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Anatomy Trains

Myofascial Meridians

Instructed by James Earls

WWW.ANATOMYTRAINS.COM

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TIMELINE OF STRUCTURAL INTEGRATION AND ANATOMY TRAINS / WHAT ARE THE FORCES THAT SHAPE US? / LAYERS OF MYOFASCIA ............................................................1 RULES OF THE GAME / ANATOMY TRAINS IS NOT / ANATOMY TRAINS IS .....................2 TENSEGRITY / FASCIAL TENSEGRITY IS EVOKED WHEN TISSUES ENGAGE / FASCIAL TENSEGRITY ALLOWS ...................................................................................................................3 TYPES OF FASCIA / MYOFASCIA / FASCIA IS: ..........................................................................4 THREE SYSTEMS/THREE TUBULAR NETWORKS / PAIN AREAS ..........................................5 ANATOMY TRAINS: SUPERFICIAL BACK LINE ........................................................................6 TRACKS AND STATIONS............................................................................................................7 FASCIAL RELEASE TECHNIQUES (FRT) .................................................................................8 ANATOMY TRAINS: SUPERFICIAL FRONT LINE ....................................................................10 TRACKS AND STATIONS..........................................................................................................11 FASCIAL RELEASE TECHNIQUES (FRT) ...............................................................................12 ANATOMY TRAINS: LATERAL LINE .........................................................................................14 TRACKS AND STATIONS..........................................................................................................15 FASCIAL RELEASE TECHNIQUES (FRT) ...............................................................................16 ANATOMY TRAINS: SPIRAL LINE..............................................................................................18 TRACKS AND STATIONS..........................................................................................................19 FASCIAL RELEASE TECHNIQUES (FRT) ...............................................................................20 ANATOMY TRAINS: FUNCTIONAL LINES................................................................................22 TRACKS AND STATIONS..........................................................................................................23 FASCIAL RELEASE TECHNIQUES (FRT) ...............................................................................24 ANATOMY TRAINS: THE ARM LINES .......................................................................................26 TRACKS AND STATIONS..........................................................................................................27 FASCIAL RELEASE TECHNIQUES (FRT) ...............................................................................29 ANATOMY TRAINS: THE DEEP FRONT LINE...........................................................................31 TRACKS AND STATIONS..........................................................................................................32 FASCIAL RELEASE TECHNIQUES (FRT) ...............................................................................35 ANATOMY TRAINS: BODYREADING BASICS .........................................................................37 TERMINOLOGY ..........................................................................................................................37 KINESIS BODYREADING FORM..................................................................................................38 BODYREADING 101TM RED FLAGS.............................................................................................39 FASCIAL RELEASE TECHNIQUE.................................................................................................41 ANATOMY TRAINS PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION ...........................................................45 PRINCIPLES OF USE ..................................................................................................................45 PRINCIPLES FOR APPLICATION .............................................................................................45 FASCIAL AND MYOFASCIAL MANIPULATION...................................................................46 ANATOMY TRAINS REFERENCE MATERIAL ..........................................................................47 GLOSSARY...................................................................................................................................47 KINESIS COURSE OFFERINGS.....................................................................................................48 KINESIS UK COURSES...............................................................................................................48 KMI TRAINING............................................................................................................................49 ANATOMY TRAINS ESSENTIALS ...............................................................................................50 READING/REFERENCES ...........................................................................................................50 FACULTY .....................................................................................................................................51

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Table of Contents 1

A Timeline of Structural Integration and Anatomy Trains

Dr. Andrew Taylor Still Discovered O steopathy

Dr. Ida P. Rolf Structural Integration Founder

Tom Myers Anatomy Trains / KMI Founder

Fredrik Mathias Alexander Alexander Method Founder Dr. Milton Trager Trager Technique Founder

Dr. Daniel David Palmer Chiropractic Founder Buckminster Fuller A Futurist and a World Healer

Moshe Feldenkrais Feldenkrais Technique Founder

1872

1895

1932

1940

1955

1988

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What are the forces that shape us ?


Our environment Movement behaviors Genetics Hydrodynamics Structural adaptation

Layers of Myofascia
Dermis (Skin backing) Septum Periosteum

Epimysium Superficial Fascia Areolar / Adipose Deep investing layer

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Rules (Guidelines) of the Game


Follow the grain or line of pull Note the Stations (boney attachments) - no changes in depth or direction Note any tracks that converge or diverge Look for underlying single joint muscles (Expresses vs Locals)

Anatomy Trains is NOT


A comprehensive theory of manipulative therapy A comprehensive theory of muscle actions or movement The only way to parse the body

Anatomy trains IS
An excellent way to see & explain postural compensations An exploration & explanation of one structure affecting a distant structure

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Tensegrity:
Continuous tension members and discontinuous compression members operating with maximum efficiency. --- Buckminster Fuller

Fascial Tensegrity is evoked when tissues engage;


Along the ideal vector of pull Along the lines with an even tone In a coordinated manner

Fascial Tensegrity allows;


Maximized stability and mobility Minimized joint compression The feeling of lightness and ease (poise)

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Types of Fascia
Adipose - highly vascular, found around organs & subcutaneous Areolar - loose network found between structures seen in Guimberteau

Dense Connective Tissue Irregular - dermis, periosteum, cartilage etc. Regular - tendons, aponeurosis, ligaments

Myofascia
Consists of: fibrous elements (tropocollagen, collagen, elastin & reticulin) which transmit force ground substance (glycosaminoglycans, mucopolysaccharides) which carry & transmit chemistry & provides the viscoelasticity in the tissue (hyaluronic acid)

Fascia is:
The tissue of shape, support & organisation Protective - mechanically & chemically Visco-elastic An adaptive matrix - self-monitoring A tension distributor Communicating - contacts every cell

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Three Systems / Three Tubular Networks: Reflect our whole shape

System Type Corresponds via Reaction Time Centered In Governs Governed By Characteristics

Neural
Electrical Codes Milliseconds Head / Brain Thoughts/ Memory Time Communicates

Vascular
Chemical Signals Minutes / Hours Chest / Heart Emotions Matter Sustains

Fibrous
Mechanical Forces Days / Weeks Pelvis / Gravity Ctr.
Beliefs / Movements

Space Suspends

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PAIN AREAS
PAIN AREAS ONE TWO THREE AWARENESS AVAILABILITY EASILY AVAILABLE NOT SO EASILY AVAILABLE NOT AVAILABLE MOVEABILITY MOVABLE MOVES IF CHALLENGED NO MOVEMENT AT ALL AWARENESS OF PAIN NONE CHRONIC DORMANT SOMATIC AMNESIA

Where you think it is it aint! ---Ida P. Rolf

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ANATOMY TRAINS: SUPERFICIAL BACK LINE

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TRACKS AND STATIONS


13. Frontal brow ridge 12. Galea aponeurotica / Scalp fascia 11. Occipital ridge 10. Erector spinae / sacro-lumbar fascia 9. Sacrum 8. Sacrotuberous ligament 7. Ischial tuberosity 6. Hamstrings 5. Condyles of femur 4. Gastrocnemius / Achilles tendon 3. Calcaneus 2. Plantar fascia and short toe flexors 1. Plantar surface of toe phalanges Overview: See also Chapter 3 pg 61 The Superficial Back Line (SBL) connects the entire posterior surface of the body from the bottom of the foot to the top of the head. Originally thought to be derailed at the knee, the recent dissections have now shown it to be continuous (for more information see Anatomy Trains Revealed: Early Dissective Evidence DVD). Postural function: The overall postural function of the SBL is to support the body in full extension, resisting the tendency to curl over into flexion. This all-day postural function requires a higher proportion of slow-twitch, endurance muscle fibers in the muscular portions of this myofascial band and extraheavy sheets and bands of fascia in the fascial portions. The exception to the extension function comes at the knees, which are uniquely flexed to the rear by the muscles of the SBL. In standing, the interlocked tendons of the SBL assist the cruciate ligaments in maintaining the postural alignment between the tibia and femur. Movement function: With the exception of the flexion at the knees and plantarflexion at the ankle, the overall movement function of the SBL is to create extension and hyperextension. In human development, the muscles of the SBL lift the baby's head from embryological flexion, with progressive engagement and reaching out through the eyes and the rest of the body, as the child achieves stability in each of the developmental stages leading to upright standing, about one year after birth. Because we are born in a flexed position, with our focus very much inward, the development of strength, competence, and balance in the SBL is associated with the slow wave of maturity moving from this primary flexion into a full and easily maintained extension.

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FASCIAL RELEASE TECHNIQUES (FRT)

SBL Fascial Region: Plantar Surface of the Foot Technique: Plantar Fascia Intention: lengthen / differentiate / shift Prone Elbow Sitting Other

Client position: Supine Knees UP/ Feet Down Side Lying Hand Positions: Fingers Knuckles or Soft Fist Forearm

Practitioner Movements: Sitting at the clients feet, engage tissue / move tissue from metatarsal base towards calcaneus Client Movements: Dorsi flexion and plantar flexion / spread toes Considerations: Assess foot to heel ratio - lengthen for a short heel

SBL Fascial Region: Posterior Calf Technique: Gastrocnemius Intention: lengthen / differentiate / shift Prone Elbow Sitting Other

Client position: Supine Knees UP/ Feet Down Side Lying Hand Positions: Fingers Knuckles Soft Fist or Forearm

Practitioner Movements: Standing to side of leg, use one or both fists or forearm to engage tissue and glide from below knee to Achilles tendon Client Movements: Dorsi flexion and plantar flexion Considerations: Assess foot to heel ratio - lengthen for a short heel

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SBL Fascial Region: Intention: Technique:

lengthen / differentiate / shift Prone Sitting

Client position: Supine Knees UP/ Feet Down Side Lying Hand Positions: Fingers Knuckles

Soft Fist

Forearm

Elbow

Other:

Practitioner movements: Client Movement: Considerations:

SBL Fascial Region: Intention: Technique:

lengthen / differentiate / shift Prone Sitting

Client position: Supine Knees UP/ Feet Down Side Lying Hand Positions: Fingers Knuckles

Soft Fist

Forearm

Elbow

Other:

Practitioner movements: Client Movement: Considerations:

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ANATOMY TRAINS: SUPERFICIAL FRONT LINE

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TRACKS AND STATIONS


13. 12. 11. 10. 9. 8. 7. 6. 5. 4. 3. 2. 1. Scalp fascia Mastoid process Sternocleidomastoid Sternal manubrium Sternalis / sterno-chondral fascia 5th rib Rectus abdominis Pubic tubercle Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine Rectus femoris / quadriceps Patella Sub-patellar tendon Tibial tuberosity Short and long toe extensors, tibialis anterior, anterior crural compartment Dorsal surface of toe phalanges

Overview: See also Chapter 4 Pg 93 The Superficial Front Line (SFL) connects the entire anterior surface of the body from the top of the feet to the side of the skull in two pieces toes to pelvis and pelvis to head - which, when the hip is extended as in standing, function as one continuous line of integrated myofascia. Postural function: The overall postural function of the SFL is to balance the Superficial Back Line (SBL), and to provide tensile support from the top to lift those parts of the skeleton which extend forward of the gravity line the rib cage, pubis, and face. Myofascia of the SFL also maintains the postural extension of the knee. The muscles of the SFL stand ready to defend the soft and sensitive parts that adorn the front surface of the human body, and the tensile strength of the SFL myofascia protects the viscera of the ventral cavity. Sagittal postural balance (A-P balance) is primarily maintained throughout the body by either the easy or the tense relationship between these two lines. When the lines are considered as parts of fascial planes, rather than as chains of contractile muscles, it is worth noting that in by far the majority of cases, the SFL tends to shift down, and the SBL tends to shift up in response. Movement function: The overall movement function of the SFL is to create flexion of the trunk and hips, extension at the knee, and dorsiflexion of the foot. The SFL performs a complex set of actions at the neck level, which comes up for discussion below. The need to create sudden and strong flexion movements at the various joints requires that the muscular portion of the SFL contain a higher proportion of fast-twitch muscle fibers.

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FASCIAL RELEASE TECHNIQUES (FRT)

SFL Fascial Region: Sternal and clavicular region / Technique: Fountain Head or the I move Intention: lengthen / differentiate / shift Prone Elbow Sitting Other:

Client position: Supine Knees UP/ Feet Down Side Lying Hand Positions: Fingers Knuckles Soft Fist Forearm

Practitioner Movements: engage tissue and move in an upward direction Client Movements: breathing and specifically, lateral breathing with clavicular work Considerations: personal space, particularily for women. / Working on sternum is sensitive

SFL Fascial Region: Thigh Quadriceps / Technique: Quadriceps / Quadratus Femoris Intention: lengthen / differentiate / shift Prone Elbow Sitting Palm Other

Client position: Supine Knees UP/ Feet Down Side Lying Hand Positions: Fingers Knuckles Soft Fist Forearm

Practitioner movements: Engage tissue and move towards AIIS. / Secondly, work into the pocket between rectus femoris, TFL, and sartorius. Client Movements: Knee flexion and extension. / The pelvic response to knee flexion is posterior tilt. / With the pocket at the top of RF, the client movement is to reach heel off of the table. Considerations: Watch the hinging of the pelvis in combination of with knee flexion and extension. Encourage the pelvis to drop back with knee flexion.

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SFL Fascial Region: Intention: Technique:

lengthen / differentiate / shift Prone Sitting

Client position: Supine Knees UP/ Feet Down Side Lying Hand Positions: Fingers Knuckles

Soft Fist

Forearm

Elbow

Other:

Practitioner movements: Client Movement: Considerations:

SFL Fascial Region: Intention: Technique:

lengthen / differentiate / shift Prone Sitting

Client position: Supine Knees UP/ Feet Down Side Lying Hand Positions: Fingers Knuckles

Soft Fist

Forearm

Elbow

Other:

Practitioner movements: Client Movement: Considerations:

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ANATOMY TRAINS: LATERAL LINE

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TRACKS AND STATIONS


18. 16, 17. 14, 15. 13. 11, 12. 9, 10. 8, 7. 6. 5. 4. 3. 2. 1. Occipital ridge / Mastoid process Splenius capitis / Sternocleidomastoid 1st and 2nd ribs External and internal intercostals Ribs Lateral abdominal obliques Iliac crest, ASIS, PSIS Gluteus maximus / Gluteus Medius Tensor fasciae latae Iliotibial tract Lateral tibial condyle Anterior lig. of head of fibula Fibular head Peroneal muscles lateral crural compartment 1st & 5th metatarsal bases

Overview: See also Chapter 5 Pg 121 The Lateral Line (LL) traverses each side of the body from the medial and lateral mid-point of the foot around the outside of the ankle and up the lateral aspect of the leg and thigh, and passing along the trunk in a 'basket weave' pattern to the skull in the region of the ear. Postural Function: The LL functions posturally to balance the front and back, and bilaterally to balance the left and right sides. The LL also mediates forces among the other superficial lines - the Superficial Front Line, the Superficial Back Line, the Arm Lines, and the Spiral Line. Movement Function: The LL participates in creating a lateral bend in the body - lateral flexion of the trunk, abduction at the hip, and eversion at the foot - but also functions as an adjustable 'brake' for lateral and rotational movements of the trunk. It is primarily a stabilizer of the body in movement with each heel strike adjustments are made along its length to maintain upright posture. This is particularly obvious at the level of the hip muscles.

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FASCIAL RELEASE TECHNIQUES (FRT)

LL Fascial Region: Side of Hip Technique: Hip Fan Release Intention: lengthen / differentiate / shift Knees Up Knuckles Side Lying Soft Fist Prone Forearm Sitting Elbow Other:

Client position: Supine Hand Positions: Fingers

Practitioner Movements: Sit on table behind client & engage tissue of hip flexors then extensors as they perform opposing movement along bolster Client Movements: Hip flexion then extension Considerations: Place a pillow under the leg to be worked / concentrate on shorter group dependent on pelvic tilt pattern

LL Fascial Region: Side Body / Obliques / Technique: lateral abdominal scoop Intention: lengthen / differentiate / shift Client position: Supine Knees UP/ Feet Down Side Lying Hand Positions: Fingers Knuckles Soft Fist Forearm Prone Sitting

Elbow Palm Other

Practitioner Movements: Engage tissue, drop the elbows and using a scooping motion. Lift the tissue and carry it up onto the ribs. Client Movements: Breathing / anchoring the pelvis Considerations: Create space between pelvis and 12th rib / be very mindful of the heads of floating ribs.

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LL Fascial Region: Intention: Technique:

lengthen / differentiate / shift Prone Sitting

Client position: Supine Knees UP/ Feet Down Side Lying Hand Positions: Fingers Knuckles

Soft Fist

Forearm

Elbow

Other:

Practitioner movements: Client Movement: Considerations:

LL Fascial Region: Intention: Technique:

lengthen / differentiate / shift Prone Sitting

Client position: Supine Knees UP/ Feet Down Side Lying Hand Positions: Fingers Knuckles

Soft Fist

Forearm

Elbow

Other:

Practitioner movements: Client Movement: Considerations:

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ANATOMY TRAINS: SPIRAL LINE

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TRACKS AND STATIONS


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. Occipital ridge, Mastoid process, Atlas, axis TPs Splenius capitis and cervicis Lower cervical, upper thoracic SPs Rhomboids major & minor Medial border of scapula Serratus anterior Lateral ribs External oblique Abdominal aponeurosis, Linea alba Internal oblique Iliac crest, ASIS Tensor fasciae latae Anterior edge of iliotibial tract Lateral tibial condyle Tibialis anterior 1st metatarsal base Peroneus longus Fibular head Biceps femoris Ischial tuberosity Sacrotuberous ligament Sacrum Sacro-lumbar fascia, Erector spinae Occipital ridge

Overview: See also Chapter 6 Pg 139 The Spiral Line (SL) loops around the body in a helix, joining one side of the skull across the back to the opposite shoulder, and then across the front to the same hip, knee, and foot arches, running up the back of the body to rejoin the fascia on the skull. Postural function The SL wraps the body in a double-spiral that helps to maintain balance across all planes. The SL connects the foot arches with the pelvic angle, and helps to determine knee-tracking in walking. In imbalance, the SL participates in creating, compensating for, and maintaining twists, rotations, and lateral shifts in the body. Much of the myofascia in the SL also participates in other meridians, involving the SL in a multiplicity of functions. Movement function The overall movement function of the SL is to create and mediate spirals and rotations in the body.

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FASCIAL RELEASE TECHNIQUES (FRT)

SL Fascial Region: Abdominal Obliques / Technique: Internal and External Obliques Intention: lengthen / differentiate / shift Prone Elbow Sitting Other

Client position: Supine Knees UP/ Feet Down Side Lying Hand Positions: Fingers Knuckles Soft Fist Forearm

Practitioner Movements: start with the internal oblique and aponeurosis, across the linea alba to pick up the opposite external oblique, over the ribs to the other side Client Movements: breathing Considerations: work the short leg of the abdominal X / be mindful of the ribs

SL Fascial Region: rhombo-serratus sling / Technique: Serratus Anterior Intention: lengthen / differentiate / shift Client position: Supine Knees UP/ Feet Down Side Lying Hand Positions: Fingers Knuckles Soft Fist Forearm Prone Elbow Sitting Palm Other

Practitioner Movements: engage tissue into the serratus anterior / lateral border of the scapula. Bring the tissue around the rib cage Client Movements: breathing and lifting the sternum on the inhalation Considerations: the breathing and lifting also helps to shift and / or reinforce the up the front / down the back relationship. Copyright Kinesis UK 20

SL Fascial Region: Lower Spiral Line / Technique: TA and fibularis sling Intention: lengthen / differentiate / shift Prone Elbow Sitting Other

Client position: Supine Knees UP/ Feet Down Side Lying Hand Positions: Fingers Knuckles Soft Fist Forearm

Practitioner Movements: work the TA and fibularis in the appropriate directions. When working to shift the tissue relationships, work close to your client with elbows wide. When working to shift the tissue, keep hands within an inch of each other. Client Movements: plantar and dorsiflexion Considerations: imagine the TA / fibularis sling and decide what is locked long and locked

SL Fascial Region: Intention: Technique:

lengthen / differentiate / shift Prone Sitting

Client position: Supine Knees UP/ Feet Down Side Lying Hand Positions: Fingers Knuckles

Soft Fist

Forearm

Elbow

Other:

Practitioner movements: Client Movement: Considerations:

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ANATOMY TRAINS: FUNCTIONAL LINES

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TRACKS AND STATIONS


Back Functional Line 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Shaft of humerus Latissimus dorsi Lumbodorsal fascia Sacral Fascia Sacrum Gluteus maximus Shaft of femur Vastus lateralis Patella Sub-patellar tendon Tuberosity of tibia

Front Functional Line 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Shaft of humerus Lower edge of pectoralis major 5th rib and 6th rib cartilage Lateral sheath of Rectus abdominis Pubic symphysis Adductor longus Linea aspera of femur

Overview: See also Chapter 8 Pg 183 The Functional Lines are extensions of the Arm Lines across the surface of the trunk to the contralateral pelvis and leg. These lines are called the functional lines because they are, in my experience, rarely employed, as the other lines are, in modulating standing posture. They come into play during athletic or other activity where one appendicular complex is stabilized, counterbalanced, or powered by its contralateral complement. An example is in a baseball pitch, where the player powers up through the left leg and hip to impart extra speed to a ball thrown from the right hand. Postural function: As mentioned, these lines are less involved in standing posture than any of the others lines. They are superficial, for the most part, on the body, and involve muscles so much in use during day-to-day activities that their opportunity to distort posture is minimal. Once the deeper myofascial structures relating to such distortions have been balanced, these Functional Lines often fall into place without presenting significant further problems of their own. Movement function: These lines enable us to give extra power and precision to the movements of the limbs by linking them across the body to the opposite limb in the other girdle. Thus the weight of the arms can be employed in giving additional momentum to a kick, and the movement of the pelvis contributes to a tennis backhand. While the applications to sport spring to mind when considering these lines, the mundane but essential example is the contralateral counterbalance between shoulder and hip in every walking step.

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FASCIAL RELEASE TECHNIQUES (FRT)

Functional Line Fascial Region: Pectoral Region Intention: / Technique: Pectoralis Major

lengthen / differentiate / shift Prone Elbow Sitting Other

Client position: Supine Knees UP/ Feet Down Side Lying Hand Positions: Fingers Knuckles Soft Fist Forearm

Practitioner Movements: following the leading edge of the pectoralis major and follow to the division of the biceps and triceps Client Movements: starting position with arm abducted and elbow flexed. Client stretches the arm over head Considerations: be mindful of breast tissue / nerve symptoms indicating you have come off of pectoralis major.

Functional Line Fascial Region: abdomen / Technique: Rectus Abdominis

Intention: lengthen / differentiate / shift Client position: Supine Knees UP/ Feet Down Side Lying Hand Positions: Fingers Knuckles Soft Fist Forearm Prone Sitting

Elbow Palm Other

Practitioner Movements: Engage tissue and drop the heels of your hands to engage the fabric of the abdomen. Work from the bottom towards the intersection of abdominals and pec major. Client Movements: Breathing / client may also alternately engage and relax abdominals Considerations: For reasons of privacy, do not work below umbilicus

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Functional Line Fascial Region: Intention: Technique:

lengthen / differentiate / shift Prone Sitting

Client position: Supine Knees UP/ Feet Down Side Lying Hand Positions: Fingers Knuckles

Soft Fist

Forearm

Elbow

Other:

Practitioner movements: Client Movement: Considerations:

Back Functional Line Movement and Assessment Exercise Fascial Region: Back Functional Line Intention: lengthen / differentiate / shift Client position: Supine Knees UP/ Feet Down Side Lying Prone Sitting

Practitioner Movements: Standing behind the client holding both hands. 3 elements 1. Extend through tension 2. Medially rotate arm 3. Walk across the body and sequence the movements. Arm scapula upper ribs, - mid ribs lower ribs crossing over ~ L5 / S1 to hip Client Movements: Passive while being organized by the practitioner and the clients hand. However the client can organize this fundamental movement Considerations: center of gravity is in the pelvis / the opposite arm being translated across the table becomes a brake, should it feel like they are going to fall off of the table. If you are working on the floor, you can roll completely over (assuming arms are over head).

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ANATOMY TRAINS: THE ARM LINES

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TRACKS AND STATIONS

Deep Front Arm Line 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 7a. 7b. 8. 9. Ribs 3,4,5 Pectoralis minor, clavipectoral fascia Coracoid process Biceps brachii Radial tuberosity Radial periosteum (anterior / lateral border) Styloid process of radius Radial collateral ligaments Scaphoid, trapezium Thenar muscles Outside of thumb

Superficial Front Arm Line 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Medial third of clavicle, costal cartilages, thoracolumbar fascia, Iliac crest Pectoralis major, Latissimus dorsi Medial humeral shaft Medial intermuscular septum Medial humeral epicondyle Flexor group Carpal tunnel Palmar surface of fingers

Deep Back Arm Line 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 9a. 9b. 10. 11. Spinous process of lower cervicals and upper thoracic, C1-4 TPs Rhomboids and levator scapulae Medial border of scapula Rotator cuff muscles Head of humerus Triceps brachii Olecranon of ulna Ulnar periosteum Styloid process of ulna Ulno collateral ligaments Triquetrum, hamate Hypothenar muscles Outside of little finger

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Superficial Back Arm Line 1, 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Occipital ridge, Nuchal ligament, Thoracic spinous processes Trapezius Spine of scapula, acromion, lateral third of clavicle Deltoid Deltoid tubercle of humerus Lateral intermuscular septum Lateral epicondyle of humerus Extensor group Dorsal surface of fingers

Overview: See also Chapter 7 Pg 159 In this chapter we identify four distinct myofascial meridians that run from the axial skeleton to the four sides of the arm and hand, namely the thumb, the little finger, the palm, and the back of the hand. Despite this apparently neat symmetry, the Arm Lines display more cross-over myofascial linkages among themselves than do the corresponding lines in the legs. This is because human shoulders and arms are specialized for mobility (compared to our more stable legs). Therefore these multiple degrees of freedom require more variable lines of control and stabilization. Nevertheless, the arms can still be seen quite logically as having a deep and superficial line along the front of the arm, and a deep and superficial line along the back of the arm. The lines in the arm are named for their placement as they cross the shoulder. Postural function Since the arms hang from the upper skeleton in our unique human posture, they are not part of the structural 'column' as such. Thus we have included the appendicular legs in our discussion of the cardinal and spiral lines, but left the arms for a separate consideration. Given their weight and their multiple links to our activities, the Arm Lines do have a postural function: elbow position affects the mid-back, and shoulder position has a significant effect on the ribs, neck, and beyond. This postural relationship between the axial skeleton and the arms can also have a limiting affect on the mobility and effectiveness of the arms in action. Movement function In myriad daily manual activities of examining, manipulating, and responding to the environment, our arms and hands, in connection with our eyes, perform through these lines. The Arm Lines act across the 10 or so levels of joints in the arm to bring things toward us, push them away, pull or push our own body, or simply hold some part of the world still for our perusal and modification. These lines connect seamlessly into the other lines, particularly the Lateral, Spiral and Functional Lines.

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FASCIAL RELEASE TECHNIQUES (FRT)

DFAL Fascial Region: clavipectoral fascia / Technique: pectoralis minor Intention: lengthen / differentiate / shift Knees Up/ Feet Down Knuckles Soft Fist Side Lying Forearm Prone Elbow Sitting Other

Client position: Supine Hand Positions: Fingers

Practitioner Movements: Engage tissue pec minor attaches to 3rd, 4th and 5th rib. Practitioner accesses the leading edge at approximately the nipple line. You may access the 1st, 2nd or 3rd slip and its associated fascia. Take tissue towards the coracoid process or toward the proximal attachments. Client Movements: Breathing / Arm overhead / scapular depression and adduction Considerations: The angle of the fingertips is crucial to avoid unnecessary discomfort. / Brachial plexus runs underneath the upper pec minor. Discontinue in the event of nerve symptoms

SFAL Fascial Region: upper arm / Technique: medial intermuscular septum Intention: lengthen / differentiate / shift Client position: Supine Hand Positions: Fingers Knees Up/ Feet Down Knuckles Soft Fist Side Lying Forearm Prone Sitting

Elbow Palm Other

Practitioner Movements: Strum just proximal to medial epicondyle. Place 2 fingers at the center of the string (no longer than 1.5 inches) and stretch towards either end. A few passes is often all that is necessary to soften tissue. Client Movements: none required, but could do a little elbow flexion / extension. Considerations: nerve symptoms - discontinue

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DBAL Fascial Region: Rotator Cuff / Technique: Teres Minor

Intention:

lengthen / differentiate / shift

Client position: Supine

Knees Up/ Feet Down

Side Lying

Prone

Sitting

Hand Positions: Fingers

Knuckles

Soft Fist

Forearm

Elbow

Other

Practitioner movements: Locate teres minor by going way between posterior acromion process and axillary fold. Pin teres minor to the scapula and call for movement. Client Movements: Medial rotation and of humerus as client reaches dangling arm forward Considerations: Strum across and muscle test to differentiate from teres major.

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ANATOMY TRAINS: THE DEEP FRONT LINE

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TRACKS AND STATIONS


Upper anterior Cranium and facial bones Jaw muscles 23. Mandible 22. Suprahyoid muscles 21. Hyoid bone 20. Infrahyoid muscles, Fascia pretrachialis 19. Posterior manubrium 18. Fascia endothoracica, Transversus thoracis 17. Posterior surface of subcostal cartilages, xiphoid process 16. Anterior diaphragm, Crura of diaphragm 9. Lumbar vertebral bodies

Upper middle 15. Basilar portion of occiput, cervical TPs 14. Fascia prevertebralis, Pharyngeal raphe, Scalene muscles, Medial scalene fascia, Mediastinum, Parietal pleura, 13. Pericardium, 12. Central tendon, Posterior diaphragm, Crura of diaphragm 9. Lumbar vertebral bodies

Upper posterior 11. Basilar portion of occiput 10. Anterior longitudinal ligament, Longus colli & capitis 9. Lumbar vertebral bodies

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Lower anterior 9. Lumbar vertebral bodies and TPs 8. Psoas, iliacus, pectineus, Femoral triangle 7. Lesser trochanter of femur Medial intermuscular septum, (anterior to adductor group) Adductor brevis, longus 6. Linea aspera of femur

Lower posterior 9. Vertebral bodies Anterior longitudinal ligament, Anterior sacral fascia, Pelvic floor fascia, Levator ani, Obturator internus fascia Ischial ramus Intermuscular septum (posterior to adductor group) Adductor magnus 5. Medial femoral epicondyle

Lowest common 5. Medial femoral epicondyle 4. Posterior fascia of popliteus, Knee capsule 3. Posterior tibia/fibula 2. Tibialis posterior, long toe flexors, Interosseus membrane 1. Plantar tarsal bones, Plantar surface of toes

Overview: See also Chapter 9 Pg 191 Interposed between the left and right Lateral Lines in the coronal plane, sandwiched between the Superficial Front Line and Superficial Back Line in the sagittal plane, and surrounded by the Spiral, Functional, and Arm Lines, the Deep Front Line (DFL) comprises the bodys myofascial core. The line begins deep in the underside of the foot, passes up just behind the bones of the lower leg and behind the knee to the inside of the thigh, and in front of the hip joint, pelvis, and lumbar spine. The DFL continues up along several alternate paths around and through the thoracic viscera, ending on the underside of both the neuro- and viscero-cranium.

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Compared to our other lines, this line commands definition as a three-dimensional space, rather than a line. Of course, all the other lines are volumetric as well, but are more easily seen as lines of pull. The DFL very clearly occupies space. In the leg, the DFL includes many of the deeper and more obscure supporting muscles of our anatomy, though the line itself is fundamentally fascial in nature. Through the pelvis, the DFL has an intimate relation with the hip joint, and relates the pulse of breathing and the rhythm of walking to each other. In the trunk, the DFL is poised, along with the autonomic ganglia, between our neuro-motor chassis and the more ancient organs of cell-support within our ventral cavity. In the neck, it provides the counterbalancing lift to the pull of both the SFL and SBL. A dimensional understanding of the DFL is necessary for successful application of nearly any method of manual or movement therapy. Postural function: The DFL plays a major role in the bodys support: lifting the inner arch stabilizing each segment of the legs supporting the lumbar spine from the front stabilizing the chest while allowing the expansion and relaxation of breathing balancing the fragile neck and heavy head atop it all Lack of support, balance and proper tonus in the DFL (as in the common pattern where short DFL myofascia does not allow the hip joint to open fully into extension) will produce overall shortening in the body, encourage collapse in the pelvic and spinal core, and lay the groundwork for negative compensatory adjustments in all the other lines we have described. Movement function There is no movement that is strictly the province of the DFL, yet neither is any movement outside its influence. The DFL is nearly everywhere surrounded or covered by other myofascia, which duplicate the roles performed by the muscles of the DFL. The myofascia of the DFL is infused with more slowtwitch, endurance muscle fibers, reflecting the role the DFL plays in providing stability and subtle positioning changes to the core structure to enable the more superficial structures and lines to work easily and efficiently with the skeleton. Thus, failure of the DFL to work properly does not necessarily involve an immediate or obvious loss of function, especially to the untrained eye or to the less than exquisitely sensitive perceiver. Function can usually be transferred to the outer lines of myofascia, but with slightly less elegance and grace, and slightly more strain to the joints and peri-articular tissues, which can set up the conditions over time for injury and degeneration. Thus, many injuries are often set in motion by a failure within the DFL some years before the incident that revealed them takes place.

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FASCIAL RELEASE TECHNIQUES (FRT)

DFL Fascial Region: Thigh Intention: / Technique: Posterior Intermuscular Septum

lengthen / differentiate / shift Prone Elbow Sitting Other

Client position: Supine Knees Up/ Feet Down Side Lying Hand Positions: Fingers Knuckles Soft Fist Forearm

Practitioner Movements: Locate the medial femoral epicondyle. Locate the hamstring tendons which create a valley with adductor magnus. Allow finger tips to move upward towards sitting bones. Client Movements: Flex and extend the knee / reach through the heel on extension. Considerations: Awareness that this septum blends into the Obturator internus fascia and continues fascially, to the pelvic floor.

DFL Fascial Region: Illiopsoas / Technique: Junction between Iliacus and Psoas

Intention: lengthen / differentiate / shift Client position: Supine Knees Up/ Feet Down Side Lying Hand Positions: Fingers Knuckles Soft Fist Forearm Prone Elbow Sitting Palm Other

Practitioner Movements: fingers at level of ASIS. Following the bowl of the pelvis until you reach the lateral line of the psoas. Rest your finger tips at this junction and call for movement. Client Movements: To muscle test, hip flexion to feel contraction of psoas. Send knee forward over foot/second toe or extend the leg through the heel. Considerations: Do NOT go below the ASIS or above umbilicus. Discontinue with any sharp, acute or radiating pain. Practitioner must differentiate between psoas and bowels by muscle testing / reporting symptoms.

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DFL Fascial Region: Intention: Technique:

lengthen / differentiate / shift Prone Sitting

Client position: Supine Knees UP/ Feet Down Side Lying Hand Positions: Fingers Knuckles

Soft Fist

Forearm

Elbow

Other:

Practitioner movements: Client Movement: Considerations:

DFL Fascial Region: Intention: Technique:

lengthen / differentiate / shift Prone Sitting

Client position: Supine Knees UP/ Feet Down Side Lying Hand Positions: Fingers Knuckles

Soft Fist

Forearm

Elbow

Other:

Practitioner movements: Client Movement: Considerations:

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ANATOMY TRAINS: BODYREADING BASICS TERMINOLOGY


Tilt Describes simple deviations from vertical or horizontal. The term is defined by the direction to which the top of the structure is tilted. Example: In a left sided tilt of the pelvic girdle, the clients right hip bone would be higher. Rotate In standing posture, rotations usually occur around a vertical axis in a horizontal plane, and thus often apply to, for example, the femur, tibia, pelvis, spine, head m humerus, or rib cage. The term is modified by the direction in which the front of the named structure is pointing. Example: In a right rotation of the head, the nose or chin would face to the right of the sternum. Shift Describes a translation of one body part relative to another which moves its centre of gravity. Examples: The pelvis can be shifted anteriorly relative to the malleoli. The torso is left shifted relative to the pelvis. Bend A bend is a series of tilts resulting in a curve, usually applied to the spine. This is a short hand for describing what is really a series of tilts of one vertebra on the next. Example: A lordotic spine could be described as having a strong back bend to the lumbars.

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KINESIS BODYREADING FORM

Goals / Results

KEY
Rotation Obs:

/
c

Tilt Shift Bend Short

Tx:

(R)

Long Right

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BODYREADING 101TM RED FLAGS


SFL- the Protector Front: Where is the SFL open/closed? Side : Excessive dorsiflexion Leg tilt Anterior pelvic shift Anterior pelvic tilt Pulled down rib cage/restricted breathing Stuck on inhale/exhale Anterior tilt of the neck Head forward posture Where is fascial cape pulled down? SBL- the Sustainer Back: Is the back alive? Side: Areas of Hyperextension Excessive Plantarflexion Anterior Heel shift (3:1 from Lateral Malleolus) Hyperextended knees Posterior pelvic tilt Bow in back line Floating ribs inferiorly shifted, too close to pelvis Breathing-pushed forward? Primary/secondary curve balance/ Wave of maturity Neck hyperextension/posterior tilt of the head Where is the fascial cape pulled up? LL (lateral line) the Stabilizer Side: Lateral X- is C7 to pubis same as sternal notch to sacral apex? Relation of front to back-front of LL pulled down, back pulled up? Lateral Arch Freedom in peroneals/fibularii Pelvic tilt Does breath fill the sides? Are Shoulders centered over hips? (Forearms on the shoulders test) Front/Back: Compare two sides- shoulders, hips , knees ,etc. Level? Medial/Lateral tilt of foot/ arch support Distance from iliac crest to lateral arch Is tissue outside of knees pulled up? Or down? X and O legs

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SPL (Spiral line)- the double Helix Red Flags: head tilt or shift One shoulder forward of the other Measure 7th rib to opposite ASIS Medially rotated Knee Shoulder X-Rhombo-Serratus balance Pect. minor- Trapezius balance (shoulder to spine relationship/ flat back vs. round back) Arch patterning-pronated/supinated 4th hamstring: hip extension/knee flexion Functional Lines- the Action heroes These lines are rarely active in Posture, except for the most one sided athletes Shoulder to opposite hip Helical body patterning in strong arm or leg movement Arm lines- the Manipulators SFAL- Arm flexion , carpal tunnel, medial rotation of humerus DFAL- Anterior scapular tilt, elbow flexion, radial deviation, base of thumb SBAL- Trapezius superior shift, wrist hyperextension DBAL- Rhomboid- Levator superior shift, rotator cuff trouble, ulnar deviation DFL (Deep Front Line) the CORE Medial arch support Excess Plantarflexion X and O legs Medial or lateral rotation of the knee Inner thigh issues-pulled up or down Aliveness / motion in inner (medial) hip joint Anterior/ Posterior pelvic tilt Left /right pelvic tilt Pelvic floor tonus/ responsiveness Lumbar bend and support Umbilicus points away from the tight Psoas Pubic bone points to the short pectineus Diaphragm / pelvic floor coupling Rib tilts- left, right , anterior, posterior Anterior neck flexion Vocal or swallowing issues Jaw tightening or tracking Facial asymmetry-one eye more deeply set or higher than the other, or jaw to one side

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FASCIAL RELEASE TECHNIQUE

Fig 1 Massage Stroke applying compression.

Fig 2 Fascial Release Stroke

Generally when performing massage techniques, the therapist glides over the top of the myofascia applying compression to the tissue in order to stimulate flow of fluids and to affect neuromuscular tension (fig 1). In order to manually stretch the connective tissue the therapist needs to use a different style of contact. By first applying a downward pressure, sinking to the first level that gives resistance and then dropping the angle of their contact in order to create a wave in front of the point of contact (fig 2). This wave is then pushed in front as the stroke is performed. The stroke must be carried out slowly and at a speed determined by the interaction of the tool being used (ie thumb, forearm, elbow etc), the amount of lubrication available along the surface and the rate at which the clients tissue can melt and open up in front as you work along. I sometimes think of it like taking an elevator down to the floor (tissue level) you want to be at and then as you walk out the door you drop the angle of the contact, locking yourself into the myofascial layer. In order to perform these strokes an oil based lotion cannot be used as it will not create the necessary grip needed. We recommend experimenting with different types of lubricant starting with the using nothing other than the moisture of your own hands, should this prove insufficient, youll recognise this by the inability to move through the stroke and/or a jerkiness in the movement, then apply a little water. Only if this still fails to provide a smooth stroke then the practitioner could try a water based moisturiser or wax style lubricant remember always to start with less as its easier to apply more than to take it off if you use too much. The client may feel a slow pulling and burning sensation this is partly what you are trying to achieve and you quite literally melt the ground substance within the myofascia to a more liquid state (changing it from gel to sol) and stretch the connective tissue bag surrounding and within the target muscle. If youre unfamiliar with palpating the fascial coverings around the muscles try exploring through the layers of your forearm. Using the fingers of your dominant hand begin by first placing your awareness on the surface of the skin, feel its resistance to your pressure, the tautness of the skin giving a positive sensation in response to the slight weight of your fingertips. Try moving the skin over the underlying adipose; is it separate from the layer beneath? Does the skin move more easily in one direction than the other? Copyright Kinesis UK 41

Now sink into the adipose layer become aware of the different quality of the sensations in your fingers. How does this layer differ from being in the skin? Press a little more firmly and you can feel another taught layer below this, more taut and bouncier than the skin. Can you move the adipose over this second skin? Feel how the skin and the adipose move easily together gliding over this first layer of myofascia; the deep investing layer. Maintaining your pressure to keep your digits in the adipose tissue angle your pressure toward your elbow taking up any slack and then slowly flex your wrist. Can you feel the stretch on the skin? With a firmer grip and more movement you can feel how this type of contact can become uncomfortable, similar to a Chinese (or in the USA, an Indian) burn so beloved of school playground bullies and older brothers the world over. Once you recover from the slight abuse youve just given yourself (and hopefully not elicited too many traumatic memories!) allow your fingers to descend through the layers again, this time overcoming the resistance given by the deep investing layer of fascia. Youll feel yourself now pushing onto the muscle belly, using the tone of the muscle as your guide to assess which level youre on, the focus is the skin of that first muscle you encounter. You can check to see if you are in the right layer by flexing your wrist again, do you feel the muscles stretching below your point of contact similar to your first attempt or do you feel the tissue around the fingertips pull them toward the wrist? If you are in the correct layer you can now begin applying fasical release technique on your wrist extensors by hooking the tissue, pushing toward your elbow as you slowly flex your wrist again. Be aware of the different sensations in the tissues between the two different levels of connection. If you have got it right it should now feel like a deeper burning but more pleasant, sometimes clients report it as a good pain the tissue almost crying out for the release, stimulation and stretch. You can now explore through all of the musculature of the forearm, feel for the differences in tone, not just in the muscle but also that fascial skin, the epimysium. Compare the flexor compartment to the extensors, use movement to find the intermuscular septum between the muscles, use movement to identify exactly where you are play with flexion and extension in combination with radial and ulnar deviation. What difference does it make in the tension produced under your working hand? Can you sense that certain directions of movement give a better challenge to the tissue? As you become more proficient using the technique, which is just a matter of doing it regularly, all of this will give you information about the area youre working on, its condition and where you need to focus your attention. You will be able to subtly alter the angles of movement to make your work even more effective. Under a skilled practitioners hands fascial release technique is a wonderfully releasing, pleasurable but challenging experience, but like many tools, when wielded by a novice, it can be disastrous. Often I have been mauled and not only by neophytes but also by some supposedly accomplished therapists. In order to avoid putting your clients through this I recommend spending some time working through and playing with the five stages below, it is a common mistake to believe that the only thing that matters is getting the work done but if we are to be a client centred therapy then its incumbent upon us to stay aware of the fact we are working on a person, not a collection of dysfunctional tissue crying out for our saving, healing, sometimes over eager, touch. Development Many bodywork approaches talk of melting into the tissue, sinking through the layers and FRT is no different in that. Just as you did in the exercise above be aware of the layers as you pass through them, allowing the tissue to give way rather than bulldozing your way. Mould your hands, fingers, knuckles or whichever tool you are using to the shape of the bodypart being worked, use only enough tension and pressure to get you to that first layer of resistance, wait to be invited in. Copyright Kinesis UK 42

Some schools teach that you can ask your client to exhale as you melt in and I often find this a useful addition but sometimes overused and distracting from the touch. Experiment with using your exhale to sink your bodyweight into the tissue. Having your centre of gravity high, keeping your back foot raised allows you to position yourself over the area, exhaling (quietly!) and dropping your centre of gravity (or sinking your Hara) is much easier for the client to receive than pushing into it. The tension necessary to push will result in the clients tissue resisting and set up a struggle either one of you has to win. Maintaining a relaxed point of contact avoids putting tension into the area being worked but also keeps you much more sensitive to variations in the myofascia. The less tone you have in your working limb the better able you are to sense the changes in your client. Achieve this by getting as much of your force from muscles as distant from the point of contact as possible. For example, if you are using your fingertips they should retain only the tension needed to get through the layers, the initial force comes from your bodyweight coming over the area, as you need to get to deeper levels increase your bodyweight by altering the angle of your back foot, push from the back foot (remembering to engage your core), stabilise your shoulder girdle and arm, gently lock your elbow and wrist. Only as a last resort should you push with your fingers as it will then feel pokey and uncomfortable. Assessment So now that youve got somewhere you need to check two things firstly, is it where you wanted to be? If, for whatever reason, you were trying to find the peroneals how do you know that you are really on them? Secondly, if you are on them how do they feel? What kind of work do they need, what kind of tool should you be using? Your fingers, knuckles or elbow? This is the stage of questions and obtaining information. Using both active and passive movement you can gain much of what you need. Ask you client to pronate the foot as you search for the peroneals can help you differentiate them from the soleus, feeling for the quality of the movement you can assess which parts of the muscle open too much or not at all. You can begin to find the areas youll need to focus on but also how are you going to do it? Strategy Youve got to where you want to be, youve found something that needs to be worked but now you have to decide how youre going to do it. Which direction will best engage that area? Which movement will you ask for? Which tool (fingers, knuckles, forearm etc) will best fit the area? In the words of every protective father; what exactly is your intention? These last two stages are often skipped by practitioners, they are not discrete moments in time but merely part of a thought process, a mindful decision making, ensuring that your work is specific to the needs of the client rather than a treatment by rote. Of course a certain amount of a recipe is needed for beginning practitioners, those of you from a massage background were given a basic sequence to get you through the early days of your practice but as you become more comfortable with the techniques, more aware of their effects on the variations of clients and their tissue, the more you adapt that template to suit the present requirements. With fascial release technique this can be done with each and every stroke. A stroke performed without the above two stages is a blind gesture.

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Intervention Finally youve got to the stage of doing the work. Youve got and checked the area youre working on, youve decided on how to work it and now you can. As part of your strategy youve already chosen which tool to use, youre locked in the level and area you want to be and now you slowly glide and/or ask the client to move. However for this stage it is not so much how you perform the stroke but much more about what effect is it having. The practitioner has to constantly monitor what is happening below and around the point of contact; is the tissue releasing? Is the right area being challenged with the movement? Is the tissue lifting or moving? Is the client able to receive and process the information youre offering to her? Throughout the intervention or stroke you set up a feedback loop assessing its effectiveness, what changes can you make as you go through to assist you in the goals set above? With each change you have to re-evaluate. Now you are truly listening to the client and their tissue, youve set up what we sometimes refer to as a communication between two intelligent systems. With your strategy in mind you are offering information to the client, asking their tissue if it can change, and does the work make sense to them. By listening to the collection of systems under your hand and keeping yourself open to their messages back, you will be able to reflect the abilities of the clients tissue in your work. Providing you can attune your ear to the language their tissue uses to inform you in response to your contact. Ending As you begin, so should you finish. So many therapists forget to that theyre working with a human, its almost like theyre so relieved to reach the end of their stroke that they jump out of the tissue. Now Im not saying its wrong, just rude. If you take all that time to take care of your client, sinking in, feeling its condition, listening to it as you work give it a little respect by coming out of it slowly. Take your body weight back into your forward leg, dont push into the client to jerk yourself up; a mortal sin in my book. Once you have your weight back in your legs then you can lift yourself out of the stroke allowing the tissue time to settle back in rather than letting it snap back. Sometimes it can be more pleasant for the client to spiral out of the contact, slowly peeling your skin out of contact with theirs. This is especially true when you work in areas where the skin may be more sensitive such as around the armpit or the thigh adductors. It is these small things that the client may not be aware of but makes a huge difference in their experience of the treatment. Fascial release can be a challenging treatment and the more comfortable we can make it for the client the better they will be able to accept it.

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ANATOMY TRAINS PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION PRINCIPLES OF USE


Guidance in using the Anatomy Trains Myofascial Meridians system: 1. In assessment, start from the affected / restricted / injured / painful area and move out along the trains. If treatment to a local area is not working, seek other areas along the meridian which may yield results at the affected area, e.g. if the hamstrings are not yielding to direct manipulation or stretching, try elsewhere along the Superficial Back Line on the plantar fascia or sub-occipital areas, for example. 2. Work on the meridians can often have distant effects. By whatever mechanism, work on one area of a meridian can show its effect somewhere quite distant, either up or down the meridian involved. Be sure to reassess the whole structure periodically to see what global effects your work may be having. 3. Work the tissue of the meridian in the direction you want it to go. If you are simply loosening a muscular element of a meridian, direction is not as crucial. If you are shifting the relation among fascial planes, it is. Put it where it belongs and call for movement, was Dr Ida Rolfs terse summary of her method. Frequently, for instance, the tissues of the Superficial Front Line need to move up in relation to the tissues of the Superficial Back Line, which need to move down. 4. Work from the outside in, and then inside out. Sort out the compensations in the more superficial layers first, as far as is possible, before taking on the more deeply imbedded patterns. In general, look for a uniform resilience and adaptability in the Superficial Front and Back Lines, and the Lateral and Spiral Lines before attempting to unravel the Deep Front Line. Going for deep patterns too quickly, before loosening the overlying layers, can result in driving patterns deeper or reducing the bodys coherence, rather than resolving problems. Once some resilience and balance is established in the DFL, return to the issues remaining in the more superficial lines, and drape the Arm and Functional Lines over the rebalanced structure. 5. Watch for where meridians cross each other. Where affected meridians cross each other particularly where the Spiral and Functional Lines cross the cardinal lines are areas that frequently bind when there are adverse or conflicting tensions.

PRINCIPLES FOR APPLICATION


Goals of myofascial or movement work: 1. Complete body image the client has access to the information coming from and motor access to the entire kinaesthetic body, with minimal areas of stillness, holding, or sensory-motor amnesia. 2. Skeletal alignment and support the bones are aligned in a way that allows minimum effort for standing and action. 3. Tensegrity / palintonicity the myofascial tissues are balanced around the skeletal structure such that there is a general evenness of tone, rather than islands of higher tension or slackened tissues. 4. Length the body lives its full length in both the trunk and limbs, and in both the muscles and the joints, rather than moving in shortness and compression. 5. Resilience the ability to bear stress without breaking, and to resume a balanced existence when the stress is removed. 6. Ability to hold and release somato-emotional charge the ability to hold an emotional charge without acting it out, and to release it into action or simply into letting go when the time is appropriate. Copyright Kinesis UK 45

7. Unity of intent with diffuse awareness structural integration implies the ability to focus on any given task or perception while maintaining a diffuse peripheral awareness of whatever is going on around this focused activity. Focus without contextual awareness is fanatic; awareness without focus is ineffective. 8. Reduced effort in standing and movement less parasitic tension or unnecessary compensatory movement involved in any given task. 9. Range of motion, generosity of movement less restriction in any given activity, and that, within the limits of health, age, history, and genetic make-up, the full rage of human movement is available. 10. Reduced pain that standing and activity be as free of structural pain as possible.

FASCIAL AND MYOFASCIAL MANIPULATION


General principles for fascial and myofascial manipulation: 1. Layering - Go to the layer that offers resistance, and then work along that layer. 2. Pacing - Speed is the enemy of sensitivity; move at or below the rate of tissue melting. 3. Body mechanics Minimal effort and tension on the part of the practitioner leads to maximum sensitivity and conveyance of intent to the client. 4. Movement - Client movement makes myofascial work more effective. With each move, seek a movement direction to give the client. Again, Put it where it belongs and call for movement. The clients movement serves at minimum two purposes: 1. it allows the practitioner to feel with ease in which level of myofascia he is engaged, 2. it involves the client actively in the process, increasing the proprioception from muscle spindles and stretch receptors. 5. Pain - Pain accompanied by the motor intention to withdraw is a reason to stop, let up, or slow down 6. Trajectory - Each move has a trajectory or an arc a beginning, a middle, and end. Each session has an arc, and each series of sessions has an arc. Know where you are in these overlapping arcs.

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ANATOMY TRAINS REFERENCE MATERIAL GLOSSARY


Anatomy Trains Myofascial Meridian Myofascial Continuity Track Station The entire system of eleven myofascial meridians A connected string of myofascial or fascial structures, one anatomy train line Two or more adjacent and connected myofascial structures within a myofascial meridian Myofascial or fascial element in a myofascial meridian A place where the myofascial continuity or track in the outer myofascial bag is tacked down or attached to the fascial webbing of the inner bone-ligament bag An express is a multi-joint muscle that thus enjoys multiple functions A local is a single-joint muscle that duplicates one of the functions of a nearby or overlying express A cardinal line runs the length of the body on one of the four major surfaces: the SBL on the back, the SFL on the front, and the LL on right and left sides An alternative track, often smaller or less usually employed, than the primary myofascial meridian An area within a myofascial meridian where the linkage only applies under certain conditions An area within the skeleton where many myofascial continuities join, which is thus subject to a number of different vectors; in simple language, a bone where muscles coming from many directions meet. An area where fascial planes either converge from two into one, or diverge from one into two. A connection between two tracks across a station where the fascia is clearly continuous between the two A connection between two tracks across a station where the connection passes through an intervening bone Used to designate a myofascial unit held in a state longer than it usual efficient length. Used to designate a myofascial unit held in a state shorter that its usual or efficient length.

Express Local Cardinal line Branch line Derailment Roundhouse

Switch Direct connection Mechanical connection Locked long Locked short

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KMI TRAINING

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ANATOMY TRAINS ESSENTIALS READING/REFERENCES


Web Sites Resources: x Myers, Thomas: Courses, Products, Forums, Explorations www.anatomytrains.com x Schleip, Robert: Related articles for Professional and Layman http://www.somatics.de/ x International Association of Structural Integration: www.theaisi.org x Structural Integration Resource Website http://insidesi.com/ Connective Tissue Subject Resource List: x Myers, T. Anatomy Trains: Chapter 1 x Schleip, Robert: Fascial Plasticity A New Neurobiological Explanation Part 1 and Part 2 http://www.somatics.de/ x First International Congress on Fascial Research www.fascia2007.com x Horwitz, Alan F. Scientific American, May 1997, Integrins and Health x Stanborough, M. (2004) Direct Release Myofascial Technique. Elsevier, Edinburgh x Smith, J. (2005) Structural Bodywork Elsevier, Edinburgh x Myofascial Research Summaries: http://www.myofascialpainrelief.com/MFRresearch.html x Schultz, R. Louis and Feitis, Rosemary: Endless Web: fascial anatomy and physical reality. 1996, North Atlantic Books. Berkley, California
Tensegrity Subject Resource List; Flemons, Tom The Geometry of Anatomy the Bones of Tensegrity. http://www.intensiondesigns.com x Myers, Thomas. Anatomy Trains: Chapter 1 x Myers, Thomas. Body 3, The Spine: Tensegrity Continuum x Myers, Thomas. Anatomy Trains Fascial Tensegrity DVD x R. Buckminster Fuller: www.bfi.com x Solit, Marvin: http://www.fnd.org/pgs/geo/holistic_geometry.htm x http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tensegrity x Scientific American: January 1998 pg. 49 The Architecture of Life, by Donald E. Ingber x Available as a download via http://www.childrenshospital.org/research/ingber/PDF/1998/SciAmer-Ingber.pdf Tom Myers Anatomy Trains Myofascial Meridians Resources: x Fredericks, Anne & Chris. Stretch To Win x Myers, Thomas. Anatomy Trains Myofascial Meridians for Manual and Movement Therapists, x Myers, Thomas. Anatomy Trains DVD x Oschman, James. Energy Medicine

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FACULTY
James has been practicing bodywork for over 17 years and has trained in a variety of approaches. He is founder and director of Ultimate Massage Solutions, specializing in Myofascial Release and Structural Integration to rid the body of restrictions and restore the bodys natural postural balance. Ultimate Massage Solutions stocks a wide range of Books and DVDs, from some of the worlds best educators, aimed at students and practitioners of Bodywork James has trained with Tom Myers, originator of the Anatomy TrainsSM theory, and is a registered teacher of his approach. In December 2007, James collaborated with Tom to launch Kinesis UK, an independent branch of Kinesis Inc. Its purpose is to bring high quality training in Structural Integration and Toms Anatomy TrainsSM model to Europe, as well as providing continuing education in myofascial and movement work. James has also trained and facilitated workshops alongside Art Riggs, author of Deep Tissue Massage: A Visual Guide to Techniques and will be working with both Robert Schleip (Germany) and George Kousaleos (USA) in London in 2009. James has traveled widely to learn from some of the top educators in the field and he now teaches a range of courses for schools in the UK, Ireland, Europe and the USA. He has worked at the World Triathlon Championships in Hawaii and been invited to work with Premiership Football and Premier League Rugby teams, teaching their Sports Medicine teams and working on problem players.

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