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RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION

REF PROTECTION

REF PROTECTION IS TO DETECT INTERNAL EARTH FAULTS IN AC MACHINES LIKE GENERATORS & TRANSFORMERS

ZONE OF PROTECTION

REF PROTECTION
WHY NORMAL E/F IS INADEQUATE ? CTs OF NORMAL E/F RELAY WILL NOT SENSE FAULT IN THE INTERNAL ZONE SINCE FAULT CURRENT WILL NOT PASS THROUGH THEM HENCE A SEPATE REF SCHEME IS REQUIRED TO DETECT INTERNAL E/F

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Y
FAULT A

B RELAY N

ZONE OF PROTECTION

FAULT B

B RELAY N

REF PROTECTION
FAULT A (EXTERNAL) FAULT B (INTERNAL)
FAULT CURRENT FLOWS THROUGH Y PHASE CT & NUETRAL CT N. NO FAULT CURRENT FLOWS IN THE RELAY RELAY WILL NOT TRIP FAULT CURRENT FLOWS THROUGH NUETRAL CT N ONLY. RELAY SEES A CURRENT WHICH IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE VECTORIAL SUM OF RYB AND THE FAULT CURRENT THROUGH N RELAY WILL TRIP

REF PROTECTION
STABILISING RESISTOR FOR REF RELAYS
SINCE REF RELAY HAS TO SENSE A SMALL DIFFERENCE IN CURRENT AND TRIP, IT WILL HAVE A LOW PICK UP SETTING. WHEN PICK UP SETTING IS LOW, RELAY MAY PICK UP DUE TO SMALL DIFFERENCES IN CT CHARACTERISTICS MISMATCH. TO AVOID THIS PROBLEM A STABILISING RESISTOR IS USED IN ALL REF RELAYS

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CALCULATION OF STABILISING RESISTOR Rst
VALUE OF Rst SHOULD BE SUCH THAT VOLTAGE DEVELOPED ACROSS THE RELAY UNDER MAX THROUGH FAULT CONDITIONS, IS INSUFFICIENT TO OPERATE THE RELAY. REFER THE DIAGRAM OF THROUGH FAULT CT Y HAS SATURATED V= If * (Rct+Rl))/N V SHOULD NOT CAUSE A CURRENT WHICH WILL OPERATE RELAY

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Y
FAULT A

B
V= (If * (Rct+Rl))/N

Rst N

RELAY V

WHERE If = MAX. PRIMARY THROUGH FAULT CURRENT N = CT RATIO Rct = CT WINDING RESISTANCE Rl = LEAD RESISTANCE (RELAY TO CT)

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CALCULATION OF STABILISING RESISTOR Rst
1. PICK UP SETTING IN THE RELAY RELAY OPERATING CURRENT 10% 0.1A

THERE ARE 4 CTs IN PARALLEL CT RATIO


KNEE PONT VOLTAGE OF CT 160 MAX THROUGH FAULT CURRENT

3000

36KA

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CALCULATION OF THROUGH FAULT CURRENT

IF ON THE CT PRIMARY SIDE

KVA RATING OF TRANSFORMER VOLTAGE RATING % IMPEDANCE


KVA IF (Sy SIDE) = 1.732 X 415 X Z% = 36 KA =

1600 11000 / 415 V 6.25


1600000 718.78 X .0625

REF PROTECTION
CALCULATION OF STABILISING RESISTOR Rst
2. Rst SHOULD BE SELECTED IN SUCH A WAY UNDER THROUGH FAULT CONDITIONS, THE RELAY DOES NOT SEE A VOLTAGE SUFFICIENT ENOUGH TO TRIP LET US ASSUME THAT ONE CT HAS SATURATED FULLY UNDER THROUGH FAULT CONDITIONS (WORST CASE) LET US ASSUME THAT WHOLE OF PRIMARY CURRENTS ARE PERFECTLY TRANSFORMED INTO SECONDARY IN THE REMAINING CTs.

REF PROTECTION
CALCULATION OF STABILISING RESISTOR Rst UNDER THESE CONDITIONS :

Vr = If ( Rct +Rl)/N = 36000 (3+0.15)/3000 = 38V

REF PROTECTION
CALCULATION OF STABILISING RESISTOR Rst NOTE THAT AT THIS VOLTAGE Vr , THE CURRENT THROUGH RELAY SHOULD BE LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO PICK UP CURRENT. THIS MEANS THAT R = Vr/0.1= 38 /0.1 = 380 OHMS WHERE R = Rst+RELAY IMPEDANCE RELAY IMPEDANCE = RELAY BURDEN / (Is*Is) = 0.9/0.01=90 ohms Rst = 380 - 90 = 290 OHMS

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