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4
1 ............................................................................................. 5
1.1 .................................................................... 5
1.2 ....................................... 9
2 ............................................................................................ 14
2.1 ............... 14
2.2 ......................................................................................... 17
3 - ............................................................................ 38
3.1 ............... 38
3.2 ................................................................... 38
3.3 ..................................................................... 39
3.4 ................................................. 45
4 .................................................................................................. 51
4.1 .................................................... 51
4.2 ................................................................................ 51
4.3 ................................................................... 53
4.4 .................................................................................. 54
4.5 ..................................................................... 59
4.6 ................................ 60
5 ................................................................................... 64
5.1 ................................ 64
5.2 ............... 65
6 ................................................................... 72
6.1 ........................................... 73
6.2 ............. 75
6.3 ............................. 81
7 - ................................................................. 82
. .
.

..
.


,
(, ) (,
.). (, ) . ,
(, , , , )
: 1) ( 4 C1540); 2)
(24, 36, 48, 510); 3) (, , , ); 4) ; 5) -.

( , ,
, .), .
( )
, .

. () 16,6
118 , . , ,
, (, ), ()
.
, ( ), 99,9%.

N .

1.1
:
1 ; 2
; 3 ; 4 ; 5, 11 ; 6 ; 7 ; 3, 14 ; 9, 13 ; 10, 15, 19 ; 12 ;
16 ; 17 ; 18 .
(),
4, 8,
.
13 14, 125 , , , .
15, 14, 1 , 16.
.

N .

1.2
:
1 ; 2 ; 3, 4 ; 5 ; 6 ; 7 ; 8 ; 9 ; 10, 16 ; 11, 14, 17 ; 12 ; 13 ; 15 ; 18 .
(
)
13 14 15.
16 , .
, .
95 % .
-
160170 ( ) .
,
, 30

N .

, ( 2.1). , , () ..

1.3 :
; ; ; 1 ; 2
; 3 ; 4 ; 5 ; 6
; 7 ; 8 .
(. 1.3, ) () , () , [2].
(. 1.3, ) , ;
.
, , 15150 .
(. 1.4, ),
, (. 1.4, ). -

N .

10

1.5
1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4

3,
36 .
.

N .

12

2
2.1
2.1.1
.
, ,
( ,
, . .).
( ), - (, u, ) ( , , ).

. , :
3 + 3
3 + 3 33 + 2
3 4 + 2
90-98%.

( - ) (
) , ,
.

N .

14

6 8 9. , 10, 11. , , 8, , 3I, . 8 , 6.


12. ,
HI,
, HI 3I. 3040 12, . 12 13, .
.
2.1.2
1 .
,
( ,
. .), .
() , .
, . () , .

.
,
.

N .

16

D, PD , TD
YD

D Rp

L, PL , TL
XL , XM

R Sp

R, PR , TR
XR ,
2.2
, [4].

N .

18

f0 = 1.693470.6786 6.09648/0.678 1.28862ln(0.678) + 5.92714 = -2.545


f1 = 0.435770.6786 15.6875/0.678 13.4721ln(0.678) + 15.2518 = -2.605
P1 = Pv = P exp(f0 + w f1) = 5.79 exp(-2.545 0.454 2.605) = 0.139

= 403.15 / 612.00 = 0.659
f0 = 1.693470.6596 6.09648/0.659 1.28862ln(0.659) + 5.92714 = -2.776
f1 = 0.435770.6596 15.6875/0.659 13.4721ln(0.659) + 15.2518 = -2.903
P2 = Pv = P exp(f0 + w f1) = 5.37 exp(-2.776 0.563 2.903) = 0.065

P = 0.139 0.9990 + 0.065 (1 0.9990) = 0.139
[4] .
P = 0.140
2.2.4


P 1 := 0.05


P D := P + P 1 = 0.14 + 0.05 = 0.19


YD 1 YD
k1 + k2 = 1,

(1)

k1 k2 :
Pv1
k1 = P

Pv2
k2 = P

, .
100 . (1) , . ,

N .

20

Pv1 = 0.403 ,

Pv2 = 0.218

0.403
k1 = 0.220 = 1.831

0.218
k2 = 0.220 = 0.989

(2)
1.831 0.0200 + 0.989 (1 0.0200) = 1.005
.
2.2.6
[4]
D/L = 10.35 / 12.00 = 0.862

e = 0.85

P L :=

P D + P R 0.19 + 0.22
=
= 0.205
2
2


XC + XC1 = 1,

(3)

XC ;
XC1 .
[4]
XC :=
XC1 :=

XL

1 + e ( k1 1)
1 XL

1 + e ( k2 1)

k1 k2 :
Pv1
k1 = P

Pv2
k2 = P

, . 150 . (3) ,

N .

22

2.2.8
()

Nmin :=

YD( 1 XR)
ln

XR( 1 YD) ,
ln( )

, :
=

D + R
2 ,

D R

k1 0.986
D = k = 0.481 = 2.050
2

k1 1.831
R = k = 0.989 = 1.851
2

Nmin =

2.050 + 1.851
= 1.951
2

0.9990 (1 0.0200)
ln0.0200 (1 0.9990)

ln(1.951)

= 16.16

.
k1 1.112
L = k = 0.557 = 1.996
2

L + R 1.996 + 1.851
=
= 1.924
2
2

YD( 1 XC)
ln0.9990 (1 0.7893)
XC ( 1 YD) = 0.7893 (1 0.9990) = 8.54
ln(1.924)

ln
NminK :=

( )

ln k

100% . [4]
N := 1.7 Nmin + 0.7 = 1.7 16.16 + 0.7 = 28.18

N .

24

F_Cpx( T , VC) :=

Tx

Cp0 VC0 + VC1 T x + VC2 T x + VC3 T x 4.1868


F_L ( t , Y) :=

T t + 273.15
T T 1Y + T 2( 1 Y)
P P 1Y + P 2 ( 1 Y)
T T 1 Y + T 2 ( 1 Y)
P 0.1013
T
T

P
P

19.68 T ( 1 P )
L
1
1

1
L
1

0.69

log( P ) 1

0.38


()
F_Cp ( T , X) :=

Cp0 F_Cpx( T , VC1) X + F_Cpx( T , VC2) ( 1 X)


T T 1X + T 2( 1 X)
1 X + 2 ( 1 X)

T
T

lgA 0.604 1.505

Cp 78.4 lgA + 30.08 lgA 121.96 + 202 +

35.91

Cp0 + Cp

N .

26


QD = (5.686 104 1.948 104) 22.78 = 851516 / = 237 / = 237

VR := R Sp = 1.65 13.88 = 22.93


q := 0.8%

, , [4]
Q :=

( D + g) HD + ( R + VR) hR
1 q

(10.35 + 22.78) 5.686 104 + (1.65 + 22.93) 1.910 104


=
=
1 0.008
2372400 / = 659 / = 659

QR := Q L HL g hD =

= 2372400 12.00 5.186 104 22.78 1.948 104 =


= 1303200 / = 362 / = 362

Q := Q q = 659 0.008 = 5.3

2.2.10
: ,
, .
50 50 5 [3]:
f = 86 2/2; Vx = 0,545 3/3.
,
( ), ,
[5]:
1
4

1
8

f 0.16
L
lg
= 1.75 ,
G
gV

3
x

, , /;

N .

28

= 1,85

kTU
,

k = 1,3806610-23 / ;
U , /:
U=

2,1316
2

RT
M ,

R = 8,314 /() .

L = R + VR = 1.65 + 22.93 = 24.58 / = 1671 /
G = VR = 22.93 / = 1559 /

2

86 1.28

1,75 10 4
lg
3 978
9.81 0.545

0,16

14

= 0.125 1.75 1671

1559

18

1.28

978

lg (0,203 2) = -1.166
= 0,580 /

= 0,8 = 0,8 0,580 = 0,464 /

Vc = G / = (1559/3600) / 1.28 = 0.338 3/

D =

4V
=

4 0,338
3,14 0.464 = 0,963


DK = 1,0 .
.
DO = 0,910
, .
D = 1.0

N .

30

HK

2.3
:
0,0364106 60
mpC =
= 665 3/
978

1
1
KpV = 1 m = 1
665 = 0.59
pC
+
+
V V 0,267 39.4

G
1559/3600
h0y = K s = 0,59 0,785 = 0.455
V


H = NK h0y = 16 0.455 = 7.28
4 2 .
.

N .

32

2.2.13
.

30

. 4.1.

3
D Rp

2.4


V = 0.00113 3/
. [2]

= 2 /

d=

4 0,00113
3,14 2 = 0,0268

N .

34

30 . h+
h +

2
l
2
2,30
30

= + ..
= 0,0281 0,025 + 6,04 2 9,81 = 7,69

d
2g


H=

p2 p 1
+ h+ + h,
g

p2 , p2 = 1,47 105 ;
1 , p1 = = 1,01 105 ;
h , h = 10 .

1,47 105 1,01 105


+ 7,69 + 10 = 35,4
H=
9,81 997
.

N = g L H = 1000 9,81 0,00113 35,4 = 2500 = 2,5

= 0,7

N = N / = 2,5 / 0,7 = 3,6
[2, . I.2]
X20/31 31 5,5 .
. , [2, 3].
. QR,
t
F=

QR
Kt

N .

36

3 -
3.1

. . , . , . ( 2) = 22 , D = 1,0
. 7 , 5
, 9 .

, ,
, , .
p = 0,22 .
3.2
-,
, -
, , .
121810 ( 7350 66), 196 400 . , , ,
, , . .
:
,
, .

N .

38


[] = 1 144 =144 .
[],
[]=20/1,1,
20 t= 20 .
20=220 121810, :

[] = 220 / 1,1 = 200 .


,
= + ,
,
,
= 0

= 0,22 + 0 = 0,22 .
,
1,5 p [ ]20 /[ ]
pu = max
,

0,2
[]20 20, .

[]

20

= *20 ,

[]

20

=1 160=160 , *20 =160

1,5 0,22 160 / 144 = 0,57


p u = max
= 0,57 .
0
,
2

= 1 ,
, . :
= B ,
, 0,1 /;

N .

40

3.3.2
. ,
D=1,2 . = 0,95 . 5.2.

3.2 : h .
s., s,

p D / 2 [ ] 0,5 p p

s.. = max p
,
(
)
[
]
p
D
/
2

0
,
5
p

u
u
u
s = s.. + c + c0

0,22 1,0 / (2 0,95 144 0,5 0,341) = 2,2 10 3


s.. = max
= 2,6
3
0,57 1,0 / (2 0,95 200 0,5 0,57 ) = 2,6 10

s = 2,6 + 1,5 + 0,8 = 5 ,


c0 = 0,8 .

[8],
s = 8
, [p],
[p] =

2 [] (s )
,
D + 0,5 (s )

[p] =

2 0,95 144,32 (5 1,5)


= 1,46
1000 + 0,5 (5 1,5)

, [p],

N .

42

[(l

1p

+ s yp + s s p c ) (s s ) + l 2 p (s 2 )] 1 + D p (s yp + s c )

( 2 s yp + s s p c ) 0,5 (d p d 0 ) s p ,

l1p , ;
Syp , , Syp = 4 ;
l1 , l1=200 ;
l2 ,
;
s , s =5 ;
s , s =3,4 ;

, =1,5 ;
1 , 2 , 1 = 2 = 1 ..
;
D p , D p = D ;
d , ;
d0 , , .

l1
l1p = min
1,25

(d + 2 c ) (s

200

= 47 ;
47
=
(
)
(
)
1
,
25
250
2
1
,
5
5
1
,
5

l1p = min

d 0 = 2{((s c ) / s 0,8) D p (s c ) c

},

d 0 = 2 ((5 1,5) / 2,9 0,8) 1000 (5 1,5) 1,5 } = 64 ;


d = 400 > d0 = 64 , .
:

[(47 + 4 + 5 2,9 1,5) (5 3,4 1,5)] 1 +

1000 (4 + 5 1,5)

N .

44

3.4

G := 0.1G.


G := G + G,

G
D2
G = g N h 4 ,
h , h = ;
, = 1287 /3.

n := 20

N .

46

4
3
F ( gT)
2
1

10

12

gT


i := 1 + m ( hi)

, i-
P i := 0.6 i q D hi

( P = f(h))
M := P h
vPh := cspline( h , P )
FP ( hx) := interp( vPh , h , P , hx)
H

M := FP ( h) dh
0

3.1
3.1

J, 4
G,

0,0430
0,1430

0,1699

T,

5,96

6,49

3.314

3,375

, ,

33,901

34,235

N .

48


d :=

4P 1

+ 2 =

4 0.791
3.14 537 + 0.002 = 0.0208

d = 22 . d < 30
D := D + 2s + 4d = 1,00 + 2 0,01 + 4 0,022 = 1,15


D1 := D + 3d = 1,15 + 3 0,022 = 1,22

N .

50

F = 10Gf 10 (G + G)f,
G , G = 6 ;
f , f = 0,015 [9, . 30]; f , fy = 0,150,01 = 0,0015 [9, . 268.].

F = 1060,015 + 10(6 + 1,394)0,0015 = 0,100 .



F = 1,5F = 1,50,100 = 0,150

N
F = 3,67 ,

N , N = 132 [9, . 28];


, = 0,85 [9, c. 268];
, = 75 / [9, . 28].

F = 3,67

1320,85
= 5,49
75


F = 10G,
Gc ,
, Gc = 0,65G = 0,656 = 3.9 [9, c. 268];
, = 0,85
[9, . 33].
Fc = 103,90,85 = 33,15 .

F F F min {F; F}
5,49 33,15 0,150 min {5,49; 33,15}
, .

N .

52

, (. 4.1).
,
.
, .
4.4
4.4.1
:
G.

G0
,
n

G0 = 14 ;
n = 1 , .
G. 14 / 1 = 14
:
h = h + h + h + h ,
h = 0,5 ;
h = 0,5 ;
h = 15 , ;
h = 8,5 , .
h = 0,5 + 0,5 + 15 + 8,5 = 24,5 .
-25 30 . l = 17 , G =
18 26 ,
.

N .

54

:
52.7 10 3
W=
= 1.10 10 3 3.
6
0,85 210 10
W = 1,10 10 3 3

450

12

W = 1458 3 > W = 1100 3.


.
4.4.3
.

,
.
4.4.

4.3
:
S=

P
,
m n cos

N .

56

4.4. .
) ; )
, :
N = G/2,
Go ,
Go = G = 0.1430 106

N = 143/2 = 71,5 .
, :
= NL,
L N , L = 0,3
.
M = 71,50,3 = 21,5
,
.
:
M
21,5
W = 0,1mR = 0,120,5 = 270 3
[9, V]
290 3.
, :

N .

58

, , , . , ,
.
[12].
4.6
4.6.1

, , ,
.
, .
( ) , ,
.

[9].

-.
(, , .) . , ,
.

N .

60

: , () .


.
, , ,
, : )
, , ; )
; ) ; ) .
(, ) .

: ) , ,
; ) , , , (, , ); )
, , , , , ; ) , , , , ; ) .
. , ,
.

N .

62

5
.
:
, ,
, .

.

.
, , , [16].
5.1


, ,
, .
.
, .


. ( ),
(
).

N .

64

-1,
0,02-0,1
,
10.1, .
,
-0515,
, . 64.
63
( ), ( )
( ).
.
-
,
3.2, ,
.
3.26. -2, 2.2.

6, 10.1, , .
3.26.
5501 ,
2 211.
-4,
. 2.2.
,
.
(. 5.1).

N .

66

5.1.
1

N .

4-2

. 2-2

4-3
11-1

5
. 2-3

- 165

. 2-1


11-2

. 2-2

11-3

. 2-3

10-1

0,22 2

0,02 0,1 ,
1

10-2
1-1

. 3-3
- 0,87 3/

- , 0,6 150

1
0,020,1

,
.

1-2

1-3

- , , - 10.1

, 420 /

1-4

- , - 3.26

12 /

68

5.1.
1

N .

12-2

. 1-2

12-3

. 1-3

0,71 3/

12-1

12-4

. 1-4

12-5

. 1-5

6-1

99,8 %

. 1-1

- : , 5501

, -

6-2

( - 211

)
6-3

. 1-3

6-4

. 1-4

9-1

- 4-
, -

,
.


9-2

- ( 2.2

70

6
, .
, .

:
1)
,
(. 1);
2) , (. 2);
3) (. 3);
4) (. 4);
5) , (. 5);
6) , (. 7).

, ,
,
: = 29,1 ; 3 = ,4 .

N .

72


, ,
. ,
, - .
,
.

, , .
,
. 96%
, 40% 80% , 3-4% - .
, ,
.
10-12 , - 30-40 .

, .
() .
, ,
, .
,
. , .
, .
.

N .

74

7.


, , .


10-573-03.
.

. ,
, h = 23 2,2 .
, ,
, , , . 6.1.

6.1
h 150
.
h < h. ro. hx rx.

h=

rx + 1,63hx
,
1,5

N .

76

1.7.64 30 ,
.

n =

R
,
R

R. = 30 ;
. = 0.86 , 5 . L = 2.5 .

n =

31.94
= 1.2
30 0.86

2, 2.5 ., 5 1.95 . .
.

(, , ),
, , ,
.
[13]. .
:

= 0,24

R
,
17,3 Q

R , ;
Q , .
, (R = 1500 )
Q = 60 .

N .

78

= 2 0 r ,
0 , ;
( ), /2;
r , .
) , r, :
r=

D
(1 + ) / 1 + 1 ,
4

D , ;
, %.
081810 [7], , = 50 % [21].
D=400 . :

400 10 3
r=
(1 + 0,5) / 1 + 0,5 1 = 544,9 10 3
4
0 =2 , = 670 /2
[21]. :
= 2 2 10 3 670 544,9 10 3 = 3,46
0, :
0 = 0,75 ,
=

D 0
,
P

, = 7900 /3 [8].

3,14 400 10 3 7900 2 10 3


=3,68
=
1,46
0 = 0,75 3,68 = 2,8
2,8 , .

N .

80

7 -
7.1 -

( , , , , .).
, .
, , , . : , , , .
.
7.2

. , .
. (, ). ,
.

,
.

N .

82

7.4 .
:
1) ;
2) , : , , , , ..
-
( ).
.
:
1)
2)
3)
4)

, ;
, ;
( )
, :
=

5) , ;
6) , ;
7) , ,
= + + +
7.1 7.2.
7.1

153

10,13

188

291379

70

203966

101983

597328

7167931

37

12,33

166

75731

70

53012

26506

155248

1862979

29

9,85

166

47418

70

33193

16596

97207

1166480

290170

145085

849783

10197391

219

414528

7.2



24
12
5500
132000
70
92400 224400

4
12
4200
16800
70
11760
28560

3
12
1700
5100
70
3570
8670

31
153900
107730
261630

2692800
342720
104040
3139560

N .

84

, , , .
:
= 4900 276800 = 1356320000 .
= 4382,8 276800 = 1213159040 .
= 1356320000 1213159040 = 143160960 .
7.6
,
, ,
. - :
, , , (
, ),
, .
(W) :

W = N = 660299777/250 = 2641199 /,
, .;
N - , .

V = = 4900 276800 = 1356320000
:
V
W = = 1359260000/660299777 = 2,06 /,
V .

N .

86

Tn =

94328540
K
= (4501,8 4382.8) 276800 = 2.86 ,
(C1 C 2 ) V2

1 2 ;
V2 .
7.4.
7.4











257982
276800
.
1161383368 1213159040
.
74330000
73040000
./
288,12
263,87
.
253
250
./.
4446
4446
/.
1020
1107
.
4501,8
4382,8
.
1161383368 1213159040
.
4900
4900
.
398,2
517,2
.
102728432
143160960
43%
45,1%

2,33
2,22
2,573
2,653
1983766
2045120
.
51775672

18818
7,29%
51775672
4,46%
-1290000
-1,74%
-24,25
-8,42%
-3
-1,19%
0
0,00%
88
8,58%
-119,0
-2,64%
51775672
4,46%
0
0,00%
119
29,88%
40432528
39,36%
2%
5,26%
-0,12
-5,00%
0,080
3,09%
61354
3,09%

7.8
, ,
. , - :
= 195420800 + 148863040 + 16995520 = 361279360 .

= / = 361279360 / 276800 = 1305,2
( -) ,
,
.

N .

88


, .
, ,

, .
, .

.
. .
-
: , ,
, .

.
.
, ,
, .
. .
- , .

.

N .

90

( ). .: . ., 2001. 319 .
14. .., .. - : 250200 170500
180400
. : ,
2003. 26 .

N .

92

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