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PLANNING TECHNIQUE

DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE & URBAN PLANNING


MALVIYA NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

“ GROWTH OF MUMBAI ”

SUBMITTED BY:~
SUVADIP BHOWMIK
2009 PAU 109
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Aim of the Study :
The aim of the study is to analyze the morphological growth
pattern of Mumbai.

Objective :
To find out the reasons and main factors responsible for it’s
development.

To understand the Mumbai’s tremendous potential to feed


19million people within itself.

To follow it’s topographical changes leading to achieve it’s


present shape and size. 3
The seven islands of Bombay Mumbai’s
with their anglicized names development has
basically been a
negotiation with
the edges of each
of the seven
islands as well as
of the larger
island of Salsette
which, housing
the extended
suburbs, is the
major part of
Mumbai’s
footprint today.
The edge
condition is a
huge part of the
experience of the
city, also due to a
variety of human
interventions like
the urban rail and
road transport
corridors. 4
History of Mumbai
Mumbai, now known as the City of Dreams, came into
existence in the prehistoric period. The Kolis (fisher folk)
from Gujarat are believed to be the first inhabitants of the
city. Over the years, the city has undergone a sea change
and today has a cosmopolitan character.

PREHISTORY - KOLI FISHERFOLK


SETTLED ON THE ISLANDS OF BOMBAY

The Kolis (fisherfolk) were the earliest


known inhabitants of Mumbai. They
migrated from Gujarat and lived in
traditional fishing hamlets along the
island's western shores, where they
remain even today. These fisherfolk
built their base in areas around
Sassoon Dock and Cuffe Parade, Worli,
Mahim, Bandra, Versova, Madh Island
and Gorai.
200 B.C. - BUDDHISTS CONSTRUCTED
KANHERI CAVES COMPLEX

The serene Kanheri Caves Complex was the


creation of Buddhist monks of the Hinayana
faith, who had occupied the nearby island of
Salsette in the second century B.C. The
complex expanded over the next 700 years
to become one of the larger monastic
settlements in India.
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300 BC - Part of Ashokas Empire.
1343 - Part of the Gujrat sultanate.
1508 - Francis Almeida sailed into the deep natural harbour.
1534 - Mumbai ceded to the Portuguese.
1661 - Portuguese Princess Catherine of Braganza brings Bom Bahia to King
Charles II of England as part of her marriage dowry.
1668/1669 - East India Company takes over Bombay
1670 - First printing press imported to Bombay by Parsi businessman Bhimji
Parikh
1675 - Population estimated to have risen to 60,000 from 10,000 in
1661.
1675 - The Mumba Devi temple built by an immigrant Hindu woman, Mumba,
near the main landing site on the former Bori Bunder creek or inlet, against
the north wall of the English Fort Saint George.
1735 - Start of ship-building industry.
1777 - First newspaper published in Bombay by Rustomji.
1822 - First vernacular language newspaper in Bombay, Mumbai Samachar
published by Fardoonjee. India’s oldest newspaper still being published.

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1838 - First edition of Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce launched
1845 - Grant Medical College founded.
April 16, 1853 - First railway line in India between Bombay and Thane.
1854 - First cotton mill started.
1857 - University of Bombay established.
1870 - Bombay Port Trust formed.
1872 - Bombay Municipal Corporation founded.
1885 - Indian National Congress formed at Gowalia tank Maidan .
1887 - Victoria Jubilee Technological Institute (VJTI) established. First and
only institute offering degree in engineering until 1960.
1911 - King George V and Queen Mary visit Bombay. Gateway of India built to
commemorate the visit.
January 22, 1926 - King Edward Memorial Hospital inaugarated.
July 15, 1926 - First motorised bus ran between Afghan church and Crawford
Market.
October 15, 1932 - J. R. D. Tata flew from Karachi to Bombay via
Ahmedabad landing on a grass strip at Juhu paving the way for civil aviation in
India.
August 8, 1942 - Quit India Movement declaration passed at Gowalia Tank
Maidan.
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April 14, 1944 - Massive explosion rocks Bombay Harbour.
1958 - IIT Bombay established in Powai.
31 March 1964 - Last tram made its journey from Bori Bundar to Dadar.
December 1992 - January 1993; Over 2000 people killed in Hindu-Muslim
communal riots following Babri Masjid destruction.
1993 - Serial bomb blasts across Mumbai, masterminded by underworld don
Dawood Ibrahim, kill 300 and injure hundreds more.
1996 - Bombay renamed to Mumbai. Subsequently University of Bombay
renamed to University of Mumbai.
1998 - Victoria Jubilee Technological Institute renamed to Veermata Jijabai
Technological Institute.
August 25, 2003 - Two bombings by Islamist terrorists, allegedly connected
to the Pakistani Lashkar-e-Toiba, kill 48 and injure 150.
2004 - The fourth World Social Forum held in Mumbai, from 16-21 January.

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Mumbai Metropolitan Region

The linearity of the city’s geographical


base is further heightened by the manner in
which the two railway lines and two major
interstate highways break it up into thinner
strips on plan.
Thus, Mumbai’s basic urban form, from
one perspective, is that of an array of
slivers with edge experiences and
situations on either side of each sliver. This
sliver form is merely a distorted projection
into the present of an earlier
centrality of the edge condition for Mumbai. 17
Greater Mumbai
GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES

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Population Growth of Mumbai

The following is a timeline of the growth of Mumbai’s


population over the last four centuries:
1661: 10,000 inhabitants
1675: 60,000
1864: 816,562
1872: 644,605
1881: 773,196
1891: 821,764
1901: 812,912 (Greater Bombay)
1911: 1,018,388
1921: 1,244,934
1931: 1,268,936
1941: 1,686,127
1951: 2,966,902
1961: 4,152,056
1971: 5,970,575
1981: 8,227,382
1991: 9,900,000 + 2,600,000 (Thané) = 12,500,000 (Greater
Bombay) 19
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Table presents the distribution of population growth and annual growth rate in different
constituent units. The population growth rate in MMR declines from 4.4 per cent during
1971-1991 to 2.7 per cent during 1991-2011. It may be noted that Greater Mumbai
(Island city and Suburbs) observes a decline in its growth rate from 3.3 per cent in 1971-
91 to 1.5 per cent during 1991-2011. The growth rate of the Island city becomes negative
during the later period. Some of the areas of the region are growing at a dramatic rate.

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The annual population growth rate of Thane was 12.7 per cent during 1971-91, which is reduced to 5.1
per cent during 1991-2011. Similarly, Bhinwadi and Kalyan had a growth rate of 8 per cent and 8.6 per
cent in 1971-91, which is reduced to 3.9 per cent and 4.3 per cent, respectively in 1991-2011. The
other area, which experienced an increased growth rate is Bassain. The annual growth rate of Bassain
grew from 5.5 per cent in 1971-91 to 6.9 per cent in 1991-2011.
Of the total population growth in MMR during 1971 to 1991, 57 per cent population has been added only
in the suburban areas of Greater Mumbai compared to only 1.5 per cent in the Island city. During this
period 12 per cent and 13 per cent of the additional population has gone to Thane and Kalyan. For the
period 1991-2011, share of population growth is expected to decline to 43 per cent in suburbs and
increase to 15 per cent in Thane and Kalyan. The overall population of the Island city is declining during
this period. However, the contribution of Uran goes up in population growth from 4.4 per cent in 1971-91
to 15.7 per cent in 1991-2011. 22
Land-use Pattern in Mumbai Metropolitan Region

Table shows the land-use pattern for 1991. Nearly one-tenth of the area of MMR was used
as built-up area and less than 3 per cent as industrial area. Two-fifths of the land was used
for agricultural purposes and more than one-third was under the forest cover.
In the Island city, built-up area was 71 per cent and industrial area was 8 per cent. In the
suburbs, 33 per cent area was built-up and 4 per cent was used for industries. In Bhinwadi,
more than half of the land was under the agriculture. In all the other regions between 30 to
50 per cent of the land was used for agricultural purposes. In Khalapur and Karjat more
than half of the land was under forest cover. While in Bassain, Bhinwadi, Kalyan and
Panvel between 30 to 45 per cent of the land was under the forest cover. 23
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Transportation

Transportation in Mumbai is a
huge problem, especially due to
the geography of the island.
There is a large concentration of
all the commercial and
administrative functions on the
southern end of the island due to
the fact that the fort was located
there and has since developed
into a modern Central Business
District. The only highways that
exist in Mumbai are the East and
West Highways that run
north/south along the eastern
and western coasts of the island.
The city's system was modeled
after the London transportation
system with the exception of the
Underground Metro. Mumbai's
lack of a subway system has
been severely detrimental to the
commuting congestion and times
that the city experiences.
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1 GREATER MUMBAI
1.1 ISLAND CITY
1.2 WESTERN SUBURB
1.3 EASTERN SUBURB
2 WESTERN REGION
2.1 MIRA-BHAYANDER SUB REGION
2.2 VASAI-NAVGHAR SUB REGION
2.3 NALLASOPARA SUB REGION
2.4 VIRAR SUB REGION
2.5 VVNA-COASTAL SUB REGION
2.6 VVNA RURAL SUB REGION
2.7 REST VASAI TEHSIL SUB REGION
3 NORTH-EAST REGION
3.1 THANE SUB REGION
3.2 K.M.C. SUB REGION
3.3 ULHASNAGAR SUB REGION
3.4 AMBERNATH SUB REGION
3.5 BADLAPUR SUB REGION
3.6 BHIWANDI SUB REGION
3.7 REST OF BHIWANDI TEHSIL
SUB REGION
3.8 SOUTH KALYAN ULHAS
SUB REGION
3.9 NORTH KALYAN ULHAS
SUB REGION
4 NAVI MUMBAI
4.1 NMMC ( EXCL. 15 VILLAGES )
4.2 NMMC ( 15 VILLAGES )
4.3 PANVEL SUB REGION
4.4 URAN SUB REGION
5 NERAL-KARJAT SUB REGION
5.1 KARJAT SUB REGION
5.2 KHALAPUR SUB REGION
6 PANVEL-URAN REGION
( OUT SIDE NEW BOMBAY )
6.1 RASAYANI-PANVEL SUB REGION
6.2 REST OF PANVEL SUB REGION
6.3 KOPTA SUB REGION
6.4 REST OF URAN SUB REGION
6.5 KARNALA SUB REGION
7 PEN REGION
8 ALIBAG REGION
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How urban growth is
managed :

•Extending Municipal boundaries


to include potential growth areas
•Creation of Urban Development
Authorities
•Preparation of Master plans
LOCA -“organic” / non-linear
L growth
– indigenous settlements
-City of Faith

GLOBAL -“structured” / Linear growth


– colonial period
-British & Portuguese
-City as Machine

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