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7 11

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2007

3 7 3 .1 6 7 .1 :5 3 * 0 7 /1 1
22.3721
79

79

B.JI.
. . 711 . /
B.JI. . . : , . ,
2007. 160 . ( () ).
ISBN 978-5-691-01145-0.
373.167.1:53*07/11
22.3721

ISBN 978-5-691-01145-0

. JI., 2004

, 2004
. *, 2004
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7 11
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03185 10.11.2000.
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N 77.99 .2 4 .9 5 3 . .006 9 0 0 .0 8 .0 6 0 8 .0 8 .2 0 0 6 .
21.09.04. 20.11.04.
60x90/16. . .
. . . 10,0. 3 500 . N 2428
.
119571, , . , 88,
.
. 437-11-11, 437-25-52, 437-99-98; ./ 735-66-25.
E-mail: vlados@ dol.ru http ://w w w .vlad os.ru
.
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105
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15


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17



1 - 1 ()
1 - 1
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(1623 - 1662, ) - 1 .

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1 = 1 000 000 000


1 = 1 000 000
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20

,
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(1818 - 1889, ) - 1 ,
(1736 - 1819, ) - 1 .

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= Nt

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= 0 + V t,7
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47










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t

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ll

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48



-
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b)


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0

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!*

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! x

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a, = - a
V = V0 - at

49


*-
,

Av
At,


^
V
t

v 0


t



vx


vx


t

c) >
-
-> ( )

Vo
a
W

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;

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X =
V = - v 0 + at
d)
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d)
Vo
a
w

!
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= -
V = -V -at


>
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2
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t


t


axt2
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vx = V; a, = a,
at2

S = V0t 2

:
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a)


Vo .
*
*
;

V0x = V

-*
a
a, = a
at2

S - V0t + ~2

50

0
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*1 -\r
i A




Sx


Vox



)
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;

Vo

:
---->
S = V .t -

_*

)


;

c)

Vo

!*

V, = -V 0

*\ x
ax = a

S " J t+ a 2
d) d)


m
W

'
V Ox = V 0

Vo

: x>

ax = - a

S = -Vt


:



= + V t + 5*1

Ox
2

Vo, = V, a, = a,

x = x V t


V1-V?

S =
.

(
)
V2 - V 2
a) S = ^ ^ V =V,
:
2
V= V
)
V>V,
;

51



()






VQ> t


%
t


Sx

\ %
V

)
V. - V 2

) S =
=,
2
V=V
V<V,

:


V.- T


.

V^=V+at

X= >0,

S = S,
V =V

V=at,

:


Vo

Vox

.
at
->
S = Vt+


V = V + at

v =o

^ =\> 0 ,
ax = a < ,
Sx = S,
V = 0.

v0t -

at

0= V -a t >V0=at,
V2
s = *n
2

52





:
-

;
-

;
-





:
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;
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();
-

'

,'

S = s,+s2.
+ SJ

,'
v = v , + v 2,

= V,2 + 2

53




XOY
^
S,


X'O'Y'

S2
.

S


S, S2

V


XOY

V,


X'O'Y'

V*
.

v

v (

2. .



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56

(
,
)


(,
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a = _V2
R

/>^<


,

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At
,
,


,

L = 2k R


- ,

n=I



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V = ,
At

V = (oR,

57

V -* .
v = 2nR

V = 2 nRn

V2
R ,

,1= V ,

, = ttfR ,

58



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59

) ,
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-> - gP

h = V0t + j
()

v = v + it
hy = V^t +

(
)

g, 2

Vy= Voy +gvt


g, 2

h = V0t + ^ ; h =

(
)

,
:

V2 - V 2

2g

V = V + gt
gt2
= + V0t+ - ;
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-+ 2g

) , .
(. 14, )

t= ii
2

()



(
)

V = gt
h - ^

h - V*

ll

>

p t2
v2
h = b L ; h = - 22
2g

(
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V = gt

60


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, gt2
= + - ;
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= + ^

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-> -gp
J-J = *
2

-4
V ^

.,)
2

^
2gy

Vnafly gytnaj
cl2,/, .
J J 1
2

V2/i
2g

Vium gtnajJ Vitjui = -yj2gH

- , \Fg

) ,
Y*
V=
v, J v

V oy=V o>0

gy=g<0

p ~ I

0
777777777777777777"

. 15
61

b)

) .
(. 15, )

^ *
et2
h= Vt +
2

()



(
)

> .
>
V = V + gt

,2

h - V^t1 + 82~ h. -

h Vot-

BtJ . b _ v 2 - v J
2 h
2g
1

00

*-

S>
II
>

(
)

,
:



>

II
>*
h_vt

! _!

= + V0t -

. v.J- v 2

- +

2g

)
. ()
, (. 15, )
-* -*
gf2
H = V0U + ^

()

o = v 0 +"gtnoj, -> V0 = -~gtn<M

(
)

V0y U + 8 ^ ; H y

0 = VOy+ gytnojl ->


V0 = gt.
62

= -gytM

(
)

= ^L
2g

g
1 (N
I
J
i!
(N
II

>1

.
) , (. 16)
: ,
,
: (
) (
)
( ) .

63

,
( )

(
)


(
)

(
)




(
)
(
)



"l
Vnx
L

V
Oy

V
X



( )


(
)


(
)

64

L = V t

g
2
__

L = v u ; L = V0^


Et
2 |_J Viul
2O
JJ
2

2g
12
V g

tn a a ~

v=
\
V

/V,
2 +VIM
2J<y

Vox = V

II

>

Vx = Vo
II






()

()



Vy

<

()

qo


(
)

V naflx V o

V =

g t -


) , (. 17)
: ,
( , ),

: ()
( )
( )
.

32428

65

Vno^
S*

Vo = Vocosa
Voy = Vosina
k

ll

v = > .2 + v ,2
V = //v2
'vix + v 2

S = Vo cosa t
g t2
hy = Vo sin a t + * ; gy = - g

66

to = -- 2----

_ V0sina
g
2Vsina
g



( )


( )

_ sin 2a
2g
^ _ V2sin2a
g

II.

,
, .
-


.
,
,

.
- ,
.
- ,

,
.
- .
- ,
.
,
.
67

,
- .
- ,
.
() -
- ,
.
- -
, -
.
,
(
, ).
- , ,
()
- ,
() .

- ,
,
.
- ,
,
.
- ,
, .
( ) ,
,
.

68


( ,

)

(
)




()

(
)
-

I= 1
F,.,

Ft

m
F*

If

Z *

F ynp

Af.

tp

F tPO


G = 6,67 1 0 - " - ^

*3 ,
.
69

FT= mg

g = G

R7

g = G


(
)
-

M
(R + h ) 2

v-

"

, X

777774



(
- )






,

.
,
,


;
,

,

0
< -1

>

= JJ.N

70

Ftp0=^IoN



-
\

UD

>j / fV ?>

=N

<*)

,
F, = G
l l 7"

Yt
Fynpx
^* = x - 0 = x,

Fynpx =


,
,
,
,



. (
,

,
.)






(
)

71



(
7 7 7 7 7 7 /7 7 / / / / / / / / / / > ),
X
,
= m

F+ F +N+F
.
=-

tY

R=ma
F+F +N+F =

2-

7777777777777777777^

F = - F

(
),

,




:
.
,
:


;
;

(
);


. ,

(,
)



72

1
V

m
Ft

>

Ft

P=F t

->

v=o

(
)

Ft

()

,

,

Yt
.

0f

////

i t

-+ .

No

, ,

(
)

Ft

~^=

Ft

const

=
P=FT

,

,

m il
i s

) 7~i *

::

Ft ~ * = const

=
. = F

73

Ft

(
)


,

,

.. N

'

77777*

77

>0
Ft
g <0
=m(g+a)
,

,

.V
,i

/ / / / 1

T >0

:
,
,


,

g>0
F t P = m (g-a)

a=g>0
=0


(
)

/ / / / -^^ r h*
^/ / / / // ^/
Y

Ft

= m(g IV

:
,
,





=>

g> o
=0

74


(
)

,

,


V2

P = m(g+ - )
R



( ,
)

F t
F
N

i= 1

( )

N .

7~7 7 / -/ / / / '/ /
N ->
. F i =1113*

i;

Ft + Fip + N + =
OX: Frx + Ftp, + No, = max

F t, 0 , F tPx - F tp

No, = 0 , a, = - a.
OY: Fry + FtP)1 + Noy = ,

FTy = - F t , FTPy = 0
Noy = No,

|| - Fip = m(- a)
F t + No =

= -^

: a = -^ - , a = ng
m
r
75

a,,

0.

, Y


()

CD

N.

/ / / / / / /

7 -7

X
N
Fi =rria>
i=l

^
^
X
Ft + FiP + No + Fynp =
O X : Ftx + Ftj>x + Nox + Fynpx= ,

F t , 0 , F tp,

F tp,

No, = 0 , Fynp, = Fynp,

a, = a.
O Y : F,y + FrPy +

Ny + F ynP)1= may

Fry = - F t, Fr|iy = 0
Noy = No, Fynpy = 0

F
|-

r.

Ft

Fynp F tp

, - 0.

yrp - Ftp = -> a = ----


+ No = 0 > No = F t = mg,I

F = R No

:=

p F tp = Jimg.

Fynp

a = - E ~ -^ g

1
h

76

Fl=niI>
> ^

__
Ft + No + Fxp = '
OX: Ft, + No, + Ftp = , || Ft, = mgsina, Nox = 0,
I Fipx = - F tp, ii* = 0.

OY: Ft,, + Noy + FTpy = may || FTy = - mgcnsa, Noy = No,


H*Ftj'77 = 0'"I, ay' = 0 .
Ftp = 0, I mg.vma = Ftp,
mgs/ - Fi
- mgco.va +' N= 0^ No= mgctwaJI B
= fimgco.va.
F , = |iN
^

sina I
co.rn



OX: F t, + No( + Fip = , | | Ft, = mg.v/na. No = 0,


OY: FTy + Noy + Ftp, = ma,

F - Ftp, .
Ftv = - mgco.va, Noy = No,

= 0 , ay = 0 .
lings/not - Ftp = ma,
- mgco.m + No =
: mgsiwa - ixmg ca sa - m a,
a = g(sina - .)

77

tt= m a
i=l
1I ^
-^

_
_
V

F t + Ftp + No + Fynp =

OX: Ft, + Ftp, + No. + FynPx = ma, IIFt, = mgs/, Ftpx = Ftp ,
11 Nox - 0, Fynp,= - Fynp, 3x= 0.
OY: F
FT
t,,y + FTPy + Noy+
Noy + FynPy= may j|FT
jjFTy = - mgcosa, Fipy = 0,
No.. = No,
No. Fvim..
= 0,
0 . ay
av = 0.
II Noy
Fynpy=
mgs/ + Fip - Fynp = 0,1 mgs/ + Ftp = Fynp
- m gcosa + No = 0;
| N o = mgcosa,ll
| p - F tp = Jlmgcosa.
*?
4' = |X No
*
: mgs/ + |im g c a v a = F ynP,
Fynp = mg(.<ri'na + |icosa)'


V-

<\\

^>

IF*

tpv x

'Z?, =~

^ Jr
\ / ^ 1a \ v a i , \ \
/ /
/ / / / / / \ <
" " '0
^ b \\
\v
\

i=l
Ftp + No + Fynp = r n ?
OX: Ft, + Fip, + No, + Fynp, = ma, IIFt, = - mgs/, Ftp = - Ftp ,
11
OY: Ftv + FTpy + Noy + FynPy= may||FTy = - mgcosa, FTpy = 0,
|| Noy = No, Fynpy= 0, ay 0.
I- mgs/ - FtP+ Fynp= ma,| Fynp - m gsina - Ftp= ma
- m gcosa + No = 0 ;
N o = m ecosa,|| r
Ftp = (iNo p n . = lm gaa.
1 +

: Fynp - mgs/ - |J.mgcosa = ma,


Fynp = m[a +g(s/na + (icosa)]

78

III.

( ) - ,
.
.
, :
-
,
- , ;
- .
,
(, , ..).
- ,

.
- ,
.
,
.

.

.
- .

, ,
.


( )

79

'

(
)

(
)

(
) - ,




= Pi
i =1

(

N

< | ^
>
) . Fjt, Rt
) -
i =1
,
)



v
l -
S (

I I
! I
oj
X

A = Fs cos a
- ,

N =
t
,
.
(
)
N = FV cos a


-
- mv
Eb_
,



Ep = mgh


,

,


>
- mv

80

EM= S Epi + 5ZEki


i =1
i =1

(
) .
(),
,
,

N ->
Fit = mv - mvo,
i =1
Z Fit =
f T=

1
,
,
,


(
),
,


,
.


- ,

,
,


,
,

^ p i - const
i =1

= A
mV

mv,2,

~2

A ft =

Afynp = -

42428

E m0

81

.
1. (
) (. 18)
CD

m.

/fn '|,

Vljliy r , , r r r r \ f f

., 1 -

?;->
Vo., Vm- ;
V., Vr- -

(-

* 4 m n J '- 1

^ ;

/ / / / / / / / / / / / / / /* F*-'- ,
, 12
;
F.-.1, v
v
;

> ^
V
=
_
-
- ;
~ Fi-i
t - .
- . ^ = ^
.
18
Vi -V .,
V , -V .,
- | |'= nii \
- mi(vi -v:,) = m i(^ -v\),
- miV! + m.vt, = rrhv? - rmvL
m,v. + nbVi = m.v, + .,

.
2. (
, ) (. 19)
Yt
, ,

. . i -
,
;
h^- ;
Vo- ( );
0 _ = V - ( );
~7~ ~7 7 - 7 / / * X g - .

. 19
= + , = 0, =

= + , = mgh = mg
=-

, mvo2

-,
= -0 +

mvo2_ mvo2 _ mvo2


,
,
2

2- vf mvo2 2
2g

m v \ . m v'

= ( - - y - ) +

82

2 '
mv

mv2

= 2~ = _

IV.


( ) -
,
.
- ,

.
,
,
.
- ,
, (
) .
- , ..
,

.
- ,
.
,
,
.
- ,
(
).
,
.
(
) ,
() .
(,
) .
- (,
) .
- (,
) .
- ,
.
83

,
, ,
,
.
- ,
,
, .
- ,
,
.

1


( )

! [

() -
,
( ).
- ,
(
).
- ,

, .

-

( )
.

84


.
- ,
.
- , ,
,
( ).
- , ,
(
).
,
( ) ,
, ,
() ,
( ).




(
)

V
(0

Vm

t
X


(1857 -1894, ) - 1 .
85

-
,

- ,




()






2 7t
.

2

v=



(
)

= V

= XmSincp,

= X.nCOStp


< = cot +

G) = 2 7 tv

x=xmsin(p=xmsin([i)t+(p(i), <=0

X=XmCOS<p==XmCOS(COt+ipo), <=0

V=V.,sin(<p+ )=Vmsin (tot+ + ). <=0

Tv

V=V cos{qH- )=

86


(
)
, . .


a=amcos(<p7t)=amCos((0T -), (=0

a=amsin((p+'t') = amsin((OT-Kpo+ ), <=


V i;

= 2

=2

mo)2x i


,
,

,







,

X = VT

87

,
,




,




,

,
,


<
1

II

>

= 1
V


,
V
,
V

>(
t



II

>


v = ^

V.


- , .
- ,
.
,
,
.
,
.
88


(. 21):
.

N
Ft
Ft

Z F =0

XM= 0

. 21
(. 22):
.

N
Ft

IM #

I F = 0

(. 23):
.

NT

\0

Ft
F= 0

Ft

ZM = 0

N
0/

Ft
Ft

Ft

IF = 0

Puc. 23
89

EM = 0

1. ,
: ,
, , ,
, :
N ->
L Fi =

i =1

. (. 24)

( . Kragstein) - (
) (
) , () ..
- ( . Console) -
, , ,
..

. 24
90

-
,

,

,
-
()
,
- (
)
,
-

F "

Fynp

,
,
,

, ,
,

^
-
+

,
,


,
,
,
,

= /2 - 62

91

,

-


,

-

>

>

F y n p K= F y n p y +

>
Fynpg

"=

,
-
,



,



,
-


,



,

.
, (. 25)

92

2.


- , ,
.
-
.
- , ,
.

= F

: , ,
, ,
, :
N

Z > i =0
i=0
: , ,
, ,
, ,
:
N

)
j= l

i= i

93

d)

< ----------------------- > < -------------



1 1 ____ ] ____ L iiL L ii


ln ir n i
____ 1

------ 1 *

I
I

oJliiuj ^11 :

1 >
F ,

Mi = M i,
F i^i = F ib .

M i + M2=M>,
Fii + F if i = F j b .

e)

b)

F|

>

*
mini

Hill

>
miiiii iiiimi
ill

1] 1 Hill'll

>

J *

f2

*1

F3

t A -------------6
>W
1 ,4
<

F,

F4

|+ 2= + 4,
Fi^i + F t f = F i t i + Fd*.

M l+ M 4 = M 2 + M3,

F i^t + F 4& = F i f i + F iti.

c)

f)

-------------

f2

< h >

r
ITTTTTl----- 1___1__ 11__

F,

*F

77

)fi

..

*1

F\
Mi + 2= M i,
F ii = Fifi.

F i^i + F i f i = F d i.

Puc. 26
94



- ,

.

- ,

, . . ,
(, ),
.
- ,
- .
- ,
.
,
.
- ,
()
.

-273

.
(. )
95

t,C

273

- ,

( = ) -
, 273,15
.
- ,
.
- ,
.
,
.

I.

1. -
.


- () - ,
, ,
, (,
, ).
:
- (, ,
), , . .
() ;
-
;
- ,
.
- - ,
, :
)
;
) ( )
( ).
- ,
(, , ), 0 ,0 1 2
, . . 6 ,0 2 1 0 23.
96

(
)


()












V7

-3

2
2

N . = 6,02 1023 1.

= 1,38 1023 .

R = 8,31

( )(1824 - 1907, ) - 1 .

(1776 1856, ).

52428

97

Tvto
= - - 5
12 0


()

= m 0N A, =
V

v== "h T v =

N = vN a, N = 7 7 Na

m = Mv, m = M oN aV

(

)






N
n= 7
T = t + 273

\ =^
= _
v 2


(
)

= 1k t

13KT _
)j rn0 X

I3RT
m

m
m0N
P = \ T P = p = m n

= |

^, = jnw iv.P=

j p

:

.

98

2.
.


:
, .
. ,
(
)
.
.

, ,
:
- (
);
- () (
-);
- () - (
).
,
PV, , VT.
, - - .

V
m

99

-
-


PV



- const
,



pV
^
=vR
,
,
pV _ m


, ,




= ,
=
PV = C
,
V
Tj
> ,

V 1
1
,

(:

V OT.Tj ,
)________________

=, v = c t ,
:=
,


2 >' * I
,
(:



)
V

V = C, = ,
- =
,

V 2> V I
,
V.

2V.
(:

)
V, , V

/>

100

3.

. (. 27)

. 27
,
,
.
- , ,
,
.
-
.
- .
-
.
- ,
,
.
-
.
() -
.
- ,
() ();
,
, , .
,
.
101

- ,
.
- , ,
, .
,
.
- ,

.
- , ,

.
- ,
,
.


(
)


m
V

>
%

(
)

_ m
=

102

. 100%,

100%

:

:
P = P , + P 2+ . . . + P N
N

= .

.

- ,
.
- ,
,
( )
.

,

.
,
.
- .

1'' Ill'll

,
,
,

Hi
S

,

103


( )

8 = ^ f - ,8 =

h = ,h=-^pgr
pgd

,
.
, ,
, .
(m = 10'4102).
- ,
, , (
).
-
( ).

.
- ,
.
- .

104

- ,
.
() - ,

.

(
)

Fynp
S

II

0 = Fv"p

8 = | |,

Fynp = .



; :

105

II.

, ,
, , ,
, , ,
(), (),
(), , ,
, (),
(), - . . 23-28.
() -
.
( ) ,
,
, .
-
,



(, CD)
(, DA) (. 28).

*V

() -
()
.

N
"

106

'

'

U = NE,
= | ,

, U=12 ^ RT>
U = IkT^N
2 MA

N = ^ NAkNA= R.

0 = cm ( - To),
Q = (T - To)

,


,

,
()
,

,


()

Q = A,m
Q

ot

-A m


()
( )

A'
0..

TJmax -*

II

Q .- Q ,
Q ,

. - , .
j

"

107

Qn = Lm

Q,
Q
.

, Tjm ax 1 -----





(
)

= + .
U = const,



.
,
,


_____________ ________
__________________

= const, = 0,
= AU +

= const, = 0,
= 0, AQ =


( )

V = const, AV = 0,
= 0, AU = AQ

108

(
)




,






()


-
,
.
- ,
.
,
() (
).
,

(
, , ).
,
,
.
,
,
.
,

.
,
.
( ) , ,
,
.
- ,
.
-
.


.
- ,
.
109

-, ,
,

( ).
- ,
(
-
,
).
- , ,
,
(
).
- ,
,


.

I.

- ,


.
- ()
,
,
.

-
.
110


.
() -
( ),

.
() - ,
,
.
- ,
,
.

(
)



,



(


)



q,Q

qe,

in

()

WP

,
, = 9 104
0= 8,854 10 12-^-.

(17911867, ).

N
q = I q,
i= l



(

)


,


,
,

~F
=

112





(

)


(



)

= |q|E



F
*
_ F
_
6

113














,



,








,

, ,




( ),

WP = qEd

()


FiS,

= qE(di - d 2);

= -AW P = -qE(d 2 - di)




W
__

114



(),



,
(
),

()
___________


(
)

:
- ,

,

;
-

,









(),
,

()

,
=
-
2


(
)



()

= - ,

= I
q

qQ

W =






(
)


(



)


()




()

<

=
115


(

)

C = f<

= o S
d

( 2 ,

2
,

- 7

=
2


(Dp

2
0

116



( )







,






:
-


;
-

;
-



0 11 j i^ _ _ || f
+ -+ + , ,

i=, ,

>

li'MZ

>

q= q

\ +



,



,
.

N
q= I q
i=i *



,

,
,
,
,

N
C=ZC
i=i '

117

q = const,
qi + q2 + ... qN = const,
N
qs = const
i=i

<5f
Fuji

Fq

Fq
>0

F - l d f i . i

Q^qo /

,



,




,
-

,
,



,

,




,

(),


()

\
e ' ' "
Fmi= L,FwiiJ
i'=1 ->

<


,
(
) ,
,

%
N_>
E=IE,;
i=i

= | + 2 + ... + ,
N
= !
i=l
118


-
- .

-
.
(
) .

,
, ,
.

:
-
- ;
- ,
;
- .
- ,
(, . .)
.
-
- .
,
, .
, ,
,
( )
. 29-35.
- ,
.

119

,

- .
- , ;
(
, . .).
,

(

, ,
).

, .


-


()




(
)

( )

q, 0 , Aq
qo

-3

A*
t, At

1
Acp

ct

120



(
)








()"





(

)

(.

( )

-'

,

,

,

121

qe = 1,6 10 |9.
(, ) F = 9,65 104. ^

I - qo"VS






= (1 + at)
0
= IUAt, =

At, = I2RAt

=t , = IU, = \ = PR

<1
II

- p

U = +

<1*

122

,
,

,




(


)


( )

I-

R+r

= U R+ Ur


(
)
I

Q = I2RAt

m = kq

m = klAt

123

(
)


,

,


(



).




,



,
,



,

,

,

,

,
,
,

II

.
()

,

~
1

= -F -

F = n-q

F=N q
A

m=

1 M
q
F n

m = ---------- 1 At
N A4cn


( ,

1 M

2 U - ( A > - - r | N |-

,
, ,

,



,




,

I = It


N
U = Ui

i= l

N
R = Ri

i= l

124

------------ ------------ (Aj)---------

,.( } .

2 |

---------

,
,
,
,



,

N
I = I li
i=l

U = Ui

1
N 1
- = z
R i= l K.

125

,

, ,

,

I - I--------------- I.,Ro ,
(

()
* - - | -------
,
)
R -

,
Rin
R -
,
1> 1
I - ,
(
R = IqRq

I-I
)


(

Uo, Ro

R,

> U o,

R .= Ro(

-1 )

126

U -
,
R,, -
,
R -
,
U - ,
(

-
).

III.

,
( , )
( ,
) .
- . -
,
.
- ,
.

-
( ):


-. ,

( ).
( ) - ,
,
.
,
.

:

( )
,
.
- ,
.
()
. ,

.
127

, , - ,
,
.

,
(
).

,
(
).

( , )
(
).
-
,
.
,
.
:

(
)

.
,
,
. ,
.
, ,
,
.

128






,



,
-,

-,






,


(

,

)




-

62428

1(1

Fa
F

IAf

129

()

()

"

"


(1856 - 1943, ) - 1


-

,


R -^1
R ^|*
_ iS 1
F?n = [ I ^ / f ]

= *4- *= qVBsina;
. = -q[4 ], Ffl. = -qV B sina;

mv2 1 ;
= lq'VB

= _

130

mV
r = RS

( )

Fa =
Fa


(


,

)

[ t,

],

= 1 Bsina

B=Bi+B2 +... Bn,


= Bi

i= l

,


,




,



,

IV.

( ) - ,

.
- ,
( ).

.
- ,
()

, .
-
, (
) .
,

.
- ()

.
131

)
,



(
)
(
)


(
,

)








()

Ei

At

&

At

El


:
(1804 - 1891, ) - 1 ,
(1797 - 1878, ) - 1 .

132

= BScos
6i = Vsin

t , s = - LL
= -*t
, '
dt
E = ^
L


(
)

11
1At 1
-1 d 0 !
* \ dtl

V.

-

,
( )
,
.


,

.

,

.
-
,
( ,
133

,
).

1.


( ) -

,
,
, .

() (
)

()

()

( )
( )

( )

( )




()

()

()

()


134

i
q
Um

In.
Qm

COo

L
T
V
Ec
El
Ecm
El
E

" + (2 = 0, (,2 =
LC

,
,

q = qmcos coot

q = qmsin (Dot



( )



T = 2t i ^ / l c
1

V ~ 2WLC
E = Ec + E l,
E = C u i+ Lii
2

CUL e = H L
2

2.


( )

,

(

).
-
,
.

(,
).
- ,

( , .)

.
135

,

:
,
.
(,
) .
,
,
.
,
.
.
-
koj


.
-

.


.
() ,

.

136


()

()

( )
,

()
( )

( )

( )
,

()








137

e.s
Um
lm
m

R
X
Xl
Xc

z
p

"p
p

n1
2

= UmSinfOt

i = Umcoscot

II

() ,


- BScosa
= - = BS(coso>t)',
= BScosincot,
= Emsinoot; = BSco


,

( )


1 _ /2

p = iu,
=

2 2

> 1
< 1

138

12

I,

.
)

139

,

R = 0 ,X l
U

1
1
1

'4\ i

i
i
i
i
I

//.
i/

i/

2
l\
\
1 \
1 \

N ..

Ai t t
i
I
i
<
i
i

u = Umsincot
1 = +R

iR = +
R = 0 = - eis;
= LLsincot
Leis
dt

T \
2 N,

U = -Cis

di
> Umsincot = L;

fUmsinotdt^jLdi;
Umcoscot

P= lU,COS=0, Sin= 1,>p= ImSin((l)t---)*UmSin(Dt

2
_ 2
n
2
ImUm (sincotcos-coscotsin ) sin(0t =

= -I /2 U ^ 2 sinwtcostot = -IUsin 2(0t.

p = -IUsin2o)t
P= 0
140

141

)
-

,

R, X ., X t =

i = *- , Ri = + ;
R
uR= u + eis;

u = uR+ uL, uL= - e it.


r

i %

l_

I i = In.sinmt

Ur
UL

= UmRsin(Ot,

= UmLSin (cot + ~).

U = UmRSinCOt + UmLSin(0)t + )
U* U

CO

U m g ,U m ,.

^ M lmL
/ \

0/

U*

i \ \

\| \
\

11^7

<
\

i\

y 'f

UL

/ /
/

t
/

i \ \

\[T /2

-u
U= U
m
Sin((O
t + (po)

v-U m R j-U m L

U,
X.
0)L
tgffio = =*=- = *=- = ----;
^
U
R
R

Um= /u L + u ^ ,
u m= ^ R 2 + Ii x l ,

Urn Im-^R2+X^

Un, = U-Jr 2+(toL)2.

142

)
- -

143

.
)

144

VI.

(, ,
), ,
.
( ) -
.
,

.
.

S
R
(0

V
I
Aw
V

= 3 10*


( )


( )

1= ^ ,1 = \|/, 1~4
SA/
, _ )
42(

145

- ,

.
() - ,

.
,
,
.
() - ,

.

I.

~|---- 1 |- |

, = 3,75 10'7-7,7 10 7
V = 7,5 10'4 -j- 3,9 10,4

, = 7,7 - 10-7^1 ^
V = 3,9 10I4-j-3 10|2
146

, = 5 10'94-3,75 10'7
V = 6 - 10'6 4-7,5 10,4

- , .
.

(
= 3 10s ^ ).
. . 35-37.

, ,

,
(
, 90).
, ,
.
( ) - ,

.
( ) -
, ,
.
( ) -
, ,
.
:
) - ,

, ;
, ,
,
;
)
5 ,
;
) -
.
( ) - ,

. (
: ).
(. 29).
147

(. 30):
- - KL R;
, (
), ;
- ;
- ON - ,
;
- -
;
- F - ,
, ;
- F' - ,
,
;


.

,
,
(. 30):
1)
,
:
( ) ;
148

2 ) , :
,
;
3) , :
.

. 30
- ,
, .
,
.
(. 31):
- KL;
;
- MN;
- CD - ,
;
-
;
- F - ,
,
;
- F' ,
,
.
149

,
,
(. 31):
1) , :

( ) ;
2) , :
;
3) , :
.

,

,
.
- ,
,
,
- .
-
(
);
,
.
- ,

. () -
, .
150







,











,

()
()

d
f
F
D
R
h
H

X
/
k
d'



d > R;

,



d = R;

,

jB
.
X
A

I +I =I
d

id + if = -R
+ t =D, H < h

/
1
/ 2 > < ^

1
^J
H
'^

151

1 + 1 = i

1 + 1 - 2

d
f R
1 + 1 = D, H = h
d



F < d < R;
,




d = F;




d < F;
,

----- = D , H > h
d
f


;
,




d > 2F;
,



d =
2 F;
,

1
F
2
R

- - I = -D ,H <h
d
f

2F

+7=?
F


F <
d < 2F;
,

- + 7 = D,
d
f
< h

> h
152



d = F;



d < F;
,

'
. 2F
2F

d = F,

$".
I '

4 ir>
'.
B

>

h*

2F

2F

1 _ _1.

* \2

',

d
f
H > h

V >

D,


;
,

'

fa

F 1 0

H < h

sinaKP= ------ > = arcsin

A l = 2 ,

A t = (2m + 1) ^

dsin<p = kX

153

I - I = -D ,

II.


()
.
I ( ):
()
.
II ( ):

.


1 2
,
1,

,
2,
1
V
,
, 1,

,
, 2,
1 V
1
2,
1 V
, 1
, 1
2 V

, 1
2,
V

154

XI

VI
V2

1
2

Ei

m,V*
= 1 V2
2 t I '- f

m 2c,'

= m 2, = m , =
1

1 v2
1 ---- 2



(
)

( )

( )

'*.J'4
X=
2

\
m = 2

V ,+V

155

L v2
2
,
l - v2
2


I.

- ,
(, )
.
(
, ).

(
).


()






,
()


= 6,63-10"34 -

156


Q*
V max

,

Vp

()

hv
2


~ , h V = "


V kP =


( )

m.Vl,
2

= q ,I

, k p =

vKp

J, -4V =

| 2,
\ >n.


c2

P = ,

P=

hv

1) ,
,
;
2 )
()
;
3) ()
, ,
; .

II.

1 )
, , ,
; ,
;
2 )

, .

.
157




, ()
,
,

V.

Em
<
Vnm

h
nh
- ------- - 2 m ' * ^ 2 3
2

= - Em, > Em
Vnm = " _ E m
h

III.

,
.

,
. .
-
.
( ) - .
,
;
, .
-

,
(- , - ).
- ,
, -
, (
) .
158

-
:
, .
- ,
.
- , .
,
.


( )

( )
( )












Z
N
zX
A
zY
no
n
T
.
IIlp

=Z+N
Zmp
Nmn = ( - Z)mn
Znip + Nmn = Zmp + (A - Z)mn
Am = Zmp - Nmn - M.
=Amc2, Ec =(ZmP + Nnv - M.)c2
F
- E

----A
D=
m
159

(-)

aX

(-)

- a 4 Y + 4
Z2

- Y + ,
Z
z+1
1
(
n(t) = n 0 -2 'T

1. .., .. :
: . .-. . . -.
., 1980.
2. .. . - ., 1995.
3. .. , . - ., 1990.
4. .. . . ., 1999.
5. .., .. : . 9 .
. - ., 1997.
6. O.K., .. .
. 7-11 . - ., 1997.
7. ., 1988.
8. :
: . . - .-. ./ .
.. , .. . - ., 1987.
9. .., .. . . 10 .
. - ., 1999.
10. .., .. . . 7 .
. - ., 1997.
11
.., .. . . 8 .
. ., 1997.
12. .. . . 7 - 11 .
. - ., 1998.
13. . .1.- ., 1988.
14. . .2.- ., 1990.
15. . ..- ., 1992.
16. . .1.., 1988.
17. .. : . . ., 1983.
160

^ () ^

..



.

.
.

.
ISBN 978-5-691-01145-0

785691

011450

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