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ISBN 97S-S-85939-561-3
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npM 'TOM Ha ypOKe MOlKET BblTb I1CnOJlb30BAH HE BECb
TEKCT H HE BCE 3A,rI;AHJUI. IIOJIHbIA TeKCT naparpa4>a - aTO
npe,llJIOmeHHbIH MAKCl1MYM, H3 KOTOPOro Y"fHTeJIb H yqeHmm HMeJQT
npaBo Bbl6paTb J.1HTepeCHbIH JIH"niO .llJlSl HUX Bapltl8HT ypoKa. HOBble ,llaTbl,
HMeHa, nOHHTHSI, He06xo,Zl;HMbIe ,llJISI ,llaJIbHetiwero HCnOJIb308aHJ1S1,
BbI)J;eJIeHbI 8 TeKCTe :3CHpIlItIM WPH<pTOM. HOBbIe 3HaHJilSI, Heo6.R3aTeJlbHbIe
,llJISI 3an0Ml1HaHltIR,8bl,lleJIeHbI xyPCU6OM. 06R3aTeJIbHbIti Ml1Hl1MYM,
KOTOPblH ,ZI;OJImeH yCBOJ1Tb Ka>K,Ilbill yqeHKK, Bbl,lleJIeH nepe,ll HaqaJIOM
Ka>K,Il;oro pa3,lleJIa - B xpoHOJIOmqeCKOH (C. 16, 50, 122, 184) )KHp-
HbIM lllpltlq,TOM. IIpJ1 no,ltl'OTOBRe K YPOKY HY>KHO: 1-A war - CpaSHHTb 3TH
06R3aTeJlbHble,llJIJl Bcex cpaKTbI H nOH1ITI1JI C TeKCTOM naparpaQ>a; 2-M war-
BblJleJIJ1Tb rJIaBHble "'{aCTH TeKCTa, KOTOpble HeJIb3S1 nponycTHTb.
l13rm caMbie Ba>KHble YCJIOBHble 3H8KH H onpe,Zl;eJDi, KaKHe CBe,lleHJll8
MomHO nOJlY"'I}fTb, qHTaJI HCTOpJRecKHe cxeMbI H KaPTbl.
YCnoatiote lHaKH K (Ie"".""
rocYAapcTHHHOrapo-
1- ':P'"aHbl rocyp,apcraeH-
.... onacno
HerocyAalpc'BeHHble
opraHbl Bnacn ..
I n .. "I - 06w,ecTBeHHble
cnOI1, rpynnbl
.. - Ha3Ha'"leHl1e, PYKOBOACTBO
___ - COBeT
......... - cnY>K6a, ynnaTa HanorOB
---{[> - H36paHHe
Ycnou-.te 3KMCM K KIIP'.""

--- - ..,:
. .

(PElCti
"._._._._._._.'1
..... EJ1JIlET .. _._. __ ._.-
r ......
o ellMB ...
......
Kalili", X 218
:::::::::>
:--.
-- .......-
...-. """'"
-

.......

...-'-
""'''''''''
"""""

--
M8CT8 M AIITW &mo
-.---

7
BBeAeHHe 2: KaK 3arnliHYTio B npownoe!
- liTo Ii 3ayeM H3y ... aeT HaYKa I1CTOPIo1S1l (CnOsapb)
- 06'bACHH 3Ha'"leHlo1e enos: 06LU,eCTBO, 3pa, aeK, laKT, aprYMeHT.
(Cnosapb)
1. RaK Y3HaTb 0 npOmJIOM?
l.JTo6bI YSHaTb, KaK JIlO,ll;H tHJIH B npOllIJIOM, HCTOPHKY Heo6-
XOAHMO HaHTH HCTOpUqeCKHe HCTOqHHKH - TO, tITQ COXpaHH-
JIOCb C .n;peBHJ1X BpeMH.n;O HallniX ,D;He:ti if MOmeT paCCKaaaTb 0
.n;aBHHX C06bITHRX. BOraTbIM J.:tCTQ'IHHKQM 3HaHHH 0 npOIIIJIOM
HBJIHlOTCR .n;peSHHe aaID1CH:[KHI1:rH, nHCbMa, .n;eJIOBbIe ,nOKYMeH-
TbI, Ha,n;nJ1CI1 Ha npe.n;MeTax, 3.n;aHHRxj CHaqaJIa HX HymHo
pa3hICKaTh BrcTapbIX roPQ,lJ;ax, apXHBax, 6w6JD10TeKaX,
.fiX JIlOfiJ.1TeJIe.i1: CTapl1HbI) IIoToM aTH 3aIlJ1CH HymHo nepeBeCTJi
C ,lJ;peBHJ1X R3hIKOB Ha COBpeMeHHhIe, Hat1:T11 CMbICJI HenOHRTHhIX
3a6hIThIX CJIOB, MHorl1e U3 KOTOPhIX 0603HaqalOT ,ll.aBHO J1CQe3-
HYBWJ1e Bern;J1 11 OfibIQaJ.1. CJIYQaeTCR, QTO pa3HhIe yqeHhIe
npe,ll.JIaralOT pa3HbIe BapJ1aHTht npO'LlTeHHH aTJ1X J.1CTOQHHKOB.
YTOQHJ1Th CMbICJI nOMOralOT CTapbIe BeI.IJ;H, KOTOpbIe TalOKe
CJIymaT J1CTOpHQeCRHMH lIfCTO'LlHHKaMH. tIarn;e BCerO 3TH Bern;lIf
COxpaHRIOTCR B 3eMJIe, TaM, r,n;e ROr,lJ;a-TO mHJIH JIIO,ll.lIf. ,lJ;oMa
MOrJIH ,ll.aBHO 06pYWHThCR, 3apaCTJ.1 TpaBoH. Ha.n; HI1MH ,ll.pyrl1e
JIIO,lJ;H nOCTpOHJIJ1 CBOH ,lJ;OMa, HO no,lJ; 3eMJleH npO,ll.OJlmalOT Jle-
maTh CTaphIe Opy,lJ;HR, YRpaweHlIfR, OfiJIOMKM nocy,lJ;bI lIf T.,n;. Bce
aTO Moryr ,lJ;o6blTb yqeHbIe-apxeOJwzu. OCTopomHO, CJlo.i1: 3a
CJlOeM, OHM CHI1MalOT HaKonHBwyroCR 3a CTOJleTJiR aeMJllO, J1 BOT
no,ll. JIOrraTOH 3BeHlIfT RaMeHb CTaporo cPYH,lJ;aMeHTa, 6J1eCTHT 30-
JIOTaH 3aROJIRa, 6eJIelOT KOCTH fiblBWJ.1X X03.f1eB. Ho MaJlO HaHTJ.1
lIfCTOpH'LleCRHJ1 lIfCTOqHHR, HymHo ern;e ero ,JJ;aTHpOBaTL - orrpe-
,ll;eJlJ.1Th, B KaKoe BpeMH OH 6blJl C03,lJ;aH, 0 RaKHX BeKax MomeT
HaM paCCKa3aTh. A aTO HerrpOCTO, ,n;ame eCJlJ.1 Ha BeI.QJ1 J.1J1U B
3anUClf yxa3aH ro.n; ee C03.n;aHHH. 3arrHCb MomeT fibITb TaRo:ti:
IlHTbIH ro,ll. rrpaBJleHl1H CblHa COJIHIJ;a l1J1J.f 535 ro,lJ; OT OCHO-
BaHl1.f1 PJ1Ma . B pa3HbIx cTpaHax B pa3HbIe BpeMeHa cYI.IJ;eCTBO-
BaJIH CBOH apM - TOQKJ1 OTc'tJeTa l1CTOpHQeCKOrO BpeMeHH, CBOH
KaJleH,ll;apH. ,lJ;aTbI Ha,lJ;O eI.IJ;e rrepeBecTH Ha cOBpeMeHHoe
JleTOJ.1C1.IJ.1CJIeHl1e: BbIC'llHTaTb, KaKo:ti aTO ro,lJ; ,ll;O J1JIJ.1 IlOCJle
8
;
ApxeonorH'IecKHe pacKonKH
K4H(AYIO HBXOAKY OnHCI>'BtUOT - B Ko!KOM coce If 8 KlJJ(OM KS4APBT8 OH" 61>ln4 HaH-
,.I:IaH". BepXHH8 cnON CHHMB/oT nOnaTlJMH, a HHJKHH8 - MI!neHbKHMj.f nOnaTKlJMH H
KHCTO'4K"MH. 8blHyry/O 113 paCKona 38MnlO npOCeHBi!lIOT.

Io1HcTpYMeHTbl
m
06l>RCHI1 npaSl1I1a, KOTopble AOn>KHbl co6nlOAaTb apxeonorl1, 'lTo6bl
AOKonaTbCA AO npowl1oro.
3eMenbHblH ,c,orOBOp.
BBBunoH. XVIII B. AO H.3.
,lJ,peBHlo1e CKa3aHI1R.
KUpOf3UJl. XXI B.
KaMeHHoe py611I10.
, MnH neT H"3"A
r"?l 06l>SlCHI1, Ha KaKI1X I1I1I1IOCTpau,HRX 11306pa>KeHb. n ....cbMeHHble I1CTO'l-
L..:..J HI1KI1, Ha KaKI1X - sew,eCTBeHHble, aHa KaKHX - yCTHble.
9
HOBOH 3pbl. TaR Ha3blBaeTCSI cOBpeMeHHaH TO'llKa OTCqeTa HCTO-
pHqeCRoro BpeMeHH, Ror,lta, COrJIaCHO u;epKoBHoH Tpa,ltHU;HH,
POII>lJICH MHCYC X P>lCTOC.
ECJlH )Ke Ha HCTOq}{HRe He YKa3aHa, HCTOPJiKY He06xo-
,ll;J1M0 YCTaHOBHTb ee no KOCBeHHbIM npJ13HaKaM. ECJIH :lTO
TeKCT, TO BpeMH ero C03,ll;aHHR MO)KHO onpe,ll;eJIHTb no ynoMH-
HaHHlO B HeM yme H3BeCTHblX C06bITHH H JIlO,ll;eti. IIoMomeT H
MaTepHaJI, Ha KOTOPOM 3aIU1Cb. M3BecTHo, HanpHMep,
'ITO 6YMara B EBpone nOHBMJIaCb He paHee XII -XIII Be"". ECJIH
HCTOq}{HK - BeW;b H3 apxeoJIOrwteCKHX paCKonOK, TO BamRO, B
KaROM CJIoe 3eMJIl1 ee RalliJIH, RaKHe PH,ll;OM 6bIJrn BeW;H, BpeMH
C03p;aIDIH ROTOPbIX yme H3BeCTHO. HaROHeu;, ,ll;JIH Bew;eH, C,ll;e-
JIaHHbIX Ji3 mHBOro MaTepHaJIa (,ll;epeBa, paCTJiTeJIbHbIX TKa-
Heti H T.n.), npH,lJ;YMaHbI TeXHHqeCKHe cnoc06bl, n03BOJIHIOW;He
onpe,neJIHTb, CKOJIbRO BeROB HJIH ThICH1.:J:eJIenn1 Ha3a.n; om 6blJlH
C03p;aHbI. TOJIbRO nOCJIe TOro RaR Y,ltaJIOCb .n;a THpOBa Tb (onpep;e-
JU{Tb .n;aTY) CBe,ll;eHHH HCT01.:J:HHKOB, 3TH HCT01.:J:HHRH CTaHOBHTCH
HCTOpH'lJeCKHM 4aKToM.
2. KaK nORHTb npolUJloe?
HaH60JIee 60raTbI ct>aKTaMH TaRHe HCT01.:J:HHRH, RaK ,ll;peBHHe
HCTOpHqeCKHe COqHHeHHH. RaR TOJIbKO JIIO,ll;H npHP;YMaJIH nHCb-
MeHHOCTb, OHH CTaJIH onHChIBaTb ,ll;JUI nOTOMKOB caMble aamHble
Co6bITHJl CBoen mJ1SHH: CTpOHTeJIbCTBO roPO,ll;OB, CMeHY npaBH-
TeJIeH, n06e,nbI B BOHHax H T .n;. O.n;HaKO HCTOpH1.:J:eCKHe CO'llHHe-
HHH, cos.n;aHHble B paSHblX MeCTax pa3HbIMH JIIO,ll;bMH, MorYT
CJ1JIbHO OTJIWlaTbCH H .n;ame npOTlmOpe1.:J:HTb .n;pyr ,ll;pyry. Be,z:tb
Ramp;blti qeJIOBeK nO-CBoeMY BJ1)l;HT MJ1p. nepemHBaeT sa CBOHX
6JIHSKmc, 3a caolO CTpaHY H MomeT (COSHa TeJIbHO HJIH HeT) npH-
YKpallIHBaTb C06b1THH, nHcaTb 0 TOM, qero Ha caMOM ,z:teJIe He
6hIJIO J1J1H 0 'IeM eMY HeTO'IHO paCCKa3aJIH. yqeHOMY-HCTOPHKY
npmcO,lJ;J1TCH, CJIOBHO CJIe,ll;OBa TeJIIO-p;eTeRTHBY, pacnyTbIBa Tb
KJIy60R npOTHBOpetIHBbIX CBep;eHHH, 'IT06bI TOQHO I1JIH XOTJl 6bI
npH6JIHSHTeJIbHO BOCCTaHOBHTb HCTHHHbI:H: XO,ll; p;aJIeIrnX Co6bI-
THH. Co6paB H caMble pa3HbIe ct>aKTbl H3 pa3J1J1QHhIX
HCTOQHHKOB, YQeHbti1:-HcToPHK co6HpaeT H3 HHX u;eJIOCTHYIO
Ka PTHHY H cosp;aeT CBOIO HaY'lHYIO peKOHCTpYKD;HIO - BOCCTa-
HOBJIeHHe H 06'ORCHenue xo.n;a C06bITH:H:, KOTopbIe OH H3yqaJI.
10
Bce JKHIIl>,e opraHH3MI>' (pacTaHHIf, JKI1110T_
HI>,a, nIOAI1) II Ta"aHI1a JKH3HI1 IInHTI>IBalOT
"aCTI141>1 oco6oro XHMH'I8CKOrO anaMaHT18-
yrnepOAfJ-'4. nocne cMepTH opraHH3M18
3TH '1c!CTH4I>' PfJ3PYW18IOTCIf.
4eM 6onl>we BpeMeHH npowno nocna ero
CMepTH, TeM MeHI>We '1aCTHl.I yrnepOAit-'4 B
HaM OCTaerCR. C nOMOU4t>1O
npH60p18 - YCKopHTenlf "aCTHl.I - MOJKHO
H3MepHTI>, CKOnl>KO yrnepoAa-'4 OCTfJnOCI>
a OCTaHKax HeKorAa JoKHBOrO opraHH3MfJ.
6narOAapIf 3TOMy JlaneHHIO MOJKHO
onpeAenHTI>, CKonbKO neT Ha3a,q 61>1nH
"aCTI>IO JKHBOrO opraHH3Ma H18HAeHHI>'e ap-
xeonOr18MH KOCTI> 'IenOaeKa, AapeallHHalf
PilAHoyrnepOAHb'H MeTOA AClTltpOBKH MHCKfJ, KyCOK TKaHH H3 BonOKOH paCTaHHH
HCTO"lHHKOB HnH wepCTH JKHIIOTHI>'X H T.n.
XpaM nOCeHAOHa.
rpel.lHR. VB. 140 H.3.
CBWTOK penl1rH03HOH
06lL\11Hbl KYMpaHa. I II.
raA,aTenbHble KOCTH.
KHTaH. II TI>'C.,qO H.3.
PI1MCKaR MOHeTa.
/I B.
Morltf1a AeBO"lKI1. 6pacneT.
naneCTHHa. OK. 1000 r. 140 H.3.
H3 3TpyccKorO
norpe6eHHR. VB. 140 H.3.
[1]
AnSI Ka>t<AOrO HCTO"lHHKa npeAnono)tOl: 1. K aK y-.eHble cMornH ero ACtTH-
POBaTb? 2. 0 KaKHX CTopOHax )KH3HH HaWHX npep,K08 MO)t(HO Y3Han.l
11
xv
Xll
Xl
neHTa ipeMettH
8ceMHpHOM
HcropHH
Xl
IIpaBHJIa opHeHTHpOBKH B HCTOpH"lJeCKOM BpeMeBH
L C nepBoro MrHOBeHHH ro,n;a, B KOTOPbIH PO,n;J1JICH MHCYC
XPHCTOC, HallHHaeTCSI I-H ro,n; HOBOH 3pbI, 3a HHM H,n;eT 2-H ro,n;
HOBOH 3pbI H TaR: ,n;aJIee ,n;o KOHu;a 100-ro ro,n;a, Kor,n;a I1CTeKalOT
nepBbIe 100 JIeT nOCJIe HOBOH 3pbI - I BeR. HOMepa BeROB 060-
3HalJalOT PHMCKJ1MH U;HcPpaMI1.
2. CJIe.n;YIOI.I.J;m1:, II BeR, Hat.{HHaeTC.fI C 1 .fIHBap.fl 101 ro,n;a 11 TaR
,n;aJIee. CJIe,n;OBaTeJIbHO, ,lVI.fI Taro t.{To6bI onpe,ll;eJIHTb, R KaKOMY
BeRY OTHOCI1TC.fI TOT I1JIH liIHO!1 ro,n;, MomHo nOJIb30Ba TbC.fI CJIe-
,n;yroI.I.J;MM npaBMJIOM:
- eCJlM 1.JMCJIO ro,n;a 3aKaHt.{HBaeTC.fI ,D;BYM.fI HYJI.f.IMJ1, TO rrepBa.fl
I1H<ppa - 3TO HOMep BeKa (100-;' roll: I BeK);
- eCJIH 1.JHCJIO ro.n;a 3aKaHlJHBaeTC.fI He ,ll;BYM.fI HYJI.fIMH, TO K
nepBO;, I1I<<ppe HallO npH6aBHTb eIlHHHI1Y H nOJIyqHTb HOMep
BeKa (101- ;' roll: 1 + 1 = II BeK).
3 . .u;o HOBOH 3pbI rO,ll;bI, BeRa H TbIC.f.IlJeJIeTJ1.R: C1.{HTaIOTC..f.I B
06paTHoM nOpSI,D;Ke 11 3anHCbIBalOTC.fI C YKa3aHMeM: I ro,n; ,ll;0
H.a. (HOBOH apbI), II Belt,n;o H.3. (HOBOH 3pbI) J1 T.,n;.
12
to
no cxeMe Ha c . 12:
[IJ
1. Ha30BH, Ha KaKHe 3nOXH TPa,D.HL.J,MOHHO AenHTCS! BceMlo1pHaSi HCTOPI1S!?
KaKaSi H3 3THX 3nox caMaSi npOAOI1)KIo1TenbHaSi, a KaKaJl - caMaS! KopoTKaSi?
2. O npeAenH, B KaKYto Io1CTOplo1"4eCKYto 3noxy, B KaKOM BeKe I1nH TbICSi"le-
neTl1101 np0l130WnH cneAytoUJ,He C06bITHSi: C03AaHlo1e nepBoro Tonopa,
101306peTeHHe Koneca, nepBble Onl1Mnl1i1cKHe Hrpbl, o6pa30BaHHe ro-
CYAapCTBa PYCb, nYTeweCTBlo1e nepsoro naCCa>KHpCKOro noe3Aa, nep-
Bbli1 noneT 4enoseKa B KOCMOC:.
3. n o Ha3BaHIo1to y"te6HHKa onpeAenl1, a o ~ OTpe30K BCeMl1pHoi1 I1CTo-
pHIo1 Tbl 6YAewb H3y"taTb B 310M roAY.
Ho t.{eM MeHbIlIe 6bIJIO I1CTOt.{HHKOB, qeM 60JIbilie B HI1X llPOTI1-
Bopet:mH, TeM lJaw;e HCTOPI1KH ,n;alOT pa3HbIe 06'bRCHeHJ1JI,
TPaKTOBKM. B Cllopax ,n;pyr C ,n;pyroM yqeHble CTapaFOTCR ,n;o-
Ka3aTb CBOIO llpaBOTY, H3JIaraR CBOH apzyMeUmht B HayqHblX
CTa TbRX H KHHrax.
M3 3THX Tpy,n;OB CKJIa,n;bIBaeTCH 'H..ay'liuus/' Kapmuua ucmopu-
'lieCKOZO npoUt..ltozo. STa KapTHHa JII1IlIb t.{aCTHt.{HO BOCCTaHaB-
JIHBaeT peaJIbHbrn: XO,n; npOlliJIblX C06bITI1H Ha OCHOBaHl111 Toro,
t.{TO OT HHX coxpaHYlJlOCb B I1CTOt.IID1Kax. HaXO,ll,H HOBble I1CTOlJ-
JrnKH, yqeHhIe nOCTOSIHHO ,ll;OnOJIHSIIDT M YTOt.{HHlOT 3TY Ka PTMHY.
Ha ee OCHOBe nHIlIYTCH nonYJIHpHble KHl1rH ,n;JIH Bcex JIl06MTe-
JIeH .J1CTOPHM, yqe6HJ1RI1 ,n;JIH IlIKOJIbHI1KOB M cTy,n;eHTOB. O,n;Ha-
KO, nOMHMO q,aKTOB H apryMeHToB, y JI1060ro, KTO paccKa3bIBaeT
06 HCTopHt.{ecKHX C06hITI1RX, B03HHKaeT CBoe OTHOIlIeHMe K HMM -
CBOH JIWIHble ou;eBKH 3TMX C06bITHH. KTO-TO ClJl1TaeT npaBJIe-
Hl1e HeKoero u;apH y.n;at.{HbIM, a KTO-
TO - npecTynHhlM, HayqHoe 11306-
peTeHMe - XOpOIlIMM MJII1 nJIOXHM 11
T . .n;. B cnopax 06 ou;eHKax C06bITHH
y Kam.n;oro lJeJIOBeKa MomeT 6bITb
CBOH npaB,n;a H CBOI1 .n;OKa3aTeJIb-
CTBa. r JIaBHOe, lJTo6bI OHM 6bIJIH oc-
HOBaHbI Ha HayqHo YCTaHOBJIeHHbIX
cPaKTax, t.{To6bI B yro.n;y cBoeMY
MHeHHlO 1.:JeJIOBeK He 3aKpbISaJI rJIa-
3a Ha Hey.n;o6HbIe ,n;JIH Hero CBe,n;e-
HI1H M He BbI,n;YMbIBaJI Taro, lJero HeT
B HCTopHt.{eCKHX MCTOlJHHKax.
Hay"tHaSi Io1CTOpH"IeCKaR KOHq,epeH4"'f
13
TaK ..enoae'lecTao npH6nH)l(aeTCR K HCTHHHOMY 3HaHHIO H nottH-
MaHHIO CBoero npownoro.
[i]
1. n epe'4l1cl1I't TPYAHOCTI1, KOTopble Hy>KHO npeoAonen.
PI1KY, Y3HaTb, 6blnO B npownOM.
2. n peAf1ono)t("" npl1 KaKI1X ycnoBHflX MO>KHO Y3HaTb npaBAY 0 Tex Hnl1
HHblX C06bITHfiX npownor ol M O>KeM m1 Mbl y3HaTb BCtO npaBAY 0
npownoM?
3. n O'4eMY HeKoTopble C06blTHfi 06'bflCHflIOT no-pa3-
HOMY (YKa>K11 HeCKonbKO I03MO>KHbIX npl1'4HH)l
Ha ,lJ;eHh A HTOWKa CHOBa npJ1ID.en K KOCTpy apxeOJIoros.
- MHe MaJIb<t{}1UIKH co CnapTaKoBcKoti YJrnI.J;bl CKaaaJIH, "ITO 3Ty
HaaBaJIH He B "IeCTb KaKoro-TO ,lJ;peBHero repoH, a B "IeCTb q,y-rOOJIbHOit
KOMaH,lJ;bI (1( CnapTaK.
- Hy "ITO TbI! - YCMexHyJICfl Apxeo.nor. - OHH npOCTO He aHalOT, 'ITO B
1935 ro.n.y, KOr,lJ;a 6paTbJI CTaPOCTHHbl C03,lJ;aBaJIH cnopTHBHoe 06lll;ecTBO,
OHH BbI6paJIH ,lJ;JIfl Hero HMff Bo)K,lJ;ff BOCCTaHHff paOOB, KOTOpoe npm130-
WJI0 B 74 ro.n.y ,lJ;0 HOBOH 3pbI. CnyCTff nO'ITH ,[J,Be TbICH"IH JleT B Hawen
CTpaHe TOme 6blJ1o BOCCTaHHe, CMeHa BJlaCTJII, if Cpe,lJ;H HapO,lJ;a CTaJUf
O"leHb nonyJlHpHhI BCK.lUi BOCCTaHIDf npoWJIbIX BpeMeH. II03TOMY cnop-
TKBHoe 06lll;ecTBO H 6b1J1o Ha3BaHO .. CnapTaK. C eH"IaC me :no HM.H 1'13-
BeCTHO 6o.n:blllHHCTBY yme npocTQ KaK KMH cnopnlBHOH KOMaH,lJ;bI .
- Ho, B03MomHO, 3TH MaJ1b'iltWKH H npaBbI! - BMeWaJICH I1CTO"IHHKO-
Be,lJ;. - CnapTaKOBCKaH nOCTpoeHa H Ha3BaHa He,lJ;aBHO. Ha O,lJ;HOM
ee ,lJ;OMe H BH,lJ;eJl Ta6JIHl.fKY .. Kny6 6oJIeJIblll;HKOB "CnapTaK8" lIJ , n03TOMY
He HCKJIlO"leHO, "ITO mHTeID1 nonpoCHJIH ,D;aTb TaKoe Ha3BaHHe HMeHHO B
"IecTb KOMaH,Abl.
- COBceM BbI MeHJI 3an)'T8J1H, - paCCTpoJ1JICff AHTOWK8, - TO JIH MaJIb-
'iJIIunut HenpaBbI, TO JlH BbI ... IIOJIy-"I8eTCH, ID1"1ero npo n poWJIoe y3HaTb
HeJIb3fl.
14
KaK 06ltflCHHTb nocneAHHe cnoaa AHTOUJKHl CornaceH nH Tbl C ero MHe-
HHeMl KaKOH B03HHKaeT Ion pod
MO>KHO nH Y3HaTb npaBAY 0 npoUJnoM1
Pa3Aen I.
nEPBASI HCTOPHL4ECKASI 3nOXA
(rJIaBa 1)
r .. IOBUOC. "1e"'ty Hco6xo,tf.IIMO u3y"lIlTbCH,
C TO"lKH 3peHHH 8aTOpoa:
- )"IHTbCIi onpe'z{eJIHTb npH"IHHbI H CJIe,I{CTBHH H3MeHeHHH, npoHcxoAR-
JJ.J;HX B 06lll;ecTBe C HaqaJIa H.CTOPJ.1." qeJlOBeqeCTBa;
- nOJlb3YHcb ,Z{ocTH.meHHHMH cOBpeMeHHoro 06JJ.J;ecTBB, BH,AeTb HX HCTO-
KH. B nepBbIx OTKPbITID'IX, H306peTeHHHX, npaBJ1JIaX HalIDfX nepBQ-
6NTHbiX npe,llKOB.
npoBepb. rOTOD Jill Tbl OBJl3,tJ,CB3Tb Y"'lCJ1II1IMIf 3TOI' O pa3J1,ena
B csoeA TeTpa,lU1 HapHcyit cxeMY cMCTOPHH 06JJ.J;ecTB8, HCnOJlb3Yft
H CJIOBa H3 cnHCKa:


CnHCOK:
BJIaCTb. X03at:i:cTBo.
06JJ.J;ecTBo. rpynnbl.
l1CTOpH8. KYJIbTypa.
!!! B.IIIMOIIIIC. IIpe)K.I{e qeM BbIllOJlHIlTb aa,naHHe, 03HaKOMbCH C yc.nOBM-
RMH ero SbIIIOJIHeHHft Ha pa3HbIX YPOBHIlX ycneWHOCTH. BbI6ePM yposeHb.
IIpu:nwKU ycnetU'H.OZO 6"b1.nQII.'H.e'H.tLJt 3ai)a'H.tLJt
lW pa3'H.bt.X ypoe"HJIX
Heo6xoAHMbIH ypoaem. (xopowo) : npaBMJIbHO pa3MeJJ.J;eHbl Ha cxeMe
ace He nO.ll."lepKHYTble CJIOBa J113 CIlliCKa.
nporpaMMRLdi ypoaeRL (OTJIH"lHO): npaBHJIbHO pa3MeJJ.J;eHbI Ha cxeMe
ace CJIOBa H3 CDJIICKa, a.I{JIH nO,Z{"lepKHYTOI'O CJloaa Ha cxeMe ,Z{OPJIICOB8H co-
OTBeTCTBYIOJJ.J;JIIH 3J1eMeHT.
MaKcHMaJlbubIA ypoaeab (cBepXOTJU1"1HO) : 3a,D;aHl1e BblnOJIHeHO Ha
rrporpaMMHoM ypoBHe, HO npH 3TOM K cxeMe ,Z{o6aBJIeHhI HOBbie 3J1eMeHTbI
c Hcn0Jlb30BaHJileM nOHJITJdf, KOTOpble eJJ.J;e He H3)"1aJIMCb a KJI8Cce.
IIpoBepb Ce6H no Y"'e6HHKY HID1 C nOMOlUblO Y"lHTeJIJI. Ec.mt aoaKKK8KY1'
3aTpY,Z{HeHID'I, TO Hammrn, KaKHX YMeHJilH 1'1 3HaHIDi re6e He xeaTaeT.
KBK 113y"1BTb 3TOT pa3,D;CJi
IIo orJIaBJIeHH.lO H8 c. 3-4 onpe,I{eJIH, KaKoe co,nepmaHHe Te6e Heo6xo)J.H-
MO OCBOHTb. Ma)"lan naparpaq, 3a naparpar;poM, onpe,ll.eJIfUl OCHOBHOt:i:
aonpoc (npo6JIeMY) TeNbI, nO.ll6J11paH AJIIi peweID1H 3TOro Bonpoca Y>Ke
J113BecTHbie 3HaHJIIR (noHRTMH, 3aKoHoMepHOCTH) JII OTKpblBaH HOBbIe, KaK
06 3TOM nO,I{p06Hee CRa3aHO Ha c. 6-7.
15
cpmm..1 M nOHRTMR tte06xoAHMO H YMen.
40 MnH n.H. - B TpOm1yeCKHX necax nOJlBmllOTCJI ApeBeCHble 06e3bJlHbl -
06w,l1e npeAKH cOBpeMeHHbl x nlOAeH 11 "'IenOBeKo06pa3Hblx 06e3bJlH.
5 MnH n.H. - B acppl1KaHCKlo1x cyxl1x CTenJlX nOJlBnJlIOTCJI npJlMOXoAAUJ,lo1e
)
06e3bJlHOnOA06Hble npeAKI1 ntoAeH - aBcTpanOnl1TeKI1.
1 MnH n.H. - yaCTb aBCTpanomfTeKOB 113MeHJleTCJI 11 nOJlBnJleTCA
nepBblH BIo1A, ntoAeH - '1eno.eK YMenblH. rpynnbl 3TI1X 06e3bAHono-
A06HbiX nlOAeH 3aHI1Manlo1Cb OXOToH, co6HpaTelltCDOM, 1013rOTaBlll1Banlo1
npocTeHwlo1e AepeBJIHHble 11 KaMeHHble OPYAHA.
1,5 MnH n. H. - nOJlBnJleTCJI HOBblH BHA - ApeBHeHwlo1e ntoAl1lt. OHI1
paCCenJilOTCJlI13 ACPPI1KH B A31110 11 EBpony, I1cnonb3YlOT orOHb.
300 TbIC. n.H. (no APyrlo1M Aan-1pOBKaM - 150 TbIC. n.H.) - nOJlBnHeTCJlI1 pacce-
nJleTCJI no nnaHeTe HOBblH BHA - ApeBHlo1e nlOAI1, HeaHAepTanblJ,bl.
OHI1 CTanl1113rOTaBnlo1BaTb KaMeHHbie Tonopbl, MexoBYto oAe>t<p,y: OHIo1
COBepLlJanl1 nepBble 3axOpOHeHI1H - TaK 3apoAHnacb npocTeHwaH
pe"HrMA.
l 100 TbIC. n.H. (no caMblM paHHI1M AaTl1pOBKaM) - nOJlBnJleTCH BHA cOBpeMeH-
HblX ntoAeH - '1ena.eK palYMHltiH. JltoAl1 HOBoro Blo1Aa Ha"'lIo1HatoT 3ace-
nJlTb BCto nnaHeTY.
n.H. - po,Ao.ltle 06111"HIo' "'IenOBeKa pa3YMHOrOlt paccenHIOTcH no
A3HI111 EBpone (nepBble apxeonOrl1"'1eCKl1e HaXOAKI1).
35 TbIC. n. H. - nepBble HaCKanbHble PHCYHKH - nepB06blTHoe MCKyCCT.O.
12 TbIC. n.H. - H306peTeHI1e nyKa, npl1py"'leHHe c06aKH.
\ 10 TIo.C. n.H. (VIII TbIC. AO H.3.) - nOJlBneHlo1e nepBblx 3eMl1eAenblJ,eB (Bblpaw,l1-
Banl1 nWeHI1u,y, JI"'IMeHb) 11 eKOTOBOAOB (pa3BoAlo1nH K03, oBeu,) ,
H306peTeHHe TKa"'leeTBa 11 rnI1HOAenI1H.
9-8 Tble . n . H. - paCTYUJ,lo1e nneMeHI 3eMneAenblJ,eB-CKOTOBOAOB
\
- paeeenJiIOTCH 1013 3anaAHOH A310111. 06pa30BaHHe H3blKOBbiX eeMeH.
7 Tble. n.H. - Ha"'lanO MeTannoo6pa60TKH B 3anaAHOH A310111 - KaMeHHblH BeK
-- eMeHJleTeH MeAHblM 101 6POH30BbIM. Itbo6peTeHHe nnyra, nOHBneHHe
coce,AclOtx 06tQHH, Ha"'lanO BOHH 3a Ao6blYY, YCHneHHe BnaeTH Bo>t<p,eH,
paeenoeHlo1e 06UJ,HH.
6-5 Tble. n. H. - B 3anilAHOH A3HH pa3AeneHHe 3eMneAenb"'leCKIo1X H naCTYLlJe-
CKHX nneMeH - 11306peTeHHe Koneca, opowaeMoro 3eMneAenHA.
\ OK. 5 lble. n.H. - B03HHKHOBeHI1e nepBblx ropoAoB, rocY,AapCTIl - nepexoA
OT nepll06IoI1HOrO 06111eCTIII K eTyneHIo1 qHIIH"H3aI4HH.
16
fJlaBa 1
IIepBo6bJTHbTH limp
(2 "JI.i - 5 TbICH'I JleT H831lid
AlpHKa. Eopona H AaHIl
2 MJlK - 12 TloIC. neT
If}lllR(,,
0"'4
PacceJllIHI'IIi IIM,IIII "'OIIIIOBIIK pB3YMHbOl\'
---1"" OK. 100 TbIC. IIIIl HII3iI,D.
nPMMIIPHbIII paAOHbO 06pa3OllaHI'IA 30Ha 1IIHIJWItIItl .....
H pacc&IlIIttHIl pac IJ83YM!lDro' 40-12 ThIC. neT t<933.I1
-"":=:::::>-
!t

-
,
MHnnHOHbl
t
J

1. nepBble nlOAH
- BcnOMHH, "IenOBeK OTnM"IaeTCJI OT )t01BOTHbIX. (Y ... e6HHK
.OKpy>+<atol.lJ,lo1i1 MHP, 3-4-+:1 KtlaCcbl)
>p'
- fl epe ... HcnH HeCKonbKO SHAOB I1CTOpH"4eCKHX Io1CTOI.tHIo1KOB, CBHAeTenb-
CTBytoW,HX 0 AeSlTenbHOCTH nepBblx nlOAei1, KOTopble Moryl HaHTI1 apxe-
onorH. KaK MO)KHO HX p,aTJolpOBaTb? (BBeAeHHe, c. 8-11)
1. OT o6e3bHHbI K qeJlOBeKY.
t{To6hI HaHTH HCTOKH qeJIOBeqeCKoro pO.ll;a, Ha,IJ;D oTrrpaBHTbcH
Ha 40 MJIH JIeT Ha3a,ll;. Tor.n;a 3Ha'LIHTeJIbHaH qaCTb A4>PHKH H
EBpa3ID1 6hIJIa IIoKpbITa TpOITHqeCKHMH JIeCaMH, B KOTOPbIX BO-
,1:tHJU1Cb pa3Hoo6pa3HbIe o6e3bHHhI. Ha MeCTe 3THX JIeeDB cOBpe-
MeHHhIM yqeHhIM y.ltaJIOCb HaHTH mcaMeHeBIIIHe 4>parMeHTbI
CKeJIeTQB KOTOPbIX Ha3BaJU1 APHoDHTeKaMH (<<,n;pe-
BeCHbIMH 06e3b.flHaMH): qeTbIpe PYKH, npHcnoc06JIeHHbIe
,lVIH nepe,n;BHmeHHH no BeTKaM .lI;epeBbeB, He6oJIbIIIoi1: qepen co
CKOIIIeHHbIM JI60M, 60JIbIIIHe qeJIIOCT11 C ay6aM11, npHrop;HbIM11
,lVISI noep;aHHSI paCT11TeJIbHoi1: Il11II.J;11, MeJIKHX m11BOTHbIX 11 Ha-
ceKOMbIX. PSIP;OM C OCTaHKaM11 STJ1X CYII.J;eCTB He Hai1:,n;eHO H11Ka-
KJ1X CJIep;OB 11aroTOBJIeHHbIX HM11 BeII.J;ei1:.
BOJIee 5 MJIH JIeT Haaap; JIeca CTaJrn oCBo6omp;aTb MeCTO CTe-
IlSIM. OKaaaBIIIHMcSI Ha paBHHHe p;peBecHbIM o6eabSIHaM
IlPHIIIJIOCb IlpHCIlOCa6JI11BaTbCSI R m11aH11 Ha OTKPbITOM IlpO-
cTpaHcTBe, rp;e 6PO.ll;11JI11 JIbBbI 11 JIeOIlapp;bI, OqeHb pe,n;Ko nona-
p;aJI11Cb ITJIOp;OBble p;epeBbSI, a MeJIK11e ml1BOTHble IlpHTaJIHCb B
BbICOROi1: TpaBe H 6bICTPO y6eraJIH. BepORTHO, B Kam,n;oM HOBOM
IlOKOJIeHHH BbImHBaJIH Te cyw;ecTBa, KOTopbIe .lI;Orap;bIBaJIHCb
6paTb B pyKH naJIKH H KaMHH, qTo6bI coo6II.J;a OXOmUmbC.R. Ha
MeJIKHX >KHBOTHbIX, oT6HBaTbcSI OT BparoB HJIH aaHHMaTbCSI CO-
6UpameJlbCmBOM C'bep;06HbIx KopeIIIKoB H IlJIO,n;OB. 06e3bSIHbI
BbIXOP;J1JIH Ha OXOTY p;HeM, Kor,n;a KpynHble XHI..D;HHKH CrraJIH.
JIyqIIIe aTO nOJIyqaJIOCb Y Tex, KTO qaIIJ;e XOP;HJI Ha p;ByX Horax
(qTO YMeHbIIIaJIO IlJIOII.J;ap;b TeJIa, nOp;CTaBJISIeMOrO IlaJISII..D;eMY
H Y Rora 6bIJI MeHbIIIe TenJIbIi1: BOJIOCSIHOti: nOKpOB. OT
18

COBpeMeHHaJl ropHnna - nOTOMOK
ApHonHTeKa, B TponHKax
ABCTpaIlOnHTeKI1 (o6"beM M03ra -
500 CM
3
). 9-2 MllH n.M. PeKoHcTpYK4HR
nOKOJIeHHSI K IlOKOJIeHHIO nOJIe3HbIe npH3HaKH y STHX 06eabSIH
CTaHOBHJIJ1Cb Bce 60JIee OTqeTJlHBbIMH - TaR nORBHJIOCb HOBoe
ceMeticTBO. CKeJIeTbl STHX CYI..D;eCTB BnepBble HaIIIJIH B IOro-
3ana,I{HOJ1: A4>PHKe, IlOSTOMY Ha3BaJll1 HX aBCTpaJlOIDfTeKaMH
(<<lOmHbIMH 06e3bSIHaMH). PSI,n;OM C HHMH Hai1:p;eHbI 06rJIo,n;aH-
Hble KOCTH MaJIeHbKHX mHBOTHbIX, qepena ROTOPbIX npo6HTbI
KaKHMH-TO npe,n;MeTaMH (KaMHSIMJ1 HJIH naJIRaMJ1).
CnYCTH MHJIJIHOHbI JIeT - 60JIee 2 MJIH JIeT Haaap; - cpep;H
aBCTpaJIOIl11TeKoB IOro-3aIla,n;Hofl A4>PHKH IlOHBHJlCH HOBbli1:
BH.lI;. Moar 3THX cyw;ecTB 6bIJI HeCKOJIbKO 60JIbllIe H nOaBOJIRJI
HM.P;YMaTb He TOJIbKO 0 HeMe,n;JIeHHOM ,n;o6bIBaHHH nHII.J;H, HO H 0
TOM, qTO JIyqIIIe CHaqaJIa no,n;rOTOBHTb Heo6xo,n;I1Mble ,ll;JIH SToro
opyaUR. PSI,IJ;OM C HX KOCTSIMH yq:eHbIe Haxo,n;HT RaMHH, 06KOJIO-
Tble TaR, t:lTo6bI IIOJIyttaJICR O,n;HH OCTpbIi1: Kpati, KOTOPblM
MomHO 6bIJIO naJIKH, pe3aTb MHCO. BH,n; 3T}1X
cYI..D;eCTB yq:eHble Ha3BaJU1 "IeJJOBeK YMeJlLIH.
2. OT yMeJloro K paayMHoMy.
BepoHTHo, H B ,ll.aJIbHetiweM JIyqwe BblmHBaJIJf H ,ll.aBaJIH no-
TOMCTBO Te cYI..D;eCTBa, Y KOTOPbIX 6bIJI 60JIbWe M03r, IlOMoraB-
19
'ienoBeK YMenbl11 (Mo3r 600-800 CM
3
).
1 MIlH n.H. PeKoHcTPYK4HJI
,iJ,peBHeI1WHe nlOAH (Mo3r 800-1500 CM
3
).
1,5-0,5 MIlH n.H. PeKoHcTpYK4HJI
WJ.1J1 HaH60JIee YMeJIO H3rOTOBJIRTb Opy.nliU1: H ,ll;OrOBapHBaTbcII
,ll;pyr C .n;pyroM 06 J.1X HcnOJIb30BaHHH Ha OXOTe. B pe3YJIbTaTe
OKOJIO 1,5 MJIH JIeT Haaa,ll; B Aq:,pHKe OT caMblX pa3BHTbIX rpynn
mo,ll;eti: YMeJlblx npOHaOmeJI HOBbIM BH,lJ; - ApeBBeHwlfe JIIO-
AM). 3TH HeBbICOKHe JJJ1WeHHble KOI'Teti , 60JIhWJ.1X
KJIblKOB H BOJIOCSlHoro nOKpOBa, CYMeJIH WHPOKO paCCeJIHTbCH,
I1X KOCTH HaxO,ll;R.T B Aq:,pHKe, EBpone H A3HH. MHomeCTBO CRe-
JIeTOB HaH,n;eHO B new;epax, r,ll;e O,AHOBpeMeHHO 06HTaJIH ,n;o 40
oco6eH. 3,n;ecb me cOXpaHHJIHCb OCTaTKH KOCTPOB, B 0 21ie KOTO-
pbIX n06bIBaJIH o6ommeHHbie H 06rJIO,lJ;aHHble KOCTH OJIeHeH,
,nHKHX JIowa,n;en, 6bIKOB, 6ereMoToB H ,lJ;ame CJIOHOB, orpoMHblX
Me,n;Be,neH J1 JlhBOB. PJl,l\OM C OCTaHKaMH 3TJilX cy-
I4ecTB Hai1,n;eHo MHoro pa3JlJ11.J:HhlX KaMHe:ei, 06KOJIOTblX TaR, t.{TO
no Blit,n;y OHlit HanOMlitHalOT COBpeMeHHble Hom HJIH py6HJIO. lIo
CTpoeHHIO 1.{epenOB ,npeBHetimHx JIlO,n;eH MomHO CKaaaTb, t.{TO
y Hl1X XopOWO paaBJilTbl Te OT,AeJIbl roJIOBHOro M03ra, KOTopble y
COBpeMeHHbIx JIlO,ne:ei 06eCrre1.{HBalOT rrOHHMaHKe 3ByttOBOH pe-
ttu. BepOSITHO, ,ll;peBHeHwHe JIJO,lJ;H MOrJIJiI nepe,n;aBaTb roJIO-
COM He TOJIbKO CTpax, y,n;OBOJIbCTBHe, CHrHaJI onaCHOCTH, HO 11
20
60JIee CJIOmHble CBe,ll;eHHH: r,ll;e H KaKall nOHBHJIaCb ,lJ;06bIt.{a, KaK
,ll;06paTbCR,ll;0 :noro MecTa, KaK nO,lJ;eJIHTb VI T.n.
lIpeAIIoJIomHTeJIbHO OKOJIO 300 TbICllt.{ JIeT Ha3a,n B Aq:,pHKe OT
HaH60JIee pa3BHTbIX rpyrrn ,npeBHeHwHx JIlO,neth> np01130WeJI
HOBbIM BHA KOTOPbIH CTaJi 6blCTPO paCCeJIHTbCR no
3eMJIe. HX Ha3blBalOT HeaH,ll;epT8JIbu;aMH)), nOToMY qTO
KOCTI1 3TI1X JlIOi\eH BlIepBble o6HapYlKI1JII1 B lIell\epe HeMel\KoH
,ll;OJiHHbI HeaHAepTaJIb. TalOKe OCTaHKH 3THX HaXO,lJ;HT
B BblpbITbIX HMH nOJIyaeMJIIIHKaX. B J.1X mWIJ.fW;ax eCTb 01.{arH,
r,ll;e HaH,neHbl OCTaTKH KocTe:A pa3Hblx KPYIIHbIX mI1BOTHblX. PSJ-
,lJ;OM C OCTaHKaMl1 HaHAeHbI KaMHH C MHoro-
1.{JIICJIeHHbIMH MeJIKHMH CKOJIaMH. O,lJ;HHM "3 HHX npH,lI;aHa TaRaH
q:,opMa, 1.{To6bl MomHO 6bIJIO CKo6Jll1'Tb KaKyro-TO nOBepXHOCTb,
C nOMOI..D;blO ,ll;pyrmc - py6HTb, npOK3.JIbISaTb HJIH pe3aTb 1.{TO-
JIH60. t.IacTb YMepWJ1X Haxo.nRT B CneU;HaJIbHO BblpbI-
TblX npHMO B HMax nOJIOmeHHbIMH Ha 50K.
ITo Oi\HOH >13 Bepc>lii 6o.nee 100 TbIClI'{ JIeT Ha3ai\ B Aq,pl1Ke 1I0-
SIBJ1JICR ew;e O,ll;HH BH,ZJ;, Ha3BaHHbIM "qeJIOBeK pa3YMHbIH)). yt.{e-
Hble ,lJ;0 CJ1X nop cnopRT: 6blJIH JIH 3TO HaCJle,r:r;HJ1Kl1 HeaH,lJ;epTaJIb-
HeaHAepTanbLJ,b1 (Moar 1100-1600 CM
3
).
500-100 TbIC. n.H. PeKoHcTpYK4H1I
'ienoeeK pa3YMHbu::j (Mo3r 1500-2000 CM
3
)
&onee 100 TbIC. n.H. PeKoHcTpYK4H1I
21
u;eB, wrn HOBbIH BH,lI; pa3BKJICR M3 HaJ.160.nee ycneWHbIX rpynn
,Il;peBHeHwHX JIIO,Il;eH. nO.nY3eMJIHHKH H WaJIaIIlH
JIlO,Il;en pa3YMIfbIX 06yCTpoeHbI J.1 SIMaMH-XpaHHJIH-
m;aMH. HeKOTOpble H3 3THX 3aXOpOHeHbI OT,Il;eJIbHO OT
mHJIHm;. PR,Il;OM C HX CKeJIeTaMH JIemaT KaMeHHbIe py6wIa M HO-
(H JVIR 3aTOqKH ,Il;epeBa, pe3KH MSICa, KOCTRHbIe KPlOqKH ,Il;JIR
JIOMH PbI6bI H HI'JIhI C ynIKOM ,Il;JIR HMTM H3 mHJI )KHBOTHbIX.
nlOAH -HAIl 'lellOlleK pa3Y MHbIH" BltITeCHHnH OT08CIOAY tteaH-
AepTanloqeB, H ace 06KraTenH - noTOM-
teN 3THI nlOAeM.
m
1. no TeKCry BCero naparpacpa OflpeAenH All" Ka>KAOH rpynm.1 cy-
w,ecTB, MO)KH() nH HX C"4HTaTb nfOAbMH, a Hl( 06bf!AHHeHH" - 06W,ecTBOM.
2. LCTb nw OPOTHBOpe"4He Me>KAY penHrHeH H HaYKoH no Bonpocy npo-
HCXOlKAeHH" 06w,ecTBal (TBoA n03HLlHA MO>KeT 6bITb
m060H, HO nocTapaHcA ee 06b"CHHTb. )
- A C liero Ha'DrnaeTCSf HCTOpmr, - cnpocwr AHTOuuca, - C AAa,Ma H
EBbI?
- COrJlaCHO TeKCTY BH.6Ju.rn, - OTBeTJfJl - Ha w ecTQA
,ll;e Hb TBOpeHlUl Bar CKa3aJI : C OTBOPltM JIlO,ll;e H n o 06pa3Y HaweMY H.
no,ll;06mo HaweMY' . . . J.1 C03,ll;aJI Tocno,llb Bar qeJlOBeKa H3 npaxa aeMHoro,
H. B,ll;YHYJI B JImJ;O ero ,lJ;hIXalDfe )KK3HJf, H CTaJI "IeJIODeK AYweK> :aomOIQ .
.n.rm: BepYlOUU1X aTOT TeKCT CBllmeHeH. KTO-TO nOHHMaeT era 6YKBaJIbHO,
KTO-TO HHOCKaaaTeJIbHO.
- C06paHHbIe yqeHhIMH aKTbI, - npo,ll;oJDKJiIJI ApxeOJIor, - CBl1,lJ;e-
TeJIbCTDYlOT, "ITO Bce paaHoo6pa3HbIe DHAbI )KHDOTHbIX nOIlBJIIJIHCb He
O,D;HODpeMeHHO, a pa3BHBaJIHCb nOCTeneHHO. IIOJIe3HbIe npH3HaKH, B03-
HHKa.fl Y O,ltlDfX opraIDf3MOB, nOMoralOT J.fM BbOKJITb B 6oPb6e 38 CytqeCT-
BOBaKHe. 3TH npl13HaKJiI nepe,ll;aiOTCJI DOTOMKaM no HaCJle,ll;CTBY. TaK, 00-
KOJIeHHe 38 nOKOJIeHHeM, npH3HaKH )f(HBOTHbIX If paCTeIDd::t: DOCTeneHHO
H3MeH.fIlOTCR B J1Y'fU1Y1O.lVUI KKX CTOPOHY, 6bI8lI1He poACTBeHHHKH CTa-
HOBR'l'CSI HenOXOmHMH .n:pyr Ha .n;pyra, H no.RBJI.fllOTCR: HOBbIe BH.D;bI . .llam.-
HHMH npeAK8.MJi1 JIIQ.n;eH .RBJUIlOTC.R 06e3bRHOnOA06HbIe ,ll;peBecHbIe )f(H-
BOTHbIe, KOTOpbIe B npou;ecce coxpaHeHHSI oco6e:tf C TIOJIeaHbIMH npH.3HaKa-
MH nOCTeneHHO JIl3MeHSlIDfCb " 38. MJ.L1I.JIJfOHbl nOKOJIemrli CTaJIJI[ JIlO,ll;bMJll.
22
BblAenH B AHanore q,aKTbl, HaY"4Hble 06bflcHeHHA H ou,eHKH. CpaBHH
OTBeTbl J.1cTO"4HHKOBeAa H Apxeonora Ha Bonpoc AHTOWKH. KaKoe
Ha6mop,aeTcA npoTHBope"4Hel
KaK W C KaKoro C06b1THA Ha"4anaCb HCTOpHA "4enoBe"4ecTBal
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2
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2. nepBble warM pa3YMa
- 06'bflCHH 3Ha"4eHHe COOBa 06w,ecTBo. (CnoBapb)
- lotTO TaKoe paCbl - OTnH"4HA BHeWHOCTH HnH BHyTpeHHero AYXOBHoro
MHpa. (OKpY>KatoUI,HH MHP, 4-H Ktlacc) C OCTaBb nOrH"4eCKYIO
I.4enO"4KY paCCY>KAeHHH: KaK, cornaCHO p,aHHbIM HayKM, Ha 3eMlle
nOABHnC.A BHA COBpeMeHHblX ntoAeH. ( 1)
1. JIHQ,a Jle,Q;HHKoBOH 3noXH.
OKOJIO 100 TblCRq JIeT Ha3ap; Ha 3eMJle HaqaJICR Jteanu1C08btU
nepuoa. 3HMbI CTaJIH ,Zl;.1IHHHblMH H MOP03HbIMH. B ropax o6pa-
30BaJU:1Cb orpoMHbIe J1e,n;HHKH - MHoroMeTpoBbIe TOJlI.IJ;H JIb,D;a.
C KaJK,lJ;bIM rO,lJ;OM Ha ceBepHbIx ropax EBponbI H A3MH HX CTa-
HOBHJlOCb Bce 6oJIbwe, H OHn HaqaJIH cnOJI3aTb Ha paBHJ.:1HbI.
OrpoMHbu1 JIe,lJ;RHOH naHIJ;Hpb war 3a waroM HaKpbIBaJI npo-
cTpaHcTsa, Ha KOTOPbIX ceHtl:ac pacnOJIO)KeHbI MocKsa, CaHKT-
ITeTep6ypr I< MHorl<e IIPyrne ropolla. K lOry OT KpOMK>I Jlell""""
npOTSIHYJIHCb XOJIO,lUlble CTerm. TenJIom06HBbIe )KHSOTHbIe HJlM
BbIMepaJIl1, HJlJ.:1 nepeCeJISIJIHCb K lOry OT npHBbI\{HbIX MeCT. ,
JIlO,Il;H TeM He MeHee npO,ll;OJI<:aJIJ.:1 paCCeJISITbCR no nJIaHeTe .
llPOCTOPbI BOCTOqSOH A3HJ.:1 npeBpaTJ.:1JIHCb B CTenH, r,[(e nyJIM
npOH3J1TeJIbHbIe BeTpa, HeCYI.IJ;Me TyqJ.:1 neCKa M IlbIJU:1. Y )KHB-
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TaK B03HHKJIa .M.OUzoJtouonaJl. paca cospeMeHHblX JIIO,[(eK.
Y )KJ.:1TeJIeH mapKOH Aq,PHKM nORBHJICH qepHbrn QBeT KO)KH M
Kyp'llaBbIe BOJIOCbI, qT06bI npe.n;oxpaHJ.:1Tb KO)KY OT O)KoroB, a ro-
JlOBY OT neperpesa. TaK B03H>1KJ1a uezpOua1i<Ut paca. B IIOlK,llJl>l-
BOH M XOJIO,lJ;HOt-i npHJIe,lJ;HHKOBOH EBpone y JUO,lJ;eH nOSIBHJICSI
CI<JlhHO BblcTynalOlI\IDi (no cpaBHellli10 C lIPyrnMlI pacaMJI) HOC,
KOTOPbW He n03BOJIRJI XOJIO,lJ;HOMY B03.nyxy 6bICTPO nonaCTb B
JIenrne. TaK B03HJ.:1KJIa eeponeauo1UtJl. paca.
m
o KapTe Ha c. 17 OnpeAenH, KaKHe oc06eHHocTH neAHHKOBOH 3nOXH
n03BOmmH OtoAfiM paccenATbcA no nnaHeTe. (Ycn06Hble 3HaKH - c. 7)
23
2. BpaTbH H CeCTpbJ.
Ha TbICWlJ1 JIeT 3eMJIH aT aTJIaHTHqeCKOrO n06epembH EBPO-
nbI .no rap IJ;eHTpaJIbHOH A3HH npeBpaTJ1JIHCb B npHJIe.nHHKO-
BylO XOJIO,ll.HylO H BJIamHyro CTenb, no KOTOPOH 6PO,n;J1JIH CTa.n;a
rHraHTCKHX MaMOHTOB, wepCTHCTbIX HocoporOB, 61130HOB, .n;H-
KI1X JIOllla,lJ;eH H npoqJ1X )KHBOTHbIX. JIIO,n;H BH,lJ.a qeJIOBeK pa-
3YMHbI:fii npHIIIJIJII clO,ll.a OKOJIO 40 TblCH'I JJeT Ha3aA. Tor,n;a Ha
TeppHTOpHJ1 cOBpeMeHHbIx paHIJ;JIIH, YKpaJIIHbI HJIH IOmHoH
CH6HPH MomHO 6bIJIO Ha6JIIO,ll.aTb TaKYIO KapTHHy.
Ha 6epery peRH CTOHT 60JIbIDoi1 WaJIalll J113 .rtJIHHHbIX mep-
,lJ;e:fii, HaKpbITbIX CWHTbIMJII Mem,lJ;Y COGOH wKypaMJII mHBoTHbIX.
BHYTpH waJIawa y KOCTpa rpeeTCH OKOJIO 30 JIIO,lJ.eti - BCH po-
.n;OBaH 06lU,Hoa. )(eTJ1 eru;e HemaTCH no,lJ; WKypaMJII, a MaTepH
yme BbIIIIJIH H3 CBOHX ceMeHHblX yr JIOB H rOTOBHT 06II..J;J1H 3aB-
TpaK - nO,lJ.mapMBalOT MHCO rrOHMaHHoro BtIepa 3aHIJ;a, npJII-
rrpaBJIHIOT ero ,lJ;ynIHCTbIMH TpaBaMH. 3,lJ;eCb y pO,lJ;OBOrO KocTpa
Bce meHII..J;HHbI .n;pyr .n;pyry - ceCTpbI, a MymqHHbI - 6pa TbR.
m
24
POAOBaA 06UVtHa OXOTHHKOB Ha M8MOHTOB
1. n epe"tHcnH 3aHRTHR nepBo6blTHbiX nlOAeii. 2. CpaBHH BeUJ,H H nHUJ,y
nepBo6blTHbiX H cOBpeMeHHblx nlOAeii.
OpYAHA TPYA8 nepB06ltmtltll OIOTHHKOB
HaKOHe"lHHK
CTpenbl
KOCTAHaA
CKpe60K .... rna
C06l1palOTCR Ha 60Jlhlllyro OXOTY: rrOKperrtIe npl1-
BR3bIBalOT K ,lJ.epeBRHHhlM KOnbRM KaMeHHbIe HaKOHe'-IHJ1KJII,
CMOJlRT cPaKeJlhI; ,lJ.BOe CTapJIIKOB 066J11BalOT KaMeHHhle 3aro-
TOBKH, ,ll;eJlaR ,ll;JlR BCeX 3anaCHhle KOnhR. O,lJ;HH J113 Mym'-IHH
pa3 paCCKa3bIBaeT, KaK Bqepa BeqepOM CTa,lJ;O MaMOHTOB
nepelllJlO peKy H OKa3aJlOCh Ha OXOTHH'-IheH TeppHTOpHH JIIX
06II..J;J.1Hhl - pO,lJ;a PbImeH JIHCHIJ;hI. Teneph 3TO HX .n;o6hIl.Ja, H
OXOTHJIIKJII COCe,lJ.HerO po.n;a - ChIHOBhR CepOH COBhl,
3a peROH, He nOCMelOT npJIIHTH CIO,lJ.a. Ha JlJIIIJ;ax y Bcex YJIhI6KH-
KOH'-IHJIHCb rOJIO,lJ.HbIe .n;HH, KOr,lJ.a 3BepH 06XO.n;HJII1 HX CTOPOHOH,
Kor.n;a CKy.n;HylO ,n;06bIqy npHxo,n;HJIOCb OT,lJ;aBaTb TOJI.bKO B3pOC-
JIbIM H CHJIbHbIM, - TeM, KTO cnoco6eH ,n;o6bIBa Tb COpO,lJ.HqaM
nHru;y, KOr,lJ.a OT rOJIO,lJ;a 60JIeJIH H YMHpaJIH .n;eTH H CTapHKH.
Ho BOT HeOmJII,n;aHHO 0,n;J1H H3 onbITHblX OXOTHHKOB npe,n;JIara-
eT copo.n;JllqaM n03Ba Tb Ha 60JIblllYlO OXOTY COceAHlO1O 06ru;J1Hy.
OH rOBopHT, '-ITO TOJIbKO CBOHMJII CHJIaMH He y,ZJ,aCTCH 3arHaTb
MaMOHTOB K 06pbI8y. 'tJacTb Copo,n;HqeH B03Myru;eHbI J1 He XOTRT
,lJ;eJIJ1TbCR. Ho TyT B pa3roBop BCTynaeT cTaplllaR MaTb po.n;a.
OHa HanOMHHaeT BceM, qTO coce,n;HHR 06llViHa He tIymaH J1M:
HMeHHO H3 Hee MOJlo.n;bIe MymqHHbl 6epYT ce6e meH, TaK KaK
meHJ1TbCR Ha ceCTpax -copO,ZJ,WIax 3anperu;aeT 06bltIaH. TIocJle
He,lJ;OJIrJ1X cnopoB 60JIblllJ1HCTBO 06ru;HHHJ1KOB corJIalllalOTCR
n03Ba Tb coce,n;eH Ha 60JIblllyro OXOTy.
K Be'-Iepy 06'be.rr;J1HeHHbIe CJllJIbI OXOTHHKOB C 3ama<:eHHbIMH
cpaKeJIaMJ1 B3RJIJII B nOJIYKOJIbIJ;O CTa,n;o MaMOHTOB, OCTaBJ1B CBO-
60.n;HbIM TOJlbKO nyTb K peqHOMY 06pbIBY. BORBWJ1eCH orHR )KJ1-
BOTHble CTaJIH oTcTynaTb, HO HX BomaK 6eccTpalllHo 6POCMJlCH
Ha OXOTHHKOB: X060TOM OTlllBbIPHYJI o.rr;Horo, orpoMHoH HoraH
pa3,Il.aBHJI ,lJ;pyroro. O,lJ;HaKO TpeTHH OXOTHHK, np03BaHHbIM
25
CMeJIbQaKOM, HhlpHyJI nO,ll MaMOHTa H y,llapHJI ero KOnbeM B
MSirKoe no,n6plOmbe. 06e3YMeBmHH OT 60JIH 3Bepb 3aKpymJ1JI-
CSI Ha MeCTe. Ee3 BOmaRa CTa,110 paCCbmaJIOCb, 60JIblllHHCTBO
npOpBaJIOCb 3a U;enb OXOTHHKOB, HO .rtBe caMKH C ,neTeHbllllaMH
6POCHJIHCb K 06PbIBY H ynaJ'fH Bffi'l3, JIOMaSi ce6e KOCTH ... B o6e
06UJ;HHbJ nplliIIeJI npa3,o;HHK. fOPbI MBca nopOBHY ,lleJIHJIHCb
Mem,n;y BceMU COpO,llHt{aMH, H HHKTO He OCTaJICS roJIO,llHblM.
3. KorAa MaMOHTbI YWJlH
OKOJIO 12 TbICR"l.J JIeT Ha3a,ll; Ha 3eMJIe CTaJIO TenJlee, JIe,o;HHK
HaqaJI TaSTb H oTcTynaTb Ha ceBep. CJID:>KHJIHCb cOBpeMeHHbIe
npHpO,llHble 30HbI - TYH.ZJ:pbI, JIeca, CTenH H nYCTbIHH.
OKa3aBWHCb B HenpHBbPIHbIX YCJIOBHHX, KpyrrHble mHBOT-
Hble HaqaJIH BbIMHpaTb, cpe,llHJ1e n MeJIKJile npHTaJIHCb B JIe-
cax, OT nOKOJIeHHH K nOKOJIeHJ.11O MeHHS CBOH 06JIHK, nOBa,llKH,
npJilcnOCa6JIHBaRCb K npnpo,o;e. 't.{eJIOBeqeCKHe 06UJ;J.ffibl OCTa-
JIHCb 6e3 npHBhRHOJ1 nHUJ;H, H Tor,o;a JIIO,lll1 CTaJIH npH,llYMbmaTb
m
26
POAOUA 06uvftta OXOTHHKoept.t60JlOll08
CpaBHH 3aHATMJI, 8eU4H H nHw.y ntoAeH nt!AHHK08oro nepHOAa (c. 2.4) H nlO-
AeH. >KH8UJHX nocne ero OKOH'iaHHA. AenaH 8bl80A.
HOBbIe cnoc06bI ee ,lI;06bIt.{H. mJolTeJIH JIecoe
CTaJIH rrpKMeH.fITb HOBbIe Opy,o;HH ,lI;JIH OXOTbI
H3 3aCa,ll;bI Ha 60JIbIIIHX paCCTOHHHHX: Me-
TaTeJIbHhIe KonbH, .lU"6HHKH-6YMepaHrH n
Jtyx co cmpe.n.a.M.u. OXOTHHKH Hat{aJIH no,ll;-
KapMJlHBaTb ,lI;HKHX co6aK, KOTopbIe ,naBHO
06HTaJIH PH,ll;OM C JIIOACKHMH CTORHKaMH.
Tenepb OHl'! CTaJIH OXOTHTbCJl BMeCTe: co6a-
KH BbICJIemHBaJIH mHBOTHbIX, a JIIO,lI;J1 y6H-
BaJIH me H ,o;eJIHJIHCb ,no6blqeft co CBOHMH II
nOMOIIJ,HHKaMJ1. mHTeJIH no6epemm1: MopeH
C,-penoK H3 nyKa.
H 60JIbIIIHX peR H306peTeHHbIe
paHee JIO,o;KH, KplO'iKH, rrpH,o;YMaJIH pbI6HbIe
cent:, JIOBymKH H CneqJ1aJIbHbIe ROIIbH-rap-
rryHbI Ha MOPCKHX 3Bepeft. TaM, r,o;e He 6blJIO
B ,o;OCTaTKe HM 3sepeft, HH pbI6bI, JIIO,lI;H
CTaJIH BHHMaTeJIhHee co6HpaTb paCTeHHH
HaCK4nbHbJ.-:i PHCYHOK.
neutep4 C4ntoYOAOp
(I1cn4HHIf)
co C'be,ll;06HbIMH
KOPHHMH, nJIo,n;aMH H.JIJ1 CeMeHaMH.
JlIOAH aHA. 'lenOBeI( HaY .... no-pa3HOMY He-
nPHpoAY H a HeH.
m
1. n O"leMY o6pa308anHcb paCbl eAHHOrO 8HAa "lenOSeK pa3YMHbIH?
2. n O"leMY 06'beAHHeHI1J1 nepso6blTHbiX ntoAeH Ha3saHbl4l:poA080H 06-
UJ,HHOH? noAPQ6Ho 06'bSlCHH 3Ha"leHHe Ka>KAOrO cnosa 11 nposepb ce6J1
no cnosaplO. KaKHe 113 neps06blTHblX 06bl'Ule8. Ha TBOH S3rnJlA, noAXQ--
AJlT AnSI C08peMeHHoro MHpa, a KaKHe - HeTl (06'bSlCHH nO"leMY.)
3. KaKHe Ka"leCTBa nOMornH ntoASIM 8bl)KHTb nocne neAHHKosOH 3noxHl
TIoMorH AHTOWKe OTBeTI1Tb Ha Bonpocbl apXeOJlOroB:
rIo KapTe Ha c. 17 onpe.lleJrn: 1. KaKHe H3MeHeHMJl npm130lllJIH B npH-
po,lte 3eMmf, Kor,lta B A4JpHKe nORBHJIcft BH,Il; qeJlOBeK pa3)'MHbob?
2. qeM yrPO)l(aJlH 3TH H3MeHeHJfR qeJlOBeKY pa3)'MHOMY u: qTO ,lt0JI:>K-
Hbl 61::a1JUi C,lleJlaTb JlJO,ltJ1 - nOK"HYTb CBOlO TelIJlyID PO,ltHHY HJn{ HeT?
3, liTO, CYAft no AaHHblM KapTbI, CAeJlaJIH JlJOAH BH,lla qeJlOBeK pa-
3YMHbI:i1 ?
KaKoe Ha6ntOAaeTCA npOTI180pe"lHe, KaKoi1 803HHKaeT Bonpod
Btl nO"leMY. HecMoTpA Ha nOXOn0AaHHe. 4I:"len08eK pa3YMHbli1 He TonbKO
_ Sbl)KHn, HO Aa)Ke pacCenHnCJI no nnaHeTel
27
40 TWC. neT KaMA 10 nlC. neT Ka,'A Ho.al
""'\'0'" V I'V I I " I ' I, I' I>
1 ' " , . , . " . , , .
3. nepBble XYAO)f(HHKH H ccBonwe6HHKH
- 06'bACHI1 3Ha"4eHlo1e cnoa: penlo1rl1A, Io1CKYCCTBO, pOAoaaA 06UJ,HHa.
(Cnoaapb)
- onpo6YH pacnHcaTb pacnopAAOK AHA nepBo6bITHOH POAOBOH 06UJ,H-
Hbl: CKonbKO 8peMeHI1 mOAH Aon)KHbl nOTpaTI1Tb Ha TPYA B 60Pb6e 3a
cyw,eCTBOBaHHe, a CKonbKO MoryT nOTpaTI1Tb Ha 3aHATI1A HCKYCCTBOM?
( 2)
1. DepBblH: B3rJlBA aa MUp.
Yt.{eHbIM Ot.{eHb CJIO.mHO nOHRTb, qTO nepB06bITHbie JII0.n;H
.n;YMaJIH 06 HX MHpe. Be.n;b OHH He YMeJIH
aanHCbIBaTb CBOJ1 MbICJU1. IIOMoralOT oco6ble HCTOt.{HJ1KH -
Ha6JllOAeHHH 3a COBpeMeHHbIMH qeJIOBet.{eCKHMH
KOTopbIe Bce .mHByr B nepB06bITHbIX YCJIOBHflX.
Cy.n;lI no 3THM HCTO'lHHKaMH, Hanni nepBo6blTHbIe npe,IUtW
BHHMaTe.nbHO H3yq:aJIJII npHpO.ztY. MorJIJII opHeHTHpoBaTbcH no
3Bea.n;aM, JIet.{WTb 60JIe3HH TpaBaMH, pa3bIcKHBaTb H BbI6HpaTb
HaH60JIee no.ne3HbIe KaMHH, pacTeHwH, mHBOTHbIX. B TO me
BpeMH B OT.nHt.{J1e OT Hac OHJ1 He 3HaJIJII HaCTO.flI.l.\HX npwum
MHorHX HBJIeHJdi: nOt.{eMY, HanpHMep, H.n;eT Aom.n;b, rpeMHT
rpOM, npHxo.n;HT BeCHa, Hat.{HHaeTCR 60.ne3Hb, HacTynaeT
C08peMeHHble aBCTpatlHHL4b1
IlepeA OXOTOH. C08paM. PHCYHOK
28
CMepTb. B03MO.mHO, oc06eHHO MHoro
BonpOCOB BbI3bIBaJI y nepBo6bITHbIX
JII0AeH HX COHo CeHt.laC yt.leHblMH
YCTaHOBJIeHO, qTO BO CHe Halli M03r
npOAOJI.maeT pa60TaTb: Bce, qTO MbI
BH.n;eJIH 3a CBOro mH3Hb, OH pa36HBa-
eT Ha OTAeJIbHbIe KYCOttKH-06pa3bI
H npHqy.n;JIHBO nepeCTaBJIaeT HX,
nOKa3bIBaH HaM BO eHe eaMbIe
HeomH,n;aHHbIe KapTHHbI. O.n;HaKO
nepBo6bITHbIe JIIOAH .n;aBaJIH CBoe
06'bHcHeHHe: B t.{eJIOBeqeCKOM TeJIe
3aKJIIOtteHO oc06oe
I
Y1crOPHK nepeA nep806blTHblM H306pa)l(eHHeM
MaMOHTa. K8n08a neJ..qepa. POCcu"
nepa06blTHble noxopOHbI.
Co.peM. PUCYHOK
AYwa (AYx), KOTopoe BO CHe OTnpaBJI.ReTCH rrYTelIIeCTBOBaTb B
HeKHH HeBHAHMbrli JIIO.n;HM nomycmoponnuu .MUP, MomeT TaM
OXOTHTbCH Ha .n;YlIIH mHBOTHbIX, eCTb, pa.n;oaaThCH, ropeBaTb.
Kor.n;a .me t.{eJIQBeK yMHpaJI, nepB06bITHbIe JIlOAH CqHTaJIH, t.{TO
OH 3acHYJI oqeHb rJIY60KHM CHOM. OHH XOPOHHJII1 ero B cneQH-
aJIbHOH HMe, qT06bI TeJIO He C'beJIH .mHBOTHbIe, PHAOM KJIaJl11
Konbe, 3anaCbI e.n;bI, KOTopbIe Moryr npHI'O.n;HTbCH AYille B no-
TYCTopOHHeM MHpe.
HalliH nepBo6bITHbIe npe.n;KH OIJ..J;YIJ..J;aJIH ce6.R qaCTblO npHpo-
.n;bI, He BH.n;eJIH 60JIbWOH pa3HHIJ;bI Me.m.o.y CBoeH PO.n;OBOH 06IJ..J;H-
HOH H cTaeH BOJIKOB HJIH cTaAoM 6H30HOB: TaK.me OXOTHJIHCb H
YKpbIBaJIHCb OT HenoroJJ.hl. II03TOMY JIlO.n;H ,nYMaJIH, t.{TO H BCe,
t.{TO eCTb B MHpe (roPbI, peKH, .n;epeBbJl, mHBoTHble), noxome Ha
qeJIOBeKa: TaK me AYMaeT, pa3roBapHBaeT, Ha,n;eJIeHO .n;YXOM
(AYWOH). ECJIH J.1.AeT - 3Hat.{HT, 06J.1.AeJIHcb H nJIat.{YT J1.Y-
XH 06JIaKoB. ECJIH ,n;epeBo npJ.1.AaBHJIO qeJIOBeKa - ero .n;yx
paCCepAHJIC.R Ha TOro, KTO nonbITaJIC.R era cpy6HTb. ECJIH OTKO-
qeBaJIO CTa.n;o .mHBOTHbIX - HX ,n;yXH Y3HaJIH, t.{TO JIIO,[tH rOTOB.RT
60JIbillYlO OXOTy. TaKl<e paCCKa3bI co CBepX'beCTCTBHHbIMl<.
BbIMbIIlIJIeHHbIMH .n;eTaJl.RMH, c nOMOIJ..J;bro KOTOPblX JIIO.n;H 06'b-
HCHHIOT MHP, Ha3bIBalOTCH MJf4JbI.
Y AomHBlIIHX ,1:(0 COBpeMeHHOCTH nepao6bITHbIX 06lIJ;HH oqeHb
MHOro MHcPOB 0 npOHcxom,u.eHHH MHpa H JlIOAeH. EOJIbllIHHCTBO
29
1l0Wa.a.H H oneHH.
HaCKanbHblH PHCYHOK.
netl.4epa naCKO. CilpaH4"'1I
H3 HHX C1.{HTaJlH CBOHMH npe,n;KaMH Ka.-
KOe-TO tHBOTHOe H TaK H HaabIBaJlH
CBOIO pO,n;OBylO 06I.l.lHHY: PO,n; JIHCM:QbI,
CbIHOBbR OpJla, PO,n; OJleHR. Ha
npe,n;Ka HeJlb3R 6blJlO OXOTMTbCR, aa
3TO OH HR06bI nepe,n;aBaJl JIIO,n;RM CBOIO
J10BKOCTb, CHJJY, OXOTHH%M 3HaHMR. 3TH
3HaHMR C1.{HTaJIHCb TaiffibIMH. B3pOCJlbIe
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a Ha nOJlY BOKpyr OTne'IaTaJll1Cb nHTKH no,;qpOCTKOB, mHBIlIHX
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30
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31
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32
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34
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35
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37
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38
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39
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40
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41
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42
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43
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[I]
44
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CpaBHIo1 3aHIlITIo11l1 101 ycnoBlo11l1 >KH3HIo1 nepBblx ropO>KaH H nepBo6blTHbiX
(c. 39) 101 CKOTOBOAOB (c. 41).

My TaKHe nOCeJIeHHR - LJ;eHTpbI
BJIaCTH, X03RJ1CTBa H peJIJlIfHH
6JIHmaJ1IIIeti: oKpyrH - Ha3bIBalOT
rOpO,n;aMH.
Ha,lJ; rOpO,lJ;OM K He6y nO,lJ;HHMaJOTCR
CTeHbI XpQ..MOa - ,lJ;OMOB 60rOB-nO-
KpOBI1TeJleii 061I\l1Hbl. 311eCb Ha 1IA-
map.R.X (CTOJIaX) nepe,lJ; CTaTYRMM
llJIO,lJ;OPO,z:r;J1R, BO,lJ;bI JIIO,lJ;H
cmMraJOT 3epHO H mHBOTHbIX. 3TO
mepTBa 60raM, 'lTo6bI MoryqHe CHJIbI
npHpO,lJ;bI nOMOrJIH HM BblpaCTHTb
ypo>Kaii. BclO 061I\l1HY nepel1 60raMl1
npe,lJ;CTaBJIRJOT :JfCpeq.bL - HaCJIe.o;Hl1-
KH KOJI,lJ;YHOB, 'lJIeHhl 3HaTHbIX ce-
MeJ1. DHH O,lJ;HH YMeJOT no COJIHU;Y H
3Be3,1J;aM COCTaBHTb KaJIeH,1J;apb H
>KepT8onpHHoweHlo1e B xpaMe.
XYA. M. rOpenHK
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'lHe 60fH no.n;apHJIH JIJO,lJ;HM nepBbIJ1 nJIyr 11 nepBbIH KOJIOCOK.
DH11 O.n;HH YMeJOT paCCqHTaTb, r,n;e npopbITb KaHaJI, KOf.n;a no,lJ;-
HHTb ,lJ;aM6y, CKOJIbKO 3epHa OCTaBHTb npH xpaMe .n;JIR mepTB,
o6MeHa C COCe,lJ;HM11 H npo 3anac Ha rOJIO,lJ;Hbl:i1: ro,lJ;. l.JTo6bI 3a-
nOMHHTb H nepe,lJ;aTb 3TH3HaHHH, qTo6b1 BeCTH yqeT npo.n;YKToB
B XpaHHJIHlll;ax xpaMoB, mpeu;aM yme He,nocTaTOqHO 06bI'tJ:HblX
nepBo6blTHblX PHCYHKOB. Ha HX
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nOCTOHHHbIX 3HaKOB, KOTOPbIMH
3anHCblBalOT LJ;eJIble CJIOBa J1JIH J1X
OCHOBHble CJIOrH.
K py6e>Ky IV-III TbICWleJleTI1H B
HeKoTopblX 3eMJIe,lJ;eJlb'leCKHX 06-
CJID:)KHJIOCb HepaBeHcTBo
J1 pa3,lJ;eJIeHJ1e Ha 06lll,eCTBeHHbIe
CJIOH, nOSIBJ1JIHCb ropO,lJ;a H III1Cb-
MeHHOCTb.
PHCYH4aToe nlo1CbMO Ha cnoHoaoH
KOCTIo1. KOHeLj IV TbIC. ,.110 H.l.
45
2. UOBaH BJlaCTb.
B rop0.IJ;ax, Bblpocunlx no 6eperaM BeJIV1KHX
peK, 60K a 60K m:HJIJ1 npe,n;cTaBMTeJIJ1 MHorV1X
PO,n;OB. Bce l.!aI.IJ;e BcnbIXV1BaJIH cnopbI a TOM,
r.IJ;e npoxo,n;flT rpaHHIl;bI Mem.IJ;Y nOJIflMl1, KTO
B03bMeT B meHbI nepBYIO KpacaBV1Il;y H npOl.!ee.
PaHee J1X peIIIaJIJ1 po,n;OBbIe cTapei1:IIIHHbI, HO K
KOMY H.IJ;TH, eCJIH cnop BblIIIeJI Mem.IJ;Y JIIO.IJ;bMV1
113 pa3HbIX PO,n;OB? CJIyqaJIOCb, qTO O.IJ;I1H l.!eJIO-
BeK 1136l1BaJI J1JII1 .IJ;ame y611BaJI ,n;pyroro. ITo
.IJ;peBHeMY 06bI't.JalO "P081O'll .M.ecmu 06J1,n;'t.JJ.1Ky
.IJ;OJImHbI 6hIJII1 OTOMCTJ1Tb Bce pO.IJ;CTBeHHMKH
)t(e3n 101 TonopHK -
CHMBonbl BnaCTI1 nOCTpa.n;aBIIIero. Ho B TeCHOM ropO.IJ;e 3TO Mor-
JIO nepepaCTM BO Bceo6rn;yro BOi1:HY
JIIO.IJ;J1 Bce 't.JaI.IJ;e 06paI.IJ;aJIHCb 3a peIIIeHJ1eM cnopOB K BOm.IJ;1O
:0I03a nJIeMeH. OH Hero BOHHbI-.IJ;pym:HHHJ.1KH CTaJIH CY,u;HTb
>KHTeJIei1: ropo.n;a, CWIOH 3aCTaBJIflJll1 no.n;tll1HflTbCfI ce6e. ITPH
3TOM JIlO,u;J.1 C't.JJ1TaJIH, QTO BOm:,n;b o6JIa.n;aeT oco6oi1: TaHHoi1: CM-
ITOH CJIOBa. Era npHKa3bl 6ecnpeKOCJIOBHO J1CnOJIHflJIMCb, a
BJIaCTb CTaJIa nepe.IJ;aBaTbCfI no HaCJIe.IJ;CTBY TaR y ropo.n;a no-
HBHJICfI npaBHTeJIb - 1tap'b. OH Hero COBeTllliKH npJ1.IJ;YMbIBaJIM
HOBbIe npaBJ1JIa .n;JIfi peIIIeHJ1f1 cnopOB, aam;J1I.IJ;afl CBOIO BJIaCTb H
co6CTBeHHOCTb mI1TeJIei1:. 3TH npaBHJIa aanJ1CbIBaJIH; TaR no-
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46
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MeJIb CTam1 C0611paTb yme He CJIyt-IaHHbIe ,n;apbI, a nOCTOfIHHbIe,
TOt:[HO YCTaHOBJIeHHble 1iO.JWZU - np0.IJ;YKTaMH, BeW;aMl1, .n;eHbra-
MH. TaK CJImKJ1JIMCb nepBhle I'OCYAapCTBa.
Ha py6eM<e IV -III AO HOBON 'pb' 3eMneAenb"b'
AonHH lenHKHX peK COlAlnH ropOAa, nHCbMeHHOCTb, rOCYAap-
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neHb 4HBHnH3a4HH .
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1. Ha T80H 83rnRA. nepeMeHbl. npoH30weAWIo1e B X03f1HCT8e. o6w,ecT-
BeHHOM AeneHl111 101 KynbType OKono 5 TbIC. neT Ha3aA. nplo1HeCnl1 ntO-
ASIM Ao6po Io1nlo1 3no?
2. n onpo6YH onlo1caTb cnop Me>KAY npaBIo1TeneM Op,Horo 1013 nepBblX ro-
CYAapCTB 101 BO>KAeM nneMeHI1 CBo60p,HbIX OXOTHIo1KOB 0 TOM. "Ibe
ynpaBneHHe ny'"lwe.
3. B cBoei1 TeTpaAlo1 3anonHH Ta6nHLI,y no cpaBHeHl110 AByX cTyneHeH
pa3BHTHSI "IenOBe'"leCTBa. n ocne onpeAenlo1. "IepTbl KaKoro o6w,e-
CTBa 60nee CBOHCTBeHHbl COBpeMeHHOMY '"IenOBe"leCTBY
nepBo6blTHoe
l..lIo1BHIlI13aLl,I1S1
o6w,ecTBo
KaKHMH 6blIllo1 noceneHIo1R, X03Ri1CTBO?
Ha KaKHe rpynnbl pa3AeneHbi >t<HTenH?
KTO ynpaBJ1S1eT 06w.ecTBoM?
KaK nepeAalOTCSI Ba>t<Hei1wHe 3HaHHSI?
- H y BOT, AHTOllIKa. - CKaaaJI - Mbl H ,no GpaJIl1Cb C TO-
GOM ,Il;O OROH'<iaHI1H anoXl1 IIepao6blTHoro Ml1pa H Ha'-laJIa 3nOXH .upeSHe-
ro Ml1pa.
- - BOCRJU1KHyJI AHTOlIIKB. - PaCCKamHTe MHe, KaK JIIO)lJ.1
TOr.n;a OTMe'-la.rrn 3TO c06blTl1e. HaaepHoe, TOpateCTseHHee H aeceJIee, qeM
MbI - HOShlM rOA!
- 'tfTO Tbl! HHKTo B Te speMeHa 11 He nO,ll;oapesaJI, '-ITO mJ.1BeT Ha py6e-
ate AByX I1CTOpH":IeCKJ.1X aTIOx!
CpaBHIo1 BbICKa3bIBaHIo1S1 AHTOWKIo1 11 iIICTO"lHIo1KoBeAa. B '"IeM npOTHBope-
"Ilo1e. B03HIotKaeT Bonpoc?
m nO'"leMY Mbl C"IIo1TaeM. '"ITO 5 TbIC. neT Ha3aA 3aKOH"IHnaCb 3noxa nepBO-
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(MaTepHan Ami YPoKa-06o6UJ,eHIo1A)
no Ta6nlo1L1,e Ha c . 16 npoBepb, nOMHI1UJb mot lbl 06S13aTenbHble q:,aKTbl lot
nOHATHH, rOTOB 11101 np"'MeHRTb 3TH 3HaHHA B npOBepO'"lHOii pa60Te.
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30 20



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11 10 9 I
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nOAC'"IHTai:i, CKOllbKO neT 101 CMeH nOKoneHHi1 nOTpe6osanOCb:
- npHpoAe, ..no6bl 06e3bAHonOAo6Hbie >KHSOTHble pa3SI1I1101Cb S 14eno-
seKa pa3YMHorolfl (Heo6XO,AHM .. I14 ypo_eM .. - Xopowo)
- 14enoseKy pa3YMHOMY, 14T06bl OT nplo1csaHsaHHA AClpoa npHpOAbI ne-
peihH K npol13soACTSY npoAYKToal (IlporpaMMHbI14 ypoBeH .. - OTJlH'IHO)
- nepBblM 3eMne,[l,enbLl,aM, 14To6bl nocenKH POAOBblX 06W,HH npeo6pa.
30BaTb S ropOAa-rOCYAapCTsa? (He06XOAHMbIH ypoaeH .. - xopowo)
2. CAellai1 SbIBOA: 3aMeTeH 11101 "porpecc (pa3BHTl1e OT "pOCTOro K
Cll0>t<HOMY) S HCTOPHH ... enose ... ecna? Caoe MHeHlo1e nOATaepAH cpaKTa-
MH 11 nOHSlTHflMI1, H3Y14eHHbIMI1 s Knacce (npqrpaMMMblH ypoaeH .. -
10111101 (H) He 113Y14aSWHMHCfI 8 Knacce (M8ICCHMa.....Di ypotseMo -
caepXOTJlH'IHO).
,
PA3AEn II.
Ll,HBHnH3ALI,HH APEBHEro BOCTOKA
(rJIaBbI 2-3)
rJlaOHoe, '1clny IIco6xoJ\l1l\1o Y'fIlTbCJI,
C TO'IKH apeHl1R aBTopos:
- pa3JIl1t.taTh 11 nOHUMaTh KyJlbTYPhJ pa3HbIx cTpaH " HapO,!l;OB, nyn'! J1X
pa3BHnl.R;
- onpe.n;eJI.RTb BKJIaA pa3Hblx cTpaH " HapO,ll;OB B o6w;eQeJlOBe9:eCK)'lO
KyJlbTYPY
fiPOBCPb, roT08 Ji ll TbI OBJlBACa3Tb YMCHltHlmf aToro pa3,ll;CJla
Onpe,ll;eJlH nOCJIe.llCTBUR nepexo.ll.a mo,neH OT nepB06b1THoro K
QHBl1JlJf3aQIUf,
KaK ynY .. WHIlaCb >K113Hb "iTo xopOLUero nOTepMIo1
I1IOAeH? "lOA"'?
!!! Bml Mamle. IIpe)f{,Ae qeM BbITIOJIHRTb 3a):laHJ1e, 03HaKOMbCR C yCJlOBl1-
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"H.ll pa31i.bIX yp06'HJlX
Heo6xoAlfMblH ypoBem. (xopowo): 3anOJIHeHO He MeHee Tpex CTPOK
JIeBofi. KOJIOHRl1 (EaK YJlY"lllll1JlaCb I:I13Hb JllO):leH?).
nporpaMMHhrii ypOBeHb (OTJlHqHO): 3anOJIHeHO He MeHee Tpex CTpOK
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8J1JIH3aU;HH HJIH aKTbI, KOTopble He H3Y"1aJ1Y1Cb Ha ypOKax.
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B03HJ1KaIOT 3aTpY):lHeHJ1,R, TO BMeCTO OTBeTa HanHlIIH, KaKHx YMeHJ1H H
3HaHJ1fi. Te6e He XBaTaeT.
KaJ\ U3Y"1aTb :}TOT pa3Acn
TIo OrJlaBJIeHI1IO Ha c. 3-4 onpe):leJIH, KaKOe co,a:epmaHJ1e Te6e Heo6xo,IVi-
MO OC80HTb. lil3Y"1a:ti naparpa 3a naparpaq,oM, onpe):leJI.aR OCHOBHOH
Bonpoc (np06JleMY) TeMbl, nO,ll;fiHpa.a ,Il;JI,R peweHHR 3TOro Bonpoca Y>Ke
J13BeCTHble 3HaHIDi (noH.aTJ1R, 3aKoHoMepHocTH) H OTKpblBaR HOBbie, KaK
06 3TOM nO):lp06Hee CKa3aHO Ha c. 6-7.
49
B"lAeneHH .. le cpaKT .. 1 H noHATM. He06XOAHMO noMHMT .. H '(MeT" HCnon .. 30aaT ...
KOH. IV TbIC. AO H. 3. - 06paloaaHHe nepablX ropoAoe-rOCYABPCTB a .Q,pestteM
ErHnTe H MeHCAype'IIt8, nOA8neHHe Heparn.l.
3000 r . AO - C03AaHHe o6-beAHHeHHoro erHneTCKoro u-apCTSa
(ApeaHeHweH AecnoTHH) H CHCTeMbl 0powleMoro 3eMne"en .. " .
OK. 2600 r . AO H.3. - nocTpoHKa nHpIM"'" Xeonel a ErHnTe.
XXIII-XVIII 88. AO H.3. - APeaHeHWaA L,VtaHnH31L1"" B APeIHeM HHAHN.
K 2000 r. AO H. 3. - nepecen,H8WHeCA 8 MeH<Aype'4be ceMHTCKHe HapOAbI,
nepeHAa KynbTYpy WYMepOII . BbiTecH"tOT HX UblK caOHM.
1792-1750 rr. AO H.3. - npaaneHHe H 3aKOHbi aaaHnOHCKoro u-ap" XaMMypanH,
3aLU,Hw,atOLU,He Cll060AHblX rplMCAlH (3eMneAenbu-ea-06LU,HHHHKOa H
peMecneHHHKoB) OT npeapaw,eHH. a Aonr08blX pa6oa.
OK. XVIII a. AO H. 3. - o6pa30aaHHe nepaoro ,",apCTaa II APeIHeM KNTle.
K 1500 r. AO H. 3. - H306pereHHe aOAAHbl X H COnHe'"lHblX '"Iacoa.
1490-1436 rr . AO H.3. - npaaneH",e H 3aaoellaHHA "PIIOtt. TYTMoca Ill.
OK. 1300 r. AO H.3. - nepeceneHHe HHAOeaponeHcKoro H_POAI apHea II
/.1HAHIO, C03AaH .... e BeA.
1100 r. AO H.3. - C03,lJ,aHHe CPHHHK.4HL\CIMH nepllofo ancpasHTa.
... X I . AO H.'. - pacnpOCTpaHeHHe >KenelHbl X 0PYAHH II lanBNtOH A:JH ...
:. 06pa30aa!'1He u,apCTaa eapeel,- /.13paHllA, npaalleHHe ,Qa8HAa
H ConOMOHa, CTpOHTenbCTBO l-1epycanHMcKOfO xpaMa.
745-727 rr. AO H.3. - Ha ... ano accHpHHCKHX 3aaoeBaHHH THfparnanacapa Ill.
669-627 ff. AO H. 3. - COCTaaneHHe 6H6nHoreKH Awwyp6aHanana, KYAa aownH
KIlHHonHCHble TeKcr .. 1 no pellHfHH, HlyKe H nHTeparype.
622 r. AO H. l. - COCTaanet1He npH HYAeHcKoM u,ape HOCHH CBOAi' KHHf 6H6nHH-
OCHoabl penHrHH eAHHo60>KHA.
612 r . AO H.3. - pa3pyweHHe CTOnHL4.bIACCHPHH - HHHeaHH.
VII-VI BB. AO H. l . - pacnpocTpaHeHHe )Kene3a a HHAHH, 06pa30BaHHe
fOCYAapcTS.
S05-562 rr. AO H.3. - pacu-aer apxHTeKTypHoro NCKYCCT Baalo11l0Ha npH
HaayxoAOHOcOpe II (BaaW1OHCKaSl6awHSI , Blo1CSI'4He C<lAbI
OK. 500 r . AO H.3. - nponoaeAb 6yAAltI a I-1HAHH.
- pacnpoc1'paHeHHe )Kene3a II KI1Tae H a03HHKHoaeHHe y ... eHIo1S1 AaOCH3Ma.
)58-530 r. AO H. 3. - o6pa30aaHHe KHPOM II OePCHACKOM AepHe .... ' .
i25 r. AO H. 3. - laxaaT nepcaMH ErHnTa.
;22-486 rr. AO H.3. - AapHH I opraHH3yeT ynpaaneHIo1e nepCl1AeKOH Aep)KaaoH.
09 r . AO H. l . - cMepTb KOH4JyL,Vt1 - OCHoaaTenSl KOHcpYL4l'1aHCKOfo Y'4eHHSI .
l64-231 rr . AO H.3. - Aep)Kaaa AWOKH a HHAHH, paenpoeTpaHeHHe 6yAAH3M
!21 r . AO H.l . - 06'beAHHeHHe KHTaHCKHX u,apeTa a HMnepHIO UHHb, Ha'4anO
erpoHrenbcTaa 8enHKoH KHT.HCKOH CTeHIl'.
W6 f. AO H.3. - Ha"lanO HMnepHH XaHb a KHTae - paenpocTpaHeHHe KOM4Jy-
LPt8HCTaa, H306peTeHHe 6YMarH, KOMnaea.
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nepao6blTHOCTH K 4HBHnH3a4HH.1-13-3a "Iero Ha"lanHCb BOHHbll ( 5-6)
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)KH3Hb nlOAeH. ( 6)
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pyKaBOB " 06pa3Y" llIHpOKylO l\eJlbTy. CnpaBa " CJleBa - Kpac-
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OCTPOBOK TpasbI JiI ,D;epeSbes - ociauc.
JIeToM B sepxOBhHX TaroT ropHbIe eHera, HacTyrraeT ce-
aOH ,n;om,n;eH. Bo,n;a B peKe Me)VIeHHO npH6bIBaeT, H paaJll1B aa-
TamIHBaeT ,n;OJIHHy. IIpHHeceHHhIe IIOTOKOM QaCTHqKJ1 nOQBhI H
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oTc-rynalOT, Ha 6eperax OCTaeTCH QepHhIH IIJIO,n;OPOP;HbIJ1: HJI.
HacTyrraeT 3acyxa. BhICOKHe YQaCTKH ,n;OJIHHhI BhImHraeT COJIH-
u;e, a HH3KHe aa60JIa't{HBa1OTcH H 3apaCTalOT BhICOKHM rYCThlM
TPOCTHHKOM - nanUPYCOM. B 3apOCJlfiX nTHQhl JIaKOMHTCH Phl-
60H, Ha OTMeJIH pa3JIerJIHCh 6ereMOThI, B MYTHOiii Bo,n;e npHTaJlI-
Jll1Ch KPOKOAHJIhl, IIO,lPKHAaH KOPOBY l1JIH KOCYJIlO. BhIllie no 6e-
pery paCTeT CMOKOBHHu;a l1 ,n;yurnCTaH aKaQHH, BHHOrpa)l, eru;e
,n;aJIbWe - cPHHHKOBhIe naJIhMbI. 3a rpH,n;oH XOJIMOB U;BeTyw;aH
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rAe TalOKe CBeTHT Pa, TeqeT HHJI, nOJIH.
60
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CapKocpar H cocYAbI AIlA BHyTpeHHHX
opraHoB yMepwero
lOTO MyMHH
PaM3eca III
CapKocpar
Ha TYTaHxaMOHa
II03,n;Hee nOHBHJlOCb nOBepbe, qTO ,lVlH 06peTeHHR 6eCCMep-
TJIIR, nOMHMO H MyM11H, Ha.n;o eI1\e npOHTJII CY,IJ; QapR
3arpo6Horo MHpa - OCHpHca. )lJ1H aToro erHnTHErnHY KJIaJIH B
rpo6HHIJY nam1pYCbI KHJ1rH MepTBbIX. OHa rJ1aCHJIa, "ITO zpex
(npecTynJIeHHe npOTJoiB 6oroB) - ... COBepIIIaTb HecnpaBe,lVlH-
BOCTb npOTHB JIlOAefi, 6bITb meCTOKHM K mHBOTHbIM, nblTaTbCH
Y3HaTb TO, qero eI1\e He CTaJIO, 6bITb 6e3pa3JIHqHbIM, BH,IJ;H 3JIO,
OTHHMaTb y 6e,n;HHKa, OTpaBJISlTb, 3aCTaBJIRTb pbI.n;aTb, y6H-
BaTh, npHKa3bIBaTb y6HBaTb, KpaCTb y yMeplltHX, 06MaHblBaTb
Ha Becax, J136eraTb CJIym6bI cpapaoay. oTa KHHra C nepeqHeM
MarHqeCKI1X 3aKJIHHaHHH J1 npaBHJIbHbIX OTBeTOB Ha BonpOCbI
OCHpHca nOMoraJIa B nYTeIlIeCTBHH B 3arpo6HblH MHp.
( ..,.'1-Ha c:tlle Oc"p"ca 60r" TQ!.. .. AHY"C YMepure-
OIlHY 'IaIllr BecOB, a Ha IIPyryKl - nepo....or.>!H>! cnpa-
.... Be,lJ,JIHBOC_TJII M _aaT.. ECJIJ1 cepAt.:(e onYCKaJIOCb BHH3 - 3HaQI1T,
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" i'HJIa. ECJIH qaIIIa OCTaBaJIaCb Ha MeCTe - 3HaQHT, QeJIOBeK B
3eMHOH mH3HH BeJI ce6S1 npaBHJIbHO. OCHPJIIC pa3peuraJI ,IJ;yme
6
BepHyrbcSI B TeJIO H nOCeJIRJI ,nOCTOHHOro Ha nOJIRX JIameH-
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61
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no SeMJIe HJIM 6pocaeT B HUJI nanH-
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CTBeHHoe coopymeHHe. ,n:JIR 3Toro XXX 8. AD H.3.
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65

BMeCTO HerrpOqHhIX RHpnHqeH CTaJIJ.1 ItICrrOJIb30BaTb RaMeHHbIe
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ropax KHpKaMH H CBepJlaMH. Ha ,n;epeBRHHbIX CaHRX
pa60QHe OTPSl,n;bI rrepeTaCKMBaJIM HX K MeCTY CTpOJ1TeJIbCTBa.
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3aTeM IIO [IJIaHY J1MxoTerra BOKPyr Hee C,lJ;eJlaJiH HaChInb ' H3
neCKa. ITo HeM Ha KaHaTax BTHHyJIJ1 HOBhIe KaMeHHhle IIJU:tThI M
B03Be.nH BTOPYlO MacTa6y MeHhllIJ1X pa3MepoB. IIoToM
O,n;Hy H eI.I..J;e. coopymeHHe paCQHCTHJlH OT rreCKa CTPOH-
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Apx. J1MxoTen. XXVIII 8. AO H.3.
66
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rp06H"l.\eii KOMHaTaX nOMell.\aJI" YKpallleH"", Bell.\", OpYlK"e
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Ha HX CTeHbI HaHOCl1JIH POCllHCJ1 H peJibecpbl Ha
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no.n;3eMHOM Ml1pe, TaM me OmHBaJIH Bce 3TH PHCYHKH H nOBe-
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XXVI/s. AO H.3.
67
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pa3Ael1H I1X Ha naMATHI1KH apXI1TeKTypbl 11 11306pa3HTenbHoro HCKyC-
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noroaopKe .Bee 60ATCR epeMeHIo1, HO apeMA 60 .... TCR nHpaMl1Alt.
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poe, RaK 6onbwm'f c:pyrOOnbHbU1: CT8,1J,lfOH, nOCTaBJIeHHblH aepnmaJIbHo.
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peTaCKJ.1DaJUf KaMID1 ... CaMa nJ.1paMl1,D;a nOTpe60sana 20 neT pa6oTbl.
68
KaKoe npOTHBOpe'il1e Bbl3Bano YAHBI1eHHe AHTowKHl KaKoi1 80J.HHKaeT
Bonpod
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AbI Ha HymHoH OTMeTKe - ce30H pa3JIHBa 3a-
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69
JIJtIII..J;e. CeTb MaJIbIX KaHaJIOB pacxo,n;HJIaCb BOKpyr, opOllIaH IIO
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XOPOllIO, t:ITO cpapaOH nOmaJIOBaJI eMY ,z::r;Ba 60JIhllIJtIX IIOJIH B
BepXHeM ErJtIrrTe. - JIyqUlliH Ht.IMeHb paCTeT TaM! A BOT JIyqwHe
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70
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rrpJtIHHJIa IIOKJIOHbI OT peMeCJIeHHJtIKOB, JtI caMa nOKJIOID1JIaCb
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71
C Me,D;HHKOM, Heq:,epT 3a TpM MOTKa TRaHH BbIMeHRJIa Y HerO
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KOWKM, o6eperalOI..Qetf 3epHO OT MblweH.
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HHKH, pa3MhIWJIReT: Y HaC 3.n;eCh He KaJ<: B ,neJIhTe, r,Ae
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72
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8emeJtbcm8Yu, nO'lumau omtfa U Mamb)).
2. K Hura 0 E]l;UHOM Bore. -
Bo BpeMeHa rrpopoKoB :ax BbICKa3blBaHJ1H, a TalOKe Ml1CPhI, JIe-
reH)J;hl, 3aKOHbI, rreCErn CTaJll1 3arrl1CblBaTh Ha rraIIHpYCHbIe CBHT-
KH. TaK B03HHKJIO MHOro peJIHfH03Hb1X Hy;n;eticKHX KHHI', co6pa-
HHe KOTOPbIX MbI Ha3hIBaeM Bu6J1HH (rro-rpeQeCKH - KHHra).
COf JIaCHO EJ16JIHH, BeCb Ml1p H nepBbIX mo;n;eti C03,n;aJI rOcno,z:tb
Eor (lIxBe). BHaqaJIe AllaM 11 EBa "'I1JII1 B palO, 6e3 TpYlla "3a-
fiOT, eJIH BKYCHbIe IIJIO,n;bI C JIlo6b1X ,ItepeBbeB. 11M fiblJIO 3anpe-
l.I..l;eHO TOJIbKO eCTb OT ;n;peBa n03HaHl1H ,n;o6pa 11 3JIa,:t)J;HH 113
aU-ZeA08 (fieCTeJIeCHhIX nOCJIaHHHKOB H CJIyr Eora) rroweJI npo-
THB BOJIM rocno,n;a - CTaJI caTaHOH (npOTHBHHKOM), 06epHYJICR
3Meeti M yroBOpJ1JI Eay ,z:taTb A.n;aMY 3TH nJIo,n;bI. TaR JllO,IJ;H CO-
BepurnJIM nep8bLu zpex - npecTynJleIDfe npOTl1B Eora. B HaKa-
3aHHe rOCnO,lJ;h H3rHaJI HX J13 paR Ha 3eMJIIO, CKa3aB, liTO Terrepb
A;n;aM 6y;n;eT B nOTe JIHQa ,lJ;06blBaTb XJIe6 CBOti, a EBa - B MYKaX
pomaTb ,ll.eTe tf.l lYme HX ChIH Kauu cOBeplIIMJI BTOPOti rpex -
y6HJI cBoero---6paTa AseJtJt H3 3aBMCTH K ero 6oraTcTBY
MHOrOliHCJIeHHbIe nOTOMKJII A,n;aMa H EBbI npO,D;OJI.>KaJII1 COBep-
maTb rpeXl1, H pa3rHeSaHHblti Bor HaCJIaJI Ha HHX BceMMpHbIH
nOTon. TOJlbKO O.n;HOMY 6JIarOlieCTl1BoMY HolO OH C0061.I..l;MJI 0
CBoeM 3aMblCJIe H n03BOJIl1JI nocTpoMTb Kopa6JIb-KOBQer.
4 - ,ll,aHHAoa, I >tn .
97
KaHH y6HsaeT
6paTa
&H6neHCKaJl KapYHHB MHpa
COTSOpeHHe
MHpa
BceMHpHblH
rpaSlOpl>1 r. /1,ope
3aseT
ABpaaMa
[TI
CpaBHH C l<apTHHOM MHpa APeBHHX erHnTSiH (c . 62) - "iTO o6w,ero, B
'leM pa3nH"iHSI?
98
T
,
CeMbH HOH cnaCJIaCb, H Bce HapO.ll.bI,
mJ.1BYII..J;He Ha 3eMJIe, - nOTOMKI1 CbIHO-
BeM HOH.
TIo 6J.16JIei1:cKI1M CKa3aHHHM, focno,n;b
nel.JaJIJ.1JICH, l.JTO JIID,lJ;J.1 cOBepwalOT rpe-
XI1 H nOKJIOHHIDTCH JIO>KHblM BbI,lJ;YMaH-
HbIM 6oraM. OH HCRaJI qeJIOBeRa, KOTO-
pbIM CMor 6bI CTaTb pO.ll.OHal.JaJIbHHKOM
H36paHHoro Hapo,n;a, l.JTo6bI Bor Mor
C006II..J;J.1Tb JIlO,n;HM npaBHJIa
BbI60p naJI Ha nacTyxa Aepa.::i.Ma, co-
rJIaCI1BIIIerOCH nOKJIOHHTbCH TOJI.bKO
focno,lJ;Y . .iKeJIaH ero HcnblTaTb, Bor Be-
JIeJI ABpaaMY npJ.1HeCTH B mepTBy
c06cTBeHHoro CbIHa MCaaKa, J1 TOJIbKO B
\1. I' ;

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MOHcei1 co CKpH>KanIlMH
3aBeTa. XYA. r. /1,ope
nOCJIe,n;HHH MOMeHT aHreJI OCTaHOBHJI pyKy C mepTBeHHbIM
HOmOM. MCnblTaB Bepy ABpaaMa, Bor 3aKJIIOQHJI C HI1M 3aBeT-
,n;OrOBOp 0 TOM, QTO ero nOTOMKI1 6y.n;YT nOKJIOHHTbCH TOJIbKO
focrro,n;y, a fOCrrO,lJ;b c,n;eJIaeT I1X 1136paHHbIM Hapo.n;oM. TaK,
COrJIaCHO BI16JII1H, ABpaaM CTaJI rrpapO,Zl;HTeJIeM Bcex eBpeeB.
O,lJ;HaKO ero nOTOMKH MHoro pa3 HapywaJIH 3aBeT focno,n;a,
cOBepwaH rpexH H nOKJIOHRRCb H,Zl;OJIaM. B HaKaaaHl1e OHH OKa-
3aJIHCb B ernneTCKOM nJIeHy. fOCrrO,Zl;b BbI6paJI HOBoro rrpopoKa -
MOHCes, KOTOPOMY BHYWHJI, QTO OH p;OJImeH BbIBeCTI1 CBOH
HapO,lJ; 113 pa6CTBa 11 06paTI1Tb ero B HC-
THHHyID Bepy. fOCnO,lJ;b nOMor eBpeHM
6emaTb 113 ErJllIITa 11 ,n;ame paa,lJ;BHHyJI
BOP;bI KpaCHoro MOPH, QT06b1 OHH MorJIH
ytiTJII OT nOrOHJ.1 no MOPCKOMY ,Zl;Hy.
Kor,Zl;a Hapop; OCTaHOBI1JICH y ropbI CH-
Hai1:, MOHceM nO,Zl;HHJICH Ha ropy H,
CKpbITbn1: 06JIaKaMI1, rOBOpJllJI C focno-
,Zl;OM. CnYCTJ.1BWJ.1Cb, OH npHHec eBpeHM
CKPUJiCa.nU - KaMeHHbIe Ta6JIl1QKH 3a-
BeTa-,Zl;OrOBOpa, Ha KOTOPbIX 6blJIH Ha-
l.JepTaHbI 10 BamHetiwHx 3arroBe,n;ei1:.
TaK 6bIJI rrO,Zl;TBepm,lJ;eH 3aBeT focrro.n;a
H eBpeeB. CKpJ.1maJIJ.1 nOMeCTHJIJ.1 B
,.
V1epycanHMcKHi:j xpaM.
PeHOHCTPYKl.jHJf
99
RII.J;J1K - K08'lteZ 3aaema J1 COPOK JIeT HOCJ1JIH ero aa co6ot1: no CI1-
HaHCKOH nYCTbIHe, Be.n;OMbIe MOHceeM. JIl1IIlb Kor.n;a YMep no-
CJIe.ll:Hl1H PO.ll:HBIlIH:ti:CSI B pa6CTBe qeJIOBeK, eBpeJ.1 .n;BJ1HYJIJ.1Cb B
06eI..IJ;aHHYIO 11M BoroM 3eMJIIO 06eToBaHHyro - IIaJIeCTHay.
&H6nHA ApeBHHX elpeel (Tana OCHOIOM HOIOM penHrHH Aoro-
aopa-3l1BeTa &ora M nlOAeH.
m
1. CpaBHI1 BoccTaHoBSleHHYto y .. eHbtMI1 KapTI1Hy I1CTOPI1I1 APeBHI1X eB-
peeB C I1CTOpl1eH H3BeCTHbtX Te6e APeBHI1X HapoAoB: KaKHe o6l4He
BonpOCbt HX BOnHOBanl1? "4eM OTJ1I1"1aeTCA n03HIJ,Io1A 6H6neHcKI1x npopo-
KOB 11 aCCl1pl1HCKI1X u,apeHl
2. KaK Tbt AYMaewb, nO"leMy B 6116nl1H rOcnoAb 60r rOBopHT 0 ce6e
MOl1ceto: .rOcnoAb A06pbtHI1 MHIlOCepAl1btH60r, AonroTepnenl1BbtH 11
nonHbtH m06sl11 CpasHH 6H6neHcKI1e paCCKa3bt 06 HCTOPHI1 eBpeeB 11
Onl1CaHHe I1X I1CTOpl1l1, COCTaBneHHoe Y"leHbtMH no I1CTO ... HHKaM.
3. rtpoAOn>K11 3anOnHstTb Ta6nl1u,y Penl1rl1l1 ,D.peBHero MHpa (c. 63)-
CTpOKa 6116neHcKaR penHrHR OTJ1I1 ... aeTCSI 3Ta penHrHR
OT APy rHd h aK, Ha B3rnRA, nORBneHHe .]TOH penHrHI1 nOBnHRno Ha
Io1CTOPlo1to ntoAeH?
- MO.)KeT, aCCHpJ1Hr.uu 6bUlH H He o'{eHb .ll06pbl e, aaTO CKJIbHble! - aa-
lIBI1Jl AHTOIIJKa. - BOH OHH CKOJIbKO Hapo.llOB n06e,IPUIl1: J1 SaBHJlOHRH, H
erHnTSlH, H espees. CHJIbHOMY MomHO MHoroe npoCTHTb.
Y CJlhIlllaB aTO, H:cTOttHl1KOBe,n npe,llJIo.)tUfJI AHTOlllKe nOpa3MbtIIIJI.HTb
Han O,llHHM HCTOttHHKOM. IloMOI'H AHTOwxe.
/tIJ x8l1Jle6H011 uCmOpWIE!Cl\OU .lonucu lfap.H Accupuu
H - CHHaxepH6. MOry"f'"" uapb, npeMYJlpblif, nOCJlytllHbIM 5oraM, JDO-
cnpaseAJlH8OCTI>, TBOP1llW1K ,n06po, sparoB .. .
H HanOJlHJ1JI ,n:sopeu caOM POCKOWbK> JlIO,lVIM Ha y.ltMBJIeHHe. HenoKop-
HblX .R opymHeM n06HJI, TpynhI HX pa3SeCHJl Ha KOJIbRX, KOTOpwe BOKPyr
ropo.lla BeJIeJl nOCTaSHTb. 34 ropo,n:a .R OCanHJJ, s3M, paapyurn:JI, CHec,
orneM cnaJIl.1Ju .
KaKlo1e CBOH nOCTynKIo1 aCCHpHHCKI1H U.apb C"'HTaeT A06pbtMH 11 cnpaBeA-
nlo1BbtMIo11 Ecnl1 6bt TaK >Ke C"IHTanH ace >KHTenH 3amiAHOH A310111, ... TO 6bl
npolo130wno C HHMH H co BceM ... enOBe ... eCTBOM .. >t<ene3HOM BeKe?
CpaBHH CBOIo1 npeAflOnmKeHIo1H C peanbHOH HCToplo1eH .. enOBe ... eCTBa. Ka-
B03HIo1KaeT aonpod
BII 6naroAapR "IeMy HapOAbl A3101H He YHH ... TO>KHIlI1 APyr APyra
'. nocne Ha ... ana H<ene3HOro aeKa?
100
&i\
TbIC. AO 1+.3. HoeaA I >pa
X IIXIVlII l VlI I Vt lVllVjltlj I I I IIUtllltlVtV
16. MHpOBall Aep)f(aBa nepCOB

- 06'bRCHH 3Ha ... eHHe enos: IJ,Io1BI1nl13aLl,l1R (cTyneHb). rOCYAapCTBo. pe-
nHrH . (CnoBapb)
- KaK HcnOnb30aaHI1e >t<ene3a 113MeHHIlO I1CTOPl1to Me>KAype"lbR? ( 14)
KaKHMH AOCTH)f(eHHRMH 060raTHnl1 ... enoBe ... ecKYto KynbTypy HHP,oeB-
nneMeHa apl1eB ( 5), erHnTAHe ( 8-9), >t<I1Tenl1 Me>KAY-
pe ... b. ( 12), APeBHlo1e espeHl ( 15)
1. CeeT npOTHB TbMbl.
K BOCTOKY OT HaqHHaeTCSI ropHaR CTpaHa.
B l..\eHTpe ee - cyxJ.1e rrycTbIHH, a no Rpa.flM - JIeCHCTbIe ropbl,
C KOTOPbIX CTeKaIDT pyqbM K aeJIeHblM oaaHcaM . .lKMBlliHe a.n;ecb
rrJIeMeHa OCBOJ.1JIM opoIIlaeMoe CTaJIM CTPOMTb
ropolla. C 1500 no 1000 roll 110 H.S. ClOlIa H B CpellHlO1O A3H1O
rreperoHRIDT CBOH MH.n;oeBpone:ti:cKMe nJIeMeHa apl1eB. IIo
J.fX JIIMeHH BCID cTpaay CTaJIJ.1 Ha3blBaTb Mpau - aeMJI.fl apJ.1eB,
a aclO rpynny nJIeMeH - Upa'H.oJt3bL'ltHbL.M.U. tIacTb npHWeJIbl..\eS
(MHAHiiQbI, nepcbl, 6aKTpbl) nepeHHJIH 3eMJ1elleJlb'lecKYIO ropolI-
CKYIO KYJ1bTYPY B X-VIII BeKax 110 H.3. C >KeJ1e3HbIX
JIOnaT J.f TonopoB OHH npOPblJllf B .n;OJllfHaX ropHbIx peK KaHaJIbI,
paa6HJIJ.1 B nycTbIHSIX qseTYIl..\He ca,ll;bl H B03.n;eJIaJIJ.f nOJIR:. Ho
'laCTb apJ.1eB (napqume, CKJ'HPbI, CaKJ.1) OCTaJIJ.fCb CKOTOBO.ll:aMH-
KOqeBHHlW.MJ.1. KOHHble BOmlbI, BoopymeHHbIe JI)'KaMH, meJIea-
HbIMH KonbSIMH H MeQaMJ.1, CJIOBRO CMepq, HaJleTaJIJ.1 H3 cTenei1:
Ha rOpO.ll:CKHe oa3J.1CbI - mrJIH .lI:OMa, 3a6HpaJIJ.1 ypo:mai1:. B OTBeT
BOHcKa OTnpaBJISIJll1Cb .me 't{b cTofl6m.Qa KOtleSHHKOB.
B 3TH CMYTHble BpeMeHa (OK0J10 VII BeKa 110 H.S.) cpellH
I1paHCKHX nJIeMeH nO.flBJ.1JIC.fI qeJIOBeK no HMeHH IIoroHIIJ;HK
Bep6J1IOIIOB - 3apaTYWTpa (30poacmp). OH roBOPHJ1, 'ITO BHlleJ1
CHIIIOll\HX 60rOB H OHH OTKPblJlH eMY HCTHHY! B Ha'laJ1e MHpa
POIIHJU!Cb 6J1H3Hel1bl: .[(06pb1H 60r BJ1allblKa MYIIPOCTH (Op-
My"II) ,,3J10H IIYX (ApHM,u,). BJ1allblKa MYIIPOCTH C0311aJ1 OroHb,
aeMJIIO, BO.ll:Y VI Boa,nyx, BJJ;OXHyJI B MJ.1P cBeT, TenJIO H mH3Hb.
B OTBeT 3JIOH .lI:YX cMepTb, XOJIO.ll:. :mapy I1 3JIbIX ,!lYXOB -
101
SHraa 60ra C8eTa H 60ra
TbMbl . Penl>e(j). V . H.3.
,D;3BOB, KOTOpble CTaJIM Bpe,n:MTb BCeMY
"'''BOMy. C TeX nop B M"pe 60Pb6a
C"JI ,n:06pa II CBeTa npOTIIB CIIJI 3JIa II
ThMbI. ,1J;OJIr qeJIOBeKa - CTO.RTb Ha CTO-
pOHe CBeTa ,lJ;06pb1MM CJIOBaMM, MbICJI.R-
MH M ,lJ;eJIaMM: nJIOJJ:bI M
>KHBOTHbIX, He no.n:.n:aaaTbCH 3JIbIM
,lJ;3BaM, KOTopbIe 6y,n:SlT B qeJIOBeKe 3a-
BMCTh, JIeHb, JIomb, TOJIKcUOT K y6Hif:-
CTBY, BOPOBCTBY M 06MaHY. CJIoaa 3apa-
TYIIITPbl 6bIJIH 3anMcaHbI B CBSlm;eHHYIO
KErnry ((AsecmYJJ. IIOCTeIleHHO B pa3HbIX
ropo,nax HpaHa CTaJIM IlORBJI.RTbCSI xpa-
MhI, r,ne mpeJ.thl-MarH B 6eJIbIX
aamMraJIH orOHb a qeCTb 0pMya,D;a
CSeTJIOro 60ra 30poacmpUaMa.
2. BaBHJlOBCKOe CTOJIDOTBOpeBHe.
B KOHI..\e VII BeKa,no H.3. Hapo,nbl H QapcTBa HpaHa COBMeCTHO
C ,n:pyrHMI1 mHTeJIHMI1 3ana,n;HoH A3HH OCBo6o,lJ;WIHCb OT BJIac-
TH ACCHPHl1. Teneph B 3ana,nHoti A3l1H 60POJIHCb aa rocnO,lJ;CTBO
TpH Moryql1e ,lJ;epmaBhI - CHJIhHemuee HpaHcKoe QapcTBo Mu-
8UJl, Boapo)KJl;eHHOe BasUJtO'Hc1(oe 'llpcmao J1 60raToe u;apCTBo
JIu8UJL, npaBHTeJIh KOTOPOro, Kpea, nepBhIM HaqaJI qeKaHHTb H3
30JIOTa ,lJ;eHbrJ1 - MOrtem'bt. K TOMY BpeMeHI1 CJIyrn: 60raTbIX TOp-
roBhIX ceMeHcTB BaBHJIOHa, cI>I1HHKHH, JIH,l1;J111 IlOCTO.RHHO nepe-
B03J1J1H Me)KJl;Y ropo,n:aMH Jf CTpaHaMJ1 COTHH KYBIIIHHOB 3epHa H
MaCJIa, BHHa 11 KpaCKI1, TlOKJ1 TKaHeH, ,n:paroQeHHbIe MeTaJlJIbI H
pe,lJ;KHe RaMHH. JIHIIIb 6HTBbI Bpam,zwrom;I1X u;apeH aaCTaBJISlJII1
TOproBQeB npl1,ll;epmHBaTb KapaaaHbI J1 TepneTb y6hITRH.
HaJil60JIhIIIee 'qJiICJlO aeMeJIb IlO.nQl1HHJI ee6e Qaph BaBJilJIOHa
II (605-562 rr. H.a.). MHome JI"urn-
JIMCb CBOJilX RpenocTeH, CTaJII1 nJIaTHTb .naHh, HeRoTophle 6h1J11.1
YrHaHbI B a cTaTYII I!X 60roB YKpaCIIJIII BaBIIJIOH-
eRHe XpaMhI. TaK, HanpHMep, B mapRoe JIeTO 587 rOAa AO H.3.
BaBHJIOHCRIDt: Qapb IlOCJIe ,n:Byx.neTHeH Oea,lJ;hI B3S1JI IIITYPMOM
HepycaJII1M, KOTOPhIM MeIIIaJI eMY B BOHHe C ErHIlToM. fopo,D; 11
3HaMeHl1TbIH HepycaJIHMCKJ1H xpaM 6hlJIl1 pa3pyweHbI ,n:o
102
OCHOBaHI1S1. Yu;eJIeBIIIHX eBpeeB BaBJ1JIOHHHe yrHaJIH Ha pa60ThI
B Mem,n:ypeqhe. CTpa,n:aSI OT MyK BaBI1JIOHCKOro nJIeHa, eBpeH
MeqTaJIH 0 cKopeHllIeM npJ1xo.n;e Meccuu - nOCJIaHHHKa focno-
,n;a, KOTOpblli 1136aBHT HapO,ll; OT pa6cTBa 11 HaY'lHT Bcex JIIO,n:eti
)KHTh B Ml1pe H corJIaCI1H...
B aTO BpeMSI COTHM pa3HOR3hIKHX nJIeHHHKOB, corHaHHhIX H3
pa3HhIX CTpaH, CTPOHJIM H YKpaWaJII1 BaBHJIOH. ,1J;Be KpenOCT-
Hhle CTeHbI OnOSICaJIH ropo,n: C ,n:eCRTKaMI1 TbICSIq ,ll;OMOB Ha 060-
l1X 6eperax EBcppaTa, coe,n:IDieHHhIX IIIHpOKHM MOCTOM . .l{.nR
CBoeH meHbI CeMJ1paMJ.1:,ll;hl, cKyqalOm;eH no ropaM PO,lJ;HOH MI1-
,lJ;HH, HaByxo,n:oHoeop II npHlta.aaJI nocTpoHTh OC06bIH ,ll;Bopeu;.
Ero CTeHhI nO,lJ;HHMaJIHCh BBepx, Ilo,n:06HO ropHblM YCTynaM. Ha
CBHHQOBhIX KphlIIIax m:ypqaJIH ropHbIe PyqhH H ca,lJ;hI,
KaaaBIIIKecR Ha,n; BaBWIOHOM. Or ropo,n:CKKX BOPOT
60rHHK HIIITap WJIa YJII1Qa rJIaBHhIX peJIHrH03HbIX npoQeccHH.
B ee BbICI1JICSI RpaeyroJIbHbIH RaMeHb He6a H 3eMJIH -
ceMHcTyneH1..JaTaR 6aIIIHSI-aHKKypaT, Ha BepIIIHHe KOTOPOH B
He6ecHoH CHHeBe CHM rJIa3ypblO H30JIOTOM xpaM 60ra CO.JIHll;a -
Map,n:YKa. B IlaMSITb 0 CTpOHTeJIbCTSe 3TOro CTOJIna CMJIaMH
pa3HhIX Hapo,n:OB COXpaHHJIOCb BhIpameHHe BaBHJIOHCKOe
CTOJInOTBOpeHHe.

3000Tble nHAHi:tcI(He
MOHeTbl u,ap,. Kpe3a.
VI e. AO H.3.
CoxpaHHnOCI> SI>'pa>Ke-
HHe: .60raT, KaK Kpe3.
BallHtlOH npH
Ha8YXOAOHocope 11.
C08peM. pHCyHOK
103
3 . u;apa u;apeH.
Mem,D;y TeM B COCe,D;HeM I1paHe nJIeMeHa
nepcoB 06'bell"H"J] I1apb K"p II "3 pOlla AxeMeH';lloB (558-530
rr . .n;o H.a.). llepcbI TOJIbKO BbIXO,D;HJIH H3 COCTOHHHH nepB06bIT-
Horo paBeHcTBa, noaToMY Bce Mym'l!HHbI CJIymHJIH B OnOJI'l!eHHH
u;apH, KOTOPblM BoopymaJI CBOHX Bm'fHOB JIy'l!lIIHM meJIe3HbIM
opymHeM, o6yQaJI cpa.maTbcH Ha KOJIeCHMQax, B neXOTHOM 11
KOHHOM CTpOIO. B 550 ro.n;y .n;o H.a. BOHcKa nepcoB 3aXBaTHJIH
MH.n;HIO, a BCRope Bce ropo.n;a nJIeMeHa J1paHa. B 547 ro.n;y,D;o
H.a. u;apb JIH.n;HH Kpe3, nOJIy't!HB npe.n;cKa3aHHe OT mpeu;oB, 'l!TO
OH COKpyurHT BeJIl1KOe u;apcTBo, nepe:i1:.n;a peRy raJIHc, nOBeJI
CBOH Bo:i1cKa 'l!epe3 nepCH.n;CKylO rpaHHU;y. O,n;HaKO B aTOM BOMHe
nepcbI COKPYlIIJ1JIl1 H npHcoe.n;HID:IJIH u;apCTBO caMoro Kpe3a.
B 539 ro,z:r;y .n;o H.3. nepCI1,llCKI1H Qapb nOBeJI BOMcKa Ha Ba-
BHJIOH. ITo JIereH,zt,e, nHpOBaBlIIJ1H BO .n;BoPQe BaBHJIOHCKHM Qapb
BaJITaCap YBJ1,n;eJI 3amerlIIyrocH B B03,D;yxe Ha,z:r;nJ1Cb: UapcTBo
TBoe HCl.{HCJIeHO. B3BellieHO H OT,n;aHO. IIepcbI B3HJllII BaBHJIOH H
[I]
104
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H
IKHe rOCYAapcTBa rocnOACTBoaanloi B 3ana,D.Hoi:1 A31011o1 AO Ha"lana nepcl'lA-
CKIo1X 3aBoeBaHHi:11 KaKOBbl 6blnlo1 nocneACTBHH nepCHACKHX 3aBoeBaHIo1i1?
Bce nO,D;BJIaCTHbJe eMY 3eMJIH. KHP pa3pelIIl1JI llJIeHeHHbIM Ha-
pO,D;aM BepHYTbcH .n;OMO:i1:, OT<;TPOJ1Tb CBOH xpaMbl , BbInJIal.{J1BaH
3a 3TO ,D;aHb nepCl1.n;cKOMY QaplO. B 525 ro.n;y ,lJ,0 H.3. HaCJIe,D;HHK
KaM6H3 pa3rpOMHJI apMJ110 cpapaoHa if BKJIIOl.{WI ErHneT
B orpoMHylO lIepc"llcKYIO llepmaBy. IIp'' aTOM KaM6"3 3anpe-
TJ1JI CBm:1M BOHHaM rpa6HTb enmeTCKHe xpaMbI J1 06'bHBHJI ce6H
HOBhlM ct>apaOHOM - ChIHOM Pa "Oc"p"ca.
B Hal.{aJIe npaBJIeHHH TpeTbero nepCH,n;CKoro u;apH J(apHH I
(522-486 rr . .n;o H.a.) no BceM ,lJ,epmaBe BcnblxHYJIH BOCCTaHHH
npOTJoIB nepcH,z:r;cKHX C60PI..I.J;HKOB ,n;aHH. TIepe6pacbmaa BOMcKa
H3 O,z:r;HO:i1: cTpaHbI B ,n;pyrYIO, MOJIO,n;OH u;apb cYMeJl nO,D;aBHTb Bce
BOCCTaHHH, Ka3HHTb ,D;eC.fITKH TbICH'l! JllO,D;eH. ,1l;apHM I pa3.n;eJlHJI
llepcH,z:r;cKYIO ,D;epmaBy Ha 06J1aCTH BO rJIaBe C HaMeCTHHKaMH -
campanaMu (<<xpaHHTeJIHMH n;apCTBa). YnpaBJIJITb caTpany
nOMOraJlH l.{HHOBHHKH: Ka3Hal.{eH, Cl.{eTOBo.n;bI, CJle,n;OBaTeJIH,
rJIaIIIaTaH, nHCQbI. KpoMe nepcoB, Ha aTH XOPOlliO onJIal.{HBae-
MbJe .n;OJlmHOCTH npHHHMaJlH H BaBHJlOHHH, CPHHHKMHn;eB, erJ1n-
THH H .n;p. Ha c06paHHbie HaJIorl1 n;apJII CTPOHJIl1 He TOJlbKO
.n;BOPU;bl, HO H MOI.I..J;eHble QapCKHe .l.I;OpOrH, KaHaJlbI , COe.l.l;HHHB-
IIIHe MHorHe ropo.n;a. Ha pbIHKax aTHX rOpO.l.l;OB paCnJIa'l!HBaJIHCb
Tenepb e,D;HHOM: MOHeTOM C H306pameHHeM U;apH.
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j .
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KaKl1e oco6eHHOCTH anacn1 06eCne"lHBanH npO"lHOCTb AepM<aSbl nepeo
s
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CpaSHH c enmerCKIo1M u,apCTBOM (c . 56). YcnoBHble 3HaKH - c. 7.
105
rle4aTb: ,AapHH t Ha OXOTe.
Baepxy - 60r CaeTa 0pMY3A
CTOJlHl\eil ,lIepmaBbI CTaJl ropO,ll Cy-
3b!. TaM 'lIHHOBHJ.fK11 paa6HpaJIH rJIHHH-
Hble Ta6JII1'lKH C MeCTHbIMH
aaKOHaMJ1(HanpHMep, 3aKOHaMM XaM-
MypanH) J1 Ha J1X DCHOBe C03,IJ;aBaJIH
e,llHHble l\a pCKHe y><a3b1. ,Ua pHil I cJle-
,lloeaJI Y1.JeHMIO 3apaTywTpbI, HO pa3-
pernaJI CBo6o,lJ;HO aepHTb J1 B .n;pyrHx
60roB. ITo Bceil ITepcH,lIcKoil ,lIepmaBe
AeticTBOeaJIa TalfHaflIIOJIHU;J1H (<<yurn: J1
a1Ui u;apH), KOTOpaJI He n03BOJUlJIa
1.{J.1HOBHHKaM CaMOBOJIbHO yeeJIH1.JHBaTb pa3Mep no,naTeH, YTaH-
BaTh no.n;apKH, npe,n;Ha3HaQeHHbIe uaplO. BOHeRo CTaJIH Ha-
6J1paTb Jil3 npe.n;cTaBHTeJIefi pa3Hhlx HapO,IJ;OB, B
Hep0.D;HbIX ,lVIH BOHHOB 06JIaCTSIX, J1 TOJIbKO feap.n;J1.f1 u;ap.fl -
10 TblCSlt{ 6eccMepTHbIX - COCTOHJ1a J.13 nepcoB.
nepcbI CO;JAanH AeplKa.y. 06 .... AHHH.WyIO pa3Hble HapOAbI l1li-
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1. i:<aKHe o6l11,He HAel1, Ha TaOH nrnA,q, ecn. a y'(eHHH 3apaTywTpbl H
6H6neHcKoH penHrHH eapeeal npOAOO>KH 3anonHATb Ta6nH14Y (c. 63).
2. 'fro o6w.ero Me)t(Ay AccHpHei1 H B03pO)t(AeHHbIM BaSIotllOHCKHM
u,apcTBoMl KaK Tbl AYMaewb, KaKl1e '(YBcTBa Sbl3blBanH BHCA,(l1e CClAbI
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3. l1o'(eMY nepCbl CMornH 3asoeBaTb MHoro 3eMenb? no ... eMY nepcaM
YAanOCb YAep)t(aTb CBOIO Aep)f(aBY OT pacnilAol1 KaK Tbl nOHHMaeWb
Sblpa)f(eHl1e CMl1pOBaA Aep)f(aBal
- H nOH.RJl! - CKa3aJI AwrowKa. - Bce rocY,llapc1'B3., C03,llaHHbIe 3aBOe-
BaTeJlflMH, ,ll0JIr0 He npoTHH-yT 11 naMJlTb 0 ce5e OCTa8J1T DJIOXylO, KaK
ACCHpHH.
- C TaK H BbllllJIO, - OTBeTMJI JiCTO"lHHKOBe.ll. - A BOT nep-
CH.llCKHe LtapH QapeH AxeMeHU,nbl nOCJle aasoesaHHH npaBKJI14 200
neT, 14 MHorHe nOCne,llylOII..V1e npaBI1TeJll1 C'UlTanH ce6J1 HaCJJeAHHKaMH
I1X BJIaCTl1 11 nOpH,llKOB.
CpaBHH MHeHHe AHTOWKH H cpaKTbl, npHBeAeHHble Io1CTO,(HHKoaeAOM.
KaKoe Ha6nlOAaeTCA npoTHBopeYHel KaKoH B03HHKaeT Bonpod
!II nOyeMY nepcaM B OTnH'4He OT accHpHHu,eB YAaI10Cb C03AaTb AonroBe ... -
... HYIO MHpOBytO Aep)t(aByl
106
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I I
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- 06bACHH 3Ha'(eHHe cnOB: LI,I1BHI1H3au,l<1l'1 (CTyneHb 11 06U4HOCTb), rocy-
AapCTBO, HapOA, penHrlo1A, HCKYCCTBO. (CnOBapb)
- KorAa H KaK nlOAH HayYIotllHCb o6pa6aTbiBaTb )t(ene30? ( 14) I lOyeMY
B' fblC. AO 101.3. CTanH nOABnATbCA HOBbie penHrHHl ( 15. 16)
1. H3BHJ1HCTaH Tpona D;HBHJ1H3ao;?H.
@ a ropaMH Hr.aHa TeqeT BeJlI1Ka"(peKa U1a) mHBWl1e 3,l1eCb
( JIJIeMeHa opa6UO06 K XXVI peKY ,ltO H.3.)C03,lta.1IH Il;HBHJIJ.f3alVUO
60JlbnrnX roPO,llOB. O,llHaKO K XVIII BeKY ,lI0 H.3. no HeH3BeCTHblM
HaM npW.J:HHaM ropo,n;a 3arrycTeJIH,)i JIlO,n;H onRTb CTaJIH mHTb
nepB06b1THbIMH 06
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nepeCeJIHlOTCH HH,n;oeBponeHCKHe nJIeMe,ra K01.J:eBHHKOB apue6
(po,n;CTBeHHHKH Tex, 1.J:TO 3aCeJIHJlH J'ipaH)JIIpocTbIe 06I.tT;JffiHHKH
neperoH.fIJIH Ha HOBbIe KOPOB, nepeHOCHJIH Ty,lta CBOH
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MH BOeBaJI:H Ha oroHBa.R .npyr y .Ilpyra T)"fHble CTa-
,na. 'tJepe3 3apOCJIH ,ltmYHrJIeH apH:H nOCTe-
neRHO npO,ltBHraJIHCb Ha BOCTOK H BbJlllJIH K
6eperaM BTOpoil BeJlHKOil peKI1 HH,lIIDI -
ra1zy.
OT CBOHX 3ana,ltHbIX coce,neft a pHH Y3HaJIH
ceKpeTbI 06pa60TKH meJle3a. B X-VI BeKax
,n;o H.3. meJIe3HblMH TonopaMH OHM pac-
qHCTHJIH ,ltmyHl'JIH, nJIyraMH BCnaXaJIH
aeMJJ1O, meJIe3HhIMH JIOnaTaMH BbIpbIJIH Ka-
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KOTopble nepeHOCHJll1 THmeJIble 6peBHa, Ha-
YQl1JIH BblpalllHBaTb pHC, n03HaKOMHJIH CO
CBOHMH 60raMH. Co BpeMeHeM KopeHHble
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107
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n03Ma n08ecT8yer 0 80l1He nOTOMK08 LIlJPJlDxo!paTbl.
Ho!'I,JnOM pewo!/Ow,ei1 6HTBbl LIlJPb H3
CTOPOH 06po!UJ,o!eTCJI C aonpOCOM K 60ry KpHWHe:
Ko!K Mbi MO)KeM norOM
OCK8epHHa ce6J1 KpOBb/O?
KpHWHa a 06nHKe OrDe'lo'er:
Ko!K H3HoweHHY/o 6pOCHa,
l../elloBeK
TaK, CHOCHa caoe TlleHHoe Teno,
BOnl'lOUJ,eHHbIH 8 HHoe BCTynaer. ,.
HeH36eHCHO yMper
HeH36eHCHO yMepwHH,'
ECnH)K ace 3TO HeoTBparHMo-
To K 'IeMy 3,qeCb T80H CO)KaneHbll?
Ha lOre. B VIII-VI BeKaX lI.O H.a. B lI.OJIHHe faHI'a Bblpoc.rn1 ropolI,a.
B KOTOPblX >KI1JU! pal1"<"-l\ap". oKpy",eHHble npHlJ,BOpHbIMJ<. 3eM-
CTaJIH OT,IJ;aBaTb pa,lVKe J1 BOl1HaM l.J:aCTb
ypomaa. Ha naJIhMOBbIX JrnCTbHX aam:1CbIBaJIJt:[Cb rJ1MHbI 6oraM,
0 repOHX, nepel.J:HH ,Il;OXO,D;OB. CTaJU1 CKJIa,n;bIBaTbCH
,ll;peSHeJ1F1):(J1:i1:cKHe n03MbI Maxa6xapaTa J1 PaMamia.
2. "OlI."liCKOH KY JILTYPLI.
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.n;aBaJIH eea'bL (OT CJIQBa se.n;aTb - 3HaTb) - TaHHbIe 3HaHl%UI,
KOTophIe C'tUITaJlHCh YCJIbIllIaHHhIMl1 .n;peSHHMJiI MY,lijJeQaMH
OT CaMJiX fiorDB. Be.z:u,I 05'bRCHHJIH, KaK ofir.u;aTbCH C 60raMH, t.{TO-
6b! OHM B03Bpar.u;aJIH B MHp mH3HeHHbIe CYIJIbI ,lJ;JIR pom.n;eHHH
paCTeHHH, )KJ.mOTHbIX J1 JIlO.n;eti. COrJIaCHO Be,n;aM, JIIO,IJ;H fibIJIH
l
coa.n;aHbI 113 rrepsoqeJIOSeKa. 113 ero nOJI)"IHJIJ.1Cb .m.peU;hJ-
6pax.M(iitbt., H3 pyK - BOI1HbI-1<:Wampuu 113 6e,n;ep - TpymeHJ.:t-
KH-aaUWbU. 3TH TpM CJIOH a M Ha3bIBaJIM BapHaMH
(OT CJIOBa BapHa - QBeT).lKeJITbIe, RaR 3eMJIH, BafuIIb.R Bblpa-
lQMBalOT CROT M IIJIO.I\bI; RpaCHble, RaR KPOBb, KIlIaTpMM BOIOIOT H
YCTaHaBJU1BalOT nOpH,lJ;OK; 6eJIble, RaR 06JIaKa, 6paxMaHbI 06-
m;aIOTCH C 60raMH. B apHSIMM fIJIeMeHa
COCTaBMJIH ew,e O,n;Hy BapHy 1 CJIyr-wyop. tJepHbIe, RaK rp.R3b,
OHM ,lJ;OJImHbJ 6bIJIH CJIymHTb BbICIlIHM Bap aM, 3HalOJ.IJ;l1:M Be,n;bI.
TOJIbKO BHyTpM Ba PHbl , B KOTOPOti PO,n;HJICSI tteJIOBeK, MomHO
BbI6MpaTb ,n;pyaeti, meHY J.1JIH Myma. He ,n;onycKaJIOCb ,ll;ame,
ttTo6bI TeHb IlIYJl.Pbl ynaJIa Ha 6paxMaHa. O,n;HaKo nOCJIe cMepTH
108
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1. CpaBHIot npeAcTaBneHIotA IotHAJ.1Hu,eB 0 nlOAAX lot 60r ax C npep,cTaBneHIotAMIo1
erlo1nTAH (c. 62) 101 eBpeeB (c. 98). Hai:W-t npeAcTaBIo1Tenei:1 "IeTblpex sapH.
109
Aywa l.J:eJIOBeKa cOBepwaeT KpyroBopoT 11 nepeCeJIReTCSI B TeJIO
HOBopomAeHHoro. ECJll1 B npOIllJIOH mH3HH l.J: eJJOBeK fiblJI nocJIY-
IlIeH H ycep,n;eH, TO Aame 6bIBIlIHH wy,n;pa Mor PO,n;HTbCR
6paXMaHoM, a eCJIH l.J:eJIOBeK fi bIJI He,n;OBOJIeH CBOHM MeCTOM B
06r.u;eCTBe Ii HapywaJI ofibNaH CBoeH BapHbI, TO B HOBOH mH3HH
OR Mor PO,n;J1TbCH 06e3bRHoH, 'lIepBeM HJlH ,n;epeBoM.
ITpe/lCTaBHTeJIH Bcex BapH MHpHO ymHBaJIJ<Cb B CM'bCKUX
06tq.uuax JilH,ll;HH. BeAbl npH3blBaJIH HX: BMecTe cofiHpaHTecb!
BMecTe ,lI;OrOBapHBaHTecb!.. E,lI;HHbIM ,lJ;a 6Y,lJ;eT Baw 3aMbICeJI,
e,n;HHblMl1 - BaWH cepAu;a! ... l.J:TofibI fibIJIO B Bac ,n;ofipoe corJIa-
CHe! Co6paHHe mHTeJIeH ,n;epeSHH npHHHMaJIO peweHHe, KaK
CTPOHTb HymHble ,n;oporH H xpaMbI, BblpyGaTb ,n;mYHrJIH, nJIa-
THTb HaJIOrH KIIIaTpHRM, B ropo,n;ax. IIIYAPbI JIellHJIH
ropWKH, rOTosRCb K JIYl.J:WeMY nepepom,n;eHHlO. BaHwbR naxa-
JIH 3eMJIlO H naCJIM CKOT. BpaXMaHbI BeJIH no 3Be3,n;aM KaJIeH-
,ll;apb, JIel.J:HJIH fiOJIe3HH H, np'OH3HOCR 38KJIHHaHHR, fipOCaJIH

3epHO H MRCO B nJIaM.R fiora ArHM, KOTOPhlH ,n;bIMOM B03HOCHJI
3TH JllO,lI;CKHe ,n;a phI K HefieCHbIM 60raM.
3. BLlpBaThcH H3 cTpap;aBuH!
K cepe,n;HHe I TbICHl.J:eJIeTHR ,n;o H.3. B YiH,n;HH CJImKHJIOCb He-
CKOJIbKO cOnepHHl.J:alOI.QHX rocy,n;apcTB. Bce l.J:ar.u;e CXO,n;HJrnCb B
6HTBax apMHH: 3BeHeJrn meJIe3Hble Me't:J:H, JIeTeJIH CTpeJIbl,
llyt.IJ;eHHble C fioeBble CJIOHbl TOnTaJIH pH,ll;bl BparoB.
HecMoTpH Ha 3TO, Ha nepeKpeCTKaX ,lJ;opor H peK BblpaCTaJrn HO-
110
r aYTaMa-orwenbHHK.
Co.pellA. PHCYHOK
Bble ropolla. YllaqJIHBble TOproBl\bl H
peMec.neHHHKH H3 wy,lJ;p H Baflun,eB
CTaHOBHJlHCb 6oral.J:e MHOrHX 3HaTHbIX
fipaXMaHOB H Kwa TpHeB. ilpyrHM me
Ofir.u;HHHHKaM He XBaTaJIO AeHer Ha
HaJIOrH, OHH 3aJIe3aJIH B ,n;OJIrH, a no-
TOM C nJIal.J:eM OT,n;aBaJIH fiOral.J:aM
CSOlO 3eMJIlO, ,n;OM H ,n;eTeH.
Tor/la, B Cepe/lHHe VI BeKa /10 H.S., B
OIlHOM H3 rocYllapcTB POIIHJICR l1ape-
BHq cuaaxapmxa fayma.Ma. ITo
6y,n;,n;HHCKOMY npe,lJ;aHHID, MaJIbtIH-
Ky npe,z:(peKaJIH mH3Hb BeJII1KOro
OTWeJIbHHKa. B MHAJ1H 6bIJlO MHoro OTWeJlbHl1KOB-UOa06, KOTQ-
pbIe B JIeCHOM rJIyurn I1CKaJIl1 ,n;YXOBHbIe l1CTHHbI, TpeHJ1pYR
CBoe TeJIO TepneTb roJIO,n;, Heno,n;BJoUKHOCTb, fiOJIb. Uapb-OTeu;
npHKa3aJI He BbmYCKaTb MaJIblJ.J1.Ka 3a CTeHhl ,n;Bopu;a, r,n;e
rayraMa pOC, oKpymeHH'hlH KpaCOTOH, POCKOWblO H BeCeJIbeM.
Ho B 16 JIeT OH TaiiKoM BbIfipaJICR B ropo,n; H yBJ1,l\eJI fiOJIbHblX,
CTaplflwB, noxopoHhI MepTBbIX. B nOIlCKIlX cnaceHI!JI OT 3JIa, !1a-
PRIl1ero B MHpe, OH Y,lIaJII!JICII B AlKym'JIJ<. ITo npellaHmO, raYTaMa
,zt0JIr0 CJ1,l\eJI no,n; ,n;epeBoM, ycnOKaHBaJI CBOH qyBCTBa, OTCTpaHHJI
MhICJIH, BOmo, 3aCTaBJIHH nO,lJ;HSITbCR Ha,zt
TeJIeCHbIM Mi!pOM B MIIp He6ecHblX cq,ep. TaK raYTaMe OTKPbl-
JIaCb HCTHHa, 11 OH CTaJI BYMOM - npocseTJIeHHbIM.
OH nepBbIM Y3HaJI qeTblpe fiJIarOp0,lJ;HbIe HCTHHbI: 1) mH3Hb -
(
3TO cTpa,ztaHHe; 2) npHqHHa cTpa,ztaHJ1H - qeJIOBeqeCKHe meJIa-
HHH fioraTcTBa, BJIaCTH, JIlO6BH, KOTopble 3aCTaBJIHlOT ,lJ;ymy
nepepom,n;aTbcH ,n;JI.R HOBblX mH3Heti: H cTpa,n;aHHH; 3) npeKpa-
r.u;eHHe cTpa,n;aHHH - 3TO H36aBJIeHHe OT meJIaHHJ1:; 4) Kam,n;blH
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STOro Ha,n;o OTKa3aTbC.R OT yfiHHCTB (He npHqHHHTb Bpe,n;a BceMY
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OTCTpaHHTb l1X OT Ml1pa CTpaCTeH. TIpOH,n;H 3TOT llyrb, ,l{yWa
qeJIOSeKa SbIpblBaeTC.R H3 Kpyra nepepom,nefillH 11 ,lI;OCTJfl'aeT
uupaaUbL ( << ycnoKoeHHR) - CBo60,ll;bl .nYWH, OCTposa, pa3py-
walOr.u;ero CMepTb H CTapOCTb.
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ceMblO, sapHy H WJII1 3a ytIHTeJIeM.
,l'l;pyrHe lll.e,n;po KOPMI1JIH HX, Ha,n;eHCb
Hal.J:aTb nyTh K HHpsaHe B CJIe,n;ylO-
Il1eM nepepOlKlleHHH. CMepTb BYMbl
OKOJIO 544 ro,n;a .no H.3. 03HatIaJIa ,nJI.R
era CTOPOHHHKOB, 'lITO ,n;YIlIa yqHTeJUl
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nOKOH HHpBaHbl. STaT nyrb, cnaca-
npOC8emeHHe 6YAAbI.
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111
<Pl1rypa 6YAAbI 6YAAHHCKaJl cTyna 8 CaH'"IH.
113 MOHaCTblpR. IV 8. OKOIIO 220 r.,40 H.l .
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nOBTOpHTb Kam,ll;bIti. TbIC.JPiH nOCJIe,ll;OBaTeJIeti 6YMH3Ma ,n;BH-
HYJIMCb no ,n;oporaM, B O,ll;em,n;bI opaHmeBoro IJ;Be-
Ta. B ce30H ,n;om,n;eti 3TH M01W.XU C06MpaJIMCb B MOliaCmblpJlX,
Haxo,n;MBIIlHXCH B ner.u;epax. TaM OHM c oo6r.u;a Tpy,n;HJIHCb, nepe-
nl1CbIBaJiH H3peQeHHH BYMbI, norpymaJIMCb B pa3MblIIlJIeHHH.
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meHHblM nYCTblHHM Mbl OKa>KeMCH B JIecax BeJII1Ko:f.i: paBHl1HbI,
no KOTOPOH TeqeT peKa XyaHxa BCKaI1bIBaH MRTKylO 3eMJIIO Ha
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4. n pOAon>t<11 3an0l1HRTb Ta6nl11..l.Y .PenHrHH ,[JpesHero Mlo1palt (c. 63),
CTpOKa KoHcpYl..l.lo1aHCTBo",
- Hy BOT, - CKaaaJl ApxeOJIor, - Mbl 11 ,llOOpaJU1Cb AO Kl-f1'ail - nepBoR
Ha )laJlbHeM BOCToRe.
- BeAOJIarH ... - npOT.fIHYJI AHTOlllKB., pa3rJI.fIAblBa.fI KapTy (CM. BroPOH
o60poT oMomKH YQe6HHKa). - ,uaJIeKOBaTO 3a6paJlMCb - Ha caMbrli KpaJ.i
3eMJlM, BOH TYT OReaH 6JIM3KO. HM, HaBepHoe, HeYIOTHo 3AeCb 6blJIo, Qac-
TO K COCe,ll;.fIM XOAHJIM y<rnTbCiI pa3HblM npeMy.It.POCT.fIM?
- - OTBeTHJ1 HCTO'fHHKOBeA, - .D;peBHHe HaabIB3.-
JIl1 CBOIO aeMJIlO CpeAKHHbIM e,ll;MHCTBeHHoH IJ,HBl1JlH30BaH-
HOH: cTpaHoH, a Bcex OCTaJlhHblX CQJ1TaJilif HeRYJlbTypHbIMH BapBapaMH.
CpaBHH BblBOAbl, CAenaHHble AHTOWKOH no KapTe, 11 .cpaKTbl, npHseAeH-
Hble !t1CTO"lHHKOBeAOM. B ... eM npoTHBope ... Hel KaKoH B03HI1KaeT Bonpod
m nO ... eMY ApeBHl1e KIo1TaHl..l.bl C ... I1Tanl1 CBOto cTpaHY cpeAHHHOHlt H eAHH-
_ cTBeHHoH LI,Io1BHJ1H30aaHHoH?
119
[IJ
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061l4HH B3rnAA
Ha ApeBHHH BOCTOK
(MaTepHan AIlR YPoKa-0606w,eHI1I'1)
B caoeH TeTpCIAH HaYHH 3anOnHI'ITb Ta6molu,y .BOCTOK H 3anaA APe8Hero
MHpalt. OnpeAem<1. KaKHe 06UJ,He oc06eHHOCTH 6blnH CBOHCTBeHHbl
6011bWHHCTBY LVtsHIlH3au,HH APesHero BOCTOKa - ErHnTY. Me)t(Ay-
pe"lblO, \.1HAIo1H H KIo1TalO (nepBaR KOl1oHKa).
Heo6xoAHMtltiH ypo.eH .. (xopowo): OTBeTbl Ha Bonpocbl 1.2,4.
nporpaMMHblH ypo.eHtIt (oTnMIIHo): OreeTbl Ha Bce sonpocbl .
Oc06eHHOCTH qHBH"H3aqHH
APeaHHH
BOCTOK 3a_
1 B KaKHX npHpOAHblX ycnoBHI'IX OHH B03HHKnH?
2. rnasHblM 3aHSITHeM 6bIn0
3. conbWHHCTBO 3eMenb H HMyw,eCTBO 6bln0
C06CTBeHHOCTblO KOTopoe (ble) Morno
(nH) H 6bln0 (M) AOn>KHO (bl)
4. KTo C'"IHTanCR 06naAaTeneM BnacTH?
5. DonbwHHcTSO AOn>KHOCTHbIX nHu, Ha3Ha'"la-
nOCb HnH 8bl611pa11ocbl
6. Bce CS060AHbie rpa>KAaHe rocYAapCTBa 6bl-
I1H OAHHaKoeo pasHbl a OCHOBHblX npaaax HIlH
6ecnpa8Hbi nepeA rocYAapcTBoM?
7. MecTo '"IenOaeKa B 06w,ecT8e BO MHorOM
onpeAenMocb ero npOlo1cxO)t(AeHHeM HnH ero
nlo1'"1HblMI1 3acnyraMIo11
8. nlOAJo1 u,eHHl1M. npe)t(Ae Bcero. 06w,eCTBeH-
HblH nopAAOK 1111101 flH'-IHylO cBo60AY?
9. YTO nlOAH
ocy)t(AaJllo11
'"Iaw,e npIo1BeTCTB08anlo1. He
CHTY.qHA: noe3AKa neTHHH MeHCAYH8pOAH .. IM AeTCKMM n.repb
OnHC.HHe: B narepb npHrnaweHbl Aenl C apa6CKoro CI1H>KHerO BOCTOKa, H3
CTpaH IO>KHOH H BOCTO'"lHOH A3HH. B nepBbli1 >Ke 3HaKOMCTBa AeTH "'3
Ka)t(AOH CTpaHbl A011>KHbl nOArOToeHTb nplo1BerCTBlo1e BceM OCTal1bHbIM. B npH-
BeTCTBH'" Hy>KHO nOKa3aTb, KaKHMH AOCTIot>Ke"'Io1I'1MIo1 Kyl1bTYPbl APyrHx cTpaH
nonb3YlOTcI'I B nOBCep,HeBHOH >KH3HH Y Bac B cTpaHe.
Pon .. : KOMaH,D,b1 POCCIo1H.
laAalla: npeAllO>KMTb KOMaHAe TO. '-ITO MO>KHO OTpa3101Tb B npIo1BeTCTBIo1H.
120
Pa3Aen III.
nEPBAII 3AnAAA
(rJIaebr 4-5)
rJlnuuoe.1.Jcluy ncouXOAIt;\IO naY1.JIITbCH,
C TO'lKH: 3peHKfl aBTopoB:
- opHeHTHpoBaTbcSI B cOBpeMeHHoM MHpe, npoBO,lVI pa3JIH'U1S1 Memtty
KyJIbTypHhlM HaCJIe,!lHeM rpewm - nepBoH
3anaAa - J.1 TpaAHWfHMH BocToKa;
- "3BJIeKaTb ypOKH "3 l'ICTOpl'lH 6oPb6w ApeBH"X rpeKOB 3a ceOH
rpamAaHCKJ.1e ceo6o,lU>l, 3a He3aBHCHMOCTb CBoeti: PO,n"Hbl, onpe,Zte-
JISiH. KaKHe ,ZtOCTMmeHHH ,ZtpeBHerpe1.J.eCKoro 06w;eCTBa MorYT
CJlymHTb HaM npJ1MepoM, a "ITO He,nonyCTIfMo B COBpeMeHHOM MHpe.
npOUCph. rOTon l lU TW ORJl8,nC03Tb y/\,lcnnRIUU ;)TQro
Onpe.qil'H1dt KaRJfM Q"BMJIH3aQ"HM nO,lJ;Xo,ZtHT CJIe,nyIOIUMe cPpa3bl:
1) nOA1.J.J.1HRTbCR, I!f TOrAa B MO)f{eT
paCC"lHTbIBaTb Ha JIyqur iijEm.n;eHJ.1e; 2) .. iKpeil pa.a'UJHrJI Kpyr Ha
360 "lacreH; 3) .. RaK H ' npHKa3bIcooeMyCblHY, TaR H OH - cao-
11M nO,lJ,AaHHbIM; 4) .. n ;la6oTWTbCJI 0 rpOOHJ1.Ue,ltJl1l CBOeH MyMl1J.1.
!!! BIIILMaUlIc. ITpem,lte "leM BbmOJIHRTb 3a,ztaHJ.1e, 03HaKOMbCR C YCJIOBHH-
MH era BbmOJIHeHHH Ha pa3Hblx ypOBHRX ycnewHOCTK. Bhr6epH yposeHb.
J1pU.31i.UKU. ycneunwzo 8btnMHenUJI. 3aoaxUJt
1Ul pa3"H.bLX ypoe"H.RX
Heo6xo,lU1Mbdi ypoBeub (xopowo): npaBHJlbHO Ha3B3HbI Ql!f.BJ1JU13aLl.HJ.1.
Dpol'paMMHbdi ypooeHb (OTJlH'IHO): IIpaBHJlbHO Ha3BaHhl UHBMJ13a-
UHJ.1, a TaJOKe ,ZtomtcaHa eru;e o,nHa tPpa3a K JII060H H3 U:lUuulH3aUHH liJIH
HaIDIcaHO 06'bllCHeH"e, nO"leMY "MeHHO TaK pacnpeAeJIeHbI q,pa3bI.
MaKCHMaJlbHblH ypoBeHb (cBepXOTJlH1IHO): 3a,n:aHl1e BblTIQJIHeHO Ha
nporpaMMHOM ypoBHe, HO npH 3TOM HCnOJlh30BaHbl cpaKTbl "JIl4 nOHRTHH,
KOTopble ew;e He H3)"'laJIHCb B KJIacce.
IIpoBepb ce6S1 no CJIOBaplO, ytte6HHKY 11JU1 C nOMoru;blO yttl4TeJIR. Ec.rrn:
B03HJfK3.1OT 3aTpYAHeID1.R, TO BMeCTO OTBeTa HaIDlWJt, KaKJtX YMeHHA 11
3HaHI1H re6e He XBaTaeT.
3TOT pa3ACJl
ITo OrJIa8J1eH11l0 Ha c. 3-4 BbIRCHI1, K3Koe cO,ltepmaHl1e Te6e He06xo,!lH-
MO OCBOI1Tb. J13Y"laH naparpaq, 3a naparpa<PoM, onpe)l;eJIHH OCROBHO"
Bonpoc (npo6.neMY) TeMhI, no.n6HpaR llJIR peWeHl4S1 31'oro Bonpoca yme
M3BeCTH,bIe 3HaHMSI (nOHHTHSI. 38KoHOMepHOCTl-f) 11 OTKpblBaH HOBbJe (06
3TOM eM. nOApOOHee Ha c. 6-7).
121
alol,AeneHHtote cpal<llol M noMAlH. He06XOAHMO OOMHHTlo HyMen. HCOOm.3OUn..
III lblC. AO H.3. - pacceneHHe nneMeH Ha OanKaHax.
2000-1450 rr . AO H.3. - OCTpOBa KpHT. KpHrcKaSl u,HBHllH3alJ,HR.
1450-1200 rr. AO H.3. - u,apcTBa rpeKoB-axeHu,eB BO rnaBe C MHKeHaMH.
- u,HBHnH3aIJ,HH APeBHeN rpeLVOt.
OK. 1200 r. AO H. 3. - TpoRHcKaSlBoHHa. - nOXOA axeHu,eB Ha TpOlo (J.1nHOH).
_ BTOp>KeHHe rpeKoB-AOpHHu,eB H rH6enb axeHcKHx u,apCTB.
XI-IX BS. AO H. 3. - B03spaT rpelJ,HH K nepBo6bITHOMY 06LU,ecTBY, C03,D,aHHe
rOMepoM no3M ccMnHaAa H ((OAMCC".
VIII B. AO H.3. - B03HHKHOBeHHe nonHCOB (ropoAOB-rocYAclpcTB, 06LU,HH
rpa>K,AaH), c03AaHHe rpe ... eCKoro anaaIo1Ta. KonOHH3alJ,Hlo1.
776 r. AO H.3. - nepBble OnHMnHHcKHe Hrpbl- COCTR3aHHR C
acex rpeKOB-3nnMHOB.
OK. 650-600 rr . AO H.3. - nOKopeHHe CnapToN coceAHHX o6nacTeH.
BBep,eHHe 3aKOHOB llHKyPra, YCTaHoBHBwero
CKHH CTpOH.
621 r . AO H. 3. - 3aKOHbi ApaKooTa - nepSble nHCbMeHHbie 3aKoHbIAcp.tH.
Py6e>K vn-vi BB. AO H. 3. - BpeMeHa nereHAapHblX ceMH MYAPeu,OB.
VIa. AO H.3. - niolarop 8BOAioIT cnOBO cSiHnoc04ut51 (m06oBb K MYAPOCrH) .
594 r. AO H.3. - 3aKOHbi ConOHa a AioIHax - OCHoaa AeMoKpalHH.
560-510 rr. AOH.3. -THpaHHSI. oopb6aAeMoca npoTHaapHcToKpaTHH B Aq,HHax.
500 r. AO H.3. - BOCCTaHHe Manoa3HHcKHX rpeKoB. rpeKo-nepCHACKHX
BO"".
490 r. AO H.3. - no6eAa rpeKoa HaA nepcaMH B Mapaq,oocKoH 6HTBe.
480 r. AO H.3. - BTOp>KeHiole u,apR KcepKca Ha OanKaHbl.
- OiolTabl npH ctlepMOnHnaX H B CanaMHHcKoM nponHse.
479 r. AO H.3. - 6HTBa npH rlnareAx. - J..13rHaHHe nepcos C oanKaH.
472 r . AO H. 3. - TpareAHSI 3cxHna nepcbl. - PO>KAeHHe Tealpa.
448 r. AO H.3. - OKOH ... aHHe rpeKo-nepCHACKHX soHH.
446 r. AO H.3. - 8 Aq,Io1Hax nocenSleTCSI oreu, HCTOPHH - r epoAOr .
444-429 rr. AO H.3. - nepHKn - nepBblH cTpaTer Aq,HH.
_ Pacu,aeT ACPHHCKorO MopcKoro COI03a, YKpaweHHe ropoAa, aKpononSl 101
xpaMa napcpeHOtt (cKynbnT0p XYAO>KHHK nonHKIleT).
431-404 rr . AO H.3. - nenonoHHeccKaR sOHHa Aq,HH lot CnapTbl.
OK. 430-399 rr . AO H.3. - acplotHRHHH COKPM 1ot3naraeT Hoayto cpHnocoq,HIO.
387 r. AO H. 3. - y ... eHHK COKpara nnaTOH OCHOBblBaeT wKony - AKa,AeMHIO.
377 r . AO H. 3. - cMepTb rHnnoKpara. OTu,a MeAHLJ,HHbl.
367 r. AO H.3. - B AKaAeMlotto nnaToHa npHe3>Kaer ApHcTolenlo - OCHoaaTenb
MHorHX HayK (norHKa, cpH3HKa, 3THKa, nonHTHKa) .
122



rJIaBa 4
3apomACHIICl.\lIBUJIJt3al.\Un
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(Cnoaapb)
- Ha30BI-1 06U,,1,I1e "lepTbl X03su:1cTsa, 8naCTI1, KynbTYPbl Ll,I1Blo1mI3au,I1H
ApeSHero BOCTOKa. (rnaaa 3)
1. rpeKH H KopeHHbIe mHTeJlH fpeU;HH.
ECJIH nJIbITb Ha ceBepo-BOCTOK OT EnmTa, Qepe3 HeCROJIbKO
AHeM MbI YBH,IJ;J1M H3peaaHHoe aaJlHBaMJ1 H 6YXTaMH no6epembe
BaJl.1Ca'HC'K020 nOJl.yocmpoaa. rOpbI VI ym;eJlbR paa.n;eJIJ1JIJ.1 ero Ha
MHomeCTBO He6oJIbIIIJ1X .n;OJIHH-06JIaCTeti, coe,IV1HeHHbIx Y3KJ1-
MJ1 TpOnaMJ1. Ha ropHbIX JIyrax XBaT8JIO TpaBbI ,D;JlH Kopoa, R03
H oBeq. O,n;HaKO BbIpa1QHBaTb aepHO (8 aeHOBRaM Ht.IMeHb) Mom-
HO DbIJIO TOJIbRO B Y3KJ1X pet.IHbIX .n;OJIJ.1Hax. 3aTO Ha CKJIOHaX
corpeTbIx COJIHQeM XOJIMOB BHJIHCb BHHorpa,n;HbI JI03bI H 3eJIe-
HeJIJ1 OJIHBKOBbIe POIlJ,H. Yi3,n;peBJIe mHTeJIH rrOJIYOCTpoBa Ha
CBOll{ 6blCTPbIX JIo,n;Kax ,n;o6HpaJIHCb ,n;o 6JIHmaHIIIHX OCTPOBOB
SreMCKoro MOpE, qTo6bI 06MeHHTb TaM CBOH J13,n;eJIHH Ha
MeCTHbIe rrpO.u;yKTbI. B III TbICWleJIeTHH ,n;o H.3. KopeHHbIx mHTe-
JIeM BaJIKaHCKOrO rro.rryocTpoBa nOTeCHHJIH rrpHIIle,n;llIHe C ceBe-
pa HH,n;oeBporreHcKHe rrJIeMeHa Zpe'KOB. CaMH ce6H OHH Ha3blBa-
JIH 3.11JtU1iG.MU, a CBOIO cTpaHY SJ/Jtdaoii. Mbl me Ha3bIBaeM HX
,n;peBID1MJ1 rpeKaMH, a cTpaHY - JJ:peBHeii
JIHllib Ha KpynHeMIIIeM oCTpoBe 8reMcKoro MOp.A: - Kpl1Te -
coxpaID1JIOCb ,n;orpeqeCKOe RopeHHoe HaCeJIeHHe. YiMeHHo 3,n;eCh
B HaqaJIe II mbtCJl."lleJtemUR ao 1i.3. Bom,n;H nJIeMeH CTaJiH Ha3hI-
Ba TbCH u;a pRMH. IIO,ltll;aHHble nOCTpOHJIH 11M 60JIbUlHe ,n;BOPU;bI C
aM6apaMH, Ry,n;a CCbmaJIH' 3epHO 3eMJIe,n;eJIbI.J;bI, C MaCTepCKH-
MH, r,n;e Tpy,n;HJIHCb peMeCJIeHHHKH, CO CKJIa,n;aMH, r,n;e QHHOBHH-
Kif IlepeCtIHTbmaJIJ1 TOBapbI ,lJ;JIfI TOprOBJIJ1 C ErJ1IlTOM J1 A3:H:eJ1,
3anJ1CbIBa.H CBe.n;eHJ1H HenOHHTHbIMH HaM 3HaRaMH-HepOrJIJ1<pa-
Ml1 Ha fJU1HHHbIX Ta6JII1QKax.
m
124
n o KapTe Ha c. 123 onpeAenl't, B KaKI1X rpeu,1't11 pacnonaranl1Cb
u,eHTpbl 1..1,I1BI-1I1H3alJ,l1l't BO II AO H. 3.
I
1
KHOCCKI'tH ABOpeu, (BXOA, KOMHaTa).
HOMMaTbl H KOPHAOPbl npHCTpaH8allHCb K l...!eMTpallbHOMY
A80py 6e3 CTpororo nllaHlJ, 06pa3YR 3anYTaHHble nepeXOAbl.
Kpl1TCKaR pOCnl1Cb
C OCTpOBa Tl1pa
B XVI-XV BeKax 110 H.3. BeCb KPHT 6hlJI 06bellHHeH B OIlHO
KpHTCKoe u;apCTBO co CTOJII1u;eJ1 B fopo,n;e-,lJ;BOpu;e KHocce, He
I1MeBUleM BHeIIIHJ1X YKpenJIeHI1M. B fJIaBHOM 3aJIe KPHTCKI1M
u;apb Bocce,n;aJI Ha fHIlCOBOM TpOHe C BbICOKOti BOJIHHCTOi1 CnI1H-
ROM. CTeHbI 6bIJIl1 YKpaUleHbI 11306pameHl1HMH MOPCKI1X Qy,n;o-
BHIIJ" OCbMJ1HOfOB H ,lJ;eJIb<pJ1HOB, o6eperaBUIJ1X BJIa,lJ;bIKY OT
HeB3fO,lJ;. PH,lJ;OM Ha CKaMbSlX CJ1,n;eJIH u;apCRl1e npJ16JIHmeHHble H
cOBeTHHRl1, a npocTbIe JIIO,lJ;J1, rrO,lJ;HOCSI u;aplO ,lJ;apbI, ,lJ;OJImHbl
6bIJIH HH3RO onycKaTb fOJIOBY, qTo6bI He OCKBepHJ1Tb B3fJIH.D;OM
CB.flIlJ,eHHYIO oco6y npaBI1TeJIH.
Hrpbl C 6bIKOM. PocnHCb H3 KHOCCKoro
C KPI1TCKI1MI1
nl1CbMeHaMH
BepoRTHO, CMepTellbHO onllCHble npblHCKH lIKp06aT08 6blnH 06pRAlJ no-
KllOHeHHR 6ory-6blKY - CBHpenOH CHile MOPCKHX WTOPMOB H 3eMlleTpRceHHH.
125
leceH H MHHoTaBp.
POCnl-fCI> C rpS"48CKO';; aa31>/
BOJIbIIIHe Kopa6JIH KpHTCKOrO u.ap.R
BeSJIH B ,n;pyrHe CTpaHbI TOBapbI: cocy-
,z:r;bI C QJIHBKOBbIM MaCJIOM H BmWrpa,n;-
HbIM BHHOM, 6POHSOBOe opy.mHe, SOJIO-
Tble YKpaIIIeHH.R. Y COCe,n;HHX rpeKOB-
COXpaHHJIaCb JIereH,n;a 0 TOM,
KaK KPlfTCKifli L\apb Multoc aaCTaBIIJI
mHTeJIefl axeflcKoro ropo,n;Ka ACPHHbI
OTnpaBJI.RTb no ceMb IOHoweti: H ,n;esy-
weR Ha KpHT. TaM HecqaCTHblX OT,n;asa-
JIH Ha C'be.D:eHHe CbIHY MHHoca, CBHpe-
rroMY Multoma6PY - QYIIOB"Il1Y C TYJlO-
BHI.I.J;eM qeJIQBeKa H 6bIKa.
MHHOTaBp 06HTaJI B nOCTpoeHHOM ,D;JI.R Hero MaCTe-
POM ,l1;e,n;aJIOM nO.D:SeMHOM JU16upulime. CbIH aq:mHcKoro u;apR
(Bom,n;R) TecMl peIIIHJI oTnpaBHTbcR BMeCTe c .n;pyrHMH
IOHOIIIaMH H ,n;eByIIIKaMH Ha ,n;aJIeKHti OCTpOB. OH XOTeJI y6HTb
MHHoTaBpa H Hs6aBHTb ACPHHbI OT n030pHoti' ,n;aHH. Ha npOI.I.J;a-
HJ1e u;apb Sren YCJIOBHJICR C CbIHOM, qTO TOT B SHaR n06e,n;bl Ha
06paTHOM nyTH no,n;HHMeT 6eJIblH napyc BMeCTO qepHoro.
Ha Kpwre TeceR YB"IIeJla 1I0'lb Mmioca Apudihta. Ee rrOpa311J1a
KpacOTa OTaamHoro IOHOIID:t. Tai1:KoM OT scex ApHa,ll;Ha npHHeCJIa
TecelO OCTpbrli Meq H KJIy60K HHTOK. Tecefl npHBR3aJI KOHeu; HHTH
COCYAA1U1
>KepTaeHHOH KpOBH H3
KHOCCKoro ABoP4a
126
y caMoro Bxo.n;a B no,n;seMeJIbe H CMeJIO noweJI
Brrepell- IIoqYRB 1I00000>K,l\aHHYJO mePTBY, MM-
HOTaBp 6POCHJICR Ha repoR, HO IOHOllia cpasHJI
ero MeqOM. ,l1;sHraRcb no nyreBo.n;HoH Hl1TH,
acpHHHHe 6bICTpO HaI..l.IJD1 BbIXO,n; HS JIa6HpHHTa,
rrpo6PaJIHCb Ha Kopa6Jlb " OTIIpaBHJlHCb Ha po-
IIHHY. Ol\HaKO Teceli aa6blJ! 0 rrpocb6e OTL\a " He
rrQCTaBIIJI 6eJIblli rrapyc. 3aB"IIeB Ha roP"30HTe
qepHhIe nOJIOTHHIIJ;a, u;apb Sren B ()Tqa.RHHH
6POCHJICR B Mope, KOTopoe C Tex nop
HaSbIBaeTCH B ero qecTb - 3reti:cKoe.
B cepell"He XV BeKa 110 H.a. Bce IIBOPl.\bI "
nOCeJIeHHR Ha KpHTe 6blJlH paspyweHbJ JIH60
Hs-sa I1SBepmeHH.R BYJIKaHa, JIH60 B xo,n;e
sTOpmeHH.R rpeKoB- axetiu;eB.
-
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llbBHHble BopOTa MHKeH
3onOTaA MacKa H
KopoHa u,apeH
2. MmceBcKoe
AaOpeu. B MHKeHax. PSKOHCTPYK""II
K XV BeKY 110 H.a. mHTeJl" Ma TepHKoBoli rpeL\HH - axelicK"e
n.neMeHa - 06'be,ltHHmoTeJI B COlO3bl BO rJIaBe C BOm,lVlMl1:-u;apJIMH.
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saThCR, HO Cy,n;bH AqmH H36upa.rrn:Cb 113
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148
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150

I
I


TIoIC. AO H.:t.
XIIXI VILL I VII I VI IV IIVIIIIIIIII

24. BocnHTaHHe rpalKAaH 3nnaAbi

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155

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170
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171
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npe,n.OTBpaTJilTb MHomeCTBO HeCnpaee)];J1J11BOCTeH, TBOP.HIIJ,1llXCH
B rocy)];apCTBe. B 399 ro,llY )];0 H.3. B Ha3Ha1.J:eHHbIH ,n;eHb J.1 qac
COKpaT BbIIIJ1JI H.n;.
2. AKa/leMHH MYIIPOCT".
O,D;HJ1M J113 yqeHHKoB COKpaTa 6bIJI lOHowa APHCTOKJI, 60JIbIIIe
"3BeeTHblH rro rrp03B"lIIY m"pOKOrrJIeQHH - fiJIaTOO (427-
347 rr. )];0 H.3.). TIOTOMOK apHcToKpaToB, OH 6b1JI BbICOK POCTOM,
"laCTO no6em,D;aJI B cnopTHBHblX COCTJ13aHJ1.R.X, 3HaJI MHorHe
179
rlnaTOH. IV 8. AO H.3.
Aq, .... HcKaA AKo1AeMHA. B u,eHTpe - nnaTOH H ApHCTOTenb. XYA. P"cP"3n1 . XVIB.
,Il;peSHHe KHHrH, CaM CJIaraJI CTHXH H nHCaJI KapTHHbI. IIocJIe
CMepTH COKpaTa IIJIaToH nOCTpOHJI 6eJIOMpaMOpHbIJ1 rHMHaCHH
(IIIKOJIY ,n;JIR B3POCJIbIX) B CBRw;eHHOH pow;e r epOH AKa,n;eMa, 3a
qTO IIIKOJIY np03BaJIH A1Ca8e.MueU. 3,n;eCb IIJlaToH 3anHCaJl ,l(Ha-
JIom COKpaTa H eTaJ] pacnpOCTpaHIITb era <lmJIOcmjmlO. TIJIa-
TOH CqHTaJI, qTO MHp Bew;eH, B KOTOPOM mHBYT JllOAH, - 3TO
JIJ1Wb HCKameHHoe OTpameHHe npaBMJIbHOrO M 60meCTseHHoro
MMpa H,lI;eH. JIlO,lI;H, CJIOBHO CTOHT B new;epe, cnHHOH K BXO,ll;Y. He
BH,nHT CBeTa, a IDfIlIb Ha6JI1o,n;aIOT Hrpy TeHeH Ha CTeHe. 8TH
TeHM JIlO,Il;M npHll11MalOT 3a BamHble AJIf( ce6H peaJIbHbIe BeW;H:
,lI;OMa, mHBOTHbIX, O,ll;em,n;y. 'IleJIOBeqeCKaJl .n;ywa - 3TO KOJIeC-
HHI.4a, 3 anpH>KeHHaRfieJIblM KOHeM qYBCTBa) 11 q epHhlM
KOHeM (3JIbIe CTpeMJIeHHR). OT Toro, KaKOH H3 HUX no6e,zViT,
3aBHCHT, CMomeT JIJ.1 ,lI;ywa qeJIOBeKa YBH,lI;eTb npaSHJIbHbIH
MHp Hllel<.
C o Bceti !3JIJIa,lJ;bI CTeKaJlHCb yqeHMKI1 B ac;pI1HCKYlO AKa,ll;e-
MI1IO, Ha,ll; BXO,ll;OM B KOTOPyro 6bIJIO HaqepTaHo: He 3HalOw;uH
r e OMeTpHH,n;a He BoH,n;eT!. Cpe,n;H npHllIeJI B AKa,n;eMJ1lO
H ApHCTOTeJIb (384-322 rr.1I0 R.,.), npeKpaCHO pa36HpaBllIui<C1I
B caMblX pa3HbIx 06JIaCTRX 3HaHHH. B OTJIHqHe OT IIJIaToRa
ApHCTOTeJIb qTO MHp BOKpyr Hac - 3TO He TeRM, a Ha-
CTOHIUl1e BeW;H, KOTopbIe MomHO OCMbICJlJ1Tb, nOHHTb HX npH-
180
.
\
t{J1HbI. YlMeHHo ApHCTOTeJIb pa3,n;eJIJ1JI Bce
HaKonJIeHHble ApeBHHMH rpeKaMH HayqHble
3HaHJ1H Ha caMOCTOHTeJIbHbIe HaYKH: JIOI'J1.KY -
o npaBMJIaX ,lI;OKaaaTeJIbCTBa, C;PH3HKY - 0
npW'U1Ha x npHpOAHhIX HBJIeHJ1H, 60TaHHKY -
o CBOHCTBax pacTe HKiii, nOJIHTHKY - 0 npaBH-
Jtax ynpaBJIeHHH rocy,n;apCTBOM. 0 CBOMX
c nopax C IIJIaTOHoM ApHCTOTeJIb roBOPHJI:
IIJIaTOH MHe ,lI;pyr, HO HCTMHa ,lI;OpmKe.
TpYA.I H cjlHnoco-
cjIoB 3anOHCHnH OCHoa.1 COBpeMeHHOH HaYKH.
Ap .... CTOTenb. IV B. AO H.3.
GJ
1. BblAenl1 q,pa3bt H nocTynKI1 COKpaTa, KOTOpbte Bbtr nAAAT Hepa3YM-
HbtMI1 e ero nwtHOH BbtrOAbt. KaK lbt AYMaeWb,
COKpaTa e"tI1Tanl1 MYAPblM q,l1noeoq,oMl
2. '1eM, Ha TBOH B3rnSlA, q,HnOCCXPI1A rlnaToHa OT q,l1noccxpHI1
Apl1CTOTenAr SeeM nl1 )f(I1TenAM r peL4l'1I1 MornH 6bITb nOHRTHbl I1X HP,e111
3. KaKl1e I1AeH q,l1nOeoq,1111 6nl13KI1 nl1"tHO Te6e -
nOBeKY XXI BeKal
- Xopowo My,npettaM! - CK3.3aJI AUTOlllKa. - 11. 3HaeWb 6o.nbwe APY-
r H.X, H. YBamalOT Te6R, c.nywaIQTCR.
- 3TO KorAa KB.K ... - 3aMentJI J1CTOlffiHKoBeA. - BoT 6blJl B A41lfilax
4lHJlOCOq, AHaKcarop (500-428 IT. AO H.3.), Y KOTOpOro }"IH.JlCR caM IIe-
PHKJl. Ha6JllOAa.R 3a He60M, AHaKcarop npJ1llIeJl K BblBOAY, ... TO Bce DO
BceJleHHoR ABIDKe'1'C.R, nO,I(qHHRRCb 3aKOHaM Pa3YMa. ...TO 3Be3Abl H
cOJIHLle - are He 6orH, a orpoMHbIe paCKaJleHHble KaMHl1.. 3a 31'0 Y"IeHJte,
no C)lTH OTBepralOW;ee OJIJ.fMIDfi.iCKH.X 6oroB, CYA a41H.HcKJtX rpa)l(J:l;aH
n pHI'OBOpHJl AHaKcaropa K CMepni. Ho T)IT nepeA c06paHHeM CYAeii BbI-
w eJl CTpaTer ilepHKJI H cnpocHJI: HapoA Aq,HH, MomeWb JIM TbI B ... eM-
HH6YAb ynpeKHyrb MeHR 11 MOIO .mH3Hb? - HH B qeM! . - OTBeTJ1JIJ1: rpam-
A8He TOMY, 1(01'0 r(m 1136HPaJrn. Ha BbICWHe AOJDKHOCTJ1. TaR BOT,
AHaRcarop - MOH yqwreJIbl - 3a.RBJ1Jl IIepJ.1KJl. rpamAaHe
nepecMOTpeJIJ1 npl11'OBOp, 3aMeHHB CMepTb H3I1faHHeM 113 1'Opo,na!
- 3To TOJIhRO O,JJ;Ha I1CTOPJ1JJ! - 3aMeTHJI ApxeoJIor. - MHOrHX .ItpyI11X
MY.D:pettOB no npHrOBOpy HapO,lJ;a Ka3IrnJlH, H3roH.RJlH, lllTpa41oB8J1I1.
CpaBHI1 MHeHl1e AHTOWKI1I1 q,aKTbl. npl1BeAeHHble B "teM
npOTI1BOpe"tl1e, KaKoi:1 B03HI1KaeT Bonpod
HapOA ':i,e
181
B3rnllA
Ha ApeBHlO1O
(MaTepHan AIlS! YPOKa-nOBTopeHIo1S1)
no cxeMe Ha c. 280-281 onpeAenH, KaKYto "!aCTb ApesHei1 HCTOPHI1 fbi
H3y"tI111. no Ta6nlo1L1,e Ha c. 122 nposepb, nOMHI1Wb 11101 fbi 06R3aTenbHbie
<f;laKTbl 11 nOHSlTI1I'1, rQTeB 11101 npl1MeHRTb am 3HaHHA B pa6ore.
[]
1. B cBoei1 TeTpaAI't npOAOfl>I01 3an011HRTb ra6nlo1u,y BOCTOI< 11 3anap,
,[J,pesHero MHpa:ll (eM. c. 120). OnpeAemt, KaKOSbl rnaSHble "IepTbl aH-
TH"IHOrO 3anap,a (Ha npHMepe ,llpesHei1 rpeu,HH). eSOH BbIBOp,b1 nOA-
TBepAH, Hcnonb3YA H3Y'4eHHble nOHAnts! Ii q,aKTbl.
He06XOAHMbIN ypoleHa.. (xopowo): OTBeTbl Ha BonpOCbl Ta6nl1u,bl 1, 2,
A BMeCTe c nOATBep>+<AeHHRMIo1.
nporpaMMH .. IH ypoaeHIt (oTnH'IHo): OneTbl Ha Bee sonpocbl.
2. CpasHH aHTH"tHbli1 3anap, H ,[J,pesHHH 80CTOI<. B "IeM 3aKmO'-laIOTCH
rnaSHble OTnH"II1)11
Heo610AHM .. IH yposeH .. (IOpOWO': BblAeneHbl no 1, 2 101 4-MY
BonpocaM Ta6I1HLl,bI .
nporpaMMHltlH ypoeeH .. (OTIIH'IHO,: Bbl,D,eneHbl no BceM BO-
npocaM Ta6nHLI,bl.
3. ECTb MHeHHe, Ha aHTH'"IHOM 3ana,o,e (a rpeu,HH)
I1H'"IHOCTb 6blna nonHOCTblO Cs060AHa, a Ha ApesHeM BocToKe
TeH He 6blno Boo6U4e, '"IenOSeK 6bln nOI1HOCTblO 6ecnpaBeH S rna3ax
AeCnOTH'"IHOH BnaCTH. nonpo6YH nOATSepAHTb HnH onposeprHyTb 3TO
MHeHHe C nOMOUJ,b1O aprYMeHToB H c1laKToB.
He0610,AHMIoIH ypoBeHIt (IOpoWO): npeAcTasneHO He MeHee oAMoro
apryMeHTa H q,aKTa B nOATBep>KAeHHe noro MHeHHJI .
nporpaMMHlolH yposeHIt (OTIIH'IHO,: npep,CTasneHO He MeHee oAMoro
apryMeHTa 101 ct>aKTa s onposepmeHHe noro MHeHHJI.
MaKCHMBllltHltlH ypoBettlo (csepIOTnH'IHO,: npep,cTasneHbl aprYMeHTbl
H c1laKTbl KaK s nOATBep>KAeHHe, TaK H B onpoSepmeHl1e 3Toro MHeHHJI.
CHTyal4HJI: HapYWetiHe HaWHI npaa
OnHcaHHe: )i{HTenH paHoHa Y3HanH, napK, rAe OHH rynJlIOT C AeTbMH,
6YAeT Bblpy6neH nop, cTpoHTenbcTBO pblHKa. Ha B03MYU4eHHble BonpOCbl >KH-
TeneH Ha'lanbHHK paHoHHoH ynpaBbl OTSeTHn: Bbl >Ke LJ,HBHnH30BaHHble nlOAH
11 AOI1)KHbl nOA'IHHHTbCR!
POIlIt: Pe6eHOK, B npHcYTcTBI1H KOToporo pOAI1TenH 06cY>KAaIOT, KaK no-
cTynHTb.
3a,qa'la: 06CYAHTb C pOAHTenSlMH, MomHO nH npoTHsoCTOSlTb AeHcTsHSIM
OCTaBaSiCb npl1 3TOM u,HBl1nH30aaHHbIMH nIOAbMH. lt1cnonb30aaTb
aprYMeHToB 3HaHHSl 0 AeilcTBI1Slx rpa>KAaH nonHCOS.
182
Pa3Aen IV.
HMnEPHH 3nnHHOB H PHMmlH
(rJIaBbI 6-8)
fn8olloe, lIeo6xoAJtMO lIaYQUThCH, C TO'lKU 3pCHIUt aOTOpoO:
- ua npHMepe HCTOPl1l1 ,ttpeBHHx HMIlepHM rpeKoB H pHMJ1HH yqHTbCR
onpe,o;eJIHTb npwmHbI H nOCJIe,ll;CTBHR 113MeHeHHM 8 YCJIOBI1RX am3l{J1
JIlO,ll;eM B
- y'U1TbCR npeO,ll;OJIeSaTb H npe,ll;OTBpamaTb KOHcpmlKTbI Me:>KAY
JIlO)J.bMI1, 3HaH, H3-3a "Iera OHH B03HHKnJIH B ,ttpeBHJ1X HMnepHRX J1 'IeM
3aKaH"IHBaJIHCb.
npOBCpb. rOTon JUI 'l"bl 08J1aACOa'l"b YMCHUHl'ltn 3Toro pa3JJ,ena
B CBoeM TeTpa.llJ1 COCTaBb JIOrJ1"1eCKYlO uenO'lKy npl{'lHH H CJIeACTBID1:
J13MeHeHHH B IIpaBHJIbHO paCCTaSb HOMepa c06bITH:W: B cxeMe:
CIII1COK COBbITl1lir:
1. Hat1:M 'IHHOBHHKOB H COJI,ll;aT.
2. 3aMeHa BpeMeHHbIX ,ttapOB BJIaCTRM, nOCTOHH-
HblMH HaJlOraMH.
3. PacCJIoeHJ1e Ha 60raTbIX J1 6e.z:tHbIX.
4. 06"be.llHHeHJ1e HeCKOJIbfrnX pO,o;OBblX nOCeJIKOB
B o,ttuy 06IUHHY c eW1HblM c06paHHeM, BJIaCTHMH,
OnOJJ'leHJ1eM.
5. Y CTaHOBJIeHHe e,ttJ1HOBJIaCTJ1R: BOeHa'laJIhHJ1Ra.
!!! BHJlMaRue. ITpeat,lJ;e 'IeM BblnOJIHHTb aa,ttaHJ1e, 03HaKOMbCR C YCJIOBH-
RMH ero BbIflOJIHeHJ1R: Ha pa3Hh1X ypOBHR:X ycnelllHOCTI1.
I1pu3Ha'KU ycnetUH020 BbmOAHeH1Ln 3aoaHUJt 'Ita pa31i'btX yp06'H..R.X:
Heo6xoAHMLdi ypOBeUb (xopowo): ITpaBJ1JIbHO Bnl1CaHbl HOMepa B
npHM)'lO c06hlTHM (BO Bce BbUleJIeHHble KBa,ttpaTbI, BbIAeJIeHHbIe
C06bITJ1R crrncKa). nporpaMMBldH ypOBeUL (OTJlH'lUO): IIpaBHJIbHo Brn1-
caHhl Bce HOMepa c06hlTKti: KnK B npRMYlO uenO'lKy, TaK H B 60KoBble OT-
BeTBJIeHHR: (BO Bce KBa,ttpaTbl). MaKCHMaJJbHLlH ypoBeuL (cBepXOTJIH'l-
UO): 3aAaHJ1e BbInOJIHeHO Ha npor paMMHOM ypOBHe, a TalOKe B u;eno'lKy
JIOrn'lHO BKJIlO'IeHO AOnOJIHI1TeJIbHO He MeHee O,ttHoro c06blTJ.:UL
ITpoBepb ce6R no CJIOBapIO, )"le6HHKY l1JIH C nOMOJ..U.bIO J"illTeJIR:. Ec.rrn
B03HHKalOT 3aTpy,ttHeHJ1R, TO BMeCTO O'l"BeTa HamU.ID1, KaKJ1X YMeHJ1i.{ I1
3HaHI1:W: Te6e He XBaTaeT.
KaK 113YQaTb 3TOT pa3J1,CJI
ITo orJIaBJIeHJ1lO Ha c . 3-4 onpeAeJIH, KaKoe co,ttepmaHJ1e re6e He06xo-
AHMO OCBOI1Tb. i13)"la:w: naparpa 3a naparpaoM, onpe.lleJIRH OCHOBHOt1:
Bonpoc (np06JIeMY) TeMbI, no,tt6HpaH .llJIH pellleHI1R 3Toro Bonpoca yme
H3BeCTHble 3HaHJ1R (noIDITI1R, 3aKoHoMepHOCTJ1) J1 OTKpblBaH HOBble (06
3TOM nO,ttpo6Hee CM. Ha c. 6-7).
183
Bltt,qeneHHl.le c;pa.cn.1 H nOffAl"A He06XOA,HMO nOMHHTI. "YMell. HCOOn .. 10lUlln..
776 r . ,Il,O H.3. - nepBble Onl1Mnl1HCKl1e Hrpbl B ,D,peBHeH rpeLV1l1.
753 r. AO M.l. - nereHAapHOe OCHOBaHHe PI1Ma LipeM POMynoM. Ha'"lano
LV1BHIlH3aLV1H ,ApeIHef'O PHMI, CO;JAaHHe naTHHCKoro
594 r.,Il,O H.3. - 3aKOHbi ConOHa B AcpHHax - OCHOBa AeMoKpITHH.
510 r . AO M.l . - H3rHaHHe u,apJl- YCTaHoBneHHe PHMCKOH pecny6nHKH.
500-448 rr. AO H.3. - rpeKO-nepCHACKHe BOHHbl.
494 r.,Il,O H. 3. - nepBblH OTKPblTblH KOHq:,nHKT nne6eell H naTpHLV'Iea.
367 r. AO H.3. - B AKBAeMHIO nnaToHa npHe3>KaeT ApHCToTenlt - OCHOBono-
nO>KHHK MHorHX HayK (norHKa, q:,113101Ka, lTI1Ka. nOnHTI1Ka).
338 r. AO H.3. - nOA"IIo1HeHl1e rpeLV111 u,aplO MaKeAoHHH Cbl1nHnny II .
- nOA"II1HeHHe PI1MY ero COlO3HI1KOB - naTI1HOB.
334-325 rr . AO H.3. - BOCTO"HbIH nOXO,ll, AneKcaHAPa MaKeAoHcKoro.
325-280 rr.AO H.l. - pacnBA,Il,ep>KaBbl AneKcaH,Qpa MaKeAoHcKoro Ha lnnH-
HHCTH"IeCK"'e MOH8pXHH.
- OCHoBaHHe AneKCaH,D,pI1HCKOH 6H6mtOTeKI1 - rnaBHoro u,eHTpa
KynbTYPbl lnllHMHCTHlteCKOM LlHIIHnHHqHH.
290 r. AO H.3. - C03,1l,aHI1e J.1TanI1HCKOrO COlO3a BO rnaBe C PHMOM.
118-101 IT. ,,"0 M.l. - 2-A BOHHa PHMa H Kapcpart!Ha - YCTaHoBneHHe rOcno,ll,-
CTBa P"'Ma B 3ana,D,HOM Cpe,ll,H3eMHOMopbe.
146 r.,Il,O H.3. - pa3pyweHHe Kapq:,areHa H KopHHcpa - rocnOACTBO PHMa Ha
aceM CpeAH3eMHOMOpbe. PHM nepeHl1MaeT rpe .. ecKYIO Kyn:.rypy.
123-122 rr. AO H. l. - 3aKOHbi rpaKxoB. 3aLLI,HUJ,atoLLI,He 6eAHbix rpa>KAaH PI1Ma.
107-104 rr. AO H.l. - C03AaH",e npocpeccHoHanbHoH apMHI1 PI1Ma npH M.1pHH.
83-82 rr . ,Il,O H.l . - Ha .. ano rpa>KS\aHCKI1X BOHH B PHMCKOj;j pecny6nl1Ke.
74-71 r r . AO H.3. - BOCCTaHHe pa60B no,ll, npep,aO,ll,HTenbCTaoM CnapTaKa.
49- 4' IT. ,,"0 M.l. - ,Il,HKTaTypa IOnH. L\e18p. Hero y6I1HCTBO.
30 r . AO H. l . -14 r. H. 3. - 3aXBaT OKTIIIHaMOM AllrycToM Erlo1nra - nOCne,ll,HeH
30-e rr. H.3.
106 r. H.l.
193 r. H. l.
284-305 rr,
313 r. N.l.
325 r. H.3.
395 r. M.3.
410 r. N.l.
476 r . H. 3.
184
lMI1HHCT"'''IeCKoj;j MOHapXHH.
- YCTaHOBneHl1e PHMCKoM HMnepHH (npHHLV1naTa) . Pacu,aeT
."TH'tHoN LlHIIHl1HlaqHH.
- npOnOBe,ll,b HHCYCI XpHCTa B J.1YAee - Ha .. ano IpHCTHaHCTBa.
- nOClle,ll,HHe 3aaoeBaHHA. - nepexoA PIoiMa K o6opoHe.
- PaCLI,BeT rocyp,apCTBa BO II BeKe.
- Ha .. ano rpa>KAaHCKHX aoHH. KPl11HC III BeKa.
H. l . - npaBneHHe A"'OKI1entaHa - YCTaHOBl1eHHe ,Il,OMI1HaTa a
"'MnepHI1, rOHeHI1A Ha xpHCTHaH.
- 3aKOH KOHCTaHTHHa 0 cBo60Ae
- HHH:eHCKI1H co6op xpHcTHaHcKoH l.I.eptC ..... Ha"lanO KaHOHH3a-
Ll,I1H HOBoro laBeTa.
- pa3,D,eneHHe PHMCKOH I1MnepHH Ha 3ana,D,HYto H BOCTO .. HYto.
- B3ATI1e PHMa repMaHCKHMH nneMeHaMH rOToa.
- nilAeHHe 3anBAHoM PHMCKOH HMnepHI1 nOA yp,apaM'" Bapaapoa.
.fJIaBa If!
3JI JI ItR I' !If
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- 06'bSiCHIo1 3Ha"feHlo1e cnOB: u,apcTBO, nonlo1c, q,anaHra. (CnoBapb)
- "ieM 3HaMeHIo1T q,1011l0COCP Aplo1cToTenb? ( 29) "'aKlo1e BblrOAb' AClBano
pa6oBnClAenb-.ecKoe X03S1HCTBO B ( 27)
1. ... 60JlTCR 6oJlee, qeM sparos.
K IV BeRY AD H.3. rpetJ.eCKHe nOJIHCbI nOCTOJlHHO BOeBaJIH, pa-
30pH" IIPyr IIPyra. Me)KJIY TeM COCTOHTeJlbHble rpalKllaHe Bce
50JlbWe 60raTeJIJf, npO,n;aBaJl Ha pbIHKaX TOBapbI, C03,l1;aHHbIe
rpYIlOM pa60B (3epHO, BI1HO, MaCJlO, aM<I>0pbl). BellHble rpalKlla-
He 3aJIe3aJIH B ,n;OJIrJ1, npO));aBaJIH CBOIO 3eMJIIO 60ratJ.aM. Bce
50JlbWe nOHBJIRJIOCb B nOJIHCaX JIHWHl1:X JlIO.n;eH. Y HHX He 6bI-
no HH 3eMJIH, HH 3apa6oTKa, HO COXpaHHJIOCb npaBO B
Hapo.n;HOM C06paHMJ.1. Be,n;HHKH Tpe6oBaJlH, qTo6bI BJIaCTH
[lOJIl'ICa KOPMHJIH HX, a 60ratJ.H B03MyI..U,aJIJ.1Cb TeM, tJ.TO nJIaTHT
50JIbWHe HaJIorH. IIo CJIOBaM acPHHRHHHa J1coKp.iTa, 60ral.{H
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1. nepoLle 38soesaHHH.
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me npaBoM rOJIoea, KaK H .n;pyrne. TeM apeMeHeM, cpamaSlcb B
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3. TpH6YHbI UpOTJfB ceRaTa.
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fpaKx, M36paHHbIii HapolIHblM TPH6YHOM, npel\JIo>KUJl OTO-
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oT06paJlo y ceHaTa npaBO pacnpelle-
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BaJI C K8.m;:J;hIM. OJJ.HaKO qepea nOJITOpa Ha
Bbl60pax npOTHBHHKH raR rpaKXa B ceHaTe He nOaBOJIHJlH eMY
BHOBb H36paTbCR TPH6YHOM. BoopymeHHbIe CJIYI'H
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sparaM". OH np"Ka3aJI sepHOMY pa6y npOH3"Tb ero Me'WM. On-
THMaTbI- JIyqwHe 6POCHJIH ero TeJIO B TH6pa.
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OnaCaeTCIi 3Toro.
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seKa - C'4I1TaeWb HeAonYCTI1MblMH 11 nO'4eMY? EcnH 6bl lbl - rpa>KAaHHH
cospeMeHHOH POCCHIo1 - OKa3anCA Ha MeCTe plo1MCKoro CeHaTopa, Koro
101 nO'4eMY 6bl Tbl nOAAep>Kan B 60Pb6e rpaKXOB 11 I1X npOTHSHHKoe?
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pocKolllHbIe BJ1JIJIbI H .o;OMa B HeCKOJlbKO aTamei:f. ropo.o;a yfTaJlID1 H npo-
CBJI3aJI8 Ce'1'b KaMHeM Aopor. RaK TO'LfHO 3aMeTJ1JI pyc-
CKmf: HCTOPHK P06epT IOpbeBHl{ Bmrnep (1859-1954 rr.), ... 'O;OCTaTOl{HO
6b1JIo Ha3BaTbC.R PHMCKHM rpamAaID1HOM, t.{TOGbl3aCTaBHTb ce6.R yaamBTb
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PUMCKaR cKynbnTypa
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PHMcKaR HMnepHR cnpaBHnacb C KPH3HCOM anaCTH I aeKa HoaOH
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m
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- IIo6e.D;a OKTaBH:aHa AsrycTa B MOpCKOM cpamelrnt.1 npt.1 Mhlce AKn;m1'
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CB060AHO BblCKaSWBaTb CBoe MHeHJ.1e. 3a ero Bpara - AHTOHJ.1R - Qapm,.a
ErmlTa KneonaTpa 11 BOCTO'lHble npOBI1Hmm, r,JJ;e npJ.1BblKJIJ.1 pa60JlenHo
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He6ecax Ha,1l cpJIOTaMl1 cpamaJl11Ch npeKpaCHO-qeJlOSe'iHble 11Ta.nUl1CKJ.fe
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Gb! YTpaniJUI TaKme J.1 naMRTh, eCJIH fiw 3afibIBaTh GWJIO Obi CTOJIb :me B
HaweH BJIaCTH, KaK 11 6e3MOJIBCTBOBaTb.
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cpaKTbl, .... 3nO)t(eHHble I-1CTO'"lHIo1KOBeAOM, KaKoi1 S03HHKaeT Bonpoc?
PHMCKaA .... Mnepl1S1 - 3TO rOCYAapCTBO 3anaAa Hn .... BOCTOKa?
248
t
T1>IC . AO ... . :t. H08aJlI ,pa
lXIVllIlVlIlVtlVllVllHllIl1 I IIIIIIIIIVIV
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(Cnosapb)

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Kax AO H.3. ( 33) .... B 11-1 seKax AO H.3. ( 37)
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060meCTBJIeHHoMY reHJ.11O (,1l,yxy) J.1MnepaTopa.
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249
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a Ha,Il; cnopRw.HMH BbICHJlaCb cTaTYH 50rHHH npaBocY.ll.I1H
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250
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252
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1. nJlaBHJJbHbIH KOTeJI pHMcKoro MHpa)).
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JIH nJIeMeHa ,naKOB (YKpbIBaBwHx y ce611 6erJIbIX PHMCKHX
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254
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255
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nO)J;HHJlHCb .n.BOPI..\bI H 6aHl1, I.\l1PKI1 H 6116JIHOTeKI1, JI3bPieC!01:e
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B CHflHHJ1 )J;parou;eHHbIX oAem,r{ H B 30JIOTOi1: KopoHe, RaK Y Qa-
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273
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6bITHble 3eMJIe,n:eJIbQbI ,ll;BHHy JIHCb Ha nOHCKH JIyqWHX 3eMeJIb.
B a3HaTCKHX CTen.RX, Hao6opOT - aacyxH YHHt.{TOmaJIH TpaBy.
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274
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275



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3. 3HLJ,I1Kt10ne,D.l1A ATIA AeTeH. T. 6. PenHrl1H MHpa. YacTtoi " 2. - M.: AeaHTa +,
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HttreptteT
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LJ,b1, cnpaa04Hbie MaTepHanbl no aceMHpHoH HCTOpHH.
3. http://www.auditorium.ru-06pa30eaTenbHbIHnopTan<<AYAMTopI1YM.py ..
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