ‘one half from one book and the others from the other book Follow-up Isit posible to havea real Giendship with someone ofthe ‘opposite sex? si true thatthe older you get, the more dliicaliisto make fiends? 4 Problemspages Explain what a problem page is (generally a page ina woman's magazine where readers write in with problems, ‘which are then answered by an expe) Brainstorm students on the kinds of problems likely tobe found on such pages and write ist on the board (adding any topes from the Jette inthe exercise that students don't think of). Students read the letters and match them with topics fons the list In groups students discus what advice they'd give these reader. Listening + Students hear some advice/opinions onthe letters. They identify which answer goes with which problem, and then discuss the opinions. IE 24 3C 4B 5B 6C 7E 8D [1 tnsounds to me as if she basically doesn't accept herself. She 10 should stop thinking about olering her appearonce and think ‘more about her atitude to herself and her approach to other people. Maybe she should seck professional advice, fis! kom ther doctor ond then from a psychotheropst. But do Feel sorry for hor. Advice il a a ell a 2 She seems tobe trying to moke a connection beween the cypey’s curse and what hoppened later. There's ro doub hot ‘he's been vryunlcly, but he only way to break the chan ito get support from the rest of he family and to think piv ‘reckon when people ge int the sot of mind she's, ey xa ‘almost encouraging, s0 to speak, negative thing to hoppen. She really needs to breok the vicious cele she seems lo have got. hetatin 3 These day | hnk people re jsdgéd more on heir mers han ‘enither accent, ond | think she should cealie thats probably mote ofa problem for her than fo the people who listen tohe Britain cercny iso class conscious society, bu things ore changing, and anyway who want 10 speak like he Queen? 4 Anyone who's inking of having child a ht oge in ny ‘opinion is throughly selfish seems o me tht sien and doctors ae eal in sme kind of perverse competion ose ‘whose patient can deliver a baby ot he oldest oge possible Scionce is enabling v todo things, that quite rn, wold ‘bo beter if we couldn't do. Why don’ these people think moe ‘bout the poor cidren they are going fo hove, who are going {gr0W up with what looks mor lite grandporeats then pares? '5 Why no! meon we ive far longer these days enyway, sis not fhe child is going 0 iss ou. And why abway lok att from he chiles point of view? And anyway ot eat he or ht going fe have mature, economically sabe porno belated ter by. 6 |know exactly what she means. The kids at my school always ted tease me forthe way spoke, and | achaly ended up ‘asking my parents to give me elacuton lessons, They ekse, so began 1 watch loads of old block and whe ins and ied iio the way the rich ladies spoke 7 This woman needs her head seeing te. Does she realise how ‘mony women would give thet le arm, 200 speck, tlk he het 8 fee terribly sory that we lve in society that cannot ocapt the inconvenience of having anol person inthe house ~ and ‘we're not talking about ony od person, buta member of one's ‘own family. There ore sil some bes where the odes merber is considered tobe he wisest, and I hink that people forget hat ‘even inthis oge of advanced technology we con stillern alt from the older members of our society | emember hat my old womyn/wimmin craftsman —> artisan history > herstory fireman — firefighter ‘waiter/waitress > waitron ‘Neighbour’ and ‘survivors’ (om), which should be neutral tems fr both sexes, here obviously only refer to men, women being excluded as second clas citizens Mac: kills neighbour and wife Plane crash: 30 survivors including 10 women Here are some words that people have invented to avoid the generic ‘he’ problem; only the frst is ever really used: sthe, x6, tey= he or she per= person = he or she peep=singolrof"people’ her, wm =herorhim Literate an television ae often blamed forthe tendency towards male protgoniss. Nearly 80% of the ation in books {paniculey children's books) and TV programmes is cried out by boysand men, so tha female reader/ viewers, conseionsly oF not, te themselves in a subservient role [in 1984 the federal government of Australia decided to expunge all sexist words from the statute Books ~ an increible 50,000 offending words were found. 1 Feminist scholars maintain thatthe generic ‘he’ and similar words ‘not only refect a history of male domination’ but also ‘actively encourage its perpetuation’. How do you think tis is possible? 2 Does your language have a generic pronoun which is neiher masculine or feminine, and which con rele tothe wo sexes indiscriminately? IF you don't have one, how do women feel about having to use ‘he’ to describe a generic person® If nobody cares about in your courtly, why ist ht people care so much abou! i falmost 6 he point of obsession in English-speaking countries? 3 Feminists coined the word ‘Ms.’ 0s an exact equivalent to M. Why do you think ‘Ms. was invented? Do you think it was needed? If you are a woman, why would) you use this word? 4 Mle words have tended to retain their connotations of power and independence, whereas female ones have become associated with tvialiy, dependence and sex. ‘Compare, for exomple, bachelor/ spinster, governor/ governess, master/mistess, Do the some kind cf distinctions exist in your language? Now do you ‘agree that even one's language can contbute fo the way we see the world, i.e. a male dominated world? ‘You don't? Sigh! 5 How could you convert he following sentences into ‘gender neutral’ sentences? Man will never conquer space b Maris origins ore sill not fully understood ‘Someone is at the door. Shall | let him in? Each student must have his own book, ‘My neightour and his wife are on holiday Anyone who thinks that needs his head seeing to Englishmen ore very reserved ‘An Englishman's home is his caste eae ai oye ‘Ask the man in he street, he would probably tell you that The user can use his mouse fo move the cursor. Discussions A-Z Advanced ‘© Cambridge University Press 1997 35 36 ‘The original meaning ofthe word ‘home’, in English and many other Indo-European languages too, was of «sale dwelling place, a village, even a world, In Old English it came to mean a fixed abode where people habitually lived and sometimes was extended to include members of family (home circle). Websters says that ‘house’ (rom a reconstructed Indo-European base meaning) comes from the same root as ‘sky’ and was used to mean a covering and concealing’. Our modem usage ofthese two words can be traced back to these original meanings. Home” has connotations of a feeling of belonging, a centre of affection, place where you can find refuge and rest, it is something intimate and private. you think about the words ‘homely’ and ‘homemaker (as opposed to ‘housekeeper’), you immediately get the feeling of an atmosphere, a family (in fact we talk of "broken home’ where the parents are separated). It even has the sense ofa destination — “homeward bound’ (old hippies will remember the Simon and Garfunkel song), and also a nation (home vs foreign policy: Browning's poem Home thought from abroad), Generally, home’ only refer to one's own place; we'd say‘ went round to Adrian's house’ not his home’, Hous, in the ‘meaning ofa covering or storage place, i lear in such things as a greenhouse, henhouse, the House of Commons, a clearing house, etc. Its a physical structure nota place ‘where one should supposedly receive kind treatment and fee elaxed (Make yourself at home’. Ever wondered why we say to go/atrive/get home (.e without any preposition)? This sa remnant from Old English where the accusative case was used without ‘preposition, like the Latin ‘domum’, with the sense of "to ‘one’s house, to home’ Warm-up Brainstorm students on the difference between ‘house’ and “home. Then ge them 1 think ofall the compound words beginning with ‘home’ (eg. homebred, coming, and, less made, -maker, stead, sttetch, video, -wosk) and compare these with any expressions they can think of containing house’. This should confirm and consolidate the difference between home and house. Then g0 0n 0 Homesick? 1_Home sweet home Do the listening exercise before students lok at thei page. Listening Students hear two people talking about typical houses in tudcens then look at their page, With Low level classes, after listening, students should identify which kind of house was being talked abou (pinured); higher level classes should also note the minor differences between, the ewo descriptions. their country. Home hs: BE tbe. 1.1 Wellin South Africa there ore many mare black than whites, ‘ond alot ofthe blocks, most of ham | think lve in oral reas, ‘ond they have round houres with hatched roofs, ond em mud Walls, and om no chimneys, and heres « gap between he wal ‘andthe roof fr ventilation, 2 In Ugande we lve ina thatched hovse, thats the sof is made With sticks and gros, the walls made of, of mud, covered, of slicks covered with the mod wall, the foots aso smeared wih ‘mud to make it smooth; and between the roof and the well here is 6 space of about half « mote for ventilation. Thave ae wo windows usualy onthe sides. + Aficr the listening, students discuss the other illustrations. In groups they decide in which countries such houses would be typically found, + Students nove discuss why they mere built in such a way (and with what materials), and what che advantages and disadvantages are of such houses (in terms of ving conditions, cost, maintenance, appearance, ete) Follow-up + Students discuss the housing situation in their country ~ where is the best place olive (both on a national, regional and city leveD, whether it’s easy to sent or buy. 2 Homesick? «Students ead the pasage and as a whole cass discus aqestionst and 2. © The passage comes from a boy's try, im Saye by Mark Twin, avery famous Amrcan novelist. fn this particular extract Tom an hs fiend have gone camping «Students now dicus the other questions and then do the listening execs. listening + Students hear what three people from Uganda, South [Aca and China) miss most when they ate away fom hhome. They should ill in a table lke the one below mis don't miss i culture, family ‘not mentioned 2 | family friends, nature 3| culture, festivals censorship, sexism, class TEI) Whott miss mosis about Uganda so theca grew vin the people | grew together wih mis ale ny amily cane den gett se hem very en, 2 Is fail ond friends but clo mis he baouhd beaches ond the mountains ond the lovely countryside. | don't miss the racism athough so vry diferent place snc the elcons in 1994 3 | don isthe lack of freedom, dont mis the diference bahween men ond women do’ ms th os clilerenes, censorship, hing lieth, bt do mi lh raditonl ‘all pan, even food, ftv, he mosphere. 1 Home sweet home a 2 Homesick? ‘They found plenty of things to be delighted with, but nothing to be astonished at. They discovered that the island was about three miles long and a quarter of a mile wide, and that the shore it lay closest {o was only separated from it by a narrow channel hardly ‘two hundred yards wide. They took a swim about every hour, so It was close upon the middle of the afternoon when they got back to camp. They were too hungry to stop to fish, but they fared sump: tuously upon cold ham, and then threw themselves down in the shade to talk. But the talk soon began to drag, and then died. The stillness, the solemnity that brooded in the woods, and the sense of loneliness, began to tell upon the spirits of the boys. They fell to thinking. A sort of undefined longing crept upon them. This took dim shape presently — it was budding homesickness. But they were all ashamed of their weakness, and none was brave enough to speak his * thought. 1 Who are ‘they’? Where ore they? 2 How are they feeling? Why are they ashamed of the way they are feeling? 3 Hove you ever been camping with some friends? Have you ever been exploring? 4 When was ihe first ime you slept ‘ovary from home? How ld you jeel? What home comfons did you miss the most? 5 When you go to ancther place (or abroad, what do you miss the most abou! your home town and country? (family, fiends, pots, house, food and drink, culture, sense of humour, TY, shops institutions, not being able to speak your native language?) 6 How alten do you phone and write home when you are away? Discussions A-Z Advanced GEEISIMEUIA © Cambridge University Press 1997 37 3 Homeless and homeland °® This could be a very touchy subject for alot of people. Test the ground before embarking oni + Students look at the picture of the refugee camp and imagine how life must befor such people, They should then answer the questions. Writing + ‘Charity begins at home” Discuss. 4 Home, language and nation *W This could bea very touchy subject for a lot of people. Test the ground before embarking on it. @ Language has not always been a unifying clement in Europe cither (eg, Ireland andthe former Yugoslavia), butithas ‘been in separatist groups in Spain and France, Languages, Jn any case certainly something people fel very strongly about ~ the Flemish used to object to ther children being taught French in French. ‘Students read the passage and discus the questions 38 Home 3 Homeless and homeland 1 Is your country curtenily home fo any refugees? How swell has your country accepled them? 2 What kinds of cond problems do they fi tions do refugees live in? What 1? Imagine @ typical day in the life ofa refugee. 3 Leoving aside refugees, and concentaling on genevel immigration, imagine you are members of a government department which decides who to give permanent visas to. Put the following in order of preference: English teachers imortied sons ond daughters of citizens of your county people escaping from a wa people seeking polical asylum from counties thot are not al wor people who are prepared to do very humble jobs le.g, cleaning, refuse collection) ata cheap price people with an internationally recognised extioordinary ability in (four separate categories: science, art, business, athletics spouses and unmartied children of lawully permanent residents (i.e. people who were not bom in your who can legally live there indefinitely) county, Unmarried sons and daughters of citizens of your county 4 Home, language and nation Most people tend to fee! at home where people speak the same language as they do. Infact, Boundary disputes atthe end ofthe two World Wats were generally based on linguistic groups, and this was elected in the subsequent transfers of populations. Dictators, such as Mussolini and Hitler, exploited this principle ‘when they tried to introduce speakers oftheir languages into areas which they claimed belonged to them. So Mussolini urged Italians to migrate to the South Tyrol, and Hitler called on German-speaking people in Austria, Poland and Alsace to unite, However, in many pars of the world, there are communities which are defined by the religion they share, rather than the language they speak ‘The number of refugees inthe world varies from year to year, and figures can never be very accurate Tr the early 195, for example, nearly 7,000,000 [Afghars had already leftor were leaving their home Jand, and another two and 4 half lion Palestinians had no fixed home. In| many Afscan counties people were on the move | (ozambique, ies Somalia, Libera, Angola Rwanda, Sudan ete) andin the Far Eas aswell (Cambodia, Vietnam and China, Th this period to, we saw the beglanings of the problems in what used toe Yagostavia "The countries which accommodate refugees tend to be neighbouring countries (e.g. Thailand accepted. ‘alfa million people escaping from Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia, Pakistan 3.5 million from Afghanistan, and Tran 8.0 million from Afghanistan and Iraq). Other countries, such as the United States, accept people froma variety of countries and | have strict laws on who can and cannot be accepted. 1 How long hos your nation existed with its present borders? Are these fair borders? 2. Does everyone feel at home in your country or are there some who would prefer eiher some kind of home ule {ie local self government or to become a separate stale? Do you personally fel you belong fo your county? 3 What do you think binds people together most — language, religion or something else? 4 Did your country ever colonise other countries? When cand why? Are these counties sil colonised? What rights do thelr residents have in your county® Was your language ever adopted there? 5 Was your country ever colonised by another county? How do you fee! about this? What were the advantages and disadvantages of such a situation? Discussions A-Z Advanced EXTERISMENTTA © Combridge University Press 1997 39 40 @ Warm-up In groups, ask students to define intelligence. Here ate some psychological definitions: the ability to adjust to the environment and to new situations; the ability to lear or the capacity for education; ability to employ abstract concepts and to use a wide range of symbols and concepts ability to solve problems; verbal fit. But your students should come up with some more down-to-earth definitions. One American researcher, J.P, Guilford proposed no fewer than 120 separate kinds of Yintlligence’ grouped under main general headings like memory, reasoning, and divergent and convergent thinking, 1 Aborn genius? Get students to read the extract and then immediately proceed to the listening exercise before they answer the questions. (3) Is the fact that Shakespeare was bom in England and not Siberia relevant? (5) Experiments have proved that the more Intelligent a dog isthe les likey itis to crack up under pressure, Similarly, war experience has shown that intelligent soldier are less prone to shell shock and other psychological pressures than their less intelligent companions. ‘The photo shows Ganesh Sittampalam who gota first-class degree in Mathematics a the age of 13, Listening ‘Students hear three possible versions forthe final paragraph of the eading extract. They have to decide which was the orginal cone, and whether the other two contain reasonable ideas or not. Students then discus the questions 1 Inteligence [E31 Ws e misoke for porants to think hse child i genius, Lottie decide tht. But itis an even greater mistoke for porents a hink their chil hos no flent tal. The genises of history ae eling show much higher we could reach ifonly we believed in ourselves, 2 Porens should hus waste no time in Fring out whether tir child hos hidden talents orn. fthey do not do so, he wold may be deprived of someone, who, given the chance, might have been able finda cue fr concer, sation to the work's energy problems, or simply @ way o ring warring nations thelr senses, 3 Dor'tisen, then, to those who would fos pian lessons on children who have barely begun to tok, or cryptic crosswords. on kids who've only just bogun 0 ro0d, or mind bending ‘mathematical problems on youngstrs who have only jst leomed 0 reason. Think above all about your child's hoppinss cond otk yourself whether a child who studies theviln shouts ‘day is more content than one who spends the some Hime with their fiends and toys 2 Ahead start ‘Students read the text and discuss questions in groups. (6) Parents who were motivated enough to use the devices, have probably done a lot of stimulating of their child ater its birth as wel, 1_Aborn genius? 1 Are people bom intelligent or do they acquire intelligence? 2s talk of genius elitist? Are not all children equally * important? 3 How much effect does someone's environment bear on their intligence? 4 1s possible to distinguish intelligence from imagination, Ts there a pleasant pheasant present? Are you aluminuming my man? No I'm copper bottoming them Mum. The sinking steamer sunk. 6 The sick sixth sheik’s sheep’s sick. 7 Around the ragged rocks the ragged rascal ran. + EA 2. Doyou speak Esperanto? Esperanto word come from the most important languages in Wiest as they do in English, for example bindo (a bin, rivers (a vers civilisation, mainly from Latin. Some word look exactly are only five vowel sounds. The stres {sahvays on the penultimate syllable. Six ofthe letters have accents (4.6 “There sno indefinite article: pons = a fther oust father. The efit article, "a, s used with all nouns, masculine and {eminine, singular and plural: a filo = the son, la flej= the sons Subjects and objects ate distinguished, by adding object lianas la vrinan Qhe man loves the wornan); i you reverse the order (la virinon amas la vite) the meaning remains the sane, The same rule applies to male the distinction between ‘who! and “whom Adjectives must agree with the noun they qualify: ow table (new tables; adjectives are placed ether before orafter the noun swith no change in meaning. ta be iets tay estas, estas, othe are no continvows Forms: mi gat = Head and Iam reading sullies tothe root word, Indirect speech uses the same tense 38 in direct speech, [Esperanto ses the present tense to translate sentences like: [have been il for thee days. He hasbeen waiting for two hours Names of countries are written swith capital letters, but not the 4 ear inhabitant, nor the days of the es week. Some ofthe more important lange cities have names in OS Esperanto: Prize, Vien, Manet 7 sep some just ake 0": Lodo, 8 ok ‘Madrid, others remain te same pert) specially they are diicue vo Esperantise: Vnuil, Bournemouth i Foreign words are adapted so 100 cent (sens) conform tothe Esperanto spelling system, 1000 mil (mee!) Discussions A-Z Advanced GTESEMETTTA © Cambridge University Press 1997 53 3. Translation «In groups students discuss those words in their language that they find difficult to translate and for which they believe there is no direct English equivalent (eg the French ‘sympathique’). In monolingual clases students produce a list of four or five of such words and together try and find the nearest English equivalent. They should then discuss possible reasons why English has no word for that particular concept. Then get feedback from whole class and suggest your own translations where necessay. ‘+ Inmulilingual classes, group different nationalities together: Each student explains the meaning of one word for Which he/she believes there sno equivalent, the others suggest posible translations, Then get feedback from whole class and suggest your own translations where necessary. ‘= In groups students now discuss why we need translations. ‘+ Now ask them to read the passage, without giving them any indication as to what the passage is about. When they have finished reading ask them ifthey found anything strange about it (they should at least have found it amusing and spotted some English mistakes). Now get them to underline any examples of rony (eg. ‘incredible to think, “it's obvious ian'tit, ‘obviously’, ‘moving’), and any mistakes in the English and in the spelling. Finaly, ask them to rewrite CCarolino’s dedication into good English (not an easy task); ‘you should prepare your own version to read to them. + Students now define the meaning of translation ~ what does translation involve? What types of work are generally translated? To help them in their discussion, they should decide whether the sentences on their page ae true or false. Writing Students write on one ofthese subjects: (2) Translation isa valuable aid to language teaching, Discuss. (b) Translation is science not an art, Discuss. Altematively give students a translation todo. Useful fartbe reading: ‘Alan Dull The chird language; Peter Newmark: Approaches to translation in language Brainstorm students on other means of communication besides written and spoken language. Elicit body and sign language Brainstorm them on what the various signs on their page ‘mean, and who they are for (ie. the deaf). Ithis draws a blank, tell students that the signs illustrate the following concepts: Ameria, disagree, doubt, dream, must, ily. In groups, sce if students can match the words with the signs. 9 America must edouit ddream esilly Lalsaqre 54 language @ The rationale behind the America sign is thatthe meshed fingers represent the United States. Another explanation i ‘that te fingers representa log cabin. Listening Students hear two people describing how to make the sigs Students’ tasks to match the descriptions wih the signs. NB The first two listening pieces could be used as an altemative introduction to the whole exercise. Play the first piece and get students to actually do what the speaker ells them to do, not ll stadents wil follow the instructions in the same way. Then brainstorm the students on what they think the purpose of the exercise is— they may eink it's pat of a fitness programme! 1b 2d 34 4f Hold, hold up both orms ond extend your orms sigh in Font of you with your hands a and your palms facing inwards, then ‘move your axms up and down, 2 Hold your righ arm out tothe side, bend i athe elbow, and keap yout three middle Fingers extended, and fil skaight, you ‘baby finger and your thumb should be down touching he palm ‘of your hand. Then with a lighty cury movement, spiral cinos, bring ito your forebead over your right eye and back ogain 4 This person's standing wth their han in rant other, their fingers intertwined, and then with he thumbs painting upwards, ‘ond then moving the thumbe around in circles. 4 They're stonding agoin with their hands infront of hem, but hi time ther Fingers clenched ond thumbs up, em holding het harde infront oftheir chest ond hen moving them out and opening the palm ou, away from heir body and opening the pals Topescriptfer 2 Do you speak Esperanto? Esperanto wos irs! published in 1887 by a Polish ocuis, Dr Lidovic Zamenhof, under the prevdoaym ‘Dr Experant, meaning ‘one who hopes’. He believed that werld peace ‘would only come ifwe ll spoke the some language, which ‘would allow communication on on equal footing, wihout ene speaker having @ culsral advantage over he cther. Zamenhol devised Esperanto in Russo, where four languages were commonly spoken athe time, He spent years diligently concocting his language. Lckly he wae o determined fallow because at an advanced sage inthe work hs fther, fearing his con would be thought spy working in code, tvew all Ludovics papers onthe fir ond the young Pole was forced to stort again rom seratch. Zamenhof was ecwelly nt he conly one inventing an aificil universal language of communication, between 1880 and 1907, onother 53 were invented. But Eepercnto was he simplest ofl, with a basis of ius 16 rules. Some Esperantiss claim o hove eight milion ‘adherents in 110 counties, but the World Almonce put the numberof speakers at two milion. Esperanto leachars say that with hee hours of study @ week it con be mastered in yaar, oT. 3. Translation One of the most infamous translations ofall times was in the writ- ing of a trilingual edition of familiar phrases. The first edition, pub- lished in 1836, was in French and Portuguese. It sold so well that the publishers decided to bring out a version with English too. They thus engaged the services of a certain Pedro Carolino. The only problem was that Pedro didn’t know a word of English, he merely used a French-English dictionary to do the job! This soon becomes obvious when we read, for example in the “Degrees of Kindred” section, such mistakes as ‘A relation’, ‘An rela- tion’; ‘A widower’, ‘An widow’. It is incredible to think that until Pedro Carolino came along, no-one, not even the Englishes them- selves, had realised that just like the French and Portuguese and Spanish and Italyan, English isa language with genders. Once he’s pointed it out to you it’s obvious, isnt it, that ‘A relation’ is masculine and ‘An relation’ feminine. A farther step in turning. English into a Romance language is taken by making the possessive pronouns agrce with their accompanying nouns both in gender and ‘number. Thus the word ‘nails’, being plural and feminine (obvious- Jy), must be accompanied by a plural feminine pronoun — the result being, for example, ‘He has scratched the face with her nails: Carolino ends the preface to his book with this moving dedication: “We expect then, who the little book (for the care what we wrote hhim and for her typographical correction) that may be worth the acceptation of the studious persons, and especially of the Youth, at | which we dedicate him particularly’ 4 Sign language 1 Atranslator must think about he intent of the wrier and the types of reader 2. Every word should be translated and the