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Level 1 Tajweed

The following notes are a translation of chapters 1, 2 and 3 of the Arabic book Al-Muneer fee Ahkamil Tajweed These notes may be used for noncommercial purposes only. These notes may not be reproduced in any way or form for commercial purposes.

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Level 1 Tajweed

Introduction to Tajweed
Definition
Linguistically: It means betterment. Applied definition: It is articulating every letter from its articulation
point and giving the letter its rights and its dues of characteristics.

It is to know the rights of the letter (the characteristics of the letter that never leaves it) and the dues of the letter (the letters characteristics that are present in it sometimes and leaves it sometimes). The science of tajweed is the study in which one learns how to pronounce the letters with their characteristics from their correct articulation points, knowing what rules apply to it, and how to start reading a word, how to read it continually and how to stop at it.

History of Tajweed
The Quraan was revealed to the Prophet Muhammed ( ) with tajweed. During the time of the Prophet and his companions there was no such thing as tajweed because that was how the Quraan was taught and recited. The Quraan scholars used to teach their students the Quraan with complete tajweed. They used to recite and their students would recite after them. The process was repeated as many times as necessary until the student could read the Quraan perfectly. As the years went by, more and more people entered into Islam, the scholars saw a need to study how the Quraan was read and then come up with basic rules that can be applied to ensuring its correct recitation. The first publication of tajweed appeared as an independent science in its own right around the 4th century after hijra.

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Level 1 Tajweed

Ruling on Tajweed Two Sections to the science of tajweed

Theoretical
Studying the theoretical rules of tajweed, memorising them and understanding them. Ruling: Fardh kifaya (group obligation as long as there is a group of Muslims studying the theoretical rules of tajweed, the obligation is lifted from the Muslims)

Practical
Applying the theoretical rules of tajweed while reading the Quraan. Ruling: Fardh ayan (individual obligation it is an obligation on every single Muslims male and female to learn to read the Quraan with proper tajweed.

Two ways to obtain the science of tajweed

Ar-Riwayiah
(Through narration) The sheikh reads and the Quraan and his student reads after him, as many times as necessary until the student perfects his reading and becomes a skilled reciter on his own right. OR The student reads in front of the sheikh and the sheikh corrects him. AND preferably both methods combined together. But it is feared for the student that he may start to forget the rules as time passes by.
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Ad-Dirayiah
(Through studying) It is to study the rules theoretically then apply them practically on the Quraan. If the reader then forgets some of the rules, he revises the theory that he studied and tries to correct himself. BUT the student must also read in front of a sheikh so that he reaches perfection in his recitation. This way the student has combined between ad-dirayiah and ar-riwayiah .

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Level 1 Tajweed

Merits of Reciting the Quraan

The definition of the Quraan is: It is the words of Allaah that has been

revealed to the Prophet Muhammed ( ), that has reached us through many reciters, its recitation is worship and it has challenged mankind to produce a surah like its smallest surah.

So reciting Quraan is a way of getting closer to Allah. We have been ordered to read Quraan in a number of ayah in the Quraan. Some of which are: Recite what is sent of the Book by inspiration to thee, and establish regular Prayer: for Prayer restrains from shameful and unjust deeds; and remembrance of Allah is the greatest (thing in life) without doubt. And Allah knows the (deeds) that ye do. [Al-Ankaboot : 45]

read ye, therefore, of the Quraan as much as may be easy for you [Al-Muzzammil : 20]

As for the reward, the ayah in the Quraan are many, here is one of them: Those who rehearse the Book of Allah, establish regular Prayer, and spend (in Charity) out of what We have provided for them, secretly and openly, hope for a commerce that will never fail: For He will pay them their wages, nay, He will give them (even) more out of His Bounty: for He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Ready to appreciate (service). [Faatir : 29 30]

There are also many ahaadeeth (narrations of the Prophet ( ) ) that encourage reading and studying the Quraan.

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Level 1 Tajweed

Al-Lahin
Definition
Applied definition: It is the mistake and deviation from the correct way
of reading.

Types of Al-Lahin
There are two types of mistakes that can be made when reading the Quraan:

Al-Lahin Al-Khafee

(Hidden mistakes)

They are mistakes that the reader makes in the rules of tajweed. Such mistakes do not change the meaning of the words, however, one will be hold accountable if they miss out a rule knowingly. Such mistakes will only be picked up by those who have learned tajweed. There are two grades to such mistakes: Grade 1 : obvious tajweed mistakes that would be known to those knowledgeable in reading the Quraan with tajweed such as missing out the idgham rule or leaving the ghunnah or medd . Grade 2 : Detailed mistakes that would only be known to those skilled in reading the Quraan. Such as not pronouncing the ghunnah or tafkheem long enough or unwanted repetition of the letter ( ) . Also falls into this category not pronouncing the dhammah correctly (in that the lips are not circled). This is especially obvious in the following words: ( ) . Also not pronouncing the kasrah correctly, and this especially obvious in the following words: ( ).

Islamic Ruling on Al-Lahin Al-Khafee


It is disliked and some say it is forbidden because the Quraan is not being read how it should be. However, it ruling can be divided into two grades: 1. Haraam (forbidden) if an obvious rule is not applied. 2. Makrooh (disliked) if a detailed rule is not applied.

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Tajweed Level 1

Al-Lahin Al-Jelli (Obvious Mistakes)


It is a mistake that one makes when pronouncing a word. This type of mistake effects the accuracy of the reading, even if the mistake does not change the meaning of the word. It is therefore haraam (forbidden) to make such a mistake, and the reader will be sinful. The following are examples of al-lahin al-jelli : Pronouncing a letter incorrectly such as pronouncing the as . E.g.: ( ) or the as such as ( ) . Pronouncing a vowel incorrectly such as reading ( ) as ( ) or ( ) as ( ) . Extending the pronunciation of a vowel so that a medd letter pronounced instead of the vowel such as reading ( ) as ( ) or ( ) as ( ) . Shortening the pronunciation of a medd letter so that it is read as a vowel such as reading ( ) as ( ) or ( ) as ( ) . Not reading the letter with a ( shaddah) long enough such as reading ( ) as ( ) or ( ) as ( ) . Reading the letter with a ( shaddah) when there is no shaddah such as reading ( ) as ( ) or ( ) as ( ) . Missing the pronouncing of a letter or a word or adding an extra letter or a word such as reading ( ) as ( ) or ( ) as ( ) . Not pronouncing the in the moon letters such as not pronouncing in ( ) or ( ) .

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Manners of Reciting Quraan


1. It is preferred for the reciter to have wudu and recite in a clean place, wearing clean clothes with their awra covered. 2. It is sunnah to clean ones teeth with the miswak, as the words and letters of the Quraan come out of the mouth. Also, using the miswak is pleasing to Allaah and glorifying the Quraan. It was narrated that Ali (radiya allahu anh) used to encourage others to use the miswak and said: When a man stands to pray the angel keeps getting close to the reciter listening to him reciting the Quraan, until his mouth is on the mouth of the reciter, and every verse recited goes into the angels mouth. 3. It is preferred that the reciter chooses a place away from distractions, so that he can concentrate and ponder on what he is reciting.

Manners to be Observed During Recitation


1. Seeking refuge in Allah from shaitaan: When thou dost read the Quraan, seek Allahs protection from Satan the rejected one [An-Nahl: 96].

2. To be careful with and to pay attention to the tajweed and the grammatical rules as Allah says: Or a little more; and recite the Quraan in slow, measured rhythmic tones. [Al-Muzzammil: 4].

3. To contemplate and ponder on the meaning of the verses they recite and Allah has ordered this in a number of places in the Quraan: (Here is) a Book which We have sent down unto thee, full of blessings, that they may mediate on its Signs, and that men of understanding may receive admonition [Saad:29].

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4. To implement what they recite in the Quraan, that is to say subhana Allah when an order for tasbeeh is made, or seeking for forgiveness when the reciter comes across an order to beg for forgiveness, or ask for jennah when it is mentioned or seek refuge from hell fire when it is mentioned. 5. To do the prostration of tilawah when the reciter comes across an order for prostration. 6. He should perfect his voice when reading. The more a person recites Quraan out loud the more the voice automatically improves. 7. Should pay attention to the levels of recitation (at-tahqeeq, alhadr and at-tadweer), taking care of implementing the grammatical and tajweed rules correctly within that level. 8. To read suratul fatiha and the first five ayaat from Suratul Baqarah when they complete reciting the Quraan, as well as making a dua as this dua is acceptable.

General Manners regarding Recitation


The reciter of the Quraan should: 1. Implement what rules he comes cross, and have the character of the Quraan. 2. Maintain the characteristics of the people of the Quraan, by making lots of dhikr (remembrance of Allah), contemplating, less idle chatting, and to persist in worship and obedience to Allah. 3. Ensure that they teach the Quraan and convey its ayaat to other people as the Prophet ( ) said: convey about me even if it just one ayah. 4. Strive to perfect their reading. It has been narrated that Imam Shafie may Allah have mercy on him said: Whenever a person learns a science he should excel in learning it. 5. Set aside a certain amount of the Quraan to be read on a daily basis. This amount should be at least one juzz so that the

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recitation of the Quraan is completed at least once a once, however more often would be better. 6. Get up for tahajud (night prayer) to recite a set portion of the Quraan and to maintain this sunnah. If he misses reciting his portion of the Quraan in the night then he should make it up between sunrise and noon. 7. Maintain revising what has been memorized and be careful not to forget it. 8. Keep his stomach free from haraam food, his tongue from idle chat, his hands from dealing with haraam and his legs from striving towards haraam.

Pillars of Recitation
There are three pillars that must be fulfilled for the recitation to be correct and accepted. If the reciter falls short of one of these pillars then his recitation will be odd and rejected. Pillar One: The Quraan read must be in Arabic, since the Quraan has been revealed in Arabic. Every word in the Quraan is an Arabic word, there are no non Arabic words in it. Pillar Two: The Quraan script must agree with what was in the Othmaan script, which is the script that has been written during the time of Othman Bin Affan. Pillar Three: The Quraan that one reads must have reached us though the well known correct line of narration. That is it must have reached us through many reciters, and a well known chain of narrators. Many scholars have considered some recitations as odd because it reached them through incorrect chain of narrators (even though it was in classical Arabic and in agreement with the Othman script).

The Hafs An Assim Chain of narration


This is the chain through which this Quraanic recitation has reached us. Assim Ibn Abi An-Njood was the leading reciter in the mosque of Abi Abdur Rahman As-Sulamee in the Al-Kufah city in Iraq. Then he became the Imam of that mosque and the leader in recitation. The people learnt
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the recitation from him. He used to recite the Quraan just like his predecessors did, not differing from them. He was very eloquent in Arabic, accurate in his recitation and tajweed rules. His voice was amongst the best in recitation. As for Hafs, he is Ibn Sulaiman Ibn Al-Mugheerah Al-Asadee AlGhadhree. He learnt the Qurn from the Assim. He recited the Quraan in front of Assim and listened to his recitation.

Levels of Reading Quraan


There are three speeds (levels) of reading the Quraan: At-tahqeeq It is reading the Quraan slowly, perfectly with sincerity, while contemplating over the meanings, fulfilling the full rights of the letters without falling short or exceeding their limits. It is giving each letter its rights as to characteristics, articulation points, lengthening the letters of medd when lengthening is due and shortening when shortening is due. It is also to recite the heavy letters heavy and the light letters light. This is the best level of reading. At-tahqeeq comes from the meaning I have achieved this thing ie I have known it and perfected it. This is the learners level.

At-Tarteel This is the same speed of reading Quraan as at-tahqeeq

level except that it for those who have perfected their recitation. This is the teachers level. Some scholars have considered at-tarteel as a separate level while others put it under at-tahqeeq level.

Al-Hadr It is a swift method of reading the Quraan, taking care of the


tajweed rules. The reader must be careful not to shorten the ghunnah or the medd letters, and not to fall short in the correct way of pronouncing the vowels. Al-hadr comes from the meaning of falling from the top to the bottom.

At-Tadweer It is reading at an intermediate level between at-tahqeeq and al-hadr whilst maintaining the rules of tajweed.

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( Al-Istiatha) Linguistically : It means seeking refuge and


protection.

Applied Definition: It means seeking refuge and protection with Allah from shaitaan when intending to read the Quran.

How to Say Al-Istiatha


(

The way to say Al-Istiatha as chosen by the ten Quran recitors is:


] 89 : [

) and it is taken from the Quran:

When thou dost read the Quran, seek Allahs protection from Satan the rejected one [Suratul Nahl: 96]. This was how the prophet used to say al-istiatha , hence it is the best chosen way of saying it. There are however other ways of saying al-istiatha as was reported by other Quran recitors. Some well known methods:

) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

The Ruling Regarding Al-Istiatha


There is consensus amongst the scholars that is not part of the Quran but it is required when wanting to recite Quran as mentioned in Suratul Nahl. However, the scholars differed in regards to it being obligatory or recommended. First Opinion: recommended
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Most of the scholars and recitors are of the opinion that the ayah in

suratul Nahl recommends saying and this is the preferred


opinion. Also the prophet sometimes did not say

Second Opinion: obligatory This is the opinion of Ataa and Ath-Thawree and others. Their evidence is that seeking refuge was mentioned in the form of an order which makes it an obligation to say . Also because the prophet was consistent in saying it, and because it protects the reader from shaitan which is an obligation.

When to say

should be said before starting to read Quran, i.e. when intending to read. This is because reading Quran is one of the greatest forms of worship and shaitan would try its best efforts to stop the reader. Also, Allah has ordered the recitor to repel shaitan while He is listening to His servant calling onto Him through His words. There are however, other times when should be said to be protected from shaitan, other than when intending to read Quran. It is the opinion of most of the scholars that should be said before reciting Quran. This was the sunnah of the prophet. Also, the meaning of indicates that it should be said before beginning to read because: it purifies the tongue from idle chat and foul talk; It gets the tongue ready to read Allahs words; It is a protection with Allaah from any mistakes that could be made during recitation; It is a way of the servant admitting his weakness in front of this internal enemy and that he cannot protect himself from it, and only Allaah can protect him from it.

When To Say Out Loud


It is recommended to say

out loud in the following situations:

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1) If the recitor is about to read out loud and others are present who will hear his recitation. This is because saying out loud is a sign that recitation of the Quran is about to begin which is a call to listen. If the recitor says silently those present would have missed some of what was recited by the time they paid attention. However during the prayer should be said silently because the followers are in a state of listening from the beginning of the prayer. 2) If the reading is done by turn (as in a classroom situation), the first reader says

Benefits of Saying Out Loud


An indication that recitation is due to commence; The readers heart is readed for contemplation; To bring the attention of those present; To push away shaitan and his whispering and bad thoughts.


silently.

out loud and the others do it

When To Say Silently


It is recommended to say

silently when:

1) The reader is reading silently; 2) The reader is alone whether he is reading silently or out loud; 3) If the reading is done by turn (as in a classroom situation), and the reader is not the first one to read. 4) The reader is praying whether in the silent or out loud prayer and whether he is the imam or the one being lead.

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Repeating
If the reader for some reason has to stop reading then wanted to resume reading should he repeat saying ? If the reader had to stop reading then they should do one of three things: 1) If the reader had to stop reading due to other matters concerning the Quran such as looking up the meaning of a word or verse or having to do the 2) If the reader had to stop reading due to a necessity such as coughing or sneezing or forgetfulness. (Providing that the pause is not left too long before resuming reading otherwise one should repeat

There will be no need to repeat saying

prostration of tilawah or to be
corrected or to clarify a ruling ..

).

3) If the reader had to stop reading due to other matters outside the Quran such as saying salam or speaking with others then should be repeated.

Ways of Seeking Refuge When Starting Recitation With The Beginning Of A Surah Or At Any Later Place
The reader can say later place.

at the beginning of the Surah or at any

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Ways of Saying At The Beginning of the Surah

Cutting

all three off from each other.

Meaning seeking refuge, stopping, saying the basmalah, stopping, then starting the surah.


Joining all three with each other. Seeking refuge, saying the basmalah, and starting the surah all in one breath without stopping. All the recitors have a consensuses that there are four ways of saying if one started the recitation at the beginning of the Surah , except Surah Tauba (also known as Baraa):


Joining the Basmalah with the beginning of the Surah This means seeking refuge, then stopping, then saying the basmalah and the beginning of the surah in one breath.

Joining seeking refuge with the Basmalah This means the seeking refuge and the basmalah are joined with one breath, then the reader stops then starts the surah.

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Ways of Saying At A Later Place After the Beginning


If the recitor started reading at any place other than the beginning, even if it is one word after the beginning, the reader has a choice either to say the basmalah or to leave it out, though saying is better. If the reader chose to say the basmalah then he has to follow the four ways of saying as detailed above. If the reader chose not to say the basmalah then he has two choices: 1) Joining seeking refuge with the first verse to be read in one breath; OR 2) Seeking refuge, stopping, then reading the first verse to be read. As for surah At-Taubah , if the reader started at any place other than at the beginning, then they have the choice to either say the basmalah or not.

NOTE ONE:
If the first verse that is to start reading from begins with the name or one of the attributes of Allaah or with a preposition referring to Him, such as the following verses: ] 752 : [

Allah is the Protector of those who have faith: [Surah Al-Baqarah: 257] ] 5 : [

(Allah) Most Gracious is firmly established on the throne (of authority). [Surah Taha: 5] ] 72 : [

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To Him is referred the Knowledge of the Hour (of Judgment: He knows all): [Surah Fussilat: 47] Then the reader has two choices: 1) Seeking refuge, stopping, then reading the verse because seeking refuge and starting to read with such a verse gives an ugly joining and corrupts the meaning; 2) Seeking refuge and then saying the basmalah .

NOTE TWO:
If the first verse that is to be read from begins with the name of shaitan or with a preposition referring to him, such as the following verses: ] 268 : [

The Evil one threatens you with poverty [Surah Al-Baqarah: 268] ] 119 : [ Allah did curse him [Surah An-Nisa : 118] Then its is preferred for the reader not to say the basmalah or saying the basmalah, stopping, then reading the verse.

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Al-Basmalah
Definition
Al-basmalah means saying (

).

Is Al-Basmalah A Verse Of The Quraan? The scholars have the consensus that al-basmalah is part of a
verse in the following: ] 03 : [

"It is from Solomon, and is (as follows): In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful: [Suratun Naml: 30].

However, the scholars have differed to whether it is the first


count :

verse of suratul Fatiha or not. The scholars of Kufa and Mecca

al-basmalah as a verse of suratul Fatiha and so they count


as part of the seventh verse.

As for the scholars from Basra, Madina and Bilad Ash-sham (Syria, Jordan, Palestine), they do not count al-basmalah as a verse of Suratul Fatiha and so they count:

As the sixth verse.

As for us, those who follow the narration of Hafs An Asim , we follow the scholars of Kufa and Mecca and therefore consider albasmalah the first verse of suratul Fatiha .

As for the four schools of thought:

Hanafee And Hanbelee Schools of thought: They do not count al-basmalah as a verse of suratul Fatiha nor of every surah.
Rather they consider it as one verse that been sent down to separate the surahs of the Quraan and was mentioned in the beginning of suratul Fatiha. Their evidence is the hadeeth which says:

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Muslim reports from Abu Hurayrah (radiya allahu anhu) who said that the Messenger of Allaah ( ) said,

Allaah, the Glorious and Exalted said, I have divided the prayer between Myself and my servant equally and My servant shall be granted what he asked for. Therefore when the servant says, all

praises and thanks are due to Allaah, the Lord of the universe, Allaah says, My servant has praised Me. When he says, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful, Allaah says, My servant has extolled Me. When he says, Master of the Day of Judgment, Allaah says, My servant has glorified Me. When he says, You Alone we worship and Your aid Alone do we seek for help,

Allaah says, this is between Me and My servant and My servant shall have what he requested. When he says, guide us to the

Straight Path, the Path of those whom You have favoured, not of those who have incurred [Your] wrath, neither of those who have gone astray, Allaah says, this is for My servant and My servant shall have what he asked for. [Saheeh Muslim [Eng. Trans. 1/215 no. 775]] They say that if al-basmalah the first verse of suratul Fatiha the hadeeth would have started suratul Fatiha with it. Also the salef (predecessors) have agreed that suratul Kauther is made up of three verses. That is three verses without al-basmalah. Hence albasmalah is not a verse of every surah.

Shafee School of thought: al-basmalah is a complete verse of suratul Fatiha and of every surah . Another narration for Shafee and Ahmad schools of thought is that al-basmalah is a verse of suratul Fatiha only.
However, all schools of thought agree that whoever does not consider albasmalah as the first verse of every surah is not a disbeliever, due to the differences mentioned above.

The Ruling Regarding al-basmalah When Reading From the Beginning Of A Surah
All the scholars of recitation agree that those professional reciters should start a surah with al-basmalah because they have learnt the Quraan from their teachers through narration. So they should read as

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they have been taught (i.e. with al-basmalah). But al-basmalah should be left out when reading surat At-Taubah from the beginning.

The Ruling Regarding al-basmalah When Reading From Any Place Other Than The Beginning Of A Surah

From any place other than the beginning of surah means not from the first word of the first verse, but from the second word of the first word onwards. Here the reciter has choice s to whether to start with albasmalah or not, though starting with it is preferred because of its merits and the reward one would get. The same applies to surat AtTaubah , though some scholars are of the opinion that al-basmalah should not be said even when starting to read surat At-Taubah any place other than the beginning.

The Ruling Regarding Al-Basmalah Between Two Surahs

Between two surahs means finishing the recitation of one surah and continuing to read the next surah.

Cutting

all Here the reader has a choice of 3 ways with al-basmalah :

three off from each other. Meaning stopping at the last surah, then saying al-basmalah then stopping, then starting the surah.

Joining the
begning of the

Basmalah with the Surah

Ending the last surah, stopping, then saying the al-

basmalah and the


beginning of the surah in one breath.

Joining

all three with each other.

Ending the last surah, Saying al-basmalah and starting the next surah all in one breath without stopping.

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NOTE:
The reader cannot finishing reading the last surah and then read

al-basmalahin one breath, then stop and then start the next surah. This is because al-basmalahis said at the beginning of
the surah and not at the end.

The above mentioned 3 ways are permissible for ending the recitation of one surah and beginning another, whether the two surahs are consequent such as surat Al-Imran followed by Surat An-Nisa, or not consequent such as Surat Al-Fatiha and then reading surat Yasin. If the two surahs being read are not in order such as reading Surat Al-Mulk and then Surah Yasin , then only two ways are allowed: Cutting all three off each other and joining al-

basmalahwith the beginning of the next surah.


As for Surat At-Taubh, the following applies:

If the the surah that has been read is before surat AtTaubah then the reader wants to read Surat At-Taubh, one of the following ways should be adopted: First Way: To stop t the end of the last surah before Surat At-Taubh, then take a breath with the intention of continuing the recitation. Then strating with Surat AtTaubh. It is also possible to stop with one of the following methods where applicable: as-sukoon al-mahidh, ar-rawm or ishmaam (all will be studied later on so dont worry about what they are now). Second Way: As-Sakit : Stop at the end of the last surah for a few seconds without taking a breath, then start Surat At-Taubh. It is also possible to stop with one of the following methods where applicable: as-sukoon al-mahidh, arrawm or ishmaam (all will be studied later on so dont worry about what they are now). Third Way: Joining the previous surah with Surat AtTaubh, without a pause and applying the iglb rule between

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the end of the last surah and the beginning of Surat At-

Taubh.

If the the surah that has been read is after surat AtTaubah (according to the order of the surahs in the Quraan) then the reader wants to read Surat At-Taubh, one way applies here. To finish the last surah, then stopping, then start reading Surat At-Taubh, without saying

basmalah. It is not permissible to join the two surahs no

al-

is it to apply the second way mentioned above (as-sakit). If the reader wanted to read Surat At-Taubh, a number of times then he should not join it with its beginning nor should he apply as-sakit.

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Exercise 1
1) Put ( ) or ( X ) in front of the following sentences, correcting those sentences that are wrong: a) Al-Lahin is the mistake and deviation from the correct way of reading( ) b) The ruling on al-lahin al-khafee is haraam (forbidden) while it is makrooh (disliked) for al-lahin al-jellie ( )

c) An example of grade 1 of al-lahin al-khafee is missing out the ghunnah or not applying the idgham rule when it is due ( ) d) There are only three levels of reading the Quran at-tahqeeq, al-hadr and at-tarteel ( ) e) The ruling on learning tajweed is (fardh kifayah) obligatory upon Muslims as a whole like learning the other sciences the Muslims need ( f) One example of al-lahin al-khafee is that the length of the ghunnah or tafkheem are said shorter than their exact length. ( ) g) Some of the scholars of tajweed consider at-tarteel as an independent level of recitation and they put it before the at-tahqeeq level.( ) h) One example of al-lahin al-jellie in tajweed is not pronouncing the letter in the moon letters. ( i) There is one way of obtaining the science of tajweed through narration. ) ( ) )

j) There are more than three pillars of recitation, if the recitor falls short of one of these pillars then their recitation will be considered odd by the scholars. ( )

2) What are the differences between: a) al-lahin al-jellie and al-lahin al-khafee b) Levels and pillars of reading the Quran 3) Answer the following questions:

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a) Who is hafs? Who is his teacher? b) What does hafs an assim chain of narration mean? c) Mention 5 manners which should be observed when reciting the Quran.

4) Give three examples of a) al-lahin al-jellie b) al-lahin al-khafee

5) Define the following terms: a) Science of tajweed b) Al-lahin

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Exercise 2
1) Mulltiple Choice - Circle the wrong answer: a) A reader was reading the Quran then stopped to sneeze: 1) They should repeat saying al-istiatha 2) They should resume reading without saying al-istiatha 3) Neither (a) or (b) are correct b) Aisha finished reading surah Yasin then she wanted to read Surah Mar yam she should: 1) Finish reading surah Yasin, pause, then say al-basmalah, pause the start reading the first verse of surah Maryam. 2) Finish reading surah Yasin, pause, then in one breath say albasmalah and start reading the first verse of surah Maryam. 3) In one breath finish reading surah Yasin, then say albasmalah, then start reading the first verse of surah Maryam. c) If a person wanted to read surat At-taubah they should: 1) Finish reading surat At-taubah, stop, then say al-basmalah, stop, then start reading it again. 2) Finish reading surat At-taubah, stop, then start reading it again. 3) In one breath finish reading surat At-taubah, and then start reading it again. d) Maryam was reading surah Al-Muzammil then she wanted to red surat At-taubah she should: 1) Finish reading surah Al-Muzammil, stop, then say al-basmalah, stop, then start reading the first verse of surat At-taubah. 2) In one breath finish reading surah Al-Muzammil, then start reading the first verse of surat At-taubah. 3) Neither (a) nor (b) are correct.

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e) If a person was reading surat At-taubah and another surah in consequent orders in the Quran they should NOT: 1) Joining the previous surah with surat At-taubah without stopping 2) Apply As-sakit rule between the two surahs 3) Stop at the last surah, take a breath, say al-basmalah and then start reading surat At-taubah. f) There are three ways of applying al-basmalah between 2 surahs: 1) Finish reading the last surah, then stop, then say al-basmalah then stop then start reading the next surah. 2) In one breath, finish reading the last surah, say al-basmalah and start reading the next surah. 3) Finish reading the last surah and say al-basmalah in one breath, then stop then start reading the next surah.

2) Explin why: a) A person should say Al-Istitha out loud if others are present who will hear his recitation. b) Should you not say al-basmalah if the if the first verse to be read from begins with the name of shaitaan or with a preposition referring to him. c) A person should NOT join saying al-istiatha with the first verse of recitation that mentions Allaah or one of His Attibutes or a preposition referring to Him. d) The reader cannot finish reading the last verse in a surah nd then saying al-basmalah in one breath.

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3) Match the left column with the right column: A If the first verse to start reading from starts with the nme of Allaah or one of his attributes then the user has: The reader started to read the surah 3 ayaat in and chose not to say al-basmalah then he has: B 2 choices: (1) saying al-istiatha and start reading in one breath (2) saying al-istiatha, stopping, then start reading. (1) Saying al-istiatha, stopping, saying al-basmalah, stopping, start reading; (2) Saying al-istiatha, al-basmalah and start reading in one breath; (3) Saying al-istiatha, stopping, saying al-basmalah and start reading in one breath; (4) Saying al-istiatha and albasmalah in one breath, stopping then start reading (1)Saying al-istiatha, stopping, saying al-basmalah, stopping, start reading; (2) Saying al-istiatha, al-basmalah and start reading in one breath; (3) Saying al-istiatha, stopping, saying al-basmalah and start reading in one breath. 2 choices: (1) saying al-istiatha, stopping then start reading (2) saying al-istiatha then saying al-basmalah.

The reader has a number of choices when saying al-istiatha at the beginning of surah:

The reader has a number of choices when saying albasmalah between two surahs:

4) When should we do the following things: a) Repet saying al-istiatha b) Say al-istiatha out loudly c) Say al-istiatha silently 5) What are the benefits of: a) saying al-istiatha when intend to read the Quran b) saying al-istiatha out loud 6) Discuss the following: a) If al-basmalah is verse of the Quran or not b) If al-istiatha is obligatory or not

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is a noon that does not have any vowel ( ) on it. That


means it does not have nor nor . occurs in nouns and verbs, in the middle and at the end of the word. It also occurs in prepositions and particles ( In the Quran

) , but only at then end of the word.


remains unchanged in its

is written with a sukoon on it such as:


Written form ) ( :
written form

When continuing the reading ) ( : It is pronounced When stopping at the word ) ( : It is pronounced

is a term for an extra that is not used for emphasises and found at the end of nouns only:

Written form ) ( : This type of


in written form;


( : a

is absent is

When continuing the reading )


pronounced;

( : It is either abandoned (ie not pronounced) such as ) ( OR it is changed to an such as ) ( .


When stopping at the word )

can be ) . Such as:

or )

or )

..

The Difference Between and


1) It occurs in the middle of a word and at the end of it

It occurs at the end of the word only.

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2) It occurs in the noun ( ) , the prepositions and particles ( ) and the verb ( ) 3) It is pronounced when continuing to read after it ) ( and when stopping on it ) ( .

It occurs in nouns (

) only.

It is only pronounced when continuing to read the word after it ) (.

4) It is pronounced and is written in It is pronounced but is absent from the Quran. the noun in its written form. 5) It can be a letter part of the formation of the word and it can be an extra letter. It is an extra letter.

There are four tajweed rules that equally apply to

and

Its letters are:

Its letters are:

Its letters are:

" "

Its letters are:


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linguistically: It means clear or obvious. Applied Definition: It is pronouncing the letter from its correct
articulation point without an apparent

( Letters)
There are six letters which when they immediately follow

or

cause to be pronounced clearly. The letters are:


These letters are known as ( the throat letters) because they are articulated from the throat.

How To Apply Rule On Its Six Letters


When or appears immediately after one of the above letters, whether in one word or in between two words, then pronounce clearly.

Letters

In One Word

Between 2 words

With

..

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Reason for Applying rule on These Letters


The reason is the far distance between the articulation point of these

) and the articulation point of the noon sakinah . So applying ruling would not be suitable because there is no reason for it, nor would ruling be suitable as it close to the ruling, nor would ruling as its a means to apply the ruling.
letters (

Levels of Rule

rule has three levels depending on the distance between letter and the noon sakinah: Level 1 for because they are the furtherst distance from the noon sakinah. Level 2 for because they have the intermediate distance from the noon sakinah. Level 3 for because they have the closest distance to the noon sakinah.

This type of is known as

because the articulation point of these letters is from the throat . appears in the Quran as a noon with sukoon on it such as: . As for it appears as ( ) or ) ( or ) ( .

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or

linguistically: It means change.


or

with a when followed by the letter .


Applied Definition: It means changing

to a hidden

( Letters)
rule has only one letter: ) ( . When the letter ) ( immediately follows or in one word or in between two words (i.e. one word ends with or and the immediate word after it begins with the letter ) ) ( is then applied.

How To Apply Rule On Its Letter


When the letter ) ( immediately follows or in one word or in between two words the following should take place: 1) Do not pronounce

or at all, rather read it s a

;
2) Hide this by not pressing on its articulation point (the lips); 3) Pronounce this

with a of two counts long. This is a characteristic of the .

ruling and ruling when practiced verbally, as quoted by .


There is no difference between

Reason For Applying Ruling:


The reason is applied on this letter and not one of the other rules is because:

is difficult to pronounce and requires extra effort in pronouncing the clearly and then pronouncing .
There is no reason to apply ruling due to the far distance between the articulation points of the letters involved.

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Thus, hiding becomes ideal, and to achieve it had to be changed into a articulation point and

because all three letters share the same shares with . )

appears in the Quran as a noon with a small full size

on

it such as: As for

the appears as a small full size ) one of the vowels:

instead of

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linguistically: It means merging. Applied Definition: It means merging a non-voweled letter with another

voweled letter so that the two letters become one emphasized letter of the second type.

( Letters)
rule has six letters: word " " .
and they form the

When one of the letters immediately follow

in between two words (i.e. one word ends with the immediate word after it begins with one of the above letters) then rule is applied. can only be applied between two words and not within one word.

or or and

Divisions Of Rule
( without
Its letters are: ) is divided into two groups with regards to saying it with or without

( with
Its letters are:

" "


This type of is applied with a letters of the word .

of 2 counts long. The four

letters that make up this sub-group make up the

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How To Apply On Its Letters If one of the letters ( " " ) immediately follow in between two words then do not pronounce ; instead pronounce the letter after it with a of two counts
long. If one of the

letters (

" " )

immediately

follow in between two words then do not pronounce instead pronounce one of instead of

vowels ( i.e. pronounce instead of

and

instead of

) then pronounce the letter

after it with a of two counts long. Examples:

] 8 : [ ] 53 : [ ] 02 : [ ] 1 : [


This type of is applied with out a the

. The two letters of letters that make up this sub-group are .

How To Apply On Its Letters If one of the letters ( ) immediately follow or in between two words then do not pronounce or ; instead pronounce the letter after it without a .
Examples:

] 8 : [ ] 38 : [

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is a sound that comes from the nasal. It is a basic characteristic of ( including ) and the letter ) ( . Its length is 2
counts.

Complete and Incomplete

is also divided with regards to it being complete and incomplete:

( Complete ) : Is when the letter that is being merged ( i.e. and ) itself disappears completely and so do its characteristics ( including ) .
Its letters are: Thus the and

) (

) (

) (

) (

and disappeared along with their characteristics.

that is present when and are merged with is from the second and ; because the first were merged completely and so the letters themselves
without any vowel on it, and

appears in the Quran as a


the letter after it has a (

) on it, such as:

] 0 : [

] 38 : [

...
] 55 : [

As for the it appears as two small lines one following the other, and the letter after it has a (

) on it, such as:

:[

...

] 246 : [

]58

( Incomplete ) : Is when the letter that is being merged ( i.e. and ) itself disappears but its characteristics ( including ) remain.
Its letters are :

) (

) (

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Thus when

and are merged with and the and disappear but their characteristics ( i.e. )
without any vowel on it, or a

remains, hence the merge is incomplete.

appears in the Quran as a

and the letter after it does NOT have a (

) on it, such as:

] 6 : [

] 7 : [

Overall There Are Three Types Of


If the two divisions of types of :

are merged together, there would be three

. .

(complete

with ) its letters are with ) its letters are without )its letters
: With

(incomplete

are .

(complete

Examples for the three types of The letter With

Type of


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...


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... ... ... ...

Reason For Applying Ruling


As for merging a with a it is because of the resemblance between them. They both have the same articulation point and the same characteristics because they are the same letter. As for merging with the rest of letters it is because of the closeness of the articulation point of the letters involved (i.e

with

).

The reason remains with the letters strong characteristic.

" " is because it is a


is to make it easy

The reason why is removed with the letters to pronounce. Pronouncing some hardship.

with these letters causes the reader

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Exceptions When Ruling Does NOT Apply


There are occasions when does not apply even when one of the

"

letters immediately follow

or :

Exception 1

rule does not apply if one of letters immediately follow in one word. This only occurs in four words in the Quran:

Whenever it occurs: Whenever it occurs: [4: [ 99 :

In these cases is pronounced clearly without a and it is not permissible to apply rule as it would confuse the intended meaning. This rule is called (absolute clearness). It is called so because it is not from

] ]

nor of any of the other

rules.

Also falls under this exception:

[1:

and

is not applied when reading

in continuum with the next letter (note that and both


end with

[ 1-0 : ]

). That was how it was read by . This rule is also called .

is merged with in [ 1 : ] and [ 1 : ] in accordance with how it was read by .


However, Exception 2

[ 07 :

Here we read then pause without taking a breath then read: . The is known as ] (stopping without taking a breath). The is what prevents from taking place. That is how it was read by is also called

. This rule

.
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linguistically: It means hiding, concealment. Applied Definition: It means the pronunciation of a noon sakinah (stripped of any shaddah) or tanween in a state somewhere between idhaar and idgham, with a ghunnh .

( Letters)
rule has 15 letters:
They are the remaining letters of the Arabic alphabet after removing:

the six letters of ( idhaar)

) ( the six letters of ( idgham) ) ( the one letter of ( iqlaab) ) (

The letter alif is not included as it does not appear after (noon sakinah).

How To Apply Rule On Its Letters


When one of the letters:

) (
immediately follows words,

or in one word or in between two

is not pronounced, rather it is hidden but its characteristic the ( ghunnah) of two counts long remains. The noon

sakinah is hidden by leaving a small gap between the tip of the tongue and
the gums of the top teeth, so that the tongue is a little bit further away from the noon articulation point and close to the articulation point of the following letter to be pronounced. One should be careful as not to make the following mistakes when trying to apply the ikhfaa rule:
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Not to stick the tongue againt the gums of the top teeth so that a clear noon is said; Not to stretch the vowel that is on the letter before the

noon so that a full vowel is said. For example: reading


as

or

as

When applying ikhfaa one should say the ghunnah with tafkheem (fatness) if the letter following the noon sakinah is one of the tafkheem letters (

) . The level of tafkheem of the ghunnah should be the same as the level of the tafkheem letter with the being the strongest then then then then . For example:

[Nooh: 15] Anaam: 93]


[Al-Haqah: 6].

[Al-

As for the rest of the ikhfaa letters the ghunnah should be said with tarqeeq (thinness). This kind of ( ikhfaa ) is called ) because:

( al-ikhfaa al-haqeeqi

to differentiate it from another type of called

(ikhfaa ) more than in

( al-ikfaa ash-shafawee); the hiding is achieved in or ( al-meem as-saakinah).

Reason For Applying Ruling


The reason is applied on its 15 letters is because, the articulation point of these letters are not very far from or like the idhaar letters, neither are they very close like the idgham letters. Therefore, since there is no cause for applying idhaar or idgham, an middle rule has been applied which is ikhfaa.

How Ruling Appears In The Quran

The noon sakinah does not have any vowel on it and the letter after it does not have a shaddah on it. As for the tanween then the double fatha,

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kesrah and dhammah are not aligned over each other and are not directly over the letter, and the letter after the tanween does not have shaddah on it. This is also how incomplete idgham appears in the Quran.

Levels of Rule

The ikhfaa rule has three levels of strength dependoing on the how close or far the ikhfaa letter is from the noon sakinah and tanween. The closer the ikhfaa letters are from the noon sakinah and tanween the stronger it is hidden (i.e. the stronger the ikhfaa is):

Level 1 Strongest When the letters follow the noon sakinah


Level 2 Middle When the letters follow the noon sakinah
Level 3 Weakest When the letters the noon sakinah

follow

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Exercise 3
Put ( ) or ( X ) in front of the following sentences, correcting those sentences that are wrong: 1) The ruling on learning tajweed is (fardh kifayah) obligatory upon Muslims as a whole like learning the other sciences the Muslims need ( ) 2) One example of in tajweed is that the length of said shorter than their exact length.

or

are
( )

3) are six and are called because they are pronounced from the back of the mouth. ( ) 4) Some of the scholars of tajweed consider as an independent level of recitation and they put it before the level. 5) One example of moon letters. 6) There is one way of obtaining the science of tajweed through narration. ( 7) The letters of are then then ) ( )

in tajweed

is not pronouncing the letter

in the

) ( )

depending on the distance they are from .(


8) There are more than three pillars of recitation, if the recitor falls short of one of these pillars then their recitation will be considered odd by the scholars. 9)

appears at the end of nouns only and it is


not have any vowel on it.

noon that does ( ) ( )

10) is dropped and it is changed to an

11) rule is applied on because of the close distance between the articulation point of the letters and .( )

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Exercise 4
1) Put ( ) or ( X ) in front of the following sentences, correcting those sentences that are wrong: a) Idhaar is only applied in between two words b) Idgham can be with ghunnah and without ghunnah c) Al-Qalb and ikhfaa are only applied in between two words ( ( ( ) ) )

d) Idhaar is to pronounce each letter clearly from its articulation point with ghunnah ( ) e) Idgham with ghunnah is applied in one word but idgham without ghunnah is only applied in between two words ( f) Al-Qalb is changing noon saakinah or tanween into a meem with ghunnah when proceeded by baa saakinah ( ) )

g) Noon sakinah is a letter that does not have a vowel on it and it is read when continuing the reading and when stopping at the word ( ) h) Tanween is a noon sakinah that is read when continuing the reading and when stopping at the word ( ) i) Idhaar, ikhfaa, idgham and iqlab are only applied in one word ( )

j) Noon sakinah occurs in nouns, verbs and prepositions whereas tanween only occurs in nouns ( ) 2) Which of rule is applied on the noon sakinah and tanween if one of the following letters appears after the noon sakinah and tanween:


3) What is the difference between: c) Noon sakinah and tanween d) Complete idgham and incomplete idgham e) Ikhfaa and idgham 4) Fill in the blank spaces with appropriate words:

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a) Noon sakinah and tanween must be pronounced clearly without ghunnah if one of the following letters appears after them: ______ , ______, ______, _____, _____, _____ b) Idgham means ______________________________. For example __________ . c) Depending on the distance between idhaar and its _______ it has three __________, they are __________ for ________ and ________, _______ for ________ and ________, _______ for ________ and ________ . d) _________ and _______are the exceptions of idgham.

5) Define the following terms with examples: c) Al-qalb d) Al-Idhaar e) As-sakt

6) Explain why: a) idgham is complete with the letters (

) but incomplete with

the letters ( ) ? b) the Noon sakinah and tanween is pronounced clearly when followed by one of al-halqee letters ? c) the Noon sakinah and tanween read as meem when followed by the letter ( ) d) must the Noon sakinah and tanween be pronounced clearly in the following words (

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Rules of Meem Sakinah

Meem sakinah is a meem that does not have any of the three
vowels ( ) on it. That means it does not have

( fetha ) nor

(dhamah ) nor ( Kesrah).A meem sakinah occurs in nouns and verbs, in the middle and at the end of the word. It also occurs in prepositions and particles ( ) . Exmples:

There are three tajweed rules that apply to meem sakinah :

Al-Ikhfaa Ash-Shafawee
Its letter is:

Meem Sakinah
rules

Al-Idgham Ash-Shafawee
Its letter is:

Its letters are the rest of the Arabic alphabet

Al-Idhahaar Ash-Shafawee

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Al-Ikhfaa Ash-Shafawee
Al-Ikhfaa Ash-Shafawee
is when the letter ) ( immediately follows meem sakinah in between two words. It does not matter whether this sukoon that is on the meem is part of the make up of the word (sukoon asliyah ) or not (aridha li sukoon ) AND this meem does not have a shaddah on it. The ikhfaa shafawee rule is only applied between two words (i.e. one word ends with meem sakinah and the immediate word after it begins with the letter

) ) ( .

Al-Ikhfaa Ash-Shafawee Letters


The ikhfaa shafawee rule has only one letter: )

( .

How To Apply The Ikhfaa Shafawee Rule On Its Letter When the letter ) ( immediately follows meem sakinah in between two

words hide this meem by not pressing on its articulation point (the lips), with a ghunnah of two counts long. This ghunnah is a characteristic of the meem. There is no difference between the iqlab rule and the ikhfaa shafawee rule when practiced verbally, as quoted by Imam Al-Jazeree.

Reason For Applying The Ikhfaa Shafawee Rule


The ikhfaa shafawee rule is applied on its letter because the letter ( ) and the letter ( ) share the same articulation point as well as having many characteristics in common. Thus idgham and idhar would be too difficult to apply. Also it is called ikhfaa shafawee because the articulation point of the letter ( ) is the lips (shefetaan). The ikhfaa shafawee appears in the Quran as a meem without a sukoon and the letter after it does not have shaddah on it. For example:

[Surah A-feel : 4 ] [Surah Ar-Rad : 33 ] [Surah Ael-E-Imran : 101 ]

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Al-Idgham Ash-Shafawee
Al-Idgham Ash-Shafawee
is when a meem sakinah is immedeiately followed by a meem mutaharika.

Al-Idgham Ash-Shafawee Letters


Its letter is: a meem mutaharika i.e. a meem that has one of the three vowels on it, fetha, dhamah or kesrah.

How To Apply Al-Idgham Ash-Shafawee Rule On Its Letter

When a meem sakinah is immedeiately followed by a meem mutaharika merge the two meems and pronounce them as one meem, with a ghunnah of two counts long. For example:

[Surah Al-Baqarah : 141 ] [Surah Al-Baqarah : 249]


called such because:

Al-Idgham ash-shafawee is also known as idgham mithlain sagheeran. It is

Idgham the meem sakinah has been inserted into the meem mutaharika. Mithlain the two letters that have merged together are the same they
have the same articulation point and the same characteristics. Sagheeran a meem sakinah occurs before a meem mutaharika.

As for being called idgham shafawee with ghunnah: Shafawee because the articulation point of the letter meem is the lips and to differentiate it from the idgham that is applied on the noon sakinah. With ghunnah because the ghunnah is coming from the second letter, thus this is a complete idgham.

Al-Idgham ash-shafawee appears in the Quran as a meem without a sukoon and the second meem has a shaddah on it.
For example:


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Al-Idhaar Ash-Shafawee
Al-Idhaar Ash-Shafawee
is pronouncing a meem sakinah clearly from its correct articulation point without a ghunnah, or shaddah, or sakt, and nor stopping at the word when immediately followed by one of the idhaar letters.

Al-Idharr Ash-Shafawee Letters


Its letters are the rest of the Arabic alphabet other than the letters (

) and ( ) . Therefore its letters are 26 letters.

How To Apply Al-Idharr Ash-Shafawee Rule On Its Letters

When a meem sakinah is immediately followed by one of the 26 idhaar ashshafawee letters, the meem should be clearly pronounced from its correct articulation point without ghunna.

Al-Idhaar ash-shafawee is applied in one word such as:


Or in between two words such as:

[Surah Al-Fatiha : 1 ]

[Surah Al-Fatiha : 7 ]

Reason For Applying Al-Idhaar Ash-Shafawee Rule

The idhar ash-shafawee rule is applied on its 26 letters is because of far distance between the letter ( ) articulation point and the articulation point of most of its 26 letters. Also because of the differences between their characteristics. Is is called al-idhaar ash-shafawee because:

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Al-idhaar because the letter meem is pronounced clearly without a ghunna. Ash-Shafawee because the articulation point of the meem is the lips. The word shiffah means the lips, so shafawee means orally or it is coming from the shiffah (lips). Al-Idhaar ash-shafawee appears in the Quran as a meem with a sukoon
affirmed on it. For example:

[Surah Ash-shams : 1 ] [Surah Nooh : 1 ]

NOTE:

Extra care needs to be taken when applying the idhaar ash-shafawee rule on the letter meem followed by either of the letters ( ) or ( ) . The meem sakinah needs to be pronounced clearly by ensuring the lips are completely closed before pronouncing the next letter and not applying the ikhfaa rule. This is because one is more inclined to apply the ikhfaa rule when either of the letters ( ) or ( ) follows the meem due to the closeness of their articulation points. For example:

[Surah Al-Kafiroon : 6 ] [Surah An-Naba : 3 ]

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Exercise 5
1) Put ( ) or ( X ) in front of the following sentences, correcting those sentences that are wrong: k) Al-ikhfaa ash-shafawee is only applied in between two words ( ) )

l) Al-Idgham ash-shafawee is merging a meem sakinah with a meem mutaharika and pronouncing them as one meem without ghunnah ( m) Al-Qalb and al-ikhfaa ash-shafawee are applied in the same way practically ( )

n) Al-Idhaar ash-shafawee is to pronounce each letter clearly from its articulation point without ghunnah when a noon sakinah is followed by the letter (

o) Idgham mithalin sagheeran is another term to mean al-ikhfaa ashshafawee ( ) p) Al-Ikhfaa ash-shafawee is changing noon saakinah into a meem with ghunnah when proceeded by baa saakinah ( ) q) Meem sakinah is the letter meem with sukoon on it, whereas meem mutaharika is a meem that has on it a fetha, dhamma or kesrah( ) r) The meem should be read with a ghunnah of two or four counts long when stopping at a word that ends with a meem ( ) 2) What is the difference between: f) Al-Igham ash-shafawee and idgham mithalin sagheeran g) Ikhfaa and ikhfaa ash-shafawee 3) Fill in the blank spaces with appropriate words: a) Al-ikhfa ash-shafawee is when a ______ ________ is proceeded by ________ in ____________________________. The meem is then hidden by not _____ __ _____ _______ and read with a _________.

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b) A meem mutahariak is a meem that has a ______, _______ or ______ on it, whereas a meem sakinah does not have any of the three vowels on it. c) Al-idhaar ash-shafawee is applied on ____ letters excluding _____ and ____ which are the letters of ________ _________ and __________ _________ consecutively. 4) Give an example of f) Al-Idhaar ash-shafawee g) Al-ikhfaa ash-shafawee h) Al-idghaam ash-shafawee 5) Explain why: e) Al-ikhfaa ash-shafawee is applied with the letter ( ) and not with any other letter. f) Extra care needs to be taken when applying al-idhaar ash-shafawee ) and ( ). g) Al-Idgham ash-shafawee is called as such. with the letters ( 6) How do the following appear in the Quraan: a) Al-Idhaar ash-shafawee b) Al-Ikhfaa ash-shafawee c) Al-Idghaam ash-shafawee

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Mock Exam
1) Put ( ) or ( X ) in front of the following sentences, correcting those sentences that are wrong: s) When reading al-basmalah in between two surahs has two ways : stopping at the last surah then saying al-basmalah then stopping then starting the next surah , ending the last surah , stopping then saying al-basmalah in one breath ( ) t) Idgham can be with ghunnah such as such as

and without ghunnah ( ) )

u) Noon sakinah and tanween is a noon that does not have any vowel on it(

v) If the reader had to stop reading the Quran due to a necessity such as coughing or sneezing then they should not repeat saying al-istiatha ( ) w) are exempt from idgham so that the intended meaning would not be confused ( )
, ,

x) Al-ikhfaa ash-shafawee is applied in between two letters ) ( and

) (

y) Pronouncing a noon sakinah clearly from its articulation point without ghunnah is idhaar ash-shfawee ( ) 2) Fill in the blank spaces with appropriate words: a)

is an exemption of idgham and it is called _____________ .

b) Al-Ikhfaa has three levels depending on the distance between the letters involved and its strongest at the letters ___ , ___ , ___, the weakest being at the letters ____ , ____. c) ____ is present in nouns, verbs and prepositions while _________ is present only in nouns. d) The ghunnah is a characteristic of the letters ___ and ___ and it is always ____ counts long.
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e) _______ and _______ are exceptions of idgham such as __________ and _________ consecutively. 3) Give the reason as to why: a) Extra care needs to be taken when applying the idhaar ash-shafawee rule on the letter meem followed by either of the letters ( ) or ( ). b) Complete idgham has a ghunnah in

c) Al-Istiatha should not be said when beginning to read a verse that begins with Allahs name, one of His attributes or a preposition referring to Him. 4) Mention two differences between: a) Al-ikhfaa ash-shafawee and ikhfaa b) Complete idgham and incomplete idgham c) Al-Idhaar al-mutlaq and al-idhaar

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6) Extract two of the following rules from the following verses: a) Incomplete idgham with ghunnah b) Complete idgham with ghunnah c) Complete idgham without ghunnah d) Ikhfaa sha-fawee e) Idgham shafawee

Mock Exam Answer


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1)

z) Wrong, there are three ways of saying al-basmalah in between two

surahs.

aa) Wrong the examples should be the other way round (with ghunnah such
as

and without ghunnah such as

bb)Correct. cc) Correct. dd)Correct. ee) Wrong )

( and ) (

ff) Wrong, pronouncing a meem sakinah clearly from its articulation point without ghunnah is idhaar ash-shfawee)

2)

a) Idhaar al-mutlaq. f) g) h) i)

and

Noon sakinah, tanween.


and , two counts long.

As-sakt and al-idhaar al-mutlaq ,

and

(and there are other examples too) 3) d) See the NOTE: in al-idghaar ash-shafawee notes. e) Because the ghunnah is coming from the second letter into which the merging is taking place. f) See NOTE ONE: of al-istiatha note

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