Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 10

# Aircraft classification number - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aircraft_classification_number

The aircraft classification number (ACN) is a number expressing the relative effect of an aircraft on the runway pavement for a specified standard subgrade category (ICAO). The ACN is a single unique number expressing the relative effect of an aircraft on a pavement for a specified subgrade strength specifying a particular pavement thickness. It consists of a number on a continuous scale, ranging from 0 on the lower end and with no upper limit, that is computed between two pavement types (rigid or flexible), and the subgrade support strength category. ACN values for civil aircraft have been published in ICAOs Aerodrome Design Manual and in FAA Circular 150/5335-5. Using the ACN method, it is possible to express the effect of individual aircraft on different pavements by a single unique number, which varies according to pavement type and subgrade strength, without specifying a particular pavement thickness. The ACN is twice the derived single-wheel load expressed in thousands of kilograms, with single-wheel tire pressure standardized at 1.25 megapascals (= 181 psi). Additionally, the derived single-wheel load is a function of the sub-grade strength. The ACN of an airplane is a function of not only its weight but also the design parameters of its landing gear such as the distances between the wheels of a multiple-wheel landing gear assembly. The pavements strength is denoted by its pavement classification number (PCN). The load exerted on a pavement by the landing gear of an airplane is denoted as its ACN, or airplane classification number. The ACN is not permitted to exceed the PCN of the runway to be used, in order to prolong pavement life and prevent possible pavement damage. The ACN is defined for only four subgrade categories (high, medium, low, and ultra low).

1 The ACN-PCN method 2 ACN reporting 3 Subgrade support strength category 3.1 Flexible pavements 3.2 Rigid pavements 4 Updates 5 Aircraft ACN list

The ACN-PCN system of rating airport pavements is designated by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) as the only approved method for reporting strength. The bearing strength of a pavement intended for aircraft of apron (ramp) mass greater than 5700 kg shall be made available using the aircraft classification number pavement classification number ACN-PCN method (ICAO Annex 14, clause 2.6.2)

1 di 10

22/01/2014 14:14

## Aircraft classification number - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aircraft_classification_number

The ICAO system for civil airport pavements involves comparison of an airports pavement classification number (PCN) with an aircraft classification number (ACN). According to this worldwide ICAO standard, aircraft can safely operate on a pavement if their ACN is less than or equal to the pavement load bearing capacity or PCN. An aircraft having an ACN equal to or less than the PCN can operate without weight restrictions on a pavement. The PCN is formally published in an Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP). States are required to evaluate and publish the strength of airport pavements using ICAOs ACN-PCN system. The method concentrates on classifying the relative damage of aircraft. ICAO foresees that each pavement authority will define a PCN by whatever means is considered suitable to indicate the support level of a particular pavement such that all aircraft with a published ACN equal to or less than the reported PCN can use that pavement safely, without load bearing failure or undue damage to the structure. The ACN-PCN system provides a standardised international airplane/pavement rating system replacing the various S, T, TT, LCN, AUW, ISWL, etc., rating systems throughout the world. In 1981 ICAO promulgated the ACN-PCN method as the single universal system for determining the weight limitation of aircraft operating on airport pavements by a procedure of comparing an airports PCN with an ACN. To avoid accelerated deterioration and excessive maintenance costs and for the safeguarding of pavement integrity and assurance of optimum service life ICAO utilises the ACN /PCN load classification method for reporting pavement strength. According to this world-wide standard, aircraft can safely operate on a pavement if their ACN is less than or equal to the pavement load bearing capacity or PCN. An aircraft having an ACN equal to or less than the PCN can operate without weight restrictions on a pavement. The ACN-PCN method is not a design or evaluation method, but purely a classification system. Unfortunately the fact that the method of calculating ACN utilises two common design and analysis methods (the CBR equation and Westergaard theories) has led a surprisingly large number of people to assume that it is a design and evaluation method. It is not uncommon for reference to be made to PCNs calculated by the ACN-PCN method. In fact the ICAO documentation makes it very clear that it is not a design/evaluation method and that the PCN is simply the ACN of the most damaging aircraft that can use the pavement on a regular basis (regular being defined by the operator). The ACN-PCN method only deals with aircraft weighting in excess of 5,700 kg (12,566 lb) as the airports with pavement for smaller size aircraft need only report the maximum allowable mass and the maximum allowable tire pressure if applicable. The ACN/PCN system ensures that both aircraft and pavement can be utilised to their maximum extent without detrimental effects. According to the Design Manual the method is meant only for publication of pavement strength data in the Aeronautical Information Publication (AIPs). It is not intended for design or evaluation of pavements, nor does it contemplate the use of a specific method by the airport authority either for the design or evaluation of pavements. Although the Design Manual states that any method may be used to determine the load rating of the pavements, it is obvious that the use of layered elastic method in conjunction with calibrated failure criteria is preferred

ACN values for selected aircraft have been calculated by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) using two computer programs, one for rigid pavements and the other for flexible pavements. Manufacturers are required to calculate ACNs for new aircraft as they come into service and publish the results in flight manuals. The tables give ACN values for two weights, one at the maximum total weight authorized and the other at the operating weight when empty. If an aircraft is operating at an intermediate weight, the ACN value can be calculated by a linear variation between the limits. Extrapolation is not permissible. ACN is calculated with respect to the center of gravity position, which yields the critical

2 di 10

22/01/2014 14:14

## Aircraft classification number - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aircraft_classification_number

loading on the critical gear. Normally, the aftmost center of gravity, or CG position, appropriate to the maximum gross apron (ramp) mass, or ramp weight, is used to calculate the ACN. In exceptional cases, the forwardmost CG position may make the nose-landing gear loading more critical. The ICAO "Aerodrome Design Manual Part 3 Appendix 2" contains computer programs (source code) for the calculation of ICAO ACN's for aircraft operation on both rigid and flexible pavements. The ICAO ACN Fortran source code has been rewritten and recompiled by Transport Canada into two (2) executable stand-alone programs. The original input/output formats of the ICAO ACN programs were followed as closely as possible. The internal program calculations and equations of the ICAO programs were also followed and incorporated in the new .exe files. The result is the computation of aircraft ACN values that are fully compatible with the ICAO ACN/PCN strength reporting system for airfield pavements. The programs are available at http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/.../software.htm The FAA also has a large amount of guidance material available on their website. Advisory Circular AC 150/5335-5B provides further guidance on ACN and PCN calculations and the relationship between the two numbers. The FAA also provides a more user friendly version of the ICAO computer programs, although it should be noted that code has been translated from the original Fortran language to Visual Basic. The FAA software is COMFAA and is available from their software download page at: http://www.airporttech.tc.faa.gov/naptf/download/index1.asp#soft

The ranges of subgrade strength covered by these standard subgrade categories (designated as A, B, C and D) are shown below.

Flexible pavements
The flexible pavements have four subgrade categories: A. High Strength CBR 15 (All CBR above 13%). B. Medium Strength CBR 10 (For CBR between 8% to 13%). C. Low Strength CBR 6 (For. CBR between 4% to 8%). D. Ultra Low Strength CBR 3 (For CBR below 4%).

Rigid pavements
The rigid pavements have four subgrade categories: A. High Strength Subgrade k = 150 MN/m3 (550 lb/in3) (All k values above 120 MN/m3). B. Medium Strength k = 80 MN/m3 (300 lb/in3) (For values between 60 to 120 MN/m3). C. Low Strength k = 40 MN/m3 (150 lb/in3) (For values between 25 to 60 MN/m3). D. Ultra Low Strength k = 20 MN/m3 (75 lb/in3) (All k values below 25 MN/m3).

As per October 2007, ICAO revised the alpha factor for four wheel undercarriages. Based on recent findings of full scale pavement tests, ICAO agreed to the following revisions concerning the alpha factor values: a. change the alpha factor value for all four-wheels per main landing gear from the current 0.825 to 0.80; b. retain the alpha factor for six-wheels per main landing gear at 0.72; and c. change the alpha factors for other main landing gears so that the ranking of the damaging effect remains consistent.

3 di 10

22/01/2014 14:14

## Aircraft classification number - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aircraft_classification_number

4 di 10

22/01/2014 14:14

## Aircraft classification number - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aircraft_classification_number

Aircraft Classification Numbers (ACNs) Flexible pavement sub-grades CBR% Rigid pavement sub-grades k (MPa/m3)

Aircraft

Weight Tire Maximum Pressure High Medium Low Very High Medium Low Ultra low low (kN) (MPa) A 15 B 10 62 67 60 61 68 62 68 46 46 45 59 39 63 50 59 71 66 24 28 31 20 23 25 13 4 C 6 72 78 70 71 79 75 80 51 51 50 73 47 78 61 72 89 81 27 29 33 23 26 28 14 4 D 3 98 106 94 96 107 106 108 56 56 55 94 65 100 81 100 120 106 29 32 35 26 29 31 16 5 A 150 48 53 46 47 54 55 55 51 51 50 53 30 59 40 54 66 61 25 26 33 20 24 27 13 4 56 61 54 55 62 67 64 53 53 52 62 36 69 48 68 85 71 27 28 34 22 26 28 14 4 B 80 C 40 66 73 64 65 74 88 76 55 55 54 74 43 81 58 88 D 20 78 85 75 77 86 110 88 57 57 56 85 51 92 67 108

A330-200 (Configuration 1) A330-200 (Configuration 2) A330-300 (Configuration 1) A330-300 (Configuration 2) A330-300 (Configuration 3) A380-800 (6 Wheel Main Gear) A380-800 (4 Wheel Wing Gear) B737-800 B737-900 B737-BBJ B747-400, 400F, 400M B747-400D (Domestic) B747-400ER B747-SP B777-300 B777-300ER B787-8 BAC-111 Series 400 BAC-111 Series 475 BAC-111 Series 500 BAe-146-100 BAe-146-200 BAe-146-300 Bae-ATP Beech 1900C, 1900D

2,137 2,264 2,088 2,137 2,264 5,514 5,514 777 777 763 3,905 2,729 4,061 3,127 2,945 3,345 2,240 390 440 467 376 416 436 232 76

1.34 1.42 1.31 1.33 1.42 1.47 1.47 1.47 1.47 1.47 1.38 1.04 1.58 1.26 1.48 1.52 1.57 0.97 0.57 1.1 0.84 0.97 1.1 0.85 0.67

57 62 55 57 62 56 62 44 44 43 53 36 57 45 53 64 60 23 23 29 18 22 24 12 3

109 131 84 28 29 35 24 27 30 15 5 96 29 31 36 25 29 31 16 5

5 di 10

22/01/2014 14:14

## Aircraft classification number - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aircraft_classification_number

Beech 2000 Starship Beech Jet 400, 400A Beech King Air 100, 200 Series Beech King Air 300, 300C, 350, 350C

65 73 56 67

0.54 0.86 0.73 0.73 0.53 1.15 1.21 1.12 1.21 1.12 1.06 1.06 0.9 0.67 0.67 1.15 0.69 1.31 0.95 0.77 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.69

2 6 2 3 12 26 9 13 12 13 18 21 8 8 14 23 20 52 46 31 4 5 5 6

3 7 3 3 14 28 9 14 13 14 18 21 8 9 16 24 22 60 51 33 5 5 6 6

4 7 3 4 17 31 11 16 15 16 21 24 9 11 18 27 24 73 61 40 5 6 6 7

4 7 4 4 17 32 12 17 16 17 24 27 11 13 20 29 25 88 80 51 5 6 6 7

3 6 3 4 14 30 11 16 15 16 20 23 9 10 16 26 21 51 55 28 4 5 5 6

4 6 3 4 14 31 11 16 15 16 21 24 9 11 17 27 21 61 51 31 5 5 5 6

4 6 3 4 15 32 12 17 16 17 22 26 10 11 18 28 22 70 61 37 5 5 6 6

4 6 4 4 15 33 12 18 16 18 23 27 10 12 19 29 22 78 76 45 5 5 6 6

Bombardier 415 196 (Canadair CL-215, 415) Bombardier BD-700, Global Express, XRS Bombardier Challenger 300 Bombardier Challenger 800 Bombardier Challenger CL 600, 601, 604 Bombardier CRJ100, CRJ200, CRJ440 Bombardier CRJ700 Series Bombardier CRJ900 Series Bombardier Dash 8 Q100, Q200 Series Bombardier Dash 8 Q300 Series Bombardier Dash 8 Q400 Bombardier Global C-123K Provider (Fairchild/Republic) C-141B Starlifter (Lockheed) 437 168 237 215 237 335 377 162 192 287 391 267 1,553

## C-17A (Globemaster III) 2,736 C-5 Galaxy (Lockheed) 3,723

Cessna 501 (Citation I 56 Eagle) Cessna 550 (Citation II) 64 Cessna 550 (Citation Bravo) Cessna 560 (Citation V, Ultra, Encore) 67 75

6 di 10

22/01/2014 14:14

## Aircraft classification number - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aircraft_classification_number

Cessna 560 XL (Citation 90 Excel) Cessna 650 (Citation III, 99 VI) Cessna 650 (Citation VII) 104

1.48 1.02 1.16 1.16 1.38 0.64 0.47 0.59 0.59 0.73 0.52 1.03 1.28 1.36 1.51 0.93 0.92 0.93 1.3 1.34 1.14 1.22 0.31 0.53 0.73 0.89 1.01 1.3 1.32 1.35 0.93 1.02 1.05 1.17

9 6 6 10 21 7 7 10 11 9 8 27 40 9 11 5 8 9 11 57 60 59 5 12 20 34 36 47 51 52 22 25 27 31

9 6 7 11 20 9 9 12 13 10 11 31 46 10 12 5 9 10 12 62 67 65 7 15 23 36 41 54 59 59 23 26 29 33

9 7 7 12 20 10 11 14 15 11 12 36 53 11 13 6 9 12 14 74 81 79 10 17 25 42 49 64 69 70 26 30 33 37

## 9 7 8 12 20 12 14 17 19 14 15 44 64 12 14 6 10 13 15 101 110 107 12 21 30 46 62 79 85 87 29 32 35 40

9 7 7 12 21 9 9 12 13 10 10 26 40 11 14 6 10 11 14 49 49 50 8 14 22 37 32 45 50 50 24 28 30 35

9 7 8 12 21 10 10 13 14 11 12 31 47 12 14 6 10 12 14 58 59 59 8 16 24 40 39 54 59 59 26 29 32 37

9 7 8 13 21 10 11 14 16 12 13 36 54 12 15 6 10 12 15 69 72 72 9 17 26 42 46 63 68 69 27 31 34 39

9 7 8 13 21 11 12 15 17 13 14 40 60 13 15 6 10 13 15 80 85 84 9 19 27 44 53 71 76 77 28 32 35 40

Cessna 750 (Citation X) 160 CF-18 Convair 240 Convair 340, 440, 540 Convair 580 Convair 5800 Convair 600 Convair 640 Convair 880 Convair 990 Dassault Falcon 249 190 222 259 280 210 245 860 1,135 164

Dassault Falcon 2000EX 189 Dassault Falcon 10 Dassault Falcon 20 Dassault Falcon 50 Dassault Falcon 900 DC-10-10, 10CF, 15 84 128 173 202 2,037

DC-10-20, 20CF, 30CF, 2,485 40CF DC-10-30, 30ER, 40 DC-3 DC-4 DC-6, 6B DC-7 (All Models) DC-8-10, 20 Series DC-8-43, 55, 61, 71 DC-8-61F, 63F 2,593 147 335 480 640 1,226 1,470 1,557

DC-8-62, 62F, 63, 72, 73 1,593 DC-9-10, 15 DC-9-21 DC-9-30, 32 DC-9-41, 50, 51 404 445 485 543

7 di 10

22/01/2014 14:14

## Aircraft classification number - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aircraft_classification_number

## DHC4 Caribou DHC5 Buffalo

130 187

0.28 0.41 0.26 0.74 0.62 0.9 1.13 0.8 0.73 0.48 0.48 1.04 1.1 0.62 0.76 0.9 0.94 0.59 0.62 0.81 0.57 0.53 0.86 0.83 0.86 1.04 1.21 1.21 1.37 0.83

2 6 2 10 8 5 8 7 3 7 9 20 28 4 5 14 25 9 10 21 9 14 6 8 9 17 19 20 26 8

3 8 2 12 10 6 8 7 4 8 11 21 30 5 6 15 27 11 13 24 11 17 6 8 10 18 20 22 28 8

5 10 3 13 10 6 10 8 4 10 13 24 33 5 7 16 31 13 14 27 13 20 7 10 11 20 22 24 30 9

7 12 5 15 11 6 11 10 5 11 14 26 35 5 8 17 33 14 16 30 14 23 8 11 12 22 23 25 31 10

4 8 3 12 9 6 10 8 4 8 10 22 31 5 7 16 28 11 13 24 11 16 7 9 10 20 22 24 31 9

4 9 3 13 9 6 10 8 5 8 11 24 33 5 7 16 30 12 14 26 12 18 7 10 11 21 23 25 32 9

5 10 3 14 9 6 10 9 5 9 11 25 35 5 7 17 31 13 14 27 13 20 7 10 11 21 23 25 32 10

6 11 4 14 10 6 11 9 5 9 12 26 36 5 8 18 33 13 15 29 13 21 8 11 12 22 24 26 33 10

DHC6 Twin Otter Series 56 300 DHC7 Dash 7 DHS-2 Conair Firecat Dornier 228 Series Dornier 328 Jet Dornier 328-110 (Turboprop) Dornier SA227 (Metro, Merlin, Expediter) Douglas A-26 Invader Douglas B-26 Invader Embraer 170, 175 Embraer 190, 195 Embraer EMB-110 (Bandeirante) Embraer EMB-120 (Brasilia) Series 209 116 63 155 138 74 120 156 368 481 59 119

Embraer ERJ-145 Series 237 Fokker 100 Fokker 50 Fokker 60 Fokker 70 Fokker F27 Friendship Fokker F28 Fellowship Gulfstream G100 (IAI-1125-Astra SPX) Gulfstream G159 Gulfstream G200 (IAI-1126-Galaxy) Gulfstream II Gulfstream III Gulfstream IV Gulfstream V Hawker 1000 (BAe 1000A) 452 205 226 410 205 325 111 156 159 294 312 334 405 138

8 di 10

22/01/2014 14:14

## Aircraft classification number - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aircraft_classification_number

Hawker 400XP (Beech Jet 400A) Hawker 800, 800XP (HS-125-800, 800XP) Hercules C-130, 082, 182, 282, 382 Hercules L-100 (Commercial)

## 73 125 778 693

0.86 0.83 0.67 0.74 0.83 0.88 0.51 0.8 1.65 0.64 0.66 0.88 0.39 0.83 1.22 1.38 1.35 1.35 1.35 1.35 0.79 0.79 0.79

6 7 29 27 6 6 9 16 52 24 27 34 3 5 59 38 52 57 64 65 3 3 4

7 7 34 30 6 7 11 17 58 27 30 36 4 5 65 41 56 63 71 72 3 4 4

7 8 37 33 7 7 14 21 68 34 37 43 5 6 79 49 66 75 86 87 4 4 5

## 7 9 43 38 8 8 16 29 83 45 49 61 6 7 107 64 90 101 114 116 4 5 5

6 8 33 30 7 7 11 13 51 29 32 26 4 6 50 35 45 49 55 56 4 4 5

6 8 36 33 7 8 12 16 59 33 35 31 5 6 59 40 52 58 66 67 4 5 5

6 9 39 35 8 8 13 20 68 30 32 38 5 7 72 48 62 69 79 80 4 5 5

6 9 42 38 8 8 14 23 77 34 37 46 5 7 84 55 72 81 91 93 4 5 5

HS/BAe 125 (All Series 112 to 600) HS/BAe 700 HS/BAe 748 Ilyushin IL-18 Ilyushin IL-62, 62M Ilyushin IL-76T Ilyushin IL-76TD Ilyushin IL-86 Jetstream 31, 32 (BAe) Jetstream 41 (BAe) KC-10 (McDonnell Douglas) KC-135 Stratotanker (Boeing) L-1011-1 Tristar 114 227 625 1,648 1,677 1,775 2,054 69 107 2,593 1,342 1,913

L-1011-100, 200 Tristar 2,073 L-1011-250 Tristar L-1011-500 Tristar Learjet 24F (Bombardier) Learjet 25D, 25F (Bombardier) Learjet 25G (Bombardier) Learjet 28, 29 (Long-horn) (Bombardier) Learjet 31A, 35A, 36A (Bombardier) Learjet 40, 45, 45XR (Bombardier) 2,269 2,295 62 69 75

69

0.79

83 98

0.79 0.79

4 5

5 6

5 7

6 7

5 6

5 7

6 7

6 7

9 di 10

22/01/2014 14:14

## Aircraft classification number - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aircraft_classification_number

## Learjet 55B, 55C (Bombardier)

97

1.24 1.48 0.95 1.38 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.31 0.69 0.82 0.58 0.58 0.55 0.54 0.54 0.28 1.07 0.38 0.59 0.93 1.38 1.01

6 6 27 67 36 39 42 36 39 41 44 46 38 11 6 7 4 6 7 7 2 3 8 10 19 31 48

6 7 29 74 38 41 45 38 41 43 47 50 41 13 7 9 6 8 9 8 3 3 10 12 22 33 54

7 7 33 90 43 46 50 43 46 48 52 54 44 14 8 10 6 9 10 10 4 3 13 15 28 40 66

7 8 36 119 46 49 53 46 50 52 55 57 47 16 9 11 7 9 11 10 6 4 18 20 37 53 83

7 8 30 58 41 43 47 41 44 46 49 52 44 13 7 9 6 7 9 8 4 4 10 9 18 29 41

7 8 32 69 43 46 50 43 46 48 51 54 46 14 8 10 6 8 9 8 4 4 10 11 24 34 50

7 8 34 83 45 48 52 45 48 50 54 57 48 15 8 10 7 8 9 9 4 4 10 14 30 40 60

7 8 36 96 46 50 54 46 50 52 56 58 49 15 9 11 7 8 9 9 4 4 13 16 36 46 69

Learjet 60 (Bombardier) 106 Lockheed 188 Electra MD-11 MD-81 MD-82 MD-83 MD-87 MD-88 MD-90-30 MD-90-30ER MD-90-50, 55 P-3A/B/C Orion Saab 2000 Saab 340 A, B Sepecat Jaguar (Configuration 1) Sepecat Jaguar (Configuration 2) Shorts 330 Shorts 360 Shorts Sherpa Shorts Skyvan Swearingen SJ30-2 Transall C-160 Tupolev TU-134 Tupolev TU-154 Tupolev TU-204, 214, 224, 234 VC10 Series 503 2,805 628 670 716 628 670 699 739 772 623 226 131 154 108 102 121 114 67 60 500 463 961 1,096 1,590