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152118005 COMPUTER NETWORKS Answers to Selected Exam Questions

by Erol Seke

Eskiehir Osmangazi University Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering Department of Computer Engineering

Last revised : 07.05.2013

1. 23.01.2001 final exam An extension (N4) to the following local net will be made using the IP range 220.2.1.128/25 as shown using dashed lines in the following figure. The existing routing table entries are partially given below. Complete the routing tables according to your assignments to the new network. Try to cause minimum disturbance to the existing network.

G1 For Destination 220.2.2.0/24 default

Route To 220.2.2.1 discard

G2 For Destination 220.2.3.0/24 220.2.1.0/25 default

Route To 220.2.3.1 220.2.1.2

Solution

G1 For Destination 220.2.2.0/24 default 220.2.1.0/25 220.2.3.0/24 220.2.1.128

Route To 220.2.2.1 discard 220.2.1.1 220.2.1.2 220.2.1.129

G2 For Destination Route To 220.2.3.0/24 220.2.3.1 220.2.1.0/25 220.2.1.2 default 220.2.1.1

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2. 23.01.2002 final exam Given the following network and IP-divisions, assign IP addresses to the selected interfaces and write down the explicit routing entries for each router/gateway. Ignore CDIR rule of allowed network IP addresses.

a.b.c.0/24 255 64 64 32 32 64 A B C D E 0 IP address


A1 B1 B2 C1 D1 D2 E1

mask

router

Which net/IP

To where

Solution IP address a.b.c.193 a.b.c.129 a.b.c.130 a.b.c.97 a.b.c.65 a.b.c.66 a.b.c.1 mask 26 26 26 27 27 27 26 router R1 R1 R2 R2 R3 Which net/IP a.b.c.0/25 default a.b.c.0/26 default default To where a.b.c.130 X a.b.c.66 a.b.c.129 a.b.c.65

A1 B1 B2 C1 D1 D2 E1

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3. 16.01.2003 final exam For the network whose general topology is given below, mark networks on the horizontal scale, assign IP numbers to networks, and interfaces from a given Class-C IP range (a.b.c.0) and write down the routing table entries for each gateway. Assume that each network has 20 hosts maximum.

a connection to x.y.z.r e1 Just a straight connection GW1 e3 e9 GW3 e7 e8 N2 N3 e2 N1 e4 e5 e6 GW2

Solution e1 e2 e3 0 N1 0/27 x.y.z.m .1/27 P1.1/24 e4 e5 e6 N2 64/2 .2/27 P2.1/24 .64/27 N3 255 128/27 e7 e8 e9 P2.2/24 .128/27 P1.2/24

P1 : 10.100.1.0/24

P2 : 10.100.2.0/24

(private networks)

GW1 N2 -> e4 N3 -> e9 def. -> x.y.z.r

GW2 N3 -> e7 def. -> e2

GW3 N2 -> e5 def. -> e3

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4. 16.01.2003 final exam Draw the signal encodings of the given bit-stream : 1101011010 Solution

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5. 15.01.2004 final exam 5-routers are connected to construct an intranet as shown. Assign subnet and interface IP addresses from a single class-C range. Let this range be aaa.bbb.ccc.xxx where xxx represents your freedom. Also determine routing table entries for each router. Try to make the routing tables as simple as possible. Use the IP-ruler given below and mark your networks on it. Solution

Interface
A1 A5 A6 B2 B6 B7 C2 C5 D3 D7 D8 E4 E8

IP-Address
.1 .225 .233 .65 .234 .241 .66 .226 .129 .242 .249 .193 .250

Netmask
/26 /28 /28 /26 /28 /28 /26 /28 /26 /28 /28 /27 /28

Routing Table Entries A

.64/26->.226 .128/26->.242 Default->.225 .192/27->.250 Default->.249 .128/26->.234 .192/27->.242 Default->.241 .192/27->.234 Default->.233 Default->ISP

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6. 15.01.2004 final exam Draw the waveforms according to encoding schemes for the given bit-stream : 101110001 Solution

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7. 06.11.2002 1st midterm Draw the RZ, NRZ-I, Manchester, Differential Manchester and AMI signals for the bitstream 0110010111. Solution

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8. 06.11.2003 1st midterm Describe internetworking connecting devices in clear sentences (layers, operation, use etc.) Solution Connecting devices are divided into two categories Networking devices Internetworking devices We have two types of internetworking devices Routers Gateways Routers : Having Physical, Data Link and Network Layers, routers may route packets to any connected network or network which is known to be accessible there off. If the destination is on a connected network then router sends the data to the destination host. Otherwise it tries to determine, using its routing tables, the best route to the destination, possibly via another neighboring router and hands the data over to that router which does the same analysis. Internet which is the network of networks works this way and the data reaches its destination passing over several routers. Gateways : These have all seven layers like any computer, which allows them to do anything doable to a received packet. Usually they operate as a router. Additionally installed software makes them capable of relaying data between different types of networks which are otherwise incompatible and with different standards. For example a gateway may receive data packets from a TCP/IP network and convert them to be transferred to an AppleTalk (a Macintosh proprietary protocol) network. Gateways do this by converting the headers and trailers (possibly adding some headers and discarding some) to make them compatible to the destination standard.

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9. 14.11.2000 2nd midterm Fill out the following table according to the features of the named connecting devices. Repeater Operating Layer Creates separate segments Connect different protocol networks Connect same protocol networks Maximum number of ports Solution Repeater Physical Layer No No Single Network 2 Bridge Data Link Layer Yes No Yes 2 * Router Network Layer Yes No Yes 2 more Gateway Lives in all Layers * Yes Yes Yes 2 or more Switch DataLink/ Network Layer * Yes No Yes 2 or more Bridge Router Gateway Switch

Operating Layer Creates separate segments Connect different protocol networks Connect same protocol networks Maximum number of ports

* Usually operating on the Data Link layer, some Switches have routing capability which forces them to also work on Network Layer. * A gateway is a computer, so it might have the capability to do anything doable to network bits/pieces. Some bridges are designed to serve more than 2 segments, essentially doing the same thing i.e. they can be called multiport bridges.

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10. 18.12.2002 2nd midterm


Complete the routing tables for routers A, B and C for the following network

Solution

e1 e2 e3 e4 e5 e6 e7 e8

a.b.c.1 / 26 a.b.c.65 / 27 a.b.c.66 / 27 a.b.c.97 / 27 a.b.c.129 / 26 a.b.c.130 / 26 a.b.c.193 / 27 a.b.c.225 / 27

N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6

a.b.c.0 / 26 a.b.c.64 / 27 a.b.c.96 / 27 a.b.c.128 / 26 a.b.c.192 / 27 a.b.c.224 / 27

Router-A
Default -> Ii .96/27 -> .66 .192/26 -> .130

Router-B
Default -> .65

Router-C
Default -> .129

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11. 17.12.2003 2nd midterm


A simple message exchange protocol (MEP) is designed to be connection oriented. In MEP a host with a message to transfer to another simply establishes a connection and delivers the message if the connection is successful. Otherwise it drops the message to a publicly known messaging center to be picked up by the destination host when it gets on the line. Assume that sockets are created and bind successfully. Using the methods Connect, Accept, Listen, GetData, SendData, Close and the events Connect, Close, ConnectionRequest, DataArrival, Timeout draw timings of the exchanges for three cases below. a) Host A successfully delivers a message to host B. b) A tries B. B does not answer. A drops the message to the message center (Host MC). c) B gets on line and connects to MC to pick up messages (if any) waiting for itself.

Solution

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12. 08.04.2005 1st midterm


Using a C class IP-range a.a.a.x assign IP numbers to interfaces and fill in the routing tables. Estimated number of hosts in each network is shown.

N1 N2 e11 e22 e33

.128/26 .192/27

N3 N4 e15 e25 e35

.0/26 .64/26

N5

.224/27

.129 .193 .1 R1 N2 -> e25 default -> e35

.225 .226 .227 R2 N1 -> e15 default -> e35 e34 .65 R3 N1 -> e15 N2 -> e25 default -> Id

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13. General Fill in the Blanks Questions (may have some duplicates)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. The connection points between the Network Layer and the Transport Layer is the IP number(s) whereas the connection points between the Transport Layer and the upper layers are called Ports which are represented by 16 bits in the TCP segment header. Unlike TCP the Transport Layer Protocol UDP is a connectionless protocol. The programmatic connection between the Network Layer and the upper (application) layers is usually established by small software running in Transport Layer. These are usually called Sockets. In a 802.3 LAN, IP to ethernet address translation is performed by/with ARP which stands for Address Resolution Protocol. In an IP address with CIDR standard a quad can range from 0 to 255. Bluetooth uses Time Division Multiplexing. A Bluetooth network with 7 active slaves is called a Piconet. Bluetooth standard specifies 13 applications which are called profiles. As modulation technology, Bluetooth employs FSK with 1M bps. The number of necessary OSI layers in a bridge is two Routers and Gateways are internetworking-connecting devices A networked computer must minimally have a host-IP, a netmask and default gateway-IP numbers set up in order to do IP-networking properly. An IP-address with all host bits set to 1 is called Broadcast address. A Class-B IP-range may have about 65000 hosts in it. IEEE-802.3 defines broadcast networks standards. The word Base in 10BaseT identifies the media as baseband. The letter T in 10BaseT indicates that it is a twisted-pair cable. An ethernet address with all bits set to 1 is called ethernet broadcast address. CIDR addressing scheme allows us to create subnets for efficient IP use. ARP is a process of obtaining ethernet addresses from IP-addresses. Performance of a network is usually measured by the amount of data transferred per unit time. Reliability of a network is usually measured by the frequency of failure (inverse of it). Logical to physical addressing conversion is done in the Network Layer. In stop and wait flow control method receiver ACKs each data frame received. The alternative to this is called sliding window. CSMA stands for "Carrier Sense Multiple Access" which is standardized in IEEE 802.3. The 10 Mbps twisted pair ethernet is usually designated by 10BaseT. Ethernet or NIC addresses are 48 bit unique numbers used to identify physical devices in CSMA/CD networks. Bridges divide the networks into smaller segments in order to reduce traffic. Repeaters and Bridges are networking connecting devices. In class-B IP-addresses 16 and 16 bits are reserved for host and network identification respectively. Topologically fully connected networks have the highest performance and the highest cost among the possible . In full-duplex transmission mode devices can transmit and receive simultaneously. For bit-rate to be three times the baud rate we need at least 8 constellations. Physical Layer deals with the physical and electrical specifications. The term point-to-point indicates the dedicated links between two nodes. Bus topology is the simplest and cheapest topology to implement in small networks. Full-Duplex transmission mode can be characterized simply as "two way simultaneous transmission/reception". Performance of a network is usually measured by bits per second Switching/Routing is the job of Network Layer. Sliding Window line discipline where only some of the enquiries are acknowledged is more efficient then Stop-and-Wait. 10BaseT can have a maximum segment length of 100 meters. All NICs are manufactured having unique Hardware Address. Physical addressing, error control and access (to media) control are managed by the Data Link layer. An advantage of 10BaseT over 10Base2 is that 10Base2 is maintained easier than 10Base2. Preamble field at the beginning of an ethernet frame is used for synchronization. Bridges must have the following layers; 1. Physical Layer 2 Data Link Layer. 152118005 COMPUTER NETWORKS 15

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Time To Live field in an IP packet determines the number of hops (routers) it passes through before it is discarded. A host running in an IP-network on the ethernet must be assigned these three numbers properly in order for the networking software to operate correctly; 1. IP address, 2. Netmask, 3. Gateway address. ARP is used on IEEE-802.3 networks in order to obtain ethernet addresses using the IP addresses. The field named as Window Size in a TCP segment header indicates the sliding window size. Standard TCP services use some standard TSAP numbers known as well known ports numbers. TCP is a connection oriented protocol while UDP is not. The three problems which limit a communication line are attenuation, distortion and noise. In order for a 2400 baud modem to achieve 9.6 kbps the constellation diagram must have at least 16 distinct points. The filter with a bandwidth of 300-3400 Hz at the end office for an ordinary voice phone line is removed for DSL operation. An ADSL modem and a splitter are the required equipment residing at the customers premises for the ADSL system. Three of the BlueTooth profiles are Service Discovery, Serial Port, Cordless Telephony. In piconets of BlueTooth, Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum technique is used with 1600 hops/sec and hop sequence is dictated by the master. Pseudoternary encoding technique is used on T and S interfaces of ISDN system in order to maintain synchronization during the long sequences of zeros. PRI ISDN service carries 23 bearer and 1 data channels with a total of 1544 kbps. Bus topology usually requires terminators at both ends of the cable. In half-duplex transmission mode both station can transmit and receive but not at the same time. Logical addressing and routing is the function of network layer. Mail services are being made available by application layer. Manchester coding is one of the polar encoding techniques which effectively eliminate DC component of the signal. In Diff. Manchester, the transition in the middle is used for synchronization. The number of signal units per second is called baud-rate. In QAM both amplitude and phase of the carrier signal are varied. In stop-and-wait flow control technique, every frame is acknowledged. Physical Layer deals with the physical and electrical specifications. Full-duplex transmission mode can be characterized simply as "two way simultaneous transmission/reception". All NICs are manufactured having unique ethernet address/MAC number. 10BaseT can have a maximum segment length of 100 meters. The words and numbers '10', Base and 'T' in 10BaseT respectively indicate 10 Mbps baseband and twisted pair. Carrier extension and Frame bursting are features added to 802.3 by the gigabit ethernet standards. 1000Base-T uses 4 pairs of Cat-5 UTP. Flooding is a packet routing method in which incoming packet is sent to every neighbor except where it came from. In Distance Vector Routing a router receives routing information from all of its neighbors and by using the knowledge about its distance to its neighbors it constructs its own routing table which in turn used by the router and distributed to the neighbors. Hierarchical Routing reduces the memory requirements at some penalty on the path optimality in large networks with large number of routers. If packets from a live audio/video source are to be distributed to multiple destinations we need to talk about Broadcast Routing. The 802.11 configuration in which no central coordination is used for is called Distributed Coordination Function Multipath Reception is a problem in wireless systems, which deteriorates the received signal at the receiver. When there is no central coordination is employed in 802.11, channel access privileges (who transmits when) are determined by a protocol called Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Avoidance. In wireless ethernet, when stations directly talk to each other, a station wanting to transmit data when the channel is idle transmits Request To Send (RTS) frame first. The small clusters of stations communicating using Bluetooth are called Piconets. 152118005 COMPUTER NETWORKS 16

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There can be only seven active slaves in a Bluetooth station cluster. The master station in a Bluetooth cluster employs Time Division Multiplexing in order to communicate with slaves and send commands to them. The destination address field in a Bluetooth frame is three bits Bluetooth operates on 2.4 GHz ISM band and its range is about 10 meters. The PSTN term Local Loop refers to the wiring between the customer and end office of the telecom company. In PSTN, in order for a modem customer to achieve 56 kbps transmission rate, the connection to ISP must be digital. QAM stands for Quadrature Amplitude Modulation which means changing both Amplitude and Phase of the carrier. In 128-QAM, one change in carrier transmits seven bits including parity. In DMT which is employed in DSL, of 256 frequency channels 5 are not used to prevent interference between voice and data signals. Original antialiasing filter is removed in DSL, but a pair of Low Pass Filter is still used to split voice and data channels in end office and in customer premises. ISDN stands for Integrated Services Digital Network. In ISDN two standard services are provided; BRI and PRI. A B channel in ISDN service has the data rate of 64 kbps whereas a D channel carries 16 kbps. 23B+D configuration in ISDN is capable of carrying 1544 kbps. Two features brought by gigabit ethernet, Carrier Extension, Frame Bursting are required to achieve 200 m in hub based networks. Fast ethernet on Cat-5 cable runs at most 100 meters. Hubs/Repeaters just repeat the incoming data and send it through all other connected lines. Different modes of light travel different total distances resulting in dispersion which causes distortion in multimode fibers at long distances. Multistation Access Unit is a term which refers to devices used to form a star topology in Token Ring. FDDI stands for Fiber Distributed Data Interface. In Token Ring there is at least one frame traveling around the ring, and it is called the Token. The communication speed in FDDI is 100 Mbps. Two common transmission rates in ATM are 155.52 Mbps and 622 Mbps. In ATM systems delivery is not guaranteed but the order is. Since the ATM cell size is 53 bytes ATM routers can be designed to be entirely hardware (no software). In ATM, after the connection establishment between the source and destination, data always follow the same route which is called Virtual Circuit. Fiber, among other common transmission media, has the best performance thanks to its high bandwidth and low EMI. OSI stands for Open Systems Interface. Service-point addressing (different number for each program) is the task of transport layer in OSI 7layer model. Signaling standards is in the interest of physical layer. Ethernet bridges consist of physical and data-link layer(s). In an ethernet network the interfaces are identified/addressed by their ethernet address/hardware address/MAC address. The number of pins on a RJ-45 connector at the end of a cat-5 cable is 8. In Differential Manchester represents the binary stream 001011. In an ethernet frame specified by IEEE 802.3, preamble is used for synchronization. In Manchester encoding represents the binary stream 001101. The destination address in an ethernet frame is 48 bits. The Time-To-Live field in IP-datagram determines the number of hops. Netmask is used to separate the network address from the IP address. The service that converts hostnames into host IP numbers is called Name Service. The interface IP-numbers of a router between IP networks shall be selected from the ranges of the connected networks. Routing table defines where to deliver the IP-packets when the destination is not in the same network. Exponential Back-off algorithm is used to determine the time to wait for another transmission attempt in CSMA-CD networks. 152118005 COMPUTER NETWORKS 17

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Fast ethernet on twisted pair cable is referred as 100Base-TX. Fast ethernet on fiber runs at most 2000 meters. Bit rate is bits per second whereas the baud rate is symbols/changes per second. ADSL stands for Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. Channel 0 in DMT of DSL is used for basic telephony service. In DSL, a filter called splitter must be used in both customers and Telcos premises. 23B+D configuration in ISDN is capable of carrying 1544 kbps. CSMA/CD is not used in wireless ethernet because most radio devices can not listen and transmit simultaneously. The RF communication technique in wireless ethernet, in which the communication frequency is periodically switched within a set of predetermined sequence, is called Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum. A Bluetooth device is expected to support the applications Generic Access and Service Discovery and the other profiles are optional. A collection of Bluetooth piconets is called scatternet. In Differential Manchester encoding technique, the transition in the middle helps synchronization but reduces the transmission rate. In Link State Routing routing, a router obtains the distances of its neighbors and shares this information with all other routers it knows using specially designed packets. ARP is used on IEEE-802.3 networks in order to obtain ethernet address from IP address In class-A IP-addresses 24 bits are reserved for host identification.

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14. 30.03.2006 1st midterm A local network with 3 routers and 3 subnets is connected as shown in the figure. Assume that a Class-C IP (MyNet/24) range has been divided into four 64-IP sub-ranges and assigned to subnets NA, NB and NC. One sub-range has been left unused as spare. Connections between routers are done using 10.x.x.x IP numbers. Answer the following accordingly. 1. Which of the following is most likely incorrect? a) in B : default -> IAB b) in C : default -> IBC c) in A : default -> ICA e) in A : NB/26 -> IBA d) in C : default -> IAC (this setting will cause packets circling around and going nowhere. The default gateway for router A shall be IISP) 2. Which of the following is most likely incorrect? a) IA = an IP from NA range. b) a host setting in NC : GW=IISP, NM=26 bits c) a host setting in NB : GW=IB, NM=26 bits d) ID = IBC e) NM of IAB is 16 bits. (Gateway IP must be in the same network, otherwise it wont work. Another suspicious setting is to have ID = IBC which actually poses no problem since these small two device networks need not see each other.) 3. Which of the following is most likely incorrect? a) in ISP : MyNet/24 -> IA b) in B : NC/27 -> ICB c) in A : GW=IISP e) a host setting in NC : nameserver=IA d) IAB=10.0.0.1 and IBA=10.10.10.10 (ISP does not see IA. The correct setting should be MyNet/24 -> ID. Since nameserver IP can be any IP which reside on the host who runs the name-service, e is an OK setting. We may decide to route some packets to NC through IBC-ICB network and the rest through A which probably is a default GW for B. So, b is also OK.) 4. In ethernet networks every host needs at least one a) transport layer b) ethernet adapter c) IP address d) modem e) gateway

5. UTP ethernet networks are usually connected using . a) software b) friendship c) RJ-45 d) RJ-13 e) fiber cables 6. ARP in TCP/IP-on-ethernet networks stands for a) Address Restriction Protocol b) Address Resolve Problem c) Acknowledgement Return Protocol d) All Return Policy e) Address Resolution Protocol 7. It is ARPs job to find out ................. a) destinations ethernet address b) destinations IP address c) acknowledgement number d) ethernets location e) where the gateway is
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corresponds to is .. 8. The binary stream which NRZ-I waveform a) 01101111 b) 11010000 c) 10010111 d) 01011100 e) 01101000 9. The diff. Manchester waveform corresponding to the binary stream 01101000 is a) d) b) e) c)

10. Repeaters operate similar to which also just create electronic nodes to extend the cable length. a) Ethernet hubs b) Bridges c) Ethernet switches d) Connectors e) Hoppers 11. Fast ethernet .. a) uses only optical-fiber so it is really fast b) is not backward compatible with old ethernet. c) runs 2000 meters with twisted pair cable e) hubs are 10 Mbps

d) switches are full-duplex

12. Which one of the following is incorrect? a) Full-duplex means simultaneous transmission and reception. b) Simplex device cannot talk back. c) One of the reliability measures of networks is the robustness in catastrophe. d) On a dedicated link there can only be two devices. e) Half-duplex means only half of the cable is duplex. 13. . layer handles the physical addressing of communicating devices. a) Physical b) Logical c) Data link d) Network e) Transport 14. Gateways are similar to routers .. a) in the way they route incoming packets. b) that they both use the same OSI layers. c) requiring ethernet addresses on all ports. d) except when working with IP packets. e) which can be thought of advanced switches. 15. Class of an IP address can be determined from . and determines the . a) the first 3 quads -- network part. b) the number of netmask bits -- network address. c) the routing table -- destination IP address. d) the first 4 bits -- number of hosts in the network. e) the host bits -- netmask.

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15. 27.04.2007 2nd midterm 1. What is the name of the algorithm used in CSMA/CD networks in order to avoid repeated collisions? a) collision avoidance d) exponential collisions a) ATM a) light a) Packet in ATM networks? a) connection network VPN 6. What is the maximum length of Cat-5 cable in a fast ethernet network? a) 180 m a) 155 Mbps a) frequencies a) DSL a) control b) 200 m c) 1000 m d) 1200 m e) 100 m 7. Which one of the following is the lowest bit rate in ATM networks? b) 622 Mbps c) 1544 kbps d) 1000 Mbps e) 10 Mbps b) pulses b) B b) voice c) bit-rates c) PRI c) data d) amplitude-phase e) bits d) NT1 e) D 8. QAM uses different in order to transmit multiple bits in one signal change. 9. Higher capacity channel in BRI service of ISDN is called . channel? 10. What is the lowest discrete channel in discrete multitone signaling of DSL used for? d) channel allocation e) unused 11. What does A in ADSL stand for? a) Alternative b) Asynchronous c) Attenuated d) Asymmetric e) Additive 12. What is the type of operation in wireless ethernet when a management/arbitration device exists? a) point coordination b) distributed coordination d) management point e) access point b) Frequency Halving Signal Spectrum
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b) crash prevent e) collision detection

c) exponential back-off

2. In which of the following, are the received cells guaranteed to be in order? b) Wireless ethernet c) TCP/IP b) dispersion b) cell c) speed d) ISDN e) ADSL e) cable length e) bus 3. Multimode fibers have more ......... than single mode fibers at the receiving end. d) wavelength d) token 4. What is the signal that travels around the token-ring and carries data called? c) frame 5. What is the name of the fixed route established at the time of initial connection setup b) data route c) virtual circuit d) ring e)

c) managed arbitration

13. What does FHSS stand for in wireless communication? a) Fairly Harmonic Signal Sink

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c) Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum e) Full Harmonic Signal Spectrum

d) Fast High Simple Solution

14. Concatenation of multiple frames for a single transmission in gigabit ethernet is called . a) carrier extension b) combination e) frame bursting 15. How many bits are used for addressing in gigabit ethernet? a) 64 bits a) 2000 m b) 48 bits b) 100 m c) 32 bits c) 185 m d) variable d) 5000 m e) 128 bits e) 200 m 16. What is the maximum length of 100Base-FX segment? 17. What is the netmask of the gateway interface in a sub-C network where only 14 hosts may exist and IP address of one of the hosts is 193.145.122.76? a) 255.255.255.224 d) 255.255.255.240 b) 193.145.122.15 e) 193.145.122.240 c) 255.255.255.0 c) flow control d) full frame

18. What is the name of routing type in which every incoming packet is sent to every neighbor router except the one from which the packet came? a) distribution b) multicast c) link-state d) shortest-path e) flooding 19. The shortest routes from a router to all other routers make up a .. because of the optimality principle. a) short-node b) cut-tree c) sink-tree d) binary-tree e) tentative-route b) dynamic routing table-updates d) multiple output routes 20. What is the main difference of dynamic routing compared to static one? a) real-time connection establishment c) dynamic behavior against flooding e) dynamic change of hardware position

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16. 18.03.2008 1st Midterm 1. Which of the following does not have a Data-Link Layer? a) Router a) 8 a) 100 b) 16 b) 45 b) Gateway c) 24 c) 90 c) Switch d) 32 d) 10 d) Bridge e) 1 e) 81 c) Capacity-Load e) Repeater 2. How many network bits does125.140.128.16 have? 3. How many cable segments does a fully connected network of 10 hosts have? 4. Which specifications the Physical Layer deals with? a) Physical-Electrical d) Routing-Switching a) 16 b) 5 a) Routing service d) Name service a) 8 b) 4 c) 2 c) 6 b) Logical-Electrical e) Delivery-CSMA/CD d) 48 b) Encription service e) ARP service d) 6 e) 3 in NRZ-I? d) 001011 e) 010110100110 e) 4 c) Network Layer

5. How many bytes are ethernet addresses in CSMA/CD networks? 6. IP address of a host is found using its name by the service named

7. How many pins of RJ-45 connectors are required when used in 10Base-T networks?

8. Which binary stream is represented by a) 110100 b) 010110100110 9. What is a broadcast IP address? c) 111101110101

a) IP address of a broadcasting host b) IP address with all hosts bits set to zero c) IP address with all network bits set to 1 d) IP address with all host bits set to 1 e) IP address with last byte set to 255 10. Which OSI layer deals with physical addressing of the device? a) Ethernet L. b) IP L. c) Address L. d) Physical L. e) Data Link L. 11. Which of the following can be a measure for the reliability of a computer network? a) Mean time between failures b) Implemented protocol c) Type of hosts d) Connections per unit time e) Protection software used on hosts 12. A dedicated physical link between two hosts is said to be? a) Mesh Lin b) Shared link c) Simplex a) Less cabling than ring d) It is collision-free d) Point-to-point e) Duplex 13. Which of the following is a disadvantage for networks with bus topology? b) Needs a central device c) Cheaper connectors e) Cable faults down entire network
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14. Which of the following is not an advantage of fiber-optic media for communication? a) Has high bandwidth d) Has low attenuation a) Router address d) Status table a) Adaptation b) Session a) Initialization of ARP d) Error checking b) Has low EMI c) Has high security e) Requires high-tech equipment b) Routing table e) Default entry table c) Network d) Transport e) Presentation c) Synchronization c) Delivery table

15. In a router, what is the name of the structure that tells where to deliver IP-packets?

16. Which of the following is not one of the seven OSI layers? 17. What is the purpose of preamble bits in an ethernet frame? b) Pre-bit counting e) Destination address

Answer the following according to the network given

18. What are the routing table entries in B, other than a possible default? a) NB ->I5, NC -> I6, NA -> I4 c) NA -> I2, NC -> I7, ND -> I7 b) A -> I2, C -> I7 d) ND -> I3, NA -> I1, NC -> I8

e) ND -> I7, NC -> I8, NA -> I2, NB -> I5 19. Which one of the following is probably incorrect? a).GW of a host in ND is I3 d) I3 and I6 are same a) I1=10.1.1.1 b) GW of a host in ND is I9 c) GW of a host in NB is I5 e) Netmasks of I2-I4 and I6-I7 are same c) Netmask of NA = 255.255.255.254 e) A host in NA has GW = 190.16.128.1

20. NA is a sub class-C network. Which of the following is possible? b) I1=220.140.141.x d) A host IP in NA=72.16.141.19

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17. 28.04.2008 2nd Midterm 1. The use of "Spread Spectrum" techniques is pointless in ? a) baseband systems d) satellite communications in ATM networks? a) VPN d) passage b) virtual circuit e) data route c) connection network f) cell network c) network layer f) physical address layer b) 802.11x c) wireless systems e) between two radio stations f) bluetooth

2. What is the name of the fixed route established at the time of initial connection setup

3. In ethernet networks, physical addressing is dealt with . a) ethernet connector d) data-link layer b) logical layer e) physical layer

4. What is the netmask of the gateway interface in a sub-network where only 14 hosts may exist and IP address of one of the hosts is 193.145.122.76? a) 255.255.255.224 b) 193.145.122.15 c) 255.255.255.0 f) 255.255.0.0 d) 193.145.122.240 e) 255.255.255.240

5. What was the bit rate of IEEE 802.5 (token-ring) when it was first standardized? a) 4.16 Mbps b) 10.2 Mbps c) 100 Mbps d) 12 Mbps e) 144.5 Mbps f) 512 kbps 6. What are small bluetooth networks called? a) chirpnets b) minibus c) BLAN d) smalltalk e) scatternet f) piconet 7. What is the algorithm to handle collisions in ethernet networks? a) Collision Pooling d) ARP a) AHF a) 30 b) IHL b) 36 b) Time Division Mux e) CSMA-CD c) Frag. Off. d) TTL c) 35 d) 15 c) exponential-backoff f) CSMA-CA e) ToS e) 18 f) PID f) 25

8. The number of allowed hops for an IP packet is kept in the field. 9. A fully connected network of 6 hosts requires a total of .. interfaces. 10. Which of the following is most important disadvantage of bus networks? a) have many collisions b) expensive cables used c) one fault downs entire net. d) less cabling required e) lower international standard f) higher traffic 11. How many channels are reserved for voice in DMT technique used in ADSL? a) 1 b) 5 c) 251 d) 256 e) 4 f) 0

12. What are the router settings for N3 in R1 and default route in R2?
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a) N3->d, def->p b) N3->w, def->d c) N3->p, def->u d) N3->p, def->d e) N3->N2, def->ISP f) N3->d, def->d 13. Problems encountered in IP networks are usually reported with this protocol. a) TCP b) SNMP c) SMTP d) HTTP e) ARP f) ICMP 14. What are VLAN tags? a) Error indicator attached to IP packets b) Routing information on ethernet adapters. c) A number in ethernet frame used to group switched hosts. d) Special MAC numbers e) A special number on ethernet switches f) A special group number on networked hosts 15. Which of the following does represent 10001000 in Manchester coding? a) d) b) e) c) f)

16. What does C in DHCP stand for? a) Connection b) Contention c) Collision d) Count e) Configuration f) Control 17. Which of the following is name of a digital channel used in ISDN? a) 2B1Q b) TE1 c) BRI d) PBX e) B8ZS f) OFDM 18. What are the splitters used for in DSL? a) Use two telephony device c) use multiple telco lines b) separate voice and data signals d) use multiple computers f) for splitting power c) leaky bucket f) ping

e) reject low frequency components for data a) incoming vectors d) shortest path b) outgoing packets e) flooding

19. Distance Vector Routing uses .. to determine distances to its own neighbors.

20. Class of an IP address can be determined from . a) first 8 bits b) first 3 bytes c) last 8 bits d) first 3 bits e) first 4 bits f) netmask

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18. 27.04.2010 2nd Midterm 1. A sequence of events in a TCP session between two hosts (H1,H2) is given below. Determine what is wrong with it. 1) H2: Connect, 2) H1: ConnectionRequest, 3) H1: Accept, 4) H1: SendData, 5) H2: DataArrival, 6) H2: Accept, 7) H1: Close a) Host-1 cannot send data in step-4 b) Host-1 should not close yet in step-7 c) Accept is incorrect in step-6 e) DataArrival is not called in step-5 2. In ----- packets/frames/cells guaranteed to be in order? a) ATM a) light a) DSL b) Wireless ethernet c) TCP/IP b) dispersion b) B c) speed c) PRI d) ISDN e) ADSL e) cable length e) D 3. Multimode fibers have more ----- than single mode fibers at the receiving end. d) wavelength d) NT1 4. Higher capacity channel in BRI service of ISDN is called ----- channel? 5. A in ADSL stands for ----- ? a) Alternative b) Asynchronous c) Attenuated d) Asymmetric e) Additive 6. When a management/arbitration device exists in wireless ethernet networks, the type of operation is called ----- ? a) access point b) distributed coordination c) managed arbitration d) management point e) point coordination 7. VLAN tags are ---- ? a) Error indicators attached to IP packets b) Routing information on ethernet adapters. c) Numbers in ethernet frame used to group switched hosts. d) Special numbers on ethernet switches e) Special group numbers on networked hosts 8. Splitters used on telephony wires connected to DSL modems are used to ----- ? a) Use two telephony device b) reject high frequency data signals c) use multiple telco lines d) use multiple computers e) reject low frequency components for data a) 10000 b) 100000 c) 52000 f) for splitting power e) 622 9. In ISDN 23B+D configuration is capable of carrying ----- kbps. d) 1544 d) Accept is incorrect in step-3

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10. Distance Vector Routing uses ----- to determine elements of its own distance vector. a) incoming vectors b) outgoing packets d) shortest path e) echo packets c) flooding

11. Manchester coding is one of the encoding techniques used to eliminate ----- ? a) DC component of the signal b) High frequency components c) common mode signals a) 64 a) nanonets b) 72 c) 53 d) redundancy d) 1544 e) echo signals e) 46 e) scatternet 12. ATM routers can be entirely hardware as ATM frame/packet/cell size is ----- bytes. 13. ----- is a collection of Bluetooth piconets. b) micronets c) picosubnets c) multicast d) bluenets 14. Transmitting a packet on every route except the one where it came from is called -----. a) flooding b) broadcast d) replicast e) routing 15. The filters used in telephony end offices limit high frequency components on telephone lines. What is its cut-off frequency when ADSL modems are used on customer lines? a) 3000 Hz a) 2B1Q b) TE1 b) 3400 Hz c) BRI c) 4500 Hz d) no filter e) 9600 Hz 16. Which of the following is name of a digital channel used in ISDN? d) PBX e) OFDM 17. FDDI stands for -----. a) Fiber Distributed Data Interface c) Frequency Data Digital Interface e) Faulty Data Dynamic Interface 18. Gigabit ethernet uses ----- bit hardware address. a) 53 a) ARP b) 48 b) TCP c) 16 c) gateway b) Signals d) 32 d) netmask c) Properties e) 128 e) separator d) Methods e) Events 19. In IP networking, network and host addresses are separated using ----- ? 20. In TCP sockets, DataArrival and ConnectionRequest are -----. a) Messages b) Fully Distributed Device Interface d) Fiber Data Device Interconnection

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19. 22.03.2011 1st Midterm 1. Which of the following does not need data link layer? I) Gateway II) IP-Router III) Repeater V) Ethernet Switch VI) Ethernet Bridge a) all b) I,II,III c) IV, V d) III, IV e) V, VI IV) Ethernet Hub

2. Eight hosts making up a fully connected network has a total of .. dedicated lines. a) 8 b) 28 c) 64 d) 56 e) 49 3. DMT divides freq. band into 256 channels in ADSL, of which . are used for voice. a) 1 b) 5 c) 251 d) 255 e) 4 4. What are the default route entries for R1 and R2 respectively? a) ISP, ISP b) p, d c) ISP, d d) u, p e) u, u 5. What is the netmask of the gateway interface in a sub-network where maximum of 25 hosts exist and IP address of one of the hosts is 192.168.1.1? a) 192.168.1.0 b) 192.168.1.224 c) 192.168.1.27 d) 255.255.255.0 e) 255.255.255.224 6. In OSI systems, IP-routing is dealt with . a) application layer b) data-link layer c) logical layer d) network layer e) physical layer 7. Which of the following is not one of the seven OSI layers? a) Network b) Session c) Routing d) Transport 8. What is a broadcast IP address for 193.140.141.128 / 26 ? a) 193.140.141.128 b) 193.140.141.127 c) 255.255.255.63 d) 255.255.255.191 e) 193.140.141.191 9. The diff. NRZ-I waveform corresponding to the binary stream 01101000 is a) d) b) e) c) Segmentationc) e) Presentation

10. Which one of the following is a job of the Physical Layer? a) Switching, routing b) Signaling standards reassembly d) Encryption, Compression e) Physical addressing 11. Gigabit ethernet uses .. bit physical addresses. a) 16 b) 32 c) 24 d) 48 e) 64

12. How many differential pairs do 10BaseT UTP interfaces need? a) 6 b) 1 c) 2 d) 4 e) 8 13. ADSL stands for .? a) Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line b) Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line
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c) Asynchronous Digital Serial Line d) Advanced Digital Serial Line e) Asynchronous Delivery Serial Line 14. ARP finds out .. from a) IP, Hostname b) Hostname, IP c) Ethernet Addr, name d) Gateway-IP, IP e) Ethernet Addr, IP 15. The word splitter usually refers to . in networking? a) A high-pass filter that extracts data signals in ADSL lines b) A low-pass filter that extracts voice signal in ADSL lines c) A multiport device that duplicates packets towards all connected lines d) A connector box that splits customers premises from Telcos e) A BNC T connector for splitting coaxial lines. 16. What does the initial part of Ethernet frame that is designed for synchronization called? a) Preample b) Syncpulses c) Header d) Synchronizer e) Preloader 17. Repeaters operate similar to that extend the cable length. a) Bridges b) Ethernet hubs c) Ethernet switches d) Connectors Answer the following according to the network given e) Routers

18. No default route entry is used in routers. What are the routing table entries in B? a) NB ->I5, NC -> I6, NA -> I4 b) NA -> I1, NC -> I8 c) NA -> I2, NC -> I7 d) NB ->I5, NC -> I8, NA -> I1 e) NA -> I2, NC -> I9, NB -> I5 19. Which one of the following is probably incorrect? a).GW of a host in NA is I3 b) Hosts in NA can reach hosts in NC c) GW of a host in NB is I5 d) Netmasks of I2-I4 and I6-I7 are same e) I6 and I3 are same 20. NA is a class-B network. Which of the following is possible? a) I1=192.168.1.1 b) I1=193.140.141.255 c) Netmask of NA = 255.255.255.0 d) A host IP in NA=72.16.141.19 e) I2 and I4 are from the same network

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20. 22.03.2011 2nd Midterm


1. The router and distances columns in the following table completely describe a network of

routers. The columns 2-4 indicates the distance of connected router from the router on the leftmost column. As shown on the table, source A is marked as permanent and B and C are marked as tentative nodes. Since destination node is F, determine the next state/values after evaluating the current working node that is to be selected. Fill your answer (next state) into the empty column provided (using the shortest path routing algorithm approach). (p:termanent, t:tentative, c:current working node) (hint: drawing the network schema may help) router A B C D E F G distances B,2 C,3 E,1 A,3 D,2 F,4 B,1 C,2 F,2 A,1 G,4 C,4 D,2 G,1 E,4 B,3 F,1 state p,A,0 p,A,0 t,A,2 t,A,3 , , p,A,1 , , t,E,5 t,A,3 , , t,A,1 , , , ,

A,2 D,1 G,3 t,A,2

2. A LAN is constructed by dividing a /24 block (n.n.n.x) into 4 equal subnets (named as N1, N2, N3 and N4) and connecting these subnets using dedicated router-to-router connections. Router-to-router interfaces are named as Ixy to indicate the interface of Rx connecting it to Ry. The interface at the other end of the connection is Iyx. Determine subnet addresses for minimum number of router entries. Determine router entries afterwards. Omit n.n.n parts while filling in the tables. Isp (service provider) R3 N3 Net N1 N2 N3 N4 Network address .0/26 .128/26 .64/26 .192/26 R1 .64/26 -> I31 .128/25 -> I21 default -> Isp R1 N1 R2 N2 R2 default -> I12 R3 default -> I13 N4

3. An ethernet frame carrying a short IPv4 packet is sent to host=74.125.39.105 (eth=00:10:30:BA:4C:21) on the internet from local host=193.140.128.34 (eth=1A:2B:3C:4D:5E:6F) through a gateway=193.140.128.1 (eth=DE:AD:BE:EF:00:11). Fill in the components of the frame below. Dest addr DE:AD:BE:EF:00:11
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Src addr Source IP Dest IP

1A:2B:3C:4D:5E:6F 193.140.128.34 74.125.39.105

4. Server software for a simple connectionless (UDP) messaging protocol is to be prepared. Protocol has a total of 7 possible messages. These are;
Clients to server M0:username:password M1:username:password M2:username:password:username2:message Server to clients M3:key:connected_client_list M4:key:username M5:key:username M6:key:username:message Meaning and action to do username is online. Reply with M3. Send M4 to everyone. username is offline. Send M5 to everyone. Send M6 to username2 Meaning Ok. Here are the other clients and your key. username is online. username is offline. message is sent by username to you

Server keeps a fixed size table of clients (TOC) as follows. User Name Password IP key ahmet falanfilan 192.168.1.15 Ax2w1q ahmet is online ayse vesaire this one is offline Existence of IP number in the table indicates that the user is online. key is the signature of the server (a special long string) uniquely generated for the client, proving that the messages from server is genuine. Complete the following software flow for DataReceived event of the server. 1. Data is received as given in the Client-to-Server column. 2. Split data into D0, D1, D2, D3, D4 (Mx goes to D0, username goes to D1 etc.) a. If(D1:D2 pair is found in TOC(index) where index=1 to N) i. If(D0=M0) 1. Generate key, save in TOC(index) 2. Save client IP in TOC(index) 3. Send M3:key(index):client_list to IP 4. Send M4:key(i):D1 to everyone in the TOC
(data sent to clients carries their own unique key from the table; i=1 to N)

5. goto END ii. If(D0=M1) 1. Delete IP in TOC(index) 2. Send M5:key(i):D1 to everyone in the TOC (i=1 to N) 3. goto END 4. iii. If(D0=M2) 1. If(IP of TOC(index) client IP) goto END 2. Find index ix of D3 in TOC 3. Send M6:key(ix):D1:D4 to IP of TOC(ix) 4. goto END 3. END

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21. 02.06.2011 Final Exam 1. An Ethernet frame carrying an ICMP packet is sent from host H to router R2 through router R1. What is the frame+packets destination Ethernet address and destination IP address? I a) ER2+IR2 d) E1+I2 ER2 EH2 H2 IR2 E1 EH1 E12 E2 b) E1+I1 e) EH1+IR2 H I frame I R1 I 1 I2 R2 H1 12 c) E2+I1 f) E2+I2 2. A typical socket-server application responds user requests using TCP over a specified port? What is the typical sequence in terms of socket functions on server side? a) Listen, DataArrival, Accept, SendData, Close b) Listen, ConnectionRequest, Accept, DataArrival, GetData, SendData, Close c) Open, Connect, Accept, SendData, DetData, Close d) ConnectionRequest, DataArrival, GetData, Accept, SendData, Close, Listen e) Open, SendData, Listen, GetData, DataArrival, RetrieveData, Close f) Listen, Open, GetData, SendData, Close 3. What are the DHCP pool types? a) Automatic, Backed-up b) Configured, Free c) Large-pool, Limited d) Dynamic, Recursive e) Static, Dynamic f) Switched, Bridged 4. What are the minimal OSI layers of a switching router? a) Physical, DataLink, Network b) Transport, Network, DataLink c) Application, VLAN, Switching d) Switching, Routing e) Bridging, Routing, Physical f) DataLink, Physical 5. Connection between VLANs can be provided by ..? a) VLAN-tags b) fiber cable c) router d) bridge 6. IEEE 8092.3 covers mostly ..? a) CSMA/CD on Ethernet b) Token-Ring d) ATM e) Network Layer e) switch f) VLAN-server

c) Token-Bus f) DoD Layers

7. Four routers are connected as a ring. Including broadcast and network addresses, what is the minimum number of IP addresses needed/wasted for inter-router connections? a) 4 b) 8 c) 6 d) 64 e) 32 f) 16 8. Which of the following is not a part of the IP datagram? a) Fragment offset b) Packet identifier c) Type of service d) TTL e) Dest. ethernet address f) Header length 9. FDDI stands for? a) Fiber Digital Data Interconnect c) Fiber Data Domain Internet e) Fast Digital Data Internetwork b) Full Duplex Data Integration d) Fiber Distributed Data Interface f) Fully Distributed Domain Interface

10. How does source host know if a destination host is on the same IP network? a) Looks up from a hosts list b) DHCP server tells it c) Via ARP d) From network part of IP addr. e) If it responds then it is local f) it doesnt

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11. Name server is a .? a) host with full of names b) short of an HTTP-server c) routing application d) program for administrators. e) network protocol f) program answering name queries 12. Which of the following is a well-known routing method? a) multilink routing b) selective routing d) link stared routing. e) short-test routing c) multicast routing f) vector-metric routing

13. In DMT of ADSL how many channels are used for analog voice communication? a) 5 b) 1 c) 6 d) 2 e) 8 f) 256 14. ATM cells are .. bytes? a) 53 b) 64K c) 1524 d) 2048 e) 48 f) 64

15. Which of the following is a common wireless communication technique? a) Direct Synchronous Serial Shift b) Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum c) Fully Hierarchical Shifted Spectrum d) Orthogonal Fast Direct Maintenance e) Spectrum Balanced Orthogonal Shift f) Frequency Adaptive Discrete Multiplexing 16. Wireless ethernet and BlueTooth interfere as their operating frequencies coincide at .. ? a) 900MHz b) 5.GHz c) 1.9GHz d) 2.11GHz e) 4.9GHz f) 2.4GHz 17. Bridges do not separate logical networks since . .. a) they are used to connect logical nets. b) this is done by network administrators. c) what seems logical may not really be. d) CompNet students do not know how to. e) they work on physical addresses. f) logical addressing is costly 18. In a network with several switches bridges and routers, usually the routers are the bottlenecks as .. a) fiber cables do not work with routers. b) they are fast and reliable. c) they have software layers to do the job and software is slow. d) they require additional money to operate adequately. e) they are the most disliked by the administrators. f) bottles usually have narrow necks for TCP/IP packets. 19. What is default route refers to for routers? a) They usually end up in poorer departments and later in dusty shelves. b) Branches and leaves of the network tree. c) The most reliable route among all connected interfaces when the network is congested. d) The interface to send through when the destination is not known for an IP packet. e) It is the administrators traffic monitoring software. f) All traffic is routed to default route. 20. What is the nominal bit rate of fast ethernet? a) 1000 MB/s b) 10 GB/s c) 10 MB/s d) 200 MB/s e) 1 Gb/s f) 100 MB/s

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22. 19.03.2013 1st Midterm Exam 1. An IP(v4) packet is sent from host Ha in network A to host Hb in network B. The route between R1 and R2 is an ethernet network. What is the frame+packets destination Ethernet address and destination IP address in R1-R2 route? a) ER0+IR0 d) E2+Ib EH1 E1 E12 E2 R0 I R1 R2 I1 I12 I2 H1 b) Eb+Ib e) E1+I2 frame ER0 IR0 IR2 ER2 c) E1+I1 f) ER2+Ib B
A Ha Ia Ea Hb Ib Eb

2. Which of the following needs a physical layer? I) Gateway II) IP-Router III) Repeater IV) Ethernet Hub V) Ethernet Switch VI) Ethernet Bridge a) I, II, V b) IV, V c) III, IV d) V, VI e) III, IV, V f) all 3. How many electrical lines does a 100BaseT interface minimally have? a) 2 b) 4 c) 6 d) 8 e) 16 f) 1

4. DMT divides freq. band into 256 channels in ADSL, of which . are used for voice. a) 1 b) 5 c) 251 d) 255 e) 4 f) 6 5. What are the default route entries for R1 and R2 respectively? a) p, d b) ISP, ISP c) ISP, d d) u, p e) u, u f) ISP, p 6. What is the optimal netmask of the gateway interface in a sub-network where maximum of 10 hosts exist and gateway IP address is 192.168.1.1? a) 192.168.1.0 b) 192.168.1.224 c) 192.168.1.28 d) 255.255.255.0 e) 255.255.255.240 f) 192.168.1.240 7. In OSI systems, IP-routing is dealt with . a) switching layer b) data-link layer c) logical layer d) network layer e) physical layer f) security layer 8. Which of the following is not one of the seven OSI layers? a) Network b) Session c) Switching d) Transport e) Application f) Physical 9. What does ADSL stand for ? a) Asynchronous Direct Serial Line b) Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line c) Advanced Digital Serial Line d) Alternative Digital Serial Load e) Asynchronously Delivery Sub Line f) Advanced Data Serial Link 10. Gigabit ethernet uses .. bit physical addresses. a) 80 b) 32 c) 24 d) 128 e) 64 f) 48

11. ARP is used to find out ethernet address from IP address and stands for . a) Adaptive Repeat Protocol b) Adaptive Replication Protocol
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c) Asymmetric Rate Polling e) Advanced Resolution Perimeter

d) Address Resolution Protocol f) Address Recovery Program

12. The word splitter usually refers to . in ADSL networking? d) A high-pass filter that extracts data signals in ADSL lines b) A multiport device that duplicates packets towards all connected lines c) A connector box that splits customers premises from Telcos d) A BNC T connector for splitting coaxial lines. e) A splice box that converts fiber signals to electrical signals on copper wires. f) A low-pass filter that extracts voice signal in ADSL lines 13. Initial part of Ethernet frame is designed for synchronization. What is it called? a) Preample b) Syncpulses c) Header d) Synchronizer e) Preloader f) TTL 14. Which of the following is a disadvantage for networks with bus topology? a) Needs a central device b) More cabling than TP c) Cheaper connectors d) Has no collision e) Cable faults down entire network f) none 15. Repeaters operate similar to that extend the cable length. a) Bridges b) Ethernet hubs c) Ethernet switches d) Connectors e) Routers f) Gateways Answer the following according to the network given

16. No default route entry is used in routers. What are the routing table entries in B? b) ND ->I5, NC -> I10, NB -> I5, NA -> I1 a) ND ->I14, NC -> I10, NA -> I1 c) NA -> I2, NC -> I8, ND -> I13 d) NA ->I4, NC -> I6, ND -> I7 e) NA -> I3, NC -> I10, ND -> I13 f) NA -> I3, NC -> I10, ND -> I13 17. Which one of the following is probably incorrect? a) GW of a host in NA is I1 b) Networks I2-I4 and I11-I12 can be the same c) GW of a host in NB is I5 d) Netmasks of I2-I4 and I6-I8 can be the same e) Networks I2-I4 and I6-I8 can be the same f) Hosts in NA can reach hosts in NC 18. NA is a class-B network. Which of the following is possible? a) I1=192.168.1.1 b) I1=193.140.141.255 c) Netmask of NA = 255.255.255.0 d) A host IP in NA=72.16.141.19 e) I1 and I2 can be the same. f) I2 and I4 are from the same network

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23. 07.05.2013 2nd Midterm Exam 1. Which one of the following methods is more likely to be called in ConnectionRequest event function? a) SendData a) cell a) light b) GetData c) Accept d) Connect e) Listen f) Close 2. What does the transmission data blocks called in ATM? b) frame b) dispersion c) packet c) speed d) dataframe d) wavelength e) log f) payload f) strength 3. Single-mode fibers are thinner than multimode fibers. Thats why they have less . . e) cable length f) splitter 4. In ADSL, speech signals are separated from data signals using in customer's premises? a) multiplexer b) MSAU c) HPF d) ADC A? A A B C D E F G H 2 1 1 2 3 2 3 4 3 3 1 B 2 C 1 3 4 3 3 1 1 1 D 1 E 2 F G H 3 2 6. What is the total cost of the shortest path between A and H? a) 2 b) 3 c) 4 d) 7 e) 6 f) 5 a) E b) G c) D d) F e) C f) B e) amplifier 5. According to the link-state table given, what is the first hop of the shortest path from H to

7. Distance Vector Routing uses . to determine elements of its own distance vector. a) incoming vectors b) outgoing packets d) shortest path e) echo packets c) flooding f) routing

8. What is the name of the routing technique where incoming packets are sent through every available connection? a) flooding b) broadcasting c) multicasting d) hierarchical e) spanning f) copying 9. ATM routers can be entirely hardware since ATM data-block size (intentionally used a general name here) is . bytes. a) 64 b) 72 c) 53 d) 1544 e) 46 f) 83 f) ATP,TP 10. is a connectionless protocol whereas is connection oriented protocol. a) TCP,UDP b) FTP,HTTP a) flooding b) broadcast c) ATM,ADSL d) UDP,TCP e) LDP,UP c) multicast d) replicast 11. Transmitting a packet on every route except the one where it came from is called . e) routing f) overloading

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12. A class C IP range is to be divided into 4 unequal subnets with number of addresses: 128, 64, 32 and 32. What are the numbers of netmask bits that are '1', in this order? a) 24,25,26,26 d) 24,23,22,21 b) 25,26,27,27 e) 27,26,25,25 c) 26,27,28,28 f) 28,27,26,26 c) Multiplexed Address f) Manual Application

13. What is the meaning of MA in CSMA/CD? a) Managed Addressing d) Multiple Access a) Fax service d) Cordless telephony 15. The A in ADSL stands for .. a) Analog b) Assimilated c) Asymmetric d) Advanced e) Adapted f) Addressed 16. The number of allowed hops for an IP packet is kept in the field. a) AHF a) ARP a) Methods b) IHL b) TCP b) Signals c) Frag. Off. c) gateway c) Properties d) ToS d) netmask d) Messages e) TTL f) PID 17. In an IP router, network address is extracted from destination address using . ? e) extractor f) separator e) Events f) Variables 18. In TCP sockets, Listen and Accept are .? 19. What is the algorithm to handle collisions in UTP ethernet networks? a) Collision Pooling d) ARP where is the packed sent to? a) Admin desktop d) Packet manager a) 180 m b) 200 m b) default route e) next router c) 1000 m d) 1200 m c) nearest neighbor f) held forever e) 100 m f) 50 m b) Time Division Mux e) CSMA-CD c) exponential-backoff f) CSMA-CA b) Monitored Access e) Multiple Avoidance b) Serial port e) intercom c) LAN access f) Service discovery

14. Which service is expected to be implemented in Bluetooth?

20. When an IP router could not find an entry in the routing table for a destination IP address,

21. What is the maximum length of Cat-5 cable in a fast ethernet network?

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