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65.290-2

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5 -8 1 8 3 -0 1 1 5 -

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.............................

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. . _ ............................ .....................................9

I

1. , .....................
1.1. : . . .
, ,
1.2. ...............................................................
..............................................

.......................................................................
1.3. ....................................................................................................
..............................................................
..............................................

..................................................
1.4. .....................

11
11
12
14
15
16
20
22
22
24
25

II

2. : -
......................................................
2.1. ; . .
2.2. .........................
2.3. .......................................................................
..................................................

. .
.............................
2.4. ..............................................
, .............................
, .................................
, .....................................
2.5.
................................................................................................
................................................................................................
...................................................................................
............................................................................................
.......................................................................................
................................................................................................
............................................................................................
................................................................................................
2.6. - . .
-/
...............................................................

29
29
31
35
37
40
41
42
45
47
49
52
55
58
60
62
64
65
66
67
71

3. ...................................................... 73
3.1. ..............................................73
3.2. ...................................................... 76
.............................................................. 76
..................................... 77
.............................................................. 81
3.3. ...................................................... 83

.............................................................. 83
( 1 4 % ) ...................................................... 86
( 7 0 % ) ...................................................... 88
( 1 6 % ) ...................................................... 90
3.4. ...................................................... 91
..............................................92
......................................... 96
.....................
100
3.5. . . 101
3.6. ;
...............................................................................
102
. . . .
102
..................................................
103
..............................................................
105
4. .............................
106
4.1. ...........................................................................
106
4.2. .......................................................................
108
.............................................. 109
. . . .
109
............................. .... 109
4.3. . . 110
...................................................... .... 110
.............................................................. .... 111
, -, ....113
,
........................................................................... 114

. . 116
4.4.
.............................................................. .... 117
............................. .....118
..........................119
.......................................................121

............................................................................... .....125
4.5. ............................................................................129
.............................................................. ....130
.......................................................... ....131
.........................132
.........................133
5. ..............................................................
135
5.1. .............................................................. .... 135
5.2. .................................................. 137
5.3. ; . . 141
5.4. ...................................................... 144

III


6. ................................................................................................148
6.1. ..........................................149
6.2. ........................................................................................... 152
6.3. ................................................................................................154
...................................................................155
.......................................................... 159
...............................................................160
6.4. ................................................................................... 161
..........................................162
..............................................163
.................................................. 164
.................166
6.5. .......................................................................166
6.6. ......................................168
...................................................................168
......................................169
-........................................................................... 170
.................................................. 170
........................................................................... 171
7. , 173
7.1. ........................................................................... 173
7.2. .................................................. 175
................................................................... 176
...............................................................183
7.3. ..........................................186
............................................................................... 186
............................................................................................190
.......................................................... 192
.......................................................... 193
............................................................................... 194
7.4. ........................................................................... 195
.......................................................................196
...............................................................196
...................................................................197
7.5. ......................................199
8. , .............................................. 202
8.1. .......................................................................202
8.2. ............................................................................... 206
(McClelland) . . . .
206
( M a s lo w ) ............................. 207
(McGuire) .................209
8.3. . . . . 212
,
................................................................................... 213
,
............................................................................... 217

8.4. ................................................................................................ 218


......................................................219
.................................................................. ....220
.......................................................... ....221
......................... ....225
8.5. ....................................................................................................227
...............................................................................228

................................................................................... ....230
.................................................................. ....231
9. ,
.................................................................. ....232
9.1. .............................................................. ....232
9.2. ......................................................235
9.3. ..................................... ....237
A I O ............................................................................... ....237
VALS V A L S - 2 ...................................................... ....238
L O V ............................................................................... ....242
..................... ....244
9.4. .................................................................. ....246

...................................................... ....246
.............................................................. ....248
.......................................................... ....250
10. .................................................................. ....251
10.1. ..............................................251
.................................................................. ....252
.................................................................. ....254
...................................................... ....255
10.2. .....................255
10.3. ......................................................258
...................................................... ....260
...................................................... ....263
......................................................264
............................. ....264
10.4. .............................................................. ....266
. . . 266
............................. ....268
............................. ....269
IV

11. .......................................................... ... 271
11.1. .............................................................................. 272
............................................. 272
.................................................................. ... 273
..................................... ... 274
11.2. ............................................. 275
.......................................................... ... 275
.......................................................... ... 276
.......................................................... ... 276

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

..................................... 277
.................................................. 277
............................. 279
12.1. .................279
12.2. ......................... 280
12.3 .............................................................. 283
..............................................284
..........................................285
..........................................285
.......................................................... 286
287
13.1. ..............................................287
13.2. .................289
. . . 289
......................................291
. . . 291
13.3. ...............................................................294
.............................................. 294
.................................................. 296
.......................................................... 297
................................. 298
.............................................. 300
14.1. ................................. 300
14.2. ...................................................................301
14.3. ........................................................................... 303
14.3.1. ..................... 304
14.3.2. ......................... 308
14.4. .....................309
.................................................................................................... 312
15.1.
............................. 312
15.2. ................................. 313
315
. . . 320
15.3. ......................................322
...........................................................325
16.1. ...................................................... 325
16.2. ....................................................................................326
16.3. ........................................................................................329
16.4. ........................................................................... 331
................................. 331
..............................................332
,
........................................................................... 334

V
:
17. . . . 336
17.1. .................336

17.2.
17.3.
17.4.
17.5.
17.6.

337
. . 341
; . . 341
...................................................... 350
..................................... .... 351

18. , . 355
18.1. ,
355
............................. .... 355

......................... 358
. . . 360
. . . .
363
18.2. ......................................... .... 366
........................................................................................................ .... 373

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, Consumer Behavior,
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(Del Hawkins), (Roger Best), (Ken
neth Coney), (John Mowen), (Henry
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, , . ,
, -
.


. -, ,
:
. ,
.
.
,
. , ,
, (, , ).

( ), , ,
, . .
, .
.
.
, .
,
.
,
.
.
.


( ).

. ,

,
.
.
.
:

()

.
, ,
. ,

,
,
, , .


.

. ,
(
, ),
. , ,
5
, .
, .
( )
:

, ,
.


. ,
,
,
(Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 50).

.
.
.

. ,

, .
(Mowen,
1995, . 586):
1. (linear separable time). ,
.
(. ).
2. (circular traditional time).

, .
. ,
,
, . ,
,
, .
, , ,
, , .
,
, ,
.
,

.
3. (procedural traditional
time).

, .
: ?, :
. :

? : ,
. .
,
.
,
. .
.

. , ,
.

. , , 1890 . 5%
,
1980- .
,
.

. ,
.

.
,
.

. ,
Kentucky Fried Chicken, Jack
in the Box, McDonalds
.

. 99%

Campbell Soup: ,
?
, ,
,
, .

, , ,
, - .

, .
, ,
.


, .
, - . . ,
,
.

.
,
.
, ,
(bargain base
ments ).
.

.
,

, .

.
IBM
Japan. ,
. IBM Japan
4300 5000 ,
700
(on a sales call) .
,
, , ,
( )
,
, .
, ,
(Hawkins et al., 1995,
p. 51).

. ,

, , ,

.
. JI. ,
,

.
11 ,
.

. ,
,
. ,

, ,
.
5 8 (1,5-2,5 ),
18
3 (46-150 ).
,
.


,
. ,
,
. ,
, ,
.
. ,
, ,
.
.
, ,
, .

, ,
. ,
, .
,
.

, , ,
.

. ,
,

.
,
.
,

.
,
, ,
.
, ,
-- -
. -

. ,
. ,
.
.
,
.
.

.
,
,
,
.
, , ,
. ,
, :
. ,
, .


Avon .
Avon

,
.
,

, .

,
.

.

. ,
( )
.

.
.


,
.


-: ,
,
,
.
,
. ,
,
. ,
.
() .
,
(Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 52).

0


,
.


,
. ,

.
.

.
?
.

,
. ,
,
.


.

.

. .
,
, .

,
,

.
, ,
. ,
,
.
, ,
, .
, ,
. .
, , ,
, ,
.
,
.



. , (
) ,
.

. ,
, .
, ,
. ,
( ) ,
, , ,
(term inal materialism).
( )
.
, , ,
.
,
, ,
. ,
, ,
, . ,
() , , ,
.
,
.
. ,

. ,
,
, .
,
.
- ,
.
( ),
.
,
, ,
(Mowen, 1995, . 795).


, ,
,
.
.
, ,
.
(Hawkins
et al., 1995, p. 53):
, ,
, , , .
, ,
. ,
,
, .

,
, ,
.


.
.
.
Pepsi-Cola
- , ,

.
- -
.


United Airlines
. ,

.
&
,
.
5-1070

2.5

,
(Hawkins et /., 1995, . 54; Pride et al, 1995, p. 98)

13

pi ;
,


;
,
, ,
; , ,
. ,

;

, , ;
, , ,
, , , ,

, ,

, , ;

;
, ;

, ,
. ,
,
.
,
, .
(
) , ,
, .
.
,
,
!

, .

. 10 (4,35$)
5 .
.

.
,

,
. ,
. ,
, , ,
, .

,
. ,

, , .
-
.
,
,
.
, ,
.
,
.
.

2.6. -

1980-
-
. -
.
, ,
.
. ,
Coca-Cola

.
, 18 24
, ,
.

,
.
,
,
, ,
. , - IBM
(W hite Plains) 1996 .: 10
15 , 5
(Stevens, 1996, . 63).

(),
.
,
.
(interm arket segm entation)
.
,
(, )
.
, .
27 , General
Foods, Nestle, Coca-Cola, Procter & Gamble, Unilever
( , ) Revlon, ,
63%
(Engel et al., 1995, p.
100).
, , .

, .
, , ,
,
, .
:
, , .
Boss
-, , , (
),

,
. -

, .

,
. ,

.

.
:
,

,
.


() .
: (product), (price), (place),
(promotion), (public relations).
: .
.
.
Mattel
.
, , ,
- .

. ,
13 .
,
. , ,
.
() ,
.

,
, .
,


.

-/


,
(Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 57):
1.
?
?
, ?

,
(, ).

.
,
.
, .
.
,
, .


, , ,
, , , ,
.
2.
?

? ,
?
?
? ,
,

.
.
,
,
, .

. General Foods
Tang .

, ,

. ,
: Tang
.
3.
?
? ?
,
, ?
,
?

,
, ,
. , 1990-,
, Procter &
Gamble , 10%
(Pride et al., 1995, p. 92).

,
.
4.
?
, ?
- ,
.
- , ,
, ?
,
, ?
?
,
, .
5. ,
,
? ?
?

?

.

,
Anderson Clayton & ,
.
(
), (
). ,
, . ,
,
.
,

. ,
Coca-Cola
, ,

( ) .

, ,
. ,
(
).
,
.
6.
?
?
,
?
?

: 1) ,
; 2) ,
; 3) ,
; 4)
.
( ,
,
) .
, BSR Ltd,
,
.

. ,

, BSR,

, ,

.
, BSR
:
.
7.

?

?
?

?

, .
(
), (,
) .
,
-
.

3.
3.1.
,
,
, . -, ,
,

. ,
Procter & Gamble
.

!
. -, (,
1998, . 74)
.

, , , .

, , ,
.
, ,

.
,
90- ,
.
,
, ,
,
19801990- , .
.


,
, ,
,
, .

() ,

. ,
.
( )
,

,
.


. -

,

.


. ,
Mercedes

, , .

()
. ,
,

.

(social standing)
, .

, ,
.
, , , ,
,
. 3.1.1 (Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 120).
.

, . ,

,
.

. 3.1.1.


. ,
,
: , , ,
.
-


, .

- ,
/
. ,
,
. . 3.1.2 (Hawkins et al.,
1995, p. 120), ,

, .
,

. 3.1.2.

,

.

3.2.

.
,
, .

, (Engel et al., 1995,
p. 683).
,


.
,
,
: , ,
.
.
,
.
.
,
.
, , , .
,

. ,
.
, ,
, ,
, . , ,



.
,
,

.


,
,
1920- .
, 1982 .
(Gilbert) (Kahl)
(Engel et al., 1995, p. 682).

,
(Joseph Kahl) (1957)
( , . 683): , ( -

), , ,
, . .


( occupation). (
) . ,
,
,
. .
, ,
,

, .
(personal performance).

. ,
, ,
, , ,
, , .

. ,
, , ,
(
), ( ),
(
),
.
(interactions).
,
.
-
.
,
. ,
. ,

.
,
,
,
. ,
,
, .

.
,
.
(possessions).
. (conspicuous consumption),
,
, , , .
,
.
,
,
,
.

,
. ,
,
, .
(value orientations). ,

, .

.
.

:
?
,
, ,
.
,
, .
(class consciousness).
.


.
,
(, , , ,
) .
.

. ,
,
, .
(power) (mobility)
.
.
,

.
.
,

,
.
- ,
, -
, :
1) , .
,

;
2) ,

;
3) ,
(
).

;
4) ,
- .
;
5) ,
.

.


, , , ,

.
- (
).
. ,

. ,

,
.
.
,
. , , ,
, ,
()
.
, ,
, . ,
()
, (Assael, 1995, . 358).


,
:
, : ,
, .
, .
, , , ,
, ,
. , , ,

. ,
,
, . (
, , )
, ,
, , .

, .
, 6-1070

. , , ,
, .
,

? ,
, .

. , . 3.2.1

,
.
,
()
.
.
,


.
( , )
, ,

( ). 1990-,
,
, . , ,
(
) (


).

. 3.2.1.


( ),
.

3.3.

,
.

.
.
, .
-
,
.
-
,
.
,
1998 . . ,
, ,
,
.

,
(, , 1998).
(
)
.


. ,
,
,
, , .


-


(Gilbert) (Kahl) (1982) -

(Coleman) (Rainwater) (1978) (Engel et al.,


1995, p. 699; Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 123) (. 3.3.1).
(Gilbert) (Kahl)
(1982) , ,
.
(Coleman) (Rainwater)
,
.

,
,
.
. -
,
. 3.3.1.
3.3.1

-
(Gilbert Kahl),
________

(Coleman
Rainwater),

(1%).


;

;

- (14%).
,
, ;
-;

- (0,3% ).

,

- (1,2%).
,

,
- (12,5%).
;

,

(33%).

;
;
;

(32%).

;
;

(32%).


;
;

(38%).

;
,

(11-12%).


,
;
, ;


(8-9% ).


;
;
;

- (9%).
; ;


;
,
- (7/>).
, ,
,
( );
/,


,
, . 3.3.2

(Coleman Rainwater) ,
(Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 123; Assael, 1995, p. 360).
3.3.2


(Coleman Rainwater) (1983)

% . , $

0,3

600 000

1,2

450 000

12,5

150 000

(
)

32,0

28 000

38,0

15 000

9,0

9000

7,0

5000

1
1
1


. ,
(

) .
.
,
.

,

(Coleman Rainwater),
1978 . (Hawkins et al., 1995,
p. 122).
,
- .

(14%)
- (upper-upper class) (0,3%).
( ),
.

, .
(com
munity) ,
, .

(Gilbert Kahl).
- (lower-upper class) (1,2%).
,
( ). -
-
,
.
, - .
,
.
,
, , , .

. ,

,
.
,
.
- (upper-middle class) (12,5%).
,
, .

.
,
,
. (
, ) .
Yuppies.
, , ,
.
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
,
, .
,

. . 3.3 (upward
pull).
.
,

- . , ,

.

. 3.3. ,

-

.
, , , .

(70%)
(middle class) (32%).
,
( , ),

(, ).
,
,
.
,
-
.

.
, ,
, .

, , ,
, .
,

,
.
,
1990- (
,
-
)
,
, .
,
(
),
.


.

.
. ,
, ,
.
- ,
. , ,
,
-
.
, ,
,
.
. - (38% 1978 .,
(Assael, 1995, . 359),
1983 . (Hawkins et al., 1995,
p. 123),
,
.
(Peter Drucker), 1990 . (
, )
,
2010 .
(Drucker, 1994, . 40).
(working class)

.
,
, .
-
,
. ()
, , . ,
, , , .

, .

,
. ,
. ,
, , ,
(Assael, 1995, . 361).


. ,
, .
,
.

(16%)
- (upper-lower class) ( 9%
). ,
(
, ).

, ,
.
, .
, ,
.
, .
- (lower-lower class). 7%
, . ,
.

,
.

.
.

. /
.

.

.

.

.
- ,
,
, .

()
- , ,

,
, .

3.4.


.
(,
, , ,
)
.


, .

, ,
, , .

.
: )
; )

, .

, ,
, , ,
, .
1990- ( ,

),
.

, ,
, ,
. ,

, .
( ),
,

, ,
.
(), , pi
. ,
(!),
.

(

).

,

.
.
,
:
1. ,
.
2. ,
() .


(single-item indexes)
, .

.

, .

.
: 1) ; 2) ; 3)
.
,
.
(occupation)
.
?
,
. ,
, .

,
,
.

, ,

.
.
, ,
.
, ,
.

(socioeconomic index) (. 3.4.1),
(Duncan) 1985 . (Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 130).
,
,
. ,
, , (
), , ,
.
3.4.1

(1985)
____________ _______
65

84

49

21

24

78

89

70
15

______
58
-
83
28

27
38


46
(
25
)
-
78
22

(education)
.
,
. (
,
, )
.
.

, ,

.

.
( ),
.
() .

. , ,
30 , ,
, ,
100 .
(,
) 20 ,
.

, .
.
, , , .
(Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 130)
0,33, 0,4 (1,0
0
).

,
10% 20% .
1992 . 2,6
( ) 4,1 ( ). 1995 .
6,
(, 1995, . 9).
,
:
;
;
( ,
).

.
, .

.
,

,
.
, ,
.
, .
.
, ,
-. ,
.

, .
(relative occupational
class income).
. ,

. ,
-, ,
,
.
,
: 1)
; 2) , ;
3) .
,
.
.

(subjective discre
tionary income).

() (Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 132).

1 6 /
:
1. , ,
.
2. ,
.
3. ,
.


.


(multi-item indexes)
.

.
( , , ),

.

(Hollingshead index of social posi
tion), 1958 . (. 3.4.2), (Hawkins et al., 1995,
p. 134). (
),
( )
().
,

.
3.4.2

(1958)

( 7)

,

1
,

2
,

3
-,

4

5

6

7

(, (Ph.D.) . )
1
( )
2
- ( -)
3
(12 )
4
10-11 ( )
5
7 -9
6
7
7

( 4)

(ISP score) = (
7) + ( 4)

______
1 1 -1 7

18-31
-
3 2 -4 7

-
4 8 -6 3

6 4 -7 7

(W arner)

,
1941 .
: ,
, .
. 3.4.3,
,
(Hawkins et al., 1991).
.
3.4.3

(1941)

:

,

:

:
,

4
5

7 -1 0 7 0

:
(ISC score) = ( 4) + ( 3) +
( 2)




, %
-
12-17
1.4
-
18-24
1,6
-
25-37
10,2
-
38 -5 0
28,8
-
5 1-62
33,0
- ________ 63-84 _____________ 25,0________________________


(Colemans com
puterized status index), Social Research,
Inc. 1983 . . 3.4.4
,
, (Engel et al., 1995, p. 690, 691).
,
.
,
.
,


. , /
( , )
7% (Benedict, Taylor, 1995, p. 19).
60% ( 25%
1950 .), 1995 . 80%
(Engel et al., 1995, p. 765, 766).
(. 3.4.4)
.
,
.
.
3.4.4


(1983)

_____________________________________ ()
(8 )
1
1
(9-11 )
2
2
(12 )
3
3

(1
(-,
, )
-

(, /
BA/BS)


(Ph.D.) -

4
5

4
5


, ,
:
,
: ,
, ()
,
, ,
, ,
(), ,
, -,
,
(2 -4 ), , ,
,
, , ,

,
(10-20 ),
(, )
,
( , )

: ,
: ,



, , ,
,
:

, .

5000
1
50009999
2
10 000 14 999
3
15 00019 999
4
20 00024 999
5
25 00034 999
6
35 00049 999
7
50 000
8
_________ _______________________

1
2
3
4
5

7
9
1
2
3
4
5
7
9

, ,
.
.
(rela
tionship m arketing). ,

.
-
. ,
.

, .

.
, ,
,
.
, ,
.
,
(Engel et al., 1995, p. 696).
,

.
,


.
.



.

. ,
,

, .

, ,
,

. ,
,
.

3.5.


.

.
. 3.5

(Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 135).
,
.
,
,
/, , ,
. .
/
(). , ,
.

, , .
.
1

II

III

1.
1.


/ >

2.
2.


3.
3.


4.

4.
-/

IV


:
1.
2.
3.
4.

. 3.5.

/
.


.

. ,
, .

, /
,
.
, ,

, . , ,
,
- .

3.6. ;


.
:
, ,
.


. , ,
, .
.

, .

-
( ) (
).
.
.
,
, .
, .


.
. ,
.

. ,
, .
. ,
.
. .
- (
) .
, ,
, ,

. ,
,
.
.
,
59 .
, , . ,
,
.
,
.
,
,
, .

.



.


.

.

; , .


.
. ,

, ,

. , ,
,
, ,
(Assael, 1995, . 364).
, ,
,
: !

. ,
( , , )
.

,

(
).
,
, ,
.
- . ,
Daily ,
.
,
- .
. ,
.
-
40-
(Engel et al., 1995, p. 705).

.

. ,

.


, , , ,
, .
pi ,
pi (, , ).


1 ,
. 13
,
, o h p i .

, ,
. ,
1 , .
,

,
.
1
. ,
(
) 1 ,
(, CompuServe),
CD-ROM.

p i

! .
,
, .
1
, ,
. ,
, pi
, , .

.
1
,
, .
, 10 ,


, ,
(Engel et al., 1995, p. 707).
.
,
.
,
.

4.
4.1.

.
,
. ,
,

.

-
.
.
, ,
, .

/
.

(. 4.1.1).

. 4./. /.


(. 4.1.2).
:
1. .
2. .
3. .
:
, .

(,
),
.
:

. 4.1.2. (Hawkins et aL, 1995, p. 146)


. (
, ) ,
, .

(primary)
(secondary). ,
.

. , .

.
.
,
.
, ,
,
.
, , ,
.

.

4.2.
,

.

.
,
.
() ,
.
(Solomon Asch) (Engel et al., 1995, p. 716)
1951 . ,
. ,
, .

, , ,
.
,
.
,

. ,
.


.
,

. ,
.
.
.
.

, ,
.
, ,
.


(aspirational groups) ,
.
, , .
,
.
.
, ,
. ,
,
Procter & Gamble ,
.
, ,
,
.
(dissociative groups) ,
.
,
.


,
;
.
, ,
. , ,
-.



.
,
.


. ,
.
,
.
, ,
,
.

4.3.


.
: 1) ;
2) ; 3) ,
.


(informational influence)
,
. ,
,
.
-
. ,
, 59%


(PC W eek/RE, 7.10.97, . 61).
,
,
.
,

.

, , .
, (prin
ciple of social proof)
.
.


(normative influence)


. , ,
,
( , ,
), .

, .
.

, .
.

/ .

: 1)
; 2)
; 3) /
/ .

.

(George Homans) (Engel et al., 1995, p. 719).

.
,
. ,
. ,
, , .
, (NP)
,
() ():
NP = - .

, ,
,
.
,
.
-,
( )
.

.

.

:
;

;

.

, .

,
.
,
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1995, p. 251).


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( classical conditioning)


. . 7.2.2 .
.

. 7.2.2.

12 - 1070

(,
, (unconditioned stimulus))
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,
(unconditioned response)) .

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ditioned stimulus)),
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. ,
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,

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Cola,

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,
, . 7.2.3 (Hawkins et al., 1995,
p. 273).
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30
.

. 7.2.3. -
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,
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,
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).
,
(/).
. 7.2.4.

. 7.2.4.


,
.
,
.
/.

.

, , .

,
, .
,
.

.
,
, ,
.
.
, .

. ,

. ( ),

,
.

(), , ,
.
,
.
("shaping )
. 7.2.5 (Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 274).

. 7.2.5. /



. : 1)
; 2)

; 3)
.

.
.
, ,
:
, , , ,
,

, -
.

Canon,
, .

, ,
(rebate) ,
(trading stamps) (
).

,
( )
.
(
, )
().
, /
: ...

. ,

, .

. , ,
, -

.
,
.

,
.
,
.

.
,


.



.
,
.
, , ,
,

.

, .
. .
(iconic rote learning)

. ,
, : Hewlett-Packard: ,
Pentium II
!,
.
, .

/.

, , ,
.

,
. ,
.
/. ( vicarious/ modeling learning).
,
- .
.

.

.
.
,
.
, ,
,
,
.

.
, , ,
. ,

.
, (
) , .

.

.
( reasoning) ~
.

,
.
,

.
,
.
,
(Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 278)
. 7.2.

,

,


,





,


,

Chrysler
,
Chrysler

.

,
,
,
,

.









,





,


,


.

,


7.2


,

,

,


,






.

.


,
Apple

,
Apple

,

,

7.3.

. , ,

-: ; ,
; , , ; ,
, ; .


, ,
.


(strength of learning)
.
, , ,
.
: , , ,
.
, : ) / ,
; )
; ) ( ),
; )
( ) ; )
.
(importance)
. ,

.
,
. ,
.
,
, .
, ,
.
( elaboi'ation)
,
.
, .

,
. ,

.
,


. ,
. ,
,
,
, . , ,
, ,
.
.

, . ,
, , .
/ ( reinforcement)
(),
.
( ),

.
,
,
.
, ,
.
,
. ,
,
,
.

, /
. -,
,
. -,
,
,
.

( repetition)
.
, ,
/.

.

,
.

,

.
48-
,
.
2 -3
, 4 .
.
,

. . 7.3.1

(Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 282).

, ,

13 .

13- .

.
13 .
4 . .
,
.

.
, .
.

. , -

,
.
,
.


( ) .
. ,
-
-

. , , ,
,
.

.
,
.

(rehearsal)
. .

. , , ,

,
.

.
,
. ,
, , ,
, .
(imagery).
,
. , Camel ()
Apple ()

.
, .
,
, .
,

.
.

.

.

, , ( ).
, , ,
, ,
.
,
.
,

,
.
. ,
, .

(extinction), ,
.

(,
) ,

.
, ,
,
, .

/
, , , .

, ,
.
, .

. ,
,
. , ,

, ,
( ).
.
, ,
,

.

. ,
,
.

.
,

. ,
1987 . ,
, , ,
, ,
. ,
, .
,

, (Hawkins
et al., 1995, p. 283).


: , , .
.


, , (stim ulus generali
zation )
. ,
, .
, ,

,
.

, . , ,

.
( ),
(
)
( ). ,

.

.
,
, ,
.
, ,
.
- ,
.
, , ,
.
me-too.


.
(brand leverage),
(fam ily branding)t (brand ex

tension), (umbrella branding).



,
.
,
.
.
,
()

(Hawkins et al.,
1995, p. 285):
1. (compliment)
.
2. (substitute)
.
3. (transfer)
,
.
4. (image)
, .
, ,

,
.

:
Gillette
Silkience
(). Silkience
/
.
General Electric
.
Levi Strauss
Levi .


( stim ulus discrim ination)
.
, 13 -1070

,
. .
, , .
,
. ,
,
.
,
.

. ,
, . ,
, ,
( ),
(Engel et al., 1995, p. 538).
: , , , ,
, .


( response environm ent)

.
.

,
.
(
) ,
.

, .
: 1) ,

( ); 2)
,
.

, .

, -

.



.

7.4.

.
: ,
.
(Solomon,
1992, . 115).
,
,
. . 7.4.1
.

:
:

()

()

:
:

:
----
:

:
, :

:
,

,

,

,

( ),

. 7.4. /.


,
.
. ,
pi .
, , ,
,
,
, .
,
. ,
, ,
.



.
, ,
.

. ,
.


. ,
, ,
.
,
, .
.
, ,

(rehearsal) .

,
.

,
. (elaboration) ,
, ,
, ,

.
, . ,
, .

.
(chunk) ,
(Solomon, 1992,
. 114). ,

, 3-5 .
,
, .

.
, .
, .
,
,
, , ,
.

(Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 288):
, ,
.
.
,
, .


,
,
. ,
, , , ,
() . .
,
.
, , , .
,

.


,
. ,
,
.
,
,
.

.
,
. ,
.

.
,
.
,
.
. 7.4.2. , ,
,

. 7.4.2.

, ,
. ,
, .
, ,
,
(, ,
) .

,
, , .
,
. , ,

,
.


. Sprite
!
Sprite.
, , ,
() (evoked set).
, ,
,
, (script),
. ,
,
.

7.5.

( )
.

,
: , ,
.
, ,


.

, -
,
, . Sunkist
Growers (,
)
. ,
, -
. ,
.
Sunkist F ru it Gems
.

,


(Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 289).

,
. , ,

,
Snowpup ( ).
. ,
Snowmaster (
), (Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 289).

.

. . 7.5
, 1981 .
(Belch et al., 1993, p. 182).
, Pontiac General
Motors ,
Nissan, Toyota, Honda, Mazda
VW
, GM.
, Pontiac
.

.

.

.
. ,
,

. , . .

.
.
. ,
,
. , ,
,
.
-
.




.

Cadillac
Mercedes
Buick
Oldsmobil
Pontiac
____ \

-<

Chevrolet
Nissan

Toyota
Honda

Mazda

VW
V

General Motors;

. 7.5. Pontiac, 1981 .

8. ,
,

. (
) .
, ,
.
. ,
( )
( )
,
( ).
.
, .

8.1.
(motivation) (mo
tion). , .
, ,

.
, ,
. . 8.1.1
, :
() , ,
,
(Mowen, 1995, . 192).
,
. , ,
, (, )
.
, .
,
.
,
, , .

, .
,

.

. ,
,
, ,
.

. 8.1.1.

( , )
,
( ).
.
, .
, , ,
, .
. ,
, ,
,
.
,
(drive state).
, , ,
.

, , .

. ,
,
.
.

,
. , ,

,
, .
,
.
,
.
, , -
.

, , ,
.

, . . 8.1.1
,
.
,
.
,
, .

, .

,
.
,
, , , ,
, .

,
(Hawkins et al.,
1995, p. 299). - ,
, 1000
,
.
() .

? .
,
.
, , .
.

. -,
.
, . . 8.1.2
.

. 8.1.2.



.
( )
( ,
). ,
,
,
(
) . ,

,
, .
,
. ,

.


, ,
, . ,
, ,
.

8.2.
-
.

(McClelland)
. 1965 . ,

. ,
(Mowen, 1995, . 197).
(achievement motivation) ,

.
, 83%
, ,
, ,
.
,
(need for affiliation),
(belonginess need).
,
.

. ,

.

.
,

. ,

, .

.
, , , .

,
, .
,
.

, , ,
,
.
,
.
,
.

(Maslow)

. :
1.

.
2.
, .
3.
,
.
4.
.
. 8.2.1 (Solomon,
1992, . 76; Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 300).
. 8.2.2.

5. : , ,
, .
4. : , , ,
.
, .
3. : , ,
.
2. :
, , .
1.
: , , ,
.
, .

. 8.2.1. (Maslow)


. : 1)
(
); 2)

(
,

); 3)

(
).

: , , , ,
, .
:
Campbell's Soup -

: , , ,
, , , .
:
":

Siemens Nixdon

: , , , , , ,

Atari Atari"
, Atari

: , , , , ,
:
______________

: , , , , ,
:
,

. 8.2.2.

(McGuire)
,
, .

.
,
(Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 302).
(need for consistency).
, ,
.
, , , (,
), . .
(
)

( ).
?
,
.

(need to attribute causation). ,
,
.

.

- ?

( ).
,
,
.
, , .
(need to categorize).


. ,
,
. (
) ,
. ,
4 1 14-1070


, .
9,95, 49,95
. . 10
50 .
(need for cues).
,
,
. ,

, .
, ,
, , .

.


, .
Schaffner and
:
.
.
(need for independence).

. , ,
: , ,
.
MasterCard
. ,
, ,
.
:
.
(need for novelty).
.

.
. ,
, ,
. -


. ,
,

, .
(need for self-expression).

.
(
), .
, , , ,
,

. , ,
,
.
- (need for ego-defence).
, ,
. ,

. -
. ,
,
- ,
.
, Head and Shoulders,
-
,
.
( need for assertion).

, ,
.

.
(need for reinforcement).

, . ,
(, ,
, ),
, .

Ariel, Comet
Procter & Gamble. -
Keepsake , :
,
, .
(need for affiliation).

.
- .

.
.
(
, ) ,
.
(need for modeling).

.
, .
,
. ,
, .

8.3.

.
. ,
, ,
, .
, . - ,
,
.

.
. : 1)
, , , ; 2)
,
; 3) .

,


.
, , ,
. ,
, (manifest motives). , :
?
: ,
, , .
,
, , .
, ,
(latent motives). : ,
, ,
, ,
.
,
.

.
. ,
,
, , .
. 8.3.1
.

. -

. 8.3.1.

,
.
, . , :
?
.
.
,
(

).
.
,
/
, ,
.
. 8.3.1 (Berkman et al., 1986,
p. 365; Solomon, 1992, p. 85; Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 308).
8.3.1


I. (association techniques)
( )
(word as .

sociation)
, ,

(successive
word association)
:

, ,
.
.
3

,
.
.


.
.

,
.
,

.

, ,

II. (completion techniques)

(sentence comple , , :
tion)
,


(story
completion)


,
.
,
,


,
. -
.
,
,
.

III. (construction techniques)


/

.
(cartoon
.
techniques)
,
, ,
,


(third-per ,
.
son techniques)

,
.
-

,

(picture
.
response),
,


()

(psycho-drawing) . ,
,

, ,
,

-
(focus groups)

IV. -
(810 .)
(
)
,
,


.

, ,
,

-

.

.
. ,
, . 8 .3 .1 ,
.
?
,

. ,
, , ,
.
.
.
, .

, .

.

. .
,

.

,

.

,

.

,


,
.
,
-: ,
, .
(approachapproach m otivational conflict).
.

.
. ,

.

. ,
, Procter & Gamble
,
.
,
,

. ,

.
(proach-avoidance motivational conflict).
,
.
, - (
, , , )
.


/.

, ,
,
.

, .
.


( avoidance-avoidance motivational conflict). ,

. ,

.


.


: ,
.

8.4.

, .

(Engel et
al., 1995, p. 433).

. ,

.

, ,
.
.
,
: 1)

2) .


.

(, )
: !

: 1) ; 2)
; 3) ; 4) (As
sael, 1995, . 375).

.
,
, (
) .


,
(id), (ego) (superego).
,
.

.
.
,
.
.
,
, , .
, . ,
,
(Assael, 1995, . 376).

.
,
. ,

,
,
.

,
-, .


(Ditcher) Ivory Soap
Procter & Gamble 1940 .
.
,
, :
, Ivory Soap...
.



. ,
,
.

,
.



. -, ,
,
. -, ,
, ,

.
,
.
,
,
.

(Alfred Adler).

. ,

.
, (Karen Horney), ,
,
,

.
:
1) (compliance), ;
2) (aggressiveness), ;
3) (detachment), .
, (Cohen)
(CAD)
(Assael, 1995, . 379).
35 . , ,
, ,
, ;
;
, ,
.


,
(
), .


, , , ,
( ), ,
( ).
( self-concept)
.
( (private self)) ,
.
( (social self))
,
(. 8.4.1) Hawkins et al.,
1995, p. 318).

. 8.4.1.


. . 8.4.2
.
.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

..................................... .....

................ ... ................. .....


. 8.4.2.

,
-. . 8.4.3
.

. 8.4.3.

: 1)
(,
(selfconsistency)) 2)
. ,

.
,
( ).
, .

,
( ).
,
, -.
,
.
-, ,
.
, ,
,
, .

.
.
,
.
, ,
.
, , ,
,
, ,
.

, (W hite)
.

.


.

(Assael, 1995, . 380). ,
,
,

.
,
, , ,
. ,
, ,
, . ,
-

, ,
.
.
,
. ,
(
), ,
, , , .

.


.
(,
, , ).
,

. , ,
,
,
, .

, .
. 8.4.4
.

, , ,
, , , ,
, -
.

. 8.4.4.

, ,
, ,
,
.
, . , ,

.

, , ,
,
.



:
1) ,
;
2)
.
,
.

. ,

.
,
.
(Cattel)
. ,
.

( ),
, ,
. ,
, ,

. ,
,
. 8.4.1 (Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 310)

.

8.4.1

_______:

_______

: ,
: ,
, , , ______________
:
:

, ,
____________________________________ _________________________
: , ,
: ,
, ,
,
___________________ ____ ________________
______
: ,
: ______________
:
: ,
__________________________ ,
: , : , ,
_____________________________ _________________
: ,
: ,
_______________________,
:

: ,
____________________________________ _____________________
: , : ,
,

____________________________________________________________
: ,
: ,
,
,
_______________________ , _________
:
:
, , ,
_______________________ _______________________
:
:
,
____________________________________ ______________
:
:
,

,
-, ,
,
____________________________________ ___________________________
: , , : ,
_________________ , ___________

(Gordon Personal Profile)


, ,
, ,
( ).

, . ,

,
,
(
) (Assael, 1995,
. 382). , Marlboro Cowboy
.

8.5.
,
, .
, .
,
.
, .
,
, , .
, ( ),
,
.
,
,
.
:
1) ; 2) (
); 3) ; 4)
; 5)
.
( ) ,

. , ,

, .
,
.
.
, , :
!
, . ,
Intel inside Pentium II
!
,
.


.
.
,
,
.
.
,
.
,
, , ,
.
/ ,
. . 8.5.1 .

. 8.5.1.


. (Plutchik)
: 1)
(fear); 2) (anger); 3) (joy); 4) (sadness);
5) (acceptance); 6) (disgust); 7)
(expectancy); 8) (surprise) (Engel et al., 1995,
p. 440; Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 313).
, ,
. ,
,
.
,
(pleasure),
(arousal) (dominance) PAD.

.
. 8.5.1 1)
PAD; 2)
, , 3)
,
. 8.5.2
12 (Hawkins et al.,
1995, p. 314, 315).

8.5.1

/
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
,
, ,
, , ,

, ,

, ,

,

, ,
, ,

,
, ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

, ,
,
, , ,

,
, ,



.
, .
,
( ).

, , .
, JIac-Berac (Las Vegas),
- (Atlantic City), (Disney World)
.

, : Sprite
!
8.5.2

(Batra) (Holbrook)

, ,

, ,


, . ,

, , . ,
, , ,
,
.


,
, ,
.
.
, ,
. ,
, .
, ,
.
,
,
.
( )
( ) ,
.

. ,
, ,
.
, -
, .


.
, . , ,
Safeguard Procter & Gamble

.
.

BBDO.
,
. 26 , ,
, .
. 1800
, ,
53, 26 ,
.
.
53
, - .


, .

, Gillette, Pepsi-Cola, Polaroid, Wrigley.
, , G illette The Best
a Man Can Get
(Hawkins et al.,
1995, p. 317).

9. ,

9.1.
, ,
.

. , ,
.
,

, , .
.
, ,
.
, , : , ,
, , , , ,
, , ( . A.) (Mowen,
1995, . 705).
,
.
.
, ,
. ,
(Engel et al., 1995,
p. 443). , ,
.

.
, , .
,
,

, .
Nestle
. ,

. , ,
, ,
.
.

, .

,
.

, ,
. (Rokeach value scale)

(. 9.1). ,
(, ),
( )
(Engel et al., 1995, p. 445).

9.1


( )


( )



,
.

.

, :
?
, ,
, : ,
? ,
, .
.

.

, , (Mowen, 1995,
. 709). ,


. . 9.1.1

. 9.1 1.
,

, .


. , ,
,
, .
. ,
,
.
, ,

.
: ,
,
, , .

.
. , , Stouffer
Foods Inc.
.
.
.
,
,
.
: (Mowen, 1995, . 709).


.

9.2.

, , .

. , ,
, .
,
( ,
) .
,
.

,

.
, , ,
, , ,
, ,
, , . ,
,
.
,
, ,
.
.

(. 9.2.1) (Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 328).

. 9.2.1.


, ,
, ,
, .

, ,
( , ).

( , )
( , , ,

). ,

, , .

.

,
, , .
,
.

, ,
.

9.3.
,

(psychographics).
(Mowen, 1995, . 259).
AIO (activi
ties , interests , opinions ).


(
) , :
, . . 9.3.1
,
.
,
/.
, :
?,
?.
:
, ?,
?.
/ ,
: .

. ,

()

()

. 9.3.1. AIO

,
.
,
,
.

AIO
.
,
. ,
, .
: , .

.

VALS VALS-2
1978 .
(Stanford Research Institute (SRI))
VALS (values and lifestyles
),
.
9 , 3 :
(11%), (67%)
(22%) (Engel et al., 1995, p. 457).

,
. VALS
1980-

.
,
,
, .
1989 . SRI VALS-2,
, VALS,
.
8
(. 9.3.2), (Mowen, 1995, . 266; Hawkins et al., 1995,
p. 333). .
,
, ,
. ,
,
.

, .
: ,
, , .

.
42
. , :

, .

. 9.3.2. VALS-2

VALS-2
:
(actualizers) , ,
, .
,

,
.
, ,
.
,
.
,
.
.


, .
(fulfilleds) ,
, , , ,
.
.
(
).

.
.
, .
, , ,
, .
(believers) ,
,
, , .
.
,
.
, , ,
.
,
.
-

.

, .
(achievers) ,
, .
.
, ,
, .
.
, .
, .
,
-.
, ,
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.

LOV
LOV (list of values) 9 ,
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1995, . 264):
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:
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.


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-: Compaq, Toshiba,
IBM, Hewlett-Packard, Aser, Dell, Vist, Canon, Apple.
(aware
ness set), (Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 446).


(. 13.3.2): 1)
(evoked set), , ,
; 2)
(inert set) , ; 3) (inept
set) , .

.
.

.

Compaq
Toshiba
IBM
Hewlett-Packard
Aser
Dell
Vist
Canon
Apple


Compaq
Canon
Hewlett-Packard

Toshiba
IBM
Dell
Aser

Vist
Apple

. 13.3.2.


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( 1 5 )

Compaq

Canon
(Cn)

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(Cp)

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(HP)


, ,

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14.3.1.


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(conjunctive decision rule)

. ,

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shiba .
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.

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14.3.2


Compaq Hewlett- Canon Toshiba

Packard

Sr

HP,
Canon,

Canon

Canon


, , (disjunctive
decision rule)
,
.
,
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14.3.3


Compaq Hewlett- Canon Toshiba

Packard

Canon,
Toshiba

Toshiba

,
Compaq Hewlett-Packard,
Canon.
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(Toshiba)
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(
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14.3.4

Compaq Hewlett- Canon Toshiba

Packard

HP,
Cn, Ts

HP,
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20*

T
ftPackard
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M a w I p I


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, .

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(. 14.3.5).
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Compaq Hewlett- Canon Toshiba

Packard

Canon

Canon

14.3.2.

,
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.
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Canon (. 14.3.6)
14.3.6


Compaq

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Microsoft Network (www.msn.com), Yahoo (www.yahoo.com),
Amazon (www.amazon.com), Wall Street Journal (www.wsj.com)
( ., 1997, . 90).

Fortune 500 Web- United Airlines, Lufthansa
Group, Time Warner (Web- ,
1998, . 23).
,
2,6 1996 . 220
2001-. 2002 . 26 (- , 1998, . 22, 23).

, :
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ter & Gamble 80%
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(Assael, 1995, . 39).
XIX XX .

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XIX ,
, Standard Oil,
.
. 1890 .
(Scherman A n titru st Act),

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.
1906 .
(Food and Drug A dm inistration)
. 1914 .
,
(Federal Trade Commission)
.
1933 .
,
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1936 . (Consumers Un
ion).
Consumer Reports,
.
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,

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1962 .
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1967 . (Con
sumer Federation of America)
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240 ,
, ,

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Consumer Federation
of America News (
).
1970-
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(Consumer
Product Safety Commission),

.
(Environmental Protection Agency)
,
.

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. 1970-

500%. ,
,
1980-
.
1990-
.

.
EXXON 14%
.

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.
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,

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mental Defence Fund)

McDonalds
.
1990-
.
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21 .
,
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, 40% .
,

.

, Consumers Research (
), Consumers for World Trade (
), Council for the Advancement of Con
sumer Policy ( ),
Consumer Alert ( ), The Product Safety
Association ( ), Citizen
Health Research Group (
), Center for Science in the Public Interest (
), Public Citizen (
).


,
. 25 ,
, ,
.
.
(Consum ers A ssociation),
(Consum
ers Union of the W orking Community), Shufuren,

Organisation Generale des Consommateurs.


1960 .
(International Organization of Consumers Unions),

(Comptons,
1995).

. 1980-
,
.

, 14,5%
, 14% , 8,4%
10,5% (Assael, 1995, . 36).
.
1994 . 49 672
( ) (Deutscher Bun
destag, 1997, p. 304). 1995 . 626
25 ( Green Group)
31 European United Left/N ordic Green Left (The In
stitutions of the European Union, 1995, p. 5).

,
.

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.
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.

. 1998 .
,
.


. ,
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( , 1998).

.
Siemens N ixdorf Informationsysteme
,
,
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,
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, 1997).

,
300 .

. 1992 .
.


. 1995 .

.

,
.

(, 1997, . 2-13).

. 1983 .

. 15 1998 .
, .
.


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,

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(, 1996, . 21, 22).
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. ,
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Daily, 14.03.98, . 2).
1993 .
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1994 .

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1995 . ,

.
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.


:
,
,
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,
,
.
1993 .

,
,
. Levi Strauss &
. McDonalds,
, Time
W arner Johnson & Johnson, 1993 .

, .
Sears Roebuck & 0 2300
25% . Pepsi-Cola
, 25%
. Monsanto op-



(Assael, 1995, . 47).

Ford Focus,
1999 .
XXI :

85% ,
Focus 95% , ,
15 ( ., .,
1998, . 5).
,
,
. 1991 .
13,4%
.
.

.
, , ,
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. -

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Hefty
.
150
,
(Assael, 1995, . 49).

,
, ,
,
.

, 88%
. , ,
-
,
.
90%
,
1000 .
,
,
.


, , .

,
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.

.

,
(, 1997, . 2-13).

,


.

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.

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5 1995 .), -
.
,
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, ,
,

.

,
, , ,
.

,
.
, W W W -
(FAQ),
.


(customer affairs offices). Unilever,
90 ,
Brand & consumer Management (
),
,
(: ,
1998, . 19).

18.2.
,

.
, ,
.

,
.

(, ),
,
.
.

,
.
-, , Daimler-Benz AG 1997 .
Teknikens
Varld ,
.
Daimler-Benz
, .
, Stern
Auto Zeitung
, Daimler-Benz ,
.


. ,

,

-
( Daily, 31.10.97, . 10, 14.11.97, . 10).
. , ,
1998 .
Bass 17
,
, .

. Bass
, ,

.
Bass
.
Bass
Cadbury-Schweppes Britvic Soft Drinks

( - ).
, Coca-Cola,
Pepsi, 7UP.
Perrier, 1990 . 160
248,6
,
( Daily,
08.07.98, . 5).
,

,
(Consumer product safety commission).
,

.
,

. - , 119
.

. ,
, , (Assael, 1995, . 55).
200 .


, , ,
.
,
(
, , ,
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,
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.


.

,

.
,
, ,
.
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. (deceptive adverti
sing) ,
, : 1)
(fraudulent advertising), ; 2)
(false advertising),
; 3) (mis
leading advertising),
,
.
, ,
,

( , 1998,
. 49).

N u tri/S y stem , 100
. 1993 .

.

,

. 1990-
Twin Star

,
-
.
Warner-Lambert
Listerine
, (Assael, 1995,
. 57).

. , ,

.


.

,
.

.
.


.
.
, ,
.
,
,
.
. , ,

,
Procter & Gamble
.

.

Microsoft.


.


(
, ,
). ,

.


.

.

,
: ,

.
. . Nielsen ,
,
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(Assael, 1995, . 60). ,

,

.

.

; ,
, .


.


.
,

.


. -
.
General Electric 750

,
. 3
, .
,
80-90%
(Assael, 1995, . 61).

,
. , Microsoft
Windows 98

1000
. Office 2000

.
, 1997 .
Office Advisory Council (
Office).
Microsoft Office,
(PC W eek/RE,
32, 33, 25.08.98).


.
, ,
- .

1. . JI. : , .
.: , 1996. 207 .
2. . .
/
96, . 1. .: , 1996. . 47.
3. . . . .: -, 1997. 256 .
4. . . .
. .: , 1997. 17 .
5. . ., . JL , . .
. . .: , 1996. 20 .
6. . ., . .
. .: , 1993. 47 .
7. . Web / / PC Week/RE,
21.10.97. . 90.
8. ., .
/ / Daily, 27.02.98.
9. ., . Ford / /
Daily, 21.11.98. . 5.
10. .
/ / Daily, 5.02.98. . 10.
11. - / / PC W eek/RE, 23.06.98. . 22,
23.
12. 5
1995 .
13. 25 1995 .
14. . .
/ / , 1995, 9. . 312.
15. . / / Japan Pictorial,
1997, 2. . 213.
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