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4,5,6

, 2012

/ 4,5,6,



.
.


,
.
,

.

(), .

( ) ,
( 4, 5 6 ).

0 ()
, .. ,

(1)
0 = .

0 =

= 1 0 , 0 =


, , .. 0 = , - .
,
,
=0,99.

.
.




.

0 =

0 =

n
.
n
2

/ 4,5,6,

/ n / =

.
30
6-
. ,
.
. 1.
1...12 .
.
. ,

.

12 =

= 2 ; 3 4 = 4 ; 56 = 5 = 6 ; 7 8 = 7 = 8 ; 910 = 9 = 10 ; 1112 = 11 = 12 (2)


2
1
6
5
8
7
10
9
12
11
3

(-) ,
.

. 1 6-

() , . 2.

(): 0 = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112 .
0
m
0 = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112
,

(3)

:
m ,
1 2 ...1112 .
3

/ 4,5,6,

. 2 6-
,
.

1
1
(4)
1 2 = 1 c f + ,
1 2
:
f ,
, .

F + 2,87
c=
(5)
F + 0,17
2M
F , F =
.
d
M , d = m ;
m - ( m = 1).

,
. (1) (5) :
VII

VII = = 12 ;
F1112 =

1
F
2M 12 2M 12
+ 2,78
1

; c1112 = 1112
; 1112 = 1 c1112 f
=
+
d12
m 12
F1112 + 0,17
11 12

VI
M VI =

M VII

1112 1112

= M 10 ;

1
F + 2,78
2M 10 2M 10
1

; c9 10 = 9 10
; 9 10 = 1 c9 10 f +
=
d10
m 10
F9 10 + 0,17

10
9
V

F9 10 =

MV =

M VI

9 10 9 10

= M8 ;

2M 8
;
m 8
.

F7 8 =

:
1 = 3 = 5 = 7 = 9 = 31 ; 2 = 4 = 6 = 8 = 10 = 12 = 53 .

/ 4,5,6,

f = 0,1; =0,99.

(3) 0 .
( ),
0 = f ( ) .



. . 3.

. 3.
.
= 20 .
.
,
90 .
7 100, 300.
.
, ..
.
-


.
,
n
0 = 1 2 = 1 = 1 = 2 ,
2 n2 1
1 n1 ,
2 n2 ,
2 ,
1 ( ).
n
.
/ n / =
30
2
(. )
: 1 =
1 2 1 2

d 2 = m 2 ,
m .
5

/ 4,5,6,


q,

d1 = m q ; q = 1 .
tg

tg
1 2 =
,
(6)
tg ( + )
f
, f
= arctg
cos
, = 20 -
.
(6)
tg
1 2 =
tg ( + )
F + 0,97
F2
; F=
;
c =
F + 2,21
cos cos
2M 2
F=
.
d2

(7)

, 0 = .
f = 0,05 ( ), 1 = 2, 2 = 50,
m =1,5 , cos = 0,15 , cos = 0,9397 , =0,99.
( ),
0 = f ( ) .


.
()
, .
, .. .
, .

. , ,
.
,
.
.

3 1000 0,98 0,01 .
. 4 ,
.

/ 4,5,6,

. 4.
Z1,
Z4 Z2 Z3,
. Hebel .
: Z1 = Z3 =17; Z2 = Z4 = 87.
m = 0,8 .

( ). (
)
.
, .
.5.

/ 4,5,6,

. 4,5.
2- ,
1 4

1 4 = 1
= 1 1 = 1 14
(8)

1 4 14
, ..
0 = 14 = 1 1 4 .
(9)
, (2) (3) 2-


1 4 = 2 4 = 2 4 ,
1 3 1 3
2 4

0 = 1 2 4 = 1 3
.
(10)
1 3
1 3

1 (i < 1),
.. ( ).

, 1.
1
1 3
1 =
=
.
(11)
1 1 3 2 4
.
,
. ()
, ..
0 = .
,
, .

( = ;
1 = = ), = = ; = = 1 1
0 = =

/ 4,5,6,


1
= 1 = 1 1 =
12)
1

.
, . 5.

4
(13)
1 4 =
= 12 3 4
1 1 4
1 4 + = 0 4 = 1 .
(13) 4 = 1 1 4 1 4
, :
1 = 1 1 4 1 4 ; = 1 (1 1 4 1 4 )
1
.
(12) 1 =

1 1 4 1 4 1

, = 12 3 4
(4) (5) 1 2 3 4
.
(. .6)
d
d
FH + F12 = F34 ; F12 1 = F34 2 , d1 = m 1 ; d 2 = m 2
2
2
:
M H 3
M H 2
F12 =
; F34 =
;
m (1 + 4 ) ( 2 3 )
m (31 + 4 ) ( 2 3 )

1 4

1 4

1 2 = 1 c f + 134 = 1 c f +
1 2
3 4
0 = .
( ),
0 = f ( ) .

.6.
9

/ 4,5,6,



, . 6, 7 8, . 9, 10, 11
12. . 6 9; . 7 10;
. 8 9. . 11 12.

(. 9, 10) 1,
2, 3 ( , , ),
4, , 5.
6,
/. 2 7,
8.
9.
10 (. 11).
,
11.
.
. 11 12.
11 ,
. 1 ,
.
13 (. 9, 10)
3.
4. 4 14.
. ,
.
.

10

/ 4,5,6,

( )
, .
,
. ,
. .
15 .
,
16. 16 .
17,
. , , 16,
.
.

11

/ 4,5,6,

12

/ 4,5,6,

11 16 ,
.
.
110 ,
20 .
.
, ,
n1
P = 1 =
30
:
n2
P = 2 =
30
, ;
; 1 , c 1 ; 2
, c 1 ; n1 n2 , /.
:
P

= = 2 =
(31)
P
1 i
i (10) ,
(14) (19) .
, ,
(31) .

,
, ,
.


: .
,
.
, ,
.
, .. ,
.
,
.
, . , ,
.
. ,
.
j X A1 , A2 ... A j ,
.

X.
, :
A1 + A2 + ... + A j 1
X =
= Aj
(32)
j
j j
13

/ 4,5,6,

.
, 12 17 11 16 (. 11,
12). .
1. 11 12.
20 (. . 11), .
. 20
21 Fm = 3 ,
. ,
12 . 2
, 22 (. 11).
11 . 12
,
.
21 20,
, l j 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 20 .
, , ,
11 . l j
j . 1, .
, 20 .
M mj ,

l j , 11,
12:
M mj = Fm l j = K 1 j j
(33)
K 1 j 12.
K 1 j .
.
K1, . ,
, ,
, .
2. 16 17.
.
14 (. 12). 4
24, . 4
17 .
25 Pm = 12 , 0.
17.
26, 27
16, 24
25, .
25 ,
, l j , 10, 12,
14, 16, 18, 20 . , ,
, 16 17.
1. . 1
25 j .

14

/ 4,5,6,

1.
l j ,



M mj = Fm l j ,

Kj =

M mj

, ()/.

12: Fm = 3
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
K1
17: Fm = 12
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
K2


M mj = Fm l j = K 2 j j

(34)

K2j 17.
K2j 25.
. K2,
. 25 26.



, .
. 8 16 (. 9,
10) , ,
.

.



. ,
, .
. 2.
2.

1
2
3
4
5

900
1000
1100
1200
1300

n1

2
20
20
20
20
20

2
30
30
30
30
30

2
40
40
40
40
40

2
50
50
50
50
50

2
60
60
60
60
60

15

/ 4,5,6,

1. 2 4 12
17 , 1 (. 9, 10).
2. 7 2. ,
9 (. 9, 10).
3. 14 4.
(. . 2).
4. n1 8
6. , 2
( ), 15
17. n1.

6, 8.
,
7 14 15,
. .
. 3, 4, 5
( ) 2 j 17, 1 j 12.
3:
Z 1 = Z 3 = Z 5 = Z 7 = Z 9 = Z 11 = 31
Z 2 = Z 4 = Z 6 = Z 8 = Z 10 = Z 12 = 53
i12 = i3 4 = i56 = i7 8 = i910 = i1112 =

Z2
Z1

: K 1 = , K 2 = . [()/]
2 j ,
M j = 2 j K 2 ,
1 j ,
M j = 1 j K 1 ,

=
j

M j
i M j

4:
n
Z
Z 1 = 2; Z 2 = 50; i = i1 2 = 1 = 2 = ...
n2 Z1
: K 1 = , K 2 = . [()/]
M j
2 j ,
M j = 2 j K 2 ,
1 j ,
M j = 1 j K 1 ,
j =

i M j
5:
: K 1 = , K 2 = . [()/]
M j
2 j ,
M j = 2 j K 2 ,
1 j ,
M j = 1 j K 1 ,
j =

i M j

7 14.
:
M j = 1 1 j
M Hj = K 2 2 j

16

/ 4,5,6,

(31).
. 3, 4, 5 .
= f ( M H ) .
6:
Z
i12 = i3 4 = i56 = i7 8 = i910 = i1112 = 2 = ...
Z 1 = 31
m = 1
d = mZ 1 = ...
Z1
Z 2 = 53 m = 1 1
d = mZ 2 = ... 1
1
+
= ...
= 0,98 f = 0,15 2
Z1 Z 2

Mi,
MH, N
F + 2,87
2M i +1
1
1
Fi =
, Ci = i
j = 1 C i f +

Fi + 0,17
dj
Z1 Z 2

7
MH = M7
6
2M 7
F + 2,87
M7
1
1
6 = 6
M6 =
F6 =
1112 = 1 C 6 f +
F6 + 0,17
i1112 1112
d12
Z1 Z 2
5
2M 6
F + 2,87
M6
1
1
5 = 5
M5 =
F5 =
910 = 1 C 5 f +
F5 + 0,17
i910 910
d10
Z1 Z 2

M4 =

F4 =

C4 =

M3 =

F3 =

C3 =

78
56

2
1

M2 =
M1 =

F2 =
F1 =

C2 =
C1 =

MH

7:
= 9
= 20
Z1 = 2
tg( + ) = 0,2126
cos = 0,987
cos = 0,9397
Z 2 = 50
tg
= 0,745
m = 1,5 d 2 = mZ 2 = ... f = 0,05
tg ( + )
Z
f
40
tg = 1 = 0,15 = arctg
= 3 = 0,99
q=
q
3
cos
F
tg
Q + 0,97
= M2
2M H
= 1 2 2
Q= 2
C=
1 2 = C
F2 =
cos
tg( + )
Q + 2,21
d2

1. ,
. (18), (23)
(35) . 6, 7, 8
. = f ( M H ) .
2. .
3. .
4. .

17

/ 4,5,6,

8:
M =
Z1 = Z 3 = 17
Z Z
i14 = 2 4 = ...
Z1 Z 3
Z Z
Z 2 = Z 4 = 87
i1 = 1 2 4 = ...
Z1 Z 3
M Z2
M l Z3
F34 =
F12 =
1
m( Z 3 + Z 4 )( Z 2 Z 3 )
m( Z 3 + Z 4 )( Z 2 Z 3 )
=
(1 i1 4 1 4 )
i1
m = 0,8
1
1
3 4 = 1 C 3 4 f +
f = 0,15
Z3 Z4

= 0,99


M =

F12

F34

C12 =

F12 + 2,87
F34 + 0,17

C 34 =

F34 + 2,87
F34 + 0,17

1 2

3 4

1 4 = 1 2 3 4


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

.

, , .
, , .
,
. = f(M); = f(M)
6. .
7. .

18

/ 4,5,6,

1. ?
2. . .
3. ( )
?
4. : ?
5. ?
6.
?
7. ?
?
8. ?
9. ?
?

19