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MASARYK UNIVERSITY BRNO

FACULTY OF EDUCATION
Department of English Language and Literature

How to improve students communic tive s!i""s


Bachelor Thesis

Brno 2

Thesis Author" Len#a Temero$% Thesis &uper$isor" 'gr( )enata *an+a,-#o$%

Announcement
Hereby I state that I worked on the Bachelor Thesis on my own and used the sources of information listed in the bibliography only. ./0#o$ 21rd April 2 ! Len#a Temero$%

Ac!now"ed#ement
I would like to take this opportunity to thank Renata Jana ko!" for her kind help and !aluable ad!ice that she pro!ided me with throughout my thesis.
./0#o$ 21rd April 2 ! Len#a Temero$%

$ONTENTS
% INTRO&U$TION''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''( ) THEORETI$A* +ART'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''',
2(2 &3EA4IN5(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((! #.$.$ %peaking as a skill.....................................................................................................& #.$.# 'ifference between speaking and con!ersation........................................................( #.$.) %tudents* moti!ation to participate in a speaking lesson..........................................+ #.$., -ccuracy !ersus fluency..........................................................................................$$ #.$.. /orrecting students* mistakes.................................................................................$# 2(2 CO''UNICATI.E ACTI.ITIE&((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((26 #.#.$ Types of communicati!e acti!ities...........................................................................$, #.#.# Importance of pair work and group work...............................................................$. #.#.) The role of a teacher in communicati!e acti!ities...................................................$&

- +RA$TI$A* +ART''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''%.
1(2 'Y TEAC7IN5 E83E)IENCE(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((29 1(2 CO''UNICATI.E ACTI.ITIE& AND T7EI) E.ALUATION((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((2:

/ $ON$*USION'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''-/ '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''-( ( ( BIB*IO0RA+HY'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''-1

1 INTRODUCTION
At present; spea#ing a foreign language represents one of the essential re<uirements of toda/=s so>iet/( Besides other s#ills and #no?ledge; it is >onsidered as one of the most influen>ing fa>tors ?hile appl/ing for a @oA or sustaining in a parti>ular ?or# position under the >ondition of ad$an>ing the language le$el( Based on m/ ?or# eBperien>e; I >an >onfirm that #no?ing a foreign language is a ne>essit/ for e$er/one in general; mainl/ for m/ students C soldiers( These people are re<uired to rea>h a suffi>ient le$el in a foreign language in order to a>>omplish militar/ assignments in missions aAroad( Tea>hing foreign languages; mainl/ English; for these militar/ purposes is pro$ided A/ the Defen>e Language Institute in ./0#o$ ?here I ha$e Aeen ?or#ing as an English tea>her for almost three /ears( '/ prin>ipal goal is to pro$ide the soldiers ?ith as effi>ient English lessons as possiAle Ae>ause it ?ill Ae them ?ho ?ill ha$e to deal ?ith international relationships and ta#e measures for sol$ing $arious situations( The main reason for >hoosing this topi> for m/ Aa>helor thesis ?as realiDing ho? important spea#ing is in e$er/ da/ situations( No matter ?here ?e are; either in the CDe>h )epuAli> or in a foreign >ountr/; English >on$ersation pla/s a >ru>ial role in understanding ea>h other and dealing ?ith different #inds of un>o$ered proAlems( It means that not onl/ soldiers that I tea>h; need English for >ommuni>ation aAroad Aut also CDe>h tea>hers need English to >ommuni>ate ?ith their >olleagues E nati$e spea#ers( At m/ ?or# I ha$e an opportunit/ to en>ounter ?ith people from $arious parts of the ?orld and I am $er/ interested in the ?a/ the/ use English as their mother tongue( These >oC?or#ers ha$e a greater supporting role in our tea>hing pro>ess and it is al?a/s $aluaAle to ha$e a >hat ?ith them and as# <uestions to ma#e sure our @udgement ?as right( E$en if the/ >ome from Ameri>a; England or Australia and their a>>ents differ; it is @ust a <uestion of time for tea>hers and also students to ad@ust to their spee>h and distinguish differen>es in pronun>iation( Being aAle to #eep a fluent >on$ersation ?ith a nati$e spea#er is $ie?ed as the main goal of m/ students; ?hi>h underlines the importan>e of spea#ing s#ills in a student=s point of $ie?( Therefore; in m/ thesis I de>ided to >on>entrate on >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$ities ?hi>h might Ae helpful for English tea>hers and enhan>e their students= >ommuni>ati$e s#ills(

'/ thesis is di$ided into t?o parts E theoreti>al and pra>ti>al( In the theoreti>al part I deal ?ith the differen>e Aet?een spea#ing and >on$ersation; and eBplain its pra>ti>al use in e$er/ da/ life( I also aim to highlight the importan>e of moti$ation in tea>hing pra>ti>e and the te>hni<ues and approa>hes used to enhan>e students= desire to spea# a foreign language( Ghile dealing ?ith >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$ities; I fo>used on distinguishing them either as a>>ura>/ or fluen>/ a>ti$ities and pro$ided definitions of these terms( The role of a tea>her is also dis>ussed suggesting useful ideas to ma#e the spea#ing lesson as effe>ti$e as possiAle( The pra>ti>al part >onsists of a set of preCtaught >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$ities des>riAed minutel/ and their e$aluation for other tea>hers ?ho ?ould li#e to appl/ them in their spea#ing lessons(

2 THEORETICAL PART
2.1 SPEAKING
2.1.1 Speaking as a skill
For most people; the aAilit/ to spea# a foreign language is s/non/mous ?ith #no?ing that language Ae>ause spee>h is for them the Aasi> means of human >ommuni>ation( English learners no longer eBpe>t the traditional approa>h of their tea>hers Aased on de$eloping mainl/ the grammati>al >ompeten>e and using methodolog/ popular in the past( Toda/; tea>hers are eBpe>ted to pro$ide their students ?ith useful a>ti$e #no?ledge of the foreign language; not @ust theor/ aAout the language( Communi>ati$e approa>h fo>uses on a Aalan>e Aet?een fluen>/ and a>>ura>/ and is the most suitaAle for those students ?hose aim is to gain >onfiden>e in spea#ing and >on$ersational aAilities( Ne$ertheless; spea#ing in a foreign language has often Aeen $ie?ed as the most demanding of the four s#ills( IGhile listening and reading in$ol$e the aAilit/ to >orre>tl/ re>ei$e messages and are therefore referred to as re>epti$e s#ills; spea#ing and ?riting; on the other hand; in$ol$e language produ>tion and are referred to as produ>ti$e s#ills(J K7armer 2::F; 2HL 3rodu>ing spo#en language has often meant a diffi>ult/ and an oAsta>le for English learners( There might arise a <uestion ?h/( The ans?er is oA$ious( In the natural spo#en language students are re<uired to Ae a?are of >hara>teristi>s of fluent spee>h; su>h as redu>ed forms; use of slang or idioms; fiBed phrases; >ollo>ations and most importantl/ the pa>e of spee>h( All of these ha$e to Ae ta#en into >onsideration ?hile pra>tising >on$ersation in >lass( Githout these; our spo#en language ?ould sound Aoo#ish and unnatural( To a$oid this; it is essential to introdu>e and pra>tise IrealJ >ommuni>ation ?ith our students ?ithin the learning pro>ess( If it is negle>ted; it ma/ Ae a reason ?h/ students are often sho>#ed and disappointed ?hen using a foreign language for the first time ?hilst intera>ting in foreign en$ironment( The/ ha$e not Aeen prepared for spontaneous >ommuni>ation and >ould not >ope ?ith all of its simultaneous demands(

The emAarrassment is usuall/ >aused A/ studentsM inaAilit/ to ad@ust to nati$e spea#ersM spee>h( This is natural and ad@ures patien>e ?hile learning to spea# or >ommuni>ate in a foreign language( As I alread/ mentioned; nati$e spea#ers are a great support and the opportunit/ to >ommuni>ate ?ith them means e$en greater en>ouragement for our students( Although it is <uite demanding for students to #eep up in >on$ersation ?ith them; the/ ta#e it as an ad$antage in their studies( 'ost English learners are a>tuall/ familiar ?ith the fa>t that the Aest ?a/ to ad$an>e their spea#ing s#ills is ad@usting to it in an English spea#ing en$ironment(

2.1.2 Difference be !een speaking an" c#n$ersa i#n


Although the terms Ispea#ingJ and I>on$ersationJ ma/ seem >lear; the/ often get misunderstood( &pea#ing as a s#ill taught at s>hools presents the studentMs aAilit/ to eBpress his or her opinions; thoughts and ideas to a parti>ular matter( &pea#ing pra>ti>e; ?hi>h is usuall/ Aased on stor/ telling; gi$ing spee>h or presentation; is the ne>essit/ for later su>>essful >on$ersation( Ne$ertheless; the fo>us on spea#ing a>ti$ities has diminished in re>ent /ears( This has Aeen >aused A/ man/ fa>tors; espe>iall/ A/ realiDing the need of e$er/da/ >ommuni>ation( As I mentioned aAo$e; gi$ing spee>hes or presentations is not ?hat ?e >on>entrate on in our lessons( E$en though these are >ru>ial prere<uisites for later >on$ersational pra>ti>e; the tea>hers tend to fo>us on >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$ities as the main goal of spea#ing lessons( I ha$e no oA@e>tion to this; Aut it is essential to mention the importan>e of presentations for militar/ English learners ?or#ing for the 'inistr/ of Defen>e and the >onse<uen>es of the la># of spea#ing s#ill ?hile gi$ing militar/ presentations aAroad( For this reason; it is $er/ important for tea>hers to thin# through the purpose of spea#ing and >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$ities Aeing prepared for lessons and also the target group of learners( Nolas>o K2:9!; 1L mentions that Aeing aAle to spea# reasonaAl/ >orre>t and e$en fluent English is one thing; Aut Aeing aAle to engage in onCgoing; intera>ti$e; mentall/ satisf/ing >on$ersation is another( Con$ersation is su>h a natural part of our li$es that man/ people are not >ons>ious of ?hat happens ?ithin it( 7o?e$er; >on$ersation follo?s >ertain rules ?hi>h should Ae oAe/ed in order for parti>ipants to feel relaBed and Ae satisfied ?ith it(

Arthur K2:9!; FL adds that the main purpose of >on$ersation is the eB>hange of information among people( Ghile >ommuni>ating; our students ma/ find themsel$es in different so>ial situations pla/ing $arious so>ial roles and the main tas# for language tea>hers is to prepare them for these real situations the/ might parti>ipate in( This also in>ludes leading students to de$elop the aAilit/ to initiate and sustain >on$ersation ?hene$er it o>>urs(

2.1.% S &"en s' (# i$a i#n # par icipa e in a speaking less#n


Ghen students learn a foreign language; the/ $er/ often a>>umulate a lot of #no?ledge Kgrammati>al rules; lists of $o>aAular/ itemsL; Aut then the/ find out that the/ >an not a>tuall/ use this language to >ommuni>ate ?hen the/ ?ant to( &>ri$ener K2 F; 26!L >laims that there seems to Ae some diffi>ult/ in mo$ing language from passi$e #no?ledge into a>ti$e usage( Githout eBperien>e in using the language; learners ma/ tend to Ae ner$ous aAout tr/ing to sa/ things( 3artl/ the/ ma/ fear seeming foolish in front of others; the/ ma/ ?orr/ aAout getting things ?rong the/ ma/ ?ant to a$oid tea>herMs >omments or >orre>tion and so on( It ta#es <uite a long time for some students to eBpress themsel$es; ?hi>h leads to long emAarrassing pauses ?hile learners are tr/ing to find out ho? to sa/ ?hat the/ reall/ ?ant to sa/( One of the Aest ?a/s of helping learners to a>ti$ate their #no?ledge is to put them in IsafeJ situations in >lass ?here the/ are inspired and en>ouraged to tr/ to spea# a foreign language( Tea>hers should tr/ to >reate su>h a>ti$ities in ?hi>h learners feel less ?orried aAout spea#ing and less under pressure( Ne$ertheless; the tea>her is not the onl/ one ?hom the studentsM su>>ess in spea#ing is Aased on( There are also moti$ational fa>tors; differing from student to student; ?hi>h influen>e his progress in the spo#en language( 7armer K2::2; 6CHL distinguishes eBtrinsi> and intrinsi> moti$ation( 7e >laims that students= attitude to spea#ing the language ma/ Ae affe>ted A/ different fa>tors from the outside; su>h as people in >lose surroundings; pre$ious spea#ing eBperien>e in a foreign language or the @oA opportunities offered after mastering foreign language >ommuni>ation( All of these represent eBtrinsi> moti$ation( Although eBtrinsi> moti$ation is no?ada/s a dri$ing for>e for most students; ?ithout intrinsi> moti$ation no goal in impro$ing the spea#ing s#ill >ould Ae a>hie$ed( &u>>ess is also Aased on students= ?illingness to learn to spea# a foreign language; ?hi>h ma/ Ae influen>ed A/ the

tea>her=s methods used in tea>hing >ommuni>ation and; aAo$e all; his or her personalit/( Considering these; tea>hers should realiDe ho? important role the/ pla/ in en>ouraging the students to learn to spea# a foreign language( &tudentsM personalities also pla/ an important role in determining ho? <ui>#l/ and >orre>tl/ the/ ?ill manage a spea#ing tas#( Those students ?ho are ris#Cta#ers; unafraid of ma#ing mista#es; are generall/ more tal#ati$e Aut usuall/ ma#e man/ errors( Those ?ho are sh/ ma/ ta#e a long time to spea# >onfidentl/; Aut ?hen the/ finall/ manage it; their English >ontains fe?er errors( The aim of Aoth t/pes of students is the same; indeed E to use the language >orre>tl/ and fluentl/( To a>hie$e this goal the tea>hers should tr/ as mu>h as the/ >an to Area# the silen>e in the >lassroom and get the students spea# no matter ho? man/ mista#es the/ ma#e or ho? long it ta#es them to produ>e senten>es( In order to de>rease sh/ness ?hile spea#ing in front of the ?hole >lass; students ma/ Ae offered the opportunit/ to ?or# in groups or pairs; ?hi>h is a suitaAle approa>h for enhan>ing the a>ti$e language use( 7armer K2::2; !C:L points out different moti$ational fa>tors depending on the age and le$el of the students( ChildrenMs and adoles>entsM moti$ation to spea# a foreign language is irrele$ant for the purpose of m/ thesis Ae>ause; as mentioned aAo$e; I deal ?ith adult English learners and their moti$ational needs for a foreign language >ommuni>ation are suAstantiall/ different from the others( I >on>entrate on intermediate students ?ho represent the ma@orit/ in m/ >lasses( Their English is good at this stage Aut the/ are moti$ated A/ a primar/ goal of a>hie$ing a more ad$an>ed le$el of the language( The/ alread/ #no? a lot and are aAle to ha$e a >on$ersation aAout e$er/ da/ matters Aut sometimes there might o>>ur some proAlems( One of them is often the feeling that the/ are flooded ?ith the ne? >ompleBit/ of the language and >annot >ope ?ith it( Tea>hers; ?hen ha$ing found this out; should fo>us on Auilding up the #no?ledge students alread/ ha$e and assure them the/ >an spea# the language ?ell enough to understand and Ae understood( Ur K2::2; 2!6C29 L de>lares that Imoti$ation is $er/ strongl/ related to a>hie$ement in language learning(J This statement results from tea>hing pra>ti>e sho?ing that eager learners ?illing to in$est effort in spea#ing a>ti$ities are li#el/ to ma#e greater progress( On the >ontrar/; those sitting silentl/ at the des# ?ithout desire to Ae in$ol$ed in an/ #ind of spea#ing a>ti$it/; ma/ find themsel$es stu># to Ae aAle to impro$e their spea#ing s#ill( 7a$ing noti>ed this; tea>hers should en>ourage lo?Cmoti$ated students to de$elop the interest in >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$ities( 2

Ur K2::2; 292L des>riAes some strategies to enhan>e studentsM moti$ation to spea# in a lesson( The prin>ipal one is sele>ting the topi> >arefull/ to ma#e it as interesting for students as possiAle( If the tea>herMs >hoi>e fails in the >lass; there should Ae no pani> or emAarrassment( The possiAle solution to this situation ma/ Ae as#ing the students to $ote for a topi> the/ ?ould Ae interested in tal#ing aAout( .aried tas#s are also suggested for a su>>essful and effi>ient spea#ing lesson as ?ell as using $isuals to enhan>e studentsM moti$ation to spea#( A$erage pi>tures >opied from different sorts of teBtAoo#s and ?or#Aoo#s do not en>ourage adult learners to spea# an/more( Based on m/ tea>hing eBperien>e; adult learners prefer to Ae set into real situations; dealing ?ith real and >urrent ne?s items >on>erning toda/Ms ?orld and so>iet/( To satisf/ studentsM eBpe>tations; tea>hers should Ae supplied ?ith suffi>ient amount of authenti> materials; su>h as ne?spapers and magaDines( The spea#ing tas#s >ould Ae Aased on des>riAing the photos to ea>h other and guessing the pla>e in the ?orld ?here the a>tion has happened( Conne>tion Aet?een the pi>ture and realit/ ma#es it e$en more tempting for students to eBpress their points of $ie? to a parti>ular e$ent and; at the same time; the tea>herMs goal is a>hie$ed as ?ell E getting students to spea# and >ommuni>ate ?ith ea>h other(

2.1.) Acc&rac* $ers&s fl&enc*


A>>ura>/ and fluen>/ are terms >hara>teristi> for a su>>essful and fe>und >on$ersation( &>ri$ener K2 F; 2H C2H2L de>lares that a>>ura>/ is the aAilit/ to spea# >orre>tl/ ?ithout ma#ing serious mista#es and therefore a greater use of instant tea>herNs >orre>tion ?ithin a spea#ing a>ti$it/ is appropriate( On the >ontrar/; fluen>/ is the aAilit/ to spea# >onfidentl/ ?ithout irrele$ant pauses or hesitation; ho?e$er; often ?ith ma#ing ma@or mista#es( In this >ase; instant >orre>tion ma/ Ae inappropriate and >ould interfere ?ith the aims of the spea#ing a>ti$it/( Tea>hers should Ae a?are of ?hether their main goal in a spea#ing a>ti$it/ is a>>ura>/ or fluen>/ and adapt their role in >lass eligiAl/( If the main aim is to get students to spea#; then one ?a/ to a>hie$e that ?ould Ae redu>ing tea>her=s >ontriAution( It is supposed that the less he or she spea#s; the more time and spa>e it ?ill allo? the students to( If the main aim is

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a>>ura>/; the tea>her should >on>entrate on students= mista#es and de$ote time to their >orre>tion( 7o?e$er important spea#ing ?ithout mista#es is; a promoted trend at present seems to Ae to lead students to a fluent >on$ersation in e$er/ da/ situations( Ta#ing this into >onsideration; this approa>h Aest fits the needs of toda/=s so>iet/ ?hi>h is Aased on fast eB>hanges of information( Ne$ertheless; it ?ould Ae in@udi>ious to <ualif/ a>>ura>/ as less important in >ommuni>ation and underestimate its importan>e( It is also essential for the aAilit/ to spea# a foreign language ?ell(

2.1.+ C#rrec ing s &"en s' (is akes


2"uenc3 ctivities

In a fluen>/ a>ti$it/ the tea>her is eBpe>ted to monitor the >lass and en>ourage the students to spea# ?ith minimum interfering and >orre>tion( This te>hni<ue is >alled s>affolding( &>ri$ener K2 F; 2H2L states that Iit is a ?a/ a >ompetent language spea#er helps a less >ompetent one to >ommuni>ate A/ en>ouraging and pro$iding possiAle elements of >on$ersation(J In pra>ti>e it means to en>ourage the ?ea#er one A/ nodding; e/e >onta>t; repeating the last ?ord in order to en>ourage the spea#er to >ontinue; as#ing tag <uestions; et>( The aim of this en>ouragement is to ma#e a student spea# as mu>h as he or she is aAle to( Considering a fluent a>ti$it/; >orre>ting the mista#es should Ae done after finishing this a>ti$it/( &uggested te>hni<ues are the follo?ing" aL ?riting the senten>es used during the a>ti$it/ on the Aoard and dis>ussing them ?ith the ?hole >lass AL ?riting in>orre>t senten>es used during the a>ti$it/ on the Aoard and en>ouraging the students to ma#e >orre>tion >L in$enting and ?riting do?n the stor/ that in>ludes some errors the tea>her o$erheard during the a>ti$it/ and students tr/ to find them and >orre>t them

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dL ?riting out t?o lists A and B E ea>h list >ontains ten senten>es from the a>ti$it/ Aut some of them are >orre>t; some of them in>orre>t( &tudents ?or# in t?o groups and their tas# is to de>ide if the senten>es are either >orre>t or in>orre>t and ?h/ Accur c3 ctivities

In an a>>ura>/ Aased a>ti$it/ the tea>her is re<uired to >orre>t students= mista#es ?hene$er possiAle( Ghile pra>tising a>>ura>/; students Ae>ome a?are of their o?n mista#es in spea#ing straight a?a/ Ae>ause the tea>her does not ?ait until finishing the tas#( This approa>h is suitaAle ?hile fo>using on grammar mainl/ and enaAles the students to realiDe and >orre>t their mista#es and also pre$ent their re>urren>e(

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2.2 COMMUNICATIVE ACTIVITIES


E$er/ spea#ing lesson should Ae Aased on >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$ities ?hi>h fulfil t?o important language learning needs( The/ en>ourage the learners to a><uire language #no?ledge and prepare them for realClife language use( A>hie$ing the out>ome re<uires the parti>ipants to intera>t; ?hi>h means not onl/ spea# ?ith a person Aut also listen to ?hat he or she is sa/ing and rea>t to it(

2.2.1 T*pes #f c#((&nica i$e ac i$i ies


Communi>ati$e a>ti$ities are dealt ?ith in a large numAer of methodolog/ Aoo#s and their >lassifi>ation is distinguished a>>ording to ea>h author=s point of $ie?( 7o?e$er; all of them mention the same or similar >ommuni>ati$e tas#s Aut in different eBtent( &upported A/ a suffi>ient amount of literature; I >reated the follo?ing >ategoriDation of pre$ailing >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$ities" In4orm tion # p ctivities Information gap a>ti$ities are des>riAed A/ ThornAur/ K2 F; 9 C96L ?ho >laims that in these #inds of tas#s there is a #no?ledge gap among learners and it >an Ae Aridged A/ using the language( &o; in order to oAtain the information; the intera>tants ha$e to >ommuni>ate( Little?ood K2::6; 22C2HL laAels these a>ti$ities as fun>tional >ommuni>ation a>ti$ities( 7e emphasiDes sharing the information among learners and its pro>essing( The most >ommon information gap a>ti$it/ is spotting the differen>es in the pi>tures; eB>hanging personal information; guessing games and also >reating the stor/ Aased on flash>ards sho?n to the students in random order; for a fe? se>onds and one flash>ard per group onl/( This ma#es the students >ooperate and >ommuni>ate ?ith ea>h other to find the la>#ing information( &iscussions Dis>ussions are a >ommonl/ used a>ti$it/ in a spea#ing lesson( A topi> is introdu>ed to the students $ia a reading or a listening passage and then the/ are as#ed to dis>uss a related topi> in order to >ome up ?ith a solution or a response( Cel>eC'ur>ia K2 2; 2 HL mentions that students need to Ae reminded that ea>h person ?ithin a group should ha$e a spe>ifi>

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responsiAilit/ in the dis>ussion E either #eeping time; ta#ing notes or reporting the results made A/ the group memAers( Ro"e p" 3s A ?idel/ spread and one of the Aest >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$ities is a role pla/ ?hi>h trains the students in the >lassroom to deal ?ith unpredi>taAle realClife >on$ersation in an English spea#ing en$ironment( Ladousse K2:9!; HL points out the spe>ial reasons for using the role pla/ in the lessons( It puts students in situations in ?hi>h the/ are re<uired to use and de$elop language ne>essar/ in so>ial relationships and helps them to Auild up their so>ial s#ills( Using role pla/ is useful espe>iall/ ?hile tea>hing sh/ students ?ho ha$e diffi>ult/ parti>ipating in >on$ersation aAout themsel$es( Through this a>ti$it/ the/ are put into $arious roles and no longer feel that their o?n personalit/ is impli>ated( )ole pla/ is an essential >ommuni>ati$e te>hni<ue ?hi>h de$elops fluen>/; promotes intera>tion in the >lassroom and in>reases moti$ation( Simu" tions &imulation is a #ind of role pla/ Aut the emphasis is put on >reating the atmosphere of a real ?orld( &tudents pretend the/ are a part of a simulated en$ironment and ta#e part either as themsel$es or are gi$en a role and pretend Aeing someone else( To a>hie$e a suitaAle simulated en$ironment; the >lassroom is usuall/ rearranged and; ?here possiAle; >on$erted in a re<uired pla>e a>>ording to the situation( 0uessin# # mes 5uessing games >an Ae used as free a>ti$ities for re$ision of $o>aAular/ or as an interesting ?a/ to gi$e <uite >ontrolled pra>ti>e( Although the/ are >alled IgamesJ; the/ pro$ide intensi$e language pra>ti>e; espe>iall/ in as#ing <uestions; so the/ should not Ae regarded as an eBtra a>ti$it/( &tudents are fond of these guessing tas#s mainl/ Ae>ause the/ en@o/ themsel$es ?ithout realiDing the/ also pra>tise and impro$e their spea#ing s#ills(

2.2.2 I(p#r ance #f pair !#rk an" gr#&p !#rk


3air ?or# and group ?or# present ?a/s of organiDing the >lass ?hile tea>hing spea#ing( The tea>her=s responsiAilit/ is to >hoose a suitaAle >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$it/ depending on ?hat is going to Ae pra>tised E either fluen>/ or a>>ura>/ E and organiDe the

2F

students into pairs or groups( In some a>ti$ities su>h as role pla/s and guessing games; pair ?or# is essential( On the other hand; dis>ussions and deAates re<uire group ?or# and enaAle the students to eBpress their opinions on a gi$en topi> ?ithin the group( After that; the spo#esman of ea>h group notifies the rest of the >lass aAout the >on>lusion the/ ha$e rea>hed( This ma/ lead to a follo?ing dis>ussion among groups and if the topi> is amusing; the spea#ing lesson seems to Ae en@o/aAle for Aoth students and the tea>her; too( Adv nt #es o4 p ir nd #roup wor! There are man/ reasons for pair and group ?or# to Ae used in the lessons( First of all; the/ pro$ide the students ?ith a lot more pra>ti>e than ?or#ing as a ?hole >lass( &tudents also feel more >omfortaAle to spea# to one or t?o people rather than the ?hole >lass and the tea>her( 'oreo$er; spea#ing to @ust a fe? people is >loser to realClife situations( 3air and group ?or# allo?s ea>h student to ?or# at the pa>e of his or her small group or pair( The tea>her is no more >onsidered the onl/ sour>e of information Aut the students learn from ea>h other( This >reates opportunities for learners= #no?ledge to Ae shared( In order to Ae su>>essful; learners need to Ae>ome a>>ustomed to using English ?ithout the tea>her=s permanent support( Therefore; ?or#ing in pairs or groups helps them to Auild up their independen>e and >onfiden>e for further >on$ersations( The ad$antages of pair and group ?or# >an Ae noti>eaAle not onl/ from the learner=s Aut also the tea>herMs point of $ie?( It pro$ides the tea>her ?ith more time to ?or# ?ith ?ea#er students and en>ourage them; A/ parti>ipating in a role pla/ or dis>ussion; to >ommuni>ate( Tea>hers >an also Aenefit from a great a$ailaAleness of different >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$ities Aeing offered in Aoo#shops and on the internet no?ada/s( The $ariet/ of materials for pair or group ?or# spea#ing pra>ti>e is praised A/ most of them and their use has pro$ed to Ae $er/ effi>ient for spea#ing s#ill impro$ement( S"i#5t dis dv nt #es o4 p ir nd #roup wor! 7o?e$er effi>ient and useful pair and group ?or# is; it ma/ sometimes >ause little proAlems ?hile pra>tising spea#ing( A>>ording to Doff K2:9:; 262L the noise Aelongs to these oAsta>les the tea>hers ha$e to o$er>ome during lessons( Usuall/ the students themsel$es are not disturAed A/ the noise; it is more noti>eaAle to the tea>her oAser$ing pairs or groups( 7o?e$er; the noise >reated A/ pair and group ?or# demonstrates learners= engagement in a 2H

spea#ing tas# and gi$es the tea>her $isual e$iden>e of students= in$ol$ement( Considering this; the su>>ess in ?or#ing in pairs or groups depends mainl/ on the students= and the tea>herMs approa>h( Another fa>t Doff K2:9:; 262L mentions is the diffi>ult/ to >ontrol the ?hole >lass during a >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$it/( To stop a>ti$it/ getting out of >ontrol; it is important to gi$e the students >lear instru>tions; define the spea#ing tas# >learl/ and set up a routine; so that students a>>ept the idea of ?or#ing in pairs or groups and #no? eBa>tl/ ?hat to do(

2.2.% T,e r#le #f a eac,er in c#((&nica i$e ac i$i ies


The tea>her is a fa>ilitator of students= learning and as su>h he has man/ roles to fulfill( Freeman K2:9H; 212L des>riAes him as a manager of >lassroom a>ti$ities( In this role; one of his ma@or responsiAilities is to set up a>ti$ities that promote >ommuni>ation( During the >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$ities he a>ts as a consultant ans?ering students= <uestions; offers ad$i>e and pro$ides ne>essar/ language items( One of the most important roles is to ma#e sure that students #no? ?hat the/ are supposed to pra>tise and >he># if the/ do it effe>ti$el/( These roles are >alled a conductor and a monitor( Although there is a great numAer of $arious a>ti$ities ?hi>h ma/ Ae used in spea#ing lessons; their use ?ould Ae >onfusing and pointless if the/ ?ould not Ae logi>all/ organised( Being a good organiser should Ae an aAilit/ possessed A/ e$er/ s#illful tea>her( Considering the fa>ts mentioned aAo$e ?e >an >on>lude that the tea>her=s personalit/ in a learning pro>ess is $er/ important not onl/ ?hile parti>ipating in the a>ti$it/ Aut also ?hile monitoring the students( The tea>her=s less dominant role in >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$ities offers the students the opportunit/ to Ae in$ol$ed in >on$ersation and impro$e their spea#ing s#ills to Ae aAle to >ope ?ith the realClife situations(

2!

% PRACTICAL PART
3.1 MY TEACHING EXPERIENCE
As I alread/ mentioned in the introdu>tion; I ha$e Aeen ?or#ing for the 'ilitar/ Language Institute in ./0#o$ and m/ responsiAilit/ is to prepare our students E mainl/ militar/ staff E for passing the militar/ eBams >alled &tanag( There are three different le$els of the students" preCintermediate; intermediate and upper intermediate( Although the goal of our language institute is the same as other edu>ational organiDations pro$iding language tuition; the learning s/stem is >ompletel/ different( To Ae more spe>ifi> E Aeing a >lass tea>her does not ne>essaril/ mean to spend most of the time in a parti>ular >lass Aut the tea>hers rotate in different >lasses; ?hi>h means that their s>hedules are supposed to differ from ?ee# to ?ee#( E$en though this pro>edure ma/ Ae per>ei$ed as a disad$antage A/ man/ tea>hers; I find it $er/ effe>ti$e not onl/ from the students= Aut also the tea>hers= point of $ie?( The ad$antages lie in ha$ing the opportunit/ for students to listen to $arious tea>hers= a>>ents and also eBperien>e different approa>hes to tea>hing( The tea>hers >an also Aenefit from this pro>edure E Aeing aAle to tea>h di$erse le$els pro$ides them ?ith the ad$antage of mis>ellaneous ?or# and enaAles them to a$oid the routine t/pi>al of s>hools( 'oreo$er; the numAer of students in ea>h >lass is $er/ >on$enient sin>e there are no more than ten students and; as man/ tea>hers ?ould proAaAl/ agree; tea>hing in su>h a >lass is more effi>ient; en@o/aAle and the su>>ess in passing the eBam is more forseeaAle than in a >lass of fifteen or more students( E$en though I ha$e the eBperien>e ?ith tea>hing all the le$els mentioned; I de>ided to deal mainl/ ?ith the intermediate le$el in the pra>ti>al part of m/ thesis and fo>us on >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$ities that I ha$e alread/ pra>tised ?ith m/ students( '/ aim is to des>riAe the a>ti$ities and e$aluate their ad$antages; disad$antages and this ?a/ help the ma@orit/ of tea>hers that are desperate in sear>hing for an/ >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$ities to en>ourage spea#ing and >on$ersation in the >lass(

29

3.2 COMMUNICATIVE ACTIVITIES AND THEIR EVALUATION %' To"d 3ou so 6


Level " intermediate; upper intermediate Type of activity " information sear>h role pla/ Kpair?or#L Objective " to en>ourage fluent spea#ing C gi$ing ad$i>e and opinions The tea>her is supposed to >op/ one Ono?I and one Oone /ear laterI role >ard for ea>h student and a <uestionnaire per pair of students( First; the tea>her gi$es out the Ono?I role >ards and as# the students to imagine the/ all ?or# in the same pla>e( It is a >offee Area# and the/ are all Aringing $arious Aits of gossip(&tudents are as#ed to offer opinions to ea>h other on ?hat people should or should not do aAout their proAlems( Then the tea>her seats the students in pairs and gi$es them a <uestionnaire to fill in together( The/ are supposed to dis>uss the proAlems; find solutions and ma#e predi>tions aAout ?hat ?ill proAaAl/ happen( Ghen the/ ha$e finished; ea>h student is gi$en the appropriate Oone /ear laterI >ard and goes round ?ith a Otold /ou soI attitude; >ommenting on ?hat people should ha$e done( The aim of this a>ti$it/ is to dis>o$er ho? man/ of students= predi>tions ?ere >orre>t( M3 ev "u tion o4 t5is ctivit3 I found this a>ti$it/ $er/ effe>ti$e Ae>ause m/ oA@e>ti$e ?as rea>hed E I managed to en>ourage all the students to >ommuni>ate ?ith ea>h other and share information; opinions and ad$i>e( The topi> >ould not ha$e Aeen >hosen Aetter sin>e gossiping Aelongs to e$er/ da/ >ommuni>ation; espe>iall/ in a ?or#ing en$ironment( I deal ?ith the adult learners ?ho are <uite OeBperien>edI in this area and spea#ing aAout different people=s proAlems and their solutions seems to Ae <uite a >ommon issue no?ada/s( Although this a>ti$it/ is slightl/

2:

demanding on students= understanding the instru>tions; the tea>her=s >lear eBplanation ?ould pre$ent possiAle missundestanding( 5i$ing >lear instru>tions and demonstrating the tas# should ne$er Ae negle>ted A/ tea>hers sin>e these are essential for a su>>essful >ommuni>ati$e tas#( This a>ti$it/ is studentC>entered so the tea>her=s role in it is mainl/ oAser$ing the ?hole >lass ha$ing >on$ersation( E$en though I heard man/ mista#es ?hile >ir>ulating among students; I managed not to interupt their enthusiasti> >on$ersation( Instead of interuption; ?hi>h ?ould ha$e dis>ouraged their moti$ation; I de>ided to ta#e notes and ?rote do?n the most >ommon mista#es( As I ha$e alread/ noti>ed in m/ >lass; immediate error >orre>tion ?hile listening to students= >on$ersation had no positi$e effe>t sin>e the students ?ere plunged in tal#ing and did not pa/ attention to the tea>her=s >omments( The error >orre>tion ?as different ?hile the students ?ere ?or#ing in pairs( I ?as ?al#ing around listening to the pairs and tried to alert the students e$er/ time I heard a mista#e and ?e made >orre>tion together( This time m/ role has >hanged; instead of >onstant oAser$ation ?ithout error >orre>tion; I >on>entrated on ma#ing students a?are of their o?n mista#es( Due to ?or#ing in pairs; the/ paid attention to >larif/ing mista#es( After finishing the >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$it/ I ?rote all the mista#es I gathered from students on the Aoard and ?e ?ere dis>ussing them as a ?hole >lass( All the students ?ere ta#ing notes aAout >orre>tions $er/ >arefull/ and after that ?e ?ere pra>tising these in senten>es( Ghat is $er/ important is re$ie?ing the proAlemati> stru>ture again and again ha$ing in mind that pra>ti>e ma#es perfe>t( For that reason; at the Aeginning of ea>h lesson; if possiAle; I fo>us on re$ision of the items I ha$e done ?ith students in pre$ious >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$ities to pre$ent re>urren>e of alread/ eBplained mista#es( '/ aim in this a>ti$it/ ?as to moti$ate the students to identif/ ?ith a person on a gi$en >ard and lead >on$ersation ?ith other >olleagues aAout people=s proAlems( &tudents ?ere eBplaining these proAlems; tr/ing to find solutions and made predi>tions ?hat ?as going to happen in a /ears time( This fluen>/ >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$it/ indu>ed m/ students to pra>tise

fluent spea#ing and also helped de$elop their imagination ?hile gi$ing ad$i>e and ma#ing predi>tions( )' &e7 te on #iven topic

Level " upper intermediate Type of activity " a deAate Kgroup?or#L Objective " to get the students in$ol$ed in a deAate on a gi$en topi> and pra>tise eB>hanging the opinions and supporting arguments for and against &tudents form to groups C the first group supports the idea and the se>ond group gi$es reasons against it( Then the tea>her introdu>es the topi> ?hi>h is the suA@e>t of a deAate E euthanasia0 the capital punishment0 state or pri!ate education etc. C and allo?s the students some time to thin# aAout it and ma#e notes as a group preparing arguments to OAeatI the se>ond group( Ghen the/ are read/ to start; the tea>her pretends to Ae a moderator of a T. sho? and ?el>omes Aoth teams to a dis>ussion on a gi$en topi>( Ghen the deAate is o$er; the moderator than#s all of the presenters for their interesting remar#s( A $er/ important rule is that students are allo?ed to ad$o>ate onl/ the opinion gi$en to them A/ the tea>her e$en if their real thoughts are >ompletel/ different( M3 ev "u tion o4 t5is ctivit3 I must admit this a>ti$it/ Aelongs to m/ fa$orite ones and I pra>tise it ?ith m/ students ?hene$er the time allo?s me to do so( The Aeginning of this a>ti$it/ is slightl/ emAarrassing for e$er/one in the >lass Ae>ause the students do not dare to Ae the first to eBpress their opinions and are sh/( But on>e the a>ti$it/ has started and students manage to Ofit in their rolesI; the deAate is Aeing de$eloped into a li$el/ dis>ussion and instead of Aeing sh/; students >ompete to ha$e a ?ord in it( The tea>her has a fantasti> role in this a>ti$it/; sin>e he or she onl/ oAser$es a li$el/ dis>ussion and is entertained A/ the students= eB>itement aAout it( I ?ould re>ommend the tea>hers interested in this >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$it/ to reorganise the >lassroom; if possiAle; and arrange it as a T. studio ?ith >hairs for guests parti>ipating in a deAate( To in>rease eB>itement; I ?ould as# the students to $ote for a

22

moderator Aeing responsiAle for the smooth performan>e( In m/ personal eBperien>e; it is sometimes a $er/ tough @oA; espe>iall/ ?hile tr/ing to >alm do?n some of the Aris# guests( Error >orre>tion is utterl/ undesiraAle in this >ase due to the #ind of >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$it/( The deAate is a pre>ise eBample of the a>ti$it/ ?here the tea>her is not eBpe>ted to >orre>t mista#es ?hile the a>ti$it/ is in progress( 7is role is either to oAser$e the sho? or to parti>ipate in it Kas a moderator or one of the guests(L( To fulfil the tas# does not mean for the students to spea# >orre>tl/ all the time Aut to lead a fluent; understandaAle and reasonaAle dis>ussion aAout a parti>ular matter( On one hand; no one is for>ed to spea#; ?hi>h ma/ sound OsafeI for sh/ students; Aut on the other hand an/ memAer of one group >an Ae >hallanged A/ the other group to eBpress his or her opinion( In this >ase; the student >an not remain silent Aut has to re$eal his or her ideas( Therefore; the students are indu>ed to Ae alert and listen to ?hat is going on in a deAate( 1( *i4esw p

Level " intermediate Type of activity " eB>hanging information K?hole >lassL Objective " to pra>tise fluent tal#ing aAout dissimilar lifest/les and haAits The tea>her gi$es out the pi>ture >ards to the students and as#s them to imagine the/ are the person pi>tured on the >ard( &ome time is allo?ed to thin# aAout the person=s life; dail/ routine; ?or#; famil/ et>( Then the students are told to imagine the/ are fed up ?ith their lifest/le and ?ould li#e to >hange it( &ome time is pro$ided to thin# aAout ?hat the/ disli#e and are reall/ loo#ing for in life( After that the students are as#ed to go round the >lass and eBplain their proAlems to the others until the/ find someone the/ ?ould li#e to s?ap their lifest/le ?ith( The aim of this a>ti$it/ is to find a person ?illing to s?ap his lifest/le ?ith someone else( M3 ev "u tion o4 t5is ctivit3 This a>ti$it/ is an eB>ellent preparation for spea#ing part of &tanag eBam Ae>ause its main purpose is to tal# aAout person=s lifest/le C haAits; dail/ routine; famil/; friends et>( E$en though the students are gi$en pi>tured >ards and tal# aAout the different lifest/le; it 22

en>ourages them to thin# and use $ariet/ of $o>aAular/ $ital for e$er/ da/ >ommuni>ation( Learning ne? $o>aAular/ items >onne>ted ?ith different lifest/les might Ae a great ad$antage in a real ?orld ?hile meeting people of $arious professions and >ustoms( To ma#e the students more enthusiasti> aAout this a>ti$it/; I ?ould re>ommend to use the photos of ?orld famous >eleArities instead of pi>tures of ordinar/ people( This ma/ sound irrele$ant; ho?e$er; tal#ing aAout >eleArities= lifest/les and s>andals ?ould Ae definitel/ more en@o/aAle and it ?ould lead to in$ol$ement of all students( E$en if some students ha$e diffi>ulties ?ith spea#ing; the photos of >eleArities >ould enaAle them to eBpress themsel$es more easil/ due to the #no?ledge the/ alread/ ha$e aAout these personalities( From a grammati>al point of /ou; this a>ti$it/ enaAles a great deal of grammar pra>ti>e; e(g( present; past and future tense( Furthermore it might Ae used ?hile tea>hing >omparati$e and superlati$e form of ad@e>ti$es and ad$erAs( Ghile loo#ing at the photo and des>riAing their lifest/le; the students are en>ouraged to tal# not onl/ aAout the >urrent situation in their li$es Aut also aAout their past and >hallenges for future( In addition to this; the/ ma/ >ompare ad$antages and disad$antages of $arious professions; lifeCst/les and haAits( At the end of this a>ti$it/ the tea>her ma/ announ>e the >ompetition and let the students $ote on the most and the least tempting lifest/le( /' $rossed "ines Level " intermediate Type of activity " information sear>h K?hole >lassL Objective " to pra>tise as#ing for information The tea>her is supposed to >op/ enough tas# sheets for half the >lass and information sheets for the rest of the >lass( Then he or she pla>es the >hairs around the room in pairs Aa># to Aa># and as#s the students to sit on them holding different sheets( The aim of this a>ti$it/ is for students ?ith tas# sheets to >omplete their tas# in order. That means the/ ha$e to phone the stationar/ students Aehind them Aeginning the >on$ersation ?ith " O7allo; is that the 5aumont TheatrePI If the/ get the right numAer; their 21

repl/ ?ill Ae " OYes; >an I help /ou PI and the/ should as# for information the/ need and ?rite it do?n on the tas# sheet( If the/ get a ?rong numAer ?ith the repl/ "ONo; sorr/( I am afraid; /ou ha$e got a ?rong numAer; this is the station(IC the/ should apologise and mo$e on to another pair of >hairs( &tudents are instru>ted to >omplete the tas#s in order; so the/ are not allo?ed to ma#e t?o >onse>uti$e phone >alls from the same pla>e( M3 ev "u tion o4 t5is ctivit3 Being aAle to >ommuni>ate fa>e to fa>e is undouAtedl/ per>ei$ed as a >ru>ial form of >on$ersation( 7o?e$er; li$ing in a Aus/ so>iet/ re<uires the aAilit/ to ma#e phone >alls >onsidering all the rules essential for a su>>essful and polite >on$ersation( This a>ti$it/ enaAles the students to tr/ out $arious situations ?hile see#ing information aAout entertainment; transport; health >are et>( The/ ha$e the opportunit/ to >all the dentist pretending the/ suffer from tootha>he and ma#e an appointment; or >all the rail?a/ station to find out the timetaAle; or >all the theatre to Aoo# ti>#ets for the performan>e et>( Alternatives &in>e there are $arious institutions and authorities students ma/ find useful for gathering information; the tea>her >an as# them to ma#e a list of them( After that; the tea>her allo?s a short ?hole >lass dis>ussion on responsiAilities of ea>h institution and pro$ides the students ?ith $o>aAular/ the/ need( Then; he or she pro>eeds ?ith pair ?or# and let the students pra>tise phone >on$ersation Aased on a pre$ious dis>ussion( I ?as $er/ surprised ho? >reati$e and imaginati$e the students >an Ae if the tea>her allo?s them to use their o?n ideas( It is essential to preCtea>h the uni$ersal phrases used ?hile ha$ing phone >on$ersation and ?rite them on the Aoard to pro$ide support for the students during the >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$it/( An/ time the student is not sure; he or she >an loo# at the Aoard and find the suitaAle phrase for the dialogue( 3reCtea>hing should Ae done in an a>ti$e ?a/ to in$ol$e students= o?n ideas for Aetter memoriDing( The tea>her is supposed to help and add phrases ?hi>h ha$e not Aeen mentioned /et Aut should not interfere too mu>h sin>e the students deal ?ith the theme the/ ha$e alread/ >o$ered in pre$ious lessons( (' 0ood intentions or t5e ro d to 5e""

26

Level " intermediate; upper intermediate Type of activity " mat>hing K?hole >lass; pair?or#L Objective " to pra>tise stating intentions The tea>her ma#es up a form of Ogood intentionsI and gi$es it out to ea>h student in the >lass( Then the students are as#ed to imagine that it is Ne? Year=s E$e and the/ are ma#ing their resolutions for the Ne? Year( The/ are supposed to ti># the resolutions ?hi>h are someho? >onne>ted ?ith their personalities and add one more personal resolution on the last line( After that the/ go around the >lass as#ing ea>h other aAout their resolutions and telling aAout their o?n( The aim of this a>ti$it/ is to find someone ?ith at least three resolutions that are the same ( Ghen the students ha$e found their mat>h; the/ are as#ed to sit do?n together and imagine the time is one /ear later( In pairs; students no? dis>uss ?hat the/ su>>eeded in doing and ?hat the/ ?ere going to do; Aut did not( M3 ev "u tion o4 t5is ctivit3 After gi$ing the >lass the instru>tions to this a>ti$it/; the students= rea>tion ?as so drear/ that I ?as ?ondering if m/ >hoi>e of this >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$it/ had Aeen right( The students started >omplaining aAout the purpose of this a>ti$it/ and the reason ?as " OGe do not ma#e Ne? Year=s resolutions( Ge ha$e nothing to sa/(I Tea>hers should not Ae put off A/ these statements Aut find the ?a/ to moti$ate the students to tal# aAout the gi$en topi>( I de>ided for demonstration and ?ithout an/ hesitation des>riAed m/ pre$ious Aad haAits I ?anted to get rid of ?ithout mentioning the ?ord OresolutionsI( &uddenl/; the students Aegan to Ae interested in m/ tal# and as#ed <uestions if I managed to gi$e up those Aad haAits or not and their enthusiasm in >ommuni>ation ?as in>reasing( I too# ad$antage of this and as#ed them to ?or# in pairs and inter$ie? their partner aAout the same( The/ led a li$el/ >on$ersation and finall/ realised that it ?as @ust a game and started pretending their resolutions(The lesson ?as finall/ entertaining and the students li#ed it( 3reCtea>hing some grammar stru>tures Aefore the a>ti$it/ starts is ?orth ?hile; espe>iall/ the rules for using 1to be used to2 and 1 used to2 sin>e these are often miBed up A/ 2F

students( It is important to emphasiDe the differen>e Aet?een them and also eBplain their >orre>t usage A/ gi$ing eBamples ta#en from the a>ti$it/ to sho? the students ?hat is going to Ae pra>tised( e(g( ONo? I am used to eating a lot(I The tea>her uses this senten>e as an eBample and eBplains that for des>riAing the present situation KhaAitL this grammati>al stru>ture is re<uired( Than the tea>her >hanges it into OI used to eat a lotI and eBplains the usage of the se>ond grammati>al stru>ture( 1' S "es reps Level " intermediate; upper intermediate Type of activity " mat>hing Kpair?or#L Objective " to pra>tise des>riAing properties and aAilities The >lass is di$ided into t?o hal$es " sales representati$es and Au/ers( The ma>hine >ards are gi$en out to the sales reps and the/ ha$e fi$e minutes to " ?rite do?n ?hat the user of ea>h ma>hine ?ill Ae aAle to do and gi$e ea>h ma>hine a pri>e( The Au/ers are as#ed to ?rite do?n three e$er/da/ proAlems K?hat ma#es them Aus/ and ?h/L( The Au/ers ha$e t?o thousand pounds ea>h to spend on ma>hines to impro$e the <ualit/ of their li$es( &tudents ?or# in pairs " the Au/er eBplains to the sales representati$e ?hat he does not ?ant to do an/ more; ?hat household >hores anno/ him; as#s for de$i>es to help him lose ?eight or learn English faster et>( The sales representati$e offers the Au/er the de$i>es; eBplains ho? the/ ?or# and tries to persuade the >ostumer to Au/ them( The aim of this a>ti$it/ is for the Au/ers to oAtain the ma>hines the/ need and for the sales representati$es to sell as man/ de$i>es as possiAle( M3 ev "u tion o4 t5is ctivit3 This a>ti$it/ has pro$ed $er/ en@o/aAle for m/ students and also useful >onsidering the need to Au/ different things in an English spea#ing en$ironment( To ma#e it e$en more realisti>; I >ut out $arious t/pes of de$i>es from ne?spapers and magaDines to fit in e$er/da/ life and used them instead of dra?n funn/ pi>tures( Adult learners al?a/s appre>iate the dire>t >onne>tion Aet?een the a>ti$it/ and the real ?orld; so it is $ital for me to ha$e this in mind ?hile >hoosing suitaAle materials for a parti>ular >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$it/(

2H

The tea>her=s role in this a>ti$it/ is to oAser$e the pairs offering and Au/ing de$i>es and ta#e notes aAout serious mista#es ?hi>h the intermediate students should Ae aAle to a$oid( 3ro$iding the students ?ith ne? $o>aAular/ items ?ithin the a>ti$it/ ma/ seem reasonaAle Aut m/ aim ?as to ma#e them thin# of indire>t eBpression of proAlemati> ?ords( I also eBplained to them that it is not ne>esser/ to Ae familiar ?ith all English ?ords Aut Ae aAle to eBpress their ideas using $o>aAular/ the/ alread/ #no? to Ae understood( &tudentsM roles >an differ depending on the topi>( I ha$e used it man/ times in m/ lessons >onsidering the ?ee#l/ topi>( Ghile tal#ing aAout relationships and marriage; I instru>ted the students to ?or# in pairs and imagine that one of them ?or#s for a dating agen>/ and helps the single one Khis s>hoolmateL find an eligiAle partner( Ghile tal#ing aAout @oAs and ?or#; the students ?ere as#ed to prepare a dialogue Aet?een a person see#ing a summer @oA in England and a >ompan/ ?or#er offering different @oAs aAroad( The role pla/ >ommonl/ used A/ the ma@orit/ of tea>hers is as#ing for information aAout a holida/ in a tra$el agen>/( &in>e a role pla/ is one of the three parts of &tanag spea#ing eBam; I ha$e to >on>entrate on its pra>ti>e as mu>h as possiAle( ,' 0uess w5 t I8ve 7een doin# 6 Level " intermediate Type of activity" guessing >ard game Kpair ?or#L Objective " to pra>tise des>riAing re>ent a>ti$ities using present perfe>t >ontinuous The tea>her >opies and >uts up one set of >ards for ea>h pair and puts the ?hole set fa>e do?n on the taAle( One student ta#es a >ard from the top of the pile and performs his appearan>e and mood a>>ording to the depi>ted >ard; for eBample OI3m crying2. 7e must not sho? it to his partner ?ho guesses ?hat a>ti$it/ the student has Aeen engaged in; for eBample 1Ha!e you been watching a sad film 42 If the student guesses >orre>tl/; he or she is allo?ed to #eep the >ard( The aim of this a>ti$it/ is to >olle>t the most >ards and; aAo$e all; pra>tise the use of present perfe>t >ontinuous in >ommon dail/ situations(

2!

M3 ev "u tion o4 t5is ctivit3 The purpose of this guessing a>ti$it/ differs from tea>her=s oA@e>ti$es in >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$ities mentioned aAo$e( Ghile the main aim of those a>ti$ities ?as en>ouraging students to lead fluent >on$ersation and the tea>her fo>used on students= fluen>/; this a>ti$it/ is Aased on spea#ing ?ith the emphasis on a>>ura>/ E >orre>t use of present perfe>t >ontinuous( Although fluen>/ a>ti$ities are prefered A/ most tea>hers Ae>ause of the spontaneous language use in a real ?orld; the/ should Ae pre>eded A/ suffi>ient amount of a>>ura>/ a>ti$ities fo>using on a parti>ular grammati>al pattern( In m/ lessons; this pro>edure pro$ed to Ae $er/ effe>ti$e and after pra>tising $arious grammati>al patterns in a>>ura>/ >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$ities; the students ?ere aAle to spea# more fluentl/ ?ith fe?er grammati>al mista#es( 3reCtea>hing is essential in this >ase sin>e the students need to Ae familiar ?ith a parti>ular grammati>al stru>ture Aefore the a>ti$it/ starts( For that reason the tea>her should de$ote some time re$ising the formation of present perfe>t simple and present perfe>t >ontinuous and drill its negati$e forms and <uestions( After suffi>ient eBplanation; students are read/ to pra>tise it in different situations set A/ >ards( &in>e I dealt ?ith an a>>ura>/ a>ti$it/; it ?as ne>essar/ to >he># students= dialogues and >on>entrate on mista#es made in the present perfe>t tense( I ?as >ir>ulating >he>#ing ea>h pair and gi$ing ad$i>e( 3air ?or# re<uired for this a>ti$it/ enaAled me to fo>us on ?ea#er students ?ho ?ere struggling ?ith the use of present perfe>t; ?hereas the others ?ere aAle to ?or# on their o?n( Alternatives The tea>her >an use this a>ti$it/ for pra>tising an/ grammati>al pattern @ust A/ >hanging the title of the a>ti$it/; for eBample " O5uess ?hat I did /esterda/QIKpra>ti>e of past simpleL or O5uess ?hat I ?as doing /esterda/QI Kpra>ti>e of past >ontinuousL or O5uess ?hat I am going to do tomorro?QI Kpra>ti>e of eBpressing futureL or O5uess ?hat has Aeen doneQI Kpra>ti>e of passi$e $oi>eL et>( B/ drilling the parti>ular grammati>al feature the students Ae>ome a?are of it and start using it in fluen>/ >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$ities ?ithout hesitation pauses(

29

.' &etective wor! Level" intermediate; upper intermediate Type of activity " arranging >ard game Kgroup ?or#L Objective " to pra>tise reporting past e$ents The tea>her >opies and >uts up one set of >ards for ea>h group; shuffles them and pla>es them fa>e do?n in the middle of the group( Then he or she tells the students that a murder ?as >ommitted last night( An old lad/ ?as found dead in her li$ing room( &he had Aeen hit on the head and @e?eller/ ?orth fi$e thousand pounds had Aeen stolen from the house( The murder o>>urred Aet?een se$en and ten o=>lo># in the e$ening( One of the prin>ipal suspe>ts is Annie 7udson; the distri>t nurse; ?ho has the #e/ to the old lad/=s house; and ?ho li$es ten minutes= ?al# a?a/( The >ards >ontain details of Annie=s mo$ements that e$ening( The groups= tas# is to read them and tr/ to ?or# out if she >ould ha$e >ommitted the murder or not( &in>e the >ards ha$e Aeen shuffled; the e$ents ?ill Ae in a muddled order( &tudents should turn o$er one >ard at a time from the pile and dis>uss the proAaAle se<uen>e of e$ents( The aim of this a>ti$it/ is to re>onstru>t Annie=s e$ening and ?or# out if she >ould ha$e >ommitted the murder or not( After the groups ha$e finished; let them >ompare their findings( M3 ev "u tion o4 t5is ctivit3 An/ a>ti$it/ >on>erning dete>ti$e ?or# and the poli>e in$estigation seems to Ae tempting for most students( The/ see# ad$enture; thrill and are #een on ?or#ing out the >rime ?hi>h had Aeen >ommitted( This ?or#s not onl/ ?ith /oung learners Aut also adults( The/ are fond of thin#ing and tal#ing ?ithin the group aAout the se<uen>e of e$ents and >ompete ?ho ?ill Ae the first one to sol$e the >ase( This leads to a li$el/ dis>ussion among group memAers tr/ing to persuade the others aAout the >orre>tness of their ideas( I ?ould e$aluate this a>ti$it/ as useful not onl/ Ae>ause it enaAles pra>tising fluent spea#ing ?ithin the group Aut also from the grammati>al point of $ie?( The memAers of ea>h group ha$e the opportunit/ to impro$e their spea#ing s#ills and re$ise the >orre>t use of past

2:

tenses sin>e this a>ti$it/ is fo>used on reporting past e$ents( Furthermore; it enhan>es their aAilit/ of logi>al thin#ing in a foreign language due to arranging the e$ents in a logi>al order( Corre>ting mista#es ?as done at the end of the a>ti$it/ ?hen I as#ed ea>h group to des>riAe the e$ents; ?hi>h happened that e$ening; in an order ?hi>h seemed the most proAaAle to them( Although the tea>her is usuall/ eBpe>ted to >orre>t students= mista#es; this time I as#ed the rest of the >lass to listen and ?rite do?n all mista#es the/ heard ?hile the group ?as eBplaining the se<uen>e of e$ents(Ghen one group finished; ?e put all mista#es the other students noti>ed on the Aoard and dis>ussed them as a >lass( The eBplanation of >ertain rules espe>iall/ usage of past and past perfe>t tense pre$ented other groups from re>urren>e of the >larified mista#es( Alternatives Gith ad$an>ed learners; it ?ould Ae possiAle to perform the <uestioning of a suspe>t at the poli>e station( Tea>her >an either as# the >lass for $olunteers or >hoose at random a suspe>t and t?o poli>e offi>ers ?ho ?ill perform <uestioning in front of the >lass( A suspe>t is allo?ed to >hoose someone from the other students ?ho ?ill support him or her at the poli>e station e(g( a husAand; a ?ife; a Aest friend et>( E$en though there is a slight diffiden>e at the Aeginning of this a>ti$it/; later on the emAarrassment $anishes and the students en@o/ the de$elopment of the >ase( Tea>hers should Ae >areful ?hen planning this a>ti$it/ and >onsider the le$el of students( &in>e it is Aased on fluent spea#ing; I ?ould not re>ommend this a>ti$it/ to lo? le$el >lasses Ae>ause the/ ?ould not proAaAl/ feel >onfident in su>h demanding roles and their long pauses >ould lead to emAarrassment and also >lass Aoredom( 9' T ct Level" upper intermediate Type of activity " mat>hing up role pla/ Kgroups of threeL Objective " reporting ?hat ?as said Kreported spee>hL This >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$it/ must Ae performed in groups of three E one person per ea>h side of the dispute and one person to >arr/ messages( The tea>her is supposed to di$ide 1

the students in groups and >op/ three sets of >ards KneighAours; husAand and ?ife and >ountriesL for ea>h group in the >lass( Then he or she arranges the >lassroom if possiAle so that there are t?o ro?s of des#s ?ith a free spa>e Aet?een them( All the neighAours A are seated in one ro? and all the neighAours B in the opposite ro?; ?ith the goCAet?eens standing in the middle( The students are gi$en the >ards " neighAour A; neighAour B and the goCAet?een( The neighAours are not allo?ed to spea# ?ith ea>h other dire>tl/ Aut must rela/ messages through the messenger( The aim of this a>ti$it/ is for neighAours A and B to rea>h a satisfa>tor/ >ompromise( Ghen a group has rea>hed a >ompromise; the roles are >hanged ; so that a different person has a >han>e to Ae a messenger( After that the husAand and ?ife role >ards are gi$en out( Ghen the students ha$e finished that; the messengers are >hanged again and the students ta#e up the >ountries role >ards( M3 ev "u tion o4 t5is ctivit3 The tea>herMs role in this a>>ura>/ a>ti$it/ is to go round and oAser$e the groups( The >on$ersation Aet?een t?o sides is Aased on a free spee>h Aeing reported A/ the messenger and the tea>her @ust listens to ?hat is Aeing said and does not interfere( On the other hand; the role of a messenger is $er/ important; not onl/ due to rela/ing information Aet?een t?o sides; Aut also from the grammati>al point of $ie?( The grammar pra>tised in this a>ti$it/ is reported spee>h and the tea>her should not Ae indifferent to ?hat the messenger is sa/ing( Ghen he or she ma#es a mista#e in reported spee>h; the tea>her should stop them and as# for their >orre>tion( Interfering in this role is essential; other?ise the students ?ould not find out if the/ ?ere >orre>t or not( 3reCtea>hing the rules of indire>t spee>h formation is ine$itaAle Aefore the a>ti$it/ starts( &ome students ma/ feel >onfident e$en ?ithout re$ision Aut the tea>her=s aim is to ma#e sure that ea>h student understands the patterns( The main purpose of this a>>ura>/ a>ti$it/ is to pra>tise mainl/ spea#ing and grammar; ho?e$er; it >an Ae easil/ >hanged to a fluen>/ a>ti$it/ if the tea>her=s oA@e>ti$e is pra>tising fluent >on$ersation( In this >ase; the role of a messenger is negle>ted and the t?o sides of a parti>ular dispute are tr/ing to deal ?ith the situation(

12

2o""ow up The tea>her >ould de$elop >on$ersation Aased on reported spee>h Kgossiping at the part/ aAout the proAlems >o$ered in the a>ti$it/L and let the students Ae in$ol$ed in it ?ithout tea>her=s interfering( Ghile listening to the >on$ersation; the tea>her ma/ ?rite do?n the >ommon mista#es the students ha$e made; and after finishing the a>ti$it/; ?rite these mista#es on the Aoard and familiarise the students ?ith them and >orre>t them as a ?hole >lass( This a>ti$it/ also ser$es for enlarging the students= $o>aAular/ ?hile tal#ing aAout relationships KhusAand B ?ife; neighAoursL Aut also aAout different >ountries negotiating serious matters Ko>>up/ing territor/; Auilding a nu>lear po?er plant near the Aorder; high taBes on food et>(L %:' E3e;witness ccounts Level " intermediate; upper intermediate Type of activity " filling in a <uestionnaire Kpair ?or#L Objective " reporting an e$ent; as#ing <uestions The tea>her is supposed to prepare <uestionnaires from different fields of real ?orld situations Kre>ord of >riminal e$ents; $eterinar/ report sheet; estate agents= <uestionnaire aAout >ustomer=s re<uirements; medi>al information sheet et>(L and gi$e one <uestionnaire to ea>h pair( Then a student A fills it in A/ as#ing students B <uestions( The tea>her should insist on formulating the <uestions >orre>tl/ and ma#e sure the student does not simpl/ sho? the form to his or her partner( &tudents B are as#ed to in$ent as plausiAle and >oherent ans?ers to the <uestions as possiAle( Ghen students A ha$e >ompleted their <uestionnaires; the roles should Ae >hanged and another <uestionnaire used( M3 ev "u tion o4 t5is !tivit3 Filling in the <uestionnaires or forms ?ith open ans?ers Aelongs to fa$orite a>ti$ities of those students ?ho are >reati$e and li#e in$enting stories and ma#ing up plots( On the other hand; this #ind of form is <uite inappropriate for the slo?er students ?ho ha$e diffi>ulties ?ith >reating the possiAle ans?ers( It ta#es them some time and leads to untrust?orthiness of their ans?ers( Ghen this o>>ured in m/ >lass; I de>ided to di$ide the students into t?o hal$es( 12

The Aetter part of students ?as gi$en >ompli>ated and openCans?er <uestionnaires and the ?ea#er students ?ere instru>ted to loo# at the pi>tures I ga$e out( Due to diffi>ulties ?ith ma#ing up the ans?ers; I as#ed them to use these pi>tures and; a>>ording to ?hat the/ sa?; ans?er the partner=s <uestions( 3i>tures ga$e them the opportunit/ to formulate the ans?ers straight a?a/ ?ithout un?anted pauses( E$entuall/; I felt >onfident to ha$e managed this a>ti$it/ su>>essfull/( All >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$ities Aased on filling in the <uestionnaires are $er/ useful as the/ prepare the students for real life situations the/ ma/ >ome a>ross later on( Based on m/ tea>hing eBperien>e; the Aest option is to start ?ith the <uestionnaire re<uiring the personal information Ae>ause this #ind of form is undouAtl/ mostl/ used in realit/( Ghen the students feel >onfident ?ith filling in personal forms; I pro>eed ?ith using the more demanding ones( To fill in these; students ha$e to Ae familiar ?ith a ?ider range of $o>aAular/ and also grammati>al stru>tures( E(g( a medi>al information sheet ?ill re<uire $o>aAular/ >on>erning diseases; their s/mptoms; first aid et>( or the re>ord of >riminal e$ents ?ill demand the terminolog/ aAout >rime( Dealing ?ith these forms; preCtea>hing spe>ifi> $o>aAular/ items is essential for understanding the tas# and smooth a>ti$it/ de$elopment Choosing the appropriate form or <uestionnaire sometimes depends on a topi> >o$ered ?ithin the ?ee#( The tea>her=s role in this a>ti$it/ is to go round the >lass and oAser$e students( In m/ lessons I tr/ to listen to all pairs ha$ing dialogues and not to ignore an/one( Ghile >ir>ulating I >orre>t some mista#es made A/ students either in <uestions or the ans?ers( This interuption is not interfering; moreo$er; ?hen the tea>her is near A/; the students eBpe>t to Ae >orre>ted( E$en if the tea>her manages to >orre>t some mista#es during the a>ti$it/; at the end of it there should Ae an o$erall feedAa># on students= mista#es and on their aAilit/ to formulate <uestions and ans?ers(

11

) CONCLUSION
In m/ thesis I tried to deal ?ith spea#ing as one of four Aasi> s#ills and highlight its importan>e in e$er/ da/ situations( '/ aim ?as to distinguish spea#ing and >on$ersation sin>e these terms are >ommonl/ used Aut often get miBed up( I pointed out that >on$ersation pla/s a >ru>ial role in our li$es and ?ithout it ?e ?ould not Ae aAle to eB>hange the information and share our #no?ledge( I also dealt ?ith moti$ation as an essential fa>tor for language learners and >lassified its t/pes E eBtrinsi> and intrinsi>; ?ith the emphasis on the tea>her=s personalit/ ?hi>h influen>es the students= ?illingness to parti>ipate a>ti$el/ in the learning pro>ess( I mentioned nati$e spea#ers as a great sour>e for our tea>hing pra>ti>e and des>riAed the ?a/s the/ ma/ en>ourage the students to >arr/ on stud/ing a foreign language( To feel >onfident ?hile learning to spea# a foreign language; the students are supposed to Ae put in a Osafe en$ironmentI( This pre$ents them from emAarrassement or anBiet/ ?hen the/ are as#ed to eBpress themsel$es( I tried to eBplain this term and suggested possiAle ?a/s to de>rease students= >on>ern aAout spea#ing( Due to students= different personalities and also aAilities to spea# a foreign language; I dealt ?ith pair ?or# and group ?or# as the ?a/s of organiDing the >lass( I mentioned the ad$antages of this #ind of ?or#; espe>iall/ redu>ing tension in >lass; >reating a pleasant atmosphere and Auilding up students= independen>e and >onfiden>e( 3air ?or# ?as e$aluated as more useful sin>e it is >loser to realClife situations and dealing ?ith them is the main aim that the students are heading for( Another area I fo>used on; ?ere >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$ities and their >ategoriDation " information gap a>ti$ities; dis>ussions; role pla/s; simulations and guessing games( I >hara>teriDed them and e$aluated the intera>tion the/ offer to prepare students for realClife language use( In >onne>tion ?ith them; I dealt ?ith terms a>>ura>/ and fluen>/ and eBplained the importan>e of distinguishing them due to tea>her=s oA@e>ti$e ?ithin the lesson( I introdu>ed different te>hni<ues for >orre>ting mista#es in either a>>ura>/ or fluen>/ >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$ities and also des>riAed the roles of a tea>her and re<uirements ?hi>h he or she has to fulfil to manage the roles su>>essfull/(

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In the pra>ti>al part of m/ thesis I first introdu>ed the >lasses I ha$e Aeen tea>hing and also eBplained the tea>hing poli>/ at the Defense Language Institute in ./0#o$( Then I presented a set of preCtaught >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$ities ?hi>h I ha$e alread/ used in m/ lessons; des>riAed their oA@e>ti$es and pro$ided them ?ith m/ e$aluation( All a>ti$ities ?ere aimed at pra>tising spea#ing in English lessons; fo>using on either fluen>/ or a>>ura>/( B/ means of this thesis I realiDed ho? important it is for the tea>her to ha$e a great amount of information >on>erning tea>hing spea#ing to Ae aAle to pro$ide the students ?ith effi>ient >on$ersational lessons( The methodolog/ literature I ?as reading through enaAled me to ha$e a loo# at a spea#ing s#ill from a different point of $ie? and thin# aAout this issue more deepl/( All the theoreti>al information I gained from this literature ?as used in the pra>ti>al part of m/ thesis( Based on that; I rea>hed se$eral findings( One of them ?as realiDing ho? important role moti$ation pla/s in the learning pro>ess( It ?as pro$ed that students= progress in spea#ing a foreign language depends on moti$ation and en>ouragement from their tea>hers( I found out that if there are no stimulating fa>tors and the students are not moti$ated; it leads to Aoredom in >lass( To pre$ent this; entertaining >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$ities and interesting topi>s pro$ed to Ae $er/ useful and effe>ti$e( Another fa>t ?hi>h I found reasonaAle ?hile e$aluating presented a>ti$ities; ?as distinguishing them a>>ording to the tea>her=s oA@e>ti$e( The fluen>/ a>ti$ities pro$ed to Ae essential ?hile pra>tising fluent >on$ersation to prepare students for the real ?orld( On the other hand; the a>>ura>/ a>ti$ities fo>used on grammar and due to them the students ?ere gi$en the opportunit/ to pra>tise the >orre>t use of foreign language( &in>e using $arious t/pes of >ommuni>ati$e a>ti$ities pro$ed $er/ Aenefi>ial in m/ >lasses; I ?ould li#e to re>ommend them to all tea>hers ?hose aim is to impro$e their students= >ommuni>ati$e s#ills(

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