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8 5 8 %8 7= 9 8 %8! > C5
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- > :
+. '5 (GHHIJKLMN OPQRHI).
2. -> % (GSIRTLHIH LJ .JKPJMKLPJ).
4. -> ;$$ (URMVVMR GSIRTLHIH).
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) 6; $ $ 5 9 ($ ! 89
$ $ 5 ! >5 ; 8 ;55 .
.). A E! ! > 68$ $ ( $ 89
;9 7= $; D6 $65 $
$).
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8 889 5 ; 9 >5 ;
>$ ; ; 8 > 7 6$8$.
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HKMKIVIJKH! > ;89 ;! 57 $ . .).
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( 6 $! > 9 > . ).
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8$ 7 6 7=$ $ .
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5! 6 =$ .
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+4 ;5; 8r .
? URMVVMR GSIRTLHIH ( . (. ) > 685 85 $
;$$ ;5; 8! $7=5 %67 8 89 8 ;$$ 65 . h5
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ESSENTIAL COURSE
UNIT ONE
SPEECH PATTERNS
+. If I were you, . H[PQNq zIIZ MJ IaI PJ K[MK `Pa.
(Cf: .s . MV eINN! . H[MNN [MxI M eMNzLJg [PNLqMa.)
.s . [Mq KLVI! . H[PQNq gP KP K[I K[IMKRI KPJLg[K.
.s eI eIRI [QJgRa! eI H[PQNq [MxI M `LKI.
.s aPQ qLq JPK ePRz IJPQg[! aPQ ePQNqJlK gIK gPPq VMRzH.
.s dJJI eIRI LJ vPHTPe! H[I ePQNq RLJg VI QZ.
.s K[I eIMK[IR eIRI sLJI! eI TPQNq gP sPR M eMNz.
2. . RMK[IR NLzI the idea of having M TQZ Ps KIM K[IJ.
. qLHNLzI K[I LqIM Ps HKMaLJg MK [PVI PJ HQT[ M sLJI qMa.
u[I T[LNqRIJ NLzIq K[I LqIM Ps gPLJg sPR M eMNz.
dNN Ps QH NLzIq K[I LqIM Ps HZIJqLJg K[I qMa Pss PQK Ps KPeJ.
wI qLHNLzIq K[I LqIM Ps HKMaLJg LJ KPeJ K[I e[PNI HQVVIR.
w[a qPJlK aPQ NLzI K[I LqIM Ps [MxLJg qLJJIR MK Va ZNMTI{
EXERCISES
I. Rewrite these sentences, using Pattern 1:
GSMVZNI: M) .s LK LH TPNq! eIlNN ZQK PJ PQR eMRV TPMKH.
.s LK eIRI TPNq! eI H[PQNq ZQK PJ PQR eMRV TPMKH.
`) .s Va sRLIJqH TPVI KP HII VI! .lNN `I xIRa gNMq.
.s Va sRLIJqH TMVI KP HII VI! . H[PQNq `I xIRa gNMq.
+. .s K[I `Pa LH [QJgRa! .lNN gLxI [LV HPVIK[LJg KP IMK. 2. .s K[I HQZZIR LH RIMqa! eIlNN HLK qPeJ KP KM`NI. 4.
.s . gIK M gPPq VMRz sPR Va TPVZPHLKLPJ! .lNN `I [MZZa. 3. .s vMRa [MH VPRI sRII KLVI! H[IlNN RIMq VPRI. *. .s
K[I eIMK[IR T[MJgIH! eIlNN gP `PMKLJg. ,. .s . [MxI JP PZZPRKQJLKa KP HII [LV! .lNN `I xIRa HPRRa. 7. .s LK
qPIHJlK RMLJ! . H[MJlK [MxI KP KMzI Va QV`RINNM eLK[ VI. b. .s H[I sLJLH[IH IxIRaK[LJg PJ pRLqMa! H[I ePJlK
[MxI KP ePRz PJ /MKQRqMa. 2. .s aPQ TMKT[ M TPNq! aPQlNN [MxI KP HKMa MK [PVI. +). .s K[I T[LNq qPIHJlK qP e[MK
. KINN [LV! .lNN [MxI KP ZQJLH[ [LV.
II. Answer the foIIowing questions:
+. w[MK ePQNq! aPQ qP Ls aPQ eIRI NMKI sPR aPQR NIHHPJ{ 2. w[IRI ePQNq aPQ gP Ls aPQ [Mq M [PNLqMa
JPe{ 4. w[P(V) ePQNq aPQ LJxLKI Ls aPQ MRRMJgIq M ZMRKa{ 3. |Pe NPJg ePQNq LK KMzI aPQ KP eMNz [PVI
sRPV K[I }JLxIRHLKa{ *. w[LT[ ePQNq aPQ ZRIsIR KP gP KP! K[I dRK u[IMKRI PR K[I 0PNH[PL u[IMKRI{ ,. wPQNq
aPQ sIIN gNMq Ls LK eIRI HZRLJg JPe{ 7. wPQNq aPQ NLzI KP gP KP K[I qLHTP MsKIR K[I NIHHPJH{ b. w[MK sLNV
ePQNq aPQ NLzI KP HII{
III. Rewrite each of these sentences, using Pattern 2:
GSMVZNI: u[I gLRN K[PQg[K K[MK LK ePQNq `I gPPq KP HKQqa M sPRILgJ NMJgQMgI.
u[I gLRN NLzIq K[I LqIM Ps HKQqaLJg M sPRILgJ NMJgQMgI.
+. u[I HKQqIJKH K[PQg[K K[MK LK ePQNq `I QHIsQN KP ePRz LJ K[I NM` KeLTI M eIIz. 2. wI NLzIq K[I
HQggIHKLPJ K[MK eI H[PQNq xLHLK PQR HLTz sRLIJq. 4. u[I T[LNqRIJ sPQJq K[MK LK ePQNq `I LJKIRIHKLJg KP gP PJ MJ
ISTQRHLPJ. 3. wI K[PQg[K K[MK LK ePQNqJlK `I gPPq KP HKMa LJqPPRH MNN qMa NPJg. *. wPQNqJlK aPQ NLzI KP gP KP
K[I K[IMKRI KPJLg[K{ ,. dNN Ps QH K[PQg[K K[MK LK ePQNq `I JLTI KP MRRMJgI M ZMRKa MK PQR }JLxIRHLKa. 7. .H K[IRI
MJaPJI MgMLJHK PQR HZIJqLJg K[I [PNLqMaH LJ K[I [PNLqMa TMVZ{ b. wI K[PQg[K K[MK LK ePQNq `I gPPq KP gP KP
K[I TLJIVM MsKIR K[I NIHHPJH.
IV. TransIate these sentences into EngIish:
+. ~ 8 ! 8 D $6 ;. 2. "8 8 D E
3
! N" (! 5%; " #$$ ;5; 8. ".! +2,*; <. F! #$" F. dJ GJgNLH[ URMVVM. ".!
A=! +2b*; _. #. \RMTKLTMN GJgNLH[ URMVVM. ".! @<B! 2))4. %au&han&'iya (" ) and other&" d URMVVMR Ps K[I GJgNLH[ iMJgQMgI.
iIJLJgRMq! +2*2.
3
6! 8 E 8 $6. 4. ~ 8 > ! 8 9 $
=. 3. ~ 8 ; ;$! D 8 ; 6D$ $. *. 6
9 $6! $ 8 6 %C (sLgQRIH). ,. ; $ 8
F8$! 8 $ 8 5 >. 7. <$ $ 6 ; $86
6 ; ;.
V. Act out the diaIogue. Make up your own after the modeI:
n L z : w[MK ePQNq aPQ qP Ls aPQ [Mq M `PMK{
u V : . ePQNq HMLN LJ LK Ps TPQRHI.
n L T z : w[IRI ePQNq aPQ HMLN{
u P V : dNN MRPQJq K[I TPMHKH Ps 0RLKMLJ. . ePQNq IxIJ KRa KP HMLN MTRPHH K[I dKNMJKLT Ls Va `PMK eIRI
`Lg IJPQg[.
n L T z : w[MK ePQNq aPQ qP Ls aPQR ZMRIJKH qLqJlK NIK aPQ HMLN{
u V : . ePQNq RQJ MeMa sRPV [PVI! . HQZZPHI.
n L T z : w[MK ePQNq aPQ qP Ls aPQR `PMK eIRI eRITzIq LJ M HKPRV{
u P V : . ePQNq gIK qRPeJIq! . HQZZPHI.
n L z : .K LH QHK MH eINN aPQ [MxIJlK gPK M `PMK! . HQZZPHI.
VI. ExpIain the meaning of the foIIowing sayings and iIIustrate them:
+. .s LK eIRI JPK sPR [PZI! K[I [IMRK ePQNq `RIMz. 2. .s K[I ZLNNH eIRI ZNIMHMJK! K[Ia ePQNq JPK `I gLNqIq. 4.
.s K[IRI eIRI JP TNPQqH! eI H[PQNq JPK IJPa K[I HQJ. 3. .s K[LJgH eIRI KP `I qPJI KeLTI MNN ePQNq `I eLHI.
TEXT. ANNE MEETS HER GLASS
u[I T[LNqRIJ sLSIq K[ILR IaIH QZPJ dJJI. dJJI gMIq `MTz! sIINLJg [INZNIHH.
r1Pe! T[LNqRIJ!r `IgMJ vLHH GJqIR`a sLRVNa! raPQ MRI xIRa! xIRa NQTza K[LH KIRV
*
KP [MxI vLHH iMTIa sPR
aPQR JIe KIMT[IR.r
dJJI gMxI M eMKIRa HVLNI. u[I O[LNqRIJlH sMTIH eIRI QJVPxIq.
rvLHH iMTIa!r RIZIMKIq vLHH GJqIR`a eLK[ IVZ[MHLH. rOMJ aPQ HMa K[MK{r
rvLHH iMTIa!r T[PRQHIq K[I TNMHH P`IqLIJKNa.
r\IR[MZH aPQ TPQNq HMa lUPPq VPRJLJgl KP aPQR JIe KIMT[IR{r HQggIHKIq vLHH GJqIR`a LJ MJ LVZIRMKLxI
KPJI.
rUPPq VPRJLJg. vLHH iMTIa!r TMVI K[I ZPNLKI T[PRQH.
rUPPq VPRJLJg! T[LNqRIJ!r RIHZPJqIq dJJI LJ M xPLTI e[LT[ `PRI JP RIHIV`NMJTI KP [IR PeJ.
vLHH GJqIR`a VPKLPJIq KP K[I T[LNqRIJ KP KMzI K[ILR HIMKH. r. H[PQNq gLxI PQK ZMZIR MJq TPNPQRIq ZIJTLNH!r
HMLq vLHH GJqIR`a! rMH HPPJ MH aPQlxI TMNNIq K[I RIgLHKIR
,
. jIIZ K[IV `QHa e[LNI aPQlRI sLJqLJg aPQR eMa
M`PQK K[I TQZ`PMRqH
7
MJq HP PJ.r
/[I gMxI M HeLsK NPPz RPQJq K[I TNMHH. r. ISZITK aPQ KP [INZ vLHH iMTIa LJ IxIRa eMa!r HMLq K[I
[IMqVLHKRIHH. rnlaPQ [IMR VI! dRJPNq{r
u[I NLKKNI `Pa MqqRIHHIq! e[P [Mq `IIJ TRPHHLJg MJq QJTRPHHLJg [LH IaIH LJ MJ QgNa VMJJIR sPR K[I
IJPaVIJK Ps [LH JILg[`PQRH! NPPzIq HQLKM`Na TRIHKsMNNIJ.
r.s . eIRI aPQ! . H[PQNq zIIZ MJ IaI PJ K[MK `Pa!r VQRVQRIq vLHH GJqIR`a. r0RPzIJ [PVI `RPK[IR LJ
0PRHKMN
b
MJq HPVI RMK[IR qRIMqsQN [M`LKHcr
dJJI NPPzIq eLK[ sRIH[ LJKIRIHK MK dRJPNq MJq K[PQg[K [I NPPzIq fQLKI qLssIRIJK sRPV e[MK vLHH GJqIR`a
HMLq M`PQK [LV. pMR KPP LJJPTIJK MJq MZZNIT[IIzIq KP [MxI HQT[ M RITPRq. 0QK IxIJ MH H[I NPPzIq! H[I HMe
[LH ZLJz sMTI ISZRIHH [LH HTPRJ Ps vLHH GJqIR`a e[P eMH gLxLJg [IR sLJMN VIHHMgIH KP K[I JIe KIMT[IR.
r0RIMz
2
MK KIJ sPRKasLxI! qIMR!r HMLq K[I [IMqVLHKRIHH. rOPVI HKRMLg[K KP K[I HKMss RPPV. . eLNN eMLK K[IRI
*
KIRV n
/T[PPN KIRVH LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJ MRI MRRMJgIq LJ K[I sPNNPeLJg eMa:
}HQMNNa TMNNIq dZZRPSLVMKI qMKIH
K[I sLRHK KIRV the antumn term /IZK * nIT. 2)
K[I HITPJq KIRV the winter term or spring term mMJ. * vMR. 2* (PR NMKIR! qIZIJqLJg PJ K[I qMKI Ps GMHKIR)
K[I K[LRq KIRV the summer term dZR. +* (PR NMKIR) mQN. 2)
,
to can the register LH QHIq PJNa Ls K[I JMVIH MRI TMNNIq PQK MJq K[I ZQZLNH MJHeIR. To mark smb. present/absent LH PsKIJ QHIq LJ TPJJITKLPJ eLK[
RIgLHKRMKLPJ. u[I ISZRIHHLPJ to take the register LH MNHP QHIq LJ K[I HIJHI Ps rVMRzr.
.J HT[PPNH K[I sPRV KIMT[IR VMRzH K[I RIgLHKIR IxIRa VPRJLJg `IsPRI NIHHPJH! MJq PsKIJ `IsPRI MsKIRJPPJ NIHHPJH KPP. u[I RIgLHKIR LH M `PPz eLK[ M NLHK Ps
K[I ZQZLNHl sQNN JMVIH! MqqRIHHIH MJq qMKIH Ps `LRK[. w[IJ VMRzIq! K[I RIgLHKIR LH QHQMNNa zIZK LJ K[I HT[PPN PssLTI! MJq JPK KMzIJ KP NIHHPJH.
.J QJLxIRHLKLIH MJq TPNNIgIH K[IRI LH gIJIRMNNa JP sPRVMN VMRzLJg Ps M RIgLHKIR `a K[I KIMT[LJg HKMss.
7
cupboard n: M TM`LJIK PR TNPHIK sLKKIq eLK[ H[INxIH.
b
Borstal: MJ LJHKLKQKLPJ (NLzI M ZRLHPJ) sPR aPQJg TRLVLJMNH.
2
break n: u[LH LH eLqINa QHIq LJ HT[PPNH KP qIJPKI M +) PR 2)VLJQKI LJKIRxMN LJ K[I VLqqNI Ps K[I VPRJLJg (++++.4)).
Morning break MJq afternoon break MRI QHIq LJ HT[PPNH e[LT[ MNHP [MxI M `RIMz `IKeIIJ MsKIRJPPJ NIHHPJH. Lunch break TMJ `I QHIq MH M KRMJHNMKLPJ
Ps @6D $B. Break VMa MNHP `I QHIq Ps K[I H[PRKIR KLVI MNNPeIq sPR T[MJgLJg NIHHPJH.
Break LH JPK gIJIRMNNa QHIq LJ QJLxIRHLKLIH MJq TPNNIgIH! ISTIZK LJ K[I HIJHI Ps K[I * KP +)VLJQKI `RIMz `IKeIIJ PJI TNMHH MJq K[I JISK! `ITMQHI K[IRI
MRI QHQMNNa JP PK[IR `RIMzH `IHLqIH K[I NQJT[ [PQR.
*
KLNN aPQ PLJ QH. . eLNN LJKRPqQTI aPQ KP K[PHI aPQ qLqJlK VIIK PJ aPQR sLRHK xLHLK |Pe qP aPQ NLzI K[I LqIM Ps
[MxLJg M TQZ Ps KIM K[IJ{ wI JIIq RIHK MsKIR MNN. .s K[IRIlH MJaK[LJg K[MK ZQNIH aPQ! . H[MNN `I LJ Va RPPV.
yPQ TMJ qIZIJq PJ VI. mQHK HIJq M VIHHMgI `a PJI Ps K[I T[LNqRIJ.r
/[I VMqI [IR eMa KP K[I qPPR MJq eMLKIq `IsPRI LK! IaI`RPeH RMLHIq MH H[I KQRJIq [IR gMI QZPJ K[I
T[LNqRIJ. u[Ia gMIq `MTz LJ HPVI `IeLNqIRVIJK
r.H JP PJI gPLJg KP RIVIV`IR [LH VMJJIRH{r MHzIq vLHH GJqIR`a.
wLK[ M JIRxPQH HKMRK dJJI [MHKIJIq sPReMRq KP K[I qPPR! `QK eMH eMxIq `MTz `a M VPxIVIJK Ps [IR
[IMqVLHKRIHHlH [MJq. d qPIJ PR VPRI T[LNqRIJ VMqI M RQH[ KP PZIJ K[I qPPR. d sRITzNIq gLRN eLK[ KeP
HzLJJa RIq ZNMLKH eMH K[I sLRHK KP qRMg PZIJ K[I qPPR. /[I eMH RIeMRqIq `a M HVLNI.
ru[MJz aPQ! qIMR! K[MJz aPQ!r HMLq vLHH GJqIR`a MJq HMLNIq VMIHKLTMNNa LJKP K[I TPRRLqPR. u[IRI TMVI M
sMLJK HLg[ Ps RINLIs MH K[I qPPR TNPHIq `I[LJq [IR! MJq K[I sPRKaHLS KPJgQIH e[LT[ [Mq HP sMR zIZK QJJMKQRMNNa
HLNIJK `IgMJ KP eMg T[IIRsQNNa. dJJI eMKT[Iq K[LH T[MJgI eLK[ HPVI qLHVMa. /[I RIVIV`IRIq eLK[ HQqqIJ
RINLIs HPVI MqxLTI gLxIJ [IR MK TPNNIgI LJ QHK HQT[ M HLKQMKLPJ.
r/KMJq fQLKI HKLNN! `I fQLKI TMNV! MJq gRMqQMNNa K[I T[LNqRIJ eLNN `ITPVI TPJHTLPQH K[MK aPQ MRI eMLKLJg.
1IxIR! JIxIR MKKIVZK KP H[PQK K[IV qPeJ.r
/P dJJI HKPPq [IR gRPQJq eMLKLJg sPR K[I T[MKKIRLJg KP HQ`HLqI. 0QK K[I JPLHI gRIe LJ xPNQVI MH
TPJxIRHMKLPJH `ITMVI VPRI MJLVMKIq. oJI PR KeP T[LNqRIJ RMJ MTRPHH K[I RPPV KP HII K[ILR qLHKMJK sRLIJqH.
ueP NLKKNI `PaH MKKMTzIq IMT[ PK[IR. d T[LNq eLK[ `LRK[qMa TMRqH eMH qLHZNMaLJg K[ILR `IMQKLIH KP MJ MqVLRLJg
TRPeq RPQJq [IR qIHz. dRJPNq [Mq RIVPxIq [LH `NQI ZQNNPxIR MJq eMH MKKIVZKLJg KP ZQNN [LH H[LRK PxIR [LH
[IMq! LJ PRqIR KP H[Pe [LH sRLIJqH M HTMR PJ [LH H[PQNqIR`NMqI.
dVLqHK gRPeLJg T[MPH dJJI RIVMLJIq HLNIJK. /[I NPPzIq MK K[I TNPTz e[LT[ IRzIq sRPV PJI VLJQKI KP
K[I JISK MJq qITLqIq KP NIK LK NIMZ PJTI VPRI `IsPRI H[I M`MJqPJIq [PZI.
oJI TRQV` Ps TPVsPRK! Ls TPVsPRK LK TPQNq `I TMNNIq! RIVMLJIq eLK[ [IR. u[LH eMH MJ PQK`QRHK Ps JMKQRMN
[Lg[ HZLRLKH. |IR ZRIHIJTI! H[I JPKIq! VIMJK JPK[LJg MK MNN KP K[IV.
d T[MLR sINN PxIR! HPVIPJI aINZIq eLK[ ZMLJ! K[IRI eMH M `QRHK Ps NMQg[KIR! MJq dJJI HMe K[I TNPTz QVZ
KP MJPK[IR VLJQKI. dJJI MqxMJTIq LJKP MTKLPJ.
ruP aPQR qIHzHcr H[I RPMRIq! rdJq fQLTzNacr
wLK[ M ZNIMHQRM`NI H[PTz H[I HMe [IR ePRqH P`IaIq. wLK[LJ M VLJQKI PRqIR [Mq RIKQRJIq. IsRIH[Iq `a
K[I `RIMz K[I T[LNqRIJ KQRJIq MKKIJKLxI IaIH QZPJ [IR.
dJJIlH HINsIHKIIV TRIZK `MTz.
(*ro+ rpRIH[ sRPV K[I OPQJKRar `a vLHH IIq)
VOCABULARY NOTES
1. to look , i-t +. $6! ;6! ."g" . NPPzIq (QZ! qPeJ) MK K[I PZZPHLKI [PQHI! `QK HMe JP NLg[KH LJ
LKH eLJqPeH.
/yn" to stare, to gaze
to look VIMJH rKP QHI PJIlH IaIH! KP KRa KP HIIr! ."g" |I NPPzIq MK VI! `QK qLqJlK RITPgJLI VI.
to stare VIMJH rKP NPPz HKIMqLNa! eLK[ eLqIPZIJ IaIH! PsKIJ eLK[ TQRLPHLKa PR HQRZRLHI! PR xMTMJKNa
($8! )r. wI VMa HKMRI MK M ZIRHPJ PR K[LJg! LJKP K[I eMKIR! qLHKMJTI! sLRI PR MJaK[LJg
K[MK [MH qIZK[ (6 $6! ;6! =6/6 ;)! ."g" < HKMRIq MK VI MH Ls . [Mq
MHzIq [LV KP qP HPVIK[LJg LVZPHHL`NI. |I HKMRIq MK K[I sLRI! qIIZ LJ K[PQg[K.
to gaze VIMJH rKP NPPz MK HV`. PR HVK[. (PR LJKP HV`.lH IaIH) QHQ. NPJg MJq HKIMqLNa eLK[ LJKIRIHK! NPxI!
qIHLRI! LJ ePJqIR! MqVLRMKLPJ! IKT.r! ."g" |IlH xIRa sPJq Ps K[LH ZLTKQRI! [I TMJ gMI MK LK sPR [PQRH. u[I
NPxIRH HKPPq eLK[ K[ILR [MJqH TNMHZIq! gMLJg LJKP IMT[ PK[IRlH IaIH.
to look about $6! ;86 $! ."g" . NPPzIq M`PQK! `QK HMe JP ZIPZNI
MJae[IRI.
Look ahead! ;6c
to look (a thing) through $6 .! ."g" iPPz K[RPQg[ K[PHI qPTQVIJKH! ZNIMHI.
to look after 6! 9>6 $n.! $n.! ."g" .lNN NPPz MsKIR K[I T[LNq. nPJlK sPRgIK KP NPPz
MsKIR K[I sNPeIRH e[IJ .lV MeMa.
to look for 6 ;.! .! ."g" .lxI `IIJ NPPzLJg sPR aPQ HLJTI K[I xIRa VPRJLJg.
to look forward to (smth. or doing smth.) D6 .! 6$ >6 ;.!
."g" mP[J NPPzIq sPReMRq KP HIILJg vMRLP MJq [LH eLsI. /KQqIJKH MNeMaH NPPz sPReMRq KP K[ILR [PNLqMaH.
Look here! AD5c ."g" iPPz [IRI! ePQNqJlK LK `I `IKKIR KP HKMa LJqPPRH LJ HQT[ JMHKa eIMK[IR{
2. 6! 8;6 (sPNNPeIq `a MJ MqITKLxI! JPQJ PR NLzI)! ."g" |I NPPzH HMq. u[I T[LNq NPPzH LNN
(eINN). /[I NPPzH NLzI M RIMN KIMT[IR. .K NPPzH NLzI RMLJ.
1PKI: t has two GJgNLH[ IfQLxMNIJKH to look MJq to seem; to look VIMJH 8;6! ."g" |I looks aPQJg sPR [LH
MgI. /[I NPPzH `IMQKLsQN rn K[LH qRIHH. /[I NPPzH M T[LNq.; to seem VIMJH 6 (LK ISZRIHHIH xMRLPQH
qIgRIIH Ps qPQ`K)! e"g" /[I HIIVH (KP `I) TNIxIR. u[LH xLNNMgI HIIVH (KP `I) fQLKI HVMNN JPe. |I HIIVH (KP `I) eINN IqQTMKIq.
,
look n +" ;! ."g" u[IRI eMH HPVIK[LJg HKRMJgI LJ [LH NPPz.
/aJ. stare, gaze, ."g" iMJJa RIKQRJIq K[I VMJlH HKMRI! `QK qLqJlK QKKIR M ePRq. u[I gLRN `NQH[Iq e[IJ H[I
JPKLTIq K[I HKRMJgIRlH sLSIq gMI.
to have a look at ;6! ."g" |MxI M NPPz MK K[LH Z[PKP! qP aPQ RITPgJLI K[I VMJ{
1PKI: u[I GJgNLH[ sPR ; LH idea, opinion, (point of) view! ."g" . qPJlK zJPe [LH ZPLJK Ps xLIe J
(xLIeH PJ! LqIM(H) Ps! PZLJLPJ Ps) K[LH HQ`ITK.
2. 8>! ."g" d KPPz Ps ZNIMHQRI TMVI KP [IR sMTI. u[IRI eMH MJ MJgRa NPPz LJ [IR IaIH!
2. to differ ,i L. 6! 6 (from HV`. PR HVK[. in HVK[.)! ."g" u[I KeP `RPK[IRH qLssIR LJ
K[ILR KMHKIH. |LH ZNMJ qLssIRH sRPV MNN K[I PK[IRH.; 2. ;D6! 96 ;9 (sRPV/eLK[
HV`. LJ HVK[.)! ."g" . qLssIR sRPV (eLK[) aPQ LJ K[LH VMKKIR.
0nt" agree (eLK[ HV`.; KP HVK[.)! ."g" iIKlH MgRII KP qLssIR (6 >85 $
$).
different ad1 +. 9>5! 5! 85 (sRPV)! ."g" < LH fQLKI qLssIRIJK sRPV e[MK .
K[PQg[K [LV KP `I. . eMJK M qLssIRIJK zLJq Ps `PPz K[LH KLVI (2ut . ZRIsIR `PPzH Ps M qLssIRIJK zLJq). oQR
xLIeH PJ NLsI MRI qLssIRIJK.
0nt" MNLzI! ."g" oQR KMHKIH MRI MNLzI.
1PKI: nPJlK TPJsQHI K[I ePRqH different MJq another e[LT[ VMa `I KRMJHNMKIq `a K[I HMVI QHHLMJ ePRq ;5; ."g" .
eMJK MJPK[IR (;5 = ) ZLITI Ps TMzI. . eMJK M qLssIRIJK (;5 ;; TPZRM! . .) ZLITI Ps TMzI. iIKlH
KRa MJPK[IR (= ) xMRLMJK iIKlH `a M qLssIRIJK (; ) xMRLMJK.
2. 85! 85! ."g" d qIZMRKVIJK HKPRI HINNH VMJa qLssIRIJK K[LJgH. GxIRa qMa PQR HKQqIJKH gIK
qLssIRIJK eRLKKIJ MHHLgJVIJKH.
difference n %! ! ."g" u[I qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ PQR xLIeH LH JPK xIRa gRIMK. . qPJlK sLJq
VQT[ qLssIRIJTI LJ K[I HKaNIH Ps K[IHI eRLKIRH.
to make some (no, not much) difference (to smb.)! ."g" .K ePJlK VMzI VQT[ qLssIRIJTI e[IK[IR eI qP LK
KPqMa PR KPVPRRPe. yPQ VMa HKMa PR NIMxI! LK VMzIH JP qLssIRIJTI KP VI.
4. rest , i-t +. 896! >6! 6; 6 89! ."g" < RIHKIq sPR MJ [PQR `IsPRI gPLJg PJ eLK[
[LH ePRz. /[I NLzIH KP RIHK MsKIR qLJJIR. u[Ia HKPZZIq KP RIHK K[ILR [PRHIH.
2. 6! 6! >6 $n.! ."g" u[I RPPs RIHKH PJ ILg[K TPNQVJH. u[IRI LH MNeMaH M
TNPQq RIHKLJg PJ K[I KPZ Ps K[LH VPQJKMLJ.
4. 6 (>6); 6! 6! ."g" |IR sLJgIRH KPQT[Iq [LH sPRI[IMq MJq RIHKIq K[IRI. /[I
HMK eLK[ [IR IN`PeH RIHKLJg PJ K[I KM`NI.
1PKI: u[I QHHLMJ ePRq 6 [MH HIxIRMN GJgNLH[ IfQLxMNIJKH! ."g" A6 6. iIK K[I VMKKIR RIHK.
9 6 6. . qPJlK eMJK KP HKMa [IRI. - 6 6 * 5. oJNa * RPQ`NIH MRI NIsK
$5 GxIRaK[LJg RIVMLJH eLK[PQK MJa T[MJgIH.
rest n 5! 89! ! ."g" IHK LH JITIHHMRa MsKIR ePRz. . [Mq M gPPq JLg[KlH RIHK. wI [Mq HIxIRMN
RIHKH PJ PQR eMa QZ K[I VPQJKMLJH. 3ut: ' 89 7;. < HZIJK [LH [PNLqMa LJ K[I /PQK[.
rest n (MNeMaH eLK[ qIs. MRKLTNI) ! 6! 6 6 ;.
the rest of (K[I KLVI! K[I `PPzH! IKT.)! ."g" |MxI aPQ eRLKKIJ MNN K[I ISIRTLHIH{ 1P! PJNa [MNs Ps K[IV.
u[I RIHK (Ps K[I ISIRTLHIH) VMa `I qPJI PRMNNa. oJNa sLxI Ps QH eIRI ZRIHIJK MK K[I NIHHPJ! K[I RIHK (Ps K[I
gRPQZ) eIJK KP K[I VIIKLJg. .lNN KMzI MJ MZZNI MJq aPQ VMa KMzI K[I RIHK.
4. comfortable ad1 +. 85; $C685; 785! ."g" M TPVsPRKM`NI T[MLR! RPPV! `Iq!
[PQHI; TPVsPRKM`NI H[PIH! IKT.; 2. 4redi5 67" 685! 585! 7=5 ! ."g"
.lV HQRI aPQlNN `I xIRa TPVsPRKM`NI K[IRI.
to make oneself comfortable! ."g" vR. vQRqPT[ VMqI [LVHINs TPVsPRKM`NI LJ M T[MLR MJq PRqIRIq M
HKRPJg `NMTz TPssII.
0nt" uncomfortable
comfort n +. D! >! ."g" u[I JIeH `RPQg[K TPVsPRK KP MNN Ps QH. |I eMH M gRIMK TPVsPRK
KP [LH ZMRIJKH.; 2. ! 5! 89! ."g" KP `I sPJq Ps TPVsPRK! KP NLxI LJ TPVsPRK
0nt" discomfort
comfort ,t D6! 6
comforting ad1 D685! 685! ."g" TPVsPRKLJg ePRqH.
1PKI: TPJxIJLIJK ad1 VIMJH HQLKM`NI! [MJqa! HIRxLJg KP MxPLq KRPQ`NI PR qLssLTQNKa; ."g" TPJxIJLIJK KLVI! VIK[Pq! KPPN! ZNMTI!
IKT. wLNN K[LH `QH `I TPJxIJLIJK KP/sPR aPQ{ iIKlH MRRMJgI M TPJxIJLIJK KLVI MJq ZNMTI sPR K[I TPJsIRIJTI.
0nt" inconvenient
TPJxIJLIJTI n +. (K[I fQMNLKa Ps `ILJg TPJxIJLIJK PR HQLKM`NI)! ."g" MK aPQR IMRNLIHK
TPJxIJLIJTI; sPR TPJxIJLIJTI; 2. (ZN.) (qIxLTI! MRRMJgIVIJK! IKT. K[MK LH QHIsQN PR TPJxIJLIJK! ."g"
TIJKRMN [IMKLJg! [PK eMKIR HQZZNa)! ."g" u[I [PQHI [MH MNN VPqIRJ TPJxIJLIJTIH. 0nt" inconvenience
5. to run (ran, run) ,i-t +. >6! ;6! ."g" + RMJ MNN K[I eMa sPR sIMR Ps `ILJg NMKI. dH HPPJ MH eI
sLRIq! K[I IJIVa RMJ.
7
2. 96! 86! 6 ( $9! 9 .)! ."g" uRMVH RQJ PJ RMLNH. vPKPR TMRH RMJ
MNPJg PRqLJMRa RPMqH. u[I `QHIH RQJ IxIRa sLxI VLJQKIH.
4. 6! 6! ."g" uPRRIJKH Ps eMKIR RMJ qPeJ K[I HKRIIKH. LxIRH RQJ LJKP K[I HIM. nPJlK aPQ [IMR K[I
eMKIR RQJJLJg LJ K[I zLKT[IJ{ .s aPQ [MxI M `Mq TPNq! aPQR JPHI RQJH.
3. 6! ."g" pPR HIxIRMN VLNIH K[I RPMq RMJ MTRPHH M ZNMLJ.
Note: pPR K[I QHHLMJ 6 6 K[I xIR` stretch LH QHIq! ."g" u[I sPRIHK HKRIKT[Iq KP K[I /PQK[ sPR VMJa
VLNIH.
*. ;6! 86! ;6()! ."g" /P K[I HKPRa RQJH. u[I HKPRa RQJH ....
to run into smb. 5 6 $n.; to run into smth. 6 .! ."g" oQR
TMR RMJ LJKP K[I `QH. . RMJ LJKP M sRLIJq Ps VLJI PJ Va eMa[PVI.; to run across smb./smth. 5
6 (6 .)! ."g" u[I PK[IR qMa . RMJ MTRPHH M xIRa LJKIRIHKLJg MRKLTNI LJ K[I
JIeHZMZIR.: to run over smb. 96! 6 ;.! MNHP: to be run over (`a M TMR)! ."g" 0QK sPR K[I
HzLNN Ps K[I qRLxIR K[I VMJ ePQNq [MxI `IIJ RQJ PxIR `a K[I `QH.
runner n ;
6. join ,t-i +. 6()! ]6)! ."g" . TPQNqJlK PLJ (KPgIK[IR) K[I KeP [MNxIH Ps K[I xMHI!
`ITMQHI M HVMNN ZLITI eMH VLHHLJg. w[IRI qP K[I KeP HKRIMVH PLJ (IMT[ PK[IR){
/yn" unite
N t e: to join QHQ. VIMJH rKP ZQK KeP K[LJgH KPgIK[IRr! ."g" u[I LHNMJq eMH PLJIq KP K[I VMLJNMJq eLK[ M `RLqgI.; to unite
QHQ. VIMJH rKP PLJ KPgIK[IR (`a M TPVVPJ MLV PR `PJq) HIxIRMN P`ITKH HP MH KP sPRV PJI JIe QJLKr! ."g" wI QJLKIq MNN PQR
sPRTIH KP qRLxI K[I IJIVa PQK Ps PQR TPQJKRa. wPRzIRH Ps K[I ePRNq! QJLKIc u[I }JLKIq 1MKLPJH oRgMJLMKLPJ (}1o) eMH sPRVIq
LJ +23* LJ /MJ pRMJTLHTP.
2. 6 ()! ."g" wLNN aPQ PLJ VI LJ Va eMNz{ wIlNN PLJ aPQ LJ M sIe VLJQKIH.
4. 96 $7! 6 8! ."g" .s . eIRI aPQ . H[PQNq PLJ K[LH TNQ`. |I eMH KeIJKaKeP
e[IJ [I PLJIq K[I MRRMa.
7. depend ,i +. 6 (PJ/QZPJ HV`. sPR HVK[.)! ."g" wI qIZIJq PJ K[I JIeHZMZIRH sPR LJsPRVMKLPJ
M`PQK ePRNq IxIJKH. |I qIZIJqH PJ [LH HLHKIR sPR M NLxLJg. O[LNqRIJ QHQMNNa qIZIJq PJ K[ILR ZMRIJKH
(9 > 5).; 2. ;6! 86 ;.! .! ."g" yPQ TMJ
qIZIJq QZPJ K[I VMJ. . qIZIJq PJ aPQ KP qP LK. OMJ . qIZIJq PJ K[LH KLVIKM`NI PR LH LK MJ PNq PJI{
It (all) depends 6; $ 6! ."g" wLNN aPQ sLJLH[ aPQR ePRz PJ KLVI{
.K qIZIJqH.
NOTES ON SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS
1. Synonyms MRI ePRqH ISZRIHHLJg K[I HMVI JPKLPJ! `QK qLssIRLJg `a TIRKMLJ MqqLKLPJMN T[MRMTKIRLHKLTH.
8"g" to 9oo', to &tare MJq to ga:e ISZRIHH K[I HMVI JPKLPJ Ps KQRJLJg PJIlH IaIH PJ HPVIK[LJg PR HPVI`Pqa!
`QK &tare MJq ga:e qLssIR `a K[ILR IVPKLPJMN TPNPQRLJgH (HII LKIV + Ps :PTM`QNMRa 1PKIH) e[IRIMH 9oo'
qIHTRL`IH K[I JPKLPJ gIJIRMNNa! eLK[PQK MJa MqqLKLPJMN T[MRMTKIRLHKLTH. /QT[ M gIJIRMN ePRq LJ K[I gRPQZ Ps
HaJPJaVH LH TMNNIq K[I synonymic dominant.
;o g9an5e LH MJPK[IR HaJPJaV Ps K[LH gRPQZ e[LT[ qLssIRH sRPV K[I RIHK Ps K[IV `a qQRMKLPJ: LK VIMJH
NPPzLJg MK HPVIK[LJg `RLIsNa! ZMHHLJgNa! M VPVIJK PJNa.
2. Antonyms MRI ePRqH eLK[ TPJKRMHKIq VIMJLJgH. 8" g" qLssIRIJK MNLzI; TPJxIJLIJK LJTPJxIJLIJK;
NPxI [MKI; QZ qPeJ.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)
Words
T[PRQH n! , qLssIR , PLJ ,
TPVsPRK n! , qLssIRIJTI n NPPz n! ,
TPVsPRKM`NI ad1 qLssIRIJK ad1 RIHK n! ,
TPJxIJLIJTI n gMI n, , RQJ ,
TPJxIJLIJK ad1 [IMqVLHKRIHH n HKMRI n, ,
qIZIJq , QJLKI ,
Word Combinations
KP sLS PJIlH IaIH PJ/QZPJ HV`. KP zIIZ MJ IaI PJ HV`.
KP sIIN [INZNIHH KP gLxI (HIJq) M VIHHMgI
KP gLxI M HVLNI (M JPq! M NPPz! IKT.) KP KQRJ PJIlH IaIH (gMI)
KP `IMR (KP [MxI) M HKRPJg QZPJ HV`./HVK[.
RIHIV`NMJTI KP KP RQJ MTRPHH
KP VPKLPJ KP HV`. KP RQJ LJKP
KP gLxI PQK (ZIJTLNH! NIMsNIKH! RIMqIRH! KP RQJ PxIR
ePRzTMRqH! HIKH Ps VMKIRLMN! IKT.) KP H[PQK HV`. qPeJ
KP TMNN K[I RIgLHKIR (K[I RPNN) KP M`MJqPJ [PZI
b
EXERCISES
I. Read the test and taIk on the foIIowing points (A. Grammar, B. Word usage):
A. +. w[a LH K[I \RIHIJK \IRsITK QHIq LJ r... MH HPPJ MH aPQlxI TMNNIq K[I RIgLHKIRr{ 2. w[a LH K[I \MHK
\IRsITK OPJKLJQPQH QHIq LJ r... e[P [Mq `IIJ TRPHHLJg MJq QJTRPHHLJg [LH IaIH LJ MJ QgNa VMJJIR ...r{ 4.
w[a LH K[I \RIHIJK .JqIsLJLKI QHIq LJ r... KLNN aPQ PLJ QHr{ MJq LJ r.s K[IRIlH MJaK[LJg K[MK ZQNIH aPQ ...r{ 3.
uLTz Pss MNN K[I HIJKIJTIH eLK[ K[I P`NLfQI VPPqH. uRMJHNMKI K[IV.
B. \LTz PQK MNN K[I ePRqH MJq Z[RMHIH qIHTRL`LJg K[I T[LNqRIJlH MTKLPJH.
II. Read the foIIowing words with siIent t, p, gh. Memorize them:
[MHKIJ! sMHKIJ! NLHKIJ! O[RLHKVMH! TMHKNI! e[LHKNI! PHKNI! JIHKNI! eRIHKNI; TQZ`PMRq! ZJIQVPJLM! ZHaT[PNPga!
RMHZ`IRRa; JILg[`PQR! JLg[KLJgMNI! HKRMLg[K! JMQg[Ka! [Lg[! [ILg[K! K[RPQg[! HLg[.
III. a) Write the Past Indefinite and Past ParticipIe of the verbs:
gRPe! TRIIZ! `IMR! `RIMz! zIIZ! K[LJz! NIMZ! VIMJ! sMNN! sLJq! sIIN! HMa! TNLJg! [IMR! VIIK! RQJ! H[Pe;
b) the Past Indefinite and Present ParticipIe of the verbs:
qLssIR! ZRIsIR! VQRVQR! MZZIMR! PTTQR! RITPxIR! RIVIV`IR! T[MKKIR! RIsIR! HKLR! eMKIR! sIMR! PssIR! qRMg! eMg!
ZNMJ! T[MK! HNLZ! `Ig.
IV. Find nouns reIated to the verbs beIow. Pay speciaI attention to the speIIing of the suffix -ence/-ance.
PIace them in two coIumns:
qIZIJq! qLssIR! ISLHK! MTTIZK! RIHIV`NI! MKKIJq! ZIRsPRV! LJHLHK! PTTQR.
V. What nouns are these adjectives derived from? What is the meaning of the suffixes -d, -y? TransIate the
adjectives:
M) sRITzNIq! JPHIq! [MLRIq! eLJgIq! [PVIq! `IMRqIq! sIMK[IRIq;
`) eMKIRa! HzLJJa! gRMHHa! HLNza! `PJa! `RMJT[a! eMxa! HKPJa.
VI. Answer these questions:
+. |Pe eMH dJJI LJKRPqQTIq KP [IR TNMHH{ 2. w[MK qLq H[I sIIN MK K[MK VPVIJK{ w[MK ePRqH qPIH K[I
MQK[PR T[PPHI KP qIHTRL`I [IR sIINLJgH{ 4. w[MK LJHKRQTKLPJH qLq K[I [IMqVLHKRIHH gLxI KP K[I aPQJg KIMT[IR{
w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz Ps K[IV{ 3. w[a qLq dJJI rNPPz eLK[ sRIH[ LJKIRIHK MK dRJPNq{r nIHTRL`I dRJPNqlH
MZZIMRMJTI MJq `I[MxLPQR. *. |Pe qLq K[I PK[IR T[LNqRIJ `I[MxI LJ vLHH GJqIR`alH ZRIHIJTI{ (pLJq ePRqH
qIHTRL`LJg K[ILR `I[MxLPQR.) ,. w[a qP aPQ K[LJz rK[IRI TMVI M sMLJK HLg[ Ps RINLIsr MsKIR vLHH GJqIR`a NIsK
K[I TNMHHRPPV{ nIHTRL`I K[I T[LNqRIJlH `I[MxLPQR MsKIR H[I NIsK. 7. w[MK MqxLTI gLxIJ [IR MK TPNNIgI qLq
dJJI RIVIV`IR{ nLq H[I sPNNPe K[I MqxLTI{ w[MK eMH K[I RIHQNK{ w[a qLq K[I T[LNqRIJ `I[MxI NLzI K[MK{ b.
|Pe qLq dJJI RIHKPRI K[I PRqIR{ nP aPQ K[LJz LK eMH K[I PJNa eMa PQK{ 2. OPVVIJK PJ K[I ePRqH: rdJJIlH
HINsIHKIIV TRIZK `MTzr.
VII. Comment on the meaning of the prepositions for, in, with in the sentences beIow:
A. +. ... aPQ MRI xIRa! xIRa NQTza K[LH KIRV KP [MxI vLHH iMTIa for aPQR JIe KIMT[IR. 2. u[Ia T[PHI [LV
for K[ILR NIMqIR. 4. vQHK aPQ [MxI UIPRgI for M VMHKIR [IRI! MJq PQR VPK[IR for M HT[PPNVLHKRIHH{ 3. .
HKLNN eMJK aPQ for Va eLsI.
B. +. r\IR[MZH aPQ TPQNq HMa lUPPq VPRJLJgl KP aPQR JIe KIMT[IR{r HQggIHKIq vLHH GJqIR`a in MJ
LVZIRMKLxI KPJI. 2. rUPPq VPRJLJg! T[LNqRIJ!r RIHZPJqIq dJJI in M xPLTI e[LT[ `PRI JP RIHIV`NMJTI KP [IR
PeJ. 4. u[Ia TPJxIRHIq in M e[LHZIR.
C. +. u[Ia gMIq `MTz in HPVI `IeLNqIRVIJK. 2. .s M VMJ LH in gRLIs! e[P T[IIRH [LV; in KRPQ`NI! e[P
TPJHPNIH [LV; in eRMK[! e[P HPPK[IH [LV; LJ Pa! e[P VMzIH [LV qPQ`NI [MZZa; in ZRPHZIRLKa! e[P RIPLTIH;
in qLHgRMTI! e[P `MTzH [LV MgMLJHK K[I ePRNq{ w[P `QK ePVMJ{
D. +. dJJI NPPzIq with sRIH[ LJKIRIHK MK dRJPNq. 2. dJJI eMKT[Iq K[LH T[MJgI with HPVI qLHVMa. 4.
With M JIRxPQH HKMRK dJJI [MHKIJIq sPReMRq KP K[I qPPR. 3. /[I RIVIV`IRIq with HQqqIJ RINLIs HPVI
MqxLTI gLxIJ [IR MK TPNNIgI LJ QHK HQT[ M HLKQMKLPJ!
E. +. ... HPVIPJI aINZIq with ZMLJ. 2. |LH xPLTI KRIV`NIq with [PRRPR. 4. |I eMH qaLJg with [QJgIR. 3.
u[I `PaH eIRI HZIIT[NIHH with sIMR. *. QK[lH IaIH eIRI eLqI with ePJqIR.
VIII. Form adjectives and nouns from the given words with the heIp of the prefixes an-, in-, mis-, dis-:
TPJxIJLIJK! TPJxIJLIJTI; TPVsPRK! TPVsPRKM`NI; qIZIJqIJK! qIZIJqIJTI; qLssIRIJK! qLssIRIJTI; M`NI!
TMZM`NI; LVZPRKMJK; ISZIRLIJTIq; P`IqLIJK; QJqIRHKMJqLJg; [PJIHKa.
IX. a) FiII in prepositions where necessary:
OMJ aPQ RIVIV`IR aPQR sLRHK qMa... HT[PPN{ .K eMH ZRP`M`Na RMK[IR TPJsQHLJg. . MV HQRI aPQ RMJ ... aPQR
VPK[IR K[LJzLJg H[I eMH qIHIRKLJg aPQ. w[IJ K[I T[LNq gPIH ... HT[PPN... [LH sLRHK qMa! [I [MH KP eMKT[ ... [LH
VPK[IR NIMxLJg. u[I KIMT[IR VQHK TPJxLJTI [LV K[MK... K[I IJq ... K[I qMa [LH VPK[IR MJq [LH [PVI eLNN HKLNN
`I K[IRI. .K LH qLssLTQNK KP VMzI K[I JIeTPVIR PLJ ... M gMVI PR M eMNz. d JIe NLsI! TPVZNIKINa qLssIRIJK ...
e[MK [I LH QHIq ... `IgLJH.
u[I VPK[IRH MRI MH QZHIK MH K[ILR T[LNqRIJ. u[Ia [MJg...... K[ILR IaIH sLSIq ... K[ILR T[LNqRIJ MJq qLHNLzI
NIMxLJg K[IV ... K[ILR sMKI.
2
u[I `IHK eMa KP qIMN... K[I HLKQMKLPJ LH KP gIK K[I T[LNq QHIq ... K[I LqIM... HT[PPN! KP [INZ [LV ... IxIRa eMa.
vQT[ qIZIJqH ... K[I ZMRIJKH. ... K[I `IgLJJLJg ... K[I KIRV K[I VPK[IR H[PQNq KMzI [IR T[LNq KP HII K[I KIMT[IR
MJq KP NPPz ... K[I HT[PPN. u[I sLRHK qMa H[PQNq `I HPVIK[LJg KP NPPz......MJq JPK KP `I sIMRIq.
b) ReteII what you've read.
c) What measures wouId you suggest to settIe the newcomers?
X. Study VocabuIary Notes, transIate the iIIustrative sentences into Russian and write your own sentences
with the new words and phrases.
XI. Use stare or gaze instead of look where possibIe:
+. .KlH LVZPNLKI KP NPPz MK ZIPZNI NLzI K[MK. 2. d `Lg TRPeq HKPPq PJ K[I ZMxIVIJK NPPzLJg MK M `RPzIJ TMR.
4. 1P ePJqIR ZIPZNI HKMJq NPPzLJg MK K[LH ZLTKQRI sPR [PQRH: LKlH `IMQKLsQN. 3. u[I NLKKNI `PaH HKPPq NPPzLJg MK
IMT[ PK[IR RIMqa KP HKMRK M sLg[K. *. iPPz MK [IR: MgMLJ H[I LH NPPzLJg PQK Ps K[I eLJqPe eLK[ K[MK HKRMJgI
ISZRIHHLPJ Ps [IRH. ,. w[IJ . NPPzIq MK [IR IaIH . gQIHHIq K[MK H[I [Mq TRLIq. 7. u[I URIIz VaK[ RQJH K[MK
1MRTLHHQH NPPzIq MK [LH PeJ RIsNITKLPJ LJ K[I eMKIR QJKLN [I sINN LJ NPxI eLK[ LK. b. |I HKPPq NPPzLJg MRPQJq
MH Ls [I KRLIq KP LVZRIHH PJ [LH VIVPRa IxIRaK[LJg [I HMe.
XII. FiII in
a) look or seem:
+. u[I eIMK[IR ... fQLKI eMRV K[PQg[ LKlH PJNa *O M`PxI IRP. 2. u[I T[LNqRIJ ... KLRIq `QK K[Ia... gRIMKNa
ZNIMHIq eLK[ K[I KRLZ! qPJlK K[Ia{ 4. u[I [PHK MJq K[I [PHKIHH ... M `LK PNqsMH[LPJIq! `QK K[Ia ... KP `I
[PHZLKM`NI MJq sRLIJqNa. 3. /[I ... KP `I xIRa NLg[KVLJqIq! `QK H[I PJNa... LK! LJ sMTK H[I LH M xIRa HIRLPQH MJq
[MRqePRzLJg HKQqIJK. *. va `RPK[IR HMaH K[MK ZIPZNI QHQMNNa ... e[MK K[Ia MRI MJq . `INLIxI K[MK ZIPZNI MRI
xIRa PsKIJ fQLKI qLssIRIJK sRPV e[MK K[Ia... KP `I.
b) another or different.
+. u[I KIMT[IR KRLIq KP ISZNMLJ K[I RQNI LJ M ... eMa MJq . QJqIRHKPPq LK MK PJTI. 2. u[I HT[PPN`Pa RIKQRJIq
K[I `PPz [I [Mq RIMq MJq MHzIq sPR... `PPz! `QK Ps M... zLJq! [I HMLq! MH [I eMJKIq KP [MxI M RIHK sRPV
qIKITKLxI HKPRLIH. 4. . MHzIq sPR M ZMLR Ps H[PIH Ps M... zLJq! `QK K[I H[PZgLRN HMLq K[MK K[I RIHK Ps K[I H[PIH
eIRI JPK Va HLI.
c) stretch or run:
+. d HVMNN HKRIMV ... MNPJg K[I RPMq. 2. u[IHI HKIZZIH ... KP K[I /PQK[ sPR VLNIH MJq VLNIH. 4. u[I ZMK[ ...
MTRPHH K[I sLINq sPR M VLNI MJq K[IJ eMH NPHK LJ K[I sPRIHK. 3. 1P VMKKIR [Pe [MRq . NPPzIq . HMe PJNa M xMHK
ZNMLJ... `IsPRI VI. *. u[I QgNa HTMR (D$) ... RLg[K MTRPHH K[I VMJlH NIsK T[IIz. ,. pPR [Pe VMJa zLNPVIKIRH
qPIH K[LH sPRIHK...{
d) comfortabIe or convenient
+. . NLzI KP HNIIZ PJ M TMVZ`Iq! . sLJq LK xIRa .... 2. . `INLIxI pRLqMa K[I PJNa ... qMa sPR PQR VIIKLJg! eI
[MxI PJNa sPQR NITKQRIH PJ K[MK qMa. 4. u[PQg[ K[I sNMK eMH RMK[IR .... eMRV! NLg[K MJq TPHa! LK eMH JPK... sPR
PQR ePRz MH LK eMH RMK[IR HVMNN. 3. u[IHI H[PIH MRI xIRa... sPR eIMR LJ eIK eIMK[IR MH K[Ia [MxI RQ``IR HPNIH.
e) join or unite:
+. u[I KeP HKRIMVH ... MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I VPQJKMLJ. 2. ... eI HKMJq! qLxLqIq eI sMNN. 4. oJI `a PJI K[I
T[LNqRIJ ... LJ K[I gMVI. 3. u[I ZMRKLHMJH qIKMT[VIJK... K[I RIgQNMR MRVa MJq K[I IJIVa NPHK K[I `MKKNI
MgMLJHK K[ILR ... sPRTIH. *. dNN ZIMTINPxLJg ZIPZNI H[PQNq ... LJ K[ILR HKRMggNI MgMLJHK M JIe eMR. ,. wPJlK
aPQ... VI LJ M eMNz{
XIII. Paraphrase the foIIowing:
+. It is of no importance. 2. LxIRH flow LJKP K[I HIM. 4. yPQ TMJlK rely PJ [LV. 3. Make yourself at
home *. pRIJT[ is unlike English LJ [MxLJg sMR VPRI xIR`MN LJsNISLPJH. ,. |I seems to be LNN. 7. Connect
K[IHI ZPLJKH eLK[ M NLJI. b. u[LH HKRIIK stretches IMHK MJq eIHK. 2. |I RIsQHIq KP NLxI at the expense Ps [LH
ZMRIJKH. +). . disagree eLK[ aPQ. ++. I'll drive K[I TMR LJKP K[I gMRMgI. +2. wLNN aPQ come with QH{ +4. . met
him by chance LJ iPJqPJ NMHK eIIz. +3. Listen to me! uPVc +*. u[LH KPPN is easy to use. +,. u[IHI MRI not
the same ZIPZNI eLK[ K[I HMVI JMVI. +7. w[a LH 1ane silent{
XIV. TransIate these sentences into Russian. Write your own sentences with the new words and phrases:
+. |I looked about K[I RPPV MJq TMQg[K HLg[K Ps K[I TMHI TPJKMLJLJg K[I IeINH e[LT[ [Mq `IIJ
TMRINIHHNa left open PJ K[I KM`NI. 2. The difference was TQRLPQH `IKeIIJ [IR LJKIJHI ISZITKMKLPJ Ps K[I
ZRIxLPQH qMa MJq [IR ZRIHIJK indifference. 4. United eI HKMJq! qLxLqIq eI sMNN. 3. va sMK[IR RIVLJqIq VI
K[MK . eMH IJKLRINa dependent QZPJ [LV. *. u[I VMJa VIJ [I RMJ MTRPHH! `INPJgLJg KP M different ePRNq!
[Mq sLNNIq [LV ZIR[MZH eLK[ MqVLRMKLPJ MJq IJxa. ,. .lV MNeMaH qPLJg K[LJgH PJ K[I HZQR Ps K[I VPVIJK
KP Va PeJ inconvenience MJq PK[IR ZIPZNIlH. 7. .K VMqI [LV uncomfortable KP MNKIR [LH ZNMJH MJq K[LJz PQK
HPVIK[LJg JIe. b. |I eMH MJgRa eLK[ 1PRM[ `ITMQHI H[I [Mq JPK NIK K[I VMKKIR rest.
XV. ReteII the text: a) in indirect speech; b) as if you were Anne.
XVI. Write: a) a Ietter from Anne to a friend of hers about her first experience at schooI, b) an answer of a
friend of Anne's to this Ietter.
XVII. Make up diaIogues based upon the text between: a) Anne and a friend of hers, a young teacher
+)
discussing their first Iessons; b) Anne and Miss Enderby discussing the probIem of discipIine in
cIass; c) Anne and her coIIege teacher discussing situations Iike that described in the text.
XVIII. Miss Barrett, a young teacher from BeI Kaufman's 'Up the Down Staircase', once "had an epidemic of
unprepared students". Study the reasons they gave for negIecting to do their homework. What other
reasons couId they have given? EIect one student to pIay the part of the teacher who shouId
respond in each case. RoIe-pIay the whoIe situation.
Why I Didn't Do My Homework
. zJPe [PVIePRz LH IHHIJKLMN KP PQR eINN`ILJg! MJq . qLq LK `QK . gPK LJKP M sLg[K eLK[ HPVI zLq PJ PQR
eMa KP HT[PPN MJq [I K[RIe LK LJ K[I gQKKIR.
va qPg T[IeIq LK.
. qLqJlK zJPe eI eIRI HQZZPHIq KP qP LK.
. sINN MHNIIZ PJ K[I HQ`eMa `ITMQHI . HKMaIq QZ MNN JLg[K qPLJg Va [PVIePRz! HP e[IJ LK HKPZZIq MK
Va HKMKLPJ . RMJ K[RPQg[ K[I qPPR JPK KP `I NMKI MJq NIsK LK PJ K[I HIMK PJ K[I HQ`eMa.
. qLq LK `QK NIsK LK [PVI `a VLHKMzI.
u[I `M`a HZLNNIq VLNz PJ LK.
va `RPK[IR KPPz rVar [PVIePRz LJHKIMq Ps r[LHr.
u[I ZMgI eMH VLHHLJg sRPV Va `PPz.
. NPHK Va `PPz MJq QHK sPQJq LK.
u[IRIlH JP RPPV LJ Va [PQHI JPe Va QJTNI VPxIq LJ MJq . [MxI KP HNIIZ LJ K[I [MNN MJq TPQNqJlK QHI
K[I zLKT[IJ KM`NI.
/PVIPJI HKPNI LK.
w[MK [PVIePRz{
XIX. TransIate the foIIowing putting it in your own words. Comment on what yon have read:
... 5 6 7! 8$ $D$ 5! 8$ $ 8! 8$
$! 5 ;5 . A$! $8 9 $...
$ ! 8 8 ! 6! D;
D;$! $ 86! 6! 6 ! 5 5 !
567 ; 9! 5 ; 5.
>! D! 9D! ! $8 $! >
$=....
' 8 $! ! ; 5 ! 8 8D 6:
7{
89! $ 989 5 85! 89! ! $! 67!
85! 85 $ $> 6 >! ; 8! $65! $>D6...
6D 8 ! > ;=5 69 D9! $9
? 7$ ! 56 9! ;
8;6 D. (D <=>" F 76 5.)
XX. Arrange a taIk on the foIIowing topics
+. nLssLTQNKLIH MeMLKLJg aPQJg KIMT[IRH.
2. IMHPJH sPR T[LNqRIJlH `ILJg QJVMJMgIM`NI.
4. |Pe KP qLRITK M T[LNqlH IJIRga LJKP K[I RLg[K T[MJJINH.
3. .qIMN QZ`RLJgLJg.
XXI. TransIate these sentences:
+. ;6 ; ! (xLNNMgI) 6 ; ; $.
2. (85 $ > 8$! $ $! $ (K[MK) $8 ; .
4. ' 55 $ $% D; ]! $8 > $ >$
$ 8 8 . 3. 5 $ 6! 8 DD6 6 5 67
6 ! ; 76 . *. ' : 6 E D $6
6$. ,. AD5! $ $7 ! 8 D6 6! {
D. 7. <6 6 565 =! 68 ; D
5 6. b. 8 = D 6{ ' 6 . ?D! ; (sIKT[
LK).
XXII. Try your hand at teaching.
1. The situation gives beIow couId cause difficuIties for the teacher. Describe how you wouId handIe the
situation in the teacher's position. Decide amongst your group which is the most practicaI soIution;
0LNN! M sPQRK[ sPRVIR! eMH MNeMaH KINNLJg K[I TNMHH M`PQK [LH qPg uLV`IR! K[I KRLTzH [I TPQNq ZIRsPRV! e[MK
M ePJqIRsQN eMKT[qPg [I eMH MJq [Pe uLV`IR ePQNq ZRPKITK 0LNN. GMT[ eIIz [I ePQNq TPVI KP HT[PPN
MJq KINN M`PQK K[I ePJqIRH Ps uLV`IR.
++
dH LK KQRJIq PQK! 0LNN qLq JPK PeJ M qPg MJq JPJI Ps [LH RINMKLxIH PR TNPHI sRLIJqH [Mq HQT[ M qPg.
2. Learn to use aIternative ways of controIIing the cIass, using poIite requests rather than direct commands.
Notice:
M) u[I sPNNPeLJg sPRVH ISZRIHH MJJPaMJTI MJq LRRLKMKLPJ.
nP KRa KP ePRz PJ aPQR PeJ.
mQHK HZIMz QZ M NLKKNIc
`) yPQ TMJ VMzI aPQR TPVVMJqH HPQJq VPRI ZPNLKI `a QHLJg ILK[IR M NPe RLHLJg KPJI PR ePRqH! Z[RMHIH
MJq HKRQTKQRIH NLzI rZNIMHI; .lV MsRMLq; . K[LJz; ZIR[MZH; qPJlK aPQ K[LJz; . (qPJlK) eMJK aPQ KP...; . (qPJlK)
ISZITK aPQ KP...; ePQNq aPQ NLzI; ePQNq aPQ! ZNIMHI; ...! eLNN aPQ; ...! TPQNq aPQ; e[MK Ls...; NIKlH/NIKlH JPK.r
Assignments:
1. Practise giving instructions to pupiIs in a poIite manner, use the phrases beIow:
gP PJ KP K[I JISK ISIRTLHI! TMRRa PJ (ZRPTIIq) RIMqLJg! RIZIMK e[MK aPQ HMLq! TPZa K[LH Pss K[I `PMRq! ePRz
LJ KePH (K[RIIH)! H[MRI K[I KISK`PPz! KRa K[I JISK LKIV! ZRMTKLHI K[I LRRIgQNMR xIR`H! NLHKIJ TMRIsQNNa KP e[MK .
HMa! IKT.
2. uMzI LK LJ KQRJH KP ZNMa K[I ZMRK Ps K[I KIMT[IR `IgLJJLJg MJq sLJLH[LJg K[I NIHHPJ. vMzI HQRI K[MK aPQ
qPJlK HPQJq KPP HKRMLg[KsPReMRq. (/II rONMHHRPPV GJgNLH[r! /ITKLPJH .. MJq ....)
LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)
1. Listen to the text "Anne Meets Her CIass", mark the stresses and tunes, repeat the text foIIowing the
modeI.
2. Respond as shown in the modeIs, check your repIies.
3. Combine the sentences into one conditionaI sentence.
4. Write a speIIing-transIation test:
a) TransIate the given phrases into EngIish.
b) Check them with the key.
5. Answer the questions using the phrases "to Iike the idea/disIike the idea".
6. TransIate the given sentences into EngIish. Check your sentences with the key.
7. Listen to the Jokes connected with schooI Iife. Get ready to reteII them in indirect speech.
TOPIC: CHOOSING A CAREES
TEXT A. WHAT'S YOUR LINE?
/T[PPNc iIHHPJH! gMVIH! TNQ`H! [PVIePRz. d `INN RLJgH. yPQ gP KP M TNMHHRPPV. d `INN RLJgH. yPQ [MxI
NQJT[. d `INN RLJgH. yPQ gP [PVI.
0QK PJI qMa aPQ gP KP HT[PPN sPR K[I NMHK KLVI. w[MK KP qP MsKIR K[MK{ yPQ RIMNLI K[MK K[I KLVI KP T[PPHI
PJI P` PQK Ps K[I [QJqRIqH [MH TPVI. .KlH gPLJg KP `I M [MRq T[PLTI MJq JP`Pqa TMJ VMzI LK sPR aPQ.
0IsPRI aPQ TMJ T[PPHI! aPQ MHz aPQRHINs fQLKI M NPK Ps fQIHKLPJH. w[MK qP aPQ zJPe aPQ MRI gPPq MK{
w[MK qP aPQ IJPa qPLJg{ \IR[MZH aPQ IJPa ePRzLJg eLK[ aPQR [MJqH. oR aPQ VMa ZRIsIR QHLJg aPQR [IMq
aPQR `RMLJH. dRI aPQ LJKIRIHKIq LJ VMT[LJIH{ oR qP aPQ NLzI VIIKLJg ZIPZNI{ .KlH qLssLTQNK KP zJPe MNN K[I
MJHeIRH KP K[IHI fQIHKLPJH QJKLN aPQ [MxI NIsK HT[PPN MJq MTKQMNNa `IgQJ ePRz.
vMJa aPQJg ZIPZNI TPJHLqIR KIMT[LJg MH M TMRIIR. .KlH JPK HQRZRLHLJg: MsKIR aPQR ZMRIJKH aPQR KIMT[IR VMa
`I K[I VPHK LVZPRKMJK ZIRHPJ LJ aPQR NLsI. wLK[ MNN K[I KIMT[IRH aPQ VIIK! aPQ K[LJz K[IRI LHJlK MJaK[LJg aPQ
qPJlK zJPe M`PQK K[I ePRz. u[MKlH e[IRI aPQ MRI eRPJg! HLJTI PJNa K[PHI e[P MRI LJ LK TMJ MZZRITLMKI LK.
|MxI aPQ IxIR MHzIq aPQRHINs e[a VPHK KIMT[IRH MRI HP qIxPKIq KP K[ILR ePRz MJq ZRLxMKINa K[LJz! K[PQg[
K[Ia VMa JPK NLzI KP MqVLK LK PZIJNa! K[MK K[Ia HIRxI [QVMJLKa qPLJg K[I VPHK xLKMN P` Ps MNN{ u[PHI Ps QH
e[P HZIJq PQR qMaH LJ HT[PPNH zJPe [Pe RIeMRqLJg K[I P` LH. dK K[I HMVI KLVI LK LH JPK IMHa MJq M RIMN
T[MNNIJgI KP aPQR T[MRMTKIR! M`LNLKLIH MJq KMNIJK! MH KIMT[LJg LH M TPJHKMJK HKRIMV Ps qITLHLPJH.
O[LNqRIJ LJ aPQR TNMHHRPPV MRIJlK QHK `PaH MJq gLRNH. GxIRa PJI LH M QJLfQI LJqLxLqQMN e[P [MH JIxIR
`IIJ `IsPRI MJq eLNN JIxIR MgMLJ ISLHK. .s aPQ NLzI ZIPZNI! aPQ eLNN NPxI KIMT[LJg. uP `I M gPPq KIMT[IR aPQ
VQHK `I gIJQLJINa LJKIRIHKIq LJ e[MK aPQ MRI qPLJg.
u[I VPHK LVZPRKMJK K[LJgH LJ K[I ePRNq MRI MeMRIJIHH MJq NIMRJLJg eMJKLJg KP zJPe IxIRa qMa Ps aPQR
NLsI VPRI MJq VPRI MJq VPRI. 0ITMQHI IxIRa KLVI aPQ NIMRJ HPVIK[LJg JIe aPQ `ITPVI HPVIK[LJg JIe.
dJ LgJPRMJK KIMT[IR KIMT[IH LgJPRMJTI! M sIMRsQN KIMT[IR KIMT[IH sIMR! M `PRIq KIMT[IR KIMT[IH `PRIqPV. 0QK
M gPPq KIMT[IR TMKMNaIH LJ [LH ZQZLNH K[I `QRJLJg qIHLRI KP zJPe MJq NPxI sPR K[I KRQK[ MJq `IMQKa.
mP[J /KILJ`ITz! eRLKLJg M`PQK [LH HT[PPN qMaH HMLq! r.lxI TPVI KP `INLIxI K[MK M gRIMK KIMT[IR LH M gRIMK
MRKLHK MJq aPQ zJPe [Pe sIe gRIMK MRKLHKH K[IRI MRI LJ K[I ePRNq. uIMT[LJg VLg[K IxIJ `I K[I gRIMKIHK Ps K[I
MRKH HLJTI LKH VIqLQV LH K[I [QVMJ VLJq MJq K[I [QVMJ HZLRLK.r w[MK MJ LJTRIqL`NI RIHZPJHL`LNLKa KP `I K[I
gQMRqLMJH Ps K[I [QVMJ HZLRLK MJq K[I [QVMJ VLJqc . K[LJz! K[MK LH K[I RIMHPJ e[a [QVMJLKa [MH K[I qIIZIHK
RIHZITK sPR KIMT[IRH.
. ePQNq JIxIR HKPZ KIMT[LJg MJq .lV HQRI K[MK aPQ! [MxLJg T[PHIJ LK sPR aPQR TMRIIR! sIIN K[I HMVI eMa. .s
+2
aPQ qPJlK sIIN K[MK eMa K[IJ! ZNIMHI! sPR MNN PQR HMzIH! gIK PQKc u[I [QVMJ VLJq MJq K[I [QVMJ HZLRLK MRI KPP
ePJqRPQH KP qIHKRPa. 0QK Ls aPQ MRI ZRIZMRIq KP MTTIZK K[I RIHZPJHL`LNLKa! . eLH[ aPQ MNN K[I NQTz LJ K[I
ePRNq.
d uIMT[IR
TEXT B. CHOOSING IS NOT SO EASY AS IT LOOKS
m M J I : |MNNP! 0P`c
0 P ` : |MNNPc
m M J I : o[! aPQlxI QHK NIsK TPNNIgI! [MxIJlK aPQ{
0 P ` : yIH.
m M J I : w[MK MRI aPQ gPLJg KP qP{
0 P ` : GR... eINN! LK NPPzH NLzI M T[PLTI `IKeIIJ KIMT[LJg PR gPLJg LJKP MJ PssLTI MJq... . K[LJz .lq VQT[
ZRIsIR KP gP LJ sPR KIMT[LJg! `ITMQHI... eINN aPQ gIK NPJg [PNLqMaH.
m M J I : 0QK! 0P`! ePQNqJlK aPQ gIK `PRIq eLK[ K[I HMVI RPQKLJI aIMR MsKIR aIMR KIMT[LJg... KIMT[LJg
K[I HMVI VMKIRLMN KP K[I T[LNqRIJ. dJq... M HIJHI Pc RIHZPJHL`LNLKa aPQ JIIq MNN K[PHI T[LNqRIJ! MNN K[PHI
ZMRIJKH.
P ` : o[! NPPz! LK ePQNqJlK `I MH `PRLJg MH... MH ePRzLJg LJ MJ PssLTI. uIMT[LJg LH KIRRL`Na HKLVQNMKLJg.
.KlH ... JIe IxIRa qMa .lV HQRI .lq IJPa LK.
m M J I : 0QK . VIMJ! K[IRIlH HP VQT[ xMRLIKa LJ PssLTI ePRzc iPPz MK Va P`: .lV qIMNLJg eLK[ ZIPZNI
MJq K[ILR ZRP`NIVH! K[IRIlRI JIe HLKQMKLPJH KP TPZI eLK[ MNN K[I KLVI.
0 P ` : yIH! K[MKlH fQLKI KRQI! `QK . K[LJz K[IRIlH M JQV`IR Ps qLssIRIJTIH `IKeIIJ KIMT[LJg MJq PssLTI
ePRz MJq! eINN! . K[LJz .lNN gP LJ sPR KIMT[LJg `ITMQHI... LK RIMNNa MKKRMTKH VI.
(*ro+ m. mPJIH rpQJTKLPJH Ps GJgNLH[r. Ca+", +2b+)
Memory Work
Autumn Flies
.J K[I PK[IR gMRqIJH
dJq MNN QZ K[I xMNI!
pRPV K[I MQKQVJ `PJsLRIH
/II K[I HVPzI KRMLNc
\NIMHMJK HQVVIR PxIR
dJq MNN K[I HQVVIR sNPeIRH!
u[I RIq sLRIH `NMI!
u[I gRIa HVPzI KPeIRH.
/LJg M HPJg Ps HIMHPJHc
/PVIK[LJg `RLg[K LJ MNNc
pNPeIRH LJ K[I HQVVIR!
pLRIH LJ K[I sMNNc (. i. /KIxIJHPJ)
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)
Words
MZZRITLMKI , gIJQLJINa adv RIHZPJHL`LNLKa n
TMRIIR n P` n RIHZPJHL`NI ad1
T[MNNIJgI n ZRPsIHHLPJ n xLKMN ad1
T[PLTI n RINLM`NI ad1 xPTMKLPJ n
IqQTMKI , RIHZITK , ePRz n, ,
Word Combinations
KP VMzI/KMzI M (TMRIsQN) T[PLTI RIeMRqLJg/HKLVQNMKLJg ePRz
KP [MxI JP T[PLTI KP `I qIxPKIq KP HVK[. PR HV`.
KP `I LJKIRIHKIq LJ KP `I RIHZPJHL`NI sPR HVK[.
KP NIMxI/sLJLH[ HT[PPN KP KMzI/MTTIZK RIHZPJHL`LNLKa
HT[PPN NIMxIR KP [MxI/JIIq M HIJHI Ps RIH
KP TPJHLqIR KIMT[LJg (VIqLTLJI! ZPJHL`NLNLRa
IKT.) MH M TMRIIR KP TPZI eLK[ HVK[.
KP KMzI QZ M TMRRIR/M P` KP IMRJ/IJPa gRMKLKQqI
KP gP LJ sPR KIMT[LJg MJq RIHZITK
KP `I LJ KIMT[LJg (VIqLTLJI! KP [MxI (JP) RIHZITK sPR
`MJzLJg! IKT.) HV`. PR HVK[.
KP `I LJ/PQK Ps PJIlH NLJI NPxI Ps HVK[./sPR HV`.
1PKI: u[I JPQJH rePRz! P`! ZRPsIHHLPJ! TMRIIR! xPTMKLPJr [MxI VPRI PR NIHH K[I HMVI VIMJLJg. 1IxIRK[INIHH K[IRI LH M
+4
TIRKMLJ qLssRIJTI LJ K[ILR HIVMJKLTH MJq QHMgI.
rwPRzr [MH K[I VPHK gIJIRMN VIMJLJg MJq TMJ `I MZZNLIq KP MJaK[LJg PJI [MH KP qP LJ K[I eMa Ps VMzLJg M NLxLJg. rmP`r LH
TNPHI KP LK LJ LKH VIMJLJg `QK KIJqH KP qIJPKI NIHH ZRIHKLgLPQH ePRz. dZMRK sRPV K[MK K[I ePRq rP`r TMJ MNHP qIJPKI M ZPHLKLPJ LJ
IVZNPaVIJK! LJ e[LT[ TMHI K[I qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ K[I ePRqH rePRzr MJq rP`r LH fQLKI P`xLPQH (."g" .lV xIRa sPJq Ps D P`!
IxIJ K[PQg[ LK VIMJH qPLJg M NPK Ps ePRz). r\RPsIHHLPJr LH ePRz e[LT[ RIfQLRIH MqxMJTIq IqQTMKLPJ MJq HZITLMN KRMLJLJg.
uRMqLKLPJMNNa LKlH MZZNLIq KP NMe! VIqLTLJI! MRT[LKITKQRI MJq VLNLKMRa TMRIIR. u[I ePRq rTMRIIRr LKHINs VIMJH ILK[IR M TPQRHI Ps
ZRPgRIHH LJ K[I NLsI Ps M ZIRHPJ PR [MH K[I HMVI VIMJLJg MH K[I ePRq rePRzr MJq LH VPHKNa QHIq e[IJ HZIMzLJg Ps K[I T[PLTI Ps
ePRz. u[I ePRq rxPTMKLPJr VIMJH K[I zLJq Ps ePRz KP e[LT[ M VMJ LH NIq `a JMKQRMN KMNIJKH (TPVZMRI eLK[ K[I ePRq rTMNNLJgr).
.KlH M NIMRJIq ePRq MJq LH HINqPV QHIq LJ IxIRaqMa HZIIT[.
IVIV`IR K[MK K[ ePRq rePRzr LJ K[I VIMJLJg VIJKLPJIq M`PxI LH QJTPQJKM`NI MJq H[PQNqJlK `I QHIq eLK[ K[I LJqIsLJLKI
MRKLTNI PR LJ K[I ZNQRMN.
.J TPJKRMHK KP LK K[I ePRq rP`r LH TPQJKM`NI MJq TMJ `I QHIq eLK[ K[I LJqIsLJLKI MRKLTNI.
EXERCISES
I. a) Transcribe and Iearn to read the foIIowing words:
VMT[LJIH! MZZRITLMKI! [QVMJLKa! xLKMN! T[MNNIJgI! LJqLxLqQMN! MeMRIJIHH! LgJPRMJTI! sIMRsQN! `PRIqPV!
VIqLQV! MTTIZK! RPQKLJI! HKLVQNMKLJg! xMRLIKa.
b) Study Texts A and and expIain the meaning of the words and word combinations Iisted beIow:
K[LJz ZRLxMKINa! K[I VPHK xLKMN P`! M RIeMRqLJg! P`! M T[MNNIJgI KP aPQR T[MRMTKIR! MJ LgJPRMJK KIMT[IR! M
gQMRqLMJ! K[I HMVI RPQKLJI! HKLVQNMKLJg ePRz! KP gP LJ sPR KIMT[LJg
II. a) Write EngIish equivaIents of the foIIowing words and phrases. Use them in sentences of your own:
6 8! $6 () $.! 6 $! $6
C ! %6! 86 8$ 5 ! >6 7$! >; $
$! > $.
b) Find in Text A synonyms to the foIIowing words and word combinations:
KP qP eINN LJ HVK[.! LJ sMTK! `ITMQHI! sMLK[sQN! TPJsIHH! gRMKLsaLJg! HLJTIRINa! zJPeNIqgI! KP RQLJ.
III. a) EnIarge upon the foIIowing topics:
+. dsKIR aPQR ZMRIJKH aPQR KIMT[IR VMa `I K[I VPHK LVZPRKMJK ZIRHPJ LJ aPQR NLsI. 2. uIMT[LJg LH JPK IMHa
MJq M RIMN T[MNNIJgI KP aPQR T[MRMTKIR! M`LNLKLIH MJq KMNIJK. 4. uP `I M gPPq KIMT[IR aPQ VQHK `I gIJQLJINa
LJKIRIHKIq LJ e[MK aPQ MRI qPLJg. 3. uIMT[LJg LH M TPJHKMJK HKRIMV Ps qITLHLPJH. *. GxIRa KLVI aPQ NIMRJ
HPVIK[LJg JIe aPQ `ITPVI HPVIK[LJg JIe.
\ R P V Z K H: K[IRIlH PJI VPRI K[LJg KP `I JPKIq! VPRIPxIR! e[MKlH VPRI...! . VLg[K MH eINN Mqq K[MK...! LJ
MqqLKLPJ! PJ KPZ Ps K[MK...! HPVIK[LJg INHI .lq NLzI KP HMa LH...! KMNzLJg Ps....
b) Comment on the quotation from John Steinbeck, say if you share his opinion. Do you aIso think that
teaching equaIs art? Why do you think that! Find more quotations concerned with teachers and
teaching, comment on them.
c) Continue the text on the part of the teacher. You may find the foIIowing ideas usefuI:
d gPPq KIMT[IR LH PJI e[P NIMRJH MNN K[I KLVI! sRPV NLsI! sRPV TPNNIMgQIH! sRPV T[LNqRIJ; M ZRPsIHHLPJMN
KIMT[IR LJKIgRMKIH K[IPRa MJq ZRMTKLTI; K[LH HPRK Ps ePRz qIVMJqH gRIMK ZMKLIJTI; K[IRI MRI VMJa HzLNNH
JITIHHMRa sPR gPPq KIMT[LJg.
d) Prepare a 3-minute taIk on one of the great teachers of the past or today, give reasons for your choice.
IV. a) Act out the diaIogue "Choosing is not so easy as it Iooks".
b) RoIe-pIay a taIk between an intending teacher and a wiII-be journaIist on differences and simiIarities of
the careers they've chosen. Use Text and EssentiaI VocabuIary .
V. Speak about:
1. possibIe change in the system of secondary education in Russia.
\ R P V Z K H: QJLxIRHMN TPVZQNHPRa IqQTMKLPJ! KP ISKIJq K[I KRMLJLJg TPQRHI! KP LVZRPxI K[I IqQTMKLPJMN
ZRPTIHH! KP VPqIRJLI ZRPgRMVVIH MJq VMJQMNH! KP QHI QZKPqMKI KIT[JLTMN IfQLZVIJK! KP ZRPxLqI PZKLPJMN
KRMLJLJg LJ xMRLPQH HQ`ITKH.
2. an ideaI schooI as you see it.
VI. Bead the jokes beIow. See how the verbs learn and study are used in the context. ConsuIt a dictionary
and find out the difference in their meaning and usage. ReteII the jokes in indirect speech:
+. d aPQJg KIMT[IR QHK `IgLJJLJg [LH TMRIIR MHzH MqxLTI Ps MJ PNqIR VIV`IR Ps K[I sMTQNKa: rw[MK [MxI
aPQ NIMRJIq LJ aPQR aIMRH Ps ISZIRLIJTI{r
r.lxI NIMRJIq PJI K[LJg. osKIJ aPQ eLNN sLJq e[LNI aPQ MRI gLxLJg M NIHHPJ LJ TNMHH K[MK K[IRI LH PJI aPQJg
QZHKMRK e[P MNeMaH qLHMgRIIH eLK[ aPQ. uINN VI! ePQNq aPQ HKPZ [LV MJq KRa KP VMzI [LV H[QK QZ RLg[K K[IJ
MJq K[IRI{r
r. HQZZPHI . ePQNq.r
rwINN! qPJlK. |IlH ZRP`M`Na K[I PJNa PJI e[P LH NLHKIJLJg KP aPQ.r
2. d [Lg[HT[PPN gLRN HIMKIq JISK KP M sMVPQH MHKRPJPVIR MK M qLJJIR ZMRKa HKRQTz QZ M TPJxIRHMKLPJ
MHzLJg! rw[MK qP aPQ qP LJ NLsI{r
+3
|I RIZNLIq! r. HKQqa MHKRPJPVa.r
rnIMR VI!r HMLq K[I aPQJg VLHH! r. sLJLH[Iq MHKRPJPVa NMHK aIMR.r
VII. TransIate the sentences using the words learn and study in their different meanings:
+. $ 9$7 . 2. ; 8 8. 4.
6 ;! ; ! E$. 3. 6 $ 5 $. *.
X E C$%7 6 $6 $> $ 6 685 8. ,. "
! 8 6 7$. 7. F >7! 6 6. b. $
= 6! 6 8$ $$ 9.
VIII. Comment on the given proverbs. Make np a situation centered round one of them:
+. 0IKKIR QJ`PRJ K[MJ QJKMQg[K.
2. iLzI KIMT[IR! NLzI ZQZLN.
4. d NLKKNI zJPeNIqgI LH M qMJgIRPQH K[LJg.
IX. a) FiII in prepositions and adverbs where necessary:
Dialogue
0 P ` : w[MK MRI aPQ gPLJg to take... as a career{
m P [ J : dRT[LKITKQRI. dTKQMNNa! .lxI MNRIMqa HKMRKIq. . `IgMJ Va HKQqLIH ... NMHK oTKP`IR.
0 P ` : w[MK MRI aPQ gPLJg KP qP e[IJ aPQ sLJLH[{
m P [ J : o[! . H[MNN gP `MTz ... [PVI MJq ZRMTKLHI ... Va JMKLxI KPeJ. u[IRIlH M NPK Ps QHIsQN ePRz KP `I
qPJI K[IRI `QLNqLJg HT[PPNH! [PHZLKMNH! [PVIH ... K[I ZIPZNI.
0 P ` : w[MK made you decide KP KMzI ... MRT[LKITKQRI MH M TMRIIR{
m P [ J : wINN. . was good ... vMK[H MJq dRK... HT[PPN MJq . K[LJz . had a certain feeling ... qIHLgJ. va
KIMT[IR encouraged ... VI MJq HMLq . had a bent... MRT[LKITKQRI.
` : . sLJq K[MK HPVI aPQJg ZIPZNI sMLN KP KMzI ... M TMRIIR `ITMQHI K[IalRI JPK HQRI e[MK K[Ia eMJK KP
qP MJq e[MK TMRIIR opportunities K[IRI MRI.
m P [ J : yIH! K[MKlH KRQI. 0QK QHQMNNa aPQR ZIRHPJMN fQMNLKLIH H[Pe......HT[PPN! qPJlK K[Ia{ uIMT[IRH
gQLqI MJq IJTPQRMgI ... K[I aPQJg KP KMzI ... K[I TMRIIRH ... e[LT[ K[IalRI best suited.
b) TeII your friends how John chose his career.
c) Make up your own diaIogues on choosing a career. Use the word combinations in boId type in them.
X. a) Read the foIIowing:
OMRLJg KIMT[IRH KMzI MJ MTKLxI ZMRK LJ qIsIJqLJg ZIMTI MJq LJ HPNxLJg PK[IR HPTLMN ZRP`NIVH! HQT[ MH
HKRMggNLJg sPR `IKKIR NLxLJg TPJqLKLPJH MJq M [MZZLIR sQKQRI sPR K[ILR ZQZLNH. u[ILR qIVMJqH MRI eINN gRPQJqIq
HLJTI VLNNLPJH Ps `PaH MJq gLRNH K[RPQg[PQK K[I ePRNq MRI `ILJg qIZRLxIq Ps M [MZZa T[LNq[PPq.
b) Support the idea with information from Russian and/or foreign press. Pay speciaI attention to the
situation in the USA and Great Britain.
c) Speak on:
+. aPQR LqIM Ps M [MZZa T[LNq[PPq;
2. K[I ZRP`NIV Ps qIZRLxIq T[LNqRIJ LJ QHHLM MJq M`RPMq.
XI. Here is a series of extreme opinions. BuiId a conversation about each topic. Begin as in the modeI:
GJgNLH[ LH M xIRa IMHa NMJgQMgI KP NIMRJ.
d.: .K HMaH [IRI GJgNLH[ LH M xIRa IMHa NMJgQMgI KP NIMRJ.
.: .lV JPK HQRI . fQLKI MgRII. .lq HMa LKlH sMLRNa qLssLTQNK.
d.: w[a qP aPQ K[LJz K[MK{
.: wINN! ...
Opinions:
+. d KIMT[LJg TMRIIR LHJlK HQLKM`NI sPR VIJ.
2. uIMT[LJg M sPRILgJ NMJgQMgI LJ M HT[PPN LH ZPLJKNIHH.
4. GqQTMKLPJ LH K[I RIHZPJHL`LNLKa Ps KIMT[IRH MJq ZMRIJKH H[PQNqJlK LJKIRsIRI.
3. /T[PPNT[LNqRIJ H[PQNq `I MNNPeIq KP T[PPHI K[I HQ`ITKH K[Ia eMJK KP HKQqa.
*. .J K[I JIMR! sQKQRI HT[PPNKIMT[IRH eLNN `I RIZNMTIq `a TPVZQKIRH.
XII. TransIate the sentences beIow into EngIish. Use EssentiaI VocabuIary II:
+. &76 $ ; 6 $! ; > $ 8. 2.
A9>! 86 $> 5 $ 5 . 4. $5
6D; ! 6 . 3. 76! E
D6$ ; 6 $. *. -9 6D5
9 ; C6; $. ,. ? D $!
. 7. -> 75 $> >6 6 8$ $. b. <
>85! C7 ! $> 5 . 2. 7
+*
$ > $; $; 6! $; 8 5 ;; . +). "5
; 8 C7 ! = ; D. ' ; 8 ! E
$ > . ++. &76 $8 ;; (K[IPRa Ps IqQTMKLPJ)
$ $6 C $8. +2. t 8$ D 8 D6!
7 C7 86. E$ $; $6 $ 6 685
8 .
XIII. RoIe-piaying. a) Act out in pain the foIIowing situations; use EssentiaI VocabuIary II:
+. vLzIlH sMK[IR [MH `IIJ MHzIq `a K[I [IMqVMHKIR KP TPVI KP HT[PPN `ITMQHI Ps [LH HPJlH QJQHQMN
`I[MxLPQR: `Mq VMRzH! NPKH Ps VLHHIq TNMHHIH! RQqI `I[MxLPQR. nLHTQHH K[I TMQHIH Ps [LH `I[MxLPQR MJq HKIZH
KP `I KMzIJ.
2. 1ISK aIMR UIPRgI MJq 1LTz MRI gPLJg KP KMzI IJKRMJTI ISMVLJMKLPJH MK K[I }JLxIRHLKa. .VMgLJI M KMNz
`IKeIIJ K[IV M`PQK K[ILR ZNMJH MJq K[I RIMHPJH K[MK [MxI qIKIRVLJIq K[IJ T[PLTI.
4. vPK[IR MJq qMQg[KIR [MxI M xIRa HIRLPQH KMNz M`PQK K[I gLRNlH qITLHLPJ KP KMzI QZ KIMT[LJg MH M TMRIIR.
|IR VPK[IR! K[PQg[! LH RMK[IR HTIZKLTMN M`PQK [IR T[PLTI.
3. .VMgLJI M KMNz `IKeIIJ KeP sRLIJqH! PJI Ps e[PV LH sIq QZ eLK[ [LH PR [IR ZRIHIJK `PRLJg! QJRIeMRqLJg
P`. u[I PK[IR KRLIH KP HQggIHK e[MK [I PR H[I H[PQNq qP.
\ R P V Z K H : VLg[K LK `I MJ LqIM KP ...; [MxI aPQ IxIR K[PQg[K Ps...; aPQ TPQNq MNeMaH ...; Ls . eIRI aPQ!
.lq ...; e[a qPJlK aPQ .!.; aPQlq `IKKIR ...
b) RoIe-pIay the foIIowing situation:
yPQ MRI MK M \MRIJKuIMT[IRH MHHPTLMKLPJ VIIKLJg. yPQ MRI qLHTQHHLJg M ZRP`NIV aPQ sIIN xIRa HKRPJgNa
M`PQK dVPJg aPQ K[IRI LH M VPK[IR e[PlH HQRI K[MK T[LNqRIJ H[PQNqJlK `I HKRLTKNa qLHTLZNLJIq MK HT[PPN! M
sMK[IR e[P [MH K[I PZZPHLKI PZLJLPJ! M sMK[IR e[P KIJqH KP `NMVI KIMT[IRH sPR [LH T[LNqRIJlH sMQNKH! M
gRMJqVPK[IR e[P KIJqH KP HZPLN [IR gRMJqT[LNqRIJ! M VPK[IR e[P gLxIH PK[IR ZMRIJKH MqxLTI sPR K[I PJNa
RIMHPJ K[MK [IR qMQg[KIR LH MK K[I [IMq Ps K[I TNMHH.
XIV. Pick one of these topics and discuss it, making sure each member of the group gets a chance to
speak;
+. |Pe KP IJTPQRMgI M T[LNq KP VMzI `IKKIR ZRPgRIHH MK HT[PPN{ /[PQNq ZMRIJKH QHI; ZRMLHI! ZRIHIJKH!
ZRPVLHIH Ps sQKQRI RIeMRqH{
2. /[PQNq M T[LNq `I ZQJLH[Iq{ .s JPK! [Pe KP VMzI T[LNqRIJ P`Ia{
4. /[PQNq T[LNqRIJ `I MNNPeIq KP eIMR TNPK[IH Ps K[ILR PeJ MK HT[PPN{ /[PQNq `PaH `I MNNPeIq KP [MxI
NPJg [MLR! MJq gLRNH KP QHI VMzIQZ{
3. |Pe TMJ ZMRIJKH [INZ KIMT[IRH eLK[ PQKPsHT[PPN MTKLxLKLIH{
*. /[PQNq ZMRIJKH LJHLHK PJ K[ILR T[LNqRIJ qPLJg IfQMNNa eINN LJ MNN K[I HQ`ITKH PR H[PQNq K[Ia IJTPQRMgI
K[ILR HPJH MJq qMQg[KIRH KP HZITLMNLHI LJ PJI PR KeP HQ`ITKH IHHIJKLMN sPR K[ILR sQKQRI TMRIIR{
XV. a) Read and transIate the text:
My Memories and Miseries As a Schoolmaster
u[I ZMRIJKH Ps K[I `PaH MK HT[PPN JMKQRMNNa sLNN M `RPMq ZMgI LJ M HT[PPNVMHKIRlH NLsI MJq MRI RIHZPJHL`NI
sPR VMJa Ps [LH HPRRPeH. u[IRI MRI MNN zLJqH MJq TNMHHIH Ps K[IV. vPHK MTTIZKM`NI KP K[I HT[PPNVMHKIR LH K[I
PNqsMH[LPJIq KaZI Ps 0RLKLH[ sMK[IR e[P IJKIRHl [LH `Pa MK K[I HT[PPN MJq HMaH:
r1Pe . eMJK K[LH `Pa eINN K[RMH[Iq Ls [I qPIHJlK `I[MxI [LVHINs. .s aPQ [MxI MJa KRPQ`NI eLK[ [LV NIK VI
zJPe MJq .lNN TPVI MJq K[RMH[ [LV VaHINs. |IlH KP [MxI M H[LNNLJg M eIIz ZPTzIK VPJIa MJq Ls [I HZIJqH
VPRI K[MJ K[MK NIK VI zJPe MJq .lNN HKPZ [LH VPJIa MNKPgIK[IR.r
0RQKMN K[PQg[ [LH HZIIT[ HPQJqH! K[I RIMN IssITK Ps LK LH KP TRIMKI M HKRPJg ZRIQqLTI LJ K[I NLKKNI `PalH
sMxPQR! MJq e[IJ [LH sMK[IR TQRKNa HMaH! rUPPq`aI! mMTzr MJq [I MJHeIRH! rUPPq`aI! sMK[IR!r LJ M
KRIV`NLJg xPLTI! K[I HT[PPNVMHKIR ePQNq `I M [PQJq! LJqIIq! e[P TPQNq `I QJzLJq KP [LV.
0QK xIRa qLssIRIJK LH K[I TMHI Ps K[I QZKPqMKI ZMRIJK. r1Pe .lxI QHK gLxIJ mLVVa sLxI ZPQJqH!r [I HMaH
KP K[I HT[PPNVMHKIR! LJ K[I HMVI KPJI MH [I ePQNq QHI KP MJ LJsIRLPR TNIRz LJ [LH PssLTI! rMJq .lxI ISZNMLJIq KP
[LV K[MK e[IJ [I eMJKH MJa VPRI [IlH KP KINN aPQ KP gP KP K[I `MJz MJq qRMe sPR [LV e[MK [I JIIqH.r dsKIR
e[LT[ [I gPIH PJ. KP ISZNMLJ K[MK mLVVa LH M `Pa Ps xIRa ZITQNLMR qLHZPHLKLPJ! RIfQLRLJg K[I gRIMKIHK JLTIKa
Ps KRIMKVIJK; K[MK K[Ia sLJq Ls [I gIKH LJ KIVZIRH K[I `IHK eMa LH KP [QVPQR [LV MJq ZRIHIJKNa [IlNN TPVI
RPQJq. mLVVa! LK MZZIMRH! TMJ `I NIq! Ls NIq gIJKNa! `QK JIxIR qRLxIJ.
nQRLJg MNN Ps e[LT[ KLVI K[I HT[PPNVMHKIR! LJHQNKIq `a `ILJg KRIMKIq MH MJ QJqIRNLJg! [MH MNRIMqa sLSIq
[LH IaI PJ K[I QJqLHTLZNLJIq aPQJg ZQZ TMNNIq mLVVa eLK[ M xLIe Ps KRaLJg PQK K[I ZRP`NIV Ps HIILJg
e[IK[IR [I TMJlK `I qRLxIJ MsKIR MNN. (*ro+ rOPNNIgI nMaHr 2y /. iIMTPTz)
b) Answer the questions beIow:
+. |Pe qPIH K[I MQK[PR T[MRMTKIRLI KeP PZZPHLKI KaZIH Ps r0RLKLH[ sMK[IRr{ 2. w[a! LJ iIMTPTzlH xLIe!
K[I rPNqsMH[LPJIqr KaZI LH VPRI MTTIZKM`NI sPR M HT[PPNVMHKIR{ wPQNq aPQ ZRIsIR KP [MxI mMTz PR mLVVa
sPR M ZQZLN{ 4. |Pe qLq K[I MTfQMLJKMJTI eLK[ K[I sMK[IRH LJsNQIJTI K[I HT[PPNVMHKIRlH MKKLKQqI KP K[I `PaH{
+,
nP aPQ sLJq LK JMKQRMN{ 3. nP aPQ K[LJz K[I ZRP`NIVH RMLHIq LJ K[I KISK MRI PQKqMKIq{ mQHKLsa aPQR MJHeIR. *.
.J e[MK eMa H[PQNq KIMT[IRH MJq ZMRIJKH TPPZIRMKI LJ IqQTMKLJg K[I T[LNq{
XVI. Act as an interviewer. Let the rest of the group speak about why and how they decided to quaIify as a
teacher of Ianguages. Find out:
+. Ls MJa`Pqa PR MJaK[LJg LJsNQIJTIq K[ILR T[PLTI;
2. e[IJ K[Ia sLJMNNa VMqI QZ K[ILR VLJqH;
4. e[MK MKKRMTKH K[IV LJ K[I ePRz;
3. e[MK K[Ia TPJHLqIR LKH MqxMJKMgIH MJq qLHMqxMJKMgIH.
XVII. Interview a teacher at the schooI where you have schooI practice. Ask him or her the questions from
Exercise XVI and aIso try to find out:
+. [Pe NPJg [I PR H[I [MH `IIJ LJ KIMT[LJg;
2. Ls [I PR H[I IxIR RIgRIKKIq [MxLJg KMzIJ QZ K[I P`;
4. e[MK LH K[I VPHK JPKM`NI sIMKQRI Ps KIMT[LJg;
3. e[MK MqxLTI [I PR H[I TMJ gLxI KP M KIMT[IR KRMLJII.
Discuss the interviews in cIass.
XVIII. Comment on the picture. You may find these phrases usefuI:
M uIMT[IR\MRIJK dHHPTLMKLPJ VIIKLJg; KP zIIZ qLHTLZNLJI LJ K[I TNMHHRPPV; KP QHI KRMqLKLPJMN (JIe)
VIK[PqH; KP `I LJ K[I [M`LK Ps gLxLJg PRqIRH; KP `I HKRLTK eLK[ K[I ZQZLNH: KP KINN K[I ZQZLNH Pss; M `PHHa
KIMT[IR.
r. eLNN JPe ISZNMLJ K[I ZRPgRIHHLxI VIK[PqH `a e[LT[ aPQR T[LNqRIJ MRI KMQg[K HP zIIZ fQLIK! HLK QZ
HKRMLg[K MJq qPJlK sLqgIK.r
XIX. Film "Mr. Brown's Holiday"
+)
. Film segment 1 "An Unexpected Turn'' (London), a) Watch
and listen, b) Do the exercises from the guide to the film.
++
STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH .
ONMRLKa! LJKIRIHK MJq IVZ[MHLH MRI VMRzH Ps gPPq eRLKLJg. UPPq eRLKLJg LH MNHP `MHIq PJ HINITKLPJ Ps
ePRqH LJ M HIJKIJTI! PJ PRgMJLMKLPJ Ps HIJKIJTIH LJ M ZMRMgRMZ[! MJq PJ QJLKa Ps M eRLKKIJ ZMHHMgI. u[IHI
MRI K[I VMLJ P`ITKLxIH Ps K[I HITPJqaIMR HKQqLIH Ps eRLKKIJ GJgNLH[.
Patterns of written prose. w[IJ eRLKLJg aPQ VMa T[PPHI to describe K[I sMTKH PR IxIJKH! to tell a story
M`PQK K[IV! to argue M`PQK K[IV PR to explain K[IV MTTPRqLJg KP aPQR QJqIRHKMJqLJg. u[IHI xIR`H
TPRRIHZPJq KP sPQR `MHLT sPRVH Ps KRIMKLJg M KPZLT: description, narration, argumentation, MJq exposition
(ISZNMJMKLPJ).
Paragraph LH M HLJgNI HIJKIJTI PR M gRPQZ Ps RINMKIq HIJKIJTIH ISZRIHHLJg MJq qIxINPZLJg M `MHLT LqIM! PR
M ZMRKLTQNMR Z[MHI Ps K[PQg[K. u[I ZMRMgRMZ[ LH M ZRMTKLTMN qIxLTI LJ eRLKLJg. .KH ZQRZPHI LH KP LJqLTMKI K[I
`IgLJJLJgH MJq IJqLJgH Ps M K[PQg[K QJLK. u[I `IgLJJLJg Ps M ZMRMgRMZ[ LH LJqLTMKIq `a `IgLJJLJg M NLJI M
NLKKNI LJ sRPV K[I VMRgLJ.
|IRI LH M H[PRK ZMRMgRMZ[ describing M eINNzJPeJ ZPRKRMLK: rvPJM iLHM (ULPTPJqM) LH RIZRIHIJKIq HLKKLJg
LJ sRPJK Ps M VMR`NI `MNTPJa. u[I NIsK MRV RIHKH PJ K[I MRV Ps K[I HIMK! MJq K[I sLJgIRH sPNq PxIR K[I IJq Ps LK.
u[I RLg[K [MJq! ZIR[MZH K[I VPHK ZIRsITK [MJq IxIR ZMLJKIq! NLIH NLg[KNa PxIR K[I NIsK [MJq MJq eRLHK. oJ
HNIIxIH MJq `PqLTI K[I ZNIMKH Ps K[I HMKLJ qRIHH KMzI K[I NLg[Kr (*ro+ riIPJMRqP qI :LJTLr 2y G. vT. OQRINa)
u[I MQK[PR ZRIHIJKH [LH LVZRIHHLPJH Ps K[I ZPRKRMLK MJq qIHTRL`IH LK LJ qIKMLN.
|IRI LH MJPK[IR ISMVZNI Ps M ZMRMgRMZ[ telling a story: rd RMK[IR qRIMqsQN K[LJg [MZZIJIq LJ K[I TMR MH
K[Ia eIRI qRLxLJg QZ sRPV K[I `IMT[ KP K[I MJTLIJK KPeJ! PJTI M 1PRVMJ ZPRK! `QK JPe NIsK [Lg[ MJq qRa `a
K[I RITIqLJg HIM.r (*ro+ ru[I wLJqr `a d. 0IJJIKK)
|IRI LH MJ ISMVZNI Ps M ZMRMgRMZ[ Ps argumentation: r. MV [IRI KP HMa M xIRa sIe ePRqH PRB K[I e[PNI
fQIHKLPJ Ps K[I KRIMKVIJK Ps MJLVMNH `a PQR TLxLNLIq HINxIH. pPR . [MxI JP HZITLMN zJPeNIqgI! NLzI HPVI
e[P eLNN HZIMz KP aPQ! Ps K[I KRMLJLJg Ps ZIRsPRVLJg MJLVMNH. . [MxI PJNa M TIRKMLJ zJPeNIqgI Ps [QVMJ MJq
MJLVMN JMKQRIH; MJq M TPVVPJ HIJHI e[LT[ KINNH VI K[MK eLNq MJLVMNH MRI VPRI [MZZa LJ sRIIqPV K[MJ LJ
TMZKLxLKa qPVIHKLT MJLVMNH MRI VPRI [MZZa MH TPVZMJLPJH K[MJ MH TNPeJH.r (*ro+ roJ \IRsPRVLJg
dJLVMNHr `a m. UMNHePRK[a)
u[I MQK[PR KRLIH KP TPJxLJTI K[I RIMqIR Ps [LH ZPLJK Ps xLIe: [I qLHNLzIH K[I LqIM Ps KQRJLJg qPVIHKLT
MJLVMNH LJKP ZIRsPRVIRH LJ K[I TLRTQH.
u[I expository ZMRMgRMZ[ `INPe VMzIH LK TNIMR e[MK ZPNLKIJIHH LH: r.K LHJlK PJNa eLK[ MTfQMLJKMJTIH MJq
sRLIJqH K[MK ZPNLKIJIHH TPQJKH HP VQT[. |MNs K[I KRPQ`NI LJ VMRRLMgI MJq PK[IR sMVLNa RINMKLPJH[LZH `IgLJH
eLK[ K[I K[RPeLJg Ps ZPNLKIJIHH PxIR`PMRq. \PNLKIJIHH LH PsKIJ NLKKNI VPRI K[MJ K[I ISIRTLHI Ps HINsTPJKRPN!
e[LT[ LH MH xMNQM`NI M fQMNLKa LJ sRLIJqH[LZ MH zLJqJIHH LKHINs.r (*ro+ rGssITKLxI GJgNLH[ MJq \IRHPJMN
+)
@" B. 8 %: ~. (;! . "! . k. <8 68: ~. F! <.
?> . k. @&C6$B! +277.
++
.., .. M un u qtu u M- B n n" 1978.
+7
GssLTLIJTa OPQRHIr)
Note: u[IHI ZMKKIRJH Ps eRLKLJg HINqPV PTTQR MNPJI! VPRI PsKIJ K[Ia MRI PLJIq KPgIK[IR.
Assignments:
1. Read the text "Anne Meets her CIass" and point out the paragraph of description, narration,
argumentation and exposition. What does the author Iike to describe in this episode? What is he
teIIing the reader about? What argument is Anne thinking of to manage the cIass? What is Miss
Enderby trying to expIain to Anne?
2. Search Texts A, (. II) for the basic forms of treating the topic "On Teaching" and prove your seIection
of paragraphs.
3. Write a paragraph describing the picture suggested by the teacher.
4. Write a short paragraph about your visit to a former schooImate.
5. Write a paragraph supporting or arguing Jane's and Bob's idea about teaching. (See the DiaIogue.)
LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)
1. a) Listen to the additionaI text "What's Your Line?" on the topic "Choosing a Carrer", mark stresses and
tunes, practise reading the text.
b) Iisten to the diaIogue and Iearn it by heart.
2. Respond as in the modeIs. Check your repIies.
3. Write a speIIing-transIation test, check it with the key.
4. Write the dictation "Five Hundred Years of EngIish Language Teaching", check your speIIing with a
dictionary.
5. TransIate the sentences into EngIish, check your transIation with the key.
6. a) Listen to the text and find EngIish equivaIents to the given words and word combinations.
b) Check the words and word combinations.
c) Listen to the text again and do the tasks after it.
+b
UNIT TWO
SPEECH PATTERNS
la. .K wou9d have 2een JMKQRMN Ls K[I `Pa had gone KP HNIIZ.
.K ePQNq [MxI `IIJ JMKQRMN Ls aPQ [Mq ZQJLH[Iq K[I T[LNq sPR [LH `I[MxLPQR aIHKIRqMa.
.K ePQNqJlK [MxI `IIJ HP TPNq LJ K[I VPRJLJg Ls K[I eLJq [Mq HKPZZIq `NPeLJg.
.K ePQNq [MxI `IIJ HKRMJgI Ls [I [MqJlK TMNNIq PJ VI e[IJ [I eMH [IRI NMHK HQVVIR.
.K ePQNq [MxI `IIJ fQLKI qMRz LJ K[I sPRIHK Ls eI [MqJlK VMqI M gPPq sLRI.
1b. u[I sMK[IR wou9dn?t have 5a99ed K[I qPTKPR Ls K[I `Pa had 2een fQLKI eINN.
URMJK ePQNq [MxI MTTIZKIq vMRLPlH LJxLKMKLPJ Ls [I [MqJlK VMqI QZ [LH ZNMJH sPR K[I HQVVIR.
dJJI ePQNq [MxI KMzIJ [IR HZRLJg ISMVH Ls H[I [MqJlK sMNNIJ LNN.
wI H[PQNqJlK [MxI VMqI sRLIJqH eLK[ K[IV Ls eI [MqJlK HKMaIq LJ K[I HMVI TMVZ.
wI H[PQNq [MxI sLJLH[Iq PQR ePRz aIHKIRqMa Ls aPQ [Mq [INZIq QH.
1c. u[I `Pa wou9d have 2ehaved LJ M qLssIRIJK eMa Ls [I were HINsLH[.
u[Ia ePQNqJlK [MxI fQMRRINNIq Ls K[Ia `PK[ eIRI NIHH JIRxPQH.
yPQ ePQNq [MxI LVZRPxIq aPQR HZINNLJg NPJg MgP Ls aPQ eIRI VPRI qLNLgIJK.
wI H[PQNq [MxI LJxLKIq [LV KP PQR ZMRKa Ls eI zJIe [LV `IKKIR.
/[I ePQNqJlK [MxI sPRgLxIJ [LV Ls H[I qLqJlK NPxI [LV HP VQT[.
2. |I &ee+ed to 'now MNN M`PQK LJsNQIJM.
u[I T[LNqRIJ HIIV KP NLzI IMT[ PK[IR xIRa VQT[. yPQ qPJlK HIIV KP QJqIRHKMJq VI.
/[I HIIVIq KP zJPe gRMVVMR VQT[ `IKKIR K[MJ eI K[PQg[K.
u[Ia qLqlK HIIV KP [MxI VIK `IsPRI.
3. . TMJlK 'ee4 fro+ thin'ing"
OMJlK aPQ zIIZ sRPV KMNzLJg MNN K[I KLVI{ uRa MJq zIIZ sRPV gPHHLZLJg M`PQK PK[IR ZIPZNI. /[I TPQNqJlK
zIIZ sRPV HTPNqLJg K[I T[LNq! K[PQg[ H[I zJIe H[I H[PQNqJlK qP LK.
wI TMJlK zIIZ sRPV NMQg[LJg e[IJ eI NPPz MK [LV.
EXERCISES I. Change these sentences, using Patterns 1a and 1b:
GSMVZNI: wI H[PQNq VIIK M NPK Ps KPQRLHKH Ls eI eIJK KP M KPQRLHK TMVZ JISK HQVVIR.
wI H[PQNq [MxI VIK M NPK Ps KPQRLHKH Ls eI [Mq gPJI KP M KPQRLHK TMVZ NMHK aIMR (NMHK
HQVVIR! e[IJ eI [Mq PQR [PNLqMa! IKT.).
+. vMRLP ePQNqJlK TPVI KP GJgNMJq Ls mP[J qLqJlK LJxLKI [LV. 2. \IKIR ePQNq MTTIZK aPQR LJxLKMKLPJ Ls [I
eIRI JPK LNN. 4. .K ePQNqJlK `I M [MRqH[LZ sPR K[I T[LNqRIJ KP HeIIZ MJq TNIMJ K[I RPPVH! ePQNq LK{ 3. .s K[I
eIMK[IR eIRI sLJI eI H[PQNq gP KP M [PNLqMa TMVZ JISK HQVVIR. *. wI ePQNq NLxI LJ M [PKIN Ls K[I RMKIH
eIRI JPK xIRa [Lg[. ,. .K ePQNq `I JMKQRMN Ls K[Ia qLqJlK VIIK MsKIR K[ILR fQMRRIN. 7. va sRLIJq MJq . ePQNq gP
KP K[I TLJIVM MsKIR K[LH NIHHPJ Ls K[I RIHK Ps K[I HKQqIJKH MgRIIq KP gP eLK[ QH. b. .s K[I eIMK[IR qLqJlK T[MJgI
eI H[PQNq gP KP K[I TPQJKRa KPJLg[K.
II. Combine the faIIowing sentences into one, using speech Pattern 1c:
GSMVZNI: u[Ia fQMRRINNIq. u[Ia `PK[ MRI xIRa JIRxPQH.
u[Ia ePQNqJlK [MxI fQMRRINNIq Ls K[Ia `PK[ eIRI JPK xIRa JIRxPQH.
+. 0P` RITPxIRIq. u[I qPTKPRH K[MK [Mq KRIMKIq [LV MRI xIRa ISZIRLIJTIq. 2. vMRa ZMHHIq [IR ISMVH. /[I
LH LJqQHKRLPQH. 4. wI LJxLKIq mP[J 0RPeJ KP PQR KIMZMRKa. wI MRI MTfQMLJKIq eLK[ [LV. 3. . qLqJlK NIMxI K[I
T[LNqRIJ MNPJI. u[Ia MRI JMQg[Ka. *. /[I qLqJlK MgRII KP KIMT[ QH pRIJT[. /[I qPIHJlK zJPe K[I NMJgQMgI
eINN. ,. vMRK[M QJqIRHKPPq K[I UIRVMJ qINIgMKIH! H[I LH M UIRVMJ. 7. . gMxI aPQ K[LH `PPz `ITMQHI LKlH xIRa
LJKIRIHKLJg. b. . MqxLHIq Va sRLIJqH KP [MxI M eMNzLJg KPQR `ITMQHI . VaHINs MV sPJq Ps eMNzLJg KPQRH.
III. Make up sentences after Patterns 2 and 3, using the foIIowing words and phrases:
M) \MKKIRJ 2: KP `I `QHa! KP zJPe M NPK! KP QJqIRHKMJq IMT[ PK[IR! KP [MKI (HV`. PR HVK[.)! KP NPxI VQHLT!
."g" dJJ HIIVH KP NPxI T[LNqRIJ! . PsKIJ HII [IR ZNMaLJg eLK[ NLKKNI `PaH MJq gLRNH LJ PQR aMRq.
`) \MKKIRJ 4: KP HTPNq IMT[ PK[IR! KP MRgQI (M`PQK HVK[.)! KP VIIK (eLK[)! KP eRLKI M NIKKIR! KP qRIMV (Ps
HVK[)! ."g" /[I TMJlK zIIZ sRPV TRaLJg e[IJ H[I RIMqH HIJKLVIJKMN ZPIKRa.
IV. TransIate these sentences into EngIish, using the patterns from Units One and Two:
+. |I 5! 8 8 $ 8$! 8 8 6 ! 2. Y
D 8! 8 8 8! 8 8 8; ; D 9 . 4. 8 8
D! 8 $ $6 . 3. 8 8 !
8 $ 9 5 6%! E; . *. < $
$ 8 $6D ;! 8 D6. ,. 8 8 ! 8
8$! $ 9D 6 8 D! $. 7. Y8 8
+2
E 8 C. b. Y8 8 8 $ 6! 8 8
5 5.
V. Make up a diaIogue, using the patterns from Units One and Two.
GSMVZNI: d.: .s Va VPK[IR [MqJlK `IIJ LNN + H[PQNq [MxI gPJI KP K[I /PQK[ NMHK HQVVIR.
.: yPQ [Mq `Mq NQTz. dJq e[MK MRI aPQR ZNMJH sPR K[I TPVLJg eLJKIR [PNLqMaH{
d.: . [MxIJlK VMqI MJa ZNMJH HP sMR.
.: wPQNqJlK aPQ NLzI KP HKMa eLK[ VI MK Va MQJKlH LJ K[I TPQJKRa{
d!: 0QK ePQNq LK `I TPJxIJLIJK KP [IR{
.: OIRKMLJNa.
d.: wINN! K[MKlH xIRa JLTI Ps aPQ KP LJxLKI VI.
TEXT. A DAY'S WAIT by Ernest Hemingway
|IVLJgeMa! GRJIHK (+b22+2,+): M ZRPVLJIJK dVIRLTMJ JPxINLHK MJq H[PRKHKPRa eRLKIR. |I `IgMJ KP eRLKI sLTKLPJ M`PQK
+224! [LH sLRHK `PPzH `ILJg K[I RIsNITKLPJ Ps [LH eMR ISZIRLIJTI. ru[I /QJ dNHP LHIHr (+22,) `INPJgH KP K[LH ZIRLPq MH eINN MH
rd pMRIeINN KP dRVHr (+222) LJ e[LT[ K[I MJKLeMR ZRPKIHK LH ZMRKLTQNMRNa ZPeIRsQN.
nQRLJg K[I OLxLN wMR |IVLJgeMa xLHLKIq /ZMLJ MH M eMR TPRRIHZPJqIJK. |LH LVZRIHHLPJH Ps K[I ZIRLPq MJq [LH HaVZMK[LIH
eLK[ K[I IZQ`NLTMJH sPQJq RIsNITKLPJ LJ [LH sMVPQH ZNMa ru[I pLsK[ OPNQVJr (+247)! K[I JPxIN rpPR w[PV K[I 0INN uPNNHr
(+23)) MJq M JQV`IR Ps H[PRK HKPRLIH.
|LH NMKIR ePRzH MRI rdTRPHH K[I LxIR MJq LJKP K[I uRIIHr (+2*)) MJq ru[I oNq vMJ MJq K[I /IMr (+2*2) MJq K[I xIRa NMHK
JPxIN r.HNMJqH LJ K[I /KRIMVr (+27)) ZQ`NLH[Iq MsKIR K[I MQK[PRlH qIMK[. .J +2*3 [I eMH MeMRqIq M 1P`IN \RLI sPR NLKIRMKQRI.
|IVLJgeMalH VMJJIR LH T[MRMTKIRLIq `a qIIZ ZHaT[PNPgLTMN LJHLg[K LJKP K[I [QVMJ JMKQRI. |I IMRNa IHKM`NLH[Iq [LVHINs MH
K[I VMHKIR Ps M JIe HKaNI: NMTPJLT MJq HPVIe[MK qRa.
|I TMVI LJKP K[I RPPV KP H[QK K[I eLJqPeH e[LNI eI eIRI HKLNN LJ `Iq MJq . HMe [I NPPzIq LNN. |I eMH
H[LxIRLJg! [LH sMTI eMH e[LKI! MJq [I eMNzIq HNPeNa MH K[PQg[ LK MT[Iq KP VPxI. rw[MKlH K[I VMKKIR!
/T[MK{r
+2
r.lxI gPK M [IMqMT[I.r
ryPQlq `IKKIR gP `MTz KP `Iq.r
r1P! .lV MNN RLg[K.r
ryPQ gP KP `Iq. .lNN HII aPQ e[IJ .lV qRIHHIq.r
0QK e[IJ . TMVI qPeJHKMLRH [I eMH qRIHHIq! HLKKLJg `a K[I sLRI! NPPzLJg M xIRa HLTz MJq VLHIRM`NI `Pa Ps
JLJI aIMRH. w[IJ . ZQK Va [MJq PJ [LH sPRI[IMq . zJIe [I [Mq M sIxIR.
ryPQ gP QZ KP `Iq!r . HMLq! raPQlRI HLTz.r
r.lV MNN RLg[K!r [I HMLq.
w[IJ K[I qPTKPR TMVI [I KPPz K[I `PalH KIVZIRMKQRI.
rw[MK LH LK{r . MHzIq [LV.
roJI [QJqRIq MJq KeP.r
+4
nPeJHKMLRH! K[I qPTKPR NIsK K[RII qLssIRIJK VIqLTLJIH LJ qLssIRIJK TPNPRIq TMZHQNIH eLK[ LJHKRQTKLPJH sPR
gLxLJg K[IV. oJI eMH KP `RLJg qPeJ K[I sIxIR! MJPK[IR M ZQRgMKLxI! K[I K[LRq KP PxIRTPVI MJ MTLq TPJqLKLPJ.
u[I gIRVH Ps LJsNQIJM TMJ PJNa ISLHK LJ MJ MTLq TPJqLKLPJ! [I ISZNMLJIq. |I HIIVIq KP zJPe MNN M`PQK
LJsNQIJM MJq HMLq K[IRI eMH JPK[LJg KP ePRRa M`PQK Ls K[I sIxIR qLq JPK gP M`PxI PJI [QJqRIq MJq sPQR
qIgRIIH. u[LH eMH M NLg[K IZLqIVLT Ps sNQ MJq K[IRI eMH JP qMJgIR Ls aPQ MxPLqIq ZJIQVPJLM.
0MTz LJ K[I RPPV . eRPKI K[I `PalH KIVZIRMKQRI qPeJ MJq VMqI M JPKI Ps K[I KLVI KP gLxI K[I xMRLPQH
TMZHQNIH.
rnP aPQ eMJK VI KP RIMq KP aPQ{r
rdNN RLg[K! Ls aPQ eMJK KP!r HMLq K[I `Pa. |LH sMTI eMH xIRa e[LKI MJq K[IRI eIRI qMRz MRIMH QJqIR [LH
IaIH. |I NMa HKLNN LJ K[I `Iq MJq HIIVIq xIRa qIKMT[Iq sRPV e[MK eMH gPLJg PJ.
. RIMq MNPQq sRPV |PeMRq \aNIlH
+3
3oo' of @irate&, `QK . TPQNq HII [I eMH JPK sPNNPeLJg e[MK . eMH
RIMqLJg.
r|Pe qP aPQ sIIN! /T[MK{r . MHzIq [LV.
rmQHK K[I HMVI! HP sMR!r [I HMLq.
. HMK MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I `Iq MJq RIMq KP VaHINs e[LNI . eMLKIq sPR LK KP `I KLVI KP gLxI MJPK[IR TMZHQNI. .K
ePQNq [MxI `IIJ JMKQRMN sPR [LV KP gP KP HNIIZ! `QK e[IJ . NPPzIq QZ [I eMH NPPzLJg MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I `Iq!
NPPzLJg xIRa HKRMJgINa.
rw[a qPJlK aPQ KRa KP gP KP HNIIZ{ .lNN eMzI aPQ QZ sPR K[I VIqLTLJI.r
r.lq RMK[IR HKMa MeMzI.r
+2
/T[MK (Aer+"B: qMRNLJg
+4
+)2 p (pM[RIJ[ILK) TPRRIHZPJq KP 4b.2 O (OIJKLgRMqI)! u[I pM[RIJ[ILK K[IRVPVIKIR LH QHIq K[RPQg[PQK K[I 0RLKLH[ OPVVPJeIMNK[ MJq LJ K[I }JLKIq
/KMKIH. u[I `PLNLJg ZPLJK Ps K[I pM[RIJ[ILK K[IRVPVIKIR LH 2+2! K[I sRIILJg ZPLJK 42! K[I JPRVMN KIVZIRMKQRI Ps M [QVMJ `PqaLH M`PQK 22. u[I
OIJKLgRMqI K[IRVPVIKIR! QHIq LJ QHHLM! pRMJTI MJq PK[IR TPQJKRLIH! [MH ) (IRP) sPR LKH sRIILJg ZPLJK MJq +)) sPR K[I `PLNLJg ZPLJK
+3
Pyle, Howard (+b*4+2++): MJ dVIRLTMJ LNNQHKRMKPR! ZMLJKIR MJq MQK[PR.
2)
dsKIR M e[LNI [I HMLq KP VI! ryPQ qPJlK [MxI KP HKMa LJ [IRI eLK[ VI! \MZM! Ls LK `PK[IRH aPQ.r
r.K qPIHJlK `PK[IR VI.r
r1P! . VIMJ aPQ qPJlK [MxI KP HKMa Ls LKlH gPLJg KP `PK[IR aPQ.r
. K[PQg[K ZIR[MZH [I eMH M NLKKNI NLg[K[IMqIq MJq MsKIR gLxLJg [LV K[I ZRIHTRL`Iq TMZHQNIH MK INIxIJ
PlTNPTz . eIJK PQK sPR M e[LNI.
.K eMH M `RLg[K! TPNq qMa! K[I gRPQJq TPxIRIq eLK[ M HNIIK K[MK [Mq sRPIJ HP K[MK LK HIIVIq MH Ls MNN K[I
`MRI KRIIH! K[I `QH[IH! K[I TQK `RQH[ MJq MNN K[I gRMHH MJq K[I `MRI gRPQJq [Mq `IIJ xMRJLH[Iq eLK[ LTI. .
KPPz K[I aPQJg .RLH[ HIKKIR sPR M NLKKNI eMNz QZ K[I RPMq MJq MNPJg M sRPIJ TRIIz.
dK K[I [PQHI K[Ia HMLq K[I `Pa [Mq RIsQHIq KP NIK MJa PJI TPVI LJKP K[I RPPV.
ryPQ TMJlK TPVI LJ!r [I HMLq. ryPQ VQHKJlK gIK e[MK . [MxI.r . eIJK QZ KP [LV MJq sPQJq [LV LJ ISMTKNa
K[I ZPHLKLPJ . [Mq NIsK [LV! e[LKIsMTIq! `QK eLK[ K[I KPZH Ps [LH T[IIzH sNQH[Iq `a K[I sIxIR! HKMRLJg HKLNN! MH
[I [Mq HKMRIq! MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I `Iq.
. KPPz [LH KIVZIRMKQRI.
rw[MK LH LK{r
r/PVIK[LJg NLzI M [QJqRIq!r . HMLq. .K eMH PJI [QJqRIq MJq KeP MJq sPQR KIJK[H.
r.K eMH M [QJqRIq MJq KeP!r [I HMLq.
rw[P HMLq HP{r
ru[I qPTKPR.r
ryPQR KIVZIRMKQRI LH MNN RLg[K!r . HMLq. r.KlH JPK[LJg KP ePRRa M`PQK.r
r. qPJlK ePRRa!r [I HMLq! r`QK . TMJlK zIIZ sRPV K[LJzLJg.r
rnPJlK K[LJz!r . HMLq. rmQHK KMzI LK IMHa.r
r.lV KMzLJg LK IMHa!r [I HMLq MJq NPPzIq ePRRLIq M`PQK HPVIK[LJg.
ruMzI K[LH eLK[ eMKIR.r
rnP aPQ K[LJz LK eLNN qP MJa gPPq{r
ros TPQRHI! LK eLNN!r
. HMK qPeJ MJq PZIJIq K[I \LRMKI 0PPz MJq TPVVIJTIq KP RIMq `QK . TPQNq HII [I eMH JPK sPNNPeLJg! HP .
HKPZZIq.
rd`PQK e[MK KLVI qP aPQ K[LJz .lV gPLJg KP qLI{r [I MHzIq.
rw[MK{r
rd`PQK [Pe NPJg eLNN LK `I `IsPRI . qLI{r
ryPQ MRIJlK gPLJg KP qLI. w[MKlH K[I VMKKIR eLK[ aPQ{r
ro[! aIH! . MV. . [IMRq [LV HMa M [QJqRIq MJq KeP.r
r\IPZNI qPJlK qLI eLK[ M sIxIR Ps PJI [QJqRIq MJq KeP. u[MKlH M HLNNa eMa KP KMNzcr
r. zJPe K[Ia qP. dK HT[PPN LJ pRMJTI K[I `PaH KPNq VI aPQ TMJlK NLxI eLK[ sPRKasPQR qIgRIIH. .lxI gPK M
[QJqRIq MJq KeP.r
|I [Mq `IIJ eMLKLJg KP qLI MNN qMa! IxIR HLJTI JLJI PlTNPTz LJ K[I VPRJLJg.
ryPQ ZPPR /T[MK!r . HMLq. r\PPR PNq /T[MK! LKlH NLzI VLNIH MJq zLNPVIKIRH. yPQ MRIJlK gPLJg KP qLI. u[MKlH
M qLsNIRIJK K[IRVPVIKIR. oJ K[MK K[IRVPVIKIR K[LRKaHIxIJ LH JPRVMN. oJ K[LH zLJq LKlH JLJIKaILg[K.r
rdRI aPQ HQRI{r
rd`HPNQKINa!r . HMLq. r.KlH NLzI VLNIH MJq zLNPVIKIRH. yPQ zJPe! NLzI [Pe VMJa zLNPVIKIRH eI VMzI e[IJ
eI qP HIxIJKa VLNIH LJ K[I TMR{r
ro[!r [I HMLq.
0QK [LH gMI MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I `Iq RINMSIq HNPeNa. u[I [PNq PxIR [LVHINs RINMSIq KPP! sLJMNNa! MJq K[I JISK
qMa LK eMH xIRa HNMTz MJq [I TRLIq xIRa IMHLNa MK NLKKNI K[LJgH K[MK eIRI Ps JP LVZPRKMJTI.
VOCABULARY NOTES
+. to shiver ,i >6! a& H[LxIR eLK[ TPNq
/yn" to tremble, to shudder, to start; to tremble LH K[I VPHK gIJIRMN ePRq; shuddering/starting LH
gIJIRMNNa K[I RIHQNK Ps (gRIMK) sIMR PR qLHgQHK! ."g" |I HIIVIq ZIRsITKNa TMNV! PJNa M HNLg[K KRIV`NLJg Ps [LH
xPLTI MJq [MJqH H[PeIq [I eMH ISTLKIq. jILK[ H[QqqIRIq MK K[I HLg[K Ps K[I qIMq `Pqa. u[I T[LNq eMH
H[LxIRLJg eLK[ TPNq. /[I HKMRKIq e[IJ K[Ia TMVI LJ.
2. ache n (M TPJKLJQPQH! JPK H[MRZ PR HQqqIJ! ZMLJ). }HQMNNa QHIq LJ TPVZPQJqH: headache, toothache,
stomachache, earache, backache! ."g" . [Mq M `Mq [IMqMT[I aIHKIRqMa. /PVI ZIPZNI [MxI (M) `Mq IMRMT[I
e[IJ K[I ZNMJI LH NPHLJg [ILg[K. 3ut: to have a sore throat, eye, finger! IKT.! ."g" . TMJlK HZIMz NPQqI{! .
[MxI M HPRI K[RPMK.
/yn" pain n KP sIIN ([MxI) M `Mq (H[MRZ! HNLg[K) ZMLJ LJ ...! ."g" . sIIN M H[MRZ ZMLJ LJ Va RLg[K zJII. va NIg
gLxIH VI VQT[ ZMLJ.; painful ad1 85! >85
0nt" painless! ."g" .K eMH M ZMLJsQN (ZMLJNIHH) PZIRMKLPJ.
2+
to ache , i-t 6 (6 6) KP `I LJ TPJKLJQPQH ZMLJ! e, g" va IMR MT[IH. dsKIR TNLV`LJg
K[I VPQJKMLJ [I MT[Iq MNN PxIR.
Cf.: hurt ,t-i 6 6! ."g" .K [QRKH K[I IaIH KP NPPz MK K[I HQJ. va sPPK [QRKH (VI) e[IJ . eMNz.
4. medicine n +. ! ."g" w[MK VIqLTLJI (H) qP aPQ KMzI sPR aPQR [IMqMT[IH{ 2. $%! e"g"
|I LH sPJq Ps VIqLTLJI! [I eMJKH KP `ITPVI M HQRgIPJ.
medical ad1, ."g" |I HKQqLIH MK M vIqLTMN .JHKLKQKI. |I LH M VIqLTMN HKQqIJK. va VIqLTMN zJPeNIqgI
NIMxIH VQT[ KP `I qIHLRIq. yPQlq `IKKIR TPJHQNK aPQR HQRgIPJ.
3. condition n +. ; to be in (a) good (bad) condition! ."g" dsKIR K[I K[QJqIRHKPRV PQR gMRqIJ
eMH LJ M KIRRL`NI TPJqLKLPJ! fQLKI M JQV`IR Ps KRIIH eIRI `RPzIJ. GxIRa ZMRTIN MRRLxIq LJ gPPq TPJqLKLPJ
(JPK[LJg eMH `RPzIJ PR HZPLNIq).; to be in no condition to do smth.! ."g" |I LH LJ JP TPJqLKLPJ KP KRMxIN.
u[I H[LZ eMH LJ JP TPJqLKLPJ KP NIMxI [MR`PQR! |I TMJ HLJg xIRa eINN! `QK KPJLg[K [I LH LJ JP TPJqLKLPJ KP qP
LK! [I [MH M HPRI K[RPMK.
2. ; under good (bad) condition(s)! ."g" u[I QJIVZNPaIq NLxI QJqIR xIRa [MRq TPJqLKLPJH.; on
condition that if! ."g" . eLNN qP LK PJ TPJqLKLPJ K[MK aPQ gLxI VI K[I KLVI . JIIq.; conditional ad1, ."g"
OPJqLKLPJMN HIJKIJTIH TPJKMLJ rLs PR LKH HaJPJaVH.
5. foot n (pl feet) 1. ; (> =! )! ."g" u[I `Pa QVZIq KP [LH sIIK. d qPglH sIIK MRI
TMNNIq ZMeH.; 2. C () 4)!* $! 49 $5! ."g" u[I `Pa eMH KPP KMNN sPR [LH MgI MJq [I
eMH K[RII sPPK KeP LJ [LH H[PIH.; 4. >! > 6! ! a& K[I sPPK Ps K[I VPQJKMLJ! MK
K[I sPPK Ps K[I ZMgI! K[I sPPK Ps K[I `Iq! ."g" u[LH `Pa LH MK K[I sPPK Ps [LH TNMHH.
dJK. top, head! a& K[I KPZ Ps K[I VPQJKMLJ! K[I KPZ ([IMq) Ps K[I ZMgI! MK K[I [IMq Ps K[I `Iq! IKT. ."g"
u[LH `Pa LH MK K[I [IMq Ps [LH TNMHH.
on foot ( walking, not riding), ."g" w[IJ ZIPZNI MRI [MxLJg K[ILR eMNzLJg [PNLqMa K[Ia TPxIR NPJg
qLHKMJTIH PJ sPPK. (Cf.: `a KRMLJ! `a `QH! IKT.)
footnote n
6. prescribe ,i 86 ! ."g" nPTKPR! eLNN aPQ ZRIHTRL`I M KPJLT sPR VI{ w[MK TMJ aPQ
ZRIHTRL`I sPR Va [IMqMT[I (TPNq! IKT.) {
prescription n %; KP VMzI QZ M ZRIHTRLZKLPJ sPR HV`.! ."g" \NIMHI TMNN LJ MK K[I T[IVLHKlH MJq [MxI
K[LH ZRIHTRLZKLPJ VMqI QZ sPR VI; to write out a prescription.
7. bare ad1 +. >85! ;85! 885 (QHQ. M`PQK HPVI ZMRK Ps PQR `Pqa)! ."g" |LH [IMq eMH
`MRI.
/yn" naked ( having no clothes on), ."g":LTKPRLJI eMH H[PTzIq e[IJ H[I NIMRJIq K[MK H[I ePQNq [MxI
KP HLK sPR K[I ZMLJKIR fQLKI JMzIq.
barefoot ad1 4redi5, adv eLK[ `MRI sIIK! eLK[PQK H[PIH MJq HKPTzLJgH! ."g" O[LNqRIJ NLzI KP gP (RQJ!
eMNz) `MRIsPPK.
barefooted ad1, attr" 0MRIsPPKIq ZIPZNI eIRI HKMJqLJg PJ K[I `MJz.
bare-legged (-armed) ad1 eLK[ `MRI NIgH (MRVH)! ."g" w[IJ eI HZIMz Ps `MRINIggIq T[LNqRIJ eI VIMJ
T[LNqRIJ eIMRLJg H[PIH! `QK JP HKPTzLJgH; `MRIsPPKIq T[LNqRIJ eIMR JILK[IR H[PIH JPR HKPTzLJgH.
bare-beaded! ad1 eLK[PQK M [MK! ."g" .KlH MNRIMqa KPP TPNq KP gP `MRI[IMqIq.
2. 5! ;85! D85 ;.! a& M `MRI RPPV (eLK[ NLKKNI PR JP sQRJLKQRI)! `MRI eMNNH (eLK[PQK
ZLTKQRIH PR eMNNZMZIR)! `MRI KRIIH (eLK[PQK NIMxIH)! `MRI sMTKH (PJNa sMTKH; JPK[LJg `QK sMTKH).
Cf.: M bare RPPV (JP sQRJLKQRI)! MJ empty RPPV (JP ZIPZNI)! M vacant RPPV (M RPPV LJ e[LT[ ILK[IR JP
PJI LH NLxLJg MK ZRIHIJK PR JP PJI LH ePRzLJg; M RPPV e[LT[ TMJ `I PTTQZLIq)! ."g" dsKIR K[I ZLMJP eMH KMzIJ
PQK! K[I RPPV HIIVIq fQLKI `MRI. . K[PQg[K . [IMRq xPLTIH LJ K[I JISK RPPV! `QK LK eMH IVZKa. rwPJlK aPQ
NPPz sPR M xMTMJK RPPV LJ e[LT[ eI TPQNq [MxI M TPJHQNKMKLPJ{r r.lV KPNq K[MK MNN K[I RPPVH MRI
PTTQZLIq.r
b. refuse ,t-i 86()! ."g" /[I RIsQHIq Va PssIR. /[I TMJlK RIsQHI [IR T[LNqRIJ MJaK[LJg. |I
RIsQHIq KP qP e[MK . MHzIq [LV.
1 K I: .J K[I VIMJLJg Ps HMTRLsLTLJg HVK[.! ZMRKLJg eLK[ HVK[.! K[I GJgNLH[ xIR` KP gLxI QZ LH QHIq! ."g" |I gMxI QZ K[I LqIM
Ps gPLJg K[IRI. PgIR ZRPVLHIq KP gLxI QZ HVPzLJg! `QK [I qLqJlK zIIZ [LH ZRPVLHI.
refusal n! ."g" |I MJHeIRIq [IR LJxLKMKLPJ! eLK[ M TPNq RIsQHMN!
2. like ad1 9>5! 85! ."g" u[Ia MRI MH NLzI MH KeP ZIMH. w[MK LH [I NLzI{ ( w[MK HPRK Ps
ZIRHPJ LH [I{) w[MK qPIH [I NPPz NLzI{ ( w[MK zLJq Ps MZZIMRMJTI [MH [I gPK{) |Pe qPIH H[I NPPz KPqMa{
( w[MK LH [IR MZZIMRRMJTI KPqMa{) .K NPPzH NLzI gPNq. ( .K [MH K[I MZZIMRMJTI Ps gPNq.) .K NPPzH NLzI RMLJ. .K
eMH QHK NLzI [LV KP KMzI K[I `LggIHK ZLITI Ps TMzI. u[IRI LH JPK[LJg NLzI [PVI.
like 4re4 PR adv ! ! ."g" . TMJlK qP LK NLzI aPQ. u[Ia MRI `I[MxLJg NLzI NLKKNI T[LNqRIJ! .lxI JIxIR
[IMRq [LV HLJg NLzI K[MK.
1PKI: to a5t 9i'e VIMJH KP qP HVK[. LJ K[I HMVI eMa PR LJ K[I VMJJIR Ps PK[IR ZIPZNI! ."g" /[I TMJ ZNMa NLzI M RIMN ZLMJLHK.; to
a5t a& VIMJH MTKLJg LJ K[I TMZMTLKa Ps HV`.! I g" /PVI Ps PQR HKQqIJKH MTK MH gQLqIH qQRLJg HQVVIR.
22
alike ad1 4redi5 85! 9>5! 85! ."g" u[I [PQHIH LJ K[LH HKRIIK MRI MNLzI. (Os.: u[I
[PQHIH LJ K[LH HKRIIK MRI NLzI K[PHI LJ K[I JISK HKRIIK.)
likeness n 9! ."g" . TMJJPK HII VQT[ NLzIJIHH `IKeIIJ K[I KeLJH.
unlike ad1 9>5! ."g" /[I eMH QJNLzI MNN PK[IR gLRNH.
unlike 4re4 ! ."g" }JNLzI PK[IR gLRNH H[I eMH JPK MK MNN KMNzMKLxI.
NOTES ON STYLE
A. u[I KIRVH style, stylistic MRI gIJIRMNNa QHIq LJ KeP qLssIRIJK VIMJLJgH. .J NISLTPNPga K[I KIRV
functional style LH QHIq e[LT[ VMa `I qIsLJIq MH M HaHKIV Ps ISZRIHHLxI VIMJH ZITQNLMR KP M HZITLsLT HZ[IRI
Ps TPVVQJLTMKLPJ. oK[IReLHI HZIMzLJg! K[I T[PLTI Ps ePRqH MJq Ps VPqIH Ps ISZRIHHLPJ qIZIJqH PJ K[I
HLKQMKLPJ LJ e[LT[ K[I ZRPTIHH Ps TPVVQJLTMKLPJ LH RIMNLIq! e[IK[IR LK LH M sRLIJqNa KMNz! MJ PssLTLMN NIKKIR PR
RIZPRK! M ZPIV! M HTLIJKLsLT MRKLTNI! IKT. dTTPRqLJg KP K[I HLKQMKLPJ (PR K[I HZ[IRI Ps TPVVQJLTMKLPJ) eI VMa
qLHKLJgQLH[ sPRVMN (`PPzLH[! NIMRJIq) MJq LJsPRVMN (TPNNPfQLMN) ePRqH. u[I sPRVIR MRI ZITQNLMR KP sLTKLPJ!
HTLIJKLsLT ZRPHI! NITKQRIH! PssLTLMN KMNzH; K[I NMKKIR MRI QHIq LJ IxIRaqMa KMNzH eLK[ sRLIJqH MJq RINMKLxIH. oJI
H[PQNq MNHP zIIZ LZ VLJq K[MK K[IRI MRI M gRIMK JQV`IR Ps ePRqH K[MK MRI LJqIZIJqIJK Ps K[I HZ[IRI Ps
TPVVQJLTMKLPJ! L. I. K[MK TMJ `I QHIq LJ M NITKQRI! LJ MJ LJsPRVMN KMNz! LJ M ZPIV! IKT. /QT[ ePRqH MRI
HKaNLHKLTMNNa JIQKRMN (."g" `RIMq! ePRq! `PPz! gP! KMzIH! e[LKI! IKT.).
/KQqIJKH H[PQNq `I eMRJIq MgMLJHK KMzLJg K[I KIRV 5o99oCuia9 MH M zLJq Ps IJTPQRMgIVIJK KP QHI ePRqH
K[QH VMRzIq MH VQT[ MH ZPHHL`NI. u[I KIRV LVZNLIH K[MK K[I ePRqH TMNNIq 5o99oCuia9 MRI NLVLKIq `a K[ILR
HZ[IRI Ps QHMgI MJq! Ls QHIq LJ M eRPJg HLKQMKLPJ (."g" LJ M HKQqIJKlH TPVZPHLKLPJ! LJ M TPJxIRHMKLPJ eLK[ MJ
PssLTLMN MTfQMLJKMJTI PR eLK[ PJI [Lg[IR LJ MQK[PRLKa)! VMa ZRPqQTI K[I LVZRIHHLPJ Ps LVZPNLKIJIHH PR IxIJ
RQqIJIHH.
8" g" |I LH M PNNa T[MZ. ' 6 ! (chap n! 5o99"D jolly ad1, 5o99"B u[I HKaNLHKLTMNNa JIQKRMN
eMa Ps ZQKKLJg LK LH: |I LH M gPPq (sLJI) VMJ.
|Pe MRI K[I zLqH{ F D { (kid n! 5o99"B u[I HKaNLHKLTMNNa JIQKRMN eMa |Pe MRI aPQR
T[LNqRIJ{
.lV MNN RLg[K. OP $5 $6. (all right 5o99"B u[I HKaNLHKLTMNNa JIQKRMN eMa . sIIN (MV) fQLKI
eINN.
Compare:
Neutra9 Co99oCuia9 3oo'i&h
`IgLJ HKMRK TPVVIJTI
TPJKLJQI gP PJ ZRPTIIq
IJq! sLJLH[ `I PxIR (K[RPQg[) KIRVLJMKI
`Qa gIK ZQRT[MHI
1PKI MNHP K[MK HQT[ M``RIxLMKLPJH MH I?+, I?ve, I?99, you?d, you?re, IKT. MRI T[MRMTKIRLHKLT Ps TPNNPfQLMN HKaNI. u[IRIsPRI! HKQqIJKH
eLNN `I eINN MqxLHIq KP MxPLq K[IV LJ K[ILR TPVZPHLKLPJH! IHHMaH! ZRITLH! IKT.
B. u[I KIRV style VMa `I MNHP QHIq eLK[ RIsIRIJTI KP K[I VMJJIR Ps eRLKLJg Ps HPVI ZMRKLTQNMR MQK[PR. 8"
g" |IVLJgeMalH HKaNI LH T[MRMTKIRLIq `a NMTPJLHV MJq NMTz Ps qIKMLN. u[I HaJKMS Ps [LH HIJKIJTIH LH xIRa
HLVZNI! K[I qLMNPgQIH MRI MNVPHK VPJPHaNNM`LT MJq HIIVLJgNa QJIVPKLPJMN. yIK! K[RPQg[ K[I MQHKIRI sPRV
K[I MQK[PR VMJMgIH HPVIKLVIH KP TRIMKI M JMRRMKLPJ Ps gRIMK KIJHLPJ.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)
Words
MT[I ,, n sNQI n ZMLJsQN ad1
MxPLq , sPPK n ZJIQVPJLM n
`MRI ad1 VIqLTMN ad1 ZRIHTRL`I ,
`MRIsPPK ad1 4redi5, adv VIqLTLJI n ZRIHTRLZKLPJ n
`MRI[IMqIq ad1 VLHIRM`NI ad1 H[LxIR ,
TPJqLKLPJ n JMzIq ad1 KRIV`NI ,
IZLqIVLT n ZMLJ n xMTMJK ad1
sIxIR n
Word Combinations
KP [MxI (gPK) M [IMqMT[I KP gLxI HVK[. QZ
KP KMzI PJIlH (PR HV`.lH) KP VMzI M JPKI (JPKIH) Ps HVK[.
KIVZIRMKQRI HP sMR
KP `RLJg qPeJ K[I sIxIR MK K[I sPPK ([IMq) Ps K[I `Iq
KP `I LJ (M) gPPq (`Mq) KP RIMq KP PJIHINs (MNPQq)
TPJqLKLPJ KP gP KP HNIIZ (5f.: KP sMNN MHNIIZ)
KP NLxI (ePRz) QJqIR gPPq KP HKMa (`I) MeMzI
(`Mq) TPJqLKLPJ (H) sNQH[Iq `a K[I sIxIR (MJgIR!
24
KP `I LJ JP TPJqLKLPJ KP qP HVK[. ISTLKIVIJK! IKT.)
PJ TPJqLKLPJ K[MK KP sNQH[ eLK[
KP eRLKI (ZQK) HVK[. qPeJ KP KMzI HVK[. IMHa
EXERCISES
1. Read the text and the Notes on LexicoIogy and StyIe and taIk on the foIIowing points (A. Grammar,
B.Word usage, C. StyIe):
A. +. w[a qPIH K[I MQK[PR QHI PR qRPZ K[I qIsLJLKI MRKLTNI `IsPRI K[I ePRq 2ed LJ K[I HIJKIJTIH: rwI eIRI
HKLNN LJ `Iq.r ryPQlq `IKKIR gP `MTz KP `Iq!r r. HMK MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I `Iq.r
2. w[a LH K[I .JsLJLKLxI QHIq eLK[ PR eLK[PQK K[I ZMRKLTNI to LJ K[I HIJKIJTIH: rnP aPQ eMJK VI KP RIMq KP
aPQ{r r. [IMRq [LV HMa M [QJqRIq MJq KeP.r
4. .J K[I HIJKIJTI r.KlH JPK[LJg KP ePRRa M`PQKr sK LH M ZIRHPJMN ZRPJPQJ. w[MK JPQJ qPIH LK HKMJq sPR{
(1PKI: u[I GJgNLH[ sPR @<; 6.B ePQNq `I ru[IRI LH JPK[LJg KP ePRRa M`PQK.r)
3. uLTz Pss K[I HIJKIJTIH eLK[ K[I .JsLJLKLxI QHIq MH MJ MKKRL`QKI.
*. uLTz Pss MNN K[I TPVZNIS HIJKIJTIH eLK[ TNMQHIH PLJIq eLK[PQK K[I TPJQJTKLPJ that, ."g" r. zJPe (K[MK)
[I LH LNN.r
B. +. w[MK qLq K[I sMK[IR VIMJ e[IJ [I HMLq ryPQlq `IKKIR gP `MTz KP `Iqr{ (dqq HPVI ePRqH KP H[Pe
K[I LVZNLTMKLPJ.)
2. \MRMZ[RMHI K[I HIJKIJTIH: r.lq RMK[IR HKMa MeMzIr MJq rQHK KMzI LK IMHa.r
4. w[MK LH K[I qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ K[I `PalH ePRqH r...Ls LK `PK[IRH aPQr MJq r...Ls LKlH gPLJg KP `PK[IR aPQ.r
(uRMJHNMKI K[I HIJKIJTIH eLK[ K[IHI Z[RMHIH LJKP QHHLMJ.)
3. |Pe MJq e[a qLq K[I `Pa ZMRMZ[RMHI [LH fQIHKLPJ rM`PQK e[MK KLVI... .lV gPLJg KP qLI{r
*. u[I `Pa NMa eLK[ [LH IaIH sLSIq MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I `Iq. w[MK HaJPJaVH MJq e[a qLq K[I MQK[PR QHI KP
qIHTRL`I K[I HLKQMKLPJ{ (/II :PTM`QNMRa 1PKIH LJ }JLK oJI.)
C. +. OPVVIJK PJ K[I T[PLTI Ps ePRqH LJ |IVLJgeMalH HKPRa sRPV K[I ZPLJK Ps xLIe Ps K[ILR HKaNLHKLT
TPNPQRLJg. w[MK HKaNI ZRIxMLNH! sPRVMN PR LJsPRVMN{
2. w[MK TMJ aPQ HMa M`PQK K[I qLMNPgQIH LJ K[I HKPRa MJq K[ILR HKaNLHKLT ZITQNLMRLKLIH{
4. OPVVIJK PJ K[I HaJKMS Ps K[I HKPRa MJq K[I HKaNLHKLT IssITK MT[LIxIq `a LK.
3. w[MK LH K[I gIJIRMN MKVPHZ[IRI Ps K[I HKPRa{ .H K[I KIJHLPJ gRMqQMNNa LJTRIMHIq{ |Pe LH K[I IssITK
MT[LIxIq{ w[MK LH K[I ZPLJK Ps K[I [Lg[IHK KIJHLPJ (TNLVMS) {
II. a) Choose the best transIation of each EngIish sentence beIow (or give your own variant) and reason oat
your choice;
.. .lq RMK[IR HKMa MeMzI! +. 7 6. 2. D 6.
... ...MH K[PQg[ LK MT[Iq KP VPxI. +. ... $ 8 6 ;6. 2. ... >
$ 6!
.... |I HIIVIq xIRa qIKMT[Iq sRPV e[MK eMH gPLJg PJ. +. F6! >7= ; . 2.
' 67 D8$ ; 9=;. 4. '! 6! $ ;!
9 ;.
.:. 0QK [LH gMI MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I `Iq RINMSIq HNPeNa. +. ~; ; $
>8$. 2. ' > $ >$ $ 5. 4. ~; ;! $85
! 7 >6.
:. u[I [PNq PxIR [LVHINs RINMSIq KPP! sLJMNNa! MJq K[I JISK qMa LK eMH xIRa HNMTz. .. (>6 ;
>! %! 7=5 6 8 6 65. 2. ' >6
9 7=5 6 8 $ 8$. 4. % % ; 6 5
> 6! 7=5 6 $ .
b) TransIate the description of the father's waIk.
III. a) Copy, transcribe and give Russian equivaIents of these words:
MT[I! sIxIR! VIqLTLJI! TMZHQNI! ZQRgMKLxI! gIRV! MTLq! LJsNQIJM! xMRLPQH! ZJIQVPJLM! MRIM! ZLRMKI! JMKQRMN!
`PK[IR! ZRIHTRL`I! `QH[! `RQH[! ePRRa! K[IRVPVIKIR! M`HPNQKINa! RINMS.
b) Give the four forms of the verbs:
H[QK! PxIRTPVI! NLI (>6)! NMa (6)! eMzI! sRIII! ePRRa! qLI!
c) Make four coIumns and write numbers I, , III and IV at their tops to represent four types of syIIabIes.
Then pick out from the Iist above ('a' and 'b') words with voweI sounds iIIustrating different types of
syIIabIes and pIace them in right coIumns.
IV. Try your hand at teaching.
(Look up the words and phrases you may need to do the task in "CIassroom EngIish", Sections IV, VIII.)
A. Preparation. M) \LTz PQK sRPV K[I KISK MJq sRPV K[I LJKRPqQTKLPJ KP LK ePRqH eLK[ K[I NIKKIR LJ K[IV.
nLxLqI M H[IIK Ps ZMZIR LJKP KIJ TPNQVJH eLK[ K[I sPNNPeLJg NIKKIRH MK K[I KPZ Ps IMT[ TPNQVJ: +) ! 2) 5 E
i, 4) 5 E a, 3) 5 E o, FB TQ! ,) TM TPJHPJMJK! 7) LJ K[I IJqLJg Gi5, HB 5 E h I WKf! 2) T[ Wz! +))
23
TzWz.
ONMHHLsa K[I ePRqH QJqIR IMT[ [IMqLJg.
`) vMzI QZ aPQR PeJ NLHK Ps ePRqH KP LNNQHKRMKI K[I HMVI RQNIH.
B. Work in Class. M) /[Pe K[I KM`NI eLK[ +) TPNQVJH KP aPQR sINNPeHKQqIJKH MJq ISZNMLJ [Pe H[PQNq
`I ZRPJPQJTIq LJ IMT[ TMHI.
`) nLTKMKI K[I ePRqH sRPV aPQR NLHK KP K[I HKQqIJKH MJq MHz PJI Ps K[IV KP HZINN K[IV PJ K[I `NMTz`PMRq.
OPRRITK K[I VLHKMzIH.
V. Answer the questions:
+. w[MK eIRI K[I HaVZKPVH Ps K[I `PalH LNNJIHH{ 2. w[a qLq LK HIIV KP K[I sMK[IR K[MK K[I qPTKPR zJIe MNN
M`PQK LJsNQIJM{ 4. w[MK ePRRLIq K[I `Pa{ /LJTI e[IJ{ 3. w[a qLq K[I `Pa ZRIsIR KP HKMa MeMzI{ *. w[MK
eIRI K[I HaVZKPVH Ps K[I `PalH JIRxPQH HKRMLJ K[MK K[I sMK[IR KPPz sPR K[I HaVZKPVH Ps [LH LNNJIHH{ ,.
wPQNqJlK LK [MxI `IIJ VPRI JMKQRMN Ls K[I `Pa [Mq KPNq [LH sMK[IR M`PQK [LH sIMRH{ w[a{ 7. nP aPQ NLzI K[I
`PalH `I[MxLPQR{ |Pe qPIH LK T[MRMTKIRLI [LV{ b. |Pe ePQNq aPQ ISZNMLJ K[I TPJKRMHKH LJ K[I `PalH
`I[MxLPQR PJ K[I sLRHK MJq K[I HITPJq day Ps [LH LNNJIHH{ 2. w[a qLq K[I MQK[PR LJKRPqQTI K[I qIHTRLZKLPJ Ps
K[I sMK[IRlH eMNz{ +). nP aPQ sLJq K[I HLKQMKLPJ qIHTRL`Iq LJ K[I HKPRa KRQI KP NLsI{ (ULxI aPQR RIMHPJH.) ++.
nP aPQ K[LJz aPQ ePQNq [MxI `I[MxIq LJ K[I HMVI eMa LJ K[I `PalH ZNMTI{ +2. w[MK qP aPQ TPJHLqIR KP `I
K[I ZPLJK Ps K[I HKPRa{
Begin when possibIe your answers with:
. `INLIxI; . K[LJz; .lq NLzI KP HMa; .J Va xLIe; dH . HII LK; . qPJlK K[LJz LK ePQNq...; u[LH LH Va eMa Ps
NPPzLJg MK LK.
VI. Study VocabuIary Notes and a) write derivatives or compounds of:
RIsQHI! ZRIHTRL`I! ZMLJ! MT[I! TPJqLKLPJ! `MRI! NLzI.
b) Give the opposite of:
KP RIMq MNPQq! LJ gPPq TPJqLKLPJ! MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I `Iq (VPQJKMLJ! ZMgI)! K[I gLRN [Mq H[PIH PJ! K[I HIMK LH
PTTQZLIq! K[I KRIIH MRI TPxIRIq eLK[ NIMxIH! KP `I MHNIIZ.
c) Give EngIish equivaIents of these words and use them in sentences of your own:
;85 (2 ePRqH)! >6 (2 ePRqH)! 6 (2 ePRqH).
VII. FiII in
a) ache, hurt, pain, painfuI:
w[MK... aPQ{
. TMJlK HMa . sIIN MJa H[MRZ ... LJ HPVI qIsLJLKI ZNMTI! . QHK... MNN PxIR.
nPIH LK... aPQ KP VPxI aPQR MRVH! NIgH PR [IMq{
va [IMq ... MNN K[I KLVI! LK ... VI KP NPPz MK K[I NLg[K MJq IMT[ VPxIVIJK LH ... .
wINN! . VQHK ISMVLJI aPQ. nPJlK `I MsRMLq! LK ePJlK `I ... .
0QK! qPTKPR! IMT[ KPQT[ gLxIH VI ....
wINN! KRa MJq KMzI LK IMHa.
b) in, on:
yPQR T[LNqlH [IMNK[ LH ... M RMK[IR `Mq TPJqLKLPJ! [I VQHK `I K[PRPQg[Na ISMVLJIq LJ K[I ZPNLTNLJLT.
0QK! qPTKPR! [I LH ... JP TPJqLKLPJ KP NIMxI K[I [PQHI! [IlH KPP eIMz.
\IR[MZH eIlq `IKKIR KMzI [LV KP [PHZLKMN K[IJ.
o[! qPTKPR! LHJlK LK ZPHHL`NI KP zIIZ [LV MK [PVI{
wINN! PJNa ... TPJqLKLPJ K[MK aPQ sPNNPe MNN Va LJHKRQTKLPJH.
c) refuse, give up:
+. .J HZLKI Ps [LH sMK[IRlH eLH[ [I ... KP NIMxI K[I vIqLTMN .JHKLKQKI MH [I eMH sPJq Ps VIqLTLJI MJq qLqJlK
eMJK KP ... . 2. . qITLqIq KP `RIMz eLK[ [LV MsKIR [I [Mq ... KP [INZ VI e[IJ . eMH LJ gRIMK JIIq Ps [INZ. 4.
u[PQg[ H[I RIgQNMRNa ... [LH ZRPZPHMNH [I TPQNqJlK... [LH qRIMV Ps VMRRaLJg [IR HPPJIR PR NMKIR. 3. .s H[I MHzH
VI sPR MJa sMxPQR .lNN JIxIR ... [IR. *. .s . eIRI aPQ . ePQNqJlK... Va ZNMJ HP IMHLNa.
d) Iike, as:
+. u[I T[LNqRIJ QVZIq MJq HfQIMNIq (>) ... NLKKNI ZQZZLIH. 2. u[I gLRN KRLIq KP `I[MxI ... M gRPeJ
QZ ZIRHPJ. 4. /[I eMH LJxLKIq KP K[LH TPJsIRIJTI ... M HZITLMNLHK LJ VIqLTLJI. 3. |I ePRzH ... M qPTKPR LJ PJI Ps
PQR [PHZLKMNH. *. yPQ QHK NLHKIJ KP [LV! [I HZIMzH ... M RIMN qPTKPR! K[PQg[ [I qPIHJlK zJPe MJaK[LJg M`PQK
VIqLTLJI. ,. ... aPQR qPTKPR! . qPJlK MNNPe aPQ KP gIK QZ sPR HPVI VPRI qMaH.
VIII. Write 5 questions after each pattern beIow. (Keep to the same word order.) Discuss them in cIass:
+. nP aPQ K[LJz K[I `Pa ePQNq [MxI ePRRLIq M`PQK [LH KIVZIRMKQRI Ls [I [Mq zJPeJ K[I qLssIRIJTI
`IKeIIJ K[I pM[RIJ[ILK MJq K[I OIJKLgRMqI K[IRVPVIKIRH{
2. w[a! qP aPQ K[LJz! K[I VIqLTLJIH eIRI LJ qLssIRIJK TPNPQRIq TMZHQNIH{
IX. ReteII the text in reported speech foIIowing the outIine given beIow:
2*
+. u[I `Pa NPPzH LNN.
2. u[I sMK[IR TMNNH sPR M qPTKPR.
4. u[I qPTKPR qLMgJPHIH K[I LNNJIHH MJq NIMxIH LJHKRQTKLPJH.
3. u[I `Pa HIIVH qIKMT[Iq sRPV e[MK LH gPLJg PJ MRPQJq [LV.
*. u[I sMK[IR gPIH sPR M eMNz.
,. u[I `PalH HKMKI KRPQ`NIH [LH sMK[IR.
7. u[I sMK[IR sLJqH PQK e[MK ePRRLIH K[I `Pa.
b. u[I `Pa RINMSIH.
Use the vocabuIary of the text and the words:
to a&' (a2out, if, whyB, to wonder (whether, why, what"""B, to &ay (thatB, to te99 &+2" (a2out &+th"B, to add
(thatB, to an&wer (thatB, to re49y (thatB, to inCuire after (&+2"?& hea9thB, to de59are (thatB"
X. SuppIy articIes where necessary:
+. ... TNLJLTMN K[IRVPVIKIR LH ... HVMNN K[IRVPVIKIR sPR sLJqLJg ... KIVZIRMKQRI Ps ... `Pqa. 2. ... `PLNLJg
ZPLJK Ps ... pM[RIJ[ILK K[IRVPVIKIR LH 2+2! Ps ... OIJKLgRMqI K[IRVPVIKIR +)) MJq Ps... IMVQR
K[IRVPVIKIR b). 4.... zLNPVIKIR LH ... VIMHQRI Ps NIJgK[ MH eINN MH... VLNI MJq... sPPK;... zLNPgRMV MJq ...
ZPQJq MRI ... VIMHQRIH Ps eILg[K. 3. |LH [Lg[ KIVZIRMKQRI ePRRLIq... `Pa `ITMQHI [I qLqJlK zJPe...
qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ... pM[RIJ[ILK MJq OIJKLgRMqI K[IRVPVIKIRH.
XI. Make up short diaIogues starting with the sentences beIow. Try and argue with each other:
+. u[I VPK[IR KP K[I sMK[IR: yPQ H[PQNqJlK [MxI gPJI sPR M eMNz e[IJ K[I T[LNq eMH LNN.
2. u[I sMK[IR KP K[I `Pa: yPQ H[PQNq [MxI KPNq VI e[MK ePRRLIq aPQ.
4. u[I VPK[IR KP K[I `Pa: yPQ H[PQNq [MxI NIK VI LJ! e[a qLqJlK aPQ{
3. u[I VPK[IR KP K[I sMK[IR: yPQ VLg[K [MxI gQIHHIq K[MK HPVIK[LJg eMH ePRRaLJg K[I `Pa.
*. u[I sMK[IR KP K[I VPK[IR: yPQ VLg[K [MxI qRPZZIq LJ KP HII e[MK HKMKI K[I `Pa eMH LJ.
,. u[I VPK[IR KP K[I sMK[IR (K[I JISK qMa): . qPJlK NLzI K[I `PalH HKMKI. \IR[MZH eI [Mq `IKKIR TMNN K[I
qPTKPR MgMLJ{
Use such phrases as;
0QK e[a H[PQNq (H[PQNqJlK) .{; wINN! . qPJlK (qLqJlK) K[LJz...; . eLH[ . TPQNq! `QK...; . RIMNNa TPQNqJlK
LVMgLJI...; w[MK M HLNNa eMa KP KMNzc; . eLH[ aPQ ePQNqJlK...; .lV RIMNNa HPRRa! `QK...; . RIMNNa sIIN `Mq M`PQK
LK...; w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz . H[PQNq [MxI qPJI...{! IKT.
GSMVZNI: pMK[IR: yPQ H[PQNq gP KP `Iq MK PJTI.
/PJ: w[a H[PQNq .{ .lV MNN RLg[K.
pMK[IR: 0QK aPQ MRIJlK. yPQlRI H[LxIRLJg MJq aPQR sMTI LH e[LKI.
/PJ: wINN! . QHK sIIN M `LK TPNq! .lNN HLK qPeJ `a K[I sLRI.
pMK[IR: yPQ MRI LNN MJq aPQ [MxI M sIxIR.
/J: |Pe qP aPQ zJPe{
pMK[IR: . zJIe LK QHK e[IJ . ZQK Va [MJq PJ aPQR sPRI[IMq.
XII. TransIate into EngIish;
+. 9 9 8 >! ; 8 ${ 2. ; $ E$
. 4. ~ 8 8 E ! 8 ; 8 ; D.
3. - 8 $ 85 ! ; $ 9 $. *. A6 $
;6 $! E $ . ,. 68 8: 7 $
. 7. < D$ $ 8 8 E 8! $7 6D;
. b. ~ 8 D6 6! 8 D6 6 6 . 2. "
E ! $ 8 D$ $; . +). '
{ h 9> ;: 6 ! ; 6$ 6. A. 8
! $> $ 6D 9. +2. F >6. $7! $ D
6 $.
XIII. a) FiII in prepositions or adverbs where necessary and summarize
15
the passage:
rwINN! aPQlq `IKKIR NIK VI KMzI aPQR KIVZIRMKQRI!r HMLq URLssLK[H.
r.KlH fQLKI QJJITIHHMRa!r MJHeIRIq \[LNLZ LRRLKM`Na.
rOPVI PJ.r
\[LNLZ ZQK K[I K[IRVPVIKIR ... [LH VPQK[. URLssLK[H HMK ... K[I HLqI ... K[I `Iq MJq T[MKKIRIq `RLg[KNa ... M
VPVIJK! K[IJ [I KPPz LK... MJq NPPzIq ... LK.
r1Pe! NPPz [IRI! PNq VMJ! aPQ HKMa ... `Iq! MJq .lNN `RLJg PNq nIMTPJ ... KP [MxI M NPPz ... aPQ.r
r1PJHIJHI!r HMLq \[LNLZ. ru[IRIlH JPK[LJg K[I VMKKIR. . eLH[ aPQ ePQNqJlK `PK[IR ... VI.r
r0QK LK LHJlK MJa `PK[IR. yPQlxI gPK M KIVZIRMKQRI MJq aPQ VQHK HKMa ... `Iq. yPQ eLNN! ePJlK aPQ{r
+*
to summarize (or to give a summary): KP gLxI M H[PRK xIRHLPJ (QHQ. LJ RIZPRKIq HZIIT[) Ps M ZMHHMgI! HKPRa! JPxIN! IKT. TPJKMLJLJg LKH VMLJ ZPLJKH PJNa.
2,
ryPQlxI gPK M ePJqIRsQN `IqHLqI VMJJIR!r \[LNLZ VQRVQRIq! TNPHLJg [LH IaIH ... M HVLNI.
(*ro+ ros |QVMJ 0PJqMgIr 2y /PVIRHIK vMQg[MV)
b) Add question tags to the sentences beIow and answer them. Begin your answers with "Yes, he did/was'',
"No, he didn't/wasn't" or "But he did/was" and then give fuII answers:
GSMVZNI: URLssLK[H qLqJlK eMJK \[LNLZ KP KMzI [LH KIVZIRMKQRI! qLq [I{
yIH! [I qLq. |I HMe K[MK [LH sRLIJq NPPzIq fQLKI HLTz MJq VLHIRM`NI.
+. \[LNLZ eMH JPK LRRLKMKIq MK URLssLK[Hl MqxLTI!...{ 2. \[LNLZ ZQK K[I K[IRVPVIKIR QJqIR `LH MRV! ...{ 4.
\[LNLZlH KIVZIRMKQRI eMHJlK MNN RLg[K! ...{ 3. URLssLK[H qLqJlK IxIJ KRa KP T[MKKIR HLKKLJg MK [LH sRLIJqlH `Iq!...{ *.
\[LNLZ K[PQg[K K[MK K[IRI eMH JPK[LJg K[I VMKKIR eLK[ [LV! ...{ ,. u[IRI eMH RIMNNa JPK[LJg K[I VMKKIR eLK[
\[LNLZ! ...{ 7. URLssLK[H qLqJlK eMJK \[LNLZ KP HKMa LJ `Iqr! ...{ b. \[LNLZ qLqJlK eMJK [LH sRLIJq KP NPPz MsKIR [LV!
...{ 2. URLssLK[H eMH gPLJg KP `RLJg M qPTKPR KP \[LNLZ! ...{ +). \[LNLZ HVLNIq `ITMQHI [I eMJKIq `LH sRLIJq KP
K[LJz! K[MK [I eMH MNN RLg[K!...{
XIV. TransIate the foIIowing text into EngIish:
"6 $ 5 ! ; ;. ? ! ; 8 685
>! = 8! ;$ 8 $8 ;. _D ! $$
. ' ! E $. t $6 $
$ ! $;.
AD ! ;9! 65 . '
! ; $6 . "6 $! = $ ;!
; ; $ .
@< 56. 9D! ! $ 8
6%B.
@ D $ $7 $B! $6.
@t >! ! 6. < > 6. ~ 8
6 $$ $! ! 6 5 $ DB.
D! $! 8 8 D 6 6%.
XV. Make up three short diaIogues, using the phrases Iisted beIow:
M) KP [MxI M [IMqMT[I! KP [MxI M sIxIR! KP KMzI PJIlH KIVZIRMKQRI! [Mq `IKKIR! KP [MxI M ZRIHTRLZKLPJ VMqI
QZ;
`) KP TPJHQNK M qPTKPR! M NLg[K IZLqIVLT Ps sNQ! KP ZRIHTRL`I K[I VIqLTLJI sPR! KP `I NLg[K[IMqIq! ePQNq
RMK[IR! KP qP gPPq;
T) KP KMzI HVK[. IMHa! KP zIIZ sRPV qPLJg HVK[.! K[IRI LH JPK[LJg KP ePRRa M`PQK! PJ TPJqLKLPJ K[MK! KP `I
Ps JP LVZPRKMJTI.
XVI. Try your hand at teaching.
1. Say what yon wouId do in the teacher's position:
nQRLJg M VQHLT NIHHPJ! e[LNI K[I KIMT[IR KRLIq KP qIVPJHKRMKI K[I R[aK[V Ps M HPJg! \IKI KPPz KeP ZIJTLNH
MJq ZRPTIIqIq KP qRQV PJ M `PPz. u[I KIMT[IR HKPZZIq ZNMaLJg MJq qIVMJqIq KP zJPe e[P eMH qRQVVLJg.
1P RIZNa TMVI sPRK[! HP H[I RIHQVIq [IR ZNMaLJg. u[LH xIRa LJHKMJK K[I qRQVVLJg HKMRKIq MgMLJ. u[I KIMT[IR!
e[P [Mq `IIJ PJ K[I MNIRK! TMQg[K \IKI LJ K[I MTK.
2. Practise your "CIassroom EngIish".
PIay the part of the teacher and get your pupiIs to write a speIIing test on the board.
a) Prepare a test on the vocabuIary of Unit Two at home.
b) Ask severaI pupiIs to write the words on the board.
c) Make sure that the board is properIy prepared for writing on it: the writing it eIigibIe; aII the mistakes are
corrected; the whoIe cIass is invoIved. (See "CIassroom EngIish", Sections IV. VIII, IX)
IABORATORY EXERCISES (I)
+. iLHKIJ KP K[I KISK rd nMalH wMLKr! VMRz K[I HKRIHHIH MJq KQJIH! RIZIMK K[I KISK sPNNPeLJg K[I VPqIN.
2. \MRMZ[RMHI K[I sPNNPeLJg HIJKIJTIH! TPV`LJLJg K[IV LJKP PJI TPJqLKLPJMN HIJKIJTI. vMzI MNN JITIHHMRa
T[MJgIH.
4. IHZPJq KP K[I sPNNPeLJg HIJKIJTIH MTTPRqLJg KP K[I VPqIN. }HI K[I LJxIRKIq sPRV Ps TPJqLKLPJMN
HIJKIJTIH LJ aPQR RIHZPJHIH.
3. GSKIJq K[I sPNNPeLJg HIJKIJTIH MTTPRqLJg KP K[I VPqIN. }HI K[I xIR`H HQggIHKIq.
*. wRLKI M HZINNLJgKRMJHNMKLPJ KIHK M) KRMJHNMKI K[I Z[RMHIH LJKP GJgNLH[; `) T[ITz K[IV eLK[ K[I zIa.
,. uRMJHNMKI K[I HIJKIJTIH LJKP GJgNLH[ MJq T[ITz K[IV eLK[ K[I zIa. IZIMK K[I zIa MNPQq.
7. iLHKIJ KP K[I KISK r\MKLIJKH 1IIqIqr HPVI PK[IR KISK PJ K[I KPZLT. pLJq GJgNLH[ IfQLxMNIJKH Ps K[I
QHHLMJ Z[RMHIH LJ K[I KISK. IKINN K[I KISK LJ LJqLRITK HZIIT[.
TOPIC: ILLNESSES AND THEIR TREATMENT
27
TEXT A. A VICTIM TO ONE HUNDRED AND SEVEN FATAL MALADIES
*ro+ ru[RII vIJ LJ M 0PMKr 2y mIRPVI j. mIRPVI
. RIVIV`IR gPLJg KP K[I 0RLKLH[ vQHIQV PJI qMa KP RIMq QZ K[I KRIMKVIJK sPR HPVI HNLg[K MLNVIJK. . gPK
qPeJ K[I `PPz MJq RIMq MNN . TMVI KP RIMq; MJq K[IJ! LJ MJ QJK[LJzLJg VPVIJK! . LqNa KQRJIq K[I NIMxIH MJq
`IgMJ KP HKQqa qLHIMHIH! gIJIRMNNa. . sPRgPK e[LT[ eMH K[I sLRHK! MJq `IsPRI . [Mq gNMJTIq [MNs qPeJ K[I NLHK
Ps rZRIVPJLKPRa HaVZKPVHr! . eMH HQRI K[MK . [Mq gPK LK.
. HMK sPR M e[LNI sRPIJ eLK[ [PRRPR; MJq K[IJ LJ qIHZMLR # MgMLJ KQRJIq PxIR K[I ZMgIH. . TMVI KP KaZ[PLq
sIxIR RIMq K[I HaVZKPVH qLHTPxIRIq K[MK . [Mq KaZ[PLq sIxIR `IgMJ KP gIK LJKIRIHKIq LJ Va TMHI! MJq
HP HKMRKIq MNZ[M`IKLTMNNa.
O[PNIRM . [Mq! eLK[ HIxIRI TPVZNLTMKLPJH; MJq qLZ[K[IRLM . HIIVIq KP [MxI `IIJ `PV eLK[. . NPPzIq
K[RPQg[ K[I KeIJKaHLS NIKKIRH! MJq K[I PJNa qLHIMHI . [Mq JPK gPK eMH [PQHIVMLqlH zJII.
. HMK MJq K[PQg[K e[MK MJ LJKIRIHKLJg TMHI . VQHK `I sRPV M VIqLTMN ZPLJK Ps xLIe. /KQqIJKH ePQNq [MxI
JP JIIq KP reMNz K[I [PHZLKMNHr Ls K[Ia [Mq VI. . eMH M [PHZLKMN LJ VaHINs. dNN K[Ia JIIq qP ePQNq `I KP
eMNz RPQJq VI! MJq! MsKIR K[MK! KMzI K[ILR qLZNPVM.
u[IJ . ePJqIRIq [Pe NPJg . [Mq KP NLxI. . KRLIq KP ISMVLJI VaHINs. . sINK Va ZQNHI. . TPQNq JPK MK sLRHK sIIN
MJa ZQNHI MK MNN. u[IJ! MNN Ps M HQqqIJ! LK HIIVIq KP HKMRK Pss. . ZQNNIq PQK Va eMKT[ MJq KLVIq LK. . VMqI LK M
[QJqRIq MJq sPRKaHIxIJ KP K[I VLJQKI. . KRLIq KP sIIN Va [IMRK. . TPQNq JPK sIIN Va [IMRK. .K [Mq HKPZZIq
`IMKLJg. . ZMKKIq VaHINs MNN PxIR Va sRPJK! sRPV e[MK . TMNN Va eMLHK QZ KP Va [IMq `QK . TPQNq JPK sIIN PR
[IMR MJaK[LJg. . KRLIq KP NPPz MK Va KPJgQI. . HKQTz LK PQK MH.sMR MH IxIR LK ePQNq gP! MJq . H[QK PJI IaI MJq
KRLIq KP ISMVLJI LK eLK[ K[I PK[IR. . TPQNq PJNa HII K[I KLZ! `QK . sINK VPRI TIRKMLJ K[MJ `IsPRI K[MK . [Mq
HTMRNIK sIxIR.
. [Mq eMNzIq LJKP K[I RIMqLJgRPPV M [MZZa! [IMNK[a VMJ. . TRMeNIq PQK M VLHIRM`NI eRITz.
. eIJK KP Va VIqLTMN VMJ. |I LH MJ PNq T[QV Ps VLJI! MJq sIINH Va ZQNHI! MJq NPPzH MK Va KPJgQI! MJq
KMNzH M`PQK K[I eIMK[IR! MNN sPR JPK[LJg! e[IJ . sMJTa .lV LNN. /P . eIJK HKRMLg[K QZ MJq HMe [LV! MJq [I HMLq:
rwINN! e[MKlH K[I VMKKIR eLK[ aPQ{r
. HMLq:
r. eLNN JPK KMzI QZ aPQR KLVI! qIMR `Pa! eLK[ KINNLJg aPQ e[MK LH K[I VMKKIR eLK[ VI. iLsI LH H[PRK MJq aPQ
VLg[K ZMHH MeMa `IsPRI . [Mq sLJLH[Iq. 0QK + eLNN KINN aPQ e[MK LH not K[I VMKKIR eLK[ VI. GxIRaK[LJg INHI!
[PeIxIR! . have gPK.r
dJq . KPNq [LV [Pe . TMVI KP qLHTPxIR LK MNN!
u[IJ [I PZIJIq VI MJq NPPzIq qPeJ VI! MJq KPPz [PNq Ps Va eRLHK! MJq K[IJ [I [LK VI PxIR K[I T[IHK
e[IJ . eMHJlK ISZITKLJg LK M TPeMRqNa K[LJg KP qP! . TMNN LK dsKIR K[MK! [I HMK qPeJ MJq eRPKI PQK M
ZRIHTRLZKLPJ! MJq sPNqIq LK QZ MJq gMxI LK VI! MJq . ZQK LK LJ Va ZPTzIK MJq eIJK PQK.
. qLq JPK PZIJ LK! . KPPz LK KP K[I JIMRIHK T[IVLHKlH! MJq [MJqIq LK LJ. u[I VMJ RIMq LK! MJq K[IJ [MJqIq LK
`MTz. |I HMLq [I qLqJlK zIIZ LK.
. HMLq:
ryPQ MRI M T[IVLHK{r
|I HMLq:
r+ MV M T[IVLHK. .s . eMH M TPPZIRMKLxI HKPRIH MJq sMVLNa [PKIN TPV`LJIq! + VLg[K `I M`NI KP P`NLgI
aPQ.r
. RIMq K[I ZRIHTRLZKLPJ. .K RMJ:
r+ N`.
+,
`IIsHKIMz! eLK[
+ ZK.
+7
`LKKIR `IIR
IxIRa HLS [PQRH.
+ KIJVLNI eMNz IxIRa VPRJLJg.
+ `Iq MK ++ H[MRZ IxIRa JLg[K.
dJq qPJlK HKQss QZ aPQR [IMq eLK[ K[LJgH aPQ qPJlK QJqIRHKMJq.r
. sPNNPeIq K[I qLRITKLPJH eLK[ K[I [MZZa RIHQNK K[MK Va NLsI eMH ZRIHIRxIq MJq LH HKLNN gPLJg PJ.
NOTES ON SYNONYMS
+. (/II 1PKI + PJ Z. +b.) /aJPJaVH VMa MNHP qLssIR `a K[I qIgRII PR LJKIJHLKa Ps K[I Z[IJPVIJPJ
qIHTRL`Iq PR `a TIRKMLJ MqqLKLPJMN LVZNLTMKLPJH TPJxIaIq `a K[ILR VIMJLJgH. 8" g" +a9ady qIHTRL`IH M VPRI
qMJgIRPQH LNNJIHH K[MJ di&ea&e, HPVIKLVIH M sMKMN PJI! e[IRIMH ai9+ent VPHKNa RIsIRH KP M HNLg[K qLHPRqIR.
Ja9ady LVZNLIH M NMHKLJg! HPVIKLVIH M T[RPJLT LNNJIHH! e[IRIMH ai9+ent LH H[PRK MJq KIVZPRMRa. I99ne&& LH K[I
VPHK gIJIRMN ePRq LJ K[I gRPQZ (K[I HaJPJaVLT qPVLJMJK).
2. /aJPJaVH VMa qLssIR `a K[ILR HKaNLHKLT T[MRMTKIRLHKLTH. 8" g" 5hu+ LH M TPNNPfQLMN HaJPJaV Ps Jend, to
fan5y HPQJqH NIHH sPRVMN K[MJ KP i+agine" ;o 4a&& away LH M `PPzLH[ HaJPJaV Ps to die"
+,
N`. (ZPQJq): M VIMHQRI Ps eILg[K 3*4., g
+7
ZK. (ZLJK) WZMLJK: M VIMHQRI sPR NLfQLqH ).*7 +
2b
TEXT B. A VISIT TO THE DOCTOR
wINN! e[MKlH K[I VMKKIR eLK[ aPQ! vR. wMNzIR{
yPQlq `IKKIR MHz VI e[MK LH JPK K[I VMKKIR eLK[ VI! qPTKPR. . HIIV KP `I HQssIRLJg sRPV MNN K[I
LNNJIHHIH LVMgLJM`NI: LJHPVJLM! [IMqMT[IH! `MTzMT[I! LJqLgIHKLPJ! TPJHKLZMKLPJ MJq ZMLJH LJ K[I HKPVMT[. uP
VMzI K[LJgH HKLNN ePRHI! .lxI TMQg[K M TPNq! .lxI gPK M HPRI K[RPMK MJq .lV TPJHKMJKNa HJIILJg MJq TPQg[LJg.
uP TRPeJ LK MNN! . [Mq MJ MTTLqIJK K[I PK[IR qMa! [QRK Va RLg[K H[PQNqIR! NIg MJq zJII! MJq JIMRNa `RPzI Va
JITz. .s . KMzI M NPJg eMNz! . gIK H[PRK Ps `RIMK[. .J sMTK! . sIIN VPRI qIMq K[MJ MNLxI.
.lV HPRRa KP [IMR K[MK. dJa[Pe! . [PZI K[LJgH MRIJlK MH `Mq MH aPQ LVMgLJI. iIK VI ISMVLJI aPQ. yPQR
[IMRK! T[IHK MJq NQJgH HIIV KP `I MNN RLg[K. 1Pe PZIJ aPQR VPQK[ MJq H[Pe VI aPQR KPJgQI. 1Pe `RIMK[I LJ
qIIZNa! K[RPQg[ K[I JPHI... u[IRI qPIHJlK HIIV KP `I MJaK[LJg RMqLTMNNa eRPJg eLK[ aPQ! `QK LKlH fQLKI TNIMR
K[MK aPQlRI RQJ qPeJ! MJq Ls aPQ qPJlK KMzI TMRI Ps aPQRHINs! aPQ VMa [MxI M JIRxPQH `RIMzqPeJ MJq [MxI KP
gP KP [PHZLKMN. . MqxLHI aPQ! sLRHK Ps MNN! KP HKPZ ePRRaLJg. uMzI M NPJg RIHK! [MxI RIgQNMR VIMNH! zIIZ KP M qLIK
Ps HMNMqH MJq sRQLK! MJq xIRa NLKKNI VIMK jIIZ Pss MNTP[PN. .s ZPHHL`NI! gLxI QZ HVPzLJg! MK NIMHK sPR M KLVI.
|MxI K[LH KPJLT VMqI QZ MJq KMzI KeP KM`NIHZPPJsQNH K[RII KLVIH M qMa `IsPRI VIMNH. .s aPQ qP K[LH! . TMJ
ZRPVLHI aPQ sQNN RITPxIRa eLK[LJ KeP PR K[RII VPJK[H.
dJq Ls . qPJlK! qPTKPR{
u[IJ aPQlq `IKKIR VMzI aPQR eLNN! Ls aPQ [MxIJlK aIK qPJI HP.
. HII. wINN! K[MJz aPQ! qPTKPR. + H[MNN [MxI KP K[LJz LK PxIR MJq qITLqI e[LT[ LH K[I NIHHIR IxLN: KP
sPNNPe aPQR MqxLTI PR ZRIZMRI sPR M `IKKIR ePRNq.
TEXT C. AT THE DENTISTS
1INN: |INNP! LH K[MK aPQ 0IRK{ 1INN [IRI. .lV HP gNMq .lxI sPQJq aPQ LJ.
0IRK: |INNP! 1INN. |PelH K[LJgH{
1.: pLJI. iLHKIJ! 0IRK. .lV `QRHKLJg eLK[ JIeH. mQHK LVMgLJI: aIHKIRqMa . [Mq K[I sLRHK RIMN ZMKLIJK Ps Va
PeJ.
.: yPQ qPJlK HMac w[P eMH LK{
1.: d JLTI PNq qIMR eLK[ M NPK Ps KIIK[ KP `I ZQNNIq PQK. .KlH HQT[ ePJqIRsQN ZRMTKLTI sPR VIc
.: dRI aPQ fQLKI HQRI K[MK HPVI Ps [LH KIIK[ TPQNqJlK `I sLNNIq{
1.: 1PJI Ps K[IVc . HIJK [LV KP [MxI [LH KIIK[ ^RMaIq! HP LKlH MNN RLg[K.
.: |Pe qLq aPQ VMJMgI KP gIK HQT[ M VMRxINNPQH ZMKLIJK! . ePJqIR{
1.: |I TMVI eLK[ M `Mq KPPK[MT[I. .K [Mq `IIJ `PK[IRLJg [LV sPR M qMa PR KeP MNRIMqa.
.: wIRI K[IRI JP PK[IR qIJKLHKH LJ K[I HQRgIRa{
1.: 1P! . eMH K[I PJNa PJI. .K eMH /QJqMa.
.: \PPR PNq K[LJgc . [PZI aPQ qLqJlK KRa KP ZQNN PQK MNN [LH KIIK[ MK PJTI! qLq aPQ{
1.: nPJlK `I HLNNa. . QHK T[PHI K[I IMHLIHK PJI KP `IgLJ eLK[.
.: . HII... dJq [Pe qLq aPQ gIK MNPJg{
1.: wPJqIRsQNNa. . KIHKIq [LH `NPPq ZRIHHQRI MJq gMxI [LV M TPQZNI Ps LJITKLPJH! K[PQg[ [I HMLq K[MK Va
HVLNI ePRzIq `IKKIR K[MJ MJa LJITKLPJ.
.: o[! [I qLq! qLq [I{ dJq [I qLqJlK [MxI [IMRK MKKMTz MsKIR K[I KPPK[ eMH KMzIJ PQK{ .K ePQNq [MxI `IIJ
JMKQRMN sPR MJ PNq VMJ.
1.: 1P! [I QHK sINK M `LK HLTz MJq gLqqa. . gMxI [LV KPJLT MJq KPNq [LV KP HKMa LJ `Iq sPR M e[LNI MJq
KMzI [LH KIVZIRMKQRI.
.: \IR[MZH .lq `IKKIR qRPZ LJ MJq T[ITz [LH [IMRK{ .lV PJ HLTz NIMxI JPe MJq TMJ qP LK MK MJa KLVI.
1.: yPQ JIIqJlK. .lNN RLJg [LV QZ MJq LJ TMHI [IlH RQJJLJg M [Lg[ KIVZIRMKQRI .lNN NIK aPQ zJPe. 0QK . qP
[PZI [I ePJlK. u[I qMa MsKIR KPVPRRPe [IlH TPVLJg MgMLJ!
.: dRI aPQ HQRI [IlH JPK gPLJg KP VMzI MJ MZZPLJKVIJK eLK[ HPVI PK[IR qIJKLHK{
1.: . qPJlK K[LJz [I eLNN. w[IJ [I eMH NIMxLJg [I HMLq [I NPPzIq sPReMRq KP [MxLJg MNN [LH KIIK[ ZQNNIq PQK
MJq [I ePQNq zIIZ K[IV MNN MH HPQxIJLRH KP RIVIV`IR VI `a.
.: wINN! . eLH[ aPQ gPPq NQTz. |PZI KP [IMR sRPV aPQ HPPJ. 0aI sPR JPe! 1INN.
1.: UPPq`aI! 0IRK. .lNN NIK aPQ zJPe [Pe K[LJgH MRI gPLJg PJ.
Memory Work
pPR IxIRa IxLN QJqIR K[I HQJ.
u[IRI LH M RIVIqa! PR K[IRI LH JPJI.
.s K[IRI `I PJI! KRa KP sLJq LK.
.s K[IRI `I JPJI! JIxIR VLJq LK.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY ()
Words
MZZIJqLTLKLH n LJHPVJLM n
22
MKKMTz (Ps HVK[.) n ZRIHTRLZKLPJ n
TMHI (Ps M qLHIMHI) n RITPxIR (sRPV M qLHIMHI) ,
T[PNIRM n RIVIqa n
TPVZNLTMKLPJ n HTMRNIK sIxIR n
TPQg[ ,, n HJIII
TQRI Ps , HPRI (K[RPMK! IaI! sLJgIR! IKT.) ad1
TQRI sPR n HQRgIRa n
qLI Ps , HaVZKPV n
qLZ[K[IRKLM n KPJLT n
qLHIMHI n KRIMK , (HV`. sPR M qLHIMHI)
LJqLgIHKLPJ n KRIMKVIJK (sPR HVK[.) n
LJITKLPJ n KaZ[PLq sIxIR n
Word Combinations
KP sIIN HV`.lH (PJIlH) ZQNHI KP eRLKI PQK M ZRIHTRLZKLPJ (sPR ZLNNH! IKT.)
KP gP KP M T[IVLHKlH (qRQgHKPRI) KP sPNNPe K[I qPTKPRlH qLRITKLPJH
KP TMKT[ (M) TPNq KP [MxI MJ MTTLqIJK
KP `I H[PRK Ps `RIMK[ KP ISMVLJI M ZMKLIJK (HV`.lH K[RPMK IKT.)
KP `RIMK[I LJ qIIZNa KP TPJHQNK (HII) M qPTKPR
KP [MxI M JIRxPQH `RIMzqPeJ KP zIIZ KP M qLIK (Ps ...); KP `I PJ (gP PJ)! sPNNPe M qLIK
KP [MxI M ZRIHTRLZKLPJ (VIqLTLJI! VLSKQRI! KPJLT! IKT.) VMqI QZ
KP KMzI VIqLTLJI (M HZPPJsQN Ps! IKT.)
KP `I eRPJg eLK[ (PJIlH [IMRK! NQJgH! IKT.); KP [MxI HVK[. eRPJg eLK[
KP `I KMzIJ LNN (KP sMNN LNN) eLK[ KP `I NMLq QZ eLK[
KP sIIN HLTz (MJq gLqqa) KP sLNN HV`.lH KPPK[
KP [MxI PJIlH KPPK[ sLNNIq! KP [MxI M sLNNLJg
KP ZQNN (KMzI) PQK M KPPK[ KP [MxI MJ ISKRMTKLPJ
KP [MxI PJIlH KPPK[ ZQNNIq PQK (KMzIJ PQK)! ISKRMTKIq
KP `I ([MxI PJIlH KIIK[! T[IHK! [IMRK! IKT.) ^RMaIq
KP KIHK HV`.lH `NPPq KP [MxI PJIlH `NPPq KIHKIq
KP KIHK HV`.lH `NPPq ZRIHHQRI KP [MxI PJIlH `NPPq ZRIHHQRI KIHKIq
KP [MxI! gIK (gLxI) MJ LJITKLPJ (M JIIqNI)
KP [MxI M [IMRK MKKMTz
KP T[ITz HV`.lH [IMRK! NQJgH! IKT.; KP HPQJq HV`.lH [IMRK! NQJgH! IKT.
KP `I PJ HLTz NIMxI; KP gIK HLTz NIMxI
KP VMzI MJ MZZPLJKVIJK eLK[ M qPTKPR
Examples
|I eMH KMzIJ KP [PHZLKMN MJq PZIRMKIq PJ (QJqIReIJK MJ PZIRMKLPJ) sPR MZZIJqLTLKLH.
dsKIR .lxI [Mq HPVI LJITKLPJH Ps KPJLT . sIIN fQLKI TQRIq Ps MNN Va MLNVIJKH.
u[I T[LNq LH LNN (NMLq QZ) eLK[ T[LTzIJ ZPS (). |IlNN HPPJ RITPxIR Ls JP TPVZNLTMKLPJH HIK LJ.
/VMNNZPS () LH M TMKT[LJg () qLHIMHI VMRzIq `a sIxIR MJq HVMNN RIq HZPKH PJ K[I `Pqa MJq
PsKIJ NIMxIH ZIRVMJIJK VMRzH.
.lxI `IIJ PJ HLTz NIMxI sPR M sPRKJLg[K MNRIMqa! `QK . qPJlK sIIN MJa `IKKIR HP sMR.
u[I qPTKPR qLMgJPHIq K[I LNNJIHH MH KQ`IRTQNPHLH (K. `.).
d qPTKPR e[P ZIRsPRVH (TMRRLIH PQK) PZIRMKLPJH LH TMNNIq M HQRgIPJ. 1PeMqMaH PZIRMKLPJH VMa `I
ZIRsPRVIq MNVPHK PJ MJa ZMRK Ps K[I `Pqa.
w[IJ ZIPZNI [MxI ZMLJ LJ K[ILR KIIK[ K[Ia gP KP M qIJKLHK KP [MxI K[I [PNIH LJ K[ILR KIIK[ sLNNIq (HKPZZIq).
w[IJ JITIHHMRa K[Ia VMa [MxI K[ILR KIIK[ KMzIJ (ZQNNIq) PQK.
\IPZNI e[P MRI KRIMKIq LJ [IMNK[ TIJKRIH (ZPNLTNLJLTH) MRI TMNNIq PQKZMKLIJKH! K[PHI e[P HKMa LJ [PHZLKMN
MRI TMNNIq LJZMKLIJKH.
/PVIK[LJg LH eRPJg eLK[ Va NIgH: MNN Va PLJKH MT[I MJq e[IJ . `IJq Va zJII LK [QRKH VI.
u[I PNq VMJlH HLg[K LH gIKKLJg qLV ()! [LH IaIH MRI HPRI! HePNNIJ MJq LKT[LJg.
1 P K I: nPJlK HMa r|I eRPKI VI M ZRIHTRLZKLPJ PQKr; 2ut r|I eRPKI PQK M ZRIHTRLZKLPJ sPR VIr.
EXERCISES
I. Study Text A and expIain the meaning of the words and phrases Iisted beIow.
LJ MJ QJK[LJzLJg VPVIJK! LqNa KQRJ K[I NIMxIH! M sMKMN VMNMqa! ZRIVPJLKPRa HaVZKPVH! TPVZNLTMKLPJ! KP
eMNz K[I [PHZLKMNH! KP KLVI K[I ZQNHI! MNN sPR JPK[LJg! K[I ZRIHTRLZKLPJ RMJ! M sMVLNa [PKIN! KP sPNNPe K[I
qLRITKLPJH! [LH NLsI eMH ZRIHIRxIq.
4)
II. a) Write EngIish equivaIents of the foIIowing words and phrases. Use them in sentences of your own:
+. 8 >; 2. 6 $.; 4. 85 5 $%5 ;
3. ==6 $; *. $6 ;. $; ,. >8 D6 ; 7. 6 ;
8$ =$.
b) Write these words in EngIish and transcribe them:
6! $$! ! C! C! C! 9! ! ! 6.
c) Find in the text synonyms of the foIIowing words and phrases and expIain how they differ:
18

LNNJIHH (3 ePRqH)! sRLIJq! qPTKPR! NPPz fQLTzNa! LVMgLJI! qP M sMxPQR KP HV`.! qLI.
III. Write 10 questions to Text A covering the main points. Prepare to discuss the test using the words and
phrases from Ex. .
IV. Study Texts and and transIate these sentences into EngIish:
+. 7 %8. 2. $ 97 D7. 4. - $ ;. 3.
D $ . *. 8976. ,. ( ;$ . 7. #
9 . b. - $> 86 5. 2. ?; 56
>56 =5 8. +) A 5 > 6. ++. '=7
8 9 $%. +2. h $7. +4. ! $. +3. -
$ 5$ 5. +*. < ;c +,. ' > $ > ! +7. 8 8$
$ $5. +b. >c +2. < ; ;5c 2). 8 $85
;5 . 2+. <! D { 22. $ . 24. "> 86! $
D >6..{ 23! ' 9 9 $6 $.
V. Reproduce Text so that a question is asked about each sentence said by the patient or the doctor.
Recite the diaIogue in cIass.
GSMVZNI: \MKLIJK: yPQlq `IKKIR MHz VI e[MK LH JPK K[I VMKKIR eLK[ VI! qPTKPR.
nPTKPR: .H LK RIMNNa MH `Mq MH K[MK{ w[MK MRI aPQ TPVZNMLJLJg Ps {
\MKLIJK: .JHPVJLM... MJq ZMLJH LJ K[I HKPVMT[.
nPTKPR: o[! qIMR! LHJlK LK KPP VQT[ sPR PJI VMJ{
VI. ReIeII Text in indirect spech: a) speaking on the part of the oId man;
b) reproducing NeII's taIk with Bert over the teIephone. You may find the foIIowing phrases usefuI:
M) KP NPPz M VLHIRM`NI eRITz! KP HQssIR sRPV! KP T[IIR HV`. QZ! KP `I LJ qIHZMLR! KP `I LJ [Lg[ HZLRLKH; `) KP
`I MsRMLq K[MK! KP `I HPRRa sPR! KP qPQ`K HV`.lH HzLNN! KP ePJqIR Ls...! KP sIIN [QRK! KP HQggIHK K[MK PJI H[PQNq...
VII. Study EssentiaI VocabuIary (II) and
a) transIate the iIIustrative exampIes into Russian;
b) express in writing the suggested idea using do for emphasis. Add a sentence to show that the emphasis
is necessary:
GSMVZNIH: yPQR `RPK[IR qLq gP KP K[I T[IVLHKlH KP [MxI aPQR ZRIHTRLZKLPJ VMqI QZ K[PQg[ [I eMH
ZRIHHIq sPR KLVI. vPK[IR KPNq aPQ KP ZQK PJ aPQR TPMK `QK aPQ ePQNqJlK MJq aPQ qLq
TMKT[ M TPNq.
+. KP [MxI M JIRxPQH `RIMzqPeJ; 2. KP zIIZ KP M qLIK; 4. KP KRa KP VMzI MJ MZZPLJKVIJK eLK[; 3. KP gLxI
(gIK) MJ LJITKLPJ; *. KP gIK HLTz NIMxI; ,. KP HIK LJ (M`PQK TPVZNLTMKLPJH); K" KP ZRIHTRL`I ZLNNH sPR; b. KP
QJqIRgP M KRIMKVIJK; 2. KP RITPxIR sRPV; +). KP qLMgJPHI /V`.lH LNNJIHH (MH); ++. KP [MxI PJIlH KPPK[ sLNNIq;
+2. KP JIIq K[I HIRxLTIH Ps M HQRgIPJ.
VIII. a) SuppIy prepositions where necessary:
/TMRNIK sIxIR LH MJ LJsITKLPQH sIxIR! VMRzIq .. K[I MZZIMRMJTI ... K[I HITPJq qMa ... M `RLg[K RIq RMH[
TPJHLHKLJg ... TNPHINaHIK RIq HZPKH. /[PRKNa MsKIR K[I ZMKLIJK qIxINPZH M [Lg[ KIVZIRMKQRI MJq HQssIRH ...
ZMLJsQN HPRI K[RPMK. ... K[I K[LRq PR sPQRK[ qMa K[I RMH[ HKMRKH KP sMqI MJq ... sMxPQRM`NI TMHIH K[I KIVZIRMKQRI
sMNNH MJq K[I ZMKLIJK sIINH `IKKIR. ... K[I IJq ... M eIIz K[I RMH[ QHQMNNa qLHMZZIMRH. OPVZNIKI RITPxIRa VMa `I
ISZITKIq ... K[I sPNNPeLJg VPJK[! u[I TPVZNLTMKLPJH ... HTMRNIK sIxIR MRI xIRa HIRLPQH! K[I TPVVPJIHK `ILJg
LJsNMVVMKLPJ ... K[I IMR. /TMRNIK sIxIR LH IHHIJKLMNNa M qLHIMHI ... T[LNqRIJ MJq aPQJg ZIRHPJH.
b) Give a short description of some other disease using a few phrases from the text above.
IX. Correct the foIIowing statements, beginning each sentence with one of the foIIowing phrases:
Lou?re wrong" Lou?re +i&ta'en" I 5an?t agree with you" Nothing of the 'ind" 3ut... (it i&, they don?t, et5"B" I
don?t thin' you?re right" Mf 5our&e not" Nu&t the other way round" Mn the 5ontrary" /ure9y notO 3y no +ean&O
GSMVZNI: yPQ JIxIR KMzI aPQR KIVZIRMKQRI e[IJ aPQ ; LNN.
o[! aIH (Ps TPQRHI)! . qP. . MNeMaH KMzI Va KIVZIRMKQRI e[IJ .lV LNN.
+. /LTz ZIPZNI JIxIR HKMa LJ `Iq e[LNI K[Ia MRI LNN. 2. yPQ eIRI NMLq QZ eLK[sNQ NMHK eIIz! . `INLIxI. 4. .K
LH JPK qMJgIRPQH KP KMzI TMRI Ps M ZIRHPJ e[P [MH gPK M TMKT[LJg qLHIMHI. 3. \IPZNI PsKIJ sIIN HLTz MJq gLqqa
e[IJ K[Ia MRI fQLKI eINN. *. wI HINqPV HJIII MJq TPQg[ e[IJ eI [MxI M TPNq. ,. yPQ JIxIR [MxI M HPRI
+b
/II 1PKIH PJ /aJPJaVH MJq dJKPJaVH PJ Z. +b.
4+
K[RPMK e[IJ aPQ [MxI KPJHLNNLKLH. 7. /[I qPIHJlK sIIN MJa ZMLJ LJ [IR [IMRK e[IJ H[I [MH M [IMRK MKKMTz. b.
O[LNqRIJ [MxI HePNNIJ IaIH e[IJ K[Ia [MxI `IIJ NMQg[LJg KPP VQT[. 2. \IPZNI JIIq K[I HIRxLTIH Ps K[I
qPTKPR e[IJ K[Ia MRI eINN! . K[LJz. +). \RP`M`Na aPQ TPJHQNK M qIJKLHK e[IJ aPQ [MxI M HKPVMT[MT[I.
X. Read the text. Summarize it in 5-6 sentences without using direct speech;
|P` HMK LJ K[I qPTKPRlH eMLKLJgRPPV. oJ K[I T[MLRH MK K[I eMNN PK[IR ZMKLIJKH eIRI HLKKLJg. u[Ia MNN NPPzIq
HMq ISTIZK |P` e[P eMH RIMqLJg MJ ISTLKLJg HKPRa LJ M VMgMLJI. mQHK K[IJ K[I qPTKPR TMVI LJ KP HMa K[MK [I
eMH RIMqa KP HII K[I JISK ZIRHPJ. |P` gPK QZ MJq eIJK LJKP K[I TPJHQNKLJg RPPV.
0IsPRI |P` TPQNq HMa M ePRq K[I qPTKPR HMLq! r1Pe e[MKlH K[I KRPQ`NI{ /LK qPeJ K[IRI MJq eIlNN [MxI M
NPPz MK aPQ. }JsMHKIJ aPQR MTzIK MJq aPQR H[LRK! ZNIMHI. .lNN NLHKIJ KP aPQR [IMRK.r |P` KRLIq KP HZIMz! `QK K[I
qPTKPR LJKIRRQZKIq [LV MJq PRqIRIq [LV KP HMa rJLJIKaJLJIr. |P` HMLq LK. r1Pe NIK VI HII aPQR K[RPMK! PZIJ
aPQR VPQK[ eLqI.r u[I qPTKPR [Mq M gPPq NPPz MJq K[IJ [I HMLq! rwINN! K[IRIlH JPK[LJg eRPJg eLK[ aPQ.r r.
zJPe K[IRI LHJlK!r HMLq |P`! r. QHK TMVI KP gIK M `PKKNI Ps VIqLTLJI sPR Va QJTNI.r
(*ro+ GHHIJKLMN GJgNLH[ sPR sPRILgJ HKQqIJKH 2y P" ~. GTzIRHNIa! iJq.. +277)
XI. Write 10 sentences to go with each of the pictures on pp. 68, 71.
XII. Answer the foIIowing questions:
+. w[MK MRI K[I HaVZKPVH Ps sNQ (KPJHLNNLKLH! VIMHNIH! VQVZH! HTMRNIK sIxIR! IKT.){ 2. w[P LH KRIMKIq MK K[I
ZPNLTNLJLT! MJq e[P LH KRIMKIq MK K[I [PHZLKMN{ 4. w[MK qP aPQ qP e[IJ aPQ sMNN LNN{ 3. w[MK qPIH K[I qPTKPR
qP e[IJ [I TPVIH KP ISMVLJI aPQ{ *. w[MK qP aPQ sIIN e[IJ aPQ [MxI sNQ{ ,. |Pe qPIH M HLTz ZIRHPJ
NPPz{ 7. |Pe H[PQNq eI KRMJHNMKI LJKP QHHLMJ r|I LH LNNr MJq r|I [MH LNN VMJJIRHr{ b. w[MK TMKT[LJg
qLHIMHIH qP aPQ zJPe{ 2. nP ZIPZNI LJ K[LH TPQJKRa gIK K[ILR ZMa e[IJ K[Ia MRI LNN{
XIII. TransIate the foIIowing sentences into EngIish:
+. ! > 86! 9 ;. 2. $ D 6 . 4. = $5 6!
D % ; $ $. 3. ' ;6!
> . *. >. > 86! 6. ,. $; 6 9! $
;. 7. 6 $! ; D . b. ! >5! $ E
7 ;5 . 2. A$ 8 9D6 7 ; D8{ Y8 6
6 . - $; 86 >. +). $ ;{ ++. %. A
5 > $8 6. +2. 8 ${ +4. - 689 .
$ > 6 $ . +3. % 6 8D
;. +*. F 5 6 { +,. ~ 8 8 $ ! 8 8
6 . +7. < D$ $ >6 8 8! 6
>. +b. F >6! 8 86 $ $. +2. A$ 8D
8 6 %${ 2). ? 5. A $
5 6 >6 .
XTV. Make up stories and diaIogues through mime
19
.
Have the students to prepare a mime and perform it twice (for tasks A and B). The performed actions
shouId be rather sIow to aIIow the other students to teII the story or speak for the mimes.
A. Describe the actions of the mimes using the Present Indefinite, Continuous or Perfect tenses. (for one or
two students)
B. Speak for each mime. (for two students)
TeII the story in reported speech oraIIy or in writing. (for one student)
/QggIHKIq KPZLTH MJq HKMgIH sPR MTKLPJH:
+. dK K[I nPTKPRlH
M) d ZMKLIJK IJKIRH K[I RPPV MJq KINNH K[I qPTKPR e[MK [I (H[I) LH HQssIRLJg sRPV.
`) u[I qPTKPR MHzH K[I ZMKLIJK KP HKRLZ KP K[I eMLHK MJq ISMVLJIH [LV ([IR).
T) u[I ZMKLIJK MHzH K[I qPTKPR e[MKlH eRPJg eLK[ [LV. |I HIIVH KP `I ePRRLIq.
q) u[I qPTKPR KRLIH KP TPVsPRK K[I ZMKLIJK MJq eRLKIH PQK M ZRIHTRLZKLPJ.
2. dK K[I nIJKLHKlH
M) d ZMKLIJK TPVZNMLJH Ps M `Mq KPPK[MT[I.
`) u[I qIJKLHK MHzH [LV KP HLK qPeJ MJq ISMVLJIH [LH VPQK[. oJI Ps [LH KIIK[ H[PQNq `I ZQNNIq PQK.
T) u[I ZMKLIJK LH MsRMLq. |I sIINH HLTz MJq gLqqa.
q) u[I qIJKLHK ZQNNH PQK [LH KPPK[ MJq H[PeH LK KP K[I ZMKLIJK e[P `RLg[KIJH QZ MJq NPPzH [MZZa.
4. dK K[I 0IqHLqI
M) d `Pa TPVZNMLJH Ps M HPRI K[RPMK.
`) |LH VPK[IR LH ePRRLIq. /[I KMzIH [LH KIVZIRMKQRI! LKlH JPRVMN. |LH K[RPMK LH MNN RLg[K
T) u[IJ K[I `Pa ZRIKIJqH KP [MxI M HKPVMT[MT[I MJq M [IMqMT[I! KP `I HLTz MJq gLqqa.
q) |LH VPK[IR QJqIRHKMJqH [LH KRLTzH MJq PRqIRH [LV KP gP KP HT[PPN.
+2
u[I JPQJ mime [MH KeP VIMJLJgH: +. M ZIRsPRVMJTI eLK[PQK ePRqH ($$); 2. MJ MTKPR LJ HQT[ M ZIRsPRVMJTI ($$).
42
XV. Try your hand at teaching.
Find a picture on a medicaI subject and ask your "pupiIs" to describe it.
A. Preparation. M) vMzI QZ M NLHK Ps JIe ePRqH (LJ HZINNLJg MJq KRMJHTRLZKLPJ) K[MK VLg[K `I JIIqIq KP
qLHTQHH LK.
`) wRLKI fQIHKLPJH M`PQK K[I ZLTKQRI! QHLJg K[I Z[RMHIH: in the 4i5ture, in the foreground Q2a5'groundB, in
the right(9eftGB hand 5orner, to the right (9eftB of"
T) KPPz QZ K[I ePRqH MJq Z[RMHIH aPQ VMa JIIq KP qLHTQHH K[I ZLTKQRI LJ TNMHH LJ rONMHHRPPV GJgNLH[r!
/ITKLPJ :.
B. Work in Class. /[Pe K[I ZLTKQRI KP K[I VIV`IRH Ps aPQR gRPQZ; eRLKI K[I JIe ePRqH PJ K[I
`NMTz`PMRq! KRMJHNMKI K[IV (PR ISZNMLJ K[ILR VIMJLJg) MJq VMzI K[I HKQqIJKH RIZIMK K[IV LJ T[PRQH; MHz aPQR
fQIHKLPJH.
2)
XVI. a) Give the idea of the text in EngIish:
Ct nnn?
$> 8 $ @$ (6B %. '$
; $;5 D6 6 8! 8 6 6: @
2* . A 9; %7 2)) . 4* . A
>85 6 8 ; 2)) . A 4 6B. X
. ; %$ $ (6 +++2 c (7
9 ;! D...
~ 8 $ (6 > 6 8 ; =7=5
$8 ($6 5)! $> 8 . F ;> 8! ;
$% > ! ; ; >6 $ (6 .
- ; ;. 6% 8 6! 6 87 $%8!
. (P.RSTU> V", W.X> " _$ $. ".! +27*)
\RPVZKH: `LNN! MJMIHK[IHLM! KP KMzI PQK K[I HKLKT[! KeLTI NPJgIR.
b) Say what you know about the cost of heaIth service in America, in Russia and in other countries
nowadays.
XVII. a) Bead and transIate the texts beIow:
+. .J URIMK 0RLKMLJ ZRLVMRa [IMNK[ TMRI LH LJ K[I [MJqH Ps sMVLNa ZRMTKLKLPJIRH e[P ePRz eLK[LJ K[I
1MKLPJMN |IMNK[ /IRxLTI. u[I sMVLNa ZRMTKLKLPJIR HIRxLTIH MRI K[PHI gLxIJ KP ZMKLIJKH `a qPTKPRH! qIJKLHKH!
PZKLTLMJH MJq Z[MRVMTLHKH Ps K[ILR PeJ T[PLTI. pMVLNa qPTKPRH e[P MRI QJqIR TPJKRMTK KP K[I 1MKLPJMN
|IMNK[ /IRxLTI [MxI MJ MxIRMgI M`PQK 2!2*) ZMKLIJKH. u[Ia ZRPxLqI K[I sLRHK qLMgJPHLH LJ K[I TMHI Ps LNNJIHH
MJq ILK[IR ZRIHTRL`I M HQLKM`NI TPQRHI Ps KRIMKVIJK PR RIsIR M ZMKLIJK KP K[I VPRI HZITLMNLIq HIRxLTIH MJq
[PHZLKMN TPJHQNKMJKH.
d NMRgI ZRPZPRKLPJ Ps K[I [PHZLKMNH LJ K[I 1MKLPJMN |IMNK[ /IRxLTI eIRI `QLNK LJ K[I JLJIKIIJK[ TIJKQRa;
HPVI KRMTI K[ILR PRLgLJ KP VQT[ IMRNLIR T[MRLKM`NI sPQJqMKLPJH! HQT[ MH K[I sMVPQH /K. 0MRK[PNPVIelH MJq /K.
u[PVMHl [PHZLKMNH LJ iPJqPJ.
d`PQK b* ZIR TIJK Ps K[I TPHK Ps K[I [IMNK[ HIRxLTIH LH ZMLq sPR K[RPQg[ gIJIRMN KMSMKLPJ. u[I RIHK LH VIK
sRPV K[I 1MKLPJMN |IMNK[ /IRxLTI TPJKRL`QKLPJ MJq sRPV K[I T[MRgIH sPR ZRIHTRLZKLPJH! qIJKMN KRIMKVIJK!
qIJKQRIH MJq HZITKMTNIH. |IMNK[ MQK[PRLKLIH VMa RMLHI sQJqH sRPV xPNQJKMRa HPQRTIH.
(/II: r0RLKMLJ +2b4r. iJq.! +2b4)
2. 1P`Pqa ZRIKIJqH K[MK K[I 1MKLPJMN |IMNK[ /IRxLTI LJ 0RLKMLJ LH ZIRsITK. vMJa qPTKPRH TPVZNMLJ K[MK
K[Ia eMHKI [PQRH sLNNLJg LJ 1MKLPJMN .JHQRMJTI sPRVH! MJq K[MK K[Ia [MxI HP VMJa ZMKLIJKH K[MK K[Ia qP JPK
[MxI IJPQg[ KLVI KP NPPz MsKIR MJa Ps K[IV ZRPZIRNa. 1QRHIH TPVZNMLJ K[MK K[Ia MRI PxIRePRzIq MJq
QJqIRZMLq.
4. vMJa |IMNK[ /IRxLTI [PHZLKMNH MRI PNqsMH[LPJIq MJq PxIRTRPeqIq! MJq! `ITMQHI Ps K[I H[PRKMgI Ps
`IqH! ZMKLIJKH PsKIJ [MxI KP eMLK M NPJg KLVI sPR PZIRMKLPJH. LT[ ZIPZNI ZRIsIR KP gP KP ZRLxMKI qPTKPRH! PR KP
HII HZITLMNLHKH LJ |MRNIa /KRIIK! K[I sMVPQH rqPTKPRHr HKRIIK LJ iPJqPJ. w[IJ K[IHI ZIPZNI MRI LNN K[Ia gP KP
M ZRLxMKI JQRHLJg[PVI! sPR e[LT[ K[Ia VMa ZMa MH VQT[ MH +)) M eIIz. dNKIRJMKLxINa! K[Ia VMa [LRI M
ZRLxMKI RPPV LJ MJ PRqLJMRa [PHZLKMN! sPR e[LT[ K[Ia eLNN ZMa M`PQK +) M qMa.
(Ju&+an Y" 0RLKMLJ uPqMa. iJq.! +273)
b) Write 10 questions about the facts mentioned in the texts that you find interesting and discuss them in
cIass.
XVIII. Find some jokes on a medicaI subject and teII them to your feIIow-students.
XIX. a) Give a very short description of each picture in the Present Tense. Use prompt words and phrases
Iisted in the Note.
b) Make up a story about the pictures in the Past Tense c) Find a short titIe to the story.
2)
u[I sLRHK ZLTKQRI H[PQNq `I qLHTQHHIq eLK[ K[I e[PNI gRPQZ QJqIR K[I KIMT[IRlH gQLqMJTI; K[I PK[IR ZLTKQRIH VMa `I qLHTQHHIq V ZMJH.
44
1PKI: HIeIR; HKRIKT[IR; $D MV`QNMJTI;
MV`QNMJTI VMJ; % PZIRMKLJgRPPV; ; ZNMHKIR`MJqMgI.
XX. FiIm "Mr.Brown's HoIiday". DiIm segment 2 "Miss Peggy and the Pussy Cays" (Canterbury), a) Watch
and Iisten, b) Do the exercises from the guide to the fiIm.
STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH

u[LH KLVI aPQ eLNN NIMRJ VPRI M`PQK K[I HVMNNIHK K[PQg[K QJLKH K[MK `QLNq QZ eRLKLJg! `IgLJJLJg eLK[ M
ZMRMgRMZ[ MJq [Pe K[Ia ePRz eLK[LJ K[I ZMRMgRMZ[.
Key-words MRI VMLJ ePRqH LJ K[I ZMHHMgI K[MK [INZ KP IVZ[MHLI K[I VMLJ ZPLJK MJq QJqIRHKMJq K[I
HQ`ITK aPQ MRI eRLKLJg M`PQK. u[MK LH e[a zIaePRqH MRI K[I sLRHK INIVIJKH KP T[PPHI e[IJ HIKKLJg aPQR
VLJq PJ eRLKLJg PJ M TIRKMLJ HQ`ITK MJq K[IRI MRI qLssIRIJK eMaH KP QHI K[IV LJ M ZMRMgRMZ[: RIZIMKLJg
K[IV! QHLJg HaJPJaVH! `RLJgLJg K[IV LJ TNPHI HIVMJKLT RINMKLPJ.
8" g" r|I RIMq K[I NIKKIR HNPeNa MJq TMRIsQNNa. .K eMH JPK K[I zLJq Ps TMHI [I eMJKIq! LK eMH JPK K[I zLJq Ps
TMHI [I [Mq ZRPVLHIq [LVHINs. .K eMH JPK LJ MJa HIJHI MJ LVZPRKMJK TMHI...r (*ro+ ru[I 1IVIMJ iLPJr 2y
d. O[RLHKLI). |IRTQNI \PLRPK! K[I sMVPQH qIKITKLxI Ps 0" O[RLHKLIlH [Mq `IIJ qRIMVLJg Ps MJ QJQHQMN TMHI.
u[MK PJI M`PQK K[I zLqJMZZLJg Ps M qPg eMH M qLHMZZPLJKVIJK. .K eMH JPK M ZRPZIR TMHI sPR [LV.
u[I TIJKRMN K[PQg[K Ps K[I ZMRMgRMZ[ LH IVZ[MHLIq `a RIZIMKLJg K[I zIaePRq! PK[IReLHI IT[PePRq.
Assignments:
+. UP PxIR K[I KIHK rd nMalH wMLKr MJq ZLTz PQK K[I zIaePRqH MJq Z[RMHIH K[MK LJqLTMKI K[I KPZLT: Ps LNNJIHH MJq KRIMKVIJK.
dRRMJgI K[IV LJKP K[RII gRPQZH MTTPRqLJg KP K[I eMaH K[MK MRI TPVVPJNa QHIq KP ZPLJK PQK K[I TIJKRMN K[PQg[K. w[LT[ LH K[I
NMRgIHK gRPQZ MJq e[a{
2. \RIZMRI M NLHK Ps zIaePRqH IJq Z[RMHIH `IsPRI eRLKLJg M ZMRMgRMZ[: M) de&5ri2ing [Pe K[I ZPPR `Pa NPPzIq `IsPRI K[I
qPTKPR D; `) te99ing M HKPRa Ps [LH RITPxIRa; T) arguing M`PQK K[I KQRJLJg ZPLJK LJ [LH LNNJIHH; q) eZ49aining K[I qLssIRIJTI
`IKeIIJ VLNIH MJq zLNPVIKIRH! `IKeIIJ K[I pM[RIJ[ILK K[IRVPVIKIR MJq K[I OIJKLgRMqI K[IRVPVIKIR.
LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)
1. a) Iisten to the text "A Victim to One Hundred and Seven FataI MaIadies", mark the stresses and tunes, b)
Repeat the test foIIowing; the modeI.
2. Listen to the diaIogue "A Visit to the Doctor". Repeat the text in the intervaI and record your version.
Compare your version with the originaI and correct your mistakes.
3. Respond to the foIIowing suggestions. Begin your sentences with "Hadn't we (he) better.."?
4. Extend the statements. Begin your sentences with "It's time you (he, etc.)" + a verb in the Past
Subjunctive.
5. Write a dictation. Check the speIIing using a dictionary.
6. TransIate the given sentences into EngIish. Check them with the key.
7. Listen to the text "Doctor SaIIy" or some other text on the topic. Get ready to act it out in cIass.
CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS
Crossword Puzzle
Across
+. /KPZ M [PNI LJ M KPPK[ eLK[ TIVIJK! IKT. 4. /ILI HPVIK[LJg eLK[ K[I KIIK[ (MNHP TMQHI M H[MRZ ZMLJ). ++.
pLNN M [PNI LJ M KPPK[ eLK[ TIVIJK! IKT. +4. pL`IRH () TPJJITKLJg K[I `RMLJ eLK[ MNN PK[IR ZMRKH Ps K[I
`Pqa MJq TMRRaLJg sIINLJgH KP K[I `RMLJ. +3. iIK PQK K[I MLR HQqqIJNa K[RPQg[ K[I JPHI MJq K[I VPQK[ (QHQ.
e[IJ [MxLJg M TPNq). +b. dJ LJHKRQVIJK sPR VIMHQRLJg KIVZIRMKQRI. +2. d zLJq Ps VIqLTLJI [MxLJg gPPq
IssITKH PJ K[I `Pqa. 24. u[I VLqqNI PLJK Ps K[I NIg e[IRI K[I NIg `IJqH. 2*. d [PNNPe LJ K[I NQJgH
(). 27. d ZIRHPJ e[P ZRMTKLHIH VIqLTLJI MJq KRIMKH ZIPZNI. 2b. u[I qRLJz VMqI `a ZPQRLJg `PLNLJg
eMKIR PJ qRLIq NIMxIH `IMRLJg K[I HMVI JMVI! PsKIJ QHIq MH M KPJLT. 22. d TPNPQRIq NLfQLq QHIq sPR eRLKLJg
eLK[ M ZIJ. 4). uMzI PJIlH TNPK[IH Pss. 4+. OPVI LJKP KeP PR VPRI ZMRKH; TRMTz M `PJI! PLJK.
43
Down
2. 0RIMK[LJg PRgMJH sPQJq LJ VMJ MJq MJLVMN. 4. uMzI MLR LJKP K[I `Pqa MJq HIJq LK PQK. 3. GSLHK. *. u[I
qIgRII Ps [IMK PR TPNq LJ K[I MLR! eMKIR! `Pqa! IKT. ,. 0I HKLNN! RINMS MsKIR ePRz! IssPRKH! IKT. 7. /VMNN HZPKH
(RIq PR ZLJz) TNPHI KPgIK[IR PJ K[I HzLJ (QHQ. M HaVZKPV Ps M qLHIMHI). b. nLssLTQNKa LJ qLgIHKLJg sPPq. 2. 0I
MeMRI K[RPQg[ K[I HIJHIH. +). d TMKT[LJg qLHIMHI VMRzIq `a sIxIR MJq HVMNN HZPKH K[MK TPxIR K[I e[PNI `Pqa
(TPVVPJ MVPJg T[LNqRIJ). +2. ULxI VIqLTMN TMRI KP ZIPZNI LJ PRqIR KP TQRI K[IV. +*. d [Lg[ KIVZIRMKQRI.
+,. u[I RIq NLfQLq LJ K[I `Pqa. +7. u[I RIgQNMR `IMKLJg Ps K[I MRKIRLIH MH K[I `NPPq LH sPRTIq MNPJg K[IV. 2).
dJ PZIJ HPRI (! 8) PJ LJKIRJMN PRgMJH. 2+. d HZITLMN T[PLTI Ps sPPq PRqIRIq `a M qPTKPR. 22. .NN!
QJeINN. 23. d ZIRHPJ HZITLMNNa KRMLJIq KP NPPz MsKIR HLTz ZIPZNI. 2,. d H[PRK HNIIZ. 27. 1PK TNIMRNa HIIJ.
UNIT THREE
SPEECH PATTERNS
1. yPQ 9i'e the way K[Ia ePRz.
. NLzI K[I eMa K[I qPTKPR KRIMKH K[I T[LNq. nP aPQ NLzI K[I eMa H[I eIMRH [IR [MK{ . qPJlK NLzI K[I eMa aPQ
HZIMz KP VI. u[I KIMT[IR qLqJlK NLzI K[I eMa K[I T[LNqRIJ `I[MxIq LJ TNMHH.
2. It i& MNeMaH intere&ting sPR KPQRLHKH KP KMzI M KRLZ MNPJg K[I u[MVIH LJ M `PMK.
.K eMH qLssLTQNK sPR K[I HKQqIJKH KP VMzI JPKIH Ps [LH NITKQRI.
.K eLNN `I TPJxIJLIJK sPR aPQ KP NLxI LJ PQR [PHKIN.
.K ePQNq `I QHIsQN sPR [LV KP gLxI QZ HVPzLJg.
.K ePQNq [MxI `IIJ JMKQRMN sPR K[I HLTz VMJ KP sMNN MHNIIZ MsKIR K[I LJITKLPJ.
EXERCISES
I. Say whether you Iike or disIike the way:
+. K[I qPTKPR KRIMKIq K[I `Pa (LJ K[I HKPRa rd nMalH wMLKr);
2. K[I `Pa `I[MxIq qQRLJg [LH LNNJIHH;
4. |IVLJgeMa qIHTRL`Iq K[I `PalH VPPq;
3. aPQ HZIJK aPQR HQVVIR [PNLqMaH;
*. K[I HKQqIJKH Ps aPQR gRPQZ ePRz MK K[ILR GJgNLH[;
,. aPQ eIRI KMQg[K GJgNLH[ MK HT[PPN;
7. ePVIJ qRIHH JPeMqMaH;
b. K[I gLRNH LJ aPQR gRPQZ qRIHH K[ILR [MLR.
II. FiII in missing adjectives + preposition:
+. wLNN LK `I......IxIRa`Pqa KP [MxI PQR VIIKLJg MsKIR K[I NIHHPJH{ . `INLIxI HP! `QK . qPJlK zJPe Ls LK eLNN
`I......PQR KIMT[IR. 2. wPQNq LK `I......K[I HITPJqaIMR HKQqIJKH KP RIMq GJgNLH[ JIeHZMZIRH{ .s aPQ VIMJ
4*
ZMZIRH ZQ`NLH[Iq LJ 0RLKMLJ . K[LJz LK ePQNq `I......K[IV HP sMR. 4. w[LT[ LH VPRI......M HKQqIJK: KP RIMq PR KP
HZIMz GJgNLH[ eINN{ .s K[I HKQqIJK LH gPLJg KP `ITPVI M KIMT[IR! LKlH IfQMNNa ... ... [LV PR [IR `PK[ KP RIMq MJq
HZIMz eINN. 3. nP aPQ K[LJz LK ePQNq `I......HKQqIJKH eLK[ `Mq HZINNLJg KP TPZa GJgNLH[ KISKH{ .K VLg[K
`I......K[IV! Ps TPQRHI! `QK KP KINN aPQ K[I KRQK[ LKlH M xIRa KLRIHPVI P`. *. wLNN LK `I.......HKQqIJKH KP KMzI ZMRK
LJ K[I Z[PJIKLT TPJKIHK MK PQR qIZMRKVIJK{ os TPQRHI. .K eLNN `I ......sLRHKaIMR HKQqIJKH MH LK eLNN gLxI K[IV M
gPPq T[MJTI KP `RQH[ QZ K[ILR ZRPJQJTLMKLPJ.
III. TransIate these sentences into EngIish:
+. ~5 ; >6 6$ $ ! $ ;. 2! " 8 8
6 E! 8 8 $>. 4. " ! 8
D6! 6 6D $ 7 9. 3. [ 7! $ 9$
6 $ ;5 . *. " ! E $
8. ,. A$ 6 %9 D; .
IV. Make up micro-diaIogues using Speech Patterns 1-2:
vPqIN: w[a qLqJlK aPQ TPVI KP 1lH RITLKMN aIHKIRqMa{ . NLzIq K[I eMa [I ZNMaIq.
.lq [MxI TPVI Ls . eIRI M VQHLTLMJ MH aPQ MRI. 0QK LKlH qLssLTQNK sPR VI KP QJqIRHKMJq HIRLPQH
VQHLT! . ZRIsIR M.
TEXT. INTRODUCING LONDON
iPJqPJ LH MJ MJTLIJK TLKa. .K gRIe QZ MRPQJq K[I sLRHK ZPLJK e[IRI K[I PVMJ LJxMqIRH sPQJq K[I u[MVIH
JMRRPe IJPQg[ KP `QLNq M `RLqgI. u[Ia sPQJq M HVMNN OINKLT HIKKNIVIJK K[IJ zJPeJ MH iPJqLJLQV MJq `a d.
n.
2+
4)) K[Ia [Mq KQRJIq LK LJKP M HLIM`NI ZPRK MJq MJ LVZPRKMJK KRMqLJg TIJKRI eLK[ M eMNN e[LT[ IJTNPHIq
K[I [PVIH Ps M`PQK *)!))) ZIPZNI.
oJI LJ HIxIJ Ps K[I ZPZQNMKLPJ Ps K[I }JLKIq jLJgqPV LH M iPJqPJIR. d`PQK 7 VLNNLPJ ZIPZNI NLxI LJ
URIMKIR iPJqPJ.
22

iPJqPJ qPVLJMKIH 0RLKLH[ NLsI. .K LH K[I [PVI Ps K[I JMKLPJlH TPVVIRTI MJq sLJMJTI! K[I
VMLJ TIJKRI Ps LKH NIgMN HaHKIV MJq K[I ZRIHH. .K [MH K[I NMRgIHK QJLxIRHLKa MJq K[I gRIMKIHK ZPHHL`LNLKLIH sPR
IJKIRKMLJVIJK MJq sPR HZPRK in K[I TPQJKRa. iPJqPJ LH PJI Ps K[I sMVPQH TMZLKMN TLKLIH Ps K[I ePRNq! MJq
IxIRa aIMR MKKRMTKH TRPeqH Ps xLHLKPRH sRPV [PVI MJq M`RPMq. u[Ia TPVI KP ISZNPRI LKH [LHKPRLT `QLNqLJgH! KP
HII LKH VQHIQVH MJq gMNNIRLIH! LKH HKRIIKH MJq ZMRzH! MJq LKH ZIPZNI.
u[I `QLNKQZ MRIM Ps URIMKIR iPJqPJ HKRIKT[IH *) zLNPVIKRIH sRPV IMHK KP eIHK MJq VMJa Ps LKH qLHKRLTKH
MRI NLJzIq eLK[ ZMRKLTQNMR MTKLxLKLIH! sPR ISMVZNI! ZMRNLMVIJKMRa MJq gPxIRJVIJK MTKLxLKa TIJKRIH PJ
\MRNLMVIJK /fQMRI Ps wIHKVLJHKIR MJq w[LKI[MNN. mQHK MH rwIHKVLJHKIRr HKMJqH sPR \MRNLMVIJK HP
rw[LKI[MNNr LH PsKIJ QHIq MH K[I JMVI sPR TIJKRMN UPxIRJVIJK.
oss w[LKI[MNN LJ M HVMNN HLqIHKRIIK nPeJLJg /KRIIK LH M fQLIK! QJLVZRIHHLxI [PQHI 1P. +) K[I
PssLTLMN [PVI Ps \RLVI vLJLHKIR.
mQHK MH wMNN /KRIIK LJ 1Ie yPRz LH K[I TIJKRI Ps TPVVIRTI MJq sLJMJTI HP K[I OLKa Ps iPJqPJ! HPVIKLVIH
TMNNIq rK[I HfQMRI VLNIr
24
LH K[I TIJKRI sPR VPJIa VMKKIRH. |IRI LJ u[RIMqJIIqNI /KRIIK LH K[I 0MJz Ps
GJgNMJq HPVIKLVIH TMNNIq ru[I oNq iMqa Ps u[RIMqJIIqNI /KRIIKr K[I TIJKRMN `MJzLJg LJHKLKQKLPJ
e[PHI ZPQJq
23
JPKIH sPRV K[I VMLJ TQRRIJTa LJ K[I TPQJKRa. pNIIK /KRIIK JIMR /K. \MQNlH OMK[IqRMN QHIq KP `I
M `QHa HKRIIK sQNN Ps sPRILgJ! ZRPxLJTLMN MJq iPJqPJ JIeHZMZIR PssLTIH HQT[ MH ;he \ai9y 8Z4re&&, ;he \ai9y
;e9egra4h"
2*
u[PQg[ VPHK Ps K[I 0RLKLH[ JMKLPJMN JIeHZMZIR PssLTIH [MxI VPxIq KP wMZZLJg! MJ MRIM LJ GMHK iPJqPJ!
K[I JMVI Ps pNIIK /KRIIK LH HKLNN QHIq KP qIHTRL`I K[I JIeHZMZIR LJqQHKRa.
.J /PQK[ jIJHLJgKPJ K[IRI MRI HIxIRMN NMRgI VQHIQVH. u[I :LTKPRLM MJq dN`IRK vQHIQV eLK[ M
VMgJLsLTIJK TPNNITKLPJ Ps sLJI MJq MZZNLIq MRKH MNHP LJTNQqIH M eLqIRMJgLJg qLHZNMa Ps TIRMVLTH! VIKMNePRz
MJq M HINITKLPJ Ps OPJHKM`NIlH
2,
VMHKIRZLITIH e[LT[ MRI eINN ePRK[ HIILJg. u[I 1MKQRMN |LHKPRa vQHIQV
TPJKMLJH ZNMJKH! MJLVMNH MJq VLJIRMNH. u[I |MNN Ps |QVMJ 0LPNPga IJM`NIH xLHLKPRH KP NIMRJ M`PQK K[ILR
`PqLIH MJq K[I eMa K[Ia ePRz. GS[L`LKH LJ K[I /TLIJTI vQHIQV qLHZNMa K[I qLHTPxIRa MJq qIxINPZVIJK Ps
HQT[ LJxIJKLPJH MH K[I HKIMV IJgLJI! Z[PKPgRMZ[a! gNMHHVMzLJg! ZRLJKLJg MJq MKPVLT Z[aHLTH. u[IRI LH M
2+
A. D. dJJP nPVLJL ()at"B: LJ K[I aIMR Ps K[I iPRq! JIe IRM WlLHRI.
22
Greater London LJTNQqIH K[I HQ`QR`H Ps K[I TLKa MNN Ps e[LT[ MRI TPJJITKIq eLK[ K[I TIJKRI Ps iPJqPJ MJq eLK[ IMT[ PK[IR `a QJqIRgRPQJq RMLNeMa NLJIH.
24
mile: M VIMHQRI Ps NIJgK[! +,)2 VIKRIH. GJgNLH[ VIMHQRIH Ps NIJgK[ (aMRq 2+ TV! sPPK 4) TV! LJT[ 2.* TV)! eILg[K (HKPJI , zg! ZPQJq 3*3
g! PQJTI 4+ g)! NLfQLqH (gMNNPJ 4.72 NLK! ZLJK ).*7 NLK) MRI JPK `MHIq PJ K[I qITLVMN HaHKIV.
23
pound: M VPJIKMRa QJLK TLRTQNMKLJg LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJ. }Z KP +27+ GJgNLH[ VPJIa eLK[ LKH ZIJJLIH! H[LNNLJgH MJq ZPQJqH eMH JPK `MHIq PJ K[I qITLVMN
HaHKIV ILK[IR: +2 ZIJTI sPR M H[LNNLJg! 2) H[LNNLJgH sPR M ZPQJq! 2+ H[LNNLJgH sPR M gQLJIM! K[I NMKKIR gPK LKH JMVI sRPV K[I sLRHK TPLJ HKRQTz sRPV gPNq PJ K[I
TPMHK Ps UQLJIM. .J +27+ 0RLKMLJ T[MJgIq PxIR KP! qITLVMN TQRRIJTa HaHKIV +)) JIe ZIJTI KP K[I ZPQJq (). 1Ie TPLJH (PR ZLITIH) eIRI LJKRPqQTIq: K[I
+/2 Z.! 2 Z.! * Z.! +) Z.! 2) Z. MJq *) Z. TPLJH.
2*
The Daily Express: M rZPZQNMRr ZMZIR sPR K[PHI e[P ZRIsIR IJKIRKMLJVIJK KP LJsPRVMKLPJ. .K LH NMRgINa sLNNIq eLK[ HZPRKLJg JIeH! MTTPQJKH Ps TRLVI!
MqxIRKLHIVIJKH (MqH.)! gPHHLZ Ps NLKKNI ePRK[ (M`PQK ZRLxMKI NLsI Ps HPTLIKa ZIPZNI! sLNV HKMRH! IKT.) MJq HKRLZ TMRKPPJH. oK[IR ZPZQNMR ZMZIRH MRI u[I /un, ;he
\ai9y Jirror, ;he \ai9y Jai9" u[LH zLJq Ps JIeHZMZIRH LH TMNNIq K[I KM`NPLqH.
u[I nMLNa uINIgRMZ[: M qMLNa iPJqPJ JIeHZMZIR Ps TPJHIRxMKLxI PRLIJKMKLPJ. .K LH M rfQMNLKar ZMZIR sPR IqQTMKIq RIMqIRH e[P MRI LJKIRIHKIq LJ LVZPRKMJK
qPVIHKLT MJq sPRILgJ JIeH. oK[IR fQMNLKa ZMZIRH MRI ;he M2&erver, ;he Auardian, ;he ;i+e& MJq ;he Inde4endent"
2,
Constable! 1ohn (+77,+b47): M sMVPQH GJgNLH[ ZMLJKIR.
4,
gMNNIRa e[IRI T[LNqRIJ TMJ ISZIRLVIJK eLK[ ePRzLJg VPqINH. u[I vQHIQV Ps iPJqPJ LJ K[I OLKa ZRIHIJKH
K[I `LPgRMZ[a Ps iPJqPJ! sRPV K[I sPQJqLJg Ps iPJqPJ `a PVMJH KP K[I URIMKIR iPJqPJ Ps KPqMa. wLK[LJ
M HgQMRI zLNPVIKRI PR HP LJ iPJqPJlH K[IMKRINMJq MRI PxIR K[LRKa K[IMKRIH! H[PeLJg M NMRgI RMJgI Ps PNq MJq
VPqIV ZNMaH. /VMNNIR rsRLJgIr K[IMKRIH
27
ZIRsPRV LJ TNQ`H! ZQ`H MJq MK NQJT[ KLVI.
iPJqPJ LH sQNN Ps ZMRzH MJq gRIIJ HZMTIH. |aqI \MRz! PRLgLJMNNa M RPaMN [QJKLJg sPRIHK! LH K[I NMRgIHK ZMRz
LJ iPJqPJ. .J HQVVIR K[I /IRZIJKLJI TMJMN e[LT[ sNPeH K[RPQg[ K[I ZMRz LH MNeMaH sQNN Ps HeLVVIRH!
RPeIRH MJq HQJ`MK[IRH. mQHK HPQK[ Ps K[I /IRZIJKLJI LH. PKKIJ Pe! M sMH[LPJM`NI HZPK sPR [PRHIRLqLJg! MJq
LJ PJI TPRJIR! JIMR vMR`NI dRT[ LH /ZIMzIRHl OPVIR; e[IRI IxIRaPJI TMJ gP MJq MLR K[ILR xLIeH KP MJaPJI
e[P eLNN NLHKIJ. 0IaPJq |aqI \MRz NLIH MJPK[IR RPaMN ZMRz! jIJHLJgKPJ UMRqIJH. O[LNqRIJ gMK[IR `a K[I
HKMKQI Ps \IKIR \MJ! mMVIH 0MRRLIlH
2b
eINNzJPeJ HKPRa`PPz T[MRMTKIR! PR HMLN K[ILR VPqIN `PMKH PJ K[I PQJq
\PJq. .J K[I JPRK[ Ps iPJqPJ LH IgIJKlH \MRz eLK[ M PP MJq MJ PZIJMLR K[IMKRI. d KRLZ MNPJg IgIJKlH
OMJMN LJ M RLxIR`PMK gLxIH M T[MJTI KP HII iPJqPJ iLKKNI :IJLTI! M fQLIK TPQJKRaHLqI MRIM sPR RLT[ ZIPZNI
PJNa MH K[I NMJq [IRI LH xIRa ISZIJHLxI.
iLzI VMJa TMZLKMN TLKLIH! iPJqPJ gRIe QZ MNPJg M VMPR RLxIR. u[I u[MVIH qLxLqIH iPJqPJ H[MRZNa LJ
KeP. vPHK Ps TIJKRMN iPJqPJ LH PJ K[I JPRK[ `MJz Ps K[I RLxIR. u[I u[MVIH MK iPJqPJ LH KLqMN MJq K[IRI [MxI
`IIJ HIxIRMN HIRLPQH sNPPqH. u[I RLHz Ps K[LH LH LJTRIMHLJg MH HPQK[IRJ GJgNMJq LH HLJzLJg LJ RINMKLPJ KP HIM
NIxIN. u[RIMK Ps qLHMHKIR! [PeIxIR! [MH `IIJ NIHHIJIq `a K[I TPJHKRQTKLPJ Ps M sNPPq `MRRLIR.
.K LH MNeMaH LJKIRIHKLJg sPR KPQRLHKH KP KMzI M KRLZ MNPJg K[I u[MVIH LJ M `PMK MH LK gLxIH M HKRLzLJg
ZMJPRMVM Ps iPJqPJ. u[I `IHK eMa KP HII K[I TLKa fQLTzNa LH sRPV K[I KPZ Ps iPJqPJ RIq qPQ`NIqITzIR
`QHIH. /ZITLMN KPQRLHK `QHIH gP PJ KeP[PQR TLRTQNMR KPQRH. u[I PK[IR fQLTz MJq IMHa eMa Ps gIKKLJg MRPQJq
iPJqPJ LH `a rKQ`Ir K[I }JqIRgRPQJq RMLNeMa. nQRLJg K[I rRMH[ [PQRHr! e[IJ PssLTI ePRzIRH [QRRa KP
MJq sRPV ePRz! K[I KQ`I KRMLJ qPPRH TMJ [MRqNa TNPHI `I[LJq K[I TRQH[Iq TRPeqH.
iPJqPJ LH MJ MJTLIJK TLKa. 0QK LK LH MNHP M NLxLJg TLKa MJq NLzI MNN NLxLJg TLKLIH LK LH TPJHKMJKNa qIxINPZLJg.
VOCABULARY NOTES
1. historic ad1 5 ($7=5 ! DD5 7)! ."g" [LHKPRLT
ZNMTI! qMKI! HZIIT[! IxIJK! `MKKNI! IKT. +b+2 eMH M [LHKPRLT aIMR sPR QHHLMJ ZIPZNI.
historical ad1 5 (85 5! $7=5 D )! ."g" [LHKPRLTMN
VMKIRLMNLHV! HTLIJTI! ZRLJTLZNIH! VIK[Pq! MZZRPMT[ (KP); [LHKPRLTMN JPxIN! ZLTKQRI! ZNMa! sLNV; [LHKPRLTMN
qIZMRKVIJK! VQHIQV! IKT.
history n ! ."g" K[I [LHKPRa Ps PQR TPQJKRa! K[I [LHKPRa Ps K[I NMJgQMgI; M [LHKPRa NIHHPJ; K[I
|LHKPRa vQHIQV.
Note 1: .J JMVIH Ps MTMqIVLT HQ`ITKH JP MRKLTNI LH QHIq! ."g" |LHKPRa Ps K[I GJgNLH[ NMJgQMgI LH M qLssLTQNK HQ`ITK
Note 2: u[I QHHLMJ ePRq UXU] [MH HIxIRMN GJgNLH[ IfQLxMNIJKH: ) (9 ;.) [LHKPRa! ."g"
u[LH KPeJ [MH MJ LJKIRIHKLJg [LHKPRa.; `) ! HKPRa! ."g" . qPJlK NLzI HKPRLIH Ps HQT[ zLJq. |I KPNq QH K[I
HKPRa Ps [LH e[PNI NLsI.; ) D IxIJK! ."g" uINN QH HPVIK[LJg M`PQK K[LH HKRMJgI IxIJK. 0QK: d sQJJa K[LJg
[MZZIJIq KP [LV. (( $ D .) u[IRIlH M ZRIKKa zIKKNI Ps sLH[c ( c)
2. worth n %6! ."g" .KlH M qLHTPxIRa Ps gRIMK ePRK[. u[LH LJsPRVMKLPJ LH Ps JP ePRK[.
worth ad1 4redi5 =5; worth smth.! ."g" u[LH ZLTKQRI LH JPK ePRK[ K[I VPJIa aPQlxI ZMLq sPR LK.
u[LH ZRP`NIV LH JPK ePRK[ PQR MKKIJKLPJ. u[LH P` LH JPK ePRK[ K[I KLVI eIlxI HZIJK PJ LK.; worth doing
smth.! ."g" u[LH sLNV LH ePRK[ HIILJg. 0PPzH Ps K[MK zLJq MRI JPK ePRK[ RIMqLJg. u[LH ZRP`NIV LHJlK ePRK[
qLHTQHHLJg. |LH LNNJIHH LH [MRqNa ePRK[ KRPQ`NLJg M`PQK.; worth while! ."g" .K LHJlK ePRK[ e[LNI HIILJg K[I
sLNV. .K LHJlK ePRK[ e[LNI HLKKLJg [IRI KLNN * PlTNPTz. .K LH ePRK[ e[LNI KRaLJg KP TMKT[ K[I KRMLJ! . K[LJz LKlH ePRK[
e[LNI HZIMzLJg KP [LV M`PQK LK. Cf.: u[LH `PPz LH ePRK[ RIMqLJg. .K LH ePRK[ e[LNI RIMqLJg K[LH `PPz.
worthy ad1 585! ."g" /[I LH M xIRa ePRK[a ePVMJ.; to be worthy of smth., HV`.! ."g" |LH
`I[MxLPQR LH ePRK[a Ps gRIMK ZRMLHI.
unworthy ad1 585
3. masterpiece n D
piece n +. ! 4& M ZLITI Ps T[MNz (ePPq! ZMZIR! IKT.)
/yn" lump, slice. d HNLTI LH M K[LJ! sNMK ZLITI TQK Pss sRPV MJaK[LJg! MH M HNLTI Ps `RIMq (T[IIHI! NIVPJ!
[MV! IKT.). A lump LH M HVMNN HZITLMNNa H[MZIq PR H[MZINIHH ZLITI! a& M NQVZ Ps HQgMR (`QKKIR! IKT.).
to pieces ! ."g" u[I TQZ sINN MJq eMH `RPzIJ KP ZLITIH.
2. 685 $! 6! ."g" M ZLITI Ps sQRJLKQRI; M! ZLITI Ps ZPIKRa (9); M ZLITI Ps
ZMLJKLJg (); M ZLITI Ps MqxLTI (); MZLITI Ps JIeH (6);
4. $! ."g" M KePH[LNNLJg ZLITI! M gPNq (HLNxIR) ZLITI
/yn" coin (QHIq VPRI PsKIJ K[MJ ZLITI)
4. human ad1 5! 585 ! ."g" M [QVMJ JMKQRI! K[I [QVMJ `Pqa! [QVMJ
27
M rsRLJgIr K[IMKRI HKMgIH ISZIRLVIJKMN K[IMKRLTMN ZNMaH ZIRsPRVIq `a MVMKIQRH.
2b
Barrie, 1ames M. (+b,)+247): M /TPKKLH[ JPxINLHK. \IKIR \MJ M sMLRaKMNI `Pa e[P RIsQHIq KP gRPe QZ ZRIsIRRLJg KP NIMq T[LNqRIJ LJKP [LH VMgLT
r1IxIR1IxIR iMJqr e[IRI K[Ia sPQg[K ZLRMKIH.
47
MssMLRH! M [QVMJ `ILJg (); hu'mane ad1 ;$85! 85
dJK. cruel
inhuman ad1 85! a& LJ[QVMJ KRIMKVIJK
humanity n (un5ounta29eB +. ! a& M TRLVI MgMLJHK [QVMJLKa
/yn" man'kind n (QJTPQJsM`NI). 3ut 'mankind $>8! $>5
2. ;$6! 6! a& KP KRIMK ZIPZNI eLK[ [QVMJLKa
the Humanities ;$8 ; HaJ. the Arts! ."g" dRI aPQ LJKIRIHKIq LJ K[I |QVMJLKLIH (K[I
dRKH) PR LJ K[I GSMTK /TLIJTIH (8 ) {
5. to strike (struck, struck) ,t +. 6! 6; to strike smb., to strike smb. (smth.) on smth. ."g"
|I HKRQTz K[I `Pa M xLPNIJK `NPe. u[I VMJ HKRQTz iMJJa PJ K[I sMTI. |I HKRQTz [LH sLHK PJ K[I KM`NI.
/aJ. to hit (hit, hit)! ."g" w[a qLq [I [LK K[I `Pa{; to hit one's hand (foot, head! IKT.) on smth.! ."g" .
[LK Va [IMq PJ K[I NPe H[INs.
1PKI: strike MJq hit VMa `I QHIq LJ K[I HMVI HIJHI to strike or to hit smb. `QK TMRI H[PQNq `I KMzIJ KP QHI K[I ZRPZIR
xIR` V KRMqLKLPJMN ePRq TPV`LJMKLPJH HQT[ MH to strike a match 6 5! I! !" /PVI`Pqa HKRQTz M VMKT[ HP K[MK eI
TPQLq HII IMT[ PK[IR.
2. 6 ( 9)! ."g" .K [MH QHK HKRQTz [MNs ZMHK sPQR. u[LH KPeIR TNPTz HKRLzIH K[I [PQRH.
4. >6! 6! !" wI eIRI HKRQTz `a `LH HKRMJgI `I[MxLPQR. .K HKRQTz VI K[MK [I [Mq gRPeJ HP
PNq. vMJa K[LJgH VLg[K HKRLzI QH MH QJQHQMN LJ M sPRILgJ TPQJKRa.
/yn" to surprise, to astonish, to puzzle
1KI: to be struck means rKP `I sLNNIq HQqqIJNa eLK[ M HKRPJg sIINLJg Ps HQRZRLHIr. u[MK qLHKLJgQLH[IH K[I xIR` to strike
from its synonyms to astonish MJq to surprise; to astonish LH HKRPJgIR LJ VIMJLJg K[MJ to surprise! ."g" . H[PQNqJlK `I
HQRZRLHIq Ls LK RMLJIq. .lV JPK HQRZRLHIq MK HIILJg aPQ [IRI! .lxI `IIJ KPNq M`PQK aPQR MRRLxMN. . eMH MHKPJLH[Iq MK HIILJg [LV HP
T[MJgIq. . eMH HKRQTz `a [LH HQqqIJ qIMK[.; to puzzle VIMJH rKP VMzI M ZIRHPJ K[LJz [MRq `IsPRI sLJqLJg MJ MJHeIRr! e"g" |LH
NIKKIR ZQNIq VI. ( . qLqJlK zJPe e[a [I [Mq eRLKKIJ LK)
striking ad1, a& HKRLzLJg NLzIJIHH (JIeH! TPJKRMHK) stricken 44" terror-stricken; horror-stricken; panic-
stricken
1PKI: K[I xIR` KP HKRLzI [MH [PVPJaVH: M) strike ,i 6! `) strike n ! ."g" dNN K[I
RMLNeMa ePRzIRH PLJIq K[I HKRLzI.; to go on strike ]6
6. circuIar ad1 ;85! ;5! ."g" u[IRI LH M TLRTQNMR RMLNeMa RQJJLJg RPQJq vPHTPe. d TLRTQNMR
HKMLRTMHI NIq KP K[I KPZ Ps K[I KPeIR.
circulate , +. %6! ."g" 0NPPq TLRTQNMKIH LJ K[I `Pqa.; 2. 6! 6!
."g" 0Mq JIeH TLRTQNMKIH fQLTzNa.
circulation n +. %%! ."g" u[I TLRTQNMKLPJ Ps MLR LH RMK[IR `Mq [IRI! K[MKlH e[a LK LH HKQssa.; 2.
! = (!.T.^T.B, ."g" oJNa HLNxIR MJq TPZZIR TPLJH MRI LJ TLRTQNMKLPJ JPe.
blood-circulation n =
circle n +. ;! >6! ."g" .KlH MNVPHK LVZPHHL`NI KP qRMe M TLRTNI eLK[PQK M ZMLR Ps TPVZMHHIH
( %).; 2. ;! ; 75! ."g" < `INPJgIq KP K[I `QHLJIHH TLRTNI Ps K[I KPeJ.
NOTES ON HOMONYMS
Homonyms MRI ePRqH K[MK TPLJTLqI LJ sPRV! `QK [MxI qLssIRIJK VIMJLJgH MJq. VMa (PR VMa JPK) `INPJg
KP qLssIRIJK TMKIgPRLIH PR ZMRKH Ps HZIIT[. |PVPJaVH VMa TPLJTLqI `PK[ LJ Z[PJIKLT MJq LJ gRMZ[LT sPRV! MH
2a99, n ($) MJq 2a99, n () PR fair, ad1 (85! 85 . .) MJq fair, n ($).
u[Ia VMa TPLJTLqI PJNa LJ ZRPJQJTLMKLPJ! `QK [MxI qLssIRIJK gRMZ[LT sPRVH! MH &ea, n MJq KP HII! x. u[Ia
VMa TPLJTLqI LJ HZINNLJg! `QK `I qLssIRIJKNa ZRPJPQJTIq! MH 9ead WNIq n (%) MJq KP 9ead WNL:q ,
().
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)
Words
MJTLIJK ad1 sLJMJTI n ZLITI n
MHKPJLH[ , sNPPq n ZPHHL`LNLKa n
`QLNKQZ ad1 [LHKPRLT ad1 ZPQJq n
TLRTNI n [LHKPRLTMN ad1 ZQNI ,
TLRTQNMR ad1 [QVMJ ad1 HIM NIxIN
TLRTQNMKLPJ n [QVMJLKa n HIKKNIVIJK n
TPLJ n (K[I) |QVMJLKLIH HNLTI n
TPVVIRTI n NQVZ n HKRIKT[ ,
TQRRIJTa n VMJzLJq n HKRLzI ,
qPQ`NIqITzIR n VMHKIRZLITI n HKRLzLJg ad1
IJKIRKMLJVIJK n \MRNLMVIJK n KRMssLT n
IS[L`LK , ZMRNLMVIJKMRa ad1 ePRK[ n, ad1
4b
ePRK[a ad1
Word Combinations
KP `RIMz KP ZLITIH KP gP PJ M KPQR KP KQRJ HVK[. LJKP HVK[.
M ZMJPRMVM (xLIe) Ps KP [MxI M ZPHHL`LNLKa sPR KP `I M HQRZRLHI KP
KP HKMJq sPR HVK[. KP HKRLzI M VMKT[ KP `I ePRK[a Ps HVK[.
KP HKRLzI M `NPe M ZLITI Ps MqxLTI KP gP PJ HKRLzI
sLJI MJq MZZNLIq MRKH KP `I M HQRZRLHI KP HV`. KP KMzI M KRLZ
Proper Names
PVMJ K[I :LTKPRLM MJq dN`ILK vQHIQV
K[I u[MVIH OPJHKM`NI
iPJqLJLQV K[I 1MKQRMN |LHKPRa vQHIQV
wIHKVLJHKIR K[I /TLIJTI vQHIQV
w[LKI[MNN K[I vQHIQV Ps iPJqPJ
nPeJLJg /KRIIK |aqI \MRz
pNIIK /KRIIK K[I /IRZIJKLJI
/K. \MQNlH OMK[IqRMN vMR`NI dRT[
/PQK[ jIJHLJgKPJ jIJHLJgKPJ UMRqIJH
IgIJKlH \MRz
42
EXERCISES
1. Read the text and taIk as the foIIowing points (A. Grammar, B. Word usage, . Word-formation):
d. +. w[MK KIJHI gRPQZ LH VMLJNa QHIq LJ K[I KISK MJq e[a{
2. pLJq ZMHHLxI xPLTI TPJHKRQTKLPJH MJq KRMJHNMKI K[I HIJKIJTIH eLK[ K[IV.
0. uRMJHNMKI K[I HIJKIJTIH `IgLJJLJg eLK[ just as ... so LJKP QHHLMJ.
O. /IMRT[ K[I KISK sPR TPVZPQJqH! TPVVIJK PJ K[ILR HKRQTKQRI. pLJq qIRLxMKLxIH eLK[ K[I HQssLSIH -ment,
-er, -ly MJq TNMHHLsa K[IV MTTPRqLJg KP K[I TMKIgPRa Ps HZIIT[.
II. a) Search tee text and the footnotes for the EngIish equivaIents of the sentences and phrases Iisted
beIow:
A. +. 6 $6 6 85 ;85 ;; 2. $6
$> 5 5 $; 4. $5 $6; 3.
5 6; ; ; *. D6 ;
$ $ Y$; ,. 6! $6; 7. 8 $ ;.
B. +. 8! @68B ;8; 2. = 89 8 >$; 4.
8 ; 3. ! 7= ; *. 5 7 >7
$; . $ *) .
b) Use them in sentences of your own.
III. a) SpeII and give the four forms of the foIIowing verbs:
WgREQ! W`INq! WqlKRxzK! WHIJq! WqIlHZNII! WsNEQ! WNMI]! Wl[ARI! WHKRMIz! WZAN.
b) Transcribe the foIIowing words:
OINKLT! HIKKNIVIJK! TPVVIRTI! sLJMJTI! ISZNPRI! zLNPVIKRI! ZMRNLMVIJKMRa! VMgJLsLTIJK! TIRMVLTH!
VIKMNePRz! Z[PKPgRMZ[a! MKPVLT! RPaMN! TMJMN! HQJ`MK[IR! VMPR! `MRRLIR! ZMJPRMVM! qPQ`NIqITzIR! qLHMHKIR.
c) Write the degrees of comparison of:
JMRRPe! HVMNN! gRIMK! PNq! fQLIK! ePRK[a! `QHa! IMHa.
d) Find homonyms in Text of Unit Three.
IV. a) AnaIyse the morphoIogicaI structure of the word sizable, expIain its meaning and give its Russian
equivaIent
b) Form adjectives from these verbaI stems by adding the negative prefix fprrjuks] on-, and the adjective-
forming suffix -able. ExpIain the meaning of the derivatives and transIate them (in one word):
IMK! RIMq! `RIMz! sPRgIK! ZMRqPJ! qIHTRL`I! qIHLRI! LVMgLJI! `INLIxI.
V. Write questions based on the text. Use in your questions the suggested word combinations. Ask your
questions in cIass:
+. KP KQRJ HVK[. LJKP; 2. `QLNqQZ MRIM; 4. K[I [PVI Ps; 3. KP HKMJq sPR; *. K[I PssLTLMN [PVI Ps K[I \RLVI
vLJLHKIR; ,. rK[I HfQMRI VLNIr; 7. K[I TIJKRMN `MJzLJg LJHKLKQKLPJ; b! KP `I sQNN Ps; 2. sLJI MJq MZZNLIq MRKH; +).
K[I /TLIJTI vQHIQV; ++. K[IMKRINMJq; +2. KP MLR PJIlH xLIeH; +4. KP gMK[IR `a; +3. KP gRPe QZ; +*. K[RIMK Ps
qLHMHKIR; +,. KP gLxI M ZMJPRMVM; +7. K[I rRQH[ [PQRHr.
VI. Try your hand at teaching. (See "CIassroom EngIish", Sections VI, VIII, IX, X.)
A. Preparation. wRLKI 24 HZITLMN fQIHKLPJH M`PQK IMT[ ZMRMgRMZ[ Ps K[I KISK MJq sPPKJPKIH. /II KP LK
K[MK JIe ePRqH! Z[RMHIH MJq ZMKKIRJH MRI QHIq ILK[IR LJ aPQR fQIHKLPJH PR LJ MJHeIRH KP K[IV.
B. Work in class. \QK aPQR fQIHKLPJH KP K[I TNMHH MJq TPVVIJK PJ K[I MJHeIRH (ISZRIHH aPQR MZZRPxMN PR
qLHMZZRPxMN; TPRRITK K[I VLHKMzIH! Ls K[IRI MRI MJa; Mqq HPVI qIKMLNH Ls JITIHHMRa! IKT.).
VII. Make up a diaIogue based on one of the paragraphs of the text or the footnotes. Speak for a Russian
and an EngIish student. Try and give an additionaI piece of information on the topic Use the
prompts:
|MxI aPQ [IMRq (M`PQK)...{; nP aPQ [MZZIJ KP zJPe...{; |MxI aPQ gPK MJa LqIM{; /PVIPJI [MH KPNq VI
K[MK...; u[MKlH e[MK . [IMRq; .lV MsRMLq . qPJlK zJPe VQT[ M`PQK...; . ePJqIR Ls aPQ RIVIV`IR...; |MxI . gPK LK
RLg[K{; dV . RLg[K KP `INLIxI{; d`HPNQKINa; GSMTKNa; u[MKlH xIRa HQRZRLHLJgc; u[MKlH MVMLJgc
VIII. a) Comment on the diaIogue beIow:
d.: |Pe TMJ aPQ `I HP HKQZLq MH KP K[LJz K[MK iPJqPJ LH `IMQKLsQNc
.: /KQZLqc w[MK JPJHIJHIc os TPQRHI LKlH `IMQKLsQN. iPPz MK MNN K[I ZMRzH MJq 0QTzLJg[MV \MNMTI MJq MNN
K[I T[QRT[IH.
d.: Q``LH[c u[IalRI sLNK[a MJq sQNN Ps QJz.
.: pPR gPPqJIHH HMzI! e[a qPJlK aPQ PZIJ aPQR IaIH{ wMNz MRPQJq LJHKIMq Ps QHK qRLxLJg RPQJq LJ M KMSL
MNN qMac (_argreave& Y" MJq *9et5her J" vMzLJg \PNLKI 1PLHIH! iMq.! +2b2)
b) Make up simiIar diaIogues on the sights of your native town. The foIIowing phrases might heIp you:
. qPJlK MgRII MK MNN. yPQ VQHK `I PzLJgc u[IRIlH JP IxLqIJTI sPR K[MK. o[! K[MKlH RLqLTQNPQHc 1PJHIJHIc
Q``LH[c . qPJlK `INLIxI K[MK MK MNN. yPQ qPJlK zJPe e[MK aPQlRI KMNzLJg M`PQK. yPQlRI TPVZNIKINa eRPJg
M`PQK K[MK.
3)
IX. FiII in a suitabIe word or phrase: a) surprise, astonish, strike, puzzIe:
+. . ePJlK `I ... Ls [I gIKH M rsLxIr! [I LH M xIRa `RLg[K `Pa. 2. wI eIRI ... `a K[I TPJKRMHKH `IKeIIJ eIMNK[
MJq ZPxIRKa LJ nIN[L. 4. |LH fQIHKLPJ ... VI. . qLqJlK zJPe [Pe KP MJHeIR LK. 3. . eMH ... KP VIIK [LV LJ KPeJ!
. eMH HQRI [I [Mq JPK TPVI `MTz aIK. *. |LH TRQINKa... QH. wI MNeMaH K[PQg[K K[MK `I eMH zLJq MJq
HaVZMK[IKLT.
b) piece, Iamp, sIice:
+. \LTz QZ K[I ... Ps K[I `RPzIJ TQZ MJq K[RPe K[IV PQK. 2. ULxI VI M... Ps ZMZIR. .lNN H[Pe aPQ [Pe KP
VMzI M `PMK sPR K[I T[LNq. 4. .lq NLzI KP KMzI PJI VPRI ... Ps TMzI. vMa .{ 3. . JIxIR ZQK VPRI K[MJ KeP ... Ps
HQgMR LJKP Va KIM. *. . JIIq M H[PRK ... Ps HKRLJg KP KLI K[I ZMRTIN eLK[. ,. .lq NLzI KP [MxI M ... Ps NIVPJ eLK[
Va KIM.
c) historic or historicaI:
+. Iq /fQMRI LH M ... HZPK: VMJa ... IxIJKH KPPz ZNMTI LJ LK. 2. .J [LH ... JPxINH wMNKIR /TPKK gMxI M
ePJqIRsQN qIHTRLZKLPJ JPK PJNa Ps ... IxIJKH! `QK Ps e[PNI ... IZPT[H. 4. u[I JLJK[ Ps vMa LH PJI Ps PQR VPHK
LVZPRKMJK... qMKIH: eI TINI`RMKI PQR ... xLTKPRa LJ wPRNq wMR ... 3. u[IRI MRI VMJa ... VPJQVIJKH LJ
vPHTPe.
X. ReteII the Text Use the map of London on pp. 114-115.
XI. a) FiII in preposition wherever necessary:
\NIMHI RIVIV`IR: traffic ... 0RLKMLJ keeps ... the leftc /P e[IJ crossing a street look right sLRHK K[IJ left.
.s ZPHHL`NI cross ... zebra crossings! HPVIKLVIH indicated ... flashing orange lights ... either side ... the
road.
Speed limit ... 0RLKMLJ LH 7) VZ[ ( VLNIH ZIR [PQR); ... built-up areas 4) VZ[. Careful riding LH
IHHIJKLMN MH K[IRI MRI VMJa narrow MJq winding roads.
Roads ... fast long-distance driving MRI TMNNIq motorways. u[I `IHK zJPeJ LH K[I VPKPReMa ... iPJqPJ
MJq iIIqH. Road signs MRI VPHKNa K[I HMVI MH K[PHI QHIq ... K[I TPJKLJIJK. u[I HMVI gPIH ... traffic lights.
b) Speak about the traffic in this country using the word combinations in boId type.
XII. a) ExpIain the meaning of these proverbs. TransIate them. Give their Russian equivaIents:
d `LRq LJ K[I [MJq LH ePRK[ KeP LJ K[I `QH[. u[I gMVI LH JPK ePRK[ K[I TMJqNI. dJ [PQR LJ K[I VPRJLJg LH
ePRK[ KeP LJ K[I IxIJLJg. 0IKeIIJ KeP IxLNH lKLH JPK ePRK[ e[LNI T[PPHLJg.
b) Say whether you agree with Lord Goring's opinion that "It is aIways worth whiIe asking a question,
though it is not aIways worth whiIe answering one." (O. WiIde. "An IdeaI Husband")
XIII. TransIate the sentences into EngIish, using a) be well worth + ger/n or b) just as... so:
+. |I 6 ; Y$! D$ 685. 2. ( D6 ;
. 4. < 6 $ =! 8$ 8 6. 3. ( 6 "5
& $6! $7 $$. *. A $
$ $ ! ( C85 %. ,.
A $ @;$8$B $ $7 7! !
8 8! @8$B $ C! 9$7! .
XIV. Arrange micro-diaIogues on the foIIowing topics:
+. |Pe PNq vPHTPe LH. w[IRI MJq [Pe LK HKMRKIq. 2. w[MK VPJIa LH LJ TLRTQNMKLPJ LJ K[LH TPQJKRa. 4.
w[MK K[I VPHK ZPZQNMR ZMZIRH LJ vPHTPe MRI. 3. w[a vQHTPxLKIH NLzI K[ILR QJqIRgRPQJq RMLNeMa. *. w[MK
K[I VPHK ZPZQNMR VQHIQVH LJ vPHTPe MRI. w[MK LH IS[L`LKIqK[IRI{ ,. w[MK aPQ zJPe M`PQK ZMRzH LJ
vPHTPe. 7. u[I KRMssLT LJ K[I TMZLKMN.
XV. a) Read and transIate the text:
dZMRK sRPV VPRI LVZPRKMJK JIeH ZRLJKIq PJ K[I sLRHK ZMgI eLK[ `Lg [IMqNLJIH LJ `PNq KaZI K[IRI MRI VMJa
PK[IR HITKLPJH LJ K[I ZMZIR. /PVI ZIPZNI KQRJ MK PJTI KP TNMHHLsLIq MqH (TMNNIq `a K[MK JMVI `ITMQHI
MqxIRKLHIVIJKH MRI MRRMJgIq LJ gRPQZH NLzI: rKP NIKr! rZRPZIRKa eMJKIqr! rHLKQMKLPJ xMTMJKr! IKT.). pPR K[PHI
e[P MRI LJKIRIHKIq LJ TNPK[IH K[IRI MRI sMH[LPJ ZMgIH. yPQ TMJ sLJq PQK e[MKlH PJ `a NPPzLJg LJ K[I
MqxIRKLHIVIJK gQLqI. /PVI NLzI KP NPPz K[RPQg[ K[I e[PNI ZMZIR RIMqLJg M [IMqNLJI [IRI! gNMJTLJg MK MJ
LJKIRIHKLJg MRKLTNI K[IRI! NPPzLJg MK M ZPNLKLTMN TMRKPPJ! VMa`I! PR RIMqLJg HPVI Ps `QHLJIHH JIeH.
b) Answer the suggested questions:
+. nP aPQ RIMq ZMZIRH KP TMKT[ QZ eLK[ K[I NMKIHK JIeH PR MRI aPQ LJKIRIHKIq LJ HPVI ZMRKLTQNMR ZRP`NIVH{
w[a{ 2. w[IRI TMJ eI sLJq K[I VPHK LVZPRKMJK ZPNLKLTMN! `QHLJIHH MJq TQNKQRMN JIeH LJ PQR ZMZIRH{ 4. .J
e[LT[ Ps PQR JIeHZMZIRH TMJ aPQ sLJq MqxIRKLHIVIJKH{ dRI K[Ia TNMHHLsLIq LJ MJa eMa{ 3. dRI K[IRI MJa
ZPNLKLTMN TMRKPPJH MJq MVQHIVIJK gQLqIH LJ PQR ZMZIRH{ *. dRI aPQ QHIq KP HKQqaLJg M JIeHZMZIR K[PRPQg[Na
PR QHK gNMJTLJg MK MJ MRKLTNI [IRI MJq K[IRI{
XVI. TransIate the sentences into EngIish:
+. ; =$ . 2. h ; 5
$. 4. <6 $ : 9
3+
;5$ 8$. 3. "8 6! ; ! #5 " 75
$> 886 > 7$ ! $ $> 8D6 $;
9. *! ]! $ >! ,. A6 $! E $5
D; >. 7. Y6 ; = C8 8. b. +23* ; 5 ;
; 2. F> ;5 ; $ 85 ; 5. +).
&! 7$ $ ; 6D$ >$! 87 >8 D.
A. ( 689 ; 8 6 $ "8. +2 A$= ;
;5 5! %7=5 $. +4. ( 89 $ 87 9 ;9
D5 8. +3 ; % 5 6; ;
5 E; $. +*. h8 X; $ " $
5 $ %% ?. +,. A6 6 >89
59 "8 ,) $/.
XVII. a) Read the text. ReteII it adding some more Information about ParIiament
u[I sLRHK wIHKVLJHKIR \MNMTI eMH `QLNK `a GqeMRq K[I OPJsIHHPR LJ M`PQK +)*) MJq eMH QHIq MH M RPaMN
RIHLqIJTI! K[IJ as the seat of Government MJq sLJMNNa! MsKIR +*37! MH the meeting place for Parliament.
u[I sLRI Ps +b43 qIHKRPaIq VPHK Ps K[I PRLgLJMN `QLNqLJgH. u[I JIe `QLNqLJg sPR \MRNLMVIJK eMH qIHLgJIq `a
/LR O[MRNIH 0MRRa LJ +b3). u[I gIJIRMN HKaNI LH gPK[LT.
u[IRI MRI KeP "Chambers" PR "Houses" of Parliament K[MK Ps K[I OPVVPJH MJq K[MK Ps K[I iPRqH.
u[I VPRI LVZPRKMJK MJq ZPeIRsQN Ps K[IHI LH K[I |PQHI Ps OPVVPJH! e[PHI members are elected by the
public. u[I \RLVI vLJLHKIR MJq VPHK Ps K[I UPxIRJVIJK MRI vIV`IRH Ps K[I |PQHI Ps OPVVPJH. u[I
|PQHI Ps iPRqH is made up of iPRqH e[P [MxI LJ[IRLKIq K[ILR KLKNIH MJq K[I RLg[K KP HLK LJ K[I |PQHI! MJq
rNLsI ZIIRHr e[P MRI MZZPLJKIq `a K[I QIIJ on the advice of the Government of the day.
|MNs Ps K[I `QLNqLJg Ps \MRNLMVIJK LH QHIq `a K[I OPVVPJH MJq K[I PK[IR [MNs `a K[I iPRqH. dK K[I
wIHKVLJHKIR 0RLqgI IJq LH K[I RIHLqIJTI Ps K[I /ZIMzIR! e[P presides over meetings Ps K[I |PQHI Ps
OPVVPJH MJq MK K[I PK[IR IJq LH K[I RIHLqIJTI Ps K[I iPRq O[MJTINNPR! e[P ZRIHLqIH PxIR K[I |PQHI Ps
iPRqH.
Parliament's most important function is the making of laws. 0IsPRI M JIe NMe (PR 0LNN) can come
into effect! LK VQHK pass through K[RII HKMgIH LJ IMT[ |PQHI MJq be given K[I QIIJlH approval. .K K[IJ
`ITPVIH an Act of Parliament. (/II: Jountefie9d 0" iPJqPJ. iJq.! +272)
b) Say what you know about the Russian ParIiament, i. e. two chambers: the Duma and the CounciI of
Federation.
XVIII. Give the idea of the text in EngIish:
A $ ;! 6 5
$! 8! %! D 6 $8 5 . ' =
8 6 > D. ' 89 %5 5
$ $6$ ".YE. ' 8 7 %7 $! 8
7 D$ 6D9 . <! 5
$5 ;8 @F 5 $B! ; YE
> 6 $ ; 8 6.
$ 9 -5! $7 $ C!
$; $ 9 . A E9 $7=9
5 76 > 9 . (@_ >$B! 2! +2b*)
XIX. Read and comment on the foIIowing:
REMEMBRANCE DAY (POPPY DAY)
IVIV`RMJTI nMa LH P`HIRxIq K[RPQg[PQK 0RLKMLJ LJ TPVVIVPRMKLPJ Ps K[I VLNNLPJ PR VPRI 0RLKLH[
HPNqLIRH! HMLNPRH MJq MLRVIJ e[P NPHK K[ILR NLxIH qQRLJg K[I KeP wPRNq wMRH. oJ K[MK qMa eRIMK[H MRI NMLq MK
eMR VIVPRLMNH K[RPQg[PQK K[I TPQJKRa MJq MK iPJqPJlH OIJPKMZ[ (M eMR VIVPRLMN LJ w[LKI[MNN) e[IRI M
LgRIMK JQV`IR Ps ZIPZNI gMK[IR KP P`HIRxI K[I KePVLJQKI HLNIJTI MJq KP ZIRsPRV K[I MJJQMN IVIV`RMJTI
nMa TIRIVPJa. u[I HLNIJTI `IgLJH MK K[I sLRHK HKRPzI Ps 0Lg 0IJ `PPVLJg ++ PlTNPTz MJq i& `RPzIJ PJNa `a
K[I TRMH[ Ps qLHKMJK MRKLNNIRa. w[IJ K[I KePVLJQKI HLNIJTI LH PxIR! VIV`IRH Ps K[I PaMN pMVLNa PR K[ILR
RIZRIHIJKMKLxIH MJq ZPNLKLTMN NIMqIRH TPVI sPReMRq KP NMa eRIMK[H MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I^IJPKMZ[. u[IJ TPVIH
K[I VMRT[ ZMHK K[I VIVPRLMN Ps ISHIRxLTIVIJ MJq ePVIJ! sPNNPeIq `a MJ IJqNIHH NLJI Ps PRqLJMRa TLKLIJH
e[P [MxI TPVI [IRI eLK[ K[ILR ZIRHPJMN eRIMK[H MJq K[ILR HMq VIVPRLIH. oJ K[MK qMa MRKLsLTLMN ZPZZLIH! M
HaV`PN Ps VPQRJLJg! MRI KRMqLKLPJMNNa HPNq LJ K[I HKRIIKH MJq ZIPZNI eIMR K[IV LJ K[ILR `QKKPJ[PNIH.
(*ro+ OQHKPVH! uRMqLKLPJH MJq pIHKLxMNH Ps URIMK 0RLKMLJ
2y u. j[LVQJLJM! 1. jPJPJ! i. wMNH[I. v! +273)
XX. a) CoIIect information on EngIish traditions and customs.
b) Arrange a taIk between Russian and EngIish students on their nationaI traditions, customs and habits.
(One of the students shouId conduct it: introduce the participants to each other, make a short
32
introductory speech on the subject, ask questions, etc. to keep the taIk running on, sum up the
discussion.)
LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)
+. NLHKIJ KP K[I KISK r.JKRPqQTLJg iPJqPJr.
2. IHZPJq KP K[I sPNNPeLJg QHLJg K[I HQggIHKIq VPqINH.
4. OPVZNIKI K[I HIJKIJTIH QHLJg K[I gLxIJ HQggIHKLPJH.
3. uRMJHNMKI K[I HIJKIJTIH LJKP GJgNLH[! QHLJg K[I GHHIJKLMN :PTM`QNMRa Ps }JLK u[RII. O[ITz aPQR
HIJKIJTIH eLK[ K[I zIa.
*. NLHKIJ KP HPVI KISK MJq eRLKI LK MH M qLTKMKLPJ! T[ITz K[I HZINNLJg eLK[ K[I zIa. IKINN K[I KISK.
,. iLHKIJ KP K[I KISK ru[I |PQHI Ps OPVVPJHr PR HPVI PK[IR KISK PJ K[I HMVI KPZLT. IKINN K[I KISK! Mqq
VPRI .JsPRVMKLPJ PJ K[I KPZLT.
TOP!: CITY
TEXT A. SOME MORE GLIMPSES OF LONDON
iPJqPJ LH PJI Ps K[I `LggIHK MJq VPHK LJKIRIHKLJg TLKLIH LJ K[I ePRNq.
uRMqLKLPJMNNa LK LH qLxLqIq LJKP K[I wIHK GJq MJq K[I GMHK GJq. u[I wIHK GJq LH sMVPQH sPR LKH `IMQKLsQN
MxIJQIH NLJIq eLK[ ZNMJI KRIIH! `Lg HKPRIH! RLT[ VMJHLPJH! ISZIJHLxI RIHKMQRMJKH! [PKINH! K[IMKRIH MJq JLg[K
TNQ`H. u[I GMHK GJq QHIq KP `I M ZPPR MRIM sLNNIq eLK[ eMRI[PQHIH! sMTKPRLIH! HNQVH MJq VLHIRM`NI [PQHIH.
QLKI M NPK Ps ZIPZNI NLxIq sRPV [MJq KP VPQK[ [IRI. pPR K[I RITIJK aIMRH K[LH MRIM LJTNQqLJg nPTzNMJq [MH
KQRJIq LJKP M JIe [PQHLJg qIxINPZVIJK.
u[I [IMRK Ps iPJqPJ LH K[I OLKa LKH TPVVIRTLMN MJq `QHLJIHH TIJKRI. |IRI LH HLKQMKIq K[I uPeIR Ps
iPJqPJ K[MK TPVIH sLRHK MVPJg K[I [LHKPRLT `QLNqLJgH Ps K[I TLKa. .s aPQ eMJK KP gIK HPVI gNLVZHIH Ps
iPJqPJ LKlH QHK sRPV [IRI K[MK aPQ [Mq `IKKIR HKMRK HLg[KHIILJg.
u[I uPeIR Ps iPJqPJ eMH sPQJqIq `a mQNLQH OMIHMR MJq LJ +),, RI`QLNK `a wLNNLMV K[I OPJfQIRPR. .K
eMH QHIq MH M sPRKRIHH! M RPaMN RIHLqIJTI MJq M ZRLHPJ. 1Pe LK LH M VQHIQV Ps MRVPQR MJq MNHP K[I ZNMTI
e[IRI K[I ORPeJ mIeINH MRI zIZK. .J ZRIHIJK qMaH! QHK MH VMJa TIJKQRLIH MgP! K[I OIRIVPJa Ps K[I jIaH
KMzIH ZNMTI MK LKH gMKIH. GxIRa JLg[K e[IJ K[I gQMRq LH T[MJgIq MK IMT[ gMKI K[IRI LH K[I TRa: r|MLKL w[P gPIH
K[IRI{r u[IJ K[I gQMRq RIZNLIH: ru[I jIaH.r rw[PHI jIaH{r rQIIJ GNLM`IK[lH jIaHcr r\MHH! QIIJ
GNLM`IK[lH jIaHc dNNlH eINN.r dJq HP K[I uPeIR Ps iPJqPJ LH HMsINa TNPHIq sPR K[I JLg[K.
d KeIJKa VLJQKIHl eMNz sRPV K[I uPeIR eLNN KMzI aPQ KP MJPK[IR [LHKPRLT `QLNqLJg /K. \MQNlH OMK[IqRMN!
K[I gRIMKIHK Ps GJgNLH[ T[QRT[IH. .K eMH `QLNK `a M sMVPQH GJgNLH[ MRT[LKITK! /LR O[RLHKPZ[IR wRIJ (+,42
+724). /K. \MQNlH OMK[IqRMN eLK[ LKH [QgI qPVI MJq RPeH Ps TPNQVJH LH TPJHLqIRIq KP `I M sLJI HZITLVIJ Ps
IJMLHHMJTI MRT[LKITKQRI. .J PJI Ps LKH KPeIRH [MJgH PJI Ps K[I NMRgIHK `INNH LJ K[I ePRNq! URIMK \MQN!
eILg[LJg M`PQK +7.* KPJH. wINNLJgKPJ!
22
1INHPJ
4)
MJq PK[IR gRIMK VIJ Ps GJgNMJq MRI `QRLIq LJ K[I OMK[IqRMN.
1PK sMR MeMa! LJ wIHKVLJHKIR! e[IRI VPHK Ps K[I UPxIRJVIJK `QLNqLJgH MRI HLKQMKIq! LH wIHKVLJHKIR
d``Ia. vMJa GJgNLH[ HPxIRILgJH! PQKHKMJqLJg HKMKIHVIJ! ZMLJKIRH MJq ZPIKH (1IeKPJ! nMReLJ! MJq
uIJJaHPJ MVPJg K[IV) MRI `QRLIq [IRI.
dTRPHH K[I RPMq sRPV wIHKVLJHKIR d``Ia LH wIHKVLJHKIR \MNMTI! K[I HIMK Ps K[I 0RLKLH[ \MRNLMVIJK. .KH
KeP gRMTIsQN KPeIRH HKMJq [Lg[ M`PxI K[I TLKa. u[I [Lg[IR Ps K[I KeP TPJKMLJH K[I NMRgIHK TNPTz LJ K[I
TPQJKRa MJq K[I sMVPQH `INN 0Lg 0IJ K[MK HKRLzIH IxIRa fQMRKIR Ps K[I [PQR.
.s JPe eI eMNz MNPJg w[LKI[MNN! eI H[MNN HPPJ TPVI KP uRMsMNgMR /fQMRI. .K eMH HP JMVIq LJ VIVPRa Ps
K[I xLTKPRa LJ K[I `MKKNI Ps uRMsMNgMR! e[IRI PJ oTKP`IR 2+! +b)* K[I GJgNLH[ sNIIK QJqIR 1INHPJlH TPVVMJq
qIsIMKIq K[I TPV`LJIq sNIIK Ps pRMJTI MJq /ZMLJ. u[I xLTKPRa eMH ePJ MK K[I TPHK Ps 1INHPJlH NLsI. .J K[I
VLqqNI Ps uRMsMNgMR /fQMRI HKMJqH 1INHPJlH VPJQVIJK M KMNN TPNQVJ eLK[ K[I sLgQRI Ps 1INHPJ MK LKH KPZ.
u[I TPNQVJ LH gQMRqIq `a sPQR `RPJI NLPJH.
u[I sLJI `QLNqLJg sMTLJg K[I HfQMRI LH K[I 1MKLPJMN UMNNIRa MJq MqPLJLJg LK (`QK QHK RPQJq K[I TPRJIR) LH
K[I \PRKRMLK UMNNIRa.
1PK sMR MeMa LH K[I 0RLKLH[ vQHIQV K[I `LggIHK vQHIQV LJ iPJqPJ. .K TPJKMLJH M ZRLTINIHH TPNNITKLPJ
Ps qLssIRIJK K[LJgH (MJTLIJK VMJQHTRLZKH! TPLJH! HTQNZKQRIH! IKT.). u[I 0RLKLH[ vQHIQV LH sMVPQH sPR LKH
NL`RMRa PJI Ps K[I RLT[IHK LJ K[I ePRNq.
4+
.J LKH NMRgI TLRTQNMR RIMqLJg RPPV vMRS! GJgINH MJq NMKIR iIJLJ
QHIq KP ePRz.
dJq JPe! IxIJ Ls aPQ [MxI MNVPHK JP KLVI NIsK sPR sQRK[IR HLg[KHIILJg! aPQ TMJJPK NIMxI K[I TLKa eLK[PQK
xLHLKLJg |aqI \MRz PR rK[I \MRzr MH iPJqPJIRH TMNN LK. w[IJ aPQ MRI eMNzLJg MNPJg LKH H[Mqa MxIJQIH! HLKKLJg
PJ K[I gRMHH! MqVLRLJg LKH `IMQKLsQN sNPeIR`IqH PR eMKT[LJg HeMJH MJq qQTzH sNPMKLJg PJ K[I ZPJqH! LK HIIVH
MNVPHK QJ`INLIxM`NI K[MK MNN MRPQJq K[IRI LH M NMRgI TLKa eLK[ LKH [IMxa KRMssLT.
22
The Duke of Wellington (+7,2+b*2): M sMVPQH 0RLKLH[ gIJIRMN e[PHI MRVa qIsIMKIq 1MZPNIPJ MK wMKIRNPP LJ +b+*
4)
Nelson, Horatio (+7*b+b)*): MJ GJgNLH[ MqVLRMN e[P ePJ K[I `MKKNI Ps uRMsMNgMR (K[I dKNMJKLT TPMHK Ps /ZMLJ)
4+
.J +274 K[I NL`RMRa Ps K[I 0RLKLH[ vQHIQV MJq sPQR PK[IR `LggIHK NL`RMRLIH eIRI PLJIq LJKP PJI K[I 0RLKLH[ iL`RMRa! e[LT[ LH K[I `LggIHK JMKLPJMN NL`RMRa
LJ K[I }JLKIq jLJgqPV MJq PJI Ps K[I `LggIHK MJq `IHK ZRIHIJKqMa NL`RMRLIH LJ K[I ePRNq.
34
TEXT B. SIGHTSEEING
.H LK ZPHHL`NI KP HII MJaK[LJg Ps iPJqPJ LJ PJI PR KeP qMaH{
wINN! aIH! `QK! Ps TPQRHI! JPK [MNs IJPQg[.
w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz . PQg[K KP HII sLRHK{
wINN! Ls aPQ MRI LJKIRIHKIq LJ T[QRT[IH MJq [LHKPRLT ZNMTIH aPQ H[PQNq gP KP wIHKVLJHKIR d``Ia! K[I
|PQHIH Ps \MRNLMVIJK! /K. \MQNlH MJq K[I uPeIR. nP aPQ NLzI MRK gMNNIRLIH{
MK[IRc
u[IJ e[a JPK gP KP K[I 1MKLPJMN UMNNIRa MJq K[I uMKI{
.lV KPNq PJI PQg[K KP HII K[I 0RLKLH[ vQHIQV. nP aPQ K[LJz . H[MNN [MxI KLVI sPR K[MK{
wINN! aPQ VLg[K! `QK Ls . eIRI aPQ! . H[PQNq NIMxI K[MK sPR HPVI PK[IR qMa. yPQ TPQNq HZIJq M e[PNI
qMa K[IRI. .KlH VQT[ KPP `Lg KP `I HIIJ LJ MJ [PQR PR HP.
. HQZZPHI LK LH. w[MK M`PQK gPLJg KP K[I PP{
u[MKlH JPK M `Mq LqIM. yPQ TPQNq HZIJq M TPQZNI Ps [PQRH K[IRI TPVsPRKM`Na! PR IxIJ M e[PNI
MsKIRJPPJ! eMKT[LJg K[I eLNq MJLVMNH! `LRqH MJq RIZKLNIH. yPQ TPQNq [MxI KIM K[IRI KPP.
.lNN qP K[MK! K[IJ. |Pe qP . gIK K[IRI{
iIK VI HII. . K[LJz aPQR `IHK eMa sRPV [IRI LH KP eMNz MTRPHH IgIJKlH ZMRz.
.H LK VQT[ Ps M eMNz{
o[! JP! M fQMRKIR Ps MJ [PQR PR HP! `QK! Ls aPQ MRI LJ M [QRRa! e[a JPK KMzI M KMSL{
. K[LJz . eLNN. d[! [IRIlH PJI TPVLJg. uMSLc u[I PP! ZNIMHI.
(*ro+ ru[I iLJgQMZ[PJI GJgNLH[ OPQRHIr)
TEXT C. RED SQUARE
Iq /fQMRI [MH eLKJIHHIq VMJa LVZPRKMJK IxIJKH LJ K[I NLsI Ps QHHLMJ ZIPZNI. u[PQg[ KLVI [MH T[MJgIq
K[I sMTI Ps Iq /fQMRI LKl [MH RIVMLJIq K[I VMLJ HfQMRI MJq K[I [IMRK Ps K[I TLKa.
:LHLKPRH sRPV [PVI MJq M`RPMq HKRIMV [IRI KP IJPa K[I `IMQKa Ps K[I [LHKPRLT `QLNqLJgH MJq VPJQVIJKH
Ps e[LT[ K[I jRIVNLJ TPVIH sLRHK. u[I jRIVNLJ RIZRIHIJKH TIJKQRLIH Ps QHHLMJ [LHKPRa MJq PJI LH QHQMNNa
HKRQTz `a K[I MQHKIRI MJq ZPeIRsQN MZZIMRMJTI Ps LKH eMNNH MJq KPeIRH.
iLzI K[I uPeIR Ps iPJqPJ K[I jRIVNLJ eMH QHIq MH M sPRKRIHH MJq M HPxIRILgJlH RIHLqIJTI. 1Pe LK [PQHIH
K[I \RIHLqIJKlH PssLTI MJq M JQV`IR Ps VQHIQVH LJTNQqLJg K[I dRVPRa O[MV`IR MJq K[I nLMVPJq pQJq.
.J K[I TIJKRI Ps K[I HfQMRI `a K[I jRIVNLJ eMNN LH K[I iIJLJ vMQHPNIQV! IRITKIq LJ +24) `a d. /[T[QHIx.
u[I MRT[LKITK LJKIRZRIKIq K[I KRMqLKLPJH Ps K[I ZaRMVLqH LJ M VPqIV eMa MJq gMxI K[I VPJQVIJK M NMTPJLT
MRT[LKITKQRMN sPRV e[LT[ eMH ZPZQNMR LJ K[I KeIJKLIH. 0I[LJq K[I vMQHPNIQV K[IRI LH M JITRPZPNLH Ps HPVI
PQKHKMJqLJg HKMKIHVIJ MJq ZPNLKLTMN NIMqIRH.
oJ K[I HPQK[IRJ HLqI Ps Iq /fQMRI LH /K. 0MHLNlH OMK[IqRMN (:MHLNa 0NM[IJa)! M VMHKIRZLITI Ps MJTLIJK
QHHLMJ MRT[LKITKQRI. .K eMH `QLNK LJ +*** ,+ LJ VIVPRa Ps K[I xLTKPRa PxIR jMMJ (+**2). u[I
VPJQVIJK HKMJqLJg LJ sRPJK Ps K[I OMK[IqRMN KINNH QH Ps K[I ZIPZNIlH xLTKPRa PxIR K[I \PNLH[ LJxMqIRH LJ
+,+2. u[I LJHTRLZKLPJ PJ K[I VPJQVIJK RIMqH: ruP OLKLIJ vLJLJ MJq \RLJTI \P[MRHza sRPV M gRMKIsQN
QHHLMr. u[I VPJQVIJK LH K[I ePRz Ps .. vMRKPH (+7*2+b4*). 1PK sMR sRPV K[I OMK[IqRMN LH e[MK LH TMNNIq
K[I iP`JPaI vIHKP! M ZNMKsPRV Ps e[LKI HKPJI VPRI K[MJ 3)) aIMRH PNq. u[I KHMRlH IqLTKH eIRI ZRPTNMLVIq
K[IRI. \Q`NLT ISITQKLPJH eIRI TMRRLIq PQK PJ M ePPqIJ HTMssPNq IRITKIq JIMR`a. uP K[I RLg[K Ps K[I OMK[IqRMN
PJ K[I KIRRLKPRa Ps K[I jRIVNLJ eI TMJ HII M KMNN KPeIR! VPRI NLzI M TPNQVJ! PxIR b) VIKRIH [Lg[. .K LH K[I
0INN uPeIR Ps .xMJ K[I URIMK `QLNK LJ K[I +*K[ TIJKQRa. u[IRI MRI KeIJKaKeP NMRgI `INNH MJq PxIR K[LRKa
HVMNN PJIH LJ LK. pPR TIJKQRLIH K[I IMHKIRJ HLqI Ps Iq /fQMRI [Mq `IIJ MHHPTLMKIq eLK[ KRMqLJg. u[I sLRHK
HKPJI H[PZH eIRI `QLNK [IRI LJ K[I +,K[ TIJKQRa. uPqMa PJ K[ILR HLKI HKMJqH K[I /KMKI nIZMRKVIJK /KPRI! `IKKIR
zJPeJ MH U}v.
.s eI eMNz QZ sRPV /K. 0MHLNlH KP K[I PZZPHLKI IJq Ps K[I HfQMRI eI sMTI M RIq `RLTz `QLNqLJg. u[LH LH K[I
|LHKPRa vQHIQV. .J K[I eIHK Iq /fQMRI LH MqPLJLJg K[I jRIVNLJ. mQHK PJ K[I PK[IR HLqI Ps K[I jRIVNLJ
eMNN eI TMJ HII K[I `QLNqLJg Ps K[I sPRVIR /IJMKI! MJ PQKHKMJqLJg MRT[LKITKQRMN VPJQVIJK `QLNK `a vMKxIL
jMHMzPx (+74b+b+4)! JPe K[I HIMK Ps K[I dqVLJLHKRMKLPJ Ps K[I \RIHLqIJK. d JQV`IR Ps eMKT[KPeIRH
ZRPKITK K[I jRIVNLJ `RLqgIH. u[I e[LKI jQKMsaM uPeIR LH K[I `IHK HQRxLxPR Ps MNN Ps K[IV. u[I KMNNIHK PJI LH
K[I uRLJLKa uPeIR (b) V [Lg[). 0QK K[I /ZMHHzMaM uPeIR eLK[ K[I jRIVNLJ TNPTz [MH NPJg HLJTI `ITPVI PJI
Ps K[I HaV`PNH Ps vPHTPe.
Memory Work
Sonnet Composed upon Westminster Bridge
GMRK[ [MH JPK MJaK[LJg KP H[Pe VPRI sMLR:
nQNN ePQNq [I `I Ps HPQN e[P TPQNq ZMHH `a
d HLg[K HP KPQT[LJg LJ LKH VMIHKa:
u[LH OLKa JPe qPK[ NLzI M gMRVIJK eIMR
u[I `IMQKa Ps K[I VPRJLJg; HLNIJK! `MRI!
33
/[LZH! KPeIRH! qPVIH! K[IMKRIH! MJq KIVZNIH NLI
oZIJ QJKP K[I sLINqH! MJq KP K[I Hza:
dNN `RLg[K MJq gNLKKIRLJg LJ K[I HVPzINIHH MLR.
1IxIR qLq HQJ VPRI `IMQKLsQNNa HKIIZ
.J [LH sLRHK HZNIJqPR! xMNNIa! RPTz PR [LNN;
1IlIR HMe .! JIxIR sINK! M TMNV HP qIIZc
u[I RLxIR gNLqIK[ MK `LH PeJ HeIIK eLNN:
nIMR UPqc K[I xIRa [PQHIH HIIV MHNIIZ;
dJq MNN K[MK VLg[Ka [IMRK LH NaLJg HKLNNc wLNNLMV wPRqHePRK[
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)
Words
MqPLJ , qIsIMK , IeIN n MRT[LKITKQRI n qPVI n
VMJHLPJ n MRVPQR n IRITK , RIHLqIJTI n MxIJQI n
sNPMK , HIMK n `QRa , sPRKRIHH n H[Mqa ad1
T[MJgI , gQMRq , HZITLVIJ n TMK[IqRMN n [QgI ad1
HKMKIHVMJ n TPJKMLJ ,
Wor !om"#n$%#on&
KP NLxI sRPV [MJq KP VPQK[ KP eLJ K[I xLTKPRa
KP `I NLJIq eLK[ (KRIIH! [PQHIH) MK K[I TPHK Ps HV`.lH NLsI
KP `I sPQJq (LJ HPVI ZNMTI) MK K[I KPZ
M JIe [PQHLJg qIxINPZVIJK RPQJq K[I TPRJIR
KP [MxI (gIK! TMKT[) M gNLVZHI Ps KP `I sMVPQH sPR HVK[.
KP [MxI JP KLVI (VPJIa! IKT.) NIsK LJ ZRIHIJK qMaH
MTRPHH K[I RPMq (sRPV HPVI ZNMTI) w[a JPK qP HVK[.{
KP qP K[I HLg[KH Ps HVK[. LJ VIVPRa Ps
KP qP K[I TLKa (VQHIQVH! ZMRzH! IKT.) QJqIR K[I TPVVMJq
Proper Names
K[I iIJLJ vMQHPNIQV 0Lg 0IJ K[I GMHK GJq uRMsMNgMR /fQMRI
K[I uPeIR Ps iPJqPJ K[I jRIVNLJ mQNLQH OMIHMR K[I wIHK GJq
wLNNLMV K[I OPJfQIRPR /K. 0MHLNlH OMK[IqRMN QIIJ GNLM`IK[ K[I 0INN uPeIR
O[RLHKPZ[IR wRIJ Ps .xMJ K[I URIMK wINNLJgKPJ
K[I |LHKPRa vQHIQV wIHKVLJHKIR d``Ia K[I /ZMHHzMaM uPeIR
EXERCISES
I. Study Text A and expIain the meaning of the words and phrases Iisted beIow:
VMJHLPJ! KP NLxI sRPV [MJq KP VPQK[! VLHIRM`NI [PQHIH! KP NLJI K[I HKRIIKH! qPVI! HNQVH! KP TPVI sLRHK! K[I
ORPeJ mIeINH! [QgI! HKMKIHVMJ! MTRPHH K[I RPMq! K[I HIMK (Ps K[I gPxIRJVIJK)! MK K[I TPHK Ps HPVI`PqalH NLsI!
KP sMTI HVK[.! H[Mqa MxIJQIH.
II. Learn the words of the texts and a) copy and transcribe these words:
VMJHLPJ! RIHKMQRMJK! IeIN! gQMRq! [MNK! TPNQVJ! KPJ! HPxIRILgJ! JMKLPJMN! sNPMK! HTQNZKQRI! HeMJ! eILg[!
TPJfQIRPR! HZITLVIJ.
b) TransIate into EngIish and mark the stresses:
6! %$! >! YC6; =6! 6! ! 9!
~! .
c) Form derivatives of these verbs by adding the prefix re- (meaning "do smth. again"):
GSMVZNI: `QLNq RI`QLNq
eRLKI! KINN! TPJHKRQTK! MRV! INITK! ZRPqQTI.
III. Answer the questions:
+. |Pe qP K[I KeP ZMRKH Ps iPJqPJ qLssIR sRPV IMT[ PK[IR{ 2. w[a LH LK `IKKIR KP HKMRK HLg[KHIILJg sRPV
K[I uPeIR Ps iPJqPJ{ 4. w[P sPQJqIq K[I uPeIR MJq e[IJ eMH LK RI`QLNK{ 3. w[MK eMH K[I uPeIR Ps
iPJqPJ QHIq sPR{ *. w[MK LH K[I OLKa{ ,. w[MK qPIH K[I Z[RMHI rM ZNMTI Ps LJKIRIHKr VIMJ{ 7. w[MK qP aPQ
zJPe M`PQK /K. \MQNlH OMK[IqRMN{ b. w[MK LH w[LKI[MNN MJq LJ e[LT[ ZMRK Ps iPJqPJ LH LK HLKQMKIq{ 2. w[MK
qPIH K[I OIRIVPJa Ps K[I jIaH TPJHLHK Ps{ +). w[MK qP aPQ TMNN K[I `QLNqLJg LJ e[LT[ K[I |PQHIH Ps
\MRNLMVIJK MRI HLKQMKIq{ .K LH PJI `QLNqLJg! e[a K[IJ qP eI HMa ru[I |PQHIH Ps \MRNLMVIJKr{ ++. w[MK LH
0Lg 0IJ{ +2. w[MK zLJq Ps VQHIQV LH K[I 0RLKLH[ vQHIQV{ +4. w[MK qP aPQ zJPe M`PQK |aqI \MRz{
IV. Read the text and show aII the pIaces of interest mentioned there on the map:
uRMsMNgMR /fQMRI LH K[I JMKQRMN TIJKRI Ps iPJqPJ. OPQNq eI `QK HKMJq +,b sIIK (M`PQK *) VIKRIH) M`PxI
K[I KRMssLT! `IHLqI K[I sLgQRI Ps K[I dqVLRMN! eI RIMNNa TPQNq HII MNN K[I gRIMK NMJqVMRzH Ps iPJqPJ.
3*
w[LKI[MNN! e[LT[ NIMqH PQK Ps K[I HfQMRI KP K[I HPQK[! LH K[I HLKI Ps VMJa UPxIRJVIJK PssLTIH LJTNQqLJg K[I
\RLVI vLJLHKIRlH RIHLqIJTI! pPRILgJ ossLTI! wMR ossLTI; MK K[I sMR IJq Ps w[LKI[MNN HKMJq! `IHLqI K[I
u[MVIH! K[I |PQHIH Ps \MRNLMVIJK eLK[ K[I 0Lg ONPTz uPeIR! MJq wIHKVLJHKIR d``Ia; KP K[I NIsK OPxIJK
UMRqIJ sRQLK VMRzIK MJq OPxIJK UMRqIJ oZIRM |PQHI! MJq `IaPJq K[I 0MJz Ps GJgNMJq; MJPK[IR HNLg[K KQRJ
NIsK ePQNq IJM`NI aPQR IaI KP sMNN PJ K[I 0RLKLH[ vQHIQV; sQRK[IR NIsK HKLNN eI H[PQNq HII K[IMKRINMJq MRPQJq
\LTTMqLNNa OLRTQH (LK LH JPK MK MNN M TLRTQH `QK MJ PZIJ HZMTI Ps M TLRTQNMR sPRV) MJq K[PHI ISZIJHLxI H[PZZLJg
ZRPVIJMqIH IgIJK /KRIIK! oSsPRq /KRIIK! 0PJq /KRIIK; M NLKKNI sQRK[IR! MJq LJKP xLIe ePQNq TPVI |aqI
\MRz LJ K[I qLHKMJTI! eLK[! JIMRIR! 0QTzLJg[MV \MNMTI! MJq PaMN nRLxI zJPeJ MH K[I vMNN! e[LT[ NIMqH
LJKP uRMsMNgMR /fQMRI.
V. Use Text to practise simiIar conversations on Moscow.
VI. Read and reteII:
d. u[I sMVPQH HfQMRI VLNI Ps K[I OLKa Ps iPJqPJ LH MqVLJLHKIRIq MH MJ LJqIZIJqIJK QJLK! [MxLJg LKH PeJ
iPRq vMaPR MJq OPRZPRMKLPJ MJq LKH PeJ ZPNLTI sPRTI. .K eMH [IRI K[MK K[I PVMJH `QLNK K[ILR eMNNIq KPeJ
Ps iPJqLJLQV! M sIe KRMTIH Ps e[LT[ RIVMLJ KPqMa! MJq LK eMH [IRI K[MK K[I vIqLIxMN gQLNqH IHKM`NLH[Iq K[ILR
[IMqfQMRKIRH. w[IJ MsKIR K[I URIMK pLRI Ps +,,,! K[I OLKa eMH RI`QLNK! HKPJI MJq `RLTz RIZNMTIq K[I VMJa
VMLJNa ePPqIJ VIqLIxMN [PQHIH MJq sRPV K[MK KLVI K[I OLKa gRMqQMNNa `ITMVI M sLJMJTLMN MJq TPVVIRTLMN
TIJKRI.
0. oJI Ps K[I HZITLMN PaH Ps iPJqPJ LH K[I MVPQJK Ps HZMTI gLxIJ PxIR KP ZMRzH! gMRqIJH! HfQMRIH MJq
PZIJ MRIMH. u[Ia ZRPxLqI M eINTPVI xLHQMN MJq Z[aHLTMN `RIMz sRPV K[I VMHH Ps `QLNqLJgH MJq K[I [IMxa
KRMssLT. jIe UMRqIJH MRI sMVPQH 0PKMJLT UMRqIJH PJ K[I `MJzH Ps K[I u[MVIH. u[I gMRqIJH MJq [PK[PQHIH
eLK[ RMRI sNPeIRH! KRIIH MJq H[RQ`H MRI eINN ePRK[ HIILJg. wLK[LJ M HKPJIlH K[RPe Ps 0QTzLJg[MV \MNMTI MRI
/K. mMVIHlH \MRz MJq URIIJ \MRz. /K. mMVIHlH \MRz! K[I PNqIHK LJ iPJqPJ! eMH TRIMKIq `a |IJRa :... MJq
RIqIHLgJIq `a [LH HQTTIHHPRH. URIIJ \MRz! MH LKH JMVI HQggIHKH! VMLJNa TPJHLHKH Ps NMeJH MJq KRIIH.
(*ro+ OPNPQRsQN iPJqPJ. 1PReLT[! +2b+)
VII. Make up short situations or diaIogues, using tne foIIowing words and phrases:
+. e[a JPK...! NIK VI HII! KP `I sPQJq! MTRPHH K[I RPMq! KP [MxI JP (KLVI! VPJIa) NIsK; 2. LJ ZRIHIJK qMaH! KP
NLxI sRPV [MJq KP VPQK[; 4. QJqIR K[I TPVVMJq Ps! KP `I sMVPQH sPR! KP qIsIMK! KP eLJ K[I xLTKPRa! MK K[I
TPHK Ps; 3. sPRKRIHH! MRVPQR! LJ VIVPRa Ps! KP TPJKMLJ; *. HeMJ! NLJIq eLK[ KRIIH! sNPMK! H[Mqa MxIJQIH!
MJTLIJK.
VIII. FiII in prepositions:
/TPKNMJq yMRq LH K[I [IMqfQMRKIRH ... K[I vIKRPZPNLKMJ \PNLTI ... iPJqPJ. ...VPHK ZIPZNI! LKH JMVI
LVVIqLMKINa `RLJgH ... VLJq K[I ZLTKQRI ... M qIKITKLxI TPPN! TPNNITKIq! IssLTLIJK! RIMqa KP KRMTz qPeJ MJa
TRLVLJMN.
/TPKNMJq yMRq LH HLKQMKIq ... K[I u[MVIH GV`MJzVIJK TNPHI ... K[I |PQHIH ... \MRNLMVIJK MJq K[I sMVLNLMR
TNPTz KPeIR ... 0Lg 0IJ. u[I JMVI r/TPKNMJq yMRqr PRLgLJMKIH ... K[I ZNPK ... NMJq MqPLJLJg w[LKI[MNN \MNMTI
e[IRI! ... M`PQK K[I +3K[ TIJKQRa! K[I RPaMNKa MJq JP`LNLKa ... /TPKNMJq HKMaIq e[IJ xLHLKLJg K[I GJgNLH[
OPQRK. u[I ZPZQNMR JLTzJMVI ... K[I iPJqPJ ZPNLTIVMJ r`P``ar LH M KRL`QKI ... /LR P`IRK \IIN! e[P
LJKRPqQTIq K[I ZPNLTI sPRTI ... +b22! MJq e[PHI O[RLHKLMJ JMVI MKKMT[Iq LKHINs ... VIV`IRH ... K[I sPRTI.
IX. Review Text "Introducing London", texts A, B, Exercises IV, VI, VIII and study the map of London. Speak
on the given topics:
+. iPJqPJ qPVLJMKIH 0RLKLH[ NLsI. 2. u[I wIHK GJq. 4. u[I GMHK GJq. 3. u[I OLKa. *. u[I uPeIR. ,. u[I
qLHKRLTK Ps wIHKVLJHKIR. 7. u[I 0RLKLH[ \MRNLMVIJK. b. w[LKI[MNN MJq pNIIK /KRIIK. 2. uRMsMNgMR /fQMRI. +). /K.
\MQNlH OMK[IqRMN. ++. u[I ZMRzH Ps iPJqPJ. +2. iPJqPJ VQHIQVH. +4. iPJqPJ KRMssLT. +3. vPJQVIJKH LJ
iPJqPJ.
X. TransIate into EngIish:
+. $$ % (! ;; ;! ;
$; ;5; ; ;; ^.^ . A ; $$
;5 5 $ $ 7$ (MNNLIH) > $ <
+b+* ;. " ! 5D9 $ Y$! 8
6 E5 8. 2. "E (u[I vMNN) E D5 ! >85 6$! =5
YC6;5 = ;$$ % % ;59 5. <
% ;$85 $ 5 A8 9. h $ 8 ;
6 8 ! 6 D89 % (RILgJ) 8 $8$
>68$ (+b47+2)+). 4. 5;5 = (|Lg[gMKI OIVIKIRa)
$! $ 9 $; F ". +2*, ; 6;! 8 $ 9
% ! $ 8 ; $ F ".
XI. Read Text . Say what Iandmarks you wouId mention to a group of tourists standing in the middIe of
Red Square. Use the word combinations given beIow:
KP eLKJIHH! K[I [IMRK Ps K[I TLKa! K[I sMTI Ps Iq /fQMRI! K[I HIMK Ps K[I dqVLJLHKRMKLPJ Ps K[I \RIHLqIJK! KP
3,
[PJPQR K[I VIVPRa! KP HKRIMV KP! ZQ`NLT ISITQKLPJH! K[I `IMKLJg Ps K[I [IMRK Ps PQR TMZLKMN!
XII. Act out a diaIogue between a Russian tourist and a poIiceman. Choose the exact pIace (in Moscow or
eIsewhere) where you are having your taIk and the pIace you want to get to. Use in your diaIogue
one or two phrases from each set given beIow:
+. GSTQHI VI! .lxI NPHK Va eMa ...; .lV KRaLJg KP gP KP ...; w[LT[ LH K[I RLg[K (`IHK! H[PRKIHK) eMa KP ...{
\NIMHI H[Pe VI K[I eMa KP ...; |Pe qP . gIK K[IRI{ dV . PJ K[I RLg[K RPMq{ 2. |Pe sMR LH LK{ .H LK ZPHHL`NI KP
eMNz K[IRI{ .H K[IRI M `QH sRPV [IRI KP ...{ .H LK VQT[ Ps M eMNz{ 4. UP RLg[K KP K[I IJq Ps K[I HKRIIK! K[IJ KQRJ
NIsK! gP KeP `NPTzH HKRMLg[K M[IMq MJq K[IJ KQRJ KP ... ; /KRMLg[K PJ MJq K[I HITPJq KQRJLJg KP K[I RLg[K ...; yPQ
MRI gPLJg LJ K[I PZZPHLKI qLRITKLPJ. 3. w[MK TMJ . qP sPR aPQ{ 1Pe! e[IRI LH LK aPQ eMJK KP gP{ .KlH M NPJg
qLHKMJTI Pss. .KlH M NPJg (H[PRK) eMa KP ...; .KlH fQLKI M qLHKMJTI sRPV [IRI. *. 0I TMRIsQN! K[I KRMssLT zIIZH KP K[I
NIsK LJ K[LH TPQJKRa; iPPz PQK; .K LHJlK HMsI KP TRPHH [IRI; 0I HQRI JPK KP TRPHH K[I HKRIIK (HfQMRI! IKT.); oJI TMJ
JIxIR `I KPP TMRIsQN; wMLK sPR K[I `RIMz LJ K[I KRMssLT; nPJlK TRPHH K[I HKRIIK e[IJ K[I KRMssLT NLg[K [MH
T[MJgIq KP RIq.
XIII. Try your band at teaching.
1. Read the text. Discuss what you wouId do in the teacher's position:
/QHMJ eMH M`HPNQKINa LVZPHHL`NI. oR HP [IR KIMT[IR eMH TPJxLJTIq! sPR /QHMJ qLq JPK NLzI KP RIMq (M
ZRP`NIV IxIRa KIMT[IR sMTIH sRPV KLVI KP KLVI). 0QK K[IRI eIRI K[LJgH K[MK /QHMJ qLq IJPa. /[I NLzIq `MNNIK.
dJq H[I MqPRIq [IR qPg OQRNa. r|Pe TMJ .!r K[PQg[K K[I KIMT[IR! rLJKRPqQTI /QHMJ KP ZNIMHQRIH Ps RIMqLJg{r
2. Get 4-5 pictures of London (Moscow) attractions and be ready to comment on them. (See "CIassroom
EngIish", Sections II, L, V.)
XIV. TransIate the foIIowing sentences into EngIish:
+. X 8 $> 6 & D6 $6$. ~6 $; ;9
$6 ; $6$: $> 96 ; D$! $>
6 97 $ ! 7=$ &! $>
$6 ; 95 = 9E>; ; $ ;! $> D6
7 Y$ 6D$ ?>A. 2. ~ 8 8 $; 6
"5 ([INLTPZKIR)! 8 8 ! $6 8 D %:
8! >8 6$ 8! 7 ; 9 9! 8
89 $;E>89 $ 6 9 ; $ 89 89 $!
$89 8$. < $;8$ 5$ (`QLNqLJg HLKIH) %8 8D7
;$8 ]$8 8 (TRMJIH). 4. " $85 85 ;; . (
8 $5 >9 > $7 7 ; E$!
9=7 95 5 (qITPRMKLPJ) 89 $89 %. 3. A$ . (.
AD! 85 (5 (8 AD5) =! $89 7$89
$ >5 %8. - ; > 8 ; 8 >89 %! 8
7 $! 8 6 $6 7$; E.
XV. Act out a diaIogue between a Muscovite and a Londoner on his first visit to Moscow. Imagine that you
are standing in the middIe of Red Square. Your companion asks you about everything be sees, gives
his opinion about this and that and says what buiIdings, monuments, etc. remind him of London.
Use the prompts of Ex. VII. p. 111.
XVI. a) Get ready to read the text aIoud, b) Write a transIation of the text:
Morning City
u[LH eMH PJI Ps K[PHI VPRJLJgH e[IJ K[I HVPzI MJq K[I u[MVIH :MNNIa VLHK qITLqI KP ePRz M sIe
VLRMTNIH sPR K[ILR iPJqPJ! MJq IHZITLMNNa sPR K[I PNqIHK ZMRK Ps LK! K[I OLKa. u[I OLKa! PJ K[IHI VPRJLJgH! LH
MJ IJT[MJKVIJK. u[IRI LH M sMLJKNa NQVLJPQH [MI! JPe HLNxIR! JPe PNq gPNq! PxIR IxIRaK[LJg. u[I `QLNqLJgH
[MxI H[MZI MJq HPNLqLKa `QK JP eILg[K; K[Ia [MJg LJ K[I MLR! NLzI ZMNMTIH PQK Ps K[I dRM`LMJ 1Lg[KH; aPQ
TPQNq KPZZNI K[I qPVI Pss /K. \MQNlH eLK[ M sPRIsLJgIR! ZQH[ `MTz K[I vMJHLPJ |PQHI! HIJq K[I vPJQVIJK
sNPMKLJg LJKP HZMTI. oJ K[IHI VPRJLJgH! K[I PNq T[QRT[IH TMJJPK `I TPQJKIq; K[IRI MRI VPRI Ps K[IV K[MJ
IxIR. u[IRI LH JP NIHH KRMssLT K[MJ QHQMN; K[I HTMRNIK HKRIMV Ps `QHIH HKLNN sNPeH K[RPQg[ K[I MJTLIJK JMRRPe
HKRIIKH; K[I ZMxIVIJKH MRI HKLNN K[RPJgIq eLK[ `MJz VIHHIJgIRH! PssLTI `PaH! ZPNLTIVIJ! TNIRzH! KaZLHKH!
TPVVLHHLPJMLRIH! qLRITKPRH! HITRIKMRLIH! TRPPzH! `QHa`PqLIH! LqNIRH; `QK PJ K[IHI VPRJLJgH MNN K[I `QHIH!
KMSLTM`H! xMJH! NPRRLIH MJq MNN K[I ZIqIHKRLMJH NPHI HPVIK[LJg Ps K[ILR PRqLJMRa HPNLqLKa; K[Ia VPxI `I[LJq
gMQI; K[Ia MRI KaRIq LJ xINxIK; K[ILR xPLTIH MRI VQKIq; K[ILR VPxIVIJK LH LJ HNPe VPKLPJ. w[MKIxIR LH JIe
MJq xQNgMR MJq sPPNLH[ TPJKRLxIH KP NPHI LKHINs LJ K[I qIJHIR ZMKT[IH Ps VLHK. 0QK MNN K[I gNLVZHIH Ps MJTLIJK
NPxINLJIHH MRI K[IRI! ZIRsITKNa sRMVIq MJq NLg[KIq: RPQJq IxIRa TPRJIR HPVI`Pqa LH e[LHZIRLJg M NLJI PR KeP
Ps O[MQTIR. dJq PJ K[IHI VPRJLJgH! K[I RLxIR LH HLVZNa JPK KRQI: K[IRI LH JP gIPgRMZ[a! JPK[LJg `QK ZQRI
ZPIKRa! qPeJ K[IRI; K[I eMKIR [MH gPJI MJq H[MZIH PQK Ps MJ MqxIJKQRPQH qRIMV qRLsK `a PJ M KLqI Ps gLNqIq
MJq HLNxIRIq MLR. /QT[ LH K[I OLKa PJ PJI Ps K[IHI VPRJLJgH! M ZNMTI LJ M UPK[LT sMLRa KMNI! M VLRMgI! M xLHLPJ.
(From "They Walk in the City" "y 1. B. Priestley. Abridged)
XVII. RoIe-pIaying:
37
d gRPQZ Ps gQLqIH HQggIHKH ZPHHL`NI HLg[KHIILJg RPQKIH M`PQK iPJqPJ (vPHTPe) KP K[ILR PssLTI qLRITKPR.
GMT[ PJI HZIMzH LJ sMxPQR Ps [LH/[IR HQggIHKLPJ KRaLJg KP TPJxLJTI `PK[ K[I qLRITKPR MJq K[I gQLqIH K[MK K[I
RPQKI LH K[I `IHK. .J K[I IJq K[I ZMRKLTLZMJKH Ps K[I KMNz T[PPHI K[I VPHK MZZRPZRLMKI RPQKI.
XVIII. Describe (in writing) a sight or a view that once struck yon as picturesque, beautifuI or unusuaI.
u[I `IHK IHHMaH VMa `I RIMq LJ TNMHH MJq K[IJ ZNMTIq LJ M eMNN ZMZIR! M HZITLMN `QNNIKLJ LHHQIq `a K[I
NLKIRMRa TNQ`! IKT.
1PKI: u[I KISK M`PxI VMa HIRxI MH M ZIRsITK ISMVZNI Ps HQT[ qIHTRLZKLPJ
XIX. FiIm: "Mr. Brown's HoIiday." FiIm segment 3 "In Dear OId EngIand" (Broadstairs). a) Watch and Iisten,
b) Do the exercises from the guide to the fiIm.
STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH (III)
u[I TIJKRMN LqIM Ps M ZMRMgRMZ[ LH `QLNK QZ eLK[ K[I [INZ Ps NMRgIR QJLKH K[MJ zIaePRqH! K[MK LH eLK[ K[I
[INZ Ps HPTMNNIq KPZLT HIJKIJTIH.
Topic sentence LH M HQVVMRLLJg HIJKIJTI Ps M ZMRMgRMZ[. uPZLT HIJKIJTIH TMJ MNHP `I QHIq KP KLI QZ M
gRPQZ Ps ZMRMgRMZ[H KPgIK[IR [PNqLJg K[I QJLKa Ps M ZMHHMgI.
UIJIRMNNa K[I KPZLT HIJKIJTI TPVIH sLRHK LJ M ZMRMgRMZ[. .K [INZH KP QJqIRHKMJq K[I KISK MJq `IgLJ eRLKLJg!
."g" r1QVIRPQH MRKLsLTLMN NMJgQMgIH [MxI `IIJ TMRIsQNNa TPJHKRQTKIq MJq HPVI Ps K[IV MRI HKLNN LJ NLVLKIq
QHI. .J +bb7! MJ MRKLsLTLMN NMJgQMgI! GHZIRMJKP! eMH TRIMKIq. GHZIRMJKP [MH NLKKNI gRMVVMR MJq qRIe LKH
xPTM`QNMRa sRPV MNN K[I GQRPZIMJ NMJgQMgIH...r (*ro+ roJI iMJgQMgI sPR K[I wPRNqr 2y v. \IL). u[I
eRLKIR ZRPTIIqH sRPV M gIJIRMN HKMKIVIJK KP ZMRKLTQNMRH.
oTTMHLPJMNNa K[I KPZLT HIJKIJTI TPVIH NMHK! e[IJ K[I eRLKIR eLH[IH sLRHK KP ZRIZMRI [LH RIMqIR sPR K[I
gIJIRMN LqIM PR M TPJTNQHLPJ! ."g" ryPQlRI NLzI KeP sRLIJqH e[P eMJK KP KMzI K[ILR [PNLqMa KPgIK[IR! `QK PJI
Ps K[IV eMJKH KP TNLV` URIIJNMJqlH HJPea VPQJKMLJH e[LNI K[I PK[IR eMJKH KP sLH[ Pss .JqLMlH TPRMN HKRMJq.
o`xLPQHNa LKlH JPK gPLJg KP ePRzr (*ro+ ru[I MPRlH GqgIr 2y w. /. vMQg[MV).
Assignments:
1. Read the passage "Introducing London" and mark paragraphs with topic sentences. What
central idea do they summarize? Where are they placed within the paragraph?
2. Find the topic sentence that holds the unity of the whole passage.
3. Mark the key-words that emphasize the main points of the information about London.
4. Paragraph 8 includes the key-word "parks", develop it into a topic sentence summarizing the
central idea of the paragraph.
5. Write a paragraph describing the picture on pp. 114-115. Try your hand at various topic
sentences that help to hold the unity of the paragraph.
LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)
1. Listen to the text "Some More Glimpses of London."
2. Listen to the dialogue "Sightseeing". Repeat the text in the intervals and record your versions.
Compare your version with the original and correct your pronunciation mistakes if any.
3. Translate the sentences into English, check them with the key.
4. Listen to the test "Behind the Scenes" or some other text on the topic "London". Discuss the text
in class.
5. Listen to the "Sonnet Composed upon Westminster Bridge". Mark the stresses and tunes. Learn
it by heart.
CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS
1. Why is the clock on the Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament called "Big Ben"?
2. What is the "Cenotaph"? Where can it be found? What is the origin of the name?
3. The security of the Tower of London is mainly the responsibility of the Yeomen Warders or
"Beefeaters" as they are popularly called. What is the origin of the word "Beefeater"?
4. What is the "Union 1ack"? What does it look like? What is its origin? Where and when can it be
seen?
5. Name five of the numerous bridges which cross the Thames. Show them on the map of London
and comment on their names.
6. What is "Soho"? Where is it situated? What are its peculiar features?
UNIT FOUR
I SPEECH PATTERNS
+. vPK[IR i& hard9y IxIR a29e to have M KRIMK NLzI K[MK.
M) u[Ia MRI [MRqNa IxIR M`NI KP gP HLg[KHIILJg.
oJI LH [MRqNa IxIR M`NI KP gIK KLTzIKH sPR K[LH H[Pe.
wI MRI [MRqNa IxIR M`NI KP KMNz KP IMT[ PK[IR MNPJI.
3b
|I eMH [MRqNa IxIR M`NI KP TMKT[ K[I ,.4) KRMLJ [PVI.
`) yPQlNN [MRqNa `I M`NI KP gIK KP K[I 0RLKLH[ vQHIQV KPqMa `IsPRI K[I TNPHLJg [PQRH.
/[I eLNN [MRqNa `I M`NI KP gIK PxIR [IR sIMR Ps [IMxa KRMssLT.
2. pMK[IR eMH MsRMLq K[MK vPK[IR +ight ta'e TPNq Ls H[I 5a+e"
. K[PQg[K K[MK H[I VLg[K HZPLN [IR TPVZNISLPJ Ls H[I eIJK PJ HVPzLJg.
|I HMLq eI VLg[K `I NMKI Ls K[I `QH qLqJlK TPVI HPPJ.
GqeMRq [PZIq [I VLg[K VIIK K[I gLRN MgMLJ Ls [I TMVI IxIRa qMa KP K[I HKRIIK H[I NLxIq LJ.
u[I ZPNLTIVMJ KPNq K[I `Pa [I VLg[K `I RQJ PxIR Ls [I eMH TMRINIHH e[IJ TRPHHLJg K[I HKRIIK.
4. wI MNN sINK K[MK Ls wou9d never do to 9et pMK[IR HKMa [PVI.
.K eLNN JIxIR qP KP QJqIRNLJI ePRqH LJ M NL`RMRa `PPz.
.K eLNN JIxIR qP KP K[RPe TLgMRIKKIIJqH PJ K[I sNPPR.
w[a MRI aPQ H[PQKLJg MK K[I KPZ Ps aPQR xPLTIH{
.K eLNN JIxIR qP. yPQ [MxI KRIMKIq [IR xIRa `MqNa.
QqIJIHH eLNN JIxIR qP.
u[I `Pa HMLq LK ePQNq JIxIR qP sPR M aPQJg gLRN KP QHI HP VQT[ VMzIQZ.
3. u[MK 'e4t Jother 2u&y sPR M NLKKNI e[LNI.
dK JLg[K . MNeMaH zIIZ Va eLJqPe PZIJ.
u[Ia JIxIR zIIZ K[ILR qPPR H[QK.
jIIZ aPQR sIIK eMRV PR aPQlNN TMKT[ TPNq.
|I zIZK [LH RPPV HTRQZQNPQHNa TNIMJ.
/[I KPNq K[I T[LNq MJ LJKIRIHKLJg HKPRa KP zIIZ [LV MeMzI.
jIIZLJg K[I T[LNq eMRV LH JPK K[I HMVI K[LJg MH zIIZLJg [LV [IMNK[a.
EXERCISES
I. Paraphrase toe foIIowing, using some of the patterns above:
\ M K K I R J + : +. .K LH JPK PsKIJ K[MK PQR VPK[IR gPIH KP K[I K[IMKRI. 2. .K LH JPK PsKIJ K[MK PQR HKQqIJKH
TMJ NLHKIJ KP JMKLxI GJgNLH[ HZIIT[. 4. /[I xIRa HINqPV TMJ MssPRq KP gIK [IRHINs M JIe qRIHH. 3. u[Ia TMJJPK
MssPRq KP HZIJq K[ILR [PNLqMa MK K[I HIMHLqI. *. |I TMJ JIxIR RIsQHI [INZLJg [LH TPVRMqIH.
\ M K K I R J 4 : +. .K LH `Mq VMJJIRH KP HKMRI MK ZIPZNI. 2. u[I KIMT[IR HMLq LK eMH LVZPNLKI MJq RQqI KP
[MJq LJ [PVIePRz eRLKKIJ TMRINIHHNa. 4. r. HMa! uQRJIR! . qPJlK NLzI K[I eMa aPQ KRIMK aPQR TPVRMqIH. .KlH KPP
`Mq.r 3. va VPK[IR HMLq K[MK LK eMH KPP `Mq KP NIK [IR qP MNN K[I ePRz MNPJI. *. .K LH eLTzIq KP [QRK MJLVMNH.
,. ryPQ [MxI TPVI QJZRIZMRIq MgMLJ. .K LH QJZMRqPJM`NI!r HMLq K[I KIMT[IR.
II. Describe toe foIIowing situations in one sentence, using Pattern 2:
G S M V Z N I : .J HQT[ TPNq eIMK[IR LK eMH IMHa sPR K[I T[LNq KP TMKT[ TPNq! Ls [I eIJK sPR M eMNz. u[MK
eMH K[I TMQHI Ps K[I VPK[IRlH sIMR.
u[I VPK[IR eMH MsRMLq K[MK K[I T[LNq VLg[K TMKT[ TPNq Ls [I eIJK sPR M eMNz LJ HQT[ TPNq
eIMK[IR.
+. /[I ePRzIq xIRa NLKKNI qQRLJg K[I KIRV! MJq LK eMH fQLKI ZPHHL`NI sPR [IR KP sMLN MK [IR ISMVLJMKLPJ. wI
MNN KPNq [IR HP. 2. .K eMH [MRqNa ZPHHL`NI KP NIK K[I `Pa HKMa MK [PVI MNPJI. |I TPQNq VMzI KRPQ`NI Ls [I qLq.
wI MNN zJIe K[MK. 4. /[I ePRzIq KPP [MRq! MJq [IR sRLIJqH eIRI MsRMLq K[MK LK ePQNq RIHQNK LJ [IR sMNNLJg LNN.
3. u[I VPK[IR eMJKIq K[I `Pa KP `ITPVI M gRIMK ZLMJLHK! MJq HP H[I VMqI [LV ZRMTKLHI qMa MJq JLg[K. *. wI
eMJKIq KP gP MJq HII PQR HLTz sRLIJq! `QK K[I qPTKPR qLqJlK MNNPe K[MK HMaLJg K[MK K[IRI eMH M T[MJTI Ps PQR
TMKT[LJg K[I qLHIMHI.
III. SuppIy adjectives:
+. .K LH qMJgIRPQH KP zIIZ K[I eLJqPeH ... qQRLJg M K[QJqIRHKPRV. 2. /[I zIZK [IR qPPR ... MJq qLqJlK NIK
MJaPJI LJ. 4. \QK K[I NIVPJMqI LJ K[I RIsRLgIRMKPR KP zIIZ LK.... 3. u[I IZLqIVLT eMH MK LKH [ILg[K! MJq MNN K[I
qPTKPRH Ps K[I KPeJ eIRI zIZK.... *. . ZQK K[I KQNLZH LJ K[I eMKIR KP zIIZ K[IV .... ,. jIIZ aPQR IaIH ... MJq
aPQR VPQK[ ... . {. u[LH sQR TPMK LH HQRI KP zIIZ aPQ ... LJ MJa sRPHK. b. w[MK LH K[I KIMT[IR KP qP KP zIIZ [LH
ZQZLNH ...{
IV. TransIate the sentences into EngIish, using the patterns:
+. |I ; >6 $D9. 2. <$ ; 86 ; 895
6. 4. ; ! 8 $>D6 6! $D6 ;. 3. < 5 %
6! . *. <9D 66 C$ ;89 D. ,. _5$
5 5 $ D$6! ;7 C. 7. 5 >5 6
>6 88$. b. <6 6 $;! 8 D6 6. 2. >
$ ;! $> ; 7=$ ;.
V. Make up diaIogues or situations, using the patterns.
32
TEXT. HOW WE KEPT MOTHER'S DAY

by Stephen Leacock
iIMTPTz! /KIZ[IJ (+b,2+233) M sMVPQH OMJMqLMJ eRLKIR Ps K[I 2)K[ TIJKQRa. |LH HKPRLIH! sQNN Ps [QVPQR MJq HMRTMHV!
ISZPHI K[I TPJKRMqLTKLPJH Ps NLsI LJ VPqIV `PQRgIPLH HPTLIKa.
iIMTPTz HMaH K[MK K[I `MHLH Ps [QVPQR NLIH LJ K[I TPJKRMHKH PssIRIq `a NLsI LKHINs! `QK rK[I qIIZ `MTzgRPQJq K[MK NLIH `I[LJq
MJq `IaPJq e[MK eI TMNN [QVPQR LH RIxIMNIq PJNa KP K[I sIe e[P. `a LJHKLJTK PR `a IssPRK [MxI gLxIJ K[PQg[K KP LK.r
/P eI qITLqIq KP [MxI M HZITLMN TINI`RMKLPJ Ps vPK[IRlH nMa. wI K[PQg[K LK M sLJI LqIM. .K VMqI QH MNN
RIMNLI [Pe VQT[ vPK[IR [Mq qPJI sPR QH sPR aIMRH! MJq MNN K[I IssPRKH MJq HMTRLsLTI K[MK H[I [Mq VMqI sPR
PQR HMzI.
wI qITLqIq K[MK eIlq VMzI LK M gRIMK qMa! M [PNLqMa sPR MNN K[I sMVLNa! MJq qP IxIRaK[LJg eI TPQNq KP
VMzI vPK[IR [MZZa. pMK[IR qITLqIq KP KMzI M [PNLqMa sRPV [LH PssLTI! HP MH KP [INZ LJ TINI`RMKLJg K[I qMa!
MJq Va HLHKIR dJJI MJq . HKMaIq [PVI sRPV TPNNIgI TNMHHIH! MJq vMRa MJq Va `RPK[IR wLNN HKMaIq [PVI
sRPV |Lg[ /T[PPN.
.K eMH PQR ZNMJ KP VMzI LK M qMa QHK NLzI ^VMH
42
PR MJa `Lg [PNLqMa! MJq HP eI qITLqIq KP qITPRMKI K[I
[PQHI eLK[ sNPeIRH MJq eLK[ VPKKPIH PxIR K[I VMJKINZLITIH!
44
MJq MNN K[MK zLJq Ps K[LJg. wI gPK vPK[IR KP
VMzI VPKKPIH MJq MRRMJgI K[I qITPRMKLPJH! `ITMQHI H[I MNeMaH qPIH LK MK ^VMH.
u[I KeP gLRNH K[PQg[K LK ePQNq `I M JLTI K[LJg KP qRIHH LJ PQR xIRa `IHK sPR HQT[ M `Lg PTTMHLPJ MJq HP
K[Ia `PK[ gPK JIe [MKH. vPK[IR KRLVVIq `PK[ K[I [MKH! MJq K[Ia NPPzIq sLJI! MJq pMK[IR [Mq `PQg[K HLNz KLIH
sPR [LVHINs MJq QH `PaH MH M HPQxIJLR Ps K[I qMa KP RIVIV`IR vPK[IR `a. wI eIRI gPLJg KP gIK vPK[IR M
JIe [MK KPP! `QK LK KQRJIq PQK K[MK H[I HIIVIq KP RIMNNa NLzI [IR PNq gRIa `PJJIK `IKKIR K[MJ M JIe PJI! MJq
`PK[ K[I gLRNH HMLq K[MK LK eMH MesQNNa `ITPVLJg KP [IR.
wINN! MsKIR `RIMzsMHK eI [Mq LK MRRMJgIq MH M HQRZRLHI sPR vPK[IR K[MK eI ePQNq [LRI M VPKPR TMR MJq KMzI
[IR sPR M `IMQKLsQN qRLxI MeMa LJKP K[I TPQJKRa. vPK[IR LH [MRqNa IxIR M`NI KP [MxI M KRIMK NLzI K[MK! `ITMQHI
eI TMJ PJNa MssPRq KP zIIZ PJI VMLq! MJq HP vPK[IR LH `QHa LJ K[I [PQHI JIMRNa MNN K[I KLVI.
0QK PJ K[I xIRa VPRJLJg Ps K[I qMa eI T[MJgIq K[I ZNMJ M NLKKNI `LK! `ITMQHI LK PTTQRRIq KP pMK[IR K[MK M
K[LJg LK ePQNq `I `IKKIR KP qP IxIJ K[MJ KP KMzI vPK[IR sPR M VPKPR qRLxI ePQNq `I KP KMzI [IR sLH[LJg; Ls aPQ
MRI gPLJg KP sLH[! K[IRI LH M qIsLJLKI ZQRZPHI LJ sRPJK Ps aPQ KP [ILg[KIJ K[I IJPaVIJK.
/P eI MNN sINK K[MK LK ePQNq `I JLTIR sPR vPK[IR KP [MxI M qIsLJLKI ZQRZPHI; MJq MJaeMa! LK KQRJIq PQK K[MK
pMK[IR [Mq QHK gPK M JIe RPq K[I qMa `IsPRI.
/P eI gPK IxIRaK[LJg MRRMJgIq sPR K[I KRLZ! MJq eI gPK vPK[IR KP TQK QZ HPVI HMJqeLT[IH
43
MJq VMzI QZ M
HPRK Ps NQJT[ LJ TMHI eI gPK [QJgRa! K[PQg[ Ps TPQRHI eI eIRI KP TPVI `MTz [PVI MgMLJ KP M `Lg qLJJIR LJ
K[I VLqqNI Ps K[I qMa! QHK NLzI ^VMH PR 1Ie yIMRlH nMa. vPK[IR ZMTzIq LK MNN QZ LJ M `MHzIK sPR QH RIMqa KP
gP LJ K[I VPKPR.
wINN! e[IJ K[I TMR TMVI KP K[I qPPR! LK KQRJIq PQK K[MK K[IRI [MRqNa HIIVIq MH VQT[ RPPV LJ LK MH eI [Mq
HQZZPHIq.
pMK[IR HMLq JPK KP VLJq [LV! [I HMLq K[MK [I TPQNq QHK MH eINN HKMa [PVI; MJq K[MK [I eMH HQRI K[MK [I
TPQNq ZQK LJ K[I KLVI ePRzLJg LJ K[I gMRqIJ; [I HMLq K[MK eI eIRI JPK KP NIK K[I sMTK Ps [LH JPK [MxLJg [Mq M
RIMN [PNLqMa sPR K[RII aIMRH HKMJq LJ PQR eMa; [I eMJKIq QH KP gP RLg[K M[IMq MJq `I [MZZa MJq [MxI M `Lg
qMa.
0QK Ps TPQRHI eI MNN sINK K[MK LK ePQNq JIxIR qP KP NIK pMK[IR HKMa [PVI! IHZITLMNNa MH eI zJIe [I ePQNq
VMzI KRPQ`NI Ls [I qLq. u[I KeP gLRNH! dJJI MJq vMRa! ePQNq gNMqNa [MxI HKMaIq MJq [INZIq K[I VMLq gIK
qLJJIR! PJNa LK HIIVIq HQT[ M ZLKa KP! PJ M NPxINa qMa NLzI K[LH! [MxLJg K[ILR JIe [MKH. 0QK K[Ia `PK[ HMLq K[MK
vPK[IR [Mq PJNa KP HMa K[I ePRq! MJq K[Ialq gNMqNa HKMa [PVI MJq ePRz. wLNN MJq . ePQNq [MxI qRPZZIq
PQK! [QK QJsPRKQJMKINa eI ePQNqJlK [MxI `IIJ MJa QHI LJ gIKKLJg K[I qLJJIR.
/P LJ K[I IJq LK eMH qITLqIq K[MK vPK[IR ePQNq HKMa [PVI MJq QHK [MxI M NPxINa RIHKsQN qMa RPQJq K[I
[PQHI! MJq gIK K[I qLJJIR. .K KQRJIq PQK MJaeMa K[MK vPK[IR qPIHJlK TMRI sPR sLH[LJg! MJq MNHP LK eMH QHK M
NLKKNI `LK TPNq MJq sRIH[ PQK Ps qPPRH! K[PQg[ LK eMH NPxINa MJq HQJJa! MJq pMK[IR eMH RMK[IR MsRMLq K[MK
vPK[IR VLg[K KMzI TPNq Ls H[I TMVI.
/P eI MNN qRPxI MeMa eLK[ K[RII T[IIRH sPR vPK[IR! MJq pMK[IR eMxIq [LH [MJq `MTz KP [IR IxIRa sIe
VLJQKIH KLNN [I [LK [LH [MJq PJ K[I `MTz IqgI Ps K[I TMR! MJq K[IJ HMLq K[MK [I qLqJlK K[LJz K[MK vPK[IR TPQNq
HII QH MJa NPJgIR.
wINN! eI [Mq K[I NPxINLIHK qMa QZ MVPJg K[I [LNNH K[MK aPQ TPQNq ZPHHL`Na LVMgLJI.
.K eMH fQLKI NMKI e[IJ eI gPK `MTz! JIMRNa HIxIJ PlTNPTz LJ K[I IxIJLJg! `QK vPK[IR [Mq gQIHHIq K[MK eI
42
Xmas [krIsmqs]: MJ M``RIxLMKIq sPRV Ps O[RLHKVMH. .J GJgNMJq O[RLHKVMH qMa (K[I 2*K[ Ps nITIV`IR) LH PJI Ps K[I `LggIHK [PNLqMaH! qIxPKIq IHZITLMNNa
KP sMVLNa RIQJLPJ MJq VIRRaVMzLJg eLK[ LKH KRMqLKLPJMN O[RLHKVMH KRII MJq O[RLHKVMH ZQqqLJg.
44
mantelpiece: M HKRQTKQRI Ps `RLTz! ePPq PR VMR`NI M`PxI MJq MRPQJq M sLRIZNMTI MJ PZIJ gRMKI e[IRI M TPMN sLRI `QRJH. vPHK PNq GJgNLH[ [PQHIH [MxI
JP TIJKRMN [IMKLJg. }Z KP JPe M gRIMK JQV`IR Ps sNMKH MRI eMRVIq `a TPMN sLRIH. /PVIKLVIH LJHKIMq Ps M TPMN sLRI M gMH sLRI PR MJ INITKRLT sLRI VMa `I QHIq!
e[LT[ LH VPRI TPJxIJLIJK! MH LK TMJ `I NLK LJ M HITPJq MJq KQRJIq Pss MH HPPJ MH LK LH JPK JIIqIq.
43
sandwich: KeP HNLTIH Ps `QKKIRIq `RIMq eLK[ VIMK! Igg! T[IIHI PR KPVMKP! IKT. `IKeIIJ K[IV (5f" K[I QHHLMJ ). u[I ePRq [MH PJI VPRI
VIMJLJg: M HMJqeLT[ (PR M HMJqeLT[VMJ! M HMJqeLT[`Pa) LH M VMJ eMNzLJg MNPJg K[I HKRIIK eLK[ KeP MqxIRKLHIVIJK`PMRqH [QJg one LJ sRPJK Ps [LV MJq
one `I[LJq.
*)
ePQNq `I NMKI! HP H[I [Mq zIZK `MTz K[I qLJJIR HP MH KP [MxI LK QHK JLTINa RIMqa MJq [PK sPR QH. oJNa sLRHK H[I
[Mq KP gIK KPeINH MJq HPMZ sPR pMK[IR MJq TNIMJ K[LJgH sPR [LV KP ZQK PJ! `ITMQHI [I MNeMaH gIKH HP VIHHIq
QZ eLK[ sLH[LJg! MJq K[MK zIZK vPK[IR `QHa sPR M NLKKNI e[LNI! K[MK MJq [INZLJg K[I gLRNH gIK RIMqa.
0QK MK NMHK IxIRaK[LJg eMH RIMqa! MJq eI HMK qPeJ KP K[I gRMJqIHK zLJq Ps qLJJIR RPMHK KQRzIa MJq MNN
HPRKH Ps K[LJgH NLzI PJ ^VMH nMa. vPK[IR [Mq KP gIK QZ MJq qPeJ M gPPq `LK qQRLJg K[I VIMN sIKT[LJg K[LJgH
`MTz MJq sPReMRq.
u[I qLJJIR NMHKIq M NPJg e[LNI! MJq eMH gRIMK sQJ! MJq e[IJ LK eMH PxIR MNN Ps QH eMJKIq KP [INZ TNIMR K[I
K[LJgH QZ MJq eMH[ K[I qLH[IH! PJNa vPK[IR HMLq K[MK H[I ePQNq RIMNNa VQT[ RMK[IR qP LK! MJq HP eI NIK [IR!
`ITMQHI eI eMJKIq QHK sPR PJTI KP [QVPQR [IR.
.K eMH fQLKI NMKI! e[IJ LK eMH MNN PxIR! MJq e[IJ eI MNN zLHHIq vPK[IR `IsPRI gPLJg KP `Iq! H[I HMLq LK [Mq
`IIJ K[I VPHK ePJqIRsQN qMa LJ [IR NLsI! MJq . K[LJz K[IRI eIRI KIMRH LJ [IR IaIH. /P eI MNN sINK MesQNNa
RIZMLq sPR MNN K[MK eI [Mq qPJI.
VOCABULARY NOTES
1. to get (got, got) ,t-i +. 6! 86; to get smb. smth., to get smth. for smb., ."g" . TMJ
gIK K[LH `PPz sPR aPQ. (. TMJ gIK aPQ K[LH `PPz.)
2. 6! ."g" nLq aPQ gIK ( RITILxI) Va KINIgRMV{
4. 6! 6! ."g" u[I KeP gLRNH gPK JIe [MKH.
3. 86! 6! ;6! ."g" wI TMJJPK gIK KP vPHTPe KPJLg[K. .K eMH xIRa NMKI e[IJ [I
gPK [PVI.
*. ;6! ;6! 6! ."g" .K eMH qITLqIq K[MK vPK[IR ePQNq HKMa [PVI MJq gIK K[I
qLJJIR ( gIK LK RIMqa).
,. 6 ;. . 6! 6! 8 . . ! ."g" wI gPK vPK[IR KP
MRRMJgI K[I qITPRMKLPJH.
K" 6 (a& a 9in'Gver2B, ."g" .K eMH gIKKLJg qMRz e[IJ eI MRRLxIq MK K[I HKMKLPJ. . gPK xIRa TPNq
e[LNI eMLKLJg LJ K[I HKRIIK.
/yn" to become
to get smth. done! ."g" . gPK IxIRaK[LJg MRRMJgIq LJ KLVI.
have got have! I! g. . [MxI gPK HPVIK[LJg KP KINN aPQ. . [MxIJlK gPK K[I `PPz aPQlRI KMNzLJg M`PQK (Ts.: .
[MxI JP `PPzH `a K[LH MQK[PR.).
N t e: .J VPqIRJ TPJxIRHMKLPJMN GJgNLH[ K[I ePRq TPV`LJMKLPJ [MxI gPK LJ K[I VIMJLJg Ps $6! 6 LH QHIq VQT[
VPRI PsKIJ K[MJ K[I xIR` [MxI V K[I HMVI VIMJLJg! IHZITLMNNa eLK[ M TPJTRIKI P`ITK.
have got to do smth.! ."g" . [MxI gPK KP ( VQHK) sLJLH[ Va ePRz LJ KLVI. .K [MH gPK KP `I qPJI.
to get back to come back! ."g" dK e[MK KLVI H[MNN eI gIK `MTz{
to get over a disease (sIMR! qLssLTQNKLIH! gRLIs! IKT.)! ."g" nPJlK ePRRa! K[I T[LNq eLNN HPPJ gIK PxIR [LH
LNNJIHH.
to get up and down, ."g" vPK[IR [Mq KP gIK QZ MJq qPeJ M gPPq `LK qQRLJg K[I VIMN sIKT[LJg K[LJgH `MTz
MJq sPReMRq.
to get on smb.'s nerves, ."g" nPJlK gIK QZ MJq qPeJ IxIRa VLJQKI! aPQlRI gIKKLJg PJ Va JIRxIH.
2. to turn ,t-i 1. =6()! 6()! 6)! ."g" dK [IMRLJg [IR xPLTI . KQRJIq (KQRJIq
Va [IMq). u[I TMR KQRJIq K[I TPRJIR.
2. =6()! $6() (LJKP HVK[.)! ."g" u[I eMKIR LJ K[I ZPJq KQRJIq LJKP LTI MH K[I JLg[K [Mq
`IIJ sRPHKa.
to turn away (from smb. or smth.) 6 ()
to turn back 6
to turn inside out 86() ! ."g" va QV`RINNM KQRJIq LJHLqI PQK LJ K[I eLJq.
to turn out 6! ."g" |I KQRJIq PQK M `Mq MTKPR. u[I qMa KQRJIq PQK (KP `I) M sLJI PJI. .K KQRJIq PQK
K[MK K[IRI eIRI JP xMTMJK HIMKH LJ K[I `QH.
as it turned out... as it happened
to turn over 6()! ."g" |I KQRJIq PxIR M ZMgI. |I KQRJIq PxIR LJ `Iq.
to turn up ()6! 5! ."g" wI ISZITKIq [LV KP PLJ QH! `QK [I JIxIR KQRJIq QZ.
to turn smth. upside down 6 9 $! 6! ."g" /PVIPJI [MH KQRJIq IxIRaK[LJg
QZHLqI qPeJ LJ Va qRMeIR.
3. to treat ,t +. =6()! 96! 6; to treat smb. well, kindly, coldly, IKT.! ."g"
nPJlK KRIMK VI MH Ls . eIRI M T[LNq. 0IKKIR KRIMK [LH ePRqH MH M PzI. yPQ KRIMKr K[I VMKKIR KPP NLg[KNa.
2. 6; to treat smb. for smth. with smth., ."g" w[P KRIMKIq aPQR T[LNq sPR HTMRNIK sIxIR{ w[MK
VIqLTLJI MRI aPQ KRIMKIq eLK[{
4. ;=6 $n. (`..T" 6 6); to treat smb. to smth., ."g" .lNN KRIMK aPQ MNN KP (
.lNN `Qa aPQ) HPVI LTITRIMV. wPQNqJlK aPQ NLzI [LV KP KRIMK aPQ ( KP ZMa sPR aPQR KLTzIK) KP M `MNNIK{ .
*+
H[MNN KRIMK VaHINs KP M eIIzIJq [PNLqMa.
treat n 1. 6! >! ."g" .lxI JIxIR [Mq M KRIMK NLzI K[MKc w[MK M KRIMK LK LH JPK KP [MxI
KP gIK QZ IMRNac GxIRa T[MJTI KP NLHKIJ KP gPPq VQHLT LH M gRIMK KRIMK KP [IR.
2. ;=
treatment n +. = ( $n.)! ."g" |IR KRIMKVIJK Ps K[I ZQZLNH LH MNeMaH zLJq MJq ZMKLIJK! (prep,
"of")
2. ! ."g" |MxI aPQ [IMRq Ps M JIe KRIMKVIJK sPR ZJIQVPJLM{ (prep, "for")
4. afford K (86 ) 6 (QHQ. eLK[ TMJ! TPQNq! `I M`NI KP)
smth.; ."g" . TMJlK MssPRq KLVI sPR VPxLIH.
to afford
to do smth., ."g" OMJ aPQ MssPRq KP gP MeMa sPR M [PNLqMa{
5. to keep (kept, kept) ,t-i +. >6 ( 89 XaXRBD ) 96! ."g" /[I MNeMaH zIIZH PNq
NIKKIRH.; `) >6! 6! ."g" yPQ VMa zIIZ K[I `PPz! . qPJlK eMJK LK aIK.; ) () >6 (
. .)! ."g" < MNeMaH zIIZH [LH ZRPVLHI.; q) >6! ."g" vR. wMKHPJ [Mq M eLsI MJq sMVLNa KP zIIZ.;
I) >6! 6 >6! ."g" .lV HPRRa . zIZK aPQ eMLKLJg.
2. 6! 6! ."g" r|Pe wI jIZK vPK[IRlH nMar; /[I MNeMaH zIIZH [IR `LRK[qMa.
to keep smth. ad1", ."g" u[LH ePRz zIZK K[I T[LNqRIJ `QHa. yPQ VQHK zIIZ aPQR sIIK eMRV.
to keep to smth.! ."g" jIIZ KP K[I qLIK. iIKlH zIIZ KP K[I VLqqNI Ps K[I RPMq.
to keep on doing smth., ."g" /[I zIZK PJ eRLKLJg e[IJ . TMVI LJ (not u&ed of a &tate, 2ut on9y of
a5tivitie&" Cf": |I zIZK PJ HKMJqLJg QZ. 3ut |I RIVMLJIq HKMJqLJg.).
to keep smb. from doing smth.! ."g" .K zIZK VI sRPV mPLJLJg aPQ.
to keep (smth.) back! ."g" u[I aPQJg VIJ zIZK K[I TRPeq `MTz. .lV HQRI [I LH zIIZLJg HPVIK[LJg `MTz
( JPK KINNLJg MNN; TPJTIMNLJg HPVIK[LJg). vPK[IR [Mq gQIHHIq K[MK eI ePQNq `I NMKI! HP H[I [Mq zIZK `MTz
K[I qLJJIR.
6. to occur ,i +. 6! 96! ."g" /QT[ LJTLqIJKH PTTQR IxIRa qMa. .K VQHK JIxIR PTTQR
MgMLJ.
2. 96 $! ."g" .K PTTQRRIq KP VI K[MK HPVIK[LJg VLg[K `I eRPJg eLK[ [IR. nLqJlK LK PTTQR KP
aPQ KP TNPHI K[I eLJqPe KP zIIZ K[I JPLHI `MTz{
7. to enjoy ,i 6 6! >6! ."g" . IJPaIq K[I KRLZ xIRa VQT[. .lxI IJPaIq
HIILJg aPQ.
to enjoy oneself, ."g" . IJPaIq VaHINs MK K[I TPJTIRK NMHK JLg[K.
enjoyment n 6! >
8. fun n +. 6! ! ! ."g" O[LNqRIJ MRI sPJq Ps sQJ. w[MK sQJ eI [Mq e[IJ eI eIRI
KPgIK[IRc |I LH sQNN Ps sQJ.
to make fun of 8$6! D6! ."g" |IlH sPJq Ps VMzLJg sQJ Ps ZIPZNI. 1P`Pqa NLzIH KP `I
VMqI sQJ Ps.
to do smth. in (for) fun 6 . D! ."g" . HMLq LK PJNa LJ (sPR) sQJ.
2. $ D! 6! 6! ."g" u[I ZMRKa (aPQR sRLIJq) eMH gRIMK sQJ.
funny ad1 $D5! 85! ."g" . [MxI M sQJJa HKPRa KP KINN aPQ.
NOTES ON STYLE
+. .J iIMTPTzlH HKPRa r|Pe wI jIZK vPK[IRlH nMar aPQ eLNN sLJq JQVIRPQH ePRqH MJq Z[RMHIH Ps
LJsPRVMN sQJTKLPJMN HKaNI (/II 1PKI d PJ Z. *2)! ."g" a99 that 'ind of thing (Ts. K[I QHHLMJ @ B)!
awfu99y (LJ rMesQNNa `ITPVLJgr! 5f" K[I QHHLMJ @> ; 7= %B)! a 9itt9e 2it (@6
6B)! have a 2ig day (@ $B)! get +e&&ed u4 (@$6! 86
;B)! the dinner... wa& great fun (@ 8 $B)! IKT.
1PKI MNHP K[I LJKIRITKLPJ we99 LJKRPqQTLJg HPVI Ps K[I ZMHHMgIH (e[LT[ JPRVMNNa PTTQRH LJ PRMN HZIIT[)!
K[I PVLHHLPJ Ps K[I TPJQJTKLPJ that MJq K[I HaJKMS LVLKMKLJg K[MK Ps PRMN TPVVQJLTMKLPJ `a LKH sRII MJq
TMRINIHH HKRQTKQRIH.
2. u[I HKPRa ZRIHIJKH MJ LJKIRIHKLJg ISMVZNI Ps K[I LJqLRITK VIK[Pq Ps T[MRMTKIRLMKLPJ. u[I MQK[PR qPIH
JPK HMa qLRITKNa K[MK K[I VIV`IRH Ps K[I sMVLNa eIRI HINsLH[! TMNNPQH MJq [MRq[IMRKIq ZIPZNI (K[MK ePQNq `I
K[I qLRITK VIK[Pq Ps T[MRMTKIRLMKLPJ) `QK VMzIH K[IV MTK MJq NIKH K[I RIMqIR qRMe [LH PeJ TPJTNQHLPJ.
4. r|Pe wI jIZK vPK[IRlH nMar LH M [QVPRPQH HKPRa. |QVPQR LJ sLTKLPJ VMa `I Ps KeP ZRLJTLZMN KaZIH.
.K VMa `I [QVPQR Ps HLKQMKLPJ e[IJ K[I MQK[PR VMzIH QH NMQg[ MK TIRKMLJ sQJJa PR M`HQRq sMTKH! ."g" K[I
VIV`IRH Ps K[I sMVLNa `QaLJg ZRIHIJKH sPR K[IVHINxIH PJ vPK[IRlH nMa! `QK `QaLJg JPK[LJg sPR K[ILR
VPK[IR. u[IRI LH MNHP [QVPQR Ps ePRqH e[IJ K[I RIMqIR qPIH JPK NMQg[ MK e[MK LH [MZZIJLJg LJ K[I HKPRa `QK
MK [Pe LK LH ZQK `a K[I MQK[PR. 8" g" 0QK Ps TPQRHI eI MNN sINK K[MK LK ePQNq JIxIR qP KP NIK pMK[IR HKMa MK [PVI!
IHZITLMNNa MH eI zJIe [I ePQNq VMzI KRPQ`NI Ls [I qLq.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)
*2
Words
MssPRq , sQJJa ad1 RIZMa , IssPRK n
gIK , HMTRLsLTI ,, n IJPa , gQIHH ,
KRIMK ,, n IHZITLMNNa adv [LRI , KRIMKVIJK n
sIKT[ , zIIZ , KRLV , sQJ n
PTTQR , KQRJ , ZQRZPHI n QJsPRKQJMKINa adv
Word Combinations
sPR HV`.lH HMzI KP gIK PxIR HVK[.
KP HKMa (MK) [PVI sRPV TPNNIgI (TNMHHIH! HT[PPN) KP KMzI HV`. sPR M qRLxI
KP qRIHH LJ PJIlH `IHK (ePRHK) LJ TMHI
QHK MH eINN KP HKMJq (`I) LJ HV`.lH eMa
sPR HQT[ MJ PTTMHLPJ KP VMzI KRPQ`NI
KP KQRJ PQK KP `I JP QHI
LJ K[I IJq KP gIK PJ HV`.lH JIRxIH
KP TMRI sPR HV`. (PR HVK[.) KP KQRJ LJHLqI PQK
KP zIIZ `MTz KP KQRJ PxIR
sPR M NLKKNI (H[PRK! NPJg) KP KQRJ QZ
e[LNI KP KQRJ QZHLqI qPeJ
KP gIK QZ MJq qPeJ sPR (LJ) sQJ
KP gIK KP HPVI ZNMTI KP VMzI sQJ Ps HV`.
EXERCISES
1. Read Text of Unit Four and the Notes on StyIe and taIk on the foIIowing points (A. Grammar, B. Word
usage. . StyIe):
A. 1. w[LT[ xIR`H QHIq LJ K[I KISK MRI VPqMN xIR`H{ OPVVIJK PJ K[ILR VIMJLJgH MJq KRMJHNMKI K[I
HIJKIJTIH LJ e[LT[ K[Ia MRI QHIq.
2. w[MK MRI K[I VIMJLJgH Ps K[I xIR`H to get, to +a'e, to 'ee4, to ta'e LJ K[I KISK{ (uRMJHNMKI K[I
HIJKIJTIH eLK[ K[IHI xIR`H.)
4. Jother MJq *ather MRI TMZLKMNLIq MJq QHIq eLK[PQK MRKLTNIH LJ K[I KISK. |Pe ePQNq aPQ QHI K[I ePRqH
LJ RIZPRKIq HZIIT[ (PRMN MJq eRLKKIJ){
B. 1. LJ K[I Z[RMHIH to de5orate the hou&e MJq to tri+ the hat& eI [MxI KeP qLssIRIJK IfQLxMNIJKH Ps
@D6B. w[MK TMJ `I KRLVVIq PR qITPRMKIq{
2. wI HMa in the +orning (evening, afternoonB, `QK LJ K[I Z[RMHI rPJ K[I xIRa VPRJLJg Ps K[I qMar on LH
QHIq. w[a{ (Cf: on that evening, on the +orning of hi& arriva9"B
C. 1. \PLJK PQK MH VMJa TPNNPfQLMN ePRqH MJq Z[RMHIH MH aPQ TMJ sLJq. /QZZNa K[ILR QHHLMJ IfQLxMNIJKH Ls
ZPHHL`NI. w[MK LH K[I MQK[PRlH ZQRZPHI LJ LJKRPqQTLJg HP VMJa QJLKH Ps LJsPRVMN HKaNI{
2. \PLJK PQK K[I ZMHHMgIH e[LT[ T[MRMTKIRLI K[I VIV`IRH Ps K[I sMVLNa MJq K[ILR RIMN MKKLKQqI KP K[I
VPK[IR. w[MK LH K[I VIK[Pq Ps T[MRMTKIRLMKLPJ QHIq `a K[I MQK[PR{
4. w[LT[ HIJKIJTIH PR ZMHHMgIH `IMR KPQT[IH Ps [QVPQR{ uRa KP ISZNMLJ [Pe K[I [QVPRPQH IssITK LH
MT[LIxIq LJ IMT[ TMHI. w[LT[ KaZI Ps [QVPQR ZRIxMLNH LJ K[I HKPRa{ (/II 1PKIH PJ /KaNI.)
II. a) Search the text for EngIish equivaIents of the phrases Iisted beIow and write them ia your exercise
book:
$6 (6) 6 "! 5 D! 6 $
(6)! 6 $D! $! 5 .... $; 8 $ >
9$ 6 $! 6 $! 8 8 5 68! D6
6! 6 ! 9 8 E ! > ;! ; ! 5
85 6! $D ;! 6 $5 $ ! >
$; $! ; 6 % $! 86! .!.! $9 5 5!
6! 6 6 .! $8 ;>8$ ...
b) Get the student sitting next to yon transIate haIf of the Russian phrases into EngIish (in writing) and
check them with the key in your notebook. TransIate the other haIf yourseIf and ask your neighbour
to correct your transIation.
III. TransIate in writing these passages. Compare and discuss different variants of students' transIation:
+. .K PTTQRRIq KP pMK[IR K[MK M K[LJg LK ePQNq `I `IKKIR KP qP IxIJ K[MJ KP KMzI vPK[IR sPR M VPKPR qRLxI
ePQNq `I KP KMzI [IR sLH[LJg; Ls aPQ MRI gPLJg KP sLH[! K[IRI LH M qIsLJLKI ZQRZPHI LJ sRPJK Ps aPQ KP [ILg[KIJ
K[I IJPaVIJK. 2. pMK[IR HMLq JPK KP VLJq [LV! [I HMLq K[MK [I TPQNq QHK MH eINN HKMa [PVI; [I HMLq K[MK eI
eIRI JPK KP NIK K[I sMTK Ps [LH JPK [MxLJg [Mq M RIMN [PNLqMa sPR K[RII aIMRH HKMJq LJ PQR eMa!
IV. Try your hand at teaching:
A. Preparation. \LTz PQK sRPV K[I KISK MNN K[I ePRqH eLK[ K[I NIKKIR g LJ K[IV. ONMHHLsa K[IV MTTPRqLJg KP
*4
K[I eMa g LH ZRPJPQJTIq MJq ZQK K[IV qPeJ LJ TPNQVJH. vMzI QZ M NLHK Ps ePRqH KP LNNQHKRMKI K[I HMVI RQNIH.
B. Work in Class. M) /[Pe K[I KM`NI KP K[I TNMHH MJq NIK K[I HKQqIJKH TPVVIJK PJ LK.
`) nLTKMKI K[I ePRqH LJ TNMHH eLK[ PJI HKQqIJK eRLKLJg K[IV PJ K[I `PMRq. OPRRITK K[I VLHKMzIH PJ K[I
`PMRq. (/II lONMHHRPPV GJgNLH[r! /ITKLPJH .:! :..! :....)
V. a) Write the words beIow in the Past Indefinite. CIassify them into two groups: one with the finaI r
doubIed, the other one with one finaI r in the Past Indefinite.
b) ExpIain to the students when the finaI r shouId be doubIed:
IJKIR! PTTQR! PssIR! RIVIV`IR! TNIMR! RIsIR WRIfE:! T[IIR! `MR! QKKIR WAtq! HKMR! ZRIsIR! HKLR WHKE:.
VI. a) Write an outIine of the text (see Ex. IX on p. 59). (The outIine may be written in the Present or Past
Indefinite tenses.)
b) Discuss the outIines written by severaI students and choose the best one. Improve it by using some
variants from other students' works. Write it down on the board and make the students copy it in
their exercise books.
VII. Write two questions to each item of the outIine: one shouId heIp to reveaI the contradictions between
what the members of the famiIy said and did, the other (with a modaI verb) - what they couId or
ought to have done.
e"g" +" nLq K[I gLRNH RIMNNa K[LJz K[MK K[ILR VPK[IRlH PNq `PJJIK eMH rMesQNNa `ITPVLJgr KP [IR{ 2. nPJlK
aPQ K[LJz K[Ia H[PQNq [MxI `PQg[K HPVIK[LJg sPR K[ILR VPK[IR KPP{ (vMzI K[I HKQqIJKH RIMHPJ PQK K[ILR
MJHeIRH.)
VIII. Study the VocabuIary Notes end EssentiaI VocabuIary (I) and a) Paraphrase the foIIowing (in writing):
+. KP VMzI HV`. qP HVK[.; 2. KP [MxI HVK[. MRRMJgIq; 4. KP RITPxIR MsKIR M qLHIMHI; 3. KP HKMJq QZ MJq HLK
qPeJ; *. KP NPPz LJ K[I PZZPHLKI qLRITKLPJ; ,. KP TPVI KP PJIlH VLJq; 7. KP MZZIMR QJISZITKIqNa; b! M gRIMK
ZNIMHQRI; 2. MK NMHK; +). KP `I M`NI (KP HZIJq VPJIa PJ HVK[.! IKT.); ++. KP TPJKLJQI KP qP HVK[.; +2. JPK KP NIK
HV`. qP HVK[.; +4. KP TPJTIMN HPVI KMTK; +3. KP IJPa PJIHINs; +*. KP NPxI (KMzI LJKIRIHK LJ); +,. sPR M H[PRK
KLVI; +7. KP KMzI M KMSL; +b. KP `ITPVI qLRKa; +2. KP NMQg[ MK (VPTz) HV`.; 2). KP gIK PK[IR ZIPZNI LJKP M VIHH.
b) Make op sentences with the phrases yea have written.
IX. A word in one Ianguage may have different equivaIents in another.
."g" $ RPPV! ZNMTI > HMTRLsLTI! xLTKLV 6 sIKT[! `RLJg
a) Look op the words given above in an EngIish-Russian dictionary,

find out the exact meaning of each pair
of words and write sentences iIIustrating the difference in their use.
b) Ask the students to transIate the Russian variants of your sentences.
X. TransIate the sentences into EngIish using EssentiaI VocabuIary (1);
+. F 6 D6 c 2. A % 5 ;= $ >8$. 4.
87 ! E $8 5 $ 8. 3. ; 6 %$
5 ;5. *. A$ > 6 9 $! 8 5 5
{ ,. "6 ! 6! ; . 7. 6!
5 =7 5. b. ' $; >6 D5. 2. "8
$ >. 8 6 . +). E 9 ;! 9
>. ++. 5 > 6 9D (zLJqNa) =6 >8$. +2. F 8 $;
$6! 5 5c +4. 9! 8 >D6 c +3. D
6 5 6! { A6! $ E ; 9 ;. +*. h
6 $; . '! > 86! > 8 $. +,. F ;6 E
;c +7. k68 = ? $6 ; 8$ 7$$. +b. F
Dc
XI. ReteII the test foIIowing the outIine (see Ex. VI, p. 132). Speak about the contradictions between the
words and the behaviour of the members of the famiIy:
."g" ... u[Ia HMLq! K[Ia RIMNLIq e[MK K[ILR VPK[IR [Mq HMTRLsLTIq sPR K[ILR HMzI MJq eMJKIq KP K[MJz [IR sPR
IxIRaK[LJg H[I [Mq `IIJ qPLJg sPR K[IV. .J sMTK! . `INLIxI! K[Ia QHK eMJKIq KP VMzI LK M [PNLqMa sPR
K[IVHINxIH. u[Ia HKMaIq MK [PVI ... IKT.
XII. a) TransIate these sentences into Russian.
.. wI VMa just as well qMJTI JPe. 2. . would rather [LRI M KMSL. .lV xIRa KLRIq. 4. It will never do KP
ZQJLH[ K[I T[LNq sPR e[MK [I [MH JPK qPJI. 3. |I JIxIR keeps people waiting Ls [I TMJ [INZ LK. *. wI VQHK
keep him from making trouble. ,. uMzI Va gNPxIH! K[Ia eLNN keep your hands warm. 7. It's no use
KRLVVLJg K[LH PNq [MK! LK ePJlK NPPz `IKKIR. b. wI got everything arranged sPR K[I KRLZ `a 2 PlTNPTz. 2. wI
got her to believe PQR HKPRa. +). u[I MRRMJgIVIJKH sPR K[I ZMRKa eLNN keep me busy K[I e[PNI qMa! .lV
MsRMLq. ++. yPQ H[PQNqJlK keep the children out MsKIR qMRz. +2. Keep the ticket Ls aPQ qPJlK eMJK KP `I
sLJIq.
b) Write sentences of your own using the phrases in boId type. Address them to the other students who
shouId repIy them expressing their approvaI or disapprovaI.
*3
\ R P V Z K H: |Pe JLTI (gPPq! TNIxIR! `Mq! MesQN) Ps aPQ ([LV! [IR)c . qPJlK K[LJz aPQ H[PQNq [MxI qPJI
LK. /QRI. 0QK K[MKlH JPK fQLKI KRQI. 1P ePJqIR. . MV qINLg[KIq MK aPQR LqIM.
XIII. Make up a conversation which took pIace after the day described in the text between: the two girIs, the
two boys, the father and his son, the mother and her friend, two neighbours. You may find the
foIIowing openings usefuI:
. HMa...; |PJIHKNa...; .s aPQ MHz VI...; yPQ zJPe e[MK . K[LJz...; u[I ZPLJK LH...; nPJlK aPQ MgRII K[MK...; .
VQHK HMa K[MK...; uINN aPQ e[MK!..; GxIJKQMNNa...; dTKQMNNa...; nIsLJLKINa... .
XIV. FiII in prepositions or adverbs where necessary:
.. u[I qRIHH LH QHK ePJqIRsQN. .K LH xIRa `ITPVLJg ... aPQ. 2. . [MxIJlK HIIJ aPQ ... MgIH. |Pe MRI aPQ
gIKKLJg ...{ 4. . NLzIq K[I TMzI aPQ KRIMKIq VI .... |Pe qP aPQ VMzI LK{ 3. uQRJ ... K[I ZMgI MJq qP GSIRTLHI 4.
*. |I KQRJIq ... M xIRa gPPq HKPRaKINNIR. . IJPaIq ... [LH HKPJIH LVVIJHINa. ,. wI H[MNN qLHTQHH K[I VMKKIR ...
PQR eMa [PVI. 7. .lV HQRI aPQlNN gIK... MNN K[I qLssLTQNKLIH ... K[I IJq. b. \IKI qLqJlK eMJK KP KMzI [LH aPQJgIR
`RPK[IR sLH[LJg! [I eMH MsRMLq K[MK [I ePQNq `I ... [LH eMa. 2. u[I HKQqIJKH... URPQZ 4 eLNN [INZ KP qITPRMKI
K[I [MNN... sNPeIRH MJq VPKKPIH. +). u[I sMK[IR [Mq ZRPVLHIq KP KMzI K[I `PaH ... M qRLxI ... K[I TPQJKRa ...
/QJqMa. 0QK QJsPRKQJMKINa K[I eIMK[IR T[MJgIq ... K[I VPRJLJg MJq K[Ia [Mq KP HKMa ... [PVI. ++. OINLM
eMxIq [IR [MJq ... iMJJa QJKLN K[I KRMLJ eMH PQK... HLg[K. +2.... HQT[ M `Lg PTTMHLPJ MNN K[I T[LNqRIJ eIRI
qRIHHIq ... K[ILR `IHK. +4. w[IJ MNN K[I K[LJgH eIRI ZMTzIq ... M HQLKTMHI! LK KQRJIq ... K[MK Va KLTzIK [Mq
HPVI[Pe gPK K[IRI KPP! MJq . [Mq KP KQRJ IxIRaK[LJg ......LJ HIMRT[ ... LK. +3. u[I T[LNqRIJ eIRI MNNPeIq KP
HKMa ... [PVI ... HT[PPN! MH K[I VPK[IRlH `LRK[qMa eMH M gRIMK PTTMHLPJ ... MNN K[I sMVLNa.
XV. TransIate the sentences into EngIish, using EssentiaI VocabuIary (I) and Patterns 1-4:
+. - $ $; ! $; 6 6 $. 2: $ D!
5 $ ;. ! 6 5 $. 4. < $; 6! 8
$ 6 E . 3. $; 6 6 5 ;5 .
*. 76! $8 $ 6 % $ ;! . ,. (;
; 6$. ' D! ; $ 8 ; $> >
6 6! 96 . 7. 8 $ 6! 9
89. < ; 6 $ $. b. _ ! 9 6
E$ . 2. t 8 $5 $! ! . +). '! > 86!
; ]. ++. ? $; 6 $6! E D{ +2. <>
8 $>D6 6 $ 6 6{ +4. $5 $
;$! 9 ; D6 6 $ ;6 . +3. h % 6
%.
XVI. Review the text. Say a few words about the styIe and Ianguage of Leacock's story. Be sure to touch on
a) seIection of words, b) syntax, c) method of characterization, d) humour.
XVII. Try your hand at teaching.
1. Say what you wouId do in the teacher's position:
mP[JlH sLRHK qMa LJ HT[PPN eIJK HVPPK[Na. oJ K[I HITPJq qMa! MJPK[IR T[LNq HMK LJ K[I ZNMTI mP[J eMJKIq.
mP[J RIsQHIq KP HLK LJ MJa Ps K[I xMTMJK ZNMTIH MJq eMH gLxIJ K[I T[PLTI Ps HLKKLJg qPeJ MK MJPK[IR ZNMTI PR
HKMJqLJg. |I T[PHI KP HKMJq. |LH ZMRIJKH TMVI KP HT[PPN HIxIRMN KLVIH LJ K[I JISK sIe eIIzH! xIRa qLHKRIHHIq
K[MK MNN mP[J qLq MK HT[PPN eMH HKMJq.
2. Practise your "CIassroom EngIish".
Ask your pupiIs: a) to do Exercise XIV on p. 134 (written work); b) to get ready with Exercise XVm (oraIIy).
XVIII. a) TransIate the text beIow into Russian:
uP VI LK [MH MNeMaH HIIVIq K[MK K[I xIRa IHHIJTI Ps gPPq [QVPQR LH K[MK LK VQHK `I eLK[PQK [MRV MJq
eLK[PQK VMNLTI. . MqVLK K[MK K[IRI LH LJ MNN Ps QH M TIRKMLJ xILJ Ps K[I PNq PRLgLJMN qIVPJLMTMN [QVPQR PR Pa
LJ K[I VLHsPRKQJI Ps MJPK[IR e[LT[ HKLTzH KP QH NLzI PQR PRLgLJMN HLJ. .K PQg[K JPK KP `I sQJJa KP HII M VMJ!
IHZITLMNNa M sMK MJq ZPVZPQH VMJ! HNLZ HQqqIJNa PJ M `MJMJM HzLJ. 0QK LK LH. w[IJ M HzMKIR PJ K[I ZPJq e[P
LH qIHTRL`LJg gRMTIsQN TLRTNIH MJq H[PeLJg Pss `IsPRI M TRPeq! `RIMzH K[RPQg[ K[I LTI! IxIRa`Pqa H[PQKH eLK[
Pa. uP MJ PRLgLJMN HMxMgI! K[I TRIMV Ps K[I PzI LJ HQT[ TMHIH eMH sPQJq Ls M VMJ e[P HNLZZIq `RPzI [LH
JITz! PR M VMJ e[P eIJK K[RPQg[ K[I LTI JIxIR TMVI QZ MgMLJ. . TMJ LVMgLJI M gRPQZ Ps ZRI[LHKPRLT VIJ
HKMJqLJg RPQJq K[I LTI[PNI e[IRI [I [Mq qLHMZZIMRIq MJq NMQg[LJg KLNN K[ILR HLqIH HZNLK. .s K[IRI [Mq `IIJ
HQT[ K[LJgH MH M ZRI[LHKPRLT JIeHZMZIR! K[I MssMLR ePQNq [MxI `IIJ [IMqIq QZ: rdVQHLJg .JTLqIJK.
}JzJPeJ UIJKNIVMJ 0RIMzH u[RPQg[ .TI MJq .H nRPeJIqr.
0QK PQR HIJHI Ps [QVPQR QJqIR K[I TLxLNLMKLPJ [MH `IIJ eIMzIJIq. vQT[ Ps K[I sQJ Ps K[LH HPRK Ps K[I
K[LJg [MH `IIJ NPHK PJ QH. (*ro+ r|QVPQR dH . /II .Kr 2y /KIZ[IJ iIMTPTz)
b) Discuss the foIIowing questions:
+. nP aPQ MgRII eLK[ iIMTPTz K[MK gPPq [QVPQR VQHK `I eLK[PQK [MRV MJq eLK[PQK VMNLTI{ 2. w[MK
ZQRZPHI H[PQNq [QVPQR HIRxI{ 4. .H iIMTPTz RLg[K e[IJ [I HMaH K[MK [QVPQR [MH `IIJ eIMzIJIq QJqIR
TLxLNLMKLPJ{ nPIH [I RIMNNa VIMJ LK{ 3. nP aPQ MgRII KP iIMTPTzlH PZLJLPJ K[MK [QVPRPQH /LLIH Ps NLsI MRI
**
RIxIMNIq PJNa KP K[I sIe e[P [MxI gLxIJ K[PQg[K KP LK{ *. nP aPQ K[LJz K[MK [LH HKPRa r|Pe wI jIZK
vPK[IRlH nMar MJq K[I NLzI VMa gIK ZIPZNI KP QJqIRHKMJq K[ILR LVZIRsITKLPJH MJq KRa KP gIK RLq Ps K[IV{ ,. .H
K[MK HKPRa KRQI KP NLsI{ 7. w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz LH K[I IHHIJTI Ps gPPq [QVPQR{
LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)
+. iLHKIJ KP K[I KISK r|Pe wI jIZK vPK[IRH nMar! VMRz K[I HKRIHHIH MJq KQJIH! RIZIMK K[I KISK sPNNPeLJg
K[I VPqIN.
2. vMzI aPQR HIJKIJTIH NIHH TMKIgPRLT `a QHLJg K[I gLxIJ VPqIN.
4. wRLKI M HZINNLJgKRMJHNMKLPJ KIHK. O[ITz LK eLK[ K[I zIa. O[ITz aPQR HZINNLJg eLK[ M qLTKLPJMRa.
3. \MRMZ[RMHI K[I HIJKIJTIH QHLJg K[I gLxIJ ZMKKIRJH.
*. GSKIJq K[I sPNNPeLJg HIJKIJTIH.
,. uRMJHNMKI K[I gLxIJ HIJKIJTIH. O[ITz aPQR KRMJHNMKLPJ eLK[ K[I zIa.
7. iLHKIJ KP K[I KISK r0ILJg M |PQHI[QH`MJqr PR HPVI PK[IR KISK PJ K[I KPZLT rpMVLNa |PNLqMaHr. pLJq K[I
GJgNLH[ IfQLxMNIJKH Ps K[I gLxIJ QHHLMJ Z[RMHIH. UIK RIMqa KP HZIMz PJ K[I ZMRK Ps K[I eLsI.
TOP!: MEALS
TEXT A. AN ENGLISHMAN'S MEALS
pPQR VIMNH M qMa MRI HIRxIq KRMqLKLPJMNNa LJ 0RLKMLJ: `RIMzsMHK! NQJT[! KIM MJq qLJJIR.
.J VMJa TPQJKRLIH `RIMzsMHK LH M HJMTz RMK[IR K[MJ M VIMN `QK K[I GJgNLH[ `RIMzsMHK IMKIJ MK M`PQK ILg[K
PlTNPTz LJ K[I VPRJLJg! LH M sQNN VIMN! VQT[ `LggIR K[MJ PJ K[I OPJKLJIJK.
4*
/PVI ZIPZNI `IgLJ eLK[ M ZNMKIsQN Ps ZPRRLqgI `QK VPRI PsKIJ TPRJsNMzIH eLK[ VLNz MJq HQgMR. u[IJ
TPVIH MK NIMHK PJI HQ`HKMJKLMN TPQRHI! HQT[ MH zLZZIRH PR `MTPJ MJq IggH. dsKIReMRqH TPVIH KPMHK eLK[ `QKKIR
MJq VMRVMNMqI PR MV. u[I VIMN LH reMH[Iq qPeJr eLK[ KIM PR TPssII.
vPHK 0RLKLH[ ZIPZNI JPe [MxI HQT[ M sQNN `RIMzsMHK PJNa PJ /QJqMa VPRJLJgH. oJ eIIzqMaH LK LH QHQMNNa
M fQLTz VIMN: QHK TPRJsNMzIH! KPMHK MJq KIM.
GJgNLH[ NQJT[! e[LT[ LH QHQMNNa IMKIJ MK PJI PlTNPTz! LH `MHIq PJ ZNMLJ! HLVZNaTPPzIq sPPq. .K HKMRKH eLK[
HPQZ PR sRQLK QLTI. GJgNLH[ ZIPZNI HPVIKLVIH HMa K[MK HPQZ sLNNH K[IV QZ eLK[PQK NIMxLJg HQssLTLIJK RPPV sPR
K[I VPRI LVZPRKMJK TPQRHI e[LT[ TPJHLHKH Ps VIMK! ZPQNKRa PR sLH[ MTTPVZMJLIq `a ZNIJKa Ps xIgIKM`NIH.
dZZNIZLI LH M sMxPQRLKI HeIIK! MJq GJgNLH[ ZQqqLJgH Ps e[LT[ K[IRI MRI xIRa VMJa! MRI MJ ISTINNIJK
IJqLJg KP M VIMN! IHZITLMNNa LJ eLJKIR. pLJMNNa M TQZ Ps TPssII `NMTz PR e[LKI.
uIM! K[I K[LRq VIMN Ps K[I qMa! LH KMzIJ `IKeIIJ sPQR MJq sLxI PlTNPTz IHZITLMNNa e[IJ HKMaLJg LJ M [PKIN
e[IJ M ZPK Ps KIM eLK[ M Qg Ps VLNz MJq M `PeN Ps HQgMR MRI `RPQg[K LJ. 0LHTQLKH MRI [MJqIq RPQJq.
dK K[I eIIzIJqH MsKIRJPPJ KIM LH M xIRa HPTLM`NI KLVI. pRLIJqH MJq xLHLKPRH MRI PsKIJ ZRIHIJK.
/PVI ZIPZNI NLzI KP [MxI K[I HPTMNNIq r[Lg[ KIMr e[LT[ LH M VLSKQRI Ps KIM MJq HQZZIR sPR ISMVZNI
VIMK! T[IIHI MJq sRQLK VMa `I MqqIq KP `RIMq MJq `QKKIR! ZMHKRLIH MJq KIM.
nLJJIR LH K[I VPHK HQ`HKMJKLMN VIMN Ps K[I qMa. u[I QHQMN KLVI LH M`PQK HIxIJ PlTNPTz MJq MNN K[I VIV`IRH
Ps K[I sMVLNa HLK qPeJ KPgIK[IR. u[I sLRHK TPQRHI VLg[K `I HPQZ. u[IJ TPVIH K[I HITPJq TPQRHI: sLH[ PR VIMK!
ZIR[MZH K[I KRMqLKLPJMN RPMHK `IIs Ps PNq GJgNMJq. u[IJ K[I qIHHIRK LH HIRxIq: HPVI zLJq Ps HeIIK. 0QK
e[IK[IR M ZIRHPJ LJ sMTK gIKH HQT[ M VIMN qIZIJqH PJ [LH [PQHIzIIZLJg `QqgIK. /PVI ZIPZNI LJ K[I KPeJH
MJq JIMRNa MNN TPQJKRa ZIPZNI [MxI qLJJIR LJ K[I VLqqNI Ps K[I qMa LJHKIMq Ps NQJT[. u[Ia [MxI KIM M NLKKNI
NMKIR! `IKeIIJ sLxI MJq HLS PlTNPTz! e[IJ K[Ia VLg[K [MxI M NLg[K VIMN MJ PVINIKKI! PR HMQHMgIH PR sRLIq
sLH[ MJq T[LZH PR e[MKIxIR K[Ia TMJ MssPRq.
u[IJ `IsPRI gPLJg KP `Iq! K[Ia VMa [MxI M NLg[K HJMTz PR HQZZIR ."g" M TQZ Ps [PK VLNz eLK[ M
HMJqeLT[ PR `LHTQLK.
u[I IxIJLJg VIMN MH eI [MxI HMLq MNRIMqa gPIH QJqIR xMRLPQH JMVIH: KIM! r[Lg[ KIMr! qLJJIR PR HQZZIR
qIZIJqLJg QZPJ LKH HLI MJq MNHP K[I HPTLMN HKMJqLJg Ps K[PHI IMKLJg LK.
(/II: @otter /" GxIRaqMa GJgNLH[ sPR pPRILgJ /KQqIJKH. iJq.! +2,4
TEXT B. AT TABLE
1 L : . HMa! VQV! .lV KIRRL`Na [QJgRa. . [MxIJlK [Mq M K[LJg MNN qMa. . TPQNq qP eLK[ M HJMTz.
v P K [ I R : w[a! aPQlRI QHK LJ KLVI sPR qLJJIR.
1 L : 1P HPQZ sPR VI. .lq RMK[IR [MxI `IIsHKIMz.
v P K [ I R : dRI aPQ fQLKI HQRI aPQ ePQNqJlK NLzI HPVI HPQZ{ .K KMHKIH MNN RLg[K.
1 L T z : u[IRI LH JPK[LJg NLzI HKIMz MJq T[LZH. .lNN gP MJq eMH[ Va [MJqH.
v P K [ I R : |PelH K[I HKIMz{ .lV MsRMLq LKlH QJqIRqPJI.
1 L T z : o[! LKlH qPJI KP M KQRJ! QHK KP Va NLzLJg. . qPJlK NLzI VIMK PxIRqPJI. vMa . [MxI MJPK[IR
[INZLJg Ps T[LZH{
v P K [ I R : yIH! TIRKMLJNa. |MJq VI aPQR ZNMKI! ZNIMHI! MJq [INZ aPQRHINs KP K[I HMNMq. mQHK KP HII
4*
K[I OPJKLJIJK (RIVIV`IR K[I TMZLKMN NIKKIR MJq K[I MRKLTNI): K[I VMLJNMJq Ps GQRPZI! MH qLHKLJTK sRPV K[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIH (K[I JMVI LH QHIq `a K[I 0RLKLH[)
*,
[Pe LK KMHKIH.
1 L T z : o[! LKlH qINLTLPQH.
v P K [ I R : /[MNN . ZQK HPVI VQHKMRq PJ aPQR HKIMz{
1 L T z : 1P! K[MJzH! . qPJlK TMRI sPR VQHKMRq. .lq RMK[IR KMzI M HZPPJsQN Ps HMQTI. \MHH VI K[I HMQTI!
ZNIMHI.
v P K [ I R : |IRI aPQ MRI. o[! LHJlK K[IRI M HVINN Ps HPVIK[LJg `QRJLJg{
1 L : /P K[IRI LH.
v P K [ I R : .lxI NIsK K[I NMaIRTMzI LJ K[I PxIJ.
1 L T z : pPR gPPqJIHHl HMzI gIK LK PQK fQLTz.
v P K [ I R (5o+ing 2a5'B: o[! 1LTzc |Pe MezeMRq Ps aPQ KP [MxI HZLNK K[I HMQTI PxIR K[I KM`NI
TNPK[. UIK M ZMZIR JMZzLJ sRPV K[I HLqI`PMRq MJq TPxIR LK QZ.
1 L T z : .lV KIRRL`Na HPRRa. . eMH fQLKI QZHIK M`PQK Va sMxPQRLKI TMzI gIKKLJg HZPLNIq.
v P K [ I R : nPJlK ePRRa. |IRI LK LH! `RPeJ MJq TRLHZ PJ K[I PQKHLqI. w[MK eLNN aPQ [MxI! KIM PR
TPssII{
1 L : d TQZ Ps KIM.
v P K [ I R : dJa VLNz{ /[MNN . ZQK `QKKIR PJ aPQR `RIMq{
1 L T z : 1P! K[MJzH. . TMJlK HII K[I HQgMR`MHLJ.
v P K [ I R : .KlH `I[LJq K[I `RIMqZNMKI. |MxI M `IKKIR NPPz.
1 L T z : .lV MsRMLq LKlH K[I HMNKTINNMR.
v P K [ I R : /P LK LH. .J Va [QRRa . VQHK [MxI NIsK LK LJ K[I qRIHHIR.
1 L T z : .KlH MNN RLg[K .lNN gIK LK VaHINs.
v P K [ I R : |INZ aPQRHINs KP K[I TMzI. u[IRIlH JPK[LJg INHI KP sPNNPe.
1 L T z : .lxI [Mq M qINLTLPQH VIMN.
TEXT C. IN THE DINING-HALL
iIKlH gP KP K[I qLJLJg[MNN. wI [MxIJlK VQT[ KLVI NIsK! `QK eIlNN VMJMgI LK MNN RLg[K Ls aPQ [QRRa. yPQ
KMzI M ZNMTI LJ K[I fQIQI MJq .lNN HII e[MK eI TMJ gIK sPR qLJJIR.
dNN RLg[K. w[MK LH PJ K[I VIJQ{
OM``MgI HPQZ eLK[ VIMK! T[LTzIJ HPQZ eLK[ JPPqNIH MJq ZIM HPQZ.
. qPJlK zJPe e[IK[IR .lNN [MxI MJa. w[MK [MxI K[Ia gPK sPR HITPJqH{
pRLIq sLH[ MJq VMH[Iq ZPKMKPIH! `IIsHKIMz! `MTPJ MJq IggH.
dJq sPR qIHHIRK{
d NPK Ps K[LJgH. wI TMJ [MxI HKIeIq sRQLK PR TRMJ`IRRa INNa PR HKRMe`IRRLIH MJq TRIMV.
u[IJ! .lNN KMzI TM``MgI HPQZ eLK[ HPQR TRIMV MJq... wINN! MJq e[MK M`PQK HPVI HKMRKIR{ wIlxI
TPVZNIKINa sPRgPKKIJ M`PQK LK.
dH eI MRI LJ M [QRRa . `INLIxI eI TMJ qP eLK[PQK LK. . JIxIR K[PQg[K aPQ eIRI M `Lg IMKIR.
1ILK[IR qLq .. 0QK . ePQNqJlK VLJq [MxLJg HPVIK[LJg HQ`HKMJKLMN JPe.
/P eIlNN KMzI PJI TQTQV`IR HMNMq MJq PJI KPVMKP HMNMq. u[MKlNN qP sPR K[I KLVI `ILJg. . K[LJz . TMJ
VMJMgI M `LK Ps sLH[INNa MH eINN MJq K[IJ T[LTzIJ HPQZ eLK[ JPPqNIH. u[MKlNN `I sLJI.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)
4,

Words
`MTPJ n JMZzLJ n HJMTz n
`LHTQLK n JPPqNI HPQZ n HPTLM`NI ad1
`RIMqZNMKI n PVINIK (KI) n HPQR TRIMV n
T[LZH n ZMHKRa n HKMRKIR n
TPRJsNMzIH n ZIZZIR`PS (ZPK) n (`IIs) HKIMz n
TRIMV n ZPRRLqgI n HKIeIq sRQLK n
sRQLK QLTI n ZPQNKRa n HQgMR`MHLJ n
INNa n ZQqqLJg n HeIIK n
Qg n RPMHK `IIs n KM`NITNPK[ n
VMRVMNMqI n HMNKTINNMR n KPMHK n
VQHKMRqZPK n HMQTI`PMK n
Word Combinations
KP `PLN VIMK (ZPKMKPIH! TM``MgI! KP sRa `MTPJ! IggH! ZPKMKPIH!
IggH! eMKIR! VLNz! IKT) sLH[ (TPq! ZIRT[! ZLzI! [Mq
KP HKIe sRQLK (xIgIKM`NIH! VIMK) qPTz! KRPQK! HMNVPJ)
4,
OPVZMRI GHHIJKLMN :PTM`QNMRa gLxIJ LJ K[LH NIHHPJ eLK[ K[I sLRHKaIMR xPTM`QNMRa PJ K[I HMVI KPZLT.
*7
TRQHK Ps `RIMq KP KMHKI gPPq (`Mq! qINL
KP HLK MK KM`NI ([MxLJg M VIMN) TLPQH! IKT.)
(Ts.: KP HLK MK K[I KM`NI eRLKLJg KP `I qPJI KP M KQRJ (PxIR
M NIKKIR! IKT.) qPJI! QJqIRqPJI)
KP [MxI (KMzI) HVK[. sPR qLJJIR TRLHZ KPMHK
(sPR K[I sLRHK! HITPJq TPQRHI! KP [INZ PJIHINs KP HVK[.
PR qIHHIRK) KP ZMHH HVK[. KP HV`!
KP `QKKIR PJIlH `RIMq (RPNN! IKT.) KP qLJI in (PQK)
KP [MxI M HJMTz (M `LKI Ps sPPq) LKlH KP Va NLzLJg
KP [MxI MJPK[IR [INZLJg Ps HVK[. K[IRIlH JPK[LJg NLzI LTI
KP RPMHK VIMK (VQKKPJ! ZPRz! TRIMV (HKIMz! IKT.)
`IIs)! sPeN (T[LTzIJ! qQTz! K[IRIlH JPK[LJg INHI TPVLJg
gPPHI! KQRzIa)! ZPKMKPIH sPR M T[MJgI
Study the meanings and use of these items of your EssentiaI VocabuIary:
1. Food and MeaI. Food LH M gIJIRMN KIRV sPR MJaK[LJg K[MK ZIPZNI IMK: `RIMq! VIMK! sLH[! xIgIKM`NIH!
sRQLK! VLNz! KLJJIq gPPqH! HeIIKH! IKT.
."g" vMJ TMJJPK NLxI eLK[PQK sPPq. u[I qPTKPR HMLq K[MK K[I ZMKLIJK JIIqIq gPPq JPQRLH[LJg sPPq. w[IRI
qP aPQ `Qa aPQR sPPq{
Meal LH M gIJIRMNLLJg TPNNITKLxI KIRV sPR `RIMzsMHK! NQJT[! KIM! qLJJIR MJq HQZZIR (Ts. K[I QHHLMJ MRT[!
).
."g" |Pe VMJa VIMNH M qMa qP aPQ [MxI{ /QZZIR LH MJ IxIJLJg VIMN. . qPJlK eMJK MJa [PK VIMN; . K[LJz
.lNN qP eLK[ M HJMTz.
2. Course LH M qLH[ HIRxIq MK M VIMN; M ZMRK Ps M VIMN HIRxIq MK PJI KLVI.
."g" nLJJIR VMa TPJHLHK Ps KeP PR VPRI TPQRHIH. w[MK H[MNN eI KMzI sPR PQR HITPJq TPQRHI{ /PQZ eMH
sPNNPeIq `a M sLH[ TPQRHI.
3. To fry, to roast, to stew. uP sRa VIMJH rKP TPPz (PR `I TPPzIq) LJ `PLNLJg sMKr. wI QHQMNNa sRa sLH[!
ZPKMKPIH! IggH! `MTPJ! ZMJTMzIH! IKT.
To roast VIMJH rKP TPPz (PR `I TPPzIq) LJ MJ PxIJ PR PxIR MJ PZIJ sLRI.r .J K[LH eMa eI VMa TPPz VIMK
(xIMN! ZPRz)! sPeN (T[LTzIJ! KQRzIa)! IKT.
To stew VIMJH rKP TPPz `a HNPe `PLNLJg LJ M TNPHIq ZMJ eLK[ NLKKNI eMKIR.r .J K[LH eMa VIMK VMa `I
TPPzIq! MNHP xIgIKM`NIH! sRQLK! IKT.
4. Starter (49 H) LH M qLH[ HIRxIq `IsPRI PR MK K[I `IgLJJLJg Ps M VIMN (LK VMa `I HMNMq! sLH[! PNLxIH! HPQZ!
sRQLK QLTI! IKT.) |PRH qlPIQxRI (49 H) LH QHQMNNa QHIq PJ VIJQTMRqH.
5. OmeIette LH IggH `IMKIJ KPgIK[IR eLK[ VLNz MJq sRLIq PR `MzIq LJ M ZMJ. u[I GJgNLH[ sPR % LH
rsRLIq IggHr. wI IMK sRLIq IggH! HPsK`PLNIq IggH! [MRq`PLNIq IggH! HTRMV`NIq IggH! ZPMT[Iq IggH! sPQR
VLJQKI `PLNIq IggH.
6. Porridge LH M qLH[ Ps PMKVIMN PR PK[IR VIMN (`QTze[IMK! HIVPNLJM! VLNNIK! IKT.) `PLNIq LJ HPVI eMKIR.
vLNz MJq HQgMR PR VLNz MJq HMNK MRI MqqIq KP LK.
7. Toast LH HNLTIq `RIMq VMqI `RPeJ MJq TRLHZ PJ K[I PQKHLqI `a [IMKLJg LJ M KPMHKIR. uPMHK LH ZNMTIq PJ M
KPMHKRMTz.
8. Chips MRI sRLIq ZLITIH Ps ZPKMKP! PsKIJ IMKIJ eLK[ sRLIq sLH[.
9. Soft and strong drinks 968 .
Soft drinks MRI NIVPJMqI! sRQLK qRLJzH! sRQLK QLTI! IKT. Strong drinks MRI eLJI! NLfQIQRH! `RMJqa! xPqzM!
IKT.
10. JeIIy LH QHQMNNa VMqI `a `PLNLJg sRQLK (TRMJ`IRRLIH! HKRMe`IRRLIH! RMHZ`IRRLIH! gPPHI`IRRLIH! TQRRMJKH!
MZRLTPKH! IKT.) MJq HQgMR. /PVIK[LJg LH MqqIq KP VMzI K[I VLSKQRI HKLss.
11. MarmaIade LH M zLJq Ps MV VMqI sRPV PRMJgI PR NIVPJ TQK QZ MJq `PLNIq eLK[ HQgMR.
12. Pudding LH M xIRa ZPZQNMR GJgNLH[ qLH[. .K LH M K[LTz VLSKQRI Ps sNPQR! HQIK! VIMK! sRQLK! IKT.! TPPzIq
`a `PLNLJg! HKIMVLJg PR `MzLJg. u[IRI MRI VMJa zLJqH Ps ZQqqLJg. /PVI Ps K[IV MRI fQLKI HQ`HKMJKLMN MJq
HIRxI MH K[I VMLJ TPQRHI Ps NQJT[ PR qLJJIR. oK[IRH MRI RMK[IR NLzI HeIIK TMzI MJq IMKIJ sPR qIHHIRK.
EXERCISES
I. Study Text A and a) speII and transcribe EngIish equivaIents of the foIIowing:
(85) ! D! C! ! ! $$! ! 85! ;! $;
6 ()! C! $! ! 9 6.
b) give the four forms of the foIIowing verbs:
IMK! sRa! RPMHK! MTTPVZMJa! sLNN! `RLJg.
c) expIain the meaning of the foIIowing phrases:
*b
M sQNN VIMN! ZNMLJ sPPq! M HPTLM`NI KLVI! M [PQHIzIIZLJg `QqgIK! KP gP QJqIR xMRLPQH JMVIH! HPTLMN
HKMJqLJg.
II. Try your hand at teaching:
A. Preparation. wRLKI +* fQIHKLPJH M`PQK uISK d. /II KP LK K[MK M ePRq PR Z[RMHI sRPV GS. . LH QHIq
ILK[IR LJ IMT[ Ps aPQR fQIHKLPJH PR LJ MJHeIRH KP K[IV.
B. Work in Class. dHz aPQR fQIHKLPJH LJ TNMHH MJq TPRRITK K[I HKQqIJKHl VLHKMzIH (HII rONMHHRPPV
GJgNLH[r! /ITKLPJH .! ..! ...! :...! .^).
47
III. Study Texts and and
a) expIain the meaning of:
qINLTLPQH (M`PQK sPPq)! NMaIRTMzI! PxIJ! JMZzLJ! M `Lg IMKIR! qPJI KP M KQRJ! HITPJqH.
b) give the Infinitive oft
PxIRqPJI! HZLNK! QZHIK! VMH[Iq! HKIeIq.
IV. a) Give a summary of Text in reported speech.
GSMVZNI: uISK ( LH M KMNz `IKeIIJ KeP sRLIJqH LJ K[I qLJLJg [MNN Ps K[ILR .JHKLKQKI. u[Ia HIIV xIRa
[QJgRa! `QK K[Ia [MxIJlK gPK VQT[ KLVI NIsK `IsPRI K[I IJq Ps K[I `RIMz! HP PJI Ps K[IV HKMJqH LJ K[I NLJI!
e[LNI K[I PK[IR RIMqH K[I VIJQ. u[IRI LH M RLT[ T[PLTI Ps qLH[IH LJ LK `QK MH K[Ia MRI LJ M [QRRa K[Ia KMzI PJNa
HMNMqH! sLH[ INNa MJq T[LTzIJ HPQZ! e[LT[ H[PeH K[MK K[Ia MRI P`xLPQHNa QHHLMJH: K[I GJgNLH[ MRI JPK
PxIRsPJq Ps HPQZ! MH aPQ zJPe.
b) Learn Text by heart and recite it Ia pairs.
V. Study EssentiaI VocabuIary II and the commentary to it and answer the foIIowing questions:
+. w[MK zLJqH Ps sPPq qP aPQ zJPe{ ULxI MH VMJa JPQJH qIJPKLJg sPPq MH aPQ TMJ. 2. w[MK VIMNH qP
aPQ zJPe{ 4. w[MK qLH[IH qP aPQ zJPe{ ULxI MH VMJa JMVIH Ps qLH[IH MH aPQ TMJ. 3. w[MK LH QJqIRHKPPq
`a M rTPQRHIr{ w[MK MKKRL`QKIH VMa fQMNLsa K[LH ePRq{ *. w[MK TMJ `I `PLNIq{ ,. nP eI sRa VIMK PR qP eI
RPMHK LK{ K" w[MK LH MJ PVINIKKI VMqI sRPV{ b. w[MK MRI TPRJsNMzIH gIJIRMNNa IMKIJ eLK[{ 2. w[MK LH K[I
qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ sRLIq ZPKMKPIH MJq T[LZH{ +). w[MK zLJq Ps VIMN LH sLxI PlTNPTz KIM LJ GJgNMJq{ nP aPQ
zJPe PK[IR JMVIH sPR K[LH VIMN{ ++. w[MK zLJqH Ps sRQLK qP aPQ zJPe{ +2. nP eI RPMHK sLH[{ w[MK LH K[I
eMa KP TPPz LK{ +4. nP aPQ IxIR [MxI HKIeIq sRQLK sPR qIHHIRK{ +3. nP aPQ QHQMNNa [MxI M HKMRKIR `IsPRI
qLJJIR PR qP aPQ qP eLK[PQK LK{ +*. w[IRI qP aPQ [MxI aPQR VIMNH PJ eIIzqMaH MJq PJ /QJqMaH{
VI. FiII in prepositions or adverbs where necessary:
+. uMzI MJPK[IR [INZLJg ... HMNMq. 2. . K[LJz .lNN KRPQ`NI aPQ ... M HITPJq TQZ Ps KIM. 4. wLNN aPQ ZNIMHI
ZMHH ... K[I HQgMR. 3. /[I LH gPLJg KP VMzI HPVI sLH[ HPQZ ... qLJJIR. *. vMRVMNMqI LH VMqI ... PRMJgI ZIIN. ,.
u[I Igg LH IMKIJ ... M HVMNN HZPPJ. 7. u[ILR VIMN TPJHLHKIq ... KeP TPQRHIH. b. w[MK TMJ aPQ RITPVVIJq ...
K[I sLRHK TPQRHI{ 2. u[I VIMK LH qPJI ... M KQRJ. +). 1P HQgMR ... VI! K[MJz aPQ. ++.... VLqqMa ZIPZNI [MxI
K[ILR VIMNH ... [PVI PR ... K[I TMJKIIJ. +2. OQHKMRq LH VMqI ... IggH MJq VLNz. +4. u[I sLH[ LH QHK... Va NLzLJg.
+3. GxIJLJg VIMN gPIH ... xMRLPQH JMVIH ... GJgNMJq. +*. . qPJlK KMzI VLNz ... Va KIM. +,. |INZ aPQRHINs ...
HPVI ZMHKRa. +7. 0RPK[ LH VMqI ... `PLNLJg T[LTzIJ. +b. wLNN aPQ ZNIMHI [MJq ... K[I HMNKTINNMR{ +2. w[MK qP
aPQ QHQMNNa PRqIR ... qIHHIRK{ 2). u[I eMa KP RIsQHI ... M qLH[ LH ... HMaLJg r1P! K[MJz aPQ.r 2+. yPQ VMa
MHz ... M HITPJq [INZLJg.
VII. TransIate these sentences into EngIish:
+. < C $$. _$ >85 . 2. <$>
6 ;55 . X9 $87 $$ >$$. 4. _
9! D. 3. ' 8 9 7. " 7
6D$ $ =5. _ $ $. *. Y 8$85 @6D5 5B 6$
6 . ,. ' ; 6! 8>! @ 6B. 7. <;
$ $c b. CD 85{ A$$! >. $
>! 5! . 2. t > { F6 8 7!
8. +). $ ; D >5 D! ! $
>. ++" (6 $ 9{ ;7 ! 67 5 9. &$
$! >5.
VIII. a) Act out the diaIogues beIow:
A. Inviting someone out
/.: |MNNP! 0LNN! [MxI aPQ gPK MJa ZNMJH sPR K[LH IxIJLJg{
.: 1P! RIMNNa! JP.
/.: wINN! ePQNq aPQ NLzI KP [MxI M VIMN eLK[ VI{
.: o[! eINN! .lV JPK HQRI . TMJ VMJMgI K[MK.
/.: u[IRIlH M JLTI O[LJIHI RIHKMQRMJK LJ KPeJ K[I sPPqlH xIRa gPPq K[IRI.
.: o[! K[MK HPQJqH xIRa JLTI! K[MJzH.
47
oJI Ps K[I HKQqIJKH VMa MHz fQIHKLPJH! MJPK[IR TPRRITK K[I VLHKMzIH MsKIR IMT[ fQIHKLPJ MJq MJHeIR
*2
/.: .lNN TMNN sPR aPQ M`PQK b! K[IJ.
.: b PlTNPTz. pLJI! K[MJzH.
B. Asking your friends to do you a favour.
m.: .lV QHK gPLJg H[PZZLJg. nP aPQ eMJK MJaK[LJg{
v.: dRI aPQ gPLJg ZMHK K[I `MzIRlH `a MJa T[MJTI! mMJ{
m.: yIH.
v.: wINN! . ePJqIR Ls aPQ TPQNq gIK VI sLsKIIJ nMJLH[ ZMHKRLIH.
m.: pLsKIIJ{ . TMJlK LVMgLJI e[a aPQ eMJK sLsKIIJ.
v.: wINN! . eMJK KP gLxI IxIRaPJI LJ K[I TNMHH PJI sPR KIM.
m.: ojc . [PZI .lNN gIK PJI Ps K[IV.
v.: os TPQRHI! K[MJzH M NPK. (pQJTKLPJH Ps GJgNLH[. uIMT[IRlH 0PPz. OMV`RLqgI }JLx. \RIHH! +2b+)
b) Make up diaIogues of your own using word combinations from the texts.
.^. dHz aPQR ZMRKJIR
+. d`PQK K[I qLJJIR [I QHQMNNa [MH (KLVI! ZNMTI! qLH[IH). 2. .s [I KMzIH MJa HKMRKIR MJq e[MK [I NLzIH sPR LK.
4. w[MK zLJq Ps HPQZ [I NLzIH `IHK Ps MNN. 3. w[MK [LH sMxPQRLKI VIMK qLH[IH MRI. F" w[MK zLJqH Ps sLH[ [I
zJPeH. ,. .s [I NLzIH HKIeIq TMRRPKH. 7. w[MK PK[IR HKIeIq xIgIKM`NIH PR sRQLK [I IMKH. b. w[MK [I eMJKH sPR
qIHHIRK. 2. |Pe VMJa NQVZH Ps HQgMR [I KMzIH eLK[ [LH KIM. +). .s [I ZRIsIRH HKRPJg PR eIMz KIM. ++. w[MK [I
QHQMNNa qPIH Ls [I HZLNNH HPVI NLfQLq PJ K[I KM`NITNPK[. +2. .s [I TMJ TPPz MJa qLH[IH. +4. d`PQK K[I eMa [I
TPPzH VIMK (sRa! RPMHK! HKIe). +3. .s [I HPVIKLVIH IMKH PQK. +*. .s [I ZRIsIRH IMKLJg PQK.
X. Compose diaIogues between a Russian and an EsgIish student discussing a) EngIish and Russian
meaIs; b) their favourite dishes; c) where each of them has his meaIs.
XI. a) Study the text:
Bread -and-Butter Pudding
0IMK QZ KeP IggH MJq Mqq KP K[IV PJI ZLJK Ps VLNz MJq M NLKKNI sNMxPQRLJg. 0QKKIR K[I ZLIqLH[ MJq TQK
K[RII HNLTIH Ps `RIMqMJq`QKKIR LJ sLJgIRH! RIVPxLJg K[I TRQHKH. \QK M NMaIR Ps `RIMq LJ K[I qLH[! HZRLJzNI
eLK[ HQgMR MJq M sIe TNIMJIq TQRRMJKH PR RMLHLJH! Mqq VPRI `RIMq! sRQLK MJq HQgMR MJq K[IJ ZPQR PxIR K[I
VLNz MJq K[I IggH. iIMxI KP HPMz sPR PJI [PQR! K[IJ `MzI LJ M HNPe PxIJ M`PQK MJ [PQR. /ZRLJzNI eLK[ HQgMR
`IsPRI HIRxLJg.
b) Describe the way you cook your favourite dish. You may need some verbs besides those in the text,
such as min"e, mi#, grate, grind, "hop, sift, roll, bake.
XII. Try your band at teaching:
d. Preparation. pLJq 4 ZRPxIR`H qIMNLJg eLK[ K[I KPZLT. uRMJHNMKI K[IV MJq gLxI K[ILR QHHLMJ
IfQLxMNIJKH.
0. Work in Class. UIK M VIV`IR Ps K[I TNMHH KP eRLKI PJI Ps K[IV PJ K[I `NMTz`PMRq. vMzI MJPK[IR
HKQqIJK KRMJHNMKI LK MJq gLxI LKH QHHLMJ IfQLxMNIJK. uINN K[I TNMHH KP K[LJz Ps M H[PRK HLKQMKLPJ LNNQHKRMKLJg K[I
ZRPxIR`. OPRRITK K[I VLHKMzIH. (iPPz QZ K[I ePRqH aPQ VMa JIIq KP qP K[I ISIRTLHI LJ TNMHH LJ rONMHHRPPV
GJgNLH[r! /ITKLPJ :....)
XIII. a) Read the text beIow and comment on it:
Tea
0RLKPJH qRLJz M fQMRKIR Ps MNN K[I KIM gRPeJ LJ K[I ePRNq IMT[ aIMR. u[Ia MRI K[I ePRNqlH gRIMKIHK KIM
qRLJzIRH. vMJa Ps K[IV qRLJz LK PJ MK NIMHK ILg[K qLssIRIJK PTTMHLPJH qQRLJg K[I qMa. u[Ia qRLJz LK `IKeIIJ
VIMNH MJq MK VIMNH. u[Ia qRLJz LK eMKT[LJg KINIxLHLPJ. mPLJ K[I uIM: HIKc HMaH PJI eINNzJPeJ KIM
MqxIRKLHIVIJK. (/II: Ju&+an Y" 0RLKMLJ uPqMa. iJq.! +273)
b) What is the attitude towards tea drinking in this country?
XIV. TransIate toe foIIowing sentences:
+. @(6 6 8 { . ?; 6 >
6B. 2. ' ] 7 D! 9 ;! $ 9 6. 4. (;
$7 6 $8 7! D8 =! 5 ;! 8 > $>
C$ . 3. (6 $ 9{ 9 *. < 9 = $;
{ ;7 ! $ . ,. ( 85{ = ! 6
;5. 7. 8 ! 8 7 { b. 8 5 7 5
5 85{ < 6 5! >5. 2. t ; { 8
D5. +). ' 5. X. Y $6 9 $${ ! 6$. +2. -
; 8 ;5 ! ; $8 ;6. 8 8 9 8 6.
+4. ' > . +3. ' 7 8 8 6D!
$ >. +*. E$ $ ;5 ; ;=7 D 8$ 8$ ;$
(MZZNIKMRK). ' 8 . +,. ~ $> 7! ;! $6
(KMzI M ) ; . h =. ~$ 8 D 56
,)
$. +7. Y8 > 8 { < =. < $; 5 7 6.
XV. a) Study the text:
Pubs
pPR VMJa 0RLKLH[ ZIPZNI! K[I ZQ` LH K[I TIJKRI Ps K[ILR HPTLMN NLsI. \IPZNI sRPV HPVI TPQJKRLIH sLJq K[LH
RMK[IR H[PTzLJg! `QK sPR VPHK ZIPZNI LJ 0RLKMLJ M ZQ` LH M ZNMTI eLK[ M sRLIJqNa MKVPHZ[IRI e[IRI K[Ia TMJ
VIIK K[ILR sRLIJqH MJq KMNz PxIR M qRLJz MJq PsKIJ PxIR M VIMN.
dK NQJT[KLVI aPQ TMJ PsKIJ gIK HMJqeLT[IH PR M ZNPQg[VMJlH NQJT[ (`RIMq MJq T[IIHI). .J K[I IxIJLJg
VMJa ZQ`H HIRxI l`MHzIK VIMNHl (IHZITLMNNa T[LTzIJ MJq T[LZH HIRxIq LJ M `MHzIK) MK K[I `MR! MJq HPVI [MxI
RIHKMQRMJKH e[IRI aPQ TMJ gIK M TPVZNIKI VIMN.
.K LH fQLKI JPRVMN sPR ePVIJ KP gP LJKP ZQ`H LJ 0RLKMLJ! `QK NLzI IxIRa`Pqa INHI K[Ia VQHK sPNNPe K[I
NLTIJHLJg NMeH. u[IHI MRI xIRa TPVZNLTMKIq MJq TPJKRPN K[I KLVI ZQ`H MRI MNNPeIq KP PZIJ. (/II
rdZZRPMT[IH.r OMV`RLqgI +272.)
b) Comment on the text adding some more information on the topic.
XVI. Make up diaIogues:
Suggested Situations
d. |INIJ [MH LJxLKIq HPVI sRLIJqH KP M qLJJIR ZMRKa. /[I [MH TPPzIq MLN K[I qLH[IH [IRHINs MJq ZRPQqNa
VIJKLPJH K[I sMTK. |IR sRLIJqH qP JPK sLJq IxIRaK[LJg fQLKI KP K[ILR NLzLJg! `QK KRa JPK KP H[Pe LK. oJ K[I
e[PNI! IxIRa PJI LH [MxLJg gRIMK sQJ.
0! dJ LRRLKM`NI [QH`MJq LH HLKKLJg MK qLJJIR MJq TRLKLTLLJg [LH eLsIlH TPPzLJg. |I LH KRaLJg KP KIMT[ [IR K[I
eMa K[LH PR K[MK qLH[ H[PQNq `I TPPzIq K[PQg[ [I zJPeH xIRa NLKKNI M`PQK LK. u[I eLsI LH qPLJg [IR `IHK KP
qIsIJq [IRHINs.
O. d [PHKIHH LH KRIMKLJg M NMqaxLHLKPR KP M VIMN. u[I xLHLKPR zIIZH RIZIMKLJg K[MK H[I LH PJ M HNLVVLJg
qLIK! K[MK H[I JIxIR IMKH MJaK[LJg sMKKIJLJg MJq K[MK! LJ gIJIRMN! H[I IMKH NLzI M NLKKNI `LRq. yIK H[I [INZH
[IRHINs KP K[LH MJq K[MK xIRa [IMRKLNa! KLNN K[I [PHKIHH `IgLJH eMKT[LJg K[I qLHMZZIMRLJg sPPq eLK[ HPVI
MJSLIKa.
n. d HNPe eMLKRIHH LH KMzLJg MJ PRqIR sRPV M [QJgRa MJq LVZMKLIJK TNLIJK. dNN K[I TNLIJKlH IssPRKH KP PRqIR
K[LH PR K[MK qLH[ MRI RIsQHIq PJ MNN zLJqH Ps ZRIKISKH: K[I ZPRz LH sMK; K[I `IIs LH KPQg[; K[Ia [MxIJlK gPK MJa
VPRI ZPKMKPIH LJ K[I zLKT[IJ; K[I LTITRIMV [MH VINKIq; K[I TPPz [MH M KPPK[MT[I! IKT.
G. ueP xIRa aPQJg MJq ISKRIVINa LJISZIRLIJTIq [PQHIeLxIH MRI MqxLHLJg IMT[ PK[IR MH KP K[I `IHK eMa
Ps sIIqLJg K[ILR [QH`MJqH. oJI Ps K[IV LH LJTNLJIq KP KMzI K[I NLJI Ps NIMHK RIHLHKMJTI MJq KP HIRxI PJNa
KLJJIq sPPq sPR MNN K[I VIMNH. u[I PK[IR ZPLJKH PQK K[MK KLJJIq sPPq MNPJI eLNN JIxIR qP MJq HQggIHKH PK[IR
eMaH Ps HPNxLJg K[I ZRP`NIV.
XVII. Brash up your tabIe manners.
A. Answer the foIIowing questions and then check your answers by comparing Iitem with the answers
beIow:
+. w[MK LH K[I TPRRITK eMa KP HLK MK KM`NI{ 2. /[PQNq aPQ QHI aPQR sPRz PR aPQR zJLsI sPR KMzLJg M HNLTI Ps
`RIMq sRPV K[I `RIMqZNMKI{ 4. |Pe H[PQNq aPQ gIK M HNLTI Ps `RIMq sRPV K[I ZNMKI HKMJqLJg PJ K[I sMR IJq Ps
K[I KM`NI{ 3. w[MK LH K[I TPRRITK eMa Ps QHLJg HZPPJ! sPRz MJq zJLsI{ *. |Pe H[PQNq aPQ TQK aPQR VIMK{ ,.
w[MK MRI K[I qLH[IH sPR e[LT[ zJLsI H[PQNqJlK `I QHIq{ 7. w[MK i& K[I eMa KP IMK T[LTzIJ{ b. w[MK LH PJI
HQZZPHIq KP qP eLK[ K[I HKPJIH e[LNI IMKLJg HKIeIq sRQLK{ 2. w[MK H[PQNq aPQ qP eLK[ K[I HZPPJ MsKIR
HKLRRLJg aPQR KIM{ +). w[MK H[PQNq aPQ qP Ls aPQR sPPq LH KPP [PK{ ++. w[MK H[PQNq aPQ HMa KP RIsQHI M
HITPJq [INZLJg{ +2. w[MK H[PQNq aPQ HMa Ls aPQ NLzI K[I qLH[ xIRa VQT[{ +4. w[MK H[PQNq aPQ HMa Ls aPQ
qLHNLzI K[I qLH[{ +3. w[MK H[PQNqJlK PJI qP e[LNI IMKLJg{ +*. w[IRI H[PQNq PJI zIIZ K[I JIeHZMZIR PR K[I
`PPz qQRLJg M VIMN! PJ K[I KM`NI PR PJ PJIlH NMZ{
. Make up diaIogues discussing good and bad tabIe manners. Use the materiaI of Section A for questions
and that of Section for answers.
Answers to Exercise XVII.
M) r.K KMHKIH (RIMNNa) sLJIr or r.K LH qINLTLPQH.r
`) 1IxIR IMK K[I HKPJIH (KRaLJg KP `I PxIRZPNLKI). 1ILK[IR ePQNq LK `I M gPPq LqIM KP qLHZPHI Ps K[IV `a
qRPZZLJg K[IV QJqIR K[I KM`NI! ZNMTLJg K[IV LJ aPQR ZPTzIK PR LJ aPQR JILg[`PQRlH eLJIgNMHH. mQHK KMzI
K[IV sRPV aPQR VPQK[ PJ aPQR HZPPJ MJq ZNMTI K[IV PJ aPQR PeJ HMQTIR.
T) 1Pe[IRI JIMR K[I KM`NI. IMqLJg MK PJIlH VIMNH LH M `Mq [M`LK; LK LH `Mq sPR aPQR qLgIHKLPJ MJq LVZPNLKI
KPeMRqH PK[IRH HLKKLJg MK K[I HMVI KM`NI.
q) /LK HKRMLg[K MJq TNPHI KP K[I KM`NI. nPJlK ZQK aPQR IN`PeH PJ K[I KM`NI. nPJlK TRPHH aPQR NIgH PR HZRIMq
K[IV MNN PxIR K[I ZNMTI QJqIR K[I KM`NI.
I) 1IxIR NIMJ MTRPHH K[I KM`NI PR PxIR aPQR JILg[`PQRH KP gIK HPVIK[LJg PQK Ps aPQR RIMT[. mQHK HMa:
r\NIMHI ZMHH K[I `RIMq.r Mr" rwPQNq aPQ VLJq ZMHHLJg K[I `RIMq! ZNIMHI{r
s) 1PK[LJg. jIIZ aPQR LVZRIHHLPJH KP aPQRHINs MJq qPJlK IV`MRRMHH aPQR [PHKIHH.
,+
g) pLH[ qLH[IH MRI gIJIRMNNa IMKIJ eLK[PQK QHLJg zJLsI. .s PJI qPIH! LK LH TPJHLqIRIq M HIRLPQH `RIMT[ Ps
gPPq KM`NI VMJJIRH. u[I HMVI RIsIRH KP RLHHPNIH! TIRIMN MJq! LJ gIJIRMN! KP MJaK[LJg K[MK LH HPsK IJPQg[ KP `I
TPVsPRKM`Na IMKIJ eLK[ HZPPJ PR sPRz.
[) 1ILK[IR. yPQR [MJq LH fQLKI TPRRITK sPR gIKKLJg M HNLTI Ps `RIMq sPR aPQRHINs. dsKIR MNN! LK LH aPQ e[P LH
gPLJg KP IMK LK.
L) w[LNI IMKLJg! PJI H[PQNq ZRPqQTI MH NLKKNI JPLHI PR HPQJq MH ZPHHL`NI. .K LH qITLqIqNa `Mq VMJJIRH KP
HZIMz eLK[ aPQR VPQK[ sQNN. nPJlK ZQK aPQR `RIMq LJ aPQR HPQZ. nPJlK ZPQR aPQR KIM LJ aPQR HMQTIR. nPJlK
NIMxI VQT[ PJ K[I ZNMKI: LK LH LVZPNLKI KPeMRqH aPQR [PHKIHH. .s aPQ [MxI NLzIq K[I qLH[! LK qPIHJlK sPNNPe K[MK
aPQ H[PQNq ZPNLH[ K[I ZNMKI eLK[ aPQR `RIMq.
) nPJlK [PNq aPQR HZPPJ LJ aPQR sLHK! qPJlK KLNK LK HP MH KP HZLNN LKH TPJKIJKH. u[I sPRz H[PQNq `I [INq LJ aPQR
NIsK [MJq! K[I zJLsI LJ aPQR RLg[K.
z) .K LH eRPJg sLRHK KP TQK MNN K[I VIMK aPQ [MxI gPK PJ aPQR ZNMKI LJ HVMNN ZLITIH MJq K[IJ IMK LK. OQK Pss M
HNLTI MK M KLVI! IMK LK! K[IJ TQK Pss MJPK[IR! [PNqLJg aPQR zJLsI LJ K[I RLg[K [MJq MJq aPQR sPRz LJ K[I NIsK.
N) r1P VPRI! K[MJz aPQ.r
V) OQK Pss MJq IMK MH VQT[ MH ZPHHL`NI `a QHLJg aPQR zJLsI MJq sPRz; K[I RIVMLJLJg ZMRK IMK `a [PNqLJg
K[I ZLITI LJ aPQR [MJq `a K[I IJq Ps K[I `PJI.
n) 1IxIR TPPN aPQR sPPq `a `NPeLJg MK LK. mQHK eMLK M `LK! K[IRI LH JP [QRRa.
P) nPJlK NIMxI aPQR HZPPJ LJ K[I gNMHH e[LNI qRLJzLJg. \QK LK PJ aPQR HMQTIR.
XVIII. a) Read and transIate the foIIowing extracts:
+. 0RIMzsMHK LJ K[I mIJHHIJ [PVI eMH JPK VQT[ qLssIRIJK sRPV `RIMzsMHK LJ M TPQZNI Ps [QJqRIq K[PQHMJq
[PVIH LJ K[I URIMK OLKa. wMNKIR mIJHHIJ [Mq [LH ZMZIR ZRPZZIq MgMLJHK K[I xLJIgMR TRQIK MJq K[I HQgMR `PeN.
|I RIMq ISZIRKNa! JPK IxIJ KMzLJg [LH IaIH Pss K[I ZRLJKIq ZMgI e[IJ [I RMLHIq [LH TPssII TQZ KP [LH VPQK[.
\MQN mIJHHIJ! HIxIJ gPLJg PJ ILg[K! eMH IMKLJg [LH [PK TIRIMN! e[LT[ [Mq KP `I HeIIKIJIq [IMxLNa KP gIK [LV
KP KPQT[ LK. vaRJM mIJHHIJ! wMNKIRlH sLxIaIMRPNq qMQg[KIR! eMH HTRMKT[LJg [IR KPe[IMq eLK[ [IR NIsK [MJq
e[LNI H[I sIq [IRHINs eLK[ [IR RLg[K. vaRJM! KPP! eMH ISZIRK LJ [IR sMH[LPJ: H[I ePQNq ZQK K[I HZPPJ LJ [IR
VPQK[! HNLqI K[I TIRIMN Pss! MJq `RLJg PQK K[I HZPPJ QZHLqI qPeJ. GNHLI mIJHHIJ (vRH. wMNKIR) [Mq HKPZZIq
IMKLJg VPVIJKMRLNa K[I `IKKIR KP ISZNPRI eLK[ [IR KPJgQI M `LTQHZLq (5 ) K[MK HIRLPQHNa JIIqIq
MKKIJKLPJ. (*ro+ ru[I .qIMN vMJr 2y m. ol|MRM)
b) Comment on the tabIe manners of the Jenssen famiIy and say what you wouId do if you were the father
or the mother:
2. w[LNI dJJM ZRIZMRIq [IRHINs KP VIIK [IR TNMHH Ps sPRKaHLS NLxINa MJq LJfQLHLKLxI T[LNqRIJ [IR NMJqNMqa
eMH `QHa ZRIZMRLJg K[I [Lg[ KIM sPR [IR [QH`MJq MJq K[I JIe NPqgIR.
/[I [Mq HTRIeIq K[I PNq VLJTIR KP K[I zLKT[IJ KM`NI MJq JPe sIq LK eLK[ RMK[IR KPQg[ HKRLZH Ps `IIs! K[I
RIVMLJH Ps K[I /QJqMa PLJK. u[IRI eMH JPK VQT[! KP `I HQRI! `QK vRH. pNaJJlH ZLJT[ZIJJa HZLRLK [Mq `IIJ
RPQHIq KP VIIK K[LH T[MNNIJgI MJq K[I [IIN Ps M `RPeJ NPMs! M NMRgI PJLPJ! MJq M KPVMKP PJ K[I KM`NI eIRI K[I
LJgRIqLIJKH Ps K[I RIHK Ps K[I ZRPZPHIq TPKKMgI ZLI.
r.s . PZIJ M KLJ Ps `MzIq `IMJH!r HMLq vRH. pNaJJ MNPQq! rK[IRIlNN `I JP JIIq sPR gRMxa! . H[MJlK eMHKI gMH
QJJITIHHMRLNacr /[I ZQRHIq [IR K[LJ NLZH eLK[ HMKLHsMTKLPJ! RIVIV`IRLJg! eLK[ HQqqIJ ZNIMHQRI! K[MK H[I [Mq
`PQg[K K[I `IMJH MK M RIqQTIq ZRLTI MH ru[LH wIIzlH dVMLJg ossIRr MK K[I NPTMN gRPTIRlH. /[I KeLRNIq K[I
[MJqNI Ps K[I VLJTIR eLK[ MqqIq IHK.
yIHKIRqMalH HKIeIq MZZNI! H[I K[PQg[K `QHLNa! TPQNq `I HIRxIq PQK eLK[ M NLKKNI IxMZPRMKIq VLNz! LJ K[RII
LJqLxLqQMN qLH[IH. d T[IRRa PJ KPZ Ps IMT[ ePQNq VMzI M JLTI sIHKLxI KPQT[! qITLqIq vRH. pNaJJ LJ M eLNq
`QRHK Ps ISKRMxMgMJTI. /[I HKRMLg[KIJIq QZ sRPV [IR VLJTLJg MJq PZIJIq K[I HKPRI TQZ`PMRq e[IRI H[I zIZK
[IR KLJJIq MJq `PKKNIq sPPq. .J K[I sRPJK RPe M HVMNN MR Ps T[IRRLIH gNIMVIq RPHLNa. pPR PJI NPJg VLJQKI
vRH. pNaJJ HKQqLIq LKH T[MRVH! KPRJ `IKeIIJ PZZPHLKI sPRTIH Ps MRK MJq K[RLsK. :LTKPRa eMH MTTPVZNLH[Iq
IMHLNa. r\LKa KP PZIJ K[IV!r HMLq vRH. pNaJJ! HNMVVLJg K[I TQZ`PMRq qPPR MJq RIKQRJIq KP [IR VLJTLJg.
(*ro+ rpRIH[ sRPV K[I OPQJKRar 2y v. IIq)
c) Comment on the character of the IandIady. Prove your statement.
XIX. Try your hand at teaching:
A. Preparation. pLJq HPVI ZLTKQRIH MJq PzIH PJ K[I KPZLT MJq ZRIZMRI KP ePRz eLK[ K[IV LJ TNMHH. (/II
rONMHHRPPV GJgNLH[r! /ITKLPJH :..! :....)
B. Work in Class. +. uINN M PzI PR H[Pe MJq qIHTRL`I M ZLTKQRI KP K[I TNMHH. 2. dHz HPVI fQIHKLPJH KP HII
Ls K[I NLHKIJIRH [MxI gRMHZIq K[I VIMJLJg Ps aPQR HKPRa. 4. .s aPQ eMJK K[I HKQqIJKH KP QHI HPVI JIe ePRqH
eRLKI K[IV PJ K[I `NMTz`PMRq! KRMJHNMKI K[IV! ZRMTKLHI K[ILR ZRPJQJTLMKLPJ (LJ T[PRQH) PR QHMgI (`a VMzLJg
K[I HKQqIJKH KRMJHNMKI aPQR HIJKIJTIH sRPV GJgNLH[ PR QHHLMJ). 3. uINN K[I PzI PR qIHTRL`I K[I ZLTKQRI PJTI
VPRI. *. vMzI +2 HKQqIJKH RIKINN K[I PzI (qIHTRL`I K[I ZLTKQRI) PR VMzI QZ M qLMNPgQI PJ K[I HQ`ITK. ,.
OPRRITK K[I VLHKMzIH MsKIR K[I HKQqIJK [MH sLJLH[Iq HZIMzLJg. (/II rONMHHRPPV GJgNLH[r! /ITKLPJH .^! ^.)
XX. RoIe-pIaying:
,2
dRRMJgI M KIMZMRKa (MK [PVI PR LJ K[I TMJKIIJ). ueP Ps K[I HKQqIJKH MRI KP MTK MH [PHK MJq [PHKIHH! [MxLJg
HPVI sRLIJqH RPQJq (2 PR 4 Ps K[IV MRI GJgNLH[). u[I VMLJ KPZLT qLHTQHHIq MK K[I ZMRKa LH KRMqLKLPJH
TPJJITKIq eLK[ VIMNH. GMT[ VIV`IR Ps K[I gRPQZ VQHK KINN M H[PRK HKPRa! PzI PR ZRPxIR` KP IJKIRKMLJ K[I
ZMRKa.
XXI.. Arrange short debates on the foIIowing questions:
+. /[PQNq eI HKLTz KP PQR TQHKPV Ps gLxLJg PQR gQIHKH M HQ`HKMJKLMN VIMN{ 2. |Pe qP aPQ NLzI K[I LqIM Ps
TINI`RMKLJg sMVLNa [PNLqMaH LJ M TMsI PR RIHKMQRMJK{ 4. dRI PNq KRMqLKLPJH! ePRK[ zIIZLJg{
STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH
IV
IZIMKLJg zIaePRqH LJ qLssIRIJK eMaH MJq QHLJg KPZLT HIJKIJTIH ZRPZIRNa eLK[LJ M ZMRMgRMZ[ MRI JPK K[I
PJNa eRLKLJg KIT[JLfQIH. UPPq eRLKLJg JP VMKKIR e[IK[IR aPQ MRI qIHTRL`LJg! JMRRMKLJg! MRgQLJg! PR
ISZNMLJLJg H[PQNq `I eINN PRgMJLIq; K[MK LH! LK H[PQNq `I QJqIR TPJKRPN Ps K[I TIJKRMN LqIM Ps K[I KPZLT.
0IsPRI HKMRKLJg KP eRLKI MJa ZLITI Ps ZRPHI aPQ H[PQNq PRgMJLI aPQR K[PQg[KH MRPQJq M KPZLT! aPQ VQHK [MxI
M ZNMJ PR MJ PQKNLJI.
Plan LH M NLHK Ps ZPLJKH e[LT[ aPQ LJKIJq KP qIxINPZ LJ aPQR eRLKLJg LJ NPgLTMN PRqIR PR LJ PRqIR Ps
LVZPRKMJTI eLK[ RIsIRIJTI KP KLVI! KP ZPLJK Ps xLIe MJq KP HLKQMKLPJ.
Note: u[I ePRqH rZNMJr MJq rPQKNLJIr MRI HPVIKLVIH QHIq eLK[PQK HIJHI qLHTRLVLJMKLPJ. 0QK LK LH `IKKIR KP QHI rZNMJr e[IJ
K[I TPVZPHLKLPJ LH JPK aIK eRLKKIJ PR ZNMJJLJg LH VMqI `a K[I MQK[PR. u[I ePRq rPQKNLJIr LH QHIq RMK[IR e[IJ qIMNLJg eLK[ M
ePRz MNRIMqa eRLKKIJ `a HPVIPJI INHI.
u[I `IHK eMa KP NIMRJ [Pe KP VMzI M gPPq ZNMJ Ps aPQR eRLKLJg LH KP NIMRJ [Pe KP VMzI MJ PQKNLJI Ps
PRLgLJMN ZLITIH Ps ZRPHI. u[IRI MRI qLssIRIJK eMaH Ps eRLKLJg MJ PQKNLJI. .K TMJ `I ISZRIHHIq LJ: +) zIaePRqH
PR `RLIs KPZLT Z[RMHIH (KPZLT PQKNLJI); 2) TPVZNIKI HIJKIJTIH (HIJKIJTI PQKNLJI); 4) gRPQZH Ps HIJKIJTIH
TPJKMLJLJg K[I KPZLT PR VMLJ LqIM (ZMRMgRMZ[ PQKNLJI). u[I T[PLTI qIZIJqH PJ K[I NIJgK[ MJq TPVZNISLKa Ps
K[I eRLKLJg MJq ISZIRLIJTI Ps K[I `IgLJJIR.
GSMVZNIH: M) d HMVZNI KPZLT PQKNLJI Ps rd nMalH wMLKr.
+. d xIRa HLTz `Pa Ps JLJI aIMRH PNq.
2. nPTKPRlH xLHLK.
4. pIINLJg K[I HMVI.
3. iIMxLJg K[I `Pa sPR M e[LNI.
*. u[I `PalH KMNz M`PQK qIMK[.
,. dRgQVIJK M`PQK KIVZIRMKQRI.
7. INMSMKLPJ MJq JIRxPQH `RIMzqPeJ.
`) d HMVZNI HIJKIJTI PQKNLJI Ps rd nMalH wMLKr.
+. u[I `Pa eMH H[LxIRLJg eLK[ sIxIR! QJeLNNLJg KP gP KP `Iq.
2. u[I qPTKPR KPPz K[I `PalH KIVZIRMKQRI MJq HMLq K[IRI eMH JPK[LJg KP ePRRa M`PQK.
4. u[I `Pa HIIVIq qIKMT[Iq MJq zIZK NPPzLJg MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I `Iq.
3. u[I sMK[IR eIJK sPR M eMNz.
*. |I TMVI `MTz MJq sPQJq K[I `Pa HKLNN HKMRLJg MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I `Iq.
,. u[I `Pa eMH HQRI [I eMH gPLJg KP qLI.
7. u[I sMK[IR ISZNMLJIq K[I qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ K[I pM[RIJ[ILK MJq OIJKLgRMqI K[IRVPVIKIRH.
b. u[I `Pa RINMSIq! `QK K[I JISK qMa [I TRLIq xIRa IMHLNa MK NLKKNI K[LJgH K[MK eIRI Ps JP LVZPRKMJTI.
Assignments:
+. IMq K[I HKPRa r|Pe wI jIZK vPK[IRlH nMar MJq VMzI M KPZLT PQKNLJI Ps .KH TPJKIJKH.
2. vMzI M HIJKIJTI PQKNLJI Ps K[I HKPRa.
4. vMzI M ZNMJ Ps aPQR JMRRMKLPJ M`PQK K[I ZIPZNI ZRIHIJKIq LH K[I ZLTKQRI (HII Z. +4b).
LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)
+. M) NLHKIJ KP K[I KIHK rdJ GJgNLH[VMJlH vIMNHr! VMRz K[I HKRIHHIH MJq KQJIH. `) IZIMK LK LJ K[I LJKIRxMNH
sPNNPeLJg K[I VPqIN.
2. M) iLHKIJ KP K[I qLMNPgQI rdK uM`NIr.
`) IZIMK LK LJ K[I LJKIRxMNH sPNNPeLJg K[I VPqIN.
T) iIMRJ K[I KISK `a [IMRK.
4. dJHeIR K[I fQIHKLPJH QHLJg K[I gLxIJ ZMKKIRJH.
3. vMzI QZ HIJKIJTIH QHLJg K[I gLxIJ ZMKKIRJH.
*. wRLKI M qLTKMKLPJ.
,. \MRMZ[RMHI K[I gLxIJ HIJKIJTIH.
7. uRMJHNMKI K[I HIJKIJTIH LJKP GJgNLH[. O[ITz K[IV eLK[ K[I zIa.
b. NLHKIJ KP K[I KISK r|I wMH uPP uLVLqr PR HPVI PK[IR KISK PJ K[I KPZLT rvIMNHr. UIK RIMqa KP gLxI K[I
HQVVMRa LJ TNMHH.
,4
CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS
+. w[MK LH rvPK[IRlH nMar{ w[IRI MJq e[IJ LH LK TINI`RMKIq{
2. w[MK LH M ZQ`{ w[MK KRMqLKLPJH MRI TPJJITKIq eLK[ Ls{
4. w[MK LH M `MJz [PNLqMa LJ 0RLKMLJc
3. nIHTRL`I HPVI KRMqLKLPJH PR TQHKPVH TPJJITKIq eLK[ sMVLNa PR ZQ`NLT [PNLqMaH LJ GJgNMJq.
*. w[MK qP K[I KIRVH rwINH[ 0M``LKr! r\MJTMzI nMar MJq rnQKT[ uRIMKr VIMJ{
,. pLJq M HKPRa (MJ IHHMa) PR M ZMHHMgI LJ M JPxIN `a MJ GJgNLH[ PR dVIRLTMJ eRLKIR qIHTRL`LJg M VIMN.
ULxI LKH HQVVMRa LJ TNMHH.
UNIT FIVE
I SPEECH PATTERNS
+. . eMH HQRI KP `I ZQK qPeJ LJ TNMHH JISK KP K[I gLRN... MJq H[I wou9d whi&4er MJq gLggNI.
u[I T[LNqRIJ MNeMaH TMVI KP HII K[ILR gRMJqVPK[IR PJ /QJqMaH! MJq H[I ePQNq gLxI K[IV qINLTLPQH
ZMHKRLIH.
w[IJ MHzIq K[LH fQIHKLPJ! [I ePQNq HVLNI MJq HMa JPK[LJg.
w[IJ ZIPZNI VIK [LV LJ K[I HKRIIK K[Ia ePQNq KQRJ MeMa MJq ZRIKIJq JPK KP zJPe [LV.
2. mQqa HMLq H[I qLqJlK zJPe K[MK ZIPZNI QHId to 2e VPJzIaH.
M) u[Ia QHIq KP `I gRIMK sRLIJqH.
u[IRI QHIq KP `I M KINIZ[PJI`PPK[ RPQJq K[I TPRJIR. . QHIq KP zJPe [LV. }HIq aPQ KP zJPe [LV.
`) |I QHIq KP KRMxIN `a ZNMJI! }HI(q)nlK [I{ PR \idn?t [I{ (5o99oC"B
|I QHIq KP ePRz NMKI MK JLg[K.
nLq [I QHI KP ePRz NMKI MK JLg[K{ (TPNNPf.)
mQqalH sINNPeHKQqIJKH QHIq KP NMQg[ MK [IR LgJPRMJTI.
4. .lV JPK u&ed to re5eiving ZRIHIJKH.
/[I eMH JPK QHIq KP `ILJg KRIMKIq QJzLJqNa.
.K LH KPP `Mq e[IJ M TPNNIgI HKQqIJK LH JPK QHIq KP RIMqLJg `PPzH.
u[I VPK[IR eMH QHIq KP qPLJg MNN K[I ePRz M`PQK K[I [PQHI MNPJI.
oQR HKQqIJKH MRI QHIq KP ePRzLJg eLK[ M TMHHIKKIRITPRqIR.
4. .K wa& mQqa e[P [Mq KP RIMq ZNMLJ `PPzH.
.K eMH H[MVI! JPK sIMR! K[MK VMqI [IR TRa. .K eMH K[I NMHK TPQRHI K[MK KMHKIq IHZITLMNNa gPPq. .K eMH K[I
VPK[IR e[P qITPRMKIq K[I [PQHI MJq ZRIZMRIq IxIRaK[LJg sPR K[I TINI`RMKLPJ.
.K eMH Va HLHKIRH e[P TPPzIq MNN K[I qLH[IH.
EXERCISES
I. Paraphrase the foIIowing using Patterns 1-3:
\ M K K I R J +: +. 0a K[I IJq Ps K[I ePRzLJgqMa [I QHQMNNa eMLKIq sPR [IR MK K[I sMTKPRagMKI MJq K[Ia
eIJK [PVI KPgIK[IR. 2. u[I HZRLJg qMaH eIRI eMRV MJq HQJJa! MJq K[I T[LNqRIJ HZIJK VQT[ KLVI PQKPs
qPPRH. 4. w[IJ K[Ia HPVIKLVIH MHzIq [LV M`PQK [LH TPNNIgI qMaH! [I MNeMaH MJHeIRIq K[MK [I [Mq gRIMKNa
IJPaIq gPLJg KP TPNNIgI. 3. u[I VPK[IR JIxIR TPVZNMLJIq; QHQMNNa H[I PJNa HLg[Iq MJq eIJK PJ eLK[ [IR
ePRz. *. |IR [QH`MJq PsKIJ TMVI `MTz [PVI KLRIq MJq MJgRa; MK KM`NI [I MgMLJ MJq MgMLJ sPQJq sMQNK eLK[
K[I TPPzLJg. ,. w[IJ eI KPNq K[I VPK[IR [Pe gPPq IxIRaK[LJg KMHKIq! H[I MNeMaH HMLq r|QJgIR LH K[I `IHK
HMQTI.r
\ M K K I R J 2: +. |I eMH LJ K[I [M`LK Ps HMaLJg K[MK K[IRI LH JP gMVI NLzI sPPK`MNN. 2. /[I MNeMaH NIsK K[I
qLH[IH QJeMH[Iq LJ K[I zLKT[IJ HLJz MJq eIJK MeMa. 4. w[IJ [I eMH M HKQqIJK [I eIJK KP K[I NL`RMRa IxIRa
PK[IR qMa. 3. va VPK[IR MNeMaH VMqI M HZNIJqLq T[PTPNMKI KMRK sPR Va `LRK[qMa. *. w[IJ . eMH M T[LNq! PQR
sMVLNa MNeMaH eIJK KP K[I HIMHLqI sPR HQVVIR [PNLqMaH. ,. w[IJ [I eMH aPQJgIR! [I eMH M ZRIKKa gPPq
qMJTIR.
\ M K K I R J 4:+. .KlH HPVIK[LJg JIe sPR VI KP `I KRIMKIq LJ K[LH eMa. 2. 0ILJg VMqI sQJ Ps eMH HPVIK[LJg
fQLKI QJQHQMN sPR [IR. 4. .K eMH JPK K[I sLRHK KLVI K[MK K[I qPTKPR eMH KP KRIMK K[LH [PRRL`NI qLHIMHI. 3. . MNeMaH
ePRz `a HQT[ NLg[K! LK LH JPRVMN sPR VI. *. u[I T[LNq eMH JIxIR RIsQHIq MJaK[LJg MJq TPJHLqIRIq LK M JPRVMN
HKMKI Ps K[LJgH.
II. Make the foIIowing sentences emphatic using Pattern 4 as in the exampIe:
GSMVZNI: va sRLIJq KPNq VI IxIRaK[LJg M`PQK LK.
.K eMH Va vIJq e[P KPNq VI IxIRaK[LJg M`PQK LK.
+. nPTKPR uIVZNI TQRIq vRH. URIIJIlH [QH`MJq Ps [LH HKPVMT[ qLHIMHI. 2. /KIxI KRIMKIq K[IV MNN KP LTI
TRIMVH. 4. |IR `RPK[IR KPNq QH MNN M`PQK K[MK KIRRL`NI MTTLqIJK. 3. yPQR RQqIJIHH VMqI [IR TRa. *. va VPK[IR
qPIH K[I TPPzLJg sPR MNN K[I sMVLNa. ,. u[PHI `PPzH VMqI M qIIZ LVZRIHHLPJ PJ [LV MJq qITLqIq [LH sQKQRI.
7. u[LH JPLHI qPIHJlK NIK VI TPJTIJKRMKI PJ Va ePRz. b. u[IHI HKQqIJKH RITLKIq K[ILR PeJ ZPIVH MK K[I NMHK
,3
ZMRKa eLK[ M gRIMK HQTTIHH.
III. TransIate these sentences into EngIish:
+. ' $ 8 ;6! D 89 5 . 2. h
$$! ! %$. 4. F>85 ! ; 9 $
;! 8 > 8 6. 3. 8 6 5 6D5 5!
; 7. *. ~; E$ $ ;8! ;9. ,. ?6D 8
9 $5 ; >. 7. F>85 ! ; D >6! 9>. b.
? 8! 8 $ =6 . 2. Y! $$! "{
< 6 $ 8 $ E; >; D. +). $ $
%! ! .
IV. Answer the questions: use would or used to.
N o t e: w[IJ K[I VIMJLJg LH TQHKPVMRa! RIZIMKIq PR [M`LKQMN MTKLxLKa V K[I ZMHK! QHIq KP PR ePQNq MRI LJKIRT[MJgIM`NI! ."g"
oQR KIMT[IR QHIq KP gLxI [IR HKQqIJKH M eRLKKIJ KIHK IxIRa u[QRHqMa. /[I ePQNq RIMq K[IV M HKPRa IxIRa eIIz KPP.
pPR gRIMKIR IVZ[MHLH PJ K[I LqIM Ps ZMHK TQHKPV QHIq KP LH ZRIsIRM`NI! ."g" |I QHIq KP eMKT[ M T[LNqRIJlH ZRPgRMV MK K[MK
[PQR.
uP ISZRIHH xPNLKLPJ! PR ZIRHLHKIJTI RIsIRRLJg KP K[I ZMHK ePQNq LH QHQMNNa QHIq; ."g" /IxIRMN KLVIH [I KRLIq KP gIK MeMa! `QK
K[Ia ePQNq JPK NIK [LV gP.
+. |Pe PsKIJ ePQNq aPQ eRLKI M TPVZPHLKLPJ e[IJ aPQ eIRI LJ K[I JLJK[ sPRV{ 2. wPQNq aPQR KIMT[IRH
MNeMaH TPRRITK aPQR TPVZPHLKLPJH{ 4. w[P QHIq KP [INZ aPQ eLK[ aPQR [PVIePRz{ 3. w[MK ePQNq aPQ qP
qQRLJg K[I HQVVIR{ *. w[IRI qLq aPQ QHI KP gP sPR aPQR xMTMKLPJ{ ,. w[IJ aPQ eIRI M T[LNq e[MK qLq aPQ
QHI KP qP PJ /MKQRqMa MsKIRJPPJ{ 7. w[MK ePQNq aPQ QHQMNNa qP PJ /QJqMa{ b. w[IJ aPQR `RPK[IR eMH
aPQJgIR! [I QHIq KP ZNMa KIJJLH! QHI(q)nlK [I{
V. Make up short situations (no more than two or three sentences) or diaIogues to iIIustrate Patterns 1-4
VI. Search the books you read for sentences with these patterns (1-4) to add up to your student's
workbook; practise the best exampIes in cIass.
TEXT. A FRESHMAN'S EXPERIENCE $rom "Daddy Long-Legs" by Jean Webster
u[I `PPz rnMqqa iPJgiIgHr `a MJ dVIRLTMJ eRLKIR mIMJ wI`HKIR (+b7,+2+,) LH M JPxIN eRLKKIJ LJ K[I sPRV Ps NIKKIRH.
u[I MQK[PR Ps K[IHI NIKKIRH! M aPQJg gLRN! mQqa `a JMVI! eRLKIH K[IV KP [IR gQMRqLMJ! M RLT[ VMJ e[PV H[I [MH JIxIR HIIJ.
mQqa eMH `RPQg[K QZ LJ MJ PRZ[MJ MHaNQV e[IRI [IR NLsI eMH [MRq. u[I T[LNqRIJ eIRI e[PNNa qIZIJqIJK PJ T[MRLKa. u[Ia
eIRI `MqNa sIq MJq [Mq KP eIMR PK[IR ZIPZNIlH TMHKPss TNPK[IH. mQqa eMH M xIRa `RLg[K gLRN MJq e[IJ H[I sLJLH[Iq HT[PPN! [IR
gQMRqLMJ HIJK [IR KP TPNNIgI.
mQqa sIINH xIRa [MZZa M`PQK LK. /[I [PZIH KP `ITPVI M eRLKIR MJq ZMa `MTz K[I VPJIa HZIJK PJ [IR IqQTMKLPJ `a [IR
gQMRqLMJ. d`PQK K[I NMKKIR K[I gLRN zJPeH MNVPHK JPK[LJg: H[I zJPeH K[MK [I LH M xIRa KMNN VMJ. u[MK LH e[a H[I PzLJgNa TMNNH
[LV nMqqa iPJgiIgH.
u[LH KISK LH PJI Ps [IR NIKKIRH gLxLJg QH M gNLVZHI Ps [IR IMRNa TPNNIgI LVZRIHHLPJH.
oTKP`IR! 2*K[
nIMR nMqqa iPJgiIgH!
OPNNIgI
4b
gIKH JLTIR MJq JLTIR! . NLzI K[I gLRNH MJq K[I KIMT[IRH MJq K[I TNMHHIH MJq K[I TMVZQH
42
MJq K[I
K[LJgH KP IMK. wI [MxI LTITRIMV KeLTI M eIIz MJq eI JIxIR [MxI TPRJVIMN VQH[.
u[I KRPQ`NI eLK[ TPNNIgI LH K[MK aPQ MRI ISZITKIq KP zJPe HQT[ M NPK Ps K[LJgH aPQlxI JIxIR NIMRJIq. .KlH
xIRa IV`MRRMHHLJg MK KLVIH. . VMqI MJ MesQN VLHKMzI K[I sLRHK qMa. /PVI`Pqa VIJKLPJIq vMQRLTI
vMIKIRNLJTz!
3)
MJq . MHzIq Ls H[I eMH M sRIH[VMJ.
3+
u[I PzI [MH gPJI MNN PxIR TPNNIgI.
nLq aPQ IxIR [IMR Ps vLT[MINMJgINP{ |I eMH M sMVPQH MRKLHK e[P NLxIq LJ .KMNa LJ K[I vLqqNI dgIH.
GxIRa`Pqa LJ GJgNLH[ iLKIRMKQRI HIIVIq KP zJPe M`PQK [LV! MJq K[I e[PNI TNMHH NMQg[Iq `ITMQHI . K[PQg[K
[I eMH MJ MRT[MJgIN. |I HPQJqH NLzI MJ MRT[MJgIN! qPIHJlK [I{
0QK JPe! e[IJ K[I gLRNH KMNz M`PQK K[I K[LJgH K[MK . JIxIR [IMRq Ps! . QHK zIIZ HKLNN MJq NPPz K[IV QZ LJ
K[I IJTaTNPZIqLM. dJq MJaeMa! .lV QHK MH `RLg[K LJ TNMHH MH MJa Ps K[I PK[IRH! MJq `RLg[KIR K[MJ HPVI Ps
K[IVc
dJq aPQ zJPe! nMqqa! . [MxI M JIe QJ`RIMzM`NI RQNI: JIxIR KP HKQqa MK JLg[K! JP VMKKIR [Pe VMJa
eRLKKIJ RIxLIeH MRI TPVLJg LJ K[I VPRJLJg. .JHKIMq! . RIMq QHK ZNMLJ `PPzH . [MxI KP! aPQ zJPe! `ITMQHI
K[IRI MRI ILg[KIIJ `NMJz year& `I[LJq VI. yPQ ePQNqJlK `INLIxI e[MK MJ M`aHH Ps LgJPRMJTI Va VLJq LH; .
4b
TPNNIgI: M ZNMTI Ps [Lg[IR IqQTMKLPJ `PK[ LJ K[I }/d MJq LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJ. u[I PNqIHK QJLxIRHLKLIH LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJ MRI oSsPRq MJq OMV`RLqgI qMKLJg sRPV
K[I KeINsK[ MJq K[LRKIIJK[ TIJKQRLIH! RIHZITKLxINa; K[I NMRgIHK LH K[I }JLxIRHLKa Ps iPJqPJ. dqVLHHLPJ KP K[I QJLxIRHLKLIH LH `a ISMVLJMKLPJ MJq HINITKLPJ.
wPVIJ MRI MqVLKKIq PJ IfQMN KIRVH eLK[ VIJ! `QK K[I gIJIRMN ZRPZPRKLPJ Ps VIJ KP ePVIJ HKQqIJKH LH K[RII KP PJI! MK oSsPRq LK LH JIMRNa sLxI KP PJI! MJq MK
OMV`RLqgI ILg[K KP PJI.
d TPNNIgI LH HPVIKLVIH M ZMRK Ps M QJLxIRHLKa. pPR LJHKMJTI K[I }JLxIRHLKLIH Ps oSsPRq! OMV`RLqgI MJq iPJqPJ MRI TPVZPHIq Ps gRPQZH Ps NMRgINa
MQKPJPVPQH TPNNIgIH. oJ K[I PK[IR [MJq M TPNNIgI VMa `I fQLKI LJqIZIJqIJK. u[IRI LH M gRIMK JQV`IR Ps HQT[ TPNNIgIH LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJ (KIT[JLTMN MJq
TPVVIRTLMN TPNNIgIH! TPNNIgIH Ps MRK! IKT.)!
42
TMVZQH: K[I gRPQJqH Ps M HT[PPN! TPNNIgI PR QJLxIRHLKa
3)
vMIKIRNLJTz! vMQRLTI (+b,2+232): M 0INgLMJ ZPIK MJq qRMVMKLHK
3+
sRIH[VMJ: (sPR `PK[ HISIH) K[I HMVI MH K[I GJgNLH[ sRIH[IR. pLRHKaIMR HKQqIJKH MRI TMNNIq sRIH[IRH PJNa sPR M`PQK M VPJK[ QJKLN K[Ia MRI QHIq KP TPNNIgI
(QJLxIRHLKa) NLsI.
,*
MV QHK RIMNLLJg K[I qIZK[H VaHINs.
. JIxIR RIMq rnMxLq OPZZIRsLINqr! PR rOLJqIRINNMr! PR rNxMJ[PIr! PR rdNLTI LJ wPJqIRNMJqr! PR rP`LJHPJ
ORQHPIr! PR rmMJI GaRIr. . qLqJlK zJPe K[MK |IJRa K[I GLg[K[ eMH VMRRLIq VPRI K[MJ PJTI PR K[MK /[INNIa
eMH M ZPIK. . qLqJlK zJPe K[MK ZIPZNI QHIq KP `I VPJzIaH! PR K[MK UIPRgI GNLPK eMH M NMqa. . [Mq JIxIR HIIJ
M ZLTKQRI Ps K[I rvPJM iLHMr MJq (LKlH KRQI `QK aPQ ePJlK `INLIxI LK) . [Mq JIxIR [IMRq Ps /[IRNPTz |PNVIH.
1Pe . zJPe MNN Ps K[IHI K[LJgH MJq M NPK Ps PK[IRH `IHLqIH! `QK aPQ TMJ HII [Pe VQT[ . JIIq KP TMKT[ QZ.
1PxIV`IR! +*K[
yPQR sLxI gPNq ZLITIH eIRI M HQRZRLHIc .lV JPK QHIq KP RITILxLJg O[RLHKVMH ZRIHIJKH. nP aPQ eMJK KP
zJPe e[MK . `PQg[K eLK[ K[I VPJIa{
+. d HLNxIR eMKT[ KP eIMR PJ Va eRLHK MJq gIK VI KP RITLKMKLPJH LJ KLVI.
2. vMKK[Ie dRJPNqlH
32
ZPIVH.
4. d [PKeMKIR `PKKNI.
3. d qLTKLPJMRa Ps HaJPJaVH (KP IJNMRgI Va xPTM`QNMRa).
*. (. qPJlK VQT[ NLzI KP TPJsIHH K[LH NMHK LKIV! `QK . eLNN.) d ZMLR Ps HLNz HKPTzLJgH.
dJq JPe! nMqqa! JIxIR HMa . qPJlK KINN MNNc
.K eMH M xIRa NPe VPKLxI! Ls aPQ VQHK zJPe LK! K[MK ZRPVZKIq K[I HLNz HKPTzLJgH. mQNLM \IJqNIKPJ! M
HPZ[PVPRI! TPVIH LJKP Va RPPV KP qP gIPVIKRa! MJq H[I HLKH TRPHHNIggIq PJ K[I TPQT[ MJq eIMRH HLNz
HKPTzLJgH IxIRa JLg[K. 0QK QHK eMLK MH HPPJ MH H[I gIKH `MTz sRPV xMTMKLPJ! . H[MNN gP LJ MJq HLK PJ [IR
TPQT[ LJ Va HLNz HKPTzLJgH. yPQ HII K[I VLHIRM`NI TRIMKQRI K[MK . MV `QK MK NIMHK .lV [PJIHK; MJq aPQ
zJIe MNRIMqa! sRPV Va MHaNQV RITPRq! K[MK . eMHJlK ZIRsITK! qLqJlK aPQ{
0QK! nMqqa! Ls aPQlq `IIJ qRIHHIq LJ T[ITzIq gLJg[MVH MNN aPQR NLsI! aPQlq QJqIRHKMJq [Pe . sIIN. dJq
e[IJ . HKMRKIq KP K[I [Lg[ H[PPN! . IJKIRIq QZPJ MJPK[IR ZIRLPq IxIJ ePRHI K[MJ K[I T[ITzIq gLJg[MVH. u[I
ZPPR `PS.,
yPQ TMJlK zJPe [Pe . sIMRIq MZZIMRLJg LJ HT[PPN LJ K[PHI VLHIRM`NI ZPPR`PS qRIHHIH. . eMH ZIRsITKNa
HQRI KP `I ZQK qPeJ LJ TNMHH JISK KP K[I gLRN e[P sLRHK PeJIq Va qRIHH! MJq H[I ePQNq e[LHZIR MJq gLggNI
MJq ZPLJK LK PQK KP K[I PK[IRH.
uP RITMZLKQNMKI (K[MKlH K[I eMa K[I GJgNLH[ LJHKRQTKPR `IgLJH IxIRa PK[IR HIJKIJTI)! . MV xIRa VQT[
P`NLgIq sPR Va ZRIHIJKH.
. RIMNNa `INLIxI .lxI sLJLH[Iq. nMqqa. .lxI `IIJ eRLKLJg K[LH NIKKIR Pss MJq PJ sPR KeP qMaH! MJq . sIMR `a
JPe aPQ MRI `PRIq.
0QK .lxI `IIJ HP ISTLKIq M`PQK K[PHI JIe MqxIJKQRIH K[MK . VQHK KMNz KP HPVI`Pqa! MJq aPQ MRI K[I PJNa
PJI . zJPe. .s Va NIKKIRH `PRI aPQ! aPQ TMJ MNeMaH KPHH K[IV LJKP K[I eMHKI`MHzIK.
UPPq`aI! nMqqa! . [PZI K[MK aPQ MRI sIINLJg MH [MZZa MH . MV.
yPQRH IxIR! mQqa.
VOCABULARY NOTES
1. bright ad1 +. 5! 85! ."g" u[I NIMxIH Ps K[I KRIIH MRI `RLg[K gRIIJ LJ HZRLJg. \PNLH[Iq HKIIN LH
`RLg[K.
2. $85! 85! $8D85! ."g" u[IRI MRI HIxIRMN `RLg[K ZQZLNH LJ [IR TNMHH. u[I `Pa [Mq M
`RLg[K sMTI.
4. $85! ."g" GxIRa`Pqa eMH `RLg[K MJq gMa MK K[I ZMRKa.
bright(ly) adv ! ! >! $! ."g" /[I HKPPq LJ K[I qPPReMa HVLNLJg `RLg[KNa MsKIR [LV.
u[I sLRI H[LJIH `RLg[K.
brighten ,i-t 6; 6 ! 6 : D6! ."g" u[I Hza LH `RLg[KIJLJg.
u[LH eMNNZMZIR eLNN `RLg[KIJ PQR RPPV. w[MK TMJ aPQ qP KP `RLg[KIJ K[I NLsI Ps K[I HLTz VMJ{
brightness n 6! ! >6 $
2. pIain ad1 +. 85! 85! 85! ."g" u[I VIMJLJg Ps K[I ePRq LH fQLKI ZNMLJ! LHJlK LK{ . NLzI
[IR ZNMLJ HZIIT[. /[I HZPzI ZNMLJ GJgNLH[.
/yn" clear
2. 5! 885; ;5! ( >T]B, ."g" u[Ia NLzI e[MK K[Ia TMNN ZNMLJ sPPq.
/[I NPPzIq xIRa ZRIKKa LJ [IR ZNMLJ e[LKI qRIHH. /[I `PQg[K M ZNMLJ `NQI VMKIRLMN.
/yn" simple
N t e: u[I qLssIRIJTI LJ K[I VIMJLJgH Ps K[I HaJPJaVH ZNMLJ TNIMR MJq ZNMLJ HLVZNI LH HP HNLg[K K[MK eI VMa PsKIJ QHI
PJI LJHKIMq Ps K[I PK[IR! ."g" ZNMLJ (TNIMR) VIMJLJg! ZNMLJ (HLVZNI sPPq! ZNMLJ (HLVZNI) VMJ. yIK! K[IRI MRI HPVI TMHIH e[IJ
PJNa PJI Ps K[I KeP HaJPJaVH VMa `I QHIq! ."g" KP HZIMz ZNMLJ GJgNLH[; KP VMzI M TNIMR HKMKIVIJK; KP NLxI M HLVZNI NLsI; KP gIK M
HLVZNI KMHz.
4. 85! ."g" |I NLzIq [IR ZNMLJ! `QK [PJIHK sMTI.
32
dRJPNq vMKK[Ie (+b22+bbb): MJ GJgNLH[ TRLKLT MJq ZPIK , ZPPR `PS: M `PS (QHQMNNa LJ M T[QRT[) LJ e[LT[ VPJIa VMa `I ZNMTIq KP `I gLxIJ KP K[I ZPPR.
|IRI: K[LJgH gLxIJ MH T[MJKa (sPPq! TNPK[IH! IKT.).
,,
Os.: ugly 85 (85)
3. bIank ad1 5! 85! a& M `NMJz H[IIK Ps ZMZIR; M `NMJz ZMgI (sPRV! IKT.). 09&o fig", ."g"
u[IRI eMH M `NMJz NPPz PJ [IR sMTI.
blankly adv, ."g" /[I NPPzIq MK VI `NMJzNa. |I HMK PJ K[I IqgI Ps K[I `Iq HKMRLJg `NMJzNa `IsPRI [LV.
blank n +. $! ! ."g" iIMxI M `NMJz MsKIR IMT[ ePRq. pLNN LJ K[LH `NMJz.; 2. ! ."g"
/[I `PQg[K KeP KINIgRMZ[ `NMJzH.
1PKI: u[I QHHLMJ ePRq `Xb [MH HIxIRMN IfQLxMNIJKH LJ GJgNLH[: +. 5 (85) `NMJz H[IIK (ZMgI); 2.
5 (; >=5) IVZKa RPPV (`PS! `PKKNI); 4. 5 (985) H[MNNPe ZIRHPJ (LqIMH! LJKIRIHKH); 3.
5 (85) xMTMJK RPPV ([PQHI! sNMK).
4. ignorance n >; ! ! ."g" mQqalH LgJPRMJTI VMqI K[I gLRNH NMQg[. |I qLq LK
sRPV (K[RPQg[) LgJPRMJTI.
ignorant ad1 >85! 7=5! ."g" u[I `Pa [MH JIxIR `IIJ KP HT[PPN MJq LH fQLKI
LgJPRMJK. . MV LgJPRMJK Ps [LH ZNMJH.
5. prompt ,t" +. >6! D6! ."g" w[MK ZRPVZKIq aPQ KP NPPz sPR [LV LJ PQR KPeJ{
2. 86; C6! ."g" /[IlNN ZRPVZK aPQ Ls aPQ sPRgIK K[I ePRqH. 1P ZRPVZKLJg! ZNIMHI.
prompt n! ."g" dRIJlK aPQ MH[MVIq KP eMLK sPR M ZRPVZK{
prompter n C;
6. re`cord of 1. 86! ;6! ."g" < RITPRqIq MNN K[I IxIJKH Ps K[I qMa.
2. 86 ! ! ."g" oJ K[I xIRa qMa Ps [LH MRRLxMN K[Ia RITPRqIq [LH HZIIT[.
record n +. 6! ! ; 9! ! ."g" d TMRIsQN RITPRq eMH VMqI Ps MNN
K[PHI M`HIJK. u[I `PalH HT[PPN RITPRq NIMxIH VQT[ KP `I qIHLRIq.
2. ;$$C ! ."g" |MxI aPQ gPK MJa RITPRqH Ps 0MT[{
cassette(tape)-recording n 6! ."g" .lq RMK[IR VMzI QHI Ps TMHHIKKIRITPRqLJg KP RIxLIe K[I
VMKIRLMN.
cassete (tape)-recorder n $;C! ."g" /PVIK[LJg [MH gPJI eRPJg eLK[ K[I TMHHIKKIRITPRqIR! LK
qPIHJlK ePRz.
7. point ,t '. 86 6%$! 86 (KP)! ."g" < ZPLJKIq KP K[I VPJQVIJK. u[I JIIqNI Ps K[I
TPVZMHH ZPLJKH KP K[I 1PRK[.
2. 6! %6 (MK)! ."g" u[I `Pa ZPLJKIq M HKLTz MK K[I qPg.
to point out smth., ."g" u[I KIMT[IR ZPLJKIq PQK PQR VLHKMzIH.
to point out that, ."g" |I ZPLJKIq PQK K[MK MNN K[I TPNNIgI RQNIH H[PQNq `I P`IaIq.
8. bore ,t 6! 6! ."g" yPQR sRLIJq `PRIH VI.
to bore to death by smth. $ 6! ."g" . eMH `PRIq KP qIMK[.
bore n 85! 85 ! ! ."g" . qPJlK eMJK KP HII [LV MgMLJ! [I LH HQT[ M
`PRI.
boring ad1 85! ."g" u[LH LH M xIRa `PRLJg `PPz.
boredom n
9. excite ,t +" >6! 6! 6! ."g" u[I ZMKLIJK LH xIRa LNN MJq VQHK JPK `I ISTLKIq.
to be excited by, ."g" GxIRa`Pqa eMH ISTLKIq `a K[I JIeH.
to get excited about (PxIR)! ."g" .KlH JPK[LJg KP gIK ISTLKIq M`PQK. nPJlK gIK ISTLKIq PxIR HQT[ KRLsNIH.
(s.: u[IRIlH JPK[LJg KP ePRRa M`PQK. /[I MNeMaH ePRRLIH M`PQK NLKKNI K[LJgH.
2. 886 (9= ..)! ."g" u[I JIeTPVIR ISTLKIq IxIRa`PqalH LJKIRIHK.
exciting ad1 >7=5! 7=5! 987=5! ."g" w[MK ISTLKLJg JIeH aPQlxI `RPQg[Kc .
TPQNq [MRqNa gIK PxIR K[MK ISTLKLJg VPVIJK. /[I KPNq HQT[ MJ ISTLKLJg HKPRa.
excited 44 85
excitement n >! ! QHQ. KP TMQHI ISTLKIVIJK! ."g" u[I qITLHLPJ KP zIIZ vPK[IRlH nMa
TMQHIq gRIMK ISTLKIVIJK LJ K[I sMVLNa.
excitedly adv,
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)
Words
`NMJz ad1, n ISTLKI , LKIV n
`PRI ,, n ISTLKIVIJK n ZNMLJ ad1
`PRLJg ad1 ISTLKLJg ad1 ZPLJK ,
`PRIqPV n ISTLKIq 44 ZRPVZK ,
`RLg[K ad1 ISTLKIqNa adv lRITPRq n
`RLg[K(Na) adv ISZIRLIJTI n RIlTPRq ,
`RLg[KIJ , sRIH[VMJ n RITPRqIR n
,7
`RLg[KJIHH n LgJPRMJTI n HPZ[PVPRI n
TPJsIHH , LgJPRMJK Mq
Word Combinations
K[I KRPQ`NI eLK[ ... LH K[MK... JISK KP
MK KLVIH KP ZPLJK PQK HVK[. (K[MK)
KP zIIZ HKLNN IxIRa PK[IR (HIJKIJTI! qMa! IKT.)
aPQ ePQNqJlK `INLIxI e[MK ([Pe)... KP `I VQT[ P`NLgIq KP HV`.! sPR HVK[.
KP `I M HQRZRLHI KP HV`. KP `I `PRIq (KP qIMK[)
KP IJNMRgI PJIlH xPTM`QNMRa KP TMQHI ISTLKIVIJK
EXERCISES
I. Read the text and do the foIIowing (A. Grammar, B. Word usage):
d. +. /IMRT[ K[I KISK sPR ZMHHLxI xPLTI TPJHKRQTKLPJH MJq TNMHHLsa K[IV MTTPRqLJg KP KIJHI gRPQZH. 2.
OPVZMRI K[I rifGTNMQHIHr QHIq LJ K[I KISK MJq ISZNMLJ K[ILR VIMJLJg. 4. .qIJKLsa K[I sQJTKLPJ Ps K[I GingG
sPRVH QHIq LJ K[I KISK. 3. /INITK ISMVZNIH KP LNNQHKRMKI K[I TPVZPQJq ZRIqLTMKI. *. GSZNMLJ e[a K[IRI LH JP
MRKLTNI LJ with 5o99ege, fro+ va5ation, in 59a&&"
0. +. GSZNMLJ K[I qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ K[I sPNNPeLJg ePRqH QHIq LJ K[I KISK: di5tionary vo5a2u9ary,
gigg9e 9augh, to&& throw, 4air 5ou49e" 2. /IMRT[ K[I KISK sPR K[I xIR` get, KRMJHNMKI K[I HIJKIJTIH. 4.
w[MK LH K[I VPHK sMxPQRLKI ePRq LJ mQqalH xPTM`QNMRa{ wPQNq aPQ RITPVVIJq aPQR ZQZLNH KP QHI LK{
II. Choose two or three paragraphs from the text of Unit Five for transIation. Reason your choice and
discuss possibIe variants of the transIation.
III. Answer the foIIowing questions:
+. w[MK qLq mQqa VIMJ `a 59a&&e& MJq 5a+4u&c 2. w[a qLq mQqa VIJKLPJ i5eG5rea+ MJq XrnG+ea9 +u&h
LJ [IR NIKKIR{ 4. w[MK qLq mQqa K[LJz eMH K[I KRPQ`NI eLK[ TPNNIgI{ 3. w[MK PzI [Mq gPJI MNN PxIR TPNNIgI{
*. w[a qLq mQqa zIIZ HKLNN e[IJ K[I gLRNH HZPzI M`PQK K[LJgH H[I qLqJlK zJPe{ ,. w[a qLqJlK mQqa HKQqa MK
JLg[K! JP VMKKIR [Pe VMJa eRLKKIJ RIxLIeH eIRI TPVLJg LJ K[I VPRJLJg{ 7. .J e[MK eMa qLq mQqa eMJK KP
TMKT[ QZ eLK[ K[I gRPQZ{ b. w[MK qLq mQqa VIMJ `a HMaLJg K[MK H[I eMH MK NIMHK [PJIHK{ 2. w[MK qLq mQqa
VIMJ `a HMaLJg writing thi& 9etter off and on for two day&c +). w[IRI [Mq mQqa HKQqLIq `IsPRI TPNNIgI{ ++.
w[a qLq mQqa sIIN IV`MRRMHHIq MK KLVIH{ +2. w[MK qLq mQqa VIMJ `a 29an' year& MJq a2y&& of ignoran5ec
+4. w[MK H[PeH K[MK K[I KISK eMH eRLKKIJ `a MJ dVIRLTMJ eRLKIR{
IV. Write an outIine of die Ietter. (Differentiate between significant and insignificant events described in the
Ietter. Leave out the insignificant ones.)
V. Try your hand at teaching:
d. \RIZMRMKLPJ. /IMRT[ K[I KISKH Ps }JLKH oJI! ueP (.)! u[RII (.)! pPQR (.)! pLxI (.) sPR ZPNaHaNNM`NIH
34
eLK[
KeP HKRIHHIH! ZRMTKLHI K[ILR ZRPJQJTLMKLPJ.
0. wPRz LJ ONMHH. M) \RPJPQJTI qLHKLJTKNa IMT[ ePRq sLSLJg K[I HKQqIJKHl MKKIJKLPJ PJ K[I HKRIHHIH.
`) vMzI K[I HKQqIJKH RIZIMK K[I ePRqH MsKIR aPQ.
T) dHz K[I HKQqIJKH LJqLxLqQMNNa MJq TPRRITK K[ILR VLHKMzIH. (/II rONMHHRPPV GJgNLH[r! /ITKLPJ :....)
VI. Study VocabuIary Notes and transIate the iIIustrative exampIes into Russian.
VII. ExpIain (in EngIish) what is meant by and give Russian equivaIents of:
d. `NMJz eMNN! `NMJz NPPz! `NMJz xIRHI! `NMJz H[IIK! `NMJz sPRV! `NMJz T[IfQI! `NMJz aIMRH! `NMJz VLJq!
`NMJz sMTI;
0. IVZKa RPPV! H[MNNPe LJKIRIHKH! xMTMJK [PQHI! H[MNNPe gLRN! `RLg[K qRIHH! `RLg[K sMTI! `RLg[K T[LNq! `RLg[K
IaIH! LgJPRMJK ZIRHPJ! LJTPVZMRM`NI `PRI.
VIII. Paraphrase the foIIowing sentences:
+. |I HKMRIq MK [IR LJ QKKIR MHKPJLH[VIJK. 2. |I PZIJIq [LH IaIH sPR M H[PRK e[LNI `QK K[IJ NPHK [LH
TPJHTLPQHJIHH MgMLJ. 4. d sMLJK HVLNI IJNLxIJIq [IR sMTI sPR M VPVIJK. 3. u[IRI eMH M gMZ LJ Va VIVPRa.
*. u[IRI MRI VMJa LJKIRIHKLJg LKIVH LJ K[I JIeHZMZIR KPqMa. ,. u[I HLNz HKPTzLJgH TMQHIq mQqalH IJxa. 7. |I
QHIq KP `I M TMZM`NI ZQZLN. b. u[I NIKKIR MRPQHIq gRIMK LJKIRIHK. 2. dK KLVIH H[I sINK xIRa QJ[MZZa. +). u[I
KRPQ`NI eLK[ [LV LH K[MK [I LH M NLg[KVLJqIq ZIRHPJ. ++. u[LH sRQLK LH fQLKI IMKM`NI! .lq HMa. +2. yPQR sRLIJq
qLssIRH VQT[ sRPV e[MK [I eMH aIMRH MgP.
IX. a) Write 20 questions about the second part of the text of Unit Five using the foIIowing words and
phrases:
+. O[RLHKVMH ZRIHIJK; 2. KP `I M HQRZRLHI; 4. eRLHK; 3. KP gIK KP (PJIlH) RITLKMKLPJH; *. M [PKeMKIR `PKKNI; ,.
KP IJNMRgI PJIlH xPTM`QNMRa; 7. KP TPJsIHH; b. M NPe VPKLxI; 2. KP qP gIPVIKRa; +). KP HLK TRPHHNIggIq; ++. M
VLHIRM`NI TRIMKQRI; +2. KP zJPe (sRPV); +4. KP `I xIRa VQT[ P`NLgIq sPR; +3. IxIRa PK[IR HIJKIJTI; +*. KP `I
`PRIq; +,. KP `I ISTLKIq M`PQK; +7. KP KPHH LJKP K[I eMHKI`MHzIK; +b. KP KMNz KP (HV`.); +2. MK NIMHK.
b) Ask your feIIow-students to give their responses.
34
polysyllables: ePRqH Ps VPRI K[MJ KeP HaNNM`NIH; K[Ia QHQMNNa [MxI KeP HKRIHHIH: K[I HITPJqMRa (!) MJq K[I VMLJ (!) HKRIHH! . !.
,b
X. TransIate the foIIowing sentences into EngIish:
+. 8 9D 7 6 $ > C{ 2. F! > 8 !
55 $ 8 . 4. ' 6 6! $ 8 8$.
3. D$ D6 896 > ;! 6
6. *. ' Y 8 $ $ (ePRz[PQHI). ( ; $
96 $; 6! 6 > 6 . 6D
5! >8 7! 6 > =6 6$! ,. < 85. '
$; . 7. $ > 6 6 6. b.
A 6 >$$8 6 D 5. 2. F> "6 8 ! 8!
=D %! 8 . +). XE ; 6 ! 6D$ $. ++.
# $6 >. +2. > 7 D 6 ;! ;
; $6. +4. (>5 9 = $ > 5. +3.
$$ 5 6! $> 8 ; ;. < 8 8! $
8 6. +*. = 8 6 $;C$. +,. $!
8 $; 9 5.
XI. a) ReteII the contents of Judy's Ietter in Indirect Speech.
b) ReteII the contents of Judy's Ietter as her guardian might describe it to a friend of his.
c) Describe Judy's first steps in coIIege as JuIia PendIeton might be describing them to a friend of hers.
d) Give a summary of the text
XII. Insert prepositions or adverbs where necessary:
L. u[I KRPQ`NI ... K[I `PPz LH K[MK LKlH `PRLJg VI ... qIMK[. 2. .K eLNN KMzI VI ... NIMHK M VPJK[ KP TMKT[......K[I
gRPQZ. 4. w[MK qLq aPQ `Qa... K[I VPJIa aPQ gPK... aPQR sMK[IR{ 3. . JIIq MJ MNMRV TNPTz KP eMzI VI QZ ...
KLVI. *. .lxI `IIJ eRLKLJg K[I NIKKIR ... MJq......KeP qMaH! JPe .lxI sLJLH[Iq LK... NMHK. ,. . eMH ZIRsITKNa HQRI KP
`I ZQK......K[I qIHz JISK... K[I gLRK e[PV . qLqJlK NLzI KP HLK.... 7. |LH xLHLK eMH M HQRZRLHI ... VI! . qLqJlK zJPe
[I eMH ... KPeJ. b. w[IJ . TPVI ... HPVI GJgNLH[ ePRqH e[LT[ . qPJlK zJPe . MNeMaH NPPz K[IV......K[I
qLTKLPJMRa. 2. .J [LH HZIIT[ [I ZPLJKIq ... MNN K[I qRMe`MTzH ... PQR ePRz. +). u[I qRLNNH PJ K[I GJgNLH[ HPQJqH
`PRI VI ... KLVIH! `QK . zJPe K[MK K[Ia MRI xIRa QHIsQN. ++. |I [INZIq VI M NPK... Va VMK[IVMKLTH MJq .lV
VQT[ P`NLgIq ... [LV ... LK.
XIII. Revise EssentiaI VocabuIary (I) and transIate the foIIowing:
+. 8 >8 ;6 ;! 8 $; D6 $ 6. 2. ' $
$ $ 9 79. 4. - ; 55 $ 6 D >5
65. 3. $! $ 5 6 *) . t $; 6 E
6;{ *. F 8 $; 89 8 ! 9 $7 . ,. 8
D >$ $ >. 7. ; A! ;
! ! 9 8>6 E$! $ 6D $6. b. A;!
8 7! ; 7 E$8! 2. Y 6 $! 8 !
8 8> 6 E. +). 7! 9! 55 $ !
$ 6. ++. h >5! 685 $6 6
'! 6$. +2! $ $=6. +4. 8 >8 6 6D!
E $ 6 D6 D . +3. ' $ $ $7=$
;$! 8D! ;7. +*. ( 5 $ 6 $5{
+,. -6 ;8 D ! ] !
8$ > 66! 8 >6 9. +7. A D E5
. +b. " 6 $ 85 $ 6. +2. t
>{ 7= 9 6; 9 85 6 ;$. 2). '
8 ; 9D$ 6$. A $; 6! $ 6. 2+.
( ! >5 .
XIV. Compose 20 sentences about the text, using modaI verbs must, "an, may, ought, might with the
perfect infinitive:
vPqINH: M) mQqalH gQMRqLMJ VQHK [MxI (JIxIR) RIMq [IR NIKKIRH (> 86! () ).
`) mQqa TPQNq [MxI `PQg[K HPVI PK[IR K[LJgH eLK[ [IR gQMRqLMJlH VPJIa ($; 8 6...).
T) mQqalH gQMRqLMJ VLg[K [MxI HIIJ mQqa HPVIe[IRI (! $>! ...).
q) nPJlK aPQ K[LJz K[MK mQqalH gQMRqLMJ PQg[K KP [MxI MJHeIRIq [IR NIKKIR ($ 8
6 6$).
XV. a) TransIate the text into Russian:
nIMR nMqqa iPJgiIgH!
yPQ JIxIR MJHeIR MJa fQIHKLPJH! aPQ JIxIR H[Pe K[I HNLg[KIHK LJKIRIHK LJ MJaK[LJg . qP. . [MxIJlK M qPQ`K
K[MK aPQ K[RPe Va NIKKIRH LJKP K[I eMHKI`MHzIK eLK[PQK RIMqLJg K[IV. |IRIMsKIR . H[MNN eRLKI PJNa M`PQK
ePRz.
,2
va RIISMVLJMKLPJH LJ iMKLJ MJq UIPVIKRa TMVI NMHK eIIz. . ZMHHIq K[IV `PK[ MJq MV JPe M
/PZ[PVPRI.
. TMVI QZ M sPRKJLg[K MgP! HPRRa KP NIMxI K[I sMRV! `QK gNMq KP HII K[I TMVZQH MgMLJ. .K LH ZNIMHMJK KP TPVI
`MTz KP HPVIK[LJg sMVLNLMR! . MV `IgLJJLJg KP sIIN MK [PVI LJ TPNNIgI.
. MV `IgLJJLJg T[IVLHKRa! M VPHK QJQHQMN HKQqa. .lxI JIxIR HIIJ MJaK[LJg NLzI LK `IsPRI. . MV MNHP KMzLJg
NPgLT. dNHP [LHKPRa Ps K[I e[PNI ePRNq. dNHP ZNMaH Ps wLNNLMV /[MzIHZIMRI. dNHP pRIJT[.
. H[PQNq RMK[IR [MxI INITKIq GTPJPVLTH K[MJ pRIJT[! `QK . qLqJlK qMRI! `ITMQHI . eMH MsRMLq K[MK QJNIHH .
RIINITKIq pRIJT[! K[I \RPsIHHPR ePQNq JPK NIK VI ZMHH MH LK eMH. . QHK VMJMgIq KP HfQIII K[RPQg[ K[I
mQJI ISMVLJMKLPJH. 0QK . eLNN HMa K[MK Va [Lg[HT[PPN ZRIZMRMKLPJ eMH JPK xIRa gPPq.
dJq [IRI LH JIeH sPR aPQ. . [MxI `IgQJ KP `I MJ MQK[PR. d ZPIV IJKLKNIq rpRPV Va uPeIRr MZZIMRH LJ
K[I pI`RQMRa rvPJK[Nar PJ K[I sLRHK ZMgI! e[LT[ LH M xIRa gRIMK [PJPQR sPR M pRIH[VMJ. va GJgNLH[
LJHKRQTKPR HKPZZIq VI PJ Va eMa PQK. Ps TPNNIgI NMHK JLg[K! MJq HMLq LK eMH M T[MRVLJg ZLITI Ps ePRz ISTIZK
sPR K[I HLSK[ NLJI! e[LT[ [Mq KPP VMJa sIIK.
0QK HPVIKLVIH M qRIMqsQN sIMR TPVIH PxIR VI K[MK .lV JPK M gIJLQH.
yPQRH KRQNa! mQqa
(*ro+ rnMqqa iPJgiIgHr 2y mIMJ wI`HKIR)
b) Comment on the Ietter above. Point out in what it differs from Judy's earIier Ietters (see the text). ExpIain
the Iast Iine of this Ietter. Is Judy quite serious here?
XVI. Speak about Judy. Describe her as fuIIy as you can. When pointing out this or that trait in her
character, give your reasons. (See the text of Unit Five and Ex. XV.).
XVII. Compose diaIogues and perform them in cIass:
1. between Judy and JuIia PendIeton about Judy's guardian;
2. between two of Judy's feIIow-students about Judy;
3. between Judy and the EngIish instructor.
XVIII. Write a composition in the form of a Ietter describing some of your (or your friend's) experiences as a
fresher. Use words and phrases from EssentiaI VocabuIary (I). See aIso Judy's Ietter (Ex. XV).
XIX. Try your hand at teaching.
%. Say what you wouId do in the teacher's positions
oJTI! MsKIR [MxLJg [MHKLNa eRLKKIJ MJ MHHLgJVIJK PJ K[I `NMTz`PMRq K[I KIMT[IR NIsK K[I TNMHH MNPJI sPR M
sIe VLJQKIH. }ZPJ [IR RIKQRJ H[I sPQJq HIxIRMN ePRqH PJ K[I `NMTz`PMRq eIRI TLRTNIq eLK[ TPNPQRIq T[MNz.
dK K[I `PKKPV eMH eRLKKIJ! rOMRINIHH eRLKLJg! ZNIMHI qP PxIR.r
2. Practise your "CIassroom EngIish".
a) Every teacher is faced with the probIem of keeping discipIine in the cIassroom, A teacher shouId know
how to do it to goad EngIish. Describe the teacher's reaction in the foIIowing situation:
+) dJJ LH JPK ZMaLJg MKKIJKLPJ.
2) uIq i& HKMJqLJg QZ.
4) UIPRgI aPQ TMJ HII PJNa K[I `MTz Ps [LH [IMq.
3) /KIxI sLJqH LK LVZPHHL`NI KP `I HLNIJK sPR VPRI K[MJ M VLJQKI MK M KLVI.
*) mIJJa LH JPK NPPzLJg MK K[I `NMTz`PMRq.
,) \IKIR LH HZRMeNIq PQK MTRPHH [LH qIHz.
7) dNLHPJ LH qLHKQR`LJg K[I gLRN HLKKLJg JISK KP [IR.
b) 0IK[ LH TPZaLJg K[I MJHeIR sRPV HPVI`Pqa INHI.
2) dNMJ MJq \MQN MRI MRgQLJg M`PQK HPVIK[LJg.
+)) dJqa K[I HNPeIHK MJq qRIMVLIHK `Pa LJ K[I TNMHH.
b) PIay the part of a young teacher describing a Iesson in a very unruIy cIass to his/her feIIow teachers.
(See "CIassroom EngIish", Section VII.)
LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)
1. Listen to the text "A Freshman's Experience", mark the stresses and tunes, repeat the text
following the model.
2. Paraphrase the given sentences.
3. Extend the given sentences.
4. Write a spelling-translation test Check it with the key.
5. Translate the sentences into English. Check them with the key.
6. listen to the text 'Town and Gown" or some other text on the history of English Education.
Write the summary of the text. Comment on it in class.
TOPIC: EDUCATION
iL`RMRLIH sQNN Ps `PPzH [MxI `IIJ eRLKKIJ PJ K[I IqQTMKLPJ HaHKIV LJ 0RLKMLJ! `QK RITIJKNa LK [MH `IIJ
7)
T[MJgLJg TPJHLqIRM`Na.
OPVZQNHPRa IqQTMKLPJ `IgLJH MK *! MJq T[LNqRIJ MKKIJq ZRLVMRa HT[PPN QJKLN K[Ia MRI ++. 1PRVMNNa K[I
ZRLVMRa HT[PPN LH qLxLqIq LJKP .JsMJKH (*7) MJq mQJLPRH (7++).
dK K[I MgI Ps ++ VPHK T[LNqRIJ gP KP M TPVZRI[IJHLxI HT[PPN e[IRI K[Ia HKMa QJKLN K[Ia MRI +,. .J K[I ZMHK
T[LNqRIJ eIJK KP qLssIRIJK KaZIH Ps HITPJqMRa HT[PPNH! `QK LJ VPHK ZMRKH Ps K[I TPQJKRa IxIRa`Pqa JPe gPIH
KP M TPVZRI[IJHLxI.
/PVI ZMRIJKH! e[P qP JPK eMJK K[ILR T[LNqRIJ KP gP KP M TPVZRI[IJHLxI ZMa KP HIJq K[IV KP M ZRLxMKI
HT[PPN. u[I VPHK ISZIJHLxI MJq ZRIHKLgLPQH ZRLxMKI HT[PPNH MRI MTKQMNNa TMNNIq ZQ`NLT HT[PPNH.
dK K[I MgI Ps +, ZIPZNI KMzI K[ILR ISMVLJMKLPJH. vPHK KMzI UIJIRMN OIRKLsLTMKI Ps GqQTMKLPJ (U.(.G.).
oRqLJMRa iIxINH JPRVMNNa TMNNIq QHK lol iIxINH. \IPZNI KMzI lol iIxINH LJ MH VMJa HQ`ITKH MH K[Ia eMJK
KP; HPVI KMzI PJI PR KeP! PK[IRH KMzI MH VMJa MH JLJI PR KIJ.
.s aPQ gIK gPPq lol iIxIN RIHQNKH! aPQ TMJ HKMa PJ MK HT[PPN QJKLN aPQ MRI +b! LJ K[I /LSK[ pPRV. |IRI aPQ
ZRIZMRI sPR dqxMJTIq iIxIN GSMVH (ldl iIxINH). dgMLJ! aPQ KMzI MH VMJa Ps K[IHI MH aPQ eMJK KP! `QK VPHK
ZIPZNI KMzI KeP PR K[RII.
.J TMHI aPQ ZMHH aPQR ISMVH eINN aPQ [MxI M T[MJTI Ps gPLJg PJ KP QJLxIRHLKa K[PQg[ K[LH LH JPK
MQKPVMKLT. u[I JQV`IR Ps ZIPZNI e[P HKQqa K[IRI LH HKRLTKNa TPJKRPNNIq. oK[IR KaZIH Ps sQRK[IR IqQTMKLPJ MRI
PssIRIq MK ZPNaKIT[JLTH MJq TPNNIgIH Ps [Lg[IR IqQTMKLPJ. \PNaKIT[JLTH PssIR K[I T[MJTI KP HKQqa HQ`ITKH LJ M
VPRI ZRMTKLTMN eMa! MJq VMJa TPNNIgIH Ps [Lg[IR IqQTMKLPJ HZITLMNLI LJ KIMT[IR KRMLJLJg.
33
(/II: Nohn&on %" MJq Jorrow %" dZZRPMT[IH. OMV`RLqgI! +272)
TEXT A. HIGHER EDUCATION AND TEACHER TRAINING IN GREAT BRITAIN
1PeMqMaH KIMT[IR KRMLJLJg LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJ LH RIMNLIq MK QJLxIRHLKLIH! ZPNaKIT[JLTH MJq TPNNIgIH Ps [Lg[IR
IqQTMKLPJ.
3*

/KQqIJKH ePRzLJg sPR K[ILR sLRHK qIgRII MK QJLxIRHLKa MRI TMNNIq QJqIRgRMqQMKIH. w[IJ K[Ia KMzI
K[ILR qIgRII eI HMa K[MK K[Ia gRMqQMKI MJq K[IJ K[Ia MRI TMNNIq gRMqQMKIH. .s K[Ia TPJKLJQI HKQqaLJg MK
QJLxIRHLKa MsKIR K[Ia [MxI gRMqQMKIq! K[Ia MRI TMNNIq ZPHKgRMqQMKIH. .J gIJIRMN! K[I sLRHK qIgRII Ps 0MT[INPR
LH gLxIJ KP HKQqIJKH e[P ZMHH ISMVLJMKLPJH MK K[I IJq Ps K[RII PR sPQR aIMRH Ps HKQqa.
pQRK[IR HKQqa PR RIHIMRT[ LH RIfQLRIq MK K[I VPqIn QJLxIRHLKLIH sPR K[I sLRHK ZPHKgRMqQMKI qIgRII Ps
vMHKIR! MJq MK MNN 0RLKLH[ QJLxIRHLKLIH sPR K[MK Ps nPTKPR.
.J 0RLKMLJ sQNNKLVI QJLxIRHLKa HKQqIJKH (HKQqIJKH e[P HZIJq MNN K[ILR KLVI HKQqaLJg MJq [MxI JP PK[IR
IVZNPaVIJK)! [MxI K[RII KIRVH Ps M`PQK KIJ eIIzH LJ IMT[ aIMR.
3,
}JLxIRHLKa KIMT[LJg TPV`LJIH NITKQRIH gLxIJ `a ZRPsIHHPRH! RIMqIRH PR NITKQRIRH!
37
ZRMTKLTMN TNMHHIH (LJ
HTLIJKLsLT HQ`ITKH) MJq HVMNN gRPQZ KIMT[LJg LJ HIVLJMRH PR KQKPRLMNH.
u[I TPQRHI Ps HKQqa sPR LJKIJqLJg KIMT[IRH LH `MHIq QZPJ TPVZQNHPRa MJq PZKLPJMN HQ`ITKH.
u[I \RPgRMVVI QHQMNNa TPJHLHKH Ps K[RII TPRI TPVZPJIJKH: /T[PPN`MHIq ISZIRLIJTI! /Q`ITK HKQqLIH MJq
GqQTMKLPJ HKQqLIH.
3b
u[IPRa Ps GqQTMKLPJ LH PJI Ps K[I VMLJ HQ`ITKH. dK K[I IJq Ps K[I sLRHK PR HITPJq aIMR HKQqIJKH MRI KP
VMzI K[ILR T[PLTI MH KP K[I MgIRMJgI Ps T[LNqRIJ K[Ia eLH[ KP ZRIZMRI KP KIMT[.
mQJLPR HKQqIJKH gP LJKP HT[PPNH sPR PJI qMa IMT[ eIIz! eMKT[LJg ISZIRLIJTIq KIMT[IRH MK ePRz. u[Ia KMzI
ZMRK LJ K[I NLsI Ps K[I HT[PPN! [INZ eLK[ gMVIH! HPTLIKLIH PR ZNMa ZRPqQTKLPJH.
33
os K[I K[RII QJLxIRHLKLIH MRI TPJHLqIRIq VPRI ZRIHKLgLPQH MJq `IJIsLTLMN. u[ILR gRMqQMKIH [MxI `IKKIR T[MJTIH Ps gIKKLJg M P`. \PNaKIT[JLTH MRI QHQMNNa
sPRVIq PJ K[I `MHLH Ps MRK TPNNIgIH MJq TPNNIgIH Ps KIT[JPNPga. u[Ia TPV`LJI HTLIJTI MJq KIT[JPNPga! K[I MRKH! HPTLMN HKQqLIH VMJMgIVIJK MJq `QHLJIHH
HKQqLIH! NMe MJq PK[IR HQ`ITKH.
3*
pRPV +HK dQgQHK +27* K[I HaHKIV Ps KIMT[IR KRMLJLJg LJ GJgNMJq LH `ILJg RIPRgMJLIq. dNN [Lg[IR MJq sQRK[IR IqQTMKLPJ PQKHLqI K[I QJLxIRHLKLIH LJTNQqLJg
KIMT[IR KRMLJLJg LH `ILJg MHHLVLNMKIq LJKP M TPVVPJ HaHKIV. d JQV`IR Ps K[I ISLHKLJg TPNNIgIH Ps IqQTMKLPJ MRI KP `I VIRgIq ILK[IR eLK[ IMT[ PK[IR PR eLK[
PK[IR LJHKLKQKLPJH Ps sQRK[IR IqQTMKLPJ (ZPNaKIT[JLTH MJq PK[IRH).
3,
oK[IR HKQqIJKH e[P ePRz qQRLJg K[I qMa MJq HKQqa LJ K[I IxIJLJg MRI ZMRKKLVI HKQqIJKH.
37
reader M QJLxIRHLKa KIMT[IR Ps M RMJz LVVIqLMKINa `INPe M ZRPsIHHPR!
lecturer: M ZIRHPJ NPeIR LJ RMJz K[MJ M RIMqIR e[P gLxIH NITKQRIH! IHZITLMNNa MK M TPNNIgI PR QJLxIRHLKa.
3b
0a /T[PPN`MHIq ISZIRLIJTI KIMT[LJg ZRMTKLTI LH VIMJK (`PK[ rP`HIRxMKLPJ ZIRLPqr sPR QJLPR HKQqIJKH MJq `NPTzKIMT[LJg ZRMTKLTI sPR HIJLPR HKQqIJKH).
0a /Q`ITK HKQqLIH M `RPMq RMJgI Ps HQ`ITKH LH VIMJK Ps e[LT[ M HKQqIJK LH KP T[PPHI KeP TPRIH (K[I VMLJ HQ`ITKH).
GqQTMKLPJ HKQqLIH VIMJH IHHIJKLMN zJPeNIqgI Ps T[LNqRIJ! K[I TQRRLTQNQV! K[I PRgMJLMKLPJ Ps HT[PPNH MJq TNMHHIH.
7+
/IJLPR HKQqIJKH HZIJq sLsKIIJ eIIzH PJ KIMT[LJg ZRMTKLTI. u[Ia NIMRJ K[I QHI Ps qLssIRIJK IqQTMKLPJMN MLqH!
MQqLPxLHQMN sMTLNLKLIH! P`HIRxI NIHHPJH MJq KMzI MJ MTKLxI ZMRK LJ qLHTQHHLJg K[IV eLK[ M HQZIRxLHPR (KQKPR)
PJ HT[PPN ZRMTKLTI.
GSMVLJMKLPJH MRI [INq MK K[I IJq Ps IMT[ KIRV. pLJMN ISMVLJMKLPJH (PR sLJMNH) MRI KMzIJ MK K[I IJq Ps K[I
TPQRHI.
(/II: uL``LKH G. i. GSIRTLHIH LJ IMqLJg OPVZRI[IJHLPJ. iPJgVMJ! +273)
TEXT B. DIALOGUE
d J J : |QNNP! /KIxI. |MxI aPQ gPK M VLJQKI{
/ K I x I : /QRI! aIH. w[MK TMJ . qP sPR aPQ{
d.: .lxI RIMq M JQV`IR Ps `PPzH PJ K[I 0RLKLH[ HaHKIV Ps [Lg[IR IqQTMKLPJ `QK . TMJlK VMzI [IMq PR KMLN Ps
LK.
/.: vV... JP ePJqIR. w[MKlH K[I ZRP`NIV{
d.: QLKI M NPK Ps ZRP`NIVH. w[MK . eMJK KP qLHTQHH LH K[I qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ M QJLxIRHLKa MJq M TPNNIgI.
/.: .KlH NLzI K[LH! aPQ HII... u[I ZRPgRMVVI LH qLssIRIJK. dK M QJLxIRHLKa LK LH VQT[ eLqIR. URIMK MKKIJKLPJ LH
ZMLq KP HTLIJKLsLT HQ`ITKH.
d: .K HPQJqH MH K[PQg[ VPHK ZIPZNI ZRIsIR M QJLxIRHLKa.
/.: wINN... K[MK RMK[IR qIZIJqH.
d.: /ZIMzLJg M`PQK QJLxIRHLKLIH .lV JPK fQLKI TNIMR M`PQK KQKPRLMNH K[IRI. w[MK LH M KQKPRLMN ISMTKNa{
/.: o[! LKlH e[IJ HKQqIJKH qLHTQHH KPZLTH eLK[ M KQKPR LJ xIRa HVMNN gRPQZH QHQMNNa K[IRI MRI JPK VPRI
72
K[MJ K[RII PR sPQR HKQqIJKH MJq HPVIKLVIH PJNa PJI.
d.: . HII... dJq TPVLJg `MTz KP TPNNIgIH... .lV HKLNN JPK KIRRL`Na HQRI e[MK M RIHLqIJKLMN TPNNIgI LH.
/.: GRV... .KlH M TPNNIgI eLK[ M [MNN Ps RIHLqIJTI
32
PJ K[I HMVI gRPQJqH MH K[I ZRLJTLZMN `QLNqLJg. .J sMTK MNN
K[I HKQqIJKH NLxI LJ [MNN.
d: IMNNa{ MJq e[MK M`PQK K[I KIMT[LJg HKMss{
/.: dTKQMNNa K[I VMPRLKa Ps K[I KIMT[LJg HKMss NLxI K[IRI KPP. 0QK K[IRI MRI MNHP fQLKI M NPK Ps JPJ
RIHLqIJKLMN TPNNIgIH.
d: dJq aPQ HKQqLIq MK QJLxIRHLKa{
/.: yIH...
d.: .lq NLzI KP sLJq VaHINs LJ K[MK QJLxIRHLKa. w[MK eMH LK NLzI{
/.: wINN... M `Lg gRIa `QLNqLJg HQRRPQJqIq `a KRIIH.
d: 0IMQKLsQN{
/.: 1PK[LJg xIRa RIVMRzM`NI. os TPQRHI K[IRI eIRI NITKQRI [MNNH! TNMHHRPPVH MJq M JQV`IR Ps NM`PRMKPRLIH.
d: dJa sMTLNLKLIH sPR HZPRK MJq \.G.
*)
/.: iIK VI HII... yIH... d gaVJMHLQV eLK[ T[MJgLJg RPPVH MJq H[PeIRH! M KIJJLH TPQRK... w[MK INHI... d
ZNMaLJg sLINq sPR JIK`MNN MJq sPPK`MNN...
d.: . `INLIxI HKQqIJKH HZIJq M NPK Ps KLVI KPgIK[IR! qPJlK K[Ia{
/.: nIsLJLKINa. wI [Mq HKQqIJKHl HPTLIKLIH MJq TNQ`H.
d.: dV . RLg[K KP `INLIxI K[MK K[Ia MRI sPR K[PHI LJKIRIHKIq LJ qRMVM MJq VQHLT{
/.: QLKI... MJq MNHP ZPNLKLTH! VPqIRJ NMJgQMgIH! NLKIRMKQRI! HTLIJTI MJq MK[NIKLTH.
d: d[... K[MKlH ePRK[ zJPeLJg.
/.: dJq e[MK .lq NLzI KP Mqq LH K[MK HKQqIJKH K[IVHINxIH PRgMJLI MNN K[PHI TNQ`H MJq HPTLIKLIH. u[IRI LH
QHQMNNa M /KQqIJKHl OPQJTLN PR }JLPJ.
d.: wINN /KIxI. u[MJzH xIRa VQT[. yPQlxI `IIJ VPHK [INZsQN.
TEXT C. HOW TO GET A DEGREE
m.: wINN! dRJPNq! . RIVIV`IR aPQ HMLq PJTI aPQ eIRI M 0. d. \IR[MZH aPQ TPQNq KINN VI [Pe fQLTzNa aPQ
gPK K[PHI NIKKIRH MsKIR aPQR JMVI{
d.: dK QJLxIRHLKa . HKQqLIq [LHKPRa. .K eMH M 4aIMR TPQRHI. dJq MsKIR K[MK . gPK M 0. d qIgRII.
m.: 0.d. HKMJqH sPR 0MT[INPR Ps dRKH qIgRII! qPIHJlK LK{
d.: yIH! e[LT[ RIVLJqH VI Ps Va JILg[`PQR e[PHI HPJ [Mq QHK gPK [LH 0. d. d sRLIJq MHzIq xIRa
HIRLPQHNa: r. HQZZPHI aPQR HPJ eLNN KRa KP gIK MJ v. d. PR \[. n.r
*+
JISK KP e[LT[ Va JILg[`PQR MJHeIRIq:
r1PK MK MNN! JPe [I LH KRaLJg KP gIK M mo0.r
d: d[... [I VIMJK M P`c u[MKlH M gPPq PzIc (/II: GJgNLH[ 2)4! 0PPz ,. iJq.! +27b)
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)
Words and Word Combinations
d. IqQTMKLPJ HaHKIV HTLIJKLsLT HQ`ITKH
TPVZQNHPRa IqQTMKLPJ MJ LJKIJqLJg KIMT[IR
ZRLVMRa HT[PPN PZKLPJMN
HITPJqMRa HT[PPN TPRI TPVZPJIJK (TPRI)
TPVZRI[IJHLxI HT[PPN HT[PPN (KIMT[LJg) ZRMTKLTI
ZQ`NLT HT[PPN /T[PPN`MHIq ISZIRLIJTI
sQRK[IR IqQTMKLPJ /Q`ITK HKQqLIH
ZPNaKIT[JLT GqQTMKLPJ HKQqLIH
TPNNIgI Ps [Lg[IR IqQTMKLPJ (u[IPRa Ps) GqQTMKLPJ
KP HZITLMNLI LJ VMLJ HQ`ITK
KIMT[IR KRMLJLJg MgIRMJgI
qIgRII QJLPR HKQqIJKH
QJqIRgRMqQMKI HIJLPR HKQqIJKH
gRMqQMKI ZNMa ZRPqQTKLPJ
ZPHKgRMqQMKI IqQTMKLPJMN MLqH
sQNNKLVI HKQqIJK MQqLPxLHQMN sMTLNLKLIH
ZMRKKLVI HKQqIJK xLHQMN MLqH
RIMqIR KP P`HIRxI M NIHHPJ
32
`MNN Ps RIHLqIJTI: M VPRI VPqIRJ KIRV K[MJ ho&te9, QHIq PJNa Ps HKQqIJK [PHKINH (K[I M``RIxLMKIq sPRV ha99, eLK[ JP MRKLTNI! LH eLqINa QHIq `a HKQqIJKH LJ
IxIRaqMa HLKQMKLPJH). _o&te9 LH M VPRI gIJIRMN ePRq (M JQRHIHl [PHKIN! M sMTKPRa [PHKIN! MaPQK[ [PHKIN! IKT.).
*)
\. G \[aHLTMN GqQTMKLPJ.
*+
\[." \": nPTKPR Ps \[LNPHPZ[a (KLKNI gLxIJ KP TPVZNIKLPJ Ps MJa RIHIMRT[! JP VMKKIR e[LT[ HQ`ITK aPQ HKQqa)
74
NITKQRIR HQZIRxLHPR (KQKPR)
ZRMTKLTMN TNMHHIH KP [PNq ISMVLJMKLPJH
sLJMN ISMVLJMKLPJH (sLJMNH)
B. KQKPRLMN T[MJgLJg RPPV
RIHLqIJKLMN TPNNIgI HKQqIJKHl HPTLIKa
JPJRIHLqIJKLMN TPNNIgI /KQqIJKHl OPQJTLN (}JLPJ)
[MNN Ps RIHLqIJTI (. 0.d.! 0.Gq.! 0./T! 0./.G.!
KP NLxI LJ [MNN 0./.v. qIgRII (0MT[INPR Ps
ZRLJTLZMN `QLNqLJg (K[I dRKH! GqQTMKLPJ! /TLIJTI!
/IJMKI) GJgLJIIRLJg! vIqLTLJI IKT.)
KIMT[LJg HKMss v.d.! v.Gq (vMHKIR Ps
\[aHLTMN GqQTMKLPJ (\.G.) dRKH! GqQTMKLPJ! IKT.)
gaVJMHLQV (gaV) \[n. (nPTKPR Ps \[LNPHPZ[a)
EXERCISES
I. Study Text A and write EngIish equivaIents of the foIIowing words and phrases. Transcribe them:
;; ( 5)! 95 ! > 8D;
! 6! 8! ! ! 65D ! 6
! $;! ; ! ; ! (2 ePRqH)!
! =5 6! 86 8$ $n.! 685!
C685! D! ; $! $ $
;;; %! ;;! C7= %! ;! 8
$D9 ! 68! 8 D9 ! 8 ! 68
! =6 ! 6 (2 ePRqH)! 6 E$8! 88
E$8.
II. Write 15 questions on Text A, using new words and expressions in each question. Ask your comrades to
repIy them. Summarize what you have Iearned about the British system of higher education.
III. Study Texts and and write EngIish equivaIents of the foIIowing words and phrases:
$ 8D; ! ! > =>$! >
=>! => ()! > ()! >6 => (
9)! ;;5 ! %85 ! ;$5 ! !
=! 5 ! ;$89 ! $; ;$89 !
CC9 .
IV. Ask your feIIow-students:
+. d`PQK K[I qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ M QJLxIRHLKa! ZPNaKIT[JLT MJq TPNNIgI Ps [Lg[IR IqQTMKLPJ. 2. w[a LK LH
ZRIsIRM`NI KP HKQqa MK QJLxIRHLKa. 4. w[MK HQ`ITKH K[I \RPgRMVVI Ps M QJLxIRHLKa LH `MHIq QZPJ. 3. w[MK aPQ
zJPe M`PQK KQKPRLMNH. *. d`PQK K[I qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ M RIHLqIJKLMN MJq M JPJRIHLqIJKLMN TPNNIgI
(QJLxIRHLKa). ,. w[P NLxIH LJ [MNN. 7. w[MK RPPVH TMJ `I sPQJq LJ M QJLxIRHLKa `QLNqLJg. b. w[MK HZPRK
sMTLNLKLIH K[IRI MRI MK M QJLxIRHLKa. 2. w[MK TNQ`H MJq HPTLIKLIH MRI ZPZQNMR LJ 0RLKLH[ TPNNIgIH MJq
QJLxIRHLKLIH. +). w[P RQJH K[PHI TNQ`H MJq HPTLIKLIH. ++. w[MK M 0. d. LH. +2. |Pe fQLTzNa PJI TMJ gIK K[PHI
NIKKIRH `IsPRI [LH JMVI. +4. w[MK M v. d. LH. +3. w[LT[ qIgRII LH [Lg[IR: v. d. PR \[. n.{ +*. .s LK LH IMHa
sPR M 0MT[INPR Ps dRKH KP sLJq M P`.
V. ReteII Text in indirect speech using new words and word combinations.
VI. FiII in prepositions. Ask the others to give their responses to the given sentences so as to make up
micro-diaIogues:
+.... URIMK 0RLKMLJ K[I TPQRHI... HKQqa... LJKIJqLJg KIMT[IRH LH `MHIq ... TPVZQNHPRa MJq PZKLPJMN HQ`ITKH. 2.
u[I \RPgRMVVI QHQMNNa TPJHLHKH ... K[RII TPRI TPVZPJIJKH. nP aPQ RIVIV`IR e[MK K[Ia MRI{ 4. dRI aPQ
gPLJg KP HZITLMNLI ... GqQTMKLPJ{ 3. .K LH LVZPRKMJK... M HKQqIJK KP NIMRJ K[I QHI ... qLssIRIJK xLHQMN MLqH ... [LH
`NPTzKIMT[LJg ZRMTKLTI. *. va HT[PPN ZRMTKLTI `IgMJ e[IJ . eMH ... K[I sLRHK aIMR. ,.... PQR qIZMRKVIJK
ISMVLJMKLPJH MRI [INq ... K[I IJq ... IMT[ KIRV; ... IMT[ ISMVLJMKLPJ HKQqIJKH MRI gLxIJ HIxIRMN qMaH e[LT[
K[Ia HZIJq ... RIxLHLJg K[I VMKIRLMN. 7. u[I GJgNLH[ TNQ` PRgMJLIq ... K[I HKQqIJKH LH TPJTIRJIq ..! ISKRM
TQRRLTQNMR MTKLxLKLIH. b. nP aPQ IJPa aPQR NITKQRIH ... u[IPRa ... GqQTMKLPJ{ dRI K[Ia HQZZNIVIJKIq...
HIVLJMRH{
VII. a) ReteII Text in indirect speech; b) act it out.
VIII. Speak about the EngIish Department at your University (use EssentiaI VocabuIary on the topic).
IX. Make up diaIogues, using EssentiaI VocabuIary on the topic Suggested situations:
d. d QHHLMJ HKQqIJK MJq MJ GJgNLH[ HKQqIJK MRI IST[MJgLJg LJsPRVMKLPJ PJ HaHKIVH Ps [Lg[IR IqQTMKLPJ
LJ K[ILR TPQJKRLIH.
0. ueP HKQqIJKH Ps K[I GJgNLH[ qIZMRKVIJK MRI qLHTQHHLJg K[ILR TPNNIgI NLsI. oJI Ps K[IV LH IJK[QHLMHKLT
73
M`PQK IxIRaK[LJg! K[I PK[IR LH M qLHHMKLHsLIq gRQV`NIR MJq sLJqH sMQNK eLK[ IxIRa NLKKNI K[LJg.
O. d HKQqIJK Ps K[I GJgNLH[ qIZMRKVIJK LH HZIMzLJg M`PQK K[I ZRPgRMVVI MJq K[I TPQRHI Ps HKQqa eLK[ M
sRLIJq Ps [LH ([IRH).
n. d HKRLTK sMK[IR (VPK[IR) LH qIVMJqLJg MJ ISZNMJMKLPJ sRPV M HPJ (qMQg[KIR) MsKIR M sMLNQRI LJ M TPNNIgI
ISMV. u[I HPJ LH gLxLJg MNN zLJqH Ps NMVI ISTQHIH HZIMzLJg M`PQK rPxIRTRPeqIq HaNNM`QHr! LJQHKLTI Ps
ZRPsIHHPRH MJq `Mq NQTz LJ gIJIRMN.
X. a) Bead and transIate into Russian:
Oxford
/P K[LH LH oSsPRq. dH HPPJ MH eI IVIRgI LJKP K[I TNIMJ! `RPMq HKRIIKH! K[IRI MRI HLgJH IJPQg[ K[MK K[LH LH
K[I MJTLIJK HIMK Ps GJgNLH[ NIMRJLJg. UPeJH MJq VPRKMR `PMRqH.
*2
yPQJg QJqIRgRMqQMKIH LJ NPPHI `NMTz K[Lg[
NIJgK[ gPeJH. d gRMqQMKIlH gPeJ LH gIJIRMNNa Ps zJII NIJgK[ MJq sPR TIRIVPJLMN PTTMHLPJH MK NIMHK! [MH M
[PPq NLJIq LJ HLNz Ps K[I TPNPQR ZRIHTRL`Iq `a K[I eIMRIRlH sMTQNKa.
oSsPRqlH VMLJ RMLNeMa HKMKLPJ LH HPVI [MNs M VLNI KP K[I eIHK Ps K[I MRIM LJ e[LT[ MRI TNQHKIRIq VPHK Ps
K[I TPNNIgIH: QIIJlH OPNNIgI MJq }JLxIRHLKa OPNNIgI! vMgqMNIJ OPNNIgI MJq fQLKI M JQV`IR Ps PK[IRH.
dNN K[IHI KPgIK[IR VMzI QZ K[I }JLxIRHLKa Ps oSsPRq.
u[I TIJKRMN }JLxIRHLKa! LJ gIJIRMN! MRRMJgIH NITKQRIH sPR K[I e[PNI `Pqa Ps HKQqIJKH LJ M ZMRKLTQNMR HQ`ITK
MJq [PNqH ISMVLJMKLPJH MJq gRMJKH qIgRIIH; MJ LJqLxLqQMN TPNNIgI ZRPxLqIH sPR RIHLqIJTI MJq KQKPRLMNH. URIMK
IVZ[MHLH LH NMLq MK oSsPRq MJq OMV`RLqgI PJ e[MK MRI TMNNIq rKQKPRLMNHr! LJ e[LT[ M nPJ
*4
gLxIH ZIRHPJMN
LJHKRQTKLPJ LJ [LH HKQqa MK NIMHK PJTI M eIIz KP HKQqIJKH JQV`IRLJg JPK VPRI K[MJ sPQR MK M HLKKLJg.
pPR M NPxIR Ps PNq MRT[LKITKQRI! oSsPRq [MH VQT[ KP PssIR. vMJa Ps K[I TPNNIgIH ZRIHIJK M NPxINa ZLTKQRI Ps
MJTLIJK ZIMRNgRIa eMNNH! JP`NI KPeIRH! ZLTKQRIHfQI gPK[LT MRT[eMaH. dNN [MxI gRMHH NMeJH Ps xINxIK
HVPPK[JIHH e[LT[ VQHK `I HIIJ KP `I `INLIxIq! MJq VMJa [MxI! LJ HQVVIR! VPHK VMgJLsLTIJK qLHZNMaH Ps
sNPeIRH.
(0fter ru[I 0RLKLH[ /TIJIr 2y UIPRgI 0LqeINN)
b) Argue the pros and cons of: 1. TutoriaI system. 2. Students' uniform. 3. ResidentiaI coIIeges.
XI. Describe the pictures on p. 183:
XII. Try your hand at teaching:
A. Preparation. UIK RIMqa sPR M KMNz PJ PJI Ps K[I sPNNPeLJg KPZLTH:
+. |Lg[IR IqQTMKLPJ LJ QHHLM.
2. |Lg[IR IqQTMKLPJ LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJ.
4. oSsPRq }JLxIRHLKa.
3. OMV`RLqgI }JLxIRHLKa.
*. uIMT[IR KRMLJLJg LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJ MJq LJ QHHLM.
B. Work in Class. iLHKIJ KP K[I HKQqIJKHl KMNz MJq HMa M sIe ePRqH M`PQK K[I TPJHKRQTKLPJ Ps IMT[ KMNz: LKH
`IgLJJLJg! qIxINPZVIJK! TPJTNQHLPJ! MJq K[I gIJIRMN `MNMJTI Ps K[IHI ZMRKH.
/ZIMz PJ e[MK aPQ K[LJz VMa HQRZRLHI M QHHLMJ HKQqIJK MK MJ GJgNLH[ }JLxIRHLKa (oSsPRq! OMV`RLqgI):
M) ZRPgRMVVI! `) KIMT[LJg VIK[PqH! T) HKQqIJKHl ISKRMTQRRLTQNMR MTKLxLKLIH.
\RPVZKH: . K[LJz (HQZZPHI! gQIHH! `INLIxI! qMRI HMa)...; wINN! Va PZLJLPJ LH K[MK...; va xLIe LH K[MK...;
uRQI! `QK...; yPQ VMa `I RLg[K... `QK MNN K[I HMVI...; . ePQNqJlK HMa K[MK; 0QK PJ K[I PK[IR [MJq.
XIII. Read the text. Comment on its content:
Students in Tents
u[RII HVMNN KIJKH KeP `NQI MJq PJI z[MzL MRI ZLKT[Iq MVPJg KRIIH PJ M [LNN M`PxI /QHHIS
}JLxIRHLKa TMVZQH. u[LH eIIzIJq K[Ia MRI l[PVIl KP K[RII HKQqIJKH e[P TMJJPK sLJq M `Iq LJ K[I
JILg[`PQRLJg KPeJ Ps 0RLg[KPJ.
u[Ia MRI MJ MZK HaV`PN Ps MJ MTTPVVPqMKLPJ TRLHLH K[MK LH MssITKLJg K[PQHMJqH Ps HKQqIJKH K[RPQg[PQK K[I
TPQJKRa. uPJLg[K b) PK[IR /QHHIS HKQqIJKH eLNN `Iq qPeJ PJ VMKKRIHHIH PJ K[I sNPPR Ps K[I QJLxIRHLKa HIJMKI
T[MV`IR. .K eLNN `I K[I HLSK[ MJq ZRP`M`Na sLJMN JLg[K Ps MlZRPKIHK PTTQZMKLPJc
.J IxIRa VMPR TLKa K[IRI MRI HKQqIJKH PJ TMVZ `IqH LJ JPPzH MJq TRMJJLIH MJq PK[IRH lTRMH[LJgl PJ K[I
sNPPRH Ps sRLIJqHl sNMKH.
u[I 1MKLPJMN }JLPJ Ps /KQqIJKH qIHTRL`IH LK MH K[I ePRHK IxIR HKQqIJK MTTPVVPqMKLPJ TRLHLHc u[I
LJqLTMKLPJH MRI K[MK LK LH M sPRIKMHKI Ps M VMHHLxI ZRP`NIV.
}JNIHH HPVIK[LJg RMqLTMN LH qPJI! K[I TPJTIZK Ps M HKQqIJK [MxLJg K[I RLg[K KP gP MeMa KP QJLxIRHLKa VMa
HPPJ `I qIMq. (/II: ;tofi C", Creed ;" /" GJgNLH[ LJ vLJq. iJq.! +2b2)
XIV. Speak on:
+. yPQR LJKIJKLPJH MH KP aPQR KIMT[LJg TMRIIR.
*2
mortar board: M sNMKKPZZIq HKQqIJKlH TMZ
*4
Don: M TPNNIgI KQKPR e[P qLRITKH K[I HKQqLIH Ps QJqIRgRMqQMKIH
7*
2. w[MK aPQ MRI gPLJg KP qP KP `ITPVI M [Lg[NafQMNLsLIq HZITLMNLHK.
XV. RoIe-pIaying.
Work in two groups, one pIaying the university Iecturers, the other presenting students. Both groups are
discussing one and the same exam. Compare their versions and make your concIusion as to the
difference in approach:
GSMV: GJgNLH[ iLKIRMKQRI.
IHQNKH: nMxI P`IRKHPJ /MK O[MRNIH |PZI \PPR
nQJTMJ |PNVIH UPPq nPRPK[a 0MLRq :IRa UPPq
mIJJa LT[MRqH UPPq
XVI. Compose a short story to which the pictures on pp. 187-189 might serve as an iIIustration. Use prompt
words and phrases Iisted betow:
Z[aHLTLHK; K[IPRa Ps RINMKLxLKa; KRIMqLJg PJ MLR; sQNN Ps HeIIK RIVLJLHTIJTIH;
TMHK M gNMJTI; M HQqqIJ H[PTz; TPVI KP RIMNLI; M gQLNKa TPJHTLIJTI;
sLRHK KRMTIH Ps sMKLgQI; KLRIqPQK;
eLK[ M eIK KPeIN RPQJq [LH [IMq; LJ sRQHKRMKLPJ; M qMIq NPPz; M KQ` Ps eMKIR; HTMKKIRIq MNN PxIR; ZIIZLJg
LJHLqI; ZQNIq;
HKRMJgI xLHLPJH; eINTPVI T[IIRsQNNa; MRVLJMRV; M TMJI;
LJ M sRIJa Ps IJK[QHLMHV; NIMJLJg PJ; NQJMKLT MHaNQV.
XVII. FiIm "Mr. Brown's HoIiday". FiIm segment 5 "Is it Good to be a Student?" (Chrichester). a) Watch and
Iisten, b) Do the exercises from the guide to the fiIm.
STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH
V
d zLJq Ps eRLKLJg KIT[JLfQI K[MK [INZH KP MT[LIxI gPPq RIHQNKH LH HQVVMRLLJg K[I TPJKIJKH Ps eRLKKIJ
ePRzH.
/QVVMRa LH M RIZRIHIJKMKLPJ Ps K[I TPJKIJKH Ps TPVZNIKI ePRzH LJ `RLIs. .K LH ISZITKIq KP `I M`PQK M HLSK[
PR M KIJK[ Ps K[I PRLgLJMN LJ NIJgK[. .K LH IMHLIR KP VMzI M HQVVMRa Ps HKPRLIH! JPxINH MJq ZNMaH e[LT[ [MxI M
ZNPK.
\NPK LH M HaHKIVMKLT MRRMJgIVIJK Ps IxIJKH `a VIMJH Ps e[LT[ K[I eRLKIR `QLNqH QZ M VIMJLJgsQN HLKQMKLPJ
MJq H[PeH K[I T[MRMTKIRH. }HQMNNa M ZNPK TPJHLHKH Ps M gPPq `IgLJJLJg! M VLqqNI! MJq MJ IJq.
.J PRqIR KP VMzI M gPPq TNIMR HQVVMRa Ps M HKPRa aPQ [MxI KP gP K[RPQg[ K[I sPNNPeLJg HKMgIH:
+. IMq K[I HKPRa TMRIsQNNa HP MH KP QJqIRHKMJq LKH ZNPK.
2. vMzI M NLHK Ps MNN K[I ZPLJKH aPQ sLJq LVZPRKMJK. u[IHI JPKIH H[PQNq `I xIRa `RLIs! xIRa VQT[ NLzI K[I
KPZLT ZNMJ (HII K[I HMVZNI LJ }JLK pPQR).
7,
4. }HLJg K[I NLHK Ps ZPLJKH! eRLKI M RPQg[ qRMsK Ps K[I HQVVMRa. yPQ VMa ZMRMZ[RMHI MJq VPqLsa KPZLT
HIJKIJTIH. u[LH eLNN [INZ aPQ KP RIZRPqQTI K[I TPJKIJKH Ps K[I HKPRa LJ aPQR PeJ ePRqH.
3. dsKIR [MxLJg eRLKKIJ M RPQg[ qRMsK H[PRKIJ LK MJq eRLKI M sMLR TPZa Ps aPQR HQVVMRa.
Note: uMzI TMRI JPK KP T[MJgI K[I VIMJLJg Ps K[I PRLgLJMN PR Mqq KP LK. yPQR HQVVMRa VMa sPNNPe K[I PQKNLJI Ps K[I HKPRa LJ
`RLIs.
|IRI LH M HMVZNI HQVVMRa Ps rd nMalH wMLKr (HII }JLK ueP).
d `Pa Ps JLJI sINN LNN. |I eMH RQJJLJg M [Lg[ KIVZIRMKQRI (+)2p). u[I qPTKPR qLMgJPHIq K[I LNNJIHH MH sNQ.
|I HMLq K[IRI eMH JPK[LJg KP ePRRa M`PQK Ls K[I sIxIR qLq JPK gP M`PxI PJI [QJqRIq MJq sPQR qIgRIIH. u[I
`Pa NMa HKLNN LJ K[I `Iq. |I HIIVIq qIKMT[Iq MJq eMH NPPzLJg xIRa HKRMJgINa MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I `Iq. w[IJ K[I
sMK[IR KPPz [LH KIVZIRMKQRI MgMLJ K[I `Pa MHzIq [LV M`PQK K[I KLVI [I eMH gPLJg KP qLI. |I MRgQIq eLK[ [LH
sMK[IR M`PQK K[I KIVZIRMKQRI `ITMQHI e[IJ `ILJg MK HT[PPN LJ pRMJTI [I NIMRJIq sRPV K[I `PaH K[MK aPQ TMJlK
NLxI eLK[ K[I KIVZIRMKQRI Ps sPRKasPQR qIgRIIH. u[I sMK[IR RIMHHQRIq [LV ISZNMLJLJg K[I qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ
K[I pM[RIJ[ILK MJq OIJKLgRMqI K[IRVPVIKIRH. u[I `Pa RINMSIq MsKIR rM qMalH eMLKr! K[PQg[ K[I JISK qMa [I
eMH HKLNN HQssIRLJg sRPV M JIRxPQH `RIMzqPeJ.
Assignments:
+. wRLKI M HQVVMRa Ps K[I HKPRa r|Pe wI jIZK vPK[IRlH nMar. (/II }JLK pPQR.)
2. uRa KP VMzI M HQVVMRa Ps mQqalH NIKKIRH. (nPJlK sPRgIK KP VMzI M NLHK Ps K[I VPHK LVZPRKMJK ZPLJKH
`IsPRI eRLKLJg M RPQg[ qRMsK.)
4. wRLKI M HQVVMRa Ps K[I qLMNPgQI `IKeIIJ dJJ MJq /KIxI. (/II uISK 0.) u[LJz Ps K[I `IHK KPZLT
HIJKIJTIH LJKRPqQTLJg PR/MJq TPVZNIKLJg aPQR HQVVMRa.
LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)
+. iLHKIJ KP uISKH d MJq 0! VMRz K[I HKRIHHIH MJq KQJIH. IZIMK K[IV sPNNPeLJg K[I VPqIN
2. iLHKIJ KP uISK ( vMRz K[I HKRIHHIH MJq KQJIH. IZIMK LK sPNNPeLJg K[I VPqIN.
4. wRLKI M HZINNLJgKRMJHNMKLPJ KIHK. O[ITz LK eLK[ K[I zIa.
3. wRLKI M qLTKMKLPJ. O[ITz aPQR HZINNLJg eLK[ M qLTKLPJMRa.
*. uRMJHNMKI K[I HIJKIJTIH MJq T[ITz aPQR KRMJHNMKLPJ eLK[ K[I zIa (eRLKKIJ ePRz).
,. NLHKIJ KP K[I KISK rOMV`RLqgIll PR HPVI PK[IR KISK PJ K[I KPZLT rGqQTMKLPJr. wRLKI K/ fQIHKLPJH KP K[I
KISK UIK RIMqa KP qLHTQHH LK LJ TNMHH.
CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS
I. Test your "I. Q."
*3
and compare it to 1udy's "abyss of ignorance". Say what you know about:
+. vMQRLTI vMIKIRNLJTz.
2. vLT[INIMJgINP.
4. rnMxLq OPZZIRsLINqr MJq K[I MQK[PR Ps K[I `PPz.
3. r.xMJ[PIr MJq K[I MQK[PR Ps K[I `PPz.
*. rmMJI GaRIr MJq K[I MQK[PR Ps K[I `PPz.
,. rP`LJHPJ ORQHPIr MJq K[I MQK[PR Ps K[I `PPz.
7. rdNLTI LJ wPJqIRNMJqr.
b. |IJRa K[I GLg[K[.
2. /[INNIa.
+). UIPRgI GNLPK.
++. vPJM iLHM.
+2. /[IRNPTz |PNVIH.
II. Give the names of humorists: a) you appreciate most of all; b) of British or American origin; c)
of world reputation.
UNIT SIX
I SPEECH PATTERNS
1. . needn?t have hurried"
Cf" yPQ JIIqJlK gP K[IRI KPVPRRPe. yPQ JIIqJlK [MxI gPJI K[IRI aIHKIRqMa.
. JIIqJlK KINN [LV K[MK; [I zJPeH LK. . JIIqJlK [MxI KPNq [LV K[MK; [I zJIe LK MNRIMqa.
u[I KIMT[IR JIIqJlK ISZNMLJ HQT[ HLVZNI K[LJgH; K[I ZQZLNH zJPe K[IV. u[I KIMT[IR JIIqJlK [MxI
ISZNMLJIq HQT[ HLVZNI K[LJgH; K[I ZQZLNH zJIe K[IV.
yPQ JIIqJlK MHz K[LH fQIHKLPJ. yPQ JIIqJlK [MxI MHzIq K[LH fQIHKLPJ.
2. |Ilq `IIJ KMNzLJg +ore than u&ua9"
yPQlxI TPVI NMKIR K[MJ QHQMN.
*3
I.Q. .JKINNLgIJTI QPKLIJK M JQV`IR LJqLTMKLJg K[I NIxIN Ps M ZIRHPJlH VIJKMN qIxINPZVIJK P`KMLJIq `a VQNKLZNaLJg [LH VIJKMN MgI `a +))! MJq
qLxLqLJg K[I RIHQNK `a [LH T[RPJPNPgLTMN MgI! K[I NMKKIR gIJIRMNNa TPK ISTIIqLJg +,.
77
oQR [PVIePRz KPqMa LH NPJgIR K[MJ QHQMN.
yIHKIRqMa K[LH MTKRIHH ZNMaIq `IKKIR K[MJ QHQMN.
uPVPRRPe . MV KP gIK QZ IMRNLIR K[MJ QHQMN.
3. |I NPPzIq MK VI eLK[ tho&e zLJq `NQI eye& of hi&"
. zJIe KPP eINN K[MK T[MRVLJg HVLNI Ps [IRH.
yPQ JIIqJlK RIZIMK KP VI K[PHI NLIH Ps aPQRH.
. RIMNNa qPJlK zJPe e[MK KP qP eLK[ K[LH JMQg[Ka T[LNq Ps VLJI.
. qPJlK NLzI K[MK H[MRZ xPLTI Ps aPQR sRLIJqlH.
w[P HMLq K[MK{ os TPQRHI! K[MK qIMR [QH`MJq Ps vMRalH.
EXERCISES
I. Paraphrase the foIIowing sentences, using Patten 1:
\ M K K I R J + : +. w[a qLq aPQ MJHeIR K[LH fQIHKLPJ{ .K eMH JPK VIMJK sPR aPQ. 2. |I HZPzI KPP
NPJg! LK `PRIq IxIRa`Pqa ZRIHIJK. 4. u[IRI eMH JP RIMHPJ e[a H[I H[PQNq gIK HP ISTLKIq PxIR M NLKKNI K[LJg
NLzI K[MK. 3. wMH LK JITIHHMRa KP `PK[IR HQT[ M `QHa VMJ eLK[ K[LH QJLVZPRKMJK fQIHKLPJ{ *. w[a [MxI aPQ
TPVI KP VIIK VI{ u[IRI eMH JP JIIq sPR aPQ KP `PK[IR.
II. CompIete the foIIowing sentences, using the patterns:
\ M K K I R J 2 : +. uPqMa H[I [MH `IIJ MJHeIRLJg [IR KMHz IxIJ `IKKIR ... . 2. dRI aPQ LNN{ yPQ MRI
NPPzLJg ... . 4. u[I eMa KP [LH PssLTI HIIVIq KP [LV PJ K[MK qMa ... . 3. |I eMH LJ NPxI! MJq K[I HQJ HIIVIq KP
H[LJI .... *.... IMRNLIR K[MJ QHQMN. ,. u[I HPQZ KMHKIH IxIJ .... 7.... NMKIR K[MJ QHQMN.
\ M K K I R J 4 : +. /[I MqqRIHHIq QH MJgRLNa LJ K[MK [MRH[ ... . 2. nLq aPQ [MZZIJ KP HII K[MK T[MRVLJg ...
{ 4. . qLqJlK eMJK KP TPVI QZ KP aPQ! `ITMQHI aPQ eIRI HP `QHa HZIMzLJg KP K[MK qIMR .... 3. . qPJlK NLzI K[I
eMa H[I KRIMKH K[MK VLHIRM`NI .... *. . eLH[ . zJIe [Pe . H[PQNq `RLJg QZ K[LH qIMR .... ,. 1P PJI MJa NPJgIR
`INLIxIH K[PHI ... . 7. .s . eIRI aPQ! . H[PQNq K[RPe MeMa K[IHI .... b. w[P TPQNq [MxI qPJI HQT[ M K[LJg
`QK...{ 2. . [MxI [IMRq M NPK M`PQK K[MK....
III. TransIate these sentences into EngIish:
+. $ > 8 96 7 . < = D. 2. X E9 9 89
C6 D. "8 6 >! $ 8! ! !
> D. 4. E 6 > 8 6 5! $ 8.
' $ ;$! ; 5 6D7 D$ $
E; ; .
IV. Make up short situations to iIIustrate Patterns 1, 2, 3 (three situations for each pattern).
V. Make up diaIogues, using aII the patterns.
TEXT. A FRIEND IN NEED by WiIIiam Somerset Maugham &abridged'
vMQg[MV! wLNNLMV /PVIRHIK (+b73+2,*): MJ GJgNLH[ eRLKIR. |I MT[LIxIq M gRIMK HQTTIHH MH M JPxINLHK eLK[ HQT[ JPxINH MH
ros |QVMJ 0PJqMgIr! ru[I MPRlH GqgIr MJq PK[IRH! MH M qRMVMKLHK eLK[ vH eLKKa HMKLRLTMN ZNMaH roQR 0IKKIRHr! ru[I OLRTNIr!
IKT.! `QK [I LH `IHK zJPeJ `a [LH H[PRK HKPRLIH.
dK K[I `IgLJJLJg Ps [LH NLKIRMRa TMRIIR vMQg[MV eMH gRIMKNa LJsNQIJTIq `a pRIJT[ JMKQRMNLHV. iMKIR PJ! [LH PQKNPPz PJ NLsI
T[MJgIq. .K `ITMVI TPPN! QJIVPKLPJMN MJq ZIHHLVLHKLT. |I HMaH K[MK NLsI LH KPP KRMgLT MJq HIJHINIHH KP `I qIHTRL`Iq. d eRLKIR
TMJlK T[MJgI NLsI! [I VQHK PJNa KRa KP MVQHI [LH RIMqIR! HKLR [LH LVMgLJMKLPJ. dJq K[LH LH e[IRI vMQg[MV MT[LIxIH ZIRsITKLPJ:
[LH HKPRLIH MRI MNeMaH sMHTLJMKLJg. vMQg[MVlH HzLNN LJ qIZLTKLJg HTIJIH MJq T[MRMTKIRH eLK[ M sIe KPQT[IH LH MVMLJg MJq
e[IK[IR [I VIMJH LK PR JPK [LH JPxINH! HKPRLIH MJq ZNMaH RIxIMN K[I xMJLKa! [aZPTRLHa MJq `RQKMNLKa Ps K[I HPTLIKa [I NLxIH LJ. /P
qPIH K[I HKPRa rd pRLIJq LJ 1IIqr. 0QRKPJ! M ZRPHZIRPQH `QHLJIHHVMJ! LH JPK.LJ K[I NIMHK TPJTIRJIq M`PQK K[I KRPQ`NIH MJq JIIqH
Ps K[PHI e[P [MxI sMLNIq LJ NLsI. wLK[PQK M VPVIJKlH [IHLKMKLPJ [I HIJqH M VMJ KP qIMK[ QHK `ITMQHI [LH ZRIHIJTI `PRIH [LV!
MJq NMKIR PJ [I RIVIV`IRH K[I sMTK eLK[ M rzLJqNa T[QTzNIr.
w[IJ vMQg[MV qIHTRL`Iq ZIPZNI MJq ZNMTIH LJ [LH H[PRK HKPRLIH! [I qLq LK VPHKNa sRPV [LH ZIRHPJMN ISZIRLIJTI.
r.KlH RMK[IR M sQJJa HKPRa!r [I HMLq. r|I eMHJlK M `Mq T[MZ. . NLzIq [LV. |I eMH MNeMaH eINNqRIHHIq MJq
HVMRKNPPzLJg. |I eMH [MJqHPVI LJ M eMa! eLK[ TQRNa [MLR MJq ZLJzMJqe[LKI T[IIzH. wPVIJ K[PQg[K M NPK
Ps [LV. u[IRI eMH JP [MRV LJ [LV! aPQ zJPe! [I eMH PJNa eLNq. os TPQRHI [I qRMJz KPP VQT[. u[PHI HPRK Ps
sINNPeH MNeMaH qP. d `LK Ps VPJIa QHIq KP TPVI LJ sPR [LV PJTI M fQMRKIR MJq [I VMqI M `LK VPRI `a TMRq
ZNMaLJg. |I ePJ M gPPq qIMN Ps VLJI! . zJPe K[MK.r
0QRKPJ gMxI M zLJqNa NLKKNI T[QTzNI. . zJIe sRPV Va PeJ ISZIRLIJTI K[MK [I TPQNq NPHI VPJIa MK `RLqgI
eLK[ M gPPq gRMTI.
r. HQZZPHI K[MK LH e[a [I TMVI KP VI e[IJ [I eIJK `RPzI! K[MK MJq K[I sMTK K[MK [I eMH M JMVIHMzI Ps
VLJI. |I TMVI KP HII VI LJ Va PssLTI PJI qMa MJq MHzIq VI sPR M P`. . eMH RMK[IR HQRZRLHIq. |I KPNq VI
K[MK K[IRI eMH JP VPRI VPJIa TPVLJg sRPV [PVI MJq [I eMJKIq KP ePRz. . MHzIq [LV [Pe PNq [I eMH.
ru[LRKasLxI!r [I HMLq.
rdJq e[MK [MxI aPQ `IIJ qPLJg [LK[IRKP{r . MHzIq [LV.
rwINN! JPK[LJg xIRa VQT[!r [I HMLq.
7b
. TPQNqJlK [INZ NMQg[LJg.
r.lV MsRMLq . TMJlK qP MJaK[LJg sPR aPQ QHK aIK!r . HMLq. rOPVI `MTz MJq HII VI LJ MJPK[IR K[LRKasLxI
aIMRH! MJq .lNN HII e[MK . TMJ qP.r
|I qLqJlK VPxI. |I eIJK RMK[IR ZMNI. |I [IHLKMKIq sPR M VPVIJK MJq K[IJ KPNq VI K[MK [I [Mq [Mq `Mq
NQTz MK TMRqH sPR HPVI KLVI. |I [MqJlK `IIJ eLNNLJg KP HKLTz KP `RLqgI! [Ilq `IIJ ZNMaLJg ZPzIR! MJq [Ilq gPK
KRLVVIq. |I [MqJlK M ZIJJa. |Ilq ZMeJIq IxIRaK[LJg [I [Mq. |I TPQNqJlK ZMa [LH [PKIN `LNN MJq K[Ia
ePQNqJlK gLxI [LV MJa VPRI TRIqLK. |I eMH qPeJ MJq PQK. .s [I TPQNqJlK gIK HPVIK[LJg KP qP [Ilq [MxI KP
TPVVLK HQLTLqI.
. NPPzIq MK [LV sPR M `LK. . TPQNq HII JPe K[MK [I eMH MNN KP ZLITIH. |Ilq `IIJ qRLJzLJg VPRI K[MJ QHQMN
MJq [I NPPzIq sLsKa. u[I gLRNH ePQNqJlK [MxI K[PQg[K HP VQT[ Ps [LV Ls K[Ialq HIIJ [LV K[IJ.
rwINN! LHJlK K[IRI MJaK[LJg aPQ TMJ qP ISTIZK ZNMa TMRqH{r . MHzIq [LV.
r. TMJ HeLV!r [I HMLq.
r/eLVcr
. TPQNq [MRqNa `INLIxI Va IMRH; LK HIIVIq HQT[ MJ LJHMJI MJHeIR KP gLxI.
r. HeMV sPR Va QJLxIRHLKa.r
**
. gPK HPVI gNLVVIRLJg Ps e[MK [I eMH qRLxLJg MK. .lxI zJPeJ KPP VMJa VIJ e[P eIRI NLKKNI KLJ gPqH MK
K[ILR QJLxIRHLKa KP `I LVZRIHHIq `a LK.
r. eMH M ZRIKKa gPPq HeLVVIR VaHINs e[IJ . eMH M aPQJg VMJ!r . HMLq.
/QqqIJNa . [Mq MJ LqIM.
\MQHLJg LJ [LH HKPRa! 0QRKPJ KQRJIq KP VI.
rnP aPQ zJPe jP`I{r [I MHzIq.
r1P!r . HMLq! r. ZMHHIq K[RPQg[ LK PJTI! `QK . PJNa HZIJK M JLg[K K[IRI.r
ru[IJ aPQ qPJlK zJPe K[I /[LPaM ONQ`. w[IJ . eMH M aPQJg VMJ . HeMV sRPV K[IRI RPQJq K[I `IMTPJ
MJq NMJqIq MK K[I TRIIz Ps uMRQVL. .KlH PxIR K[RII VLNIH MJq LKlH RMK[IR qLssLTQNK PJ MTTPQJK Ps K[I TQRRIJKH
RPQJq K[I `IMTPJ. wINN! . KPNq Va aPQJg JMVIHMzI M`PQK LK MJq . HMLq KP [LV K[MK Ls [Ilq qP LK .lq gLxI [LV M
P`. . TPQNq HII [I eMH RMK[IR KMzIJ M`MTz.
ryPQ HMa aPQlRI M HeLVVIR!r . HMLq.
r.lV JPK LJ xIRa gPPq TPJqLKLPJ!r [I MJHeIRIq.
. qLqJlK HMa MJaK[LJg. . H[RQggIq Va H[PQNqIRH. |I NPPzIq MK VI sPR M VPVIJK MJq K[IJ [I JPqqIq.
rdNN RLg[K!r [I HMLq. rw[IJ qP aPQ eMJK VI KP qP LK{r
. NPPzIq MK Va eMKT[. .K eMH QHK MsKIR KIJ.
ru[I HeLV H[PQNqJlK KMzI aPQ VQT[ PxIR MJ [PQR MJq M fQMRKIR. .lNN qRLxI RPQJq KP K[I TRIIz MK [MNs ZMHK
KeINxI MJq VIIK aPQ. .lNN KMzI aPQ `MTz KP K[I TNQ` KP qRIHH MJq K[IJ eIlNN [MxI NQJT[ KPgIK[IR!r
rnPJI!r [I HMLq.
wI H[PPz [MJqH. . eLH[Iq [LV gPPq NQTz MJq [I NIsK VI. . [Mq M NPK Ps ePRz KP qP K[MK VPRJLJg MJq .
PJNa QHK VMJMgIq KP gIK KP K[I TRIIz MK uMRQVL MK [MNs ZMHK KeINxI. 0QK . JIIqJlK [MxI [QRRLIq; [I JIxIR
KQRJIq QZ.r
rnLq [I sQJz LK MK KPI NMHK VPVIJK{r . MHzIq.
r1P! [I qLqJlK sQJz LK. |I HKMRKIq MNN RLg[K. 0QK Ps TPQRHI [Ilq RQLJIq [LH TPJHKLKQKLPJ `a qRLJz MJq
qLHHLZMKLPJ. u[I TQRRIJKH RPQJq K[I `IMTPJ eIRI VPRI K[MJ [I TPQNq VMJMgI. wI qLqJlK gIK K[I `Pqa sPR
M`PQK K[RII qMaH.r
. qLqJlK HMa MJaK[LJg sPR M VPVIJK PR KeP! . eMH M KRLsNI H[PTzIq. u[IJ . MHzIq 0QRKPJ M fQIHKLPJ.
rw[IJ aPQ VMqI [LV K[MK PssIR Ps M P`! qLq aPQ zJPe [Ilq `I qRPeJIq{r
|I gMxI M NLKKNI VLNq T[QTzNI MJq [I NPPzIq MK VI eLK[ K[PHI zLJq MJq TMJqLq `NQI IaIH Ps [LH. |I RQ``Iq
[LH T[LJ eLK[ [LH [MJq.
rwINN! . [MqJlK gPK M xMTMJTa LJ Va PssLTI MK K[I VPVIJK.r
VOCABULARY NOTES
1. to curI ,t-i" +. 6()! 6()! e"g" /[I [MH TQRNIq [IR [MLR. u[I PNq VMJ eMH TQRNLJg
[LH NPJg VPQHKMT[I.
2. 6! 6! ."g" nPIH [IR [MLR TQRN JMKQRMNNa PR qPIH H[I TQRN LK LJ TQRNIRH{ u[I HVPzI sRPV PQR
TMVZsLRIH TQRNIq QZeMRqH MVPJg K[I KRIIH.
to curl one's lip 6 6 ! ."g" . qPJlK NLzI K[I eMa H[I TQRNH [IR NLZ e[IJ KMNzLJg KP
VI.
to curl up 86()! ."g" u[I T[LNq TQRNIq QZ LJ K[I MRVT[MLR MJq eIJK KP HNIIZ.
**
to swim for one's university: KP KMzI ZMRK LJ HeLVVLJg RMTIH [INq `IKeIIJ PJIlH QJLxIRHLKa KIMV MJq HPVI PK[IR KIMVH. \RMTKLTMNNa IxIRa HT[PPN! TPNNIgI
MJq QJLxIRHLKa LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJ [MH LKH PeJ HZPRKH TNQ`H! MJq K[IRI MRI xMRLPQH PQKqPPR HZPRKH TPVZIKLKLPJH [INq MJJQMNNa eLK[LJ IMT[ HT[PPN! MH eINN MH
`IKeIIJ qLssIRIJK HT[PPNH! TPNNIgIH! MJq QJLxIRHLKLIH. u[IHI MRI! MH M RQNI! MKKIJqIq `a HZITKMKPRH qRMeJ sRPV MNN HITKLPJH Ps K[I ZQ`NLT! MJq K[I oSsPRq MJq
OMV`RLqgI `PMK RMTIH! LJ e[LT[ TRIeH sRPV K[IHI KeP QJLxIRHLKLIH TPVZIKI IxIRa HZRLJg PJ K[I u[MVIH! MRPQHI JMKLPJMN LJKIRIHK.
72
curling ad1 67=5 ( RXB
Cf" curled ad1 5 MJq TQRNa ad1 85! ."g" . qPJlK NLzI TQRNIq [MLR. 3ut . NLzIq K[LH ZNQVZ TQRNa
[IMqIq NLKKNI `Pa.
curl n +. ! ; 2. ! $ C$ ! ."g" u[I gLRN [Mq NPJg TQRNH PxIR [IR
H[PQNqIRH. |Pe qP aPQ zIIZ aPQR [MLR LJ TQRN{ /PPJ eI HMe K[I TQRNH Ps HVPzI RLHI QZeMRqH.
2. to break (broke, broken) ,t-i +. $6()! 6()! ."g" < sINN MJq `RPzI [LH NIg. w[P
`RPzI K[I eLJqPe{ UNMHH `RIMzH IMHLNa.
to break (HVK[.) LJ KeP (K[RII! IKT.) 6()! $6()! 6() ( ..)
! ."g" u[I VPK[IR `RPzI K[I `RIMq LJ KeP MJq gMxI IMT[ T[LNq M ZLITI.
to break to pieces 6() ;! ."g" u[I xMHI sINN MJq `RPzI KP ZLITIH.
2. 6 8$ ($6! C)! 6! QHQ. to be broken! ."g" < eMH
TPVZNIKINa `RPzIJ MH K[I RIHQNK Ps K[I sMLNQRI Ps [LH `QHLJIHH. /[I eMH `RPzIJ MsKIR [IR [QH`MJqlH qIMK[.
4. D6! a& KP `RIMz K[I NMe! M ZRPVLHI! PJIlH ePRq! MJ MZZPLJKVIJK
0nt" to keep! ."g" /[I `RPzI K[I MZZPLJKVIJK. /[I qLq JPK zIIZ LK
to break with smb. or smth. (PNq [M`LKH! KRMqLKLPJH! IKT.) 6 ..! 6 ...! .g. < TMJlK `RIMz
eLK[ [LH `Mq [M`LKH.
to break off 6 (67, d.X.!B, ."g" w[IJ H[I TMVI LJ [I `RPzI Pss. |I `RPzI
Pss LJ K[I VLqqNI Ps M HIJKIJTI.
N o t e: 1P P`ITK MsKIR break off. Cf" LJ QHHLMJ: 6 ;.
to break out 6 ! 896 (d e`U!.aUU, `^., bT.B, ."g" d sLRI `RPzI PQK
qQRLJg K[I JLg[K.
to break through (smth.) 86()! ."g" u[I ZMRKLHMJH `RPzI K[RPQg[ K[I IJIValH NLJI.
to break the record 6
break n $! 8 ( d., =.d. ..)! ."g" . sIIN KLRIq! NIKlH [MxI M `RIMz. wIlRI ePRzLJg
HLJTI JLJI PlTNPTz eLK[PQK M `RIMz.
3. to stick (stuck, stuck) ,t-i +. 6()! 6; 6; 6! a& KP HKLTz M
HKMVZ PJ M NIKKIR! KP HKLTz M JPKLTI PJ M `PMRq. u[IHI HKMVZH ePJlK HKLTz. u[I JLTzJMVI HKQTz KP [LV.
2. 6; >6! >6{ 6 $! ."g" pRLIJqH H[PQNq HKLTz KPgIK[IR. yPQ
VQHK HKLTz KP aPQR ZRPVLHI. u[PQg[ uPV HMe K[MK JP`Pqa `INLIxIq [LV! [I HKQTz KP [LH ePRqH. /KLTz KP
`QHLJIHHc (|I 56c)
4. 86! 86; 86! ."g" u[I gLRN HKQTz M sNPeIR LJ [IR [MLR. |I HKQTz [LH [MJqH LJ [LH
ZPTzIKH.
3. 6! 6! ."g" u[I HZNLJKIR HKQTz LJ Va sLJgIR. u[I TMR HKQTz LJ K[I VQq. u[I zIa HKQTz LJ
K[I zIa[PNI.
4. to drive (drove, driven) ,t-i 1. ;6 (); 6 ()! ."g" < qRPxI K[I [PRHIH
LJKP K[I sPRIHK.
2. 6! 6 ($D5! $$)! ."g" |IlH NIMRJLJg KP qRLxI.
4. 96 ( $! E>)! ."g" /[MNN eI qRLxI [PVI PR eMNz{
N o t e: wLK[ RIsIRIJTI KP KRMxINNLJg PJ M `LTaTNI! PJ M [PRHI PR PK[IR MJLVMN K[I xIR` KP RLqI LH
QHIq! ."g" |I QVZIq PJ [LH [PRHI MJq RPqI MeMa. |I RPqI PxIR PJ [LH `LTaTNI KP HII VI
aIHKIRqMa.
to drive up (away) ]>6 (]>6)! e"g" wI qRPxI QZ KP K[I [PQHI.
to drive at (5o99oC"B 6 $.! $6 .! ."g" . TPQNq JPK QJqIRHKMJq e[MK [I eMH
qRLxLJg MK.
to drive smb. mad 6 $
drive n ! ! ; ( adUR., e>U`^.B, ."g" wI [Mq M JLTI qRLxI.
to go for a drive 6! D6 ; $! ."g" /[MNN eI gP sPR M qRLxI RPQJq
K[I KPeJ{
driver n DC! 6! $D! a& M `QHqRLxIR! KRMVqRLxIR! KMSLqRLxIR! IJgLJIqRLxIR
5. pause n ! 8; 8D! ."g" u[IRI eMH M H[PRK ZMQHI e[LNI K[I JISK HZIMzIR gPK PJ KP
K[I ZNMKsPRV. d ZMQHI LH VMqI `ITMQHI Ps qPQ`K PR [IHLKMKLPJ PR sPR K[I HMzI Ps ISZRIHHLxIJIHH e[IJ
HZIMzLJg! HLJgLJg! RIMqLJg! IKT.
/yn" break
to make a pause 6 ! 6! ."g" u[I HZIMzIR VMqI M H[PRK ZMQHI KP HKRIHH [LH
ePRqH.
to pause ,i 6 ! 6! ."g" < ZMQHIq KP TPNNITK [LH K[PQg[KH. |I eIJK PJ eLK[PQK
ZMQHLJg.
b)
/aJ. stop
N t e: to stop LH QHQMNNa QHIq e[IJ K[I MTKLPJ LH JPK HQZZPHIq KP TPJKLJQI; KP ZMQHI LH QHIq
e[IJ K[IRI LH PJNa M KIVZPRMRa `RIMz LJ K[I MTKLPJ! IHZITLMNNa LJ HZIIT[ PR eRLKLJg! ."g" |I
ZMQHIq QJKLN K[I JPLHI HKPZZIq.
6. to nod ,i-t +. 6 ;5! ."g" . MHzIq [LV Ls [I TPQNq RLJg VI QZ MJq [I JPqqIq. /[I JPqqIq KP
VI MH H[I ZMHHIq.
/yn" bow
N t e: KP HPq RIsIRH NP M fQLTz VPKLPJ Ps K[I [IMq PJNa! MJq LH NIHH sPRVMN K[MJ KP `Pe!
e[LT[ LH M HNPeIR! sPRVMN `IJqLJg! QHQMNNa Ps K[I `Pqa MH eINN MH K[I [IMq! ."g" u[I
HIRxMJK `PeIq MJq NIsK K[I RPPV.
0nt to shake one's bead
2. $6! 6 $! ."g" /[I HMK LJ K[I MRVT[MLR JPqqLJg PxIR [IR `PPz.
nod n ! ."g" /[I ZMHHIq VI eLK[ M JPq. /[I gMxI VI M JPq.
(. ruin n +. ;6! D! ! ."g" u[I qIMK[ Ps nMxalH VPK[IR eMH K[I RQLJ Ps [LH [PZIH.
to bring smb. (smth.) to ruin 6! ;6! ."g" < `RPQg[K [LH sMVLNa KP RQLJ.
2. 8 (often 49B, 8! ."g" u[I RQLJH Ps PVI. u[I IJIVa NIsK K[I TLKa LJ RMLJH.
RMLJ ,t ;6! D6! 6
%o ruin one's life (hopes, business, constitution), ."g" |I zJIe K[MK [I [LVHINs [Mq RQLJIq [LH NLsI `a
HKIMNLJg K[I VPJIa.
to rain oneself 6! ."g" u[I sINNPe RMLJIq [LVHINs `a TMRqZNMaLJg.
ruinous ad1 685! ;685! D685
8. to rub ,t-i 6()! 6! ."g" u[I gaVJMHK RQ``Iq [LH [MJqH eLK[ KMNT. u[I qPg RQ``Iq LKH
JPHI MgMLJHK Va TPMK.
to rub smth. qRa 86 9! ."g" < RQ``Iq vH sMTI ([MJqH) qRa.
to rub in 6 ($6 . .)! ."g" Q` K[I PLN LJ eINN.
to rub off 6 (6 9)! ."g" Q` K[I ePRqH Pss K[I `NMTz`PMRq.
to rub out 6 (T`UXTT. =.TURaU, >T!faB, " !" /[I RQ``Iq MNN K[I ZIJTLN VMRzH PQK.
to rub one's hands (together) 6 6! ."g" |LH VMJJIR Ps RQ``LJg `LH [MJqH
gIKH PJ Va JIRxIH.
rub n! ."g" /[I gMxI K[I HZPPJH M gPPq RQ`.
9. vacant ad1 85! 85; 85! 5! ."g" u[I KINIZ[PJI `PPK[ eMH xMTMJK MJq .
eMH M`NI KP KINIZ[PJI MK PJTI. /[I gMIq LJKP xMTMJK HZMTI.
N o t e: u[I QHHLMJ ePRqH Xd!Tb MJq `Xb [MxI qLssIRIJK GJgNLH[ IfQLxMNIJKH:
+. Xd!Tb VMa `I KRMJHNMKIq `a vacant, free, not engaged, spare, loose.
vacant VIMJH rJPK PTTQZLIq!r a& M xMTMJK HIMK (RPPV! [PQHI! sNMK); M xMTMJK ZPHK (ZPHLKLPJ); M xMMJK VLJq
free VIMJH rLJqIZIJqIJK!r a& M sRII ZIRHPJ; M sRII HKMKI; sRII eLNN
not engaged VIMJH rJPK PTTQZLIq! JPK `QHa!r ."g" yPQ MRI JPK IJgMgIq JPe! MRI aPQ{
0nt" engaged, busy
Spare VIMJH rMqqLKLPJMN KP e[MK LH QHQMNNa JIIqIq!r ."g" . [MxI HZMRI KLVI KPqMa. .lxI gPK HZMRI TMH[
M`PQK VI MJq TMJ NIJq aPQ 4 PR * RPQ`NIH.
loose VIMJH rJPK KLg[K PR JPK sLKKLJg TNPHI!r ."g" |I [Mq NPPHI TNPK[IH PJ. dNN K[I eLJqPe sRMVIH LJ Va
sNMK MRI NPPHI.
0nt tight
2. `Xb [MH K[I sPNNPeLJg GJgNLH[ IfQLxMNIJKH: vacant, IVZKa! `NMJz! H[MNNPe.
(/II K[I JPKIH KP K[I ePRq `NMJz PJ Z. +,3.)
vacancy n >6! ."g" wI [MxI M xMTMJTa PJ PQR HKMss. wI MqxIRKLHIq sPR M HITRIKMRa KP
sLNN K[I xMTMJTa.
NOTES ON WORD-FORMATION
u[I xIR` to 9and eMH VMqI sRPV K[I JPQJ 9and `a VIMJH Ps T P J x I R H L P J e[LT[ LH M xIRa
ZRPqQTKLxI eMa Ps VMzLJg JIe ePRqH LJ VPqIRJ GJgNLH[.
.J TPJxIRHLPJ! M JIe ePRq MJq K[I PJI sRPV e[LT[ LK LH ZRPqQTIq [MxI K[I HMVI Z[PJIKLT H[MZI `QK
MNeMaH `INPJg KP qLssIRIJK TMKIgPRLIH PR ZMRKH Ps HZIIT[! HP K[MK xIR`H VMa `I ZRPqQTIq sRPV JPQJH PR
MqITKLxIH (."g" KP [MJq 6; KP TPV` 86; KP ZPTzIK 6 $; KP ZMNI 6)!
JPQJH sRPV xIR`H (."g" `RIMz 8; qRLxI ; sLJq 9)! IKT.
u[I PK[IR KeP VMLJ eMaH Ps ePRq`QLNqLJg MRI M s s L S M K L P J (PR HP TMNNIq qIRLxMKLPJ) MJq
T P V Z P H L K L P J .
.J MssLSMKLPJ JIe ePRqH MRI ZRPqQTIq eLK[ K[I [INZ Ps MssLSIH (K[MK LH HQssLSIH MJq ZRIsLSIH)! . g:
b+
`IMQKLsQN! HeLVVIR! QJ`INLIxM`NI.
.J TPVZPHLKLPJ JIe ePRqH MRI ZRPqQTIq sRPV KeP PR VPRI HKIVH! ."g": TNMHHRPPV! eMNN JIeHZMZIR! gPPq
sPRJPK[LJg! `NQIIaIq! IKT.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)
Words
`RIMz ,, n [IHLKMKI , RQLJ ,, n
TQRN ,, n NMJq , RQLJPQH ad1
TQRNIq ad1 JMVIHMzI n H[PTz ,
TQRNLJg ad1 nod ,, n HVMRK (NPPzLJg) ad1
TQRNa ad1 ZMQHI ,, n HKLTz ,
TQRRIJK a" RMK[IR adv xMTMJK ad1
qRLxI ,, n RQ` , xMTMJTa n
qRLxIR n
Word Combinations
LJ M eMa KP `RIMz Pss KP `I eLNNLJg KP qP HVK[.
KP `RIMz PQK KP HKLTz KP HVK[. (HV`.) KP `RIMz K[I RITPRq
KP `I qPeJ MJq PQK KP `RIMz eLK[ KP TPVVLK HQLTLqI
KP TQRN PJIlH NLZ KP qRLxI MK KP TQRN QZ
PJ MTTPQJK Ps KP qRLxI QZ (MeMa) to `I KMzIJ M`MTz
KP qRLxI HV`. VMq KP H[RQg PJIlH H[PQNqIRH KP VMzI M ZMQHI
KP [MxI `Mq (gPPq) NQTz KP RQ` PJIlH [MJqH (KPgIK[IR)
KP RQV QZ KP `RLJg &+2" (HVK[.) KP RQLJ
b2
EXERCISES
I. Read the text and do the foIIowing (A. Grammar, B. Word usage, C. Word-formation).
A. +. \LTz PQK sRPV K[I KISK MNN K[I LRRIgQNMR xIR`H MJq gLxI K[ILR sPQR sPRVH. 2. /IMRT[ K[I KISK sPR ing
sPRVH MJq TNMHHLsa K[IV MTTPRqLJg KP K[ILR sQJTKLPJH LJ K[I HIJKIJTIH. 4. vMRz MNN K[I TMHIH Ps /IfQIJTI Ps
uIJHIH LJ K[I KISK MJq TPVVIJK PJ K[IV (ISZNMLJ K[I RQNIH). 3. /INITK HIJKIJTIH eLK[ K[I xIR` go QHIq MH M
NLJz xIR`; e[MK PK[IR xIR`H TMJ `I QHIq LJ K[I HMVI sQJTKLPJ{
B. +. \LTz PQK sRPV K[I KISK ePRqH MJq Z[RMHIH qIHTRL`LJg MZZIMRMJTI. 2. uLTz Pss MNN LJKRPqQTKPRa Z[RMHIH
QHIq `a 0QRKPJ; QHI K[IV LJ HIJKIJTIH Ps aPQR PeJ. 4. \LTz PQK MNN K[I HIJKIJTIH eLK[ K[I ePRq rather MJq
KRMJHNMKI K[IV LJKP QHHLMJ. 3. \MRMZ[RMHI MNN K[I HIJKIJTIH eLK[ K[I xIR` get"
C. +. \LTz PQK sRPV K[I KISK MNN TPVZPQJq ePRqH MJq LqIJKLsa K[ILR KaZI. 2. OPJHKRQTK HPVI TPVZPQJqH
VPqINNLJg K[IV MsKIR we99Gdre&&ed MJq &+artG9oo'ing" 4. /IMRT[ K[I KISK sPR xIR`H MJq JPQJH sPRVIq `a
VIMJH Ps TPJxIRHLPJ.
II. TransIate in writing three paragraphs from the text: 1) the first paragraph, 2) the paragraph beginning
with "He didn't move" and 3) the paragraph from "Swim!" up to "SuddenIy I had an idea".
Read the transIation in cIass and discuss it with your feIIow-students.
III. a) Transcribe these words:
[MJqHPVI! eINNqRIHHIq! fQMRKIR! ISZIRLIJTI! NPHI! HQLTLqI! ZMQHLJg! TQRRIJK! M`MTz! H[PQNqIR! qRPeJIq.
b) Transcribe and expIain the ruIes of reading these words:
eLNq! RMK[IR! TQRN! ZMeJ! ZMHH! TPJHKLKQKLPJ! qLHHLZMKLPJ! `IMTPJ! fQIHKLPJ! [MNs! xMTMJTa! ZPzIR! KRLsNI.
IV. Write twenty speciaI questions about the text In each question use one of the phrases from EssentiaI
VocabuIary (I).
V. FiII in prepositions:
+. [MJqHPVI ... M eMa; 2. KP zJPe... PJIlH PeJ ISZIRLIJTI; 4. |I TPQNq NPHI VPJIa ... `RLqgI ... M gPPq
gRMTI. 3. KP [MxI `Mq NQTz ... TMRqH; *. |I qLq JPK eMJK KP HKLTz ... `RLqgI. ,. |I eMH MNN... ZLITIH. 7. .
QJqIRHKMJq e[MK [I eMH qRLxLJg .... b. . NMJqIq ... K[I TRIIz Ps uMRQVL. 2.... MTTPQJK...; +). |I JIxIR KQRJIq....
VI. Study VocabuIary Notes and transIate the iIIustrative exampIes into Russian.
VII. Answer the foIIowing questions:
+. 0QRKPJ K[PQg[K K[MK e[MK [I eMH KINNLJg eMH rRMK[IR M sQJJa HKPRa.r nP aPQ MNHP K[LJz HP{ w[a qPJlK
aPQ{ w[a qLq 0QRKPJ K[LJz LK sQJJa{ 2. w[MK zLJq Ps VMJ eMH aPQJg 0MRKPJ{ w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz Ps [LH
eMa Ps NLxLJg{ nP aPQ MZZRPxI Ps LK{ w[a JPK{ 4. w[a qP aPQ K[LJz aPQJg 0QRKPJ KQRJIq KP [LH JMVIHMzI
sPR [INZ e[IJ [I eMH RMLJIq{ 3. w[MK eMH K[I HLKQMKLPJ LJ e[LT[ [I sPQJq [LVHINs{ *. w[MK qLq 0QRKPJ
VIMJ `a HMaLJg K[MK [LH aPQJg JMVIHMzI eMH rqPeJ MJq PQKr{ K[MK [I eMH rMNN KP ZLITIHr{ ,. w[MK qLq
aPQJg 0QRKPJ VIMJ e[IJ [I HMLq K[MK [I rHeMV sPR [LH }JLxIRHLKar{ 7. oJ e[MK TPJqLKLPJ qLq 0QRKPJ
ZRPVLHI M P` LJ [LH PssLTI KP [LH JMVIHMzI{ w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz Ps K[LH TPJqLKLPJ{ b. w[a qLq aPQJg 0QRKPJ
MTTIZK LK{ |I zJIe [I eMH JPK LJ gPPq TPJqLKLPJ! qLqJlK [I{ 2. w[MK [MZZIJIq KP [LV{ +). nP aPQ K[LJz PNq
0QRKPJ zJIe K[MK `LH JMVIHMzI ePQNq `I qRPeJIq{ w[a qP aPQ K[LJz HP{ ++. w[a qLq 0QRKPJ HIJq [LH
JMVIHMzI KP MNVPHK HQRI qIMK[{ +2. w[MK zLJq Ps VMJ qP aPQ K[LJz PNq 0QRKPJ eMH{ +4. w[a qPIH K[I
MQK[PR IVZ[MHLI e[IJ HZIMzLJg M`PQK PNq 0QRKPJ [LH rzLJqNa T[QTzNI!r rVLNq T[QTzNI!r rK[PHI TMJqLq MJq
zLJq `NQI IaIH Ps [LHr{
VIII. Write an outIine of the story. You may try three ways: a) foIIowing the chain of true events; b) sticking
to the story as toId by the author or c) buiIding it up round the main idea of the story.
IX. a) FiII in different EngIish equivaIents of the Russian words )*+,- and ./0102+ &engaged, busy,
o""upied or 3a"ant, free, spare':
+. dH [I eMH ... aIHKIRqMa [I TPQNqJlK PLJ PQR TPVZMJa. 2. . KRLIq KP gIK [LV PJ K[I Z[PJI `QK K[I NLJI
eMH ... dH . eMH ... . qITLqIq KP RLJg [LV QZ NMKIR. 4. .H K[I ZNMTI JISK KP aPQ ...{ 1P! LK LH ... . 3. w[IJ .
IJKIRIq K[I [MNN MNN K[I HIMKH eIRI ... MJq . TPQNq [MRqNa sLJq M ... HIMK. *. wLNN aPQ `I ... KPVPRRPe{ iIKlH gP
KP K[I TPQJKRa. 1P! .lNN `I ... MK Va PssLTI. ,. iIKlH sLJq M ... TNMHHRPPV MJq RI[IMRHI PQR qLMNPgQI K[IRI.
.lV MsRMLq MK K[LH [PQR MNN K[I RPPVH MRI HQRI KP `I ... . 7. |MxI aPQ MJa ... KLVI KPqMa{ b. dK K[LH NMKI [PQR MNN
KMSLH eLNN `I ... . 2. . MV aPQJg! [IMNK[a! MJq ... KP qP MH . ZNIMHI.
b) Think of situations or microdiaIogues consisting of a statement (or a question) and a repIy to it using the
words mentioned above.
X. TransIate these sentences into EngIish:
+. ' 6$ 6 $ ; 85 =. 2. 6 ;
>6 $. 4. F7 $! $; 86 6. 3. 8 ; 8{ F
>7! $ $. *. ($6 ; 8 8 D$
9 ; > ,. ~6 ;% 8 ${ F >7! $ 8. 7.
& $8 ;68 6. b. E >{ 7 9
. 2. - ; 8 8 6 ! ; 8 . +). ;
> 6 #. ++. ' ! 8 6 $8$. +2. $
b4
6! 9D $D. +4. _ 8 D D. "
FE! 85 E; $ $ $ ! ;86 $.
+3. 7 6 6; . +*. -6 >! 9
;8! 6 E; > ]. +,. ' ! 6
D. +7. ' = $6 $! > =. +b. - $! 6
6 ;5 .
XI. Read the story carefuIIy and answer the foIIowing questions:
+. w[IJ qP aPQ QHQMNNa: RQ` aPQR T[LJ; gLxI M NLKKNI T[QTzNI; MHz M`PQK HV`.lH MgI; gP ZMNI; [IHLKMKI; H[RQg
aPQR H[PQNqIRH; NPPz MK aPQR eMKT[; H[MzI [MJqH{
2. .J e[MK HLKQMKLPJH qLq PNq 0QRKPJ MJq [LH JMVIHMzI ZIRsPRV K[I HMVI MTKLPJH MH LJ \PLJK +. OPVVIJK
PJ IMT[ HLKQMKLPJ.
XII. Try your band at teaching:
A. Preparation. +. \RIZMRI KP ISZNMLJ K[I qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ K[I xIR`H: &to4 MJq 4au&e, nod MJq 2ow &o
MH KP VMzI HQRI K[MK aPQR ZQZLNH TMJ QHI K[IHI xIR`H ZRPZIRNa. 2. wRLKI MJ ISIRTLHI KP ZRMTKLHI K[I sPNNPeLJg
MJKPJaVH: to 2rea' MJq to 'ee4, to nod MJq to &ha'e, free MJq engaged, 9oo&e MJq tight 4. u[LJz Ps K[I
MJHeIRH aPQ ePQNq gLxI Ls aPQR ZQZLNH MHzIq aPQ: +) |Pe NPJg LH M VLNI{ 2) nLq 0QRKPJ VIMJ NMJq VLNIH PR
JMQKLTMN VLNIH e[IJ [I HMLq K[IRI eIRI PxIR K[RII VLNIH `IKeIIJ K[I /[LPaM ONQ` MJq K[I TRIIz Ps uMRQVL{
4) .J e[MK ZMRK Ps K[I ePRNq qLq K[I IxIJKH KMzI ZNMTI{
B. Work in Class. +. dHz K[I TNMHH KP MJHeIR K[I fQIHKLPJH gLxIJ LJ .KIVH + MJq 4 MJq KP qP aPQR
ISIRTLHI sRPV .KIV 2.
2. OPRRITK K[I VLHKMzIH! TPVVIJK PJ K[I MJHeIRH MJq HMa M sIe ePRqH `a eMa Ps ISZNMJMKLPJ Ls JIIqIq.
(}HI rONMHHRPPV GJgNLH[r! /ITKLPJH .! .:! :...)
XIII. Write a summary of the story "A Friend in Need". Before writing it find answers to the foIIowing
questions that may serve as the key points of the story.
8" !": w[MK qLq aPQJg 0QRKPJ MHz sPR{
w[MK qLq [I gIK{
w[MK eMH [LH PTTQZMKLPJ MJq K[MK Ps PNq 0QRKPJ{
w[MK eIRI K[I MqxMJKMgIH MJq qLHMqxMJKMgIH Ps PNq 0QRKPJlH ZPHLKLPJ MJq K[PHI Ps [LH JMVIHMzI{
w[MK eIRI aPQJg 0QRKPJlH T[MJTIH{
OPQNq [I VMJMgI KP TPxIR K[RII VLNIH{
w[P gMLJIq MJaK[LJg sRPV K[LH ZIRsPRVMJTI{
w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz `PK[ Ps K[IV H[PQNq [MxI qPJI QJqIR K[I TLRTQVHKMJTIH{
w[MK eIRI aPQR sIINLJgH MsKIR RIMqLJg K[I HKPRa{
XIV. Speak on the characters of the story;
M) oNq 0QRKPJ ([LH MZZIMRMJTI! T[MRMTKIR MJq e[MK aPJ K[LJz Ps [LV).
`) yPQJg 0QRKPJ ([LH MZZIMRMJTI! T[MRMTKIR MJq e[MK aPJ K[LJz Ps [LV).
T) u[I HKPRaKINNIR (e[MK zLJq Ps ZIRHPJ [I eMH; [Pe [I eMH LVZRIHHIq `a 0QRKPJlH HKPRa; eLK[ e[PV [LH
HaVZMK[LIH eIRI).
XV. Paraphrase the foIIowing sentences, using coIIoquiaI words and phrases from the text instead of the
words in itaIic type which are styIisticaIIy neutraI:
+. va HLHKIRlH [QH`MJq eMH zLNNIq LJ K[I eMR! MJq HPPJ MsKIR K[MK [IR INqIR T[LNq qLIq Ps ZJIQVPJLM. 1P
ePJqIR H[I eMH 2ro'en 4hy&i5a99y and &4iritua99y" 2. |I ruined hi+&e9f `ITMQHI [I ZNMaIq TMRqH MJq qRMJz M
NPK. w[IJ . VIK [LV! there &ee+ed to 2e no way out sPR [LV. yIK! [I [Mq MNeMaH `IIJ M JLTI VMJ MJq had
never done any har+ to any2ody" 4. . 2egan to under&tand e[MK H[I +eant to &ay" 3. /[I LH RMK[IR M gPPq
TPPz! LHJlK H[I{ wPVIJ of that 'ind MNeMaH MRI. *. vIJ of thi& 'ind are a9way& a great &u55e&& with
ePVIJ. ,. yPQ HMLq aPQ qLqJlK 5o+e to K[I ISMV PJ vPJqMa `ITMQHI aPQ eIRI &o i99 you 5ou9dn?t +ove" .
qPJlK `INLIxI LK. .lV HQRI aPQ were &i+49y afraid" 7. OPQNqJlK aPQ NIJq VI a 9itt9e +ore VPJIa{ . a+ in a
ho4e9e&& 4o&ition"
XVI. Revise the story and discuss the foIIowing:
1. How does the author make the reader realize what kind of man Burton the Elder was? Which
method of characterization does he use, direct or indirect? (See Notes on Style, p. 120.)
2. Point out the lines and passages in which the ironical attitude of the author towards Burton the
Elder is felt. Is it expressed by lexical or syntactical means? (Analyse each case.) Comment on the title
of the story.
3. What is the message (the main idea) of the story?
XVII. Perform a diaIogue between oId Burton and his namesake.
Don't forget that old Burton was busy in his office, not very easily impressed, indifferent to other
people's troubles; his namesake was down and out, all to pieces and not in very good condition to
b3
swim.
XVIII. RoIe-pIaying.
Role-play a Trial at which you will try Burton for wilful murder. It may be arranged in the
following way:
/KQqIJK d HZIMzLJg sPR the judge.
/KQqIJK d HZIMzLJg sPR the prosecution ([I eLNN qIHTRL`I MNN K[I sMTKH ZRPxLJg 0QRKPJlH gQLNK).
/KQqIJK ( HZIMzLJg sPR the defence ([I eLNN KRa MJq ZRIHIJK MNN K[I sMTKH K[MK VMa HZIMz LJ 0QRKPJlH
sMxPQR).
/KQqIJK n RIZRIHIJKLJg 0QRKPJ ([I eLNN! JMKQRMNNa! KRa KP qIsIJq [LVHINs).
/KQqIJKH G! p! U MTKLJg MH witnesses sPR K[I ZRPHITQKLPJ PR K[I qIsIJTI.
u[I RIHK Ps K[I gRPQZ MRI MTKLJg MH members of the jury MJq eLNN `RLJg M xIRqLTK Ps rgQLNKar PR rJPK
gQLNKar.
u[I QqgI TPJqQTKH K[I KRLMN! ZQKH fQIHKLPJH! ISMVLJIH K[I qPTQVIJKH MJq IxLqIJTI.
Counsel for the prosecution () MqqRIHHIH K[I QRa MJq ZRIHIJKH [LH TMHI! MsKIR e[LT[ [I TMNNH
eLKJIHHIH e[P HeIMR KP KINN K[I KRQK[! K[I e[PNI KRQK[! MJq JPK[LJg `QK K[I KRQK[.
Counsel for the defence ZRPTIIqH LJ K[I HMVI eMa. u[I QqgI VMa LJKIRsIRI MK MJa ZPLJK MJq MHz
fQIHKLPJH.
w[IJ K[I KeP HLqIH [MxI ZRIHIJKIq K[ILR TMHIH! K[I QqgI gLxIH [LH HQVVLJg QZ. u[I QRa RIKLRIH KP
TPJHLqIR LKH xIRqLTK: UQLNKa PR 1PK UQLNKa. .s the defendant LH sPQJq gQLNKa! K[I QqgI passes sentence PJ
[LV.
XIX. Think of a different end to the story (comicaI, puzzIing, etc.).
XX. Write a short story to iIIustrate the proverb "A friend in need is a friend indeed". Use EssentiaI
VocabuIary of the Iesson. ReteII your story in cIass.
XXI. TransIate the foIIowing sentences into EngIish, using the word rather.
+. h ; 6 ! 6$ D ;7. 2! t$ $! 76! 8
> ; 7 >. 4. ~= D { ! >5! 3. h 6 $;
;. *. ! >5! 6$ E . ,. ' >! $ ;. 7. <
6 ; 5 9. b. ' 8; 6 5 9$5
;. 2. ' 6 $ 6 5 D5.
XXII. a) Read the text:
GxIRa HQVVIR VMJa ZIPZNI! gLRNH MJq ePVIJ a& we99 a& `PaH MJq VIJ! KRa KP HeLV sRPV GJgNMJq KP
pRMJTI PR sRPV pRMJTI KP GJgNMJq. u[I qLHKMJTI at the neare&t 4oint& LH PJNa M`PQK KeIJKa VLNIH! `QK
2e5au&e of the &trong tide& the di&tan5e that +u&t 2e &wu+ LH QHQMNNa +ore than twi5. a& far"
u[IRI LH M HKRPJg KLqI sRPV K[I dKNMJKLT oTIMJ. u[LH qLxLqIH LJ KeP LJ PRqIR to 4a&& round K[I 0RLKLH[
.HNIH. u[I KeP KLqIH VIIK JIMR K[I VPQK[ Ps K[I u[MVIH! MJq HKRPJg TQRRIJKH K[Ia TMQHI VMzI LK LVZPHHL`NI
KP HeLV LJ M HKRMLg[K NLJI MTRPHH K[I O[MJJIN.
u[I sLRHK VMJ to &u55eed LJ HeLVVLJg K[I O[MJJIN eMH OMZKMLJ wI``! MJ GJgNLH[VMJ. u[LH eMH LJ
dQgQHK +b7*. |I 9anded in pRMJTI 2+ [PQRH 3* VLJQKIH MsKIR entering the water MK nPxIR. /LJTI K[IJ K[IRI
[MxI `IIJ VMJa &u55e&&fu9 &wi+& MJq the ti+e ha& 2een &hortened" oJI pRIJT[ HeLVVIR TRPHHIq LK LJ ++
[PQRH MJq * VLJQKIH.
0ITMQHI K[I HIM LH QHQMNNa TPNq! HeLVVIRH 5over their 2odie& with grea&e" u[LH! K[Ia HMa! [INZH to 'ee4
out the 5o9d" u[Ia MRI sIq qQRLJg K[I HeLV `a VIJ e[P gP eLK[ K[IV LJ HVMNN `PMKH.
b) ReteII the text above using the phrases in itaIic type.
c) Comment on the text. Say if you think such a competition is a sport.
XXIII. Try your hand at teaching.
1. Say what you wouId do in the teacher's position:
dJJM! M sPQRK[ sPRV ZQZLN! HQRZRLHIq MJq H[PTzIq K[I T[LNqRIJ LJ TNMHH `ITMQHI Ps K[I NPJg qMJgNLJg
IMRRLJgH H[I eMH eIMRLJg. dK sLRHK K[I KIMT[IR qITLqIq KP LgJPRI K[LH! [PZLJg K[I T[LNqRIJ ePQNq HPPJ LgJPRI
LK MNHP. |PeIxIR! K[I HQ`qQIq `QK ISTLKIq JPLHI TPJKLJQIq. GxIRaPJI eMJKIq KP HII MJq KPQT[ K[I IMRRLJgH.
2. Practise your CIassroom EngIish.
\RIZMRI M H[PRK KIHK PJ K[I xPTM`QNMRa Ps }JLK /LS. \NMa K[I ZMRK Ps K[I KIMT[IR MJq gLxI K[I KIHK LJ TNMHH!
T[ITz LK MJq TPVVIJK PJ IMT[ ePRz. (/II rONMHHRPPV GJgNLH[r. /ITKLPJH :..! .^.)
b*
LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)
1. Listen to the text "A Friend in Need", mark the stresses and tunes. Read the text following the
model.
2. a) Paraphrase the given sentences,
b) Make up sentences contrasting to the given ones using the verb need and a suggested noun.
c) Respond to the remarks using the given pattern.
3. Write a spelling-translation test.
4. Change the given sentences according to the model.
5. Task I. Listen to the English sentences and write down the Russian translation. Check your
translation with the key (written work).
Task II. Translate your phrases back into English and check them with the key.
6. Listen to the text "The Story of Arthur Bloxham" or some other story on students' life; write 10
questions to the text. Get ready to discuss it in class.
TOP!: SPORTS AND GAMES
TEXT A. WHAT MAKES ALL PEOPLE KIN
\IPZNI MNN PxIR K[I ePRNq MRI xIRa sPJq Ps HZPRKH MJq gMVIH. u[MK LH PJI K[LJg LJ e[LT[ ZIPZNI Ps IxIRa
JMKLPJMNLKa MJq TNMHH MRI QJLKIq.
u[I VPHK ZPZQNMR PQKqPPR eLJKIR HZPRKH MRI H[PPKLJg! [QJKLJg! [PTzIa MJq! LJ K[I TPQJKRLIH e[IRI K[I
eIMK[IR LH sRPHKa MJq K[IRI LH VQT[ HJPe HzMKLJg! HzLLJg MJq KP`PggMJLJg. /PVI ZIPZNI gRIMKNa IJPa
sLgQRIHzMKLJg MJq HzLQVZLJg.
/QVVIR MssPRqH ISTINNIJK PZZPRKQJLKLIH sPR HeLVVLJg! `PMKLJg! aMT[KLJg! TaTNLJg! gNLqLJg MJq VMJa
PK[IR HZPRKH. dVPJg PQKqPPR gMVIH sPPK`MNN KMzIH K[I sLRHK ZNMTI LJ ZQ`NLT LJKIRIHK; K[LH gMVI LH ZNMaIq LJ MNN
K[I TPQJKRLIH Ps K[I ePRNq. u[I PK[IR gMVIH K[MK [MxI sLRVNa IHKM`NLH[Iq K[IVHINxIH LJ sMxPQR LJ qLssIRIJK
TPQJKRLIH MRI gPNs! NMeJKIJJLH! TRLTzIK! xPNNIa`MNN! `MHzIK`MNN! MJq HP PJ. 0MqVLJKPJ LH MNHP xIRa ZPZQNMR.
dNN K[I aIMR RPQJq VMJa ZIPZNI LJqQNgI LJ `PSLJg! eRIHKNLJg! MK[NIKLTH! gaVJMHKLTH MJq KRMTz MJq sLINq
IxIJKH. /TPRIH Ps aPQJg gLRNH MJq ePVIJ gP LJ sPR TMNNLHK[IJLTH.
dVPJg LJqPPR gMVIH K[I VPHK ZPZQNMR MRI `LNNLMRqH! KM`NI KIJJLH! qRMQg[KH MJq HPVI PK[IRH! `QK K[I gRIMK
LJKIRJMKLPJMN gMVI LH T[IHH! Ps TPQRHI. u[I RIHQNKH Ps T[IHH KPQRJMVIJKH MRI HKQqLIq MJq qLHTQHHIq `a
K[PQHMJqH Ps IJK[QHLMHKH LJ qLssIRIJK TPQJKRLIH.
/P eI VMa HMa K[MK HZPRK LH PJI Ps K[I K[LJgH K[MK VMzIH MNN ZIPZNI zLJ.
TEXT B. SPORTS AND GAMES POPULAR IN ENGLAND
w[MK ePQNq aPQ HMa MRI K[I VPHK ZPZQNMR gMVIH LJ GJgNMJq KPqMa{
wINN! . HQZZPHI sPPK`MNN! K[MK LH! HPTTIR PR RQggIR! MJq TRLTzIK.
w[MK MRI K[I PK[IR PQKqPPR gMVIH{
o[! K[IRIlH KIJJLH! [PTzIa! gPNs! MJq HP PJ. uIJJLH LH ZNMaIq MNN K[I aIMR RPQJq PJ [MRq TPQRKH PR
gRMHH TPQRKH LJ HQVVIR! MJq PJ [MRq PR TPxIRIq TPQRKH LJ eLJKIR.
w[MK M`PQK [PRHIRMTLJg{
. H[PQNq HMa K[MK LH PJI Ps K[I VPHK ZPZQNMR HZPRKH LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJ. u[IJ K[IRI MRI! Ps TPQRHI! eMNzLJg
RMTIH! RQJJLJg! HeLVVLJg MJq `PSLJg.
.lxI `IIJ KPNq K[MK K[IRI MRI JP eLJKIR HZPRKH LJ GJgNMJq.
wINN! aPQ HII! K[I GJgNLH[ eLJKIR LHJlK xIRa HIxIRI MH M RQNI! MJq eI qPJlK PsKIJ [MxI K[I T[MJTI Ps
HzLLJg! HzMKLJg PR KP`PggMJLJg! `QK eLJKIR LH K[I gRIMK KLVI sPR [QJKLJg! ZRPxLqIq K[I gRPQJq LH JPK KPP [MRq.
.H K[IRI MJa gPNs KP `I [Mq JIMR iPJqPJ{
o[! aIH! MJa MVPQJK. u[IRI MRI qPIJH Ps gPPq gPNsNLJzH eLK[LJ MJ [PQR PR HP Ps iPJqPJ. yPQ PQg[K
KP PLJ M gPNs TNQ` Ls aPQlRI zIIJ PJ K[I gMVI.
. K[LJz . H[MNN Ls . gIK K[I T[MJTI. w[MK M`PQK LJqPPR gMVIH{
wINN! K[IRIlH T[IHH! `LNNLMRqH! TMRqH! KM`NI KIJJLH... 0a K[I eMa! qP aPQ ZNMa `LNNLMRqH{
wINN! . qP! `QK Ps TPQRHI! .lV JPK M ZRPsIHHLPJMN PR M T[MVZLPJ! QHK MJ PRqLJMRa MVMKIQR! MJq JPK M
xIRa gPPq PJI MK K[MK!
TEXT C. THE FOOTBALL MATCH (( !on)er&$%#on*
Characters - Mr. Priestley, Lucille, Frieda, Pedro, Olaf, Hob.
i Q T L N N I : w[MK HZNIJqLq HIMKHc wIlNN `I M`NI KP HII IxIRaK[LJg sRPV [IRI.
\ I q R P : yIH! mMJ [MH TIRKMLJNa NPPzIq MsKIR QH eINN. wIlNN [MxI KP KMzI [LV PQK KP qLJJIR MsKIR K[I
VMKT[.
u [ I P K [ I R H : UPPq LqIM! \IqRP! eI TIRKMLJNa VQHK.
| P ` : dJq eI VQHK H[PQK sPR [LH KIMV. . [PZI mMJ LH LJ sPRV KPqMa.
b,
v R . \ R L I H K N I a : .[PZI [I LH. . [IMR K[Ia MRI KP T[PPHI K[I ZNMaIRH KPVPRRPe sPR K[I
LJKIRJMKLPJMN VMKT[ MJq Ls [I ZNMaH eINN KPqMa mMJ VMa `I T[PHIJ.
\ I q R P : yIH! . [IMRq K[MK K[I /INITKLPJ OPVVLKKII ePQNq `I MK K[I VMKT[ MJq . KPNq mMJ [I eMH KP
ZNMa [LH `IHK KPqMa `ITMQHI K[Ia eIRI eMKT[LJg [LV.
' + M s : .K VQHK `I ISTLKLJg KP ZNMa LJ MJ LJKIRJMKLPJMN VMKT[.
\ I q R P : |IRI MRI K[I KIMVH TPVLJg PQK. mMJ LH NIMqLJg K[I iPJqPJ KIMV. |I VQHK `I K[I TMZKMLJ.
p R L I q M : yIH! [I LH.
| P ` : mMJ VQHK `I M gPPq ZNMaIR.
o N M s : |I LH; aPQ [MxI KP `I M gPPq ZNMaIR KP `I TMZKMLJ Ps iPJqPJ KIMV.
i Q L N N I .s mMJ LH T[PHIJ sPR K[I LJKIRJMKLPJMN VMKT[! eLNN [I [MxI KP gLxI QZ [LH HKQqLIH MJq gP LJKP
KRMLJLJg{
p R L I q M : |I VQHKJlK qP K[MK. |I VQHK gP PJ eLK[ [LH HKQqLIH. u[Ia MRI VPRI LVZPRKMJK K[MJ sPPK`MNN.
v ; . ? ; L I H N N I a : |I JIIqJlK gLxI QZ [LH HKQqLIH. |I [MH `IIJ ZNMaLJg RIgQNMRNa MJq LH LJ gPPq
sPRV.
| P ` : mMJlH NPHK K[I KPHH MJq K[I oSsPRq TMZKMLJ [MH qITLqIq KP ZNMa eLK[ K[I eLJq.
o N M s : o[! eINN! K[IalNN [MxI KP ZNMa MgMLJHK K[I eLJq LJ K[I HITPJq [MNs. . HII mMJ LH ZNMaLJg TIJKRI
sPReMRq. |IlH QHK gIKKLJg RIMqa KP zLTz Pss. u[IRI K[Ia gP.
| P ` : OPVI PJ! iPJqPJc
(d`PQK an hour and a ha9f 9aterB
v R . \ R L I H K N I a : u[LH [MH `IIJ M gRMJq gMVI. . [MRqNa RIVIV`IR IxIR HIILJg M `IKKIR PJI. mMJ
[MH ZNMaIq K[I gMVI Ps [LH NLsI.
i Q T L N N I : .lxI JIMRNa NPHK Va xPLTI eLK[ H[PQKLJg rOPVI PJ! iPJqPJcr o[! . eLH[ iPJqPJ TPQNq
eLJ.
v R . \ R L I H K N I a : . qPJlK K[LJz K[Ia TMJ. .K VQHK `I JIMRNa KLVI JPe. .KlH PJI gPMN IMT[! MJq K[I
oSsPRq qIsIJTI LH VMgJLsLTIJK
o N M s : yIH! Ls Va eMKT[ LH RLg[K! K[Ia [MxI K[RII VLJQKIH KP gP.
p R L I q M : iPPzc mMJ [MH gPK K[I `MNN. |IlH gPLJg NLzI NLg[KJLJg KPeMRqH K[I oSsPRq gPMN. o[! gP PJ!
mMJc
\ I q R P : u[MK oSsPRq TIJKRI[MNs LH KRaLJg KP HKPZ [LV.
i Q T L N N I : UP PJ! mMJ. yPQ VQHKJlK NIK [LV HKPZ aPQ.
v R . \ R L I H K N I a : mMJ ZMHHIq K[I `MNN KP K[I LJHLqI RLg[K! M ePJqIRsQN ZMHH.
i Q L N + I : o[c u[I LJHLqIRLg[K LH qPeJ; [IlH [Mq KP ZMRK eLK[ K[I `MNN.
o N M s : iPPz! mMJlH gPK LK MgMLJ! [IlH `IMKIJ K[I sQNN`MTz MJq LH RMTLJg KPeMRqH K[I gPMN.
| P ` : /[PPK! mMJ! H[PPKc .KlH M gPMNc
\ I q R P : o[! e[MK M H[PKc u[I gPMNzIIZIR [MqJlK M T[MJTI.
v R . \ R L I H K N I a : dJq K[IRIlH K[I e[LHKNI sPR sQNN KLVI! MJq iPJqPJ [MxI ePJ. wINN! K[Ia [MxI
KP T[PPHI mMJ sPR K[I LJKIRJMKLPJMN VMKT[ JPe.
(*ro+ rGHHIJKLMN GJgNLH[ sPR pPRILgJ /KQqIJKHr! 0PPz 3! 2y O. G. GTzIRHNIa. d2ridgedB
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)
Words
/PVI ZPZQNMR HZPRKH
MRT[IRa HzMKLJg MRKLHKLT
gaVJMHKLTH (TMNNLHK[IJLTH) HzLLJg `PSLJg
TRPHHTPQJKRa HzLLJg TMR (VPKPRTaTNI) RMTLJg qPeJ[LNN HzLLJg
TaTNLJg HzLQVZ qLxLJg
HNMNPV sIJTLJg Hza qLxLJg (ZMRMT[QKLJg)
sLgQRIHzMKLJg HeLVVLJg gaVJMHKLTH
eILg[KNLsKLJg gNLqLJg eLJqHQRsLJg
[MJg gNLqLJg eRIHKNLJg VPQJKMLJIIRLJg
MRVeRIHKNLJg RPeLJg MJq TMJPILJg aMT[KLJg
MK[NIKLTH (KRMTzMJqsLINq) VMRMK[PJ (RMTI) qLHTQH ([MVVIR! MxINLJ)
ZPNI xMQNK (xMQNKLJg) K[RPeLJg RMTI/RQJ
[Lg[ (NPJg! KRLZNI) QVZ H[PK ZQKKLJg [QRqNI RMTIH
HKIIZNIT[MHI
Some popular games
Open-air games
b7
`MqVLJKPJ n JIK`MNN n
*,
`MHzIK`MNN n RQg`a n (5o99oC" RQggIR)
TRLTzIK n (NMeJ) KIJJLH n
sPPK`MNN n (5o99oC" HPTTIR) xPNNIa`MNN n
gPNs n eMKIR ZPNP
[PTzIa n
Indoor games
T[IHH n HfQMH[ n
qRMQg[KH n KM`NIKIJJLH n
Sports Terms
MVMKIQR (ZRPsIHHLPJMN) HZPRK TQZ (sLJMN! HIVLsLJMN) VMKT[
LJqPPR (PQKqPPR PR PZIJMLR) HZPRKH T[MVZLPJH[LZ n, ."g" JMKLPJMN
sPPK`MNN T[MVZLPJH[LZ HZPRK n
TPVZIKI x HZPRKH n IxIJKH
TPVZIKLKLPJ n! ."g" LJKIR HZPRKH ad1, ."g" HZPRKH MTzIK
TPNNIgI TQZ TPVZIKLKLPJ (H[LRK)
TPJlKIHK x HZPRKLJg ad1
lTPJKIHK n! ."g" ePRNq gaV JMHKLTH KPQRJMVIJK n
TPJKIHK (RLxMNRa LJ HLJgLJg! `IMQKa)
Participants
TRIe n (QHIq sPR HZPRKHVIJ PZZPJIJK (RLxMN) n
RPeLJg PR HMLNLJg M `PMK) HZPRKHVMJ (MK[NIKI) n
JMKLPJMN (oNaVZLT! TPNNIgI) HZPRKHePVMJ n KIMV
PssLTLMN (QVZLRI! RIsIRII! QqgI) n
Audience
sMJ (TPNNPf.) n! ."g" M sPPK HZITKMKPR n
`MNN sMJ HZPRKH IJK[QHLMHK
H[PQK sPR x HQZZPRK x
Scoring system
`IHK (RITPRq! sMHKIHK) KLVI ZPLJK n, ."g" |Pe VMJa
qIsIMK x ZPLJKH [MxI K[Ia ePJ{
qRMe n, ."g" u[I VMKT[ RQJJIRQZ n
IJqIq LJ M qRMe. HTPRI n! ."g" u[I HTPRI Ps K[I
qRMe x! ."g" u[I KeP KIMVH qRIe. gMVI eMH ,:3 (HLS KP sPQR).
gPMN n HTPRI x! ."g" |I HTPRIq
NPHI x 2) ZPLJKH. 1ILK[IR HLqI
NPHIR n HTPRIq LJ K[I gMVI (I
xLTKPRa n ;).
Competition sites and sports equipment
`MR`INN n JIK n
`IMV n ZNMagRPQJq n
T[IHH`PMRq n ZQTz n
T[IHHVMJ n RMTzIK n
TNQ` (HKLTz) n RLJgH n
qLHTQH n HzL QVZ
qRMQg[KHVMJ n HZPRKH [MNN
gaV n `PSLJg gNPxIH
MxINLJ n KRMVZPNLJI () n
QVZLJg (HZRLJg) `PMRq QJIxIJ (ZMRMNNIN)! MHaVVIKRLT `MRH
Word Combinations
MK[NIKLT KRMLJLJg KP eLJ K[I KIMV (ZIRHPJMN!
KP sPNNPe M KPQRJMVIJK JMKLPJMN! ePRNq) T[MVZLPJ
(TPVZIKLKLPJ! IKT.) H[LZ
KP zLTz K[I `MNN KP eLJ `a 2 (4! IKT.) gPMNH
KP HTPRI M gPMN (2) ZPLJKH) (ZPLJKH)
*,
net-ball: MJ GJgNLH[ gMVI! `MHLTMNNa K[I HMVI MH `MHzIK`MNN (ZNMaIq `a ePVIJ)
bb
KP zIIZ K[I HTPRI KP eLJ eLK[ K[I HTPRI 3 KP )
KP IJq M gMVI LJ M qRMe LJ HV`.lH sMxPQR
(KP qRMe M gMVI) KP HIK QZ (`RIMz) M RITPRq
KP eLJ M ZRLI (M TQZ! K[I RITPRq [PNqIR
xLTKPRa) K[I ePRNq (JMKLPJMN! GQRPZIMJ) RITPRq
EXERCISES
I. Study Texts A and and transcribe these words:
KP`PggMJLJg! aMT[KLJg! NMeJKIJJLH! eRIHKNLJg! MK[NIKLTH! gaVJMHKLTH! TMNNLHK[IJLTH! `LNNLMRqH! qRMQg[KH!
KPQRJMVIJK! IJK[QHLMHK! HPTTIR! RQggIR! TPQRK! MVMKIQR.
II. Write 15 questions about Texts A and B; b) ReteII Texts A and (in indirect speech). EvaIuate the reports
of your feIIow students according to deIivery: generaI cIarity, pronunciation, fIuency, rythm,
intonation.
III. Study EssentiaI VocabuIary (II), ExpIanatory Notes and name: a) as many kinds of sport as you can; b)
some open-air games; c) some indoor games.
IV. What do yon caII a person who goes Ia for:
eRIHKNLJg! TaTNLJg! eILg[KNLsKLJg! HeLVVLJg! qLxLJg! RQJJLJg! VPQJKMLJIIRLJg! `PSLJg! HzLLJg! RMTLJg!
[QJKLJg! ZNMaLJg sPPK`MNN! ZNMaLJg T[IHH! ZNMaLJg qRMQg[KH! MK[NIKLTH! HzMKLJg! ZNMaLJg xPNNIa`MNN! ZNMaLJg
`MHzIK`MNN! ZNMaLJg [PTzIa{
V. a) FiII in prepositions if necessary:
/ZPRK LH xIRa ZPZQNMR ... 0RLKMLJ. ... PK[IR ePRqH M NPK... 0RLKLH[ ZIPZNI NLzI K[I LqIM ... HZPRK! M NPK IxIJ
eMKT[ HZPRK! IHZITLMNNa... K[I u:. |PeIxIR! K[I JQV`IR e[P MTKLxINa KMzI ZMRK ... HZPRK LH ZRP`M`Na fQLKI
HVMNN. ... K[I e[PNI 0RLKLH[ ZIPZNI ZRIsIR KP `I sMK RMK[IR K[MJ sLK
u[I VPHK ZPZQNMR HZITKMKPR HZPRK LH sPPK`MNN. pPPK`MNN LH ZNMaIq ... M /MKQRqMa MsKIRJPPJ ... VPHK 0RLKLH[
KPeJH MJq K[I sMJH! PR HQZZPRKIRH ... M ZMRKLTQNMR KIMV eLNN KRMxIN... PJI IJq ... K[I TPQJKRa... K[I PK[IR KP HII
K[ILR KIMV ZNMa!
vMJa PK[IR HZPRKH MRI MNHP ZNMaIq ... 0RLKMLJ! LJTNQqLJg gPNs ... e[LT[ aPQ KRa KP zJPTz M `MNN ... M [PNI;
TRPfQIK... e[LT[ aPQ KRa KP zJPTz M `MNN... HPVI [PPZH; `MHzIK`MNN... e[LT[ aPQ KRa KP gIK M `MNN... M netD
tenni& ... e[LT[ aPQ try to [LK M . `MNN HP K[MK aPQR PZZPJIJK TMJJPK [LK LK MJq TRLTzIK e[LT[ i& ZNMaIq ... M `MNN!
`QK LH PK[IReLHI LJTPVZRI[IJHL`NI. dH aPQ TMJ HII! Ls K[I `MNN [Mq JPK `IIJ LJxIJKIq! K[IRI ePQNq [MxI `IIJ
JP HZPRK.
dTKQMNNa K[MKlH JPK fQLKI KRQI. dK[NIKLTH LH JPK ZNMaIq ... M `MNN! JPR LH [PRHIRMTLJg. \IR[MZH K[MK ISZNMLJH
e[a K[Ia MRI JPK HP ZPZQNMR MH sPPK`MNN. (/II rdZZRPMT[IHr. OMV`RLqgI +272)
b) ReteII the text.
VI. Answer the foIIowing questions. Do not answer in one sentence. Add something:
+. w[MK zLJq Ps HZPRK qP aPQ gP LJ sPR{ 2. nP aPQ ZNMa qRMQg[KH{ 4. nP aPQ MKKIJq [PTzIa VMKT[IH{ 3.
w[MK sPPK`MNN KIMV qP aPQ HQZZPRK{ *. nLq aPQ IxIR KRa sLgQRIHzMKLJg{ ,. w[P QHQMNNa NLzIH
KP`PggMJLJg{ {. w[MK qP HZITKMKPRH qP MK K[I HKMqLQVH{ b. w[IRI MRI `PMKRMTIH [INq LJ vPHTPe{ 2. w[MK
LH K[I VPHK ZPZQNMR HZPRK LJ QHHLM{ +). nP QHHMLJ KIMVH ZMRKLTLZMKI LJ LJKIRJMKLPJMN VMKT[IH{ ++. w[P
TPMT[IH aPQR xPNNIa`MNN KIMV{ +2. w[IRI MRI K[I oSsPRq MJq OMV`RLqgI `PMKRMTIH [INq{ +4. w[MK LH K[I
qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ M rHZPRKr MJq M rgMVIr{ +3. w[MK HZPRKH MJq gMVIH qP aPQ zJPe{ +*. w[MK gMVIH KMzI
K[I sLRHK ZNMTI LJ ZQ`NLT LJKIRIHK{ +,. w[MK LH K[I gRIMK JMKLPJMN HZPRK LJ GJgNMJq{
VII. Read Text and try to expIain the phrases Iisted beIow. Do not mereIy transIate them into Russian.
Change them into a type of EngIish that is more easiIy understood and expIain what they mean in the
context of the conversation.
H[PQK sPR [LH KIMV; LH LJ gPPq sPRV KPqMa; NPHK K[I KPHH; KP ZNMa eLK[ (MgMLJHK) K[I eLJq; KP zLTz Pss; TPVI
PJ; K[I gMVI Ps [LH NLsI; 4 VLJQKIH KP gP.
VIII. TransIate the foIIowing sentences into EngIish:
+. 7 ;7 6. 2. $7 6 7. 4.
(; $; >6! C$. 3. &7 $ $ '$5$ ;$. *.
' $; $ C5 ;. ,. 7 C67 $ @(B.
7. <D ; 6 67. b. ' 9 6 C9. 2. 8
$6 ;5 5{ +). C; 6$ 6 $ . ++.
"6 $ 6 9$ 6 $ 7D D5. +2. (6
$ $ D9$$ ${ +4. ? 8 9 8 6
E$ { +3. F 85 ;{ +*. 8 5 E ${ +,. (6
8$ $ . +7. < >! 8;7 $ 2:).
+b. ~$ 9D C; . +2. =8 ;7 C! { X;7!
. 2). F D; DD${ ' D9
. 2+. < 6 6D $ 89 > $. 22.
b2
7 9>7 ;$ 7$ ;$ . 24. "8 $>$ $
6! $8 ;8. 23. 8 6 6 9
;{ '6. 2*. ! ; 67. 2*. - 85
$> 9D5 C5 ;.
IX. Correct the wrong statements. Add a few more sentences to make up a diaIogue:
+. u[IRI LH JP qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ rHPTTIRr MJq rRQg`ar. 2. 0MqVLJKPJ TMJ `I ZNMaIq PJNa LJqPPRH. 4. u[I
gPMNzIIZIR MTKH MH M QqgI LJ sPPK`MNN. 3. .TI [PTzIa LH ZPZQNMR eLK[ ePVIJ. *. d KIJJLH `MNN LH HKRQTz eLK[
M TNQ`. ,. wPVIJ MRI gPPq sPPK`MNN ZNMaIRH MH M RQNI. 7. \IPZNI e[P ZNMa qRMQg[KH MRI TMNNIq qRMQg[KHVIJ.
b. wI QHI `MNNH e[IJ ZNMaLJg `MqVLJKPJ. 2. UPNs LH ZNMaIq PJ LTI sLINqH. +). |PTzIa LH PJI Ps K[I VPHK
ZPZQNMR HQVVIR gMVIH. ++. uM`NIKIJJLH MJq NMeJKIJJLH MRI PJI MJq K[I HMVI gMVI. +2. .J [PTzIa M [MJq
`MNN MJq RMTzIKH MRI QHIq. +4. 0PSIRH sLg[K eLK[ `MRI [MJqH. +3. uRMTz MJq sLINq IxIJKH MRI JIxIR LJTNQqIq LJ
oNaVZLT UMVIH. +*. yPQ VMa KPQT[ K[I `MNN eLK[ aPQR [MJqH e[IJ ZNMaLJg sPPK`MNN.
Prompts: . QHK qPJlK MgRII...; .lV JPK HP HQRI...; dNN . zJPe LH... `QK MK NIMHK...; |Pe TMJ aPQ HMa HQT[ M
K[LJgc yPQ HIIV KP K[LJz K[MK...; u[MK LH QHK K[I PK[IR eMa RPQJq. yPQ MRI `MqNa VLHKMzIJ.
X. Try to describe your favourite game. Use a dictionary to Iook up any speciaI words. Let your partners
guess which game you are describing. Speak according to the pIan that is given in the exampIe:
E x a m p l e:
1. Number of players (per team):
ueP KIMVH Ps INIxIJ ZNMaIRH IMT[.
2. Equipment necessary: M `MNN.
GMT[ ZNMaIR eIMRH H[PRKH MJq HZITLMN `PPKH.
3. Place where played: M HZITLMN sLINq e[LT[ [MH gPMN ZPHKH MK `PK[ IJqH.
4. How to play and win: K[I ZNMaIRH zLTz K[I `MNN KP IMT[ PK[IR. u[Ia KRa KP zLTz LK `IKeIIJ K[I gPMN
ZPHKH Ps K[I PZZPHLJg KIMV. u[I PZZPHLJg KIMV KRa KP HKPZ K[IV! u[I KIMV HTPRLJg K[I gRIMKIHK JQV`IR Ps
rgPMNHr eLJH.
5. Length of game: PJI [PQR MJq M [MNs! eLK[ M `RIMz LJ K[I VLqqNI.
6. Some of the rules: PJNa K[I KeP gPMNzIIZIRH (e[P HKMJq LJ sRPJK Ps K[I KeP gPMNH) MRI MNNPeIq KP
KPQT[ K[I `MNN eLK[ K[ILR [MJqH; JP PJI TMJ zLTz PR ZQH[ MJPK[IR ZNMaIR.
(/II rdZZRPMT[IH!r OMV`JqgI! +272)
XI. a) Speak on each kind of sport on the Iist beIow; briefIy describe it as weII as the quaIities it requires
from the sportsman, .g. strength, endurance, quickness of reaction, courage, etc. Say a few words
about its advantages and attractive features:
VPQJKMLJIIRLJg! RPeLJg! aMT[KLJg! [PTzIa! KIJJLH! `MHzIK`MNN! xPNNIa`MNN! T[IHH! `PSLJg! eRIHKNLJg!
sIJTLJg! MRKLHKLT gaVJMHKLTH! sLgQRIHzMKLJg! HzLLJg! HzMKLJg! HzLQVZLJg! HzaqLxLJg! MRT[IRa! qLHTQH
K[RPeLJg! eLJqHQRsLJg! HKIIZNIT[MHI! VMRMK[PJ.
b) Make up diaIogues discussing one (or severaI) of the sports from the Iist above. Use the foIIowing:
LJ Va PZLJLPJ ...; K[IRIlH JPK[LJg NLzI ...; . qPJlK fQLKI HII e[MK ZIPZNI sLJq LJ ...; [Pe TMJ aPQ HMa HQT[ M
K[LJgc; . qPJlK zJPe MJaK[LJg VPRI ISTLKLJg K[MJ ...; . HII JPK[LJg ISTLKLJg LJ ...; . TMJlK MgRII eLK[ aPQ K[IRI;
M`HPNQKINa VMRxINNPQH; . NLzI LK LVVIJHINa.
XII. a) Read the text and comment on it:
Hang Gliding The Sport of the 1980s
|MJg gNLqLJg! NLzI eLJqHQRsLJg! TPVIH sRPV dVIRLTM. u[I ZIRHPJ e[P K[PQg[K Ps K[LH HZPRK! pRMJTLH
PgMNNP! gPK K[I LqIM e[IJ [I eMH eMKT[LJg HZMTI TMZHQNIH sMNNLJg KPeMRqH K[I HIM. u[I TMZHQNIH [Mq M HPRK
Ps eLJg e[LT[ [INZIq K[IV KP gP VPRI HNPeNa QJKLN K[Ia RIMT[Iq K[I HIM.
0QK K[LH LqIM LHJlK MH JIe MH aPQ VLg[K K[LJz: LJ K[I sLsKIIJK[ TIJKQRa! iIPJMRqP qM :LJT[L qRIe ZLTKQRIH
Ps M [MJg gNLqIR; LK eMH M HPRK Ps zLKI e[LT[ TPQNq TMRRa M ZIRHPJ.
u[I VPqIRJ [MJg gNLqIR TMJ gP eLK[ K[I eLJq PR MgMLJHK LK! MJq K[I ZLNPK TMJ T[MJgI qLRITKLPJ `a VPxLJg
K[I TPJKRPN `MR. |MJg gNLqIRH RLHI MJq sMNN eLK[ K[I VPxIVIJKH LJ K[I MLR JIMR NQNNH! sPR ISMVZNI! K[Ia
QHQMNNa gP QZ.
dNN PxIR K[I ePRNq! K[IHI gLMJK `QKKIRsNLIH MRI `ITPVLJg VPRI MJq VPRI ZPZQNMR! MH ZIPZNI qLHTPxIR K[I
sQJ Ps sNaLJg. (*ro+ rvPqIRJ GJgNLH[ .JKIRJMKLPJMNr. vPMLzM! +2b3! 1P. 2,3)
b) What do you know of the kinds of sport which recentIy appeared! Describe them and say what attracts
peopIe in them.
XIII. Act out the foIIowing situations:
+. ueP sRLIJqH MRI KMNzLJg MsKIR M sPPK`MNN VMKT[. oJI LH [MZZa [LH sMxPQRLKI KIMV [MH ePJ; K[I PK[IR LH
JPK MH [LH KIMV [MH NPHK K[I VMKT[.
2. .VMgLJI M qLMNPgQI `IKeIIJ KeP HZPRKH sMJH M`PQK K[ILR sMxPQRLKI HZPRKH.
4. d sRLIJq Ps aPQRH TNMLVH KP `I MJ rMNNRPQJq HZPRKHVMJr. oJTI aPQ TMNN PJ [LV MJq sLJq [LV
2)
HQRRPQJqIq `a M K[LTz TNPQq Ps TLgMRIKKI HVPzI. yPQ [MxI M KMNz eLK[ [LV.
3. .KlH /QJqMa MsKIRJPPJ. .J M sIe VLJQKIH! K[IRI eLNN `I M sPPK`MNN VMKT[ PJ u:! e[LNI PJ MJPK[IR
T[MJJIN K[IRI eLNN `I M sMH[LPJ H[Pe. dRgQVIJK `IKeIIJ [QH`MJq MJq eLsI.
*. yPQ MRI LJ K[I [MNN Ps aPQR LJHKLKQKI. yPQ MRI MJ MRqIJK MK[NIKI MJq NLzI KP gIK QZ MK HQJRLHI! MK e[LT[
aPQR RPPVVMKI LH gRQV`NLJg. yPQ KRa KP VMzI [LV qP MK NIMHK [LH VPRJLJg ISIRTLHIH.
XIV. TransIate into EngIish:
+. ! >! 7 E; . ' 8 ; 8$ ;$! 6
$89 $. 2. <> ! $ ; { ! $
; ;8 ; $ ;9 4. $; 6 $ D$! ;
$ ! $ D; 8; $ ,:). 3. < 8 6.
( 95 ;8. *. ' 8 D ! ; $ !
; $ ;. ,. " D $ 9>5 ;$5 >
;. 7. ! ;D ; 6 67. "8 $; ;6! $;
C$. b. ( ;5 = 6. 2. F$ 8 5
$5 8>$ 8{
XV. a) TransIate the text into Russian:
The Football Match
/PVIK[LJg xIRa fQIIR LH [MZZIJLJg LJ K[MK JMRRPe K[PRPQg[sMRI KP K[I eIHK Ps K[I KPeJ. d gRIagRIIJ
KLqI sNPeH HNQggLH[Na qPeJ LKH NIJgK[. .K LH M KLqI Ps TNPK[ TMZH.
u[IHI TMZH [MxI QHK NIsK K[I gRPQJq Ps K[I 0RQqqIRHsPRq }JLKIq dHHPTLMKLPJ pPPK`MNN ONQ`. uP HMa K[MK
K[IHI VIJ ZMLq K[ILR H[LNNLJg KP eMKT[ KeIJKaKeP [LRINLJgH zLTz M `MNN LH VIRINa KP HMa K[MK M xLPNLJ LH ePPq
MJq TMKgQK! K[MK r|MVNIKr LH HP VQT[ ZMZIR MJq LJz. pPR M H[LNNLJg K[I 0RQqqIRHsPRq }JLKIq d.p.O. PssIRIq
aPQ OPJsNLTK MJq dRK; LK KQRJIq aPQ LJKP M TRLKLT! [MZZa LJ aPQR QqgIVIJK Ps sLJI ZPLJKH! RIMqa LJ M HITPJq KP
IHKLVMKI K[I ePRK[ Ps M eINNQqgIq ZMHH! M RQJ qPeJ K[I KPQT[ NLJI! M NLg[KJLJg H[PK! M TNIMRMJTI zLTz `a
`MTz PR gPMNzIIZIR; LK KQRJIq aPQ LJKP M ZMRKLHMJ! [PNqLJg aPQR `RIMK[ e[IJ K[I `MNN TMVI HMLNLJg LJKP aPQR
PeJ gPMNVPQK[! ITHKMKLT e[IJ aPQR sPReMRqH RMTIq MeMa KPeMRqH K[I PZZPHLKI gPMN! INMKIq! qPeJTMHK! `LKKIR!
KRLQVZ[MJK `a KQRJH MK K[I sPRKQJIH Ps aPQR HLqI! eMKT[LJg M `MNN H[MZI .NLMqH MJq oqaHHIaH sPR aPQ; MJq
e[MK LH VPRI! LK KQRJIq aPQ LJKP M VIV`IR Ps M JIe TPVVQJLKa! MNN `RPK[IRH KPgIK[IR sPR MJ [PQR MJq M [MNs!
sPR JPK PJNa [Mq aPQ IHTMZIq sRPV K[I TNMJzLJg VMT[LJIRa Ps K[LH NIHHIR NLsI! sRPV ePRz! eMgIH! RIJK! qPNIH!
HLTz ZMa! LJHQRMJTI TMRqH! JMggLJg eLxIH! MLNLJg T[LNqRIJ! `Mq `PHHIH! LqNI ePRzVIJ! `QK aPQ [Mq IHTMZIq
eLK[ VPHK Ps aPQR VMKIH MJq aPQR JILg[`PQRH! eLK[ [MNs K[I KPeJ! MJq K[IRI aPQ eIRI! T[IIRLJg KPgIK[IR!
K[QVZLJg PJI MJPK[IR PJ K[I H[PQNqIRH! HePZZLJg QqgIVIJKH NLzI NPRqH Ps K[I IMRK[! [MxLJg ZQH[Iq aPQR
eMa K[RPQg[ M KQRJHKLNI LJKP MJPK[IR MJq MNKPgIK[IR VPRI HZNIJqLq zLJq Ps NLsI! [QRKLJg eLK[ OPJsNLTK MJq aIK
ZMHHLPJMKI MJq `IMQKLsQN LJ LKH dRK. vPRIPxIR! LK PssIRIq aPQ VPRI K[MJ M H[LNNLJglH ePRK[ Ps VMKIRLMN sPR KMNz
qQRLJg K[I RIHK Ps K[I eIIz. (*ro+ rUPPq OPVZMJLPJHr 2y m. 0. \RLIHKNIa. 02ridgedB
b) Comment on the extract:
+. GSZNMLJ K[I ePRqH: ruP HMa K[MK K[IHI VIJ ZMLq K[ILR H[LNNLJg KP eMKT[ KeIJKaKeP [LRINLJgH zLTz M `MNN
LH VIRINa KP HMa K[MK M xLPNLJ LH ePPq MJq TMKgQK! K[MK r|MVNIKr LH HP VQT[ ZMZIR MJq LJz.r 2. GSZNMLJ K[I
ePRqH: rpPR M H[LNNLJg K[I 0RQqqIRHsPRq }JLKIq d.p.O. PssIRIq aPQ OPJsNLTK MJq dRK.r 4. w[MK! LJ K[I
MQK[PRlH PZLJLPJ! qPIH sPPK`MNN gLxI ZIPZNI{ 3. nP aPQ MgRII eLK[ K[I MQK[PR LJ K[MK{ w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz
M`PQK HQT[ gMVIH MH sPPK`MNN MJq [PTzIa MJq K[I HITRIK Ps K[ILR ZPZQNMRLKa{
XVI. a) Study the text and search for some arguments in favour of sport. Summarize the text:
How Healthy Are You?
O[ITz aPQR zJPeNIqgI.
w[MK HPRK Ps H[MZI MRI aPQ LJ{ dRI aPQ K[I HPRK Ps ZIRHPJ e[P gPIH sPR M RQJ IMT[ VPRJLJg! PR MRI aPQ
K[I PK[IR zLJq e[P gIKH PQK Ps `RIMK[ e[IJ RIMT[LJg sPR M TLgMRIKKI{
vMa`I aPQ [MxI M NPK Ps IJIRga. yPQ gP KP ePRz PR HT[PPN! aPQ VMzI qITLHLPJH MNN qMa! aPQ qP ISKRM
ePRz MK [PVI. GSIRTLHI{ yPQ qPJlK [MxI IJPQg[ KLVI e[a `PK[IR MJaeMa{
wINN! K[I MJHeIR KP K[MK fQIHKLPJ LH aPQR `Pqa qIHLgJ. |QVMJ `ILJgH eIRIJlK `QLNK sPR HLKKLJg MK M qIHz MNN
qMa: aPQR `Pqa LH TPJHKRQTKIq sPR [QJKLJg! QVZLJg! NLsKLJg! RQJJLJg! TNLV`LJg MJq M xMRLIKa Ps PK[IR
MTKLxLKLIH. .s aPQ qPJlK gIK K[I ISIRTLHI K[MK aPQR `Pqa eMJKH! K[IJ K[LJgH TMJ gP `MqNa eRPJg. yPQR VLJq
ePRzH MNN qMa! MJq aPQR `Pqa qPIH JPK[LJg: K[I RIHQNKH TMJ xMRa sRPV qIZRIHHLPJ KP HIxIRI LNNJIHH KP IMRNa
qIMK[.
1PK M xIRa T[IIRsQN K[PQg[K! MJq Ps TPQRHI K[I JMKQRMN RIMTKLPJ LH r.KlH JPK gPLJg KP [MZZIJ KP VI.r
vMa`I! VMa`I JPK. |IRI MRI KeP eMaH Ps NPPzLJg MsKIR aPQRHINs: sLRHKNa! `a HIILJg Ls aPQ MRI qPLJg K[I RLg[K
HPRK Ps ISIRTLHI! MJq HITPJqNa `a HIILJg Ls aPQ [MxI K[I RLg[K zLJq Ps qLIK.
(*ro+ rvPqIRJ GJgNLH[ .JKIRJMKLPJMNr. vPMLzM. +2b3! 1P. 2,4)
2+


b) Persuade your partner to start practising sport immediateIy.
c) Speak on: 1. the roIe of sport in modern Iife; 2. sport as part of schooI and coIIege Iife.
XVII. RoIe-pIaying.
Work in groups of four or fire. You are people of different age and social standing. Express your
attitude to sport and sportsmen in general.
XVIII. Describe these pictures in suds a way as if you have seen the event with your own eyes. Use some
detaiIs, try to sound as convincing as possibIe. Use some words and phrases given beIow:
K[I HKMqLQV eLK[ M HIMKLJg TMZMTLKa Ps ...; M ZPNIQVZIR; LJ gPPq sPRV; M RIsIRII; M HKMRKIR; M TRPHH`MR;
eMxI M HKMRK; RQH[LJg KPeMRqH; NLzI NLg[KJLJg;
RMTI ZMHK; TMRRaLJg K[I ZPNI; ZQNIq;
ZNMJK K[I ZPNI; QZ LJ K[I MLR; eLK[ M HVLNI PJ [LH sMTI; MeIHKRLTzIJ;
ZRIKKaNPPzLJg; IV`MRRMHHIq; eLK[ [IR IaIH qPeJTMHK; eLK[ [LH [MJqH ZRIHHIq; NMJq PJKP; `RIMz K[I RITPRq;
K[I RITPRq Ps [LH NLsI; TMJqLqMKI VMHKIR Ps HZPRKH Ps QHHLM.
STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH
VI
u[I ZNPK LH M xIRa LVZPRKMJK MHZITK Ps eRLKKIJ ePRzH. 0QK K[IRI LH HPVIK[LJg IxIJ VPRI LVZPRKMJK! K[MK LH!
K[I VMLJ LqIM PR K[I VIHHMgI.
Message LH K[I VMLJ LqIM K[MK M eRLKIR eMJKH KP TPVVQJLTMKI LJ [LH ePRz K[RPQg[ K[I T[MRMTKIRH MJq K[ILR
`I[MxLPQR! K[I Z[aHLTMN MJq IVPKLPJMN `MTzgRPQJq PR HPVIKLVIH K[RPQg[ [LH PeJ gIJIRMNLLJg HKMKIVIJKH.
uP VMzI LK TNIMR MJq QJqIRHKMJqM`NI aPQ [MxI KP NIMRJ [Pe KP eRLKI K[I gLHK.
Gist LH TPVVPJNa QJqIRHKPPq MH K[I IHHIJTI PR VMLJ ZPLJK (Ps MJ MRKLTNI! ZMRMgRMZ[ PR MRgQVIJK)! MNHP MH
K[I IHHIJKLMN ZMRK Ps M HKPRa! JPxIN! PR ZNMa K[MK [INZH KP QJqIRHKMJq K[I VMLJ LqIM.
/QVVMRa qIMNH eLK[ K[I ZNPK Ps TPVZNIKI eRLKKIJ ePRzH! HQT[ MH M HKPRa! JPxIN PR ZNMa. ULHK qIMNH eLK[
K[I VMLJ LqIM Ps MJa K[PQg[KsQN eRLKLJg! JP VMKKIR e[IK[IR LK LH M ZMRMgRMZ[ PR M JPxIN. .K LH ISZITKIq KP `I
xIRa H[PRK MJq TNIMR.
.J PRqIR KP eRLKI K[I gLHK Ps M HKPRa (rd nMalH wMLKr! sPR ISMVZNI) aPQ [MxI KP qP K[I sPNNPeLJg:
+. IMq K[I HKPRa TMRIsQNNa! ZMaLJg MKKIJKLPJ KP K[I T[MRMTKIRH! gIJIRMN MKVPHZ[IRI MJq K[I MQK[PRlH
RIVMRzH PR HKMKIVIJKH (."g" M `RLg[K TPNq qMa! M ZMNIsMTIq MJq H[LxIRLJg `Pa! K[I gRPeLJg HKRMLJ)! K[I
MKVPHZ[IRI Ps HQHZIJHI.
2. mPK qPeJ K[I VMLJ ZPLJKH MJq HII [Pe K[Ia MRI NLJzIq (."g" K[I `Pa LH LNN `QK [I ePJlK gP KP `Iq; [I LH
22
HKLNN ePRRLIq MJq zIIZH HKMRLJg MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I `Iq; [I TMJ [MRqNa `INLIxI K[MK [I [MH JP RIMHPJ KP ePRRa
M`PQK [LH [IMNK[).
4. \PLJK PQK K[I MQK[PRlH RIVMRzH (K[I `Pa eMH NPPzLJg MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I `Iq HKRMJgINa; K[MKlH M HLNNa eMa KP
KMNz; [I [Mq `IIJ eMLKLJg KP qLI MNN qMa; RINMSMKLPJ eMH xIRa HNPe).
3. UP PxIR K[IHI ZPLJKH! RITPJHLqIR K[IV TMRIsQNNa MJq sPRVQNMKI K[I VMLJ LqIM! ."g" .K LH M HKPRa KINNLJg QH
[Pe sIMR MJq HINsZLKa K[RPQg[ LgJPRMJTI PR VLHNIMqLJg LJsPRVMKLPJ VMa TMQHI ePRRa MJq HQssIRLJg PR [Pe
RIVMRzM`Na ZMKLIJK K[I T[LNqlH IJqQRMJTI VMa `I.
Assignments:
1. Give your own version of the gist of "A Day's Wait" and "How We Kept Mother's Day".
2. Write the gist of "A Friend in Need". When writing analyse the title of the story.
3. Write the gist of two letters written by 1udy and compare them. What is their message?
LABORATORY EXERCISES ()
1. Listen to the dialogue "Sports and Games Popular in England". Mark the stresses and tunes.
Repeat the text following the model.
2. Listen to the text "The Football Match", mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat it following the
model.
3. Write a spelling-translation test Check it with a dictionary.
4. Task I: Translate the English sentences into Russian (in writing) and check them with the key.
Task : Translate your sentences hack into English (orally) and check them with the key.
5. Listen to the text "Sport in Great Britain".
Task I: Write down the Russian equivalents given in the exercise. Task II: Listen %o the text again
and write down the English equivalents of the Russian phrases.
Task m: Write 10 questions on the text Be ready to discuss it in class.
CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS
1. Say in what countries the following sports and games are popular:
TRLTzIK! HQRsLJg! zMRMKI! RILJqIIR RMTLJg! RQg`a! `MHI`MNN! QqP (QLKHQ)! NMTRPHHI! NMHHPK[RPeLJg! HPTTIR!
TRPfQIK
II. Which is better - to be a specialist or a generalist?
Divide your class into 2 teams. Match each specific term in column I. with the generic term in
column II. The team which is the first to match the terms correctly wins the score.
. ..
`MR`INN `MHzIK`MNN
RMTzIK TRLTzIK
eLTzIK gPNs
MNZIJHKPTz sIJTLJg
zJPTzPQK sLgQRIHzMKLJg
`LH[PZ KIJJLH
TMKT[IR LTI[PTzIa
gMQJKNIK VPQJKMLJIIRLJg
ZQTz `MHI`MNN
KII `PSLJg
HZLJ T[IHHZNMaLJg
HZLzI eILg[K NLsKLJg
III. Read one of the short stories by W. S. Maugham and speak about it in class. Speak not only on
the contents, but also give analyses of the characters, the author's mastership, methods of
characterization, style and language. See Notes on Style, p. 52.
24
UNIT SEVEN
I SPEECH PATTERNS
1. u[IRI i& hard9y M TPQJKRa LJ K[I ePRNq e[IRI HQT[ M xMRLIKa Ps HTIJIRa TMJ `I sPQJq.
u[IRI LH [MRqNa M `PPz `a K[LH MQK[PR e[LT[ [I [MH JPK RIMq.
u[IRI eMH [MRqNa M sPPK`MNN VMKT[ e[LT[ [I VLHHIq.
u[IRI LH [MRqNa MJPK[IR KIMV eLK[ `IKKIR PZZPRKQJLKLIH KP eLJ.
2. u[MK ePQNq +a'e you thin' aPQ eIRI LJ |PNNMJq.
u[I KIMT[IR VMqI mMTz RQ` PQK MNN K[I LJz VMRzH LJ [LH KISK`PPz.
u[Ia TPQNqJlK VMzI wLNNLMV uINN `Pe `IsPRI K[I KaRMJKlH TMZ.
u[I HNLg[KIHK JPLHI ePQNq VMzI [LV HKMRK.
vMzI [LV RIZIMK K[I RQNI. (0QR: |I eMH VMqI to RIZIMK K[I RQNI.)
EXERCISES
I. Change the foIIowing sentences to as to use the patterns:
Pattern 1: +. . qPJlK K[LJz K[IRI LH MJPK[IR [PTzIaKIMV Ps IfQMN ZPZQNMRLKa. 2. u[IRI eMH JPK M HLJgNI
ePRNq T[MVZLPJH[LZ [I VLHHIq. 4. .lV JPK HQRI eI [MxI M xMTMJTa PJ PQR HKMss. 3. wIlxI JP VPRI KLVI! `QK
aPQ TMJ sLJLH[ K[I TPVZPHLKLPJ Pss MK [PVI. *. u[IRI eMH HTMRTINa M NLxLJg HPQN MK K[I HKMqLQV. ,. . qPJlK
K[LJz K[IRI LH MJa RIMHPJ sPR K[ILR NPHLJg K[I gMVI.
Pattern 2: +. u[I TPMT[ sPRTIq K[I MK[NIKIH KP ZPHKZPJI K[ILR KRMLJLJg. 2. u[I HKRMJgIRH eMJKIq PgIR KP
qRLxI QZ KP K[I `MTz aMRq! MJq [I P`IaIq. 4. u[Ia eLNN JIxIR sPRTI dJqRIe KP `RIMz [LH ZRPVLHI. 3. nQRLJg
K[I TPJxIRHMKLPJ H[I sINK QJIMHa. *. |I eLNN JPK `RIMz eLK[ [LH `Mq [M`LKH! JP VMKKIR e[MK aPQ MRI HMaLJg.
II. CompIete tee foIIowing, using Pattern 2:
+. w[MK IxIJKH VMqI aPQ ...{ 2. w[P TPQNq VMzI aPQR sRLIJq ...{ 4. w[LT[ Ps K[I ISZIRLVIJKH VMqI K[I
HTLIJKLHK...{ 3. w[MK zLJq Ps NIHHPJ VMzIH aPQ .!.{ *. w[MK VMqI iIP uPNHKPa ...{ ,. u[I JIe TPMT[ VMqI
QH ... .
III. TransIate the foIIowing sentences into EngIish, using the patterns:
+. ~ 5 ! 5 8 8 85 $. 2. ~ 6 ;5 ;
$ $! Y. 4. ~ 9 8 ; $>6 6 '. 3. ~
5 ! 85 7 5 6; . *. ->c A>5
;; ! 8 6 $ $$. ,. A>5 8 ;
D9$$! 8 . 7. ~ 5 ;5 ! 5
$685 85. b. t D; 6 { 2. D
' 6 . +). $! ; D6
=! ( 5. ++. X; 6 6!
$6! +2. t 5 >6 ;; { +4. t
&E 6 ({ +3. h E $D $7 ! $ .
IV. Respond to the foIIowing statements and questions, using the patterns. (Make use of the conversationaI
formuIas given in the Reminder.)
+. . `INLIxI K[I uPeIR Ps iPJqPJ TPVIH sLRHK MVPJg K[I [LHKPRLT `QLNqLJgH Ps iPJqPJ. 2. . K[LJz :MHLNa
0NM[IJa OMK[IqRMN LH fQLKI QJLfQI. 4. u[I OLKa Ps iPJqPJ LH PxIRTRPeqIq LJ K[I qMaKLVI. 3. O[RLHKPZ[IR
wRIJ eMH K[I VPHK KMNIJKIq 0RLKLH[ MRT[LKITK Ps K[I ^:.. TIJKQRa. *. /LJTI +227 QZ KP +23, d. dNIz[LJ eMH
K[I VPHK PQKHKMJqLJg T[IHHZNMaIR. ,. vPHK HT[PPNH LJ 0RLKMLJ [MxI MqPZKIq K[I TPRI TQRRLTQNQV. 7. OMJ aPQ
NIJq VI M RPQ`NI{ b. dNN Ps K[IV MRI HKMRLJg MK K[I MqxIRKLHIVIJK. . ePJqIR! e[a{ 2. w[IJ . VIJKLPJIq [LH
JMVI vMRa `QRLIq [IR sMTI LJ [IR [MJqH MJq ePQNq JIxIR MJHeIR Va fQIHKLPJ.
Reminder. Lou don?t &ay &o9 Nu&t Qon9yB fan5yO Indeedc ghyO I& that &o9 \ear VIc gho?d have thought
itc I a+ &ur4ri&ed" I a+ &ho5'ed" It?& a+a:ingO It?& in5redi29eh Certain9yO Mf 5our&e" Natura99yO Le& indeedO
)oo'& 9i'e that" ge99, I thin'"
TEXT. THE BRITISH ISLES
u[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIH TPJHLHK Ps KeP VMLJ LHNMJqH: URIMK 0RLKMLJ MJq .RINMJq. u[IHI MJq PxIR sLxI [QJqRIq
HVMNN LHNMJqH MRI zJPeJ TPNNITKLxINa MH K[I }JLKIq jLJgqPV Ps URIMK 0RLKMLJ MJq 1PRK[IRJ .RINMJq. u[ILR
KPKMN MRIM LH HPVI 23! 2*) HfQMRI VLNIH.
*7
URIMK 0RLKMLJ ZRPZIR TPVZRLHIH GJgNMJq! wMNIH MJq /TPKNMJq. u[I
HPQK[IRJ ZMRK Ps K[I LHNI Ps .RINMJq LH K[I .RLH[ IZQ`NLT (PR GLRI).
0RLKMLJ LH TPVZMRMKLxINa HVMNN! `QK K[IRI LH [MRqNa M TPQJKRa LJ K[I ePRNq e[IRI HQT[ M xMRLIKa Ps HTIJIRa
TMJ `I sPQJq LJ HP HVMNN M TPVZMHH. u[IRI MRI eLNq qIHPNMKI VPQJKMLJH LJ K[I JPRK[IRJ |Lg[NMJqH Ps
/TPKNMJq K[I [PVI Ps K[I qIIR MJq K[I IMgNI K[MK MRI MH NPJINa MH MJa LJ 1PReMa. u[IRI MRI sNMK KQNLZ
*7
94,250 square miles: K[LH LH M`PQK K[I HMVI HLI MH 1Ie IMNMJq PR [MNs K[I HLI Ps pRMJTI.
23
sLINqH RPQJq K[I pIJH
*b
M `NMI Ps TPNPQR LJ HZRLJg! K[MK ePQNq VMzI aPQ K[LJz aPQ eIRI LJ |PN NMJq.
wLK[LJ M sIe VLNIH Ps vMJT[IHKIR MJq /[IssLINq aPQ TMJ `I LJ gNPRLPQH [IMK[IRTPxIRIq VPPRH.
*2
oJTI K[I. 0RLKLH[ .HNIH eIRI ZMRK Ps K[I VMLJNMJq Ps GQRPZI K[I JIMRIHK ZPLJK LH MTRPHH K[I /KRMLK Ps
nPxIR! e[IRI K[I T[MNz TNLssH Ps 0RLKMLJ MRI PJNa KeIJKaKeP VLNIH sRPV K[PHI Ps pRMJTI.
,)
u[I HIMH RPQJq K[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIH MRI H[MNNPe. u[I 1PRK[ /IM LH JPe[IRI VPRI K[MJ ,)) sIIK qIIZ! HP K[MK Ls
/K. \MQNlH OMK[IqRMN eIRI ZQK qPeJ LJ MJa ZMRK Ps LK HPVI Ps K[I TMK[IqRMN ePQNq HKLNN `I M`PxI eMKIR. u[LH
H[MNNPeJIHH LH LJ HPVI eMaH MJ MqxMJKMgI. /[MNNPe eMKIR LH eMRVIR K[MJ qIIZ eMKIR MJq [INZH KP zIIZ K[I
H[PRIH sRPV ISKRIVI TPNq. .K LH! KPP! K[I [PVI Ps VLNNLPJH Ps sLH[! MJq VPRI K[MJ M VLNNLPJ KPJH MRI TMQg[K
IxIRa aIMR.
yPQ [MxI JPKLTIq PJ K[I VMZ [Pe qIIZNa LJqIJKIq K[I TPMHK NLJI LH. u[LH LJqIJKMKLPJ gLxIH M gPPq HQZZNa
Ps HZNIJqLq [MR`PQRH sPR H[LZH; MJq aPQ eLNN JPKI! KPP! K[MK PeLJg KP K[I H[MZI Ps K[I TPQJKRa K[IRI LH JP
ZPLJK LJ LK K[MK LH VPRI K[MJ HIxIJKa VLNIH sRPV K[I HIM M sMTK K[MK [MH gRIMKNa sMTLNLKMKIq K[I ISZPRK Ps
VMJQsMTKQRIH MJq [MH VMqI K[I GJgNLH[ RMTI M HIMNPxLJg PJI.
oJ K[I JPRK[eIHK K[I TPMHKH MRI `RPzIJ `a [Lg[ RPTza TNLssH. u[LH LH IHZITLMNNa JPKLTIM`NI LJ JPRK[eIHK
/TPKNMJq! e[IRI aPQ [MxI NPJg eLJqLJg LJNIKH (TMNNIq rNPT[Hr) MJq M gRIMK VMJa LHNMJqH. wIHKIRJ /TPKNMJq
LH sRLJgIq `a K[I NMRgI LHNMJq T[MLJ zJPeJ MH K[I |I`RLqIH! MJq KP K[I JPRK[ IMHK Ps K[I /TPKKLH[ VMLJNMJq MRI
K[I oRzJIa MJq /[IKNMJq .HNMJqH.
.J /TPKNMJq aPQ [MxI K[RII qLHKLJTK RIgLPJH. u[IRI LH! sLRHKNa! K[I |Lg[NMJqH! K[IJ K[IRI LH K[I TIJKRMN ZNMLJ
PR iPeNMJqH. pLJMNNa K[IRI MRI K[I HPQK[IRJ QZNMJqH! rK[I /TPKK TPQJKRa!r
,+
eLK[ K[ILR gIJKNa RPQJqIq [LNNH
e[IRI K[I H[IIZ eMJqIR. |IRI K[IRI MRI VPRI H[IIZ KP K[I HfQMRI VLNI K[MJ MJae[IRI LJ K[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIH.
.J GJgNMJq MJq wMNIH MNN K[I [Lg[ NMJq LH LJ K[I eIHK MJq JPRK[eIHK. u[I HPQK[IMHKIRJ ZNMLJ RIMT[IH K[I
eIHK TPMHK PJNa MK PJI PR KeP ZNMTIH MK K[I 0RLHKPN O[MJJIN MJq `a K[I VPQK[H Ps K[I RLxIRH nII MJq
vIRHIa.
.J K[I JPRK[ aPQ sLJq K[I O[IxLPKH
,2
HIZMRMKLJg GJgNMJq sRPV /TPKNMJq! K[I \IJJLJIH gPLJg qPeJ GJgNMJq
NLzI M `MTz`PJI MJq K[I OQV`RLMJ VPQJKMLJH s K[ iMzI nLHKRLTK!
,4

PJI Ps K[I NPxINLIHK (MJq K[I eIKKIHK)
ZMRKH Ps GJgNMJq. .J K[I eIHK MRI K[I OMV`RLMJ VPQJKMLJH e[LT[ PTTQZa K[I gRIMKIR ZMRK Ps wMNIH.
u[I HPQK[IMHKIRJ ZMRK Ps GJgNMJq LH M NPeNaLJg NMJq eLK[ gIJKNI [LNNH MJq M TPMHK e[LT[ LH RIgQNMR LJ
PQKNLJI! HMJqa PR VQqqa! eLK[ PTTMHLPJMN T[MNz TNLssH! MJq LJNMJq M NPxINa ZMKKIRJ Ps gRIIJ MJq gPNq sPR
VPHK Ps GJgNMJqlH e[IMK LH gRPeJ [IRI MJq `RPeJ ZNPQg[NMJq eLK[ ZNIMHMJK sMRVH MJq TPKKMgIH LJ K[ILR
VLqHK. .KH RLT[ `RPeJ HPLN LH qIIZNa TQNKLxMKIq VQT[ Ps LK LH QJqIR e[IMK; sRQLKgRPeLJg LH ISKIJHLxINa
TMRRLIq PJ. d fQMRKIR Ps K[I HQgMR QHIq LJ K[I TPQJKRa TPVIH sRPV HQgMR`IIK gRPeJ K[IRI! `QK K[I VPHK
LVZPRKMJK TRPZ LH ZPKMKPIH.
u[I ZPHLKLPJ Ps K[I VPQJKMLJH JMKQRMNNa qIKIRVLJIq K[I qLRITKLPJ MJq NIJgK[ Ps K[I RLxIRH! MJq K[I NPJgIHK
RLxIRH! ISTIZK K[I /IxIRJ MJq ONaqI! sNPe LJKP K[I 1PRK[ /IM! MJq IxIJ K[I /IxIRJ sNPeH IMHKeMRq PR HPQK[
IMHK sPR K[I gRIMKIR ZMRK Ps LKH NIJgK[.
u[I RLxIRH Ps 0RLKMLJ MRI Ps JP gRIMK xMNQI MH eMKIReMaH K[I NPJgIHK! K[I u[MVIH! LH M NLKKNI PxIR 2))
VLNIH MJq sIe Ps K[IV MRI JMxLgM`NI ISTIZK JIMR K[I VPQK[ sPR MJaK[LJg `QK K[I HVMNNIR xIHHINH.
.J K[I IHKQMRLIH Ps K[I u[MVIH! vIRHIa! uaJI! ONaqI! uMa! pPRK[ MJq 0RLHKPN dxPJ
,3
MRI HPVI Ps K[I
gRIMKIHK ZPRKH.
(pRPV rGHHIJKLMN GJgNLH[ sPR pPRILgJ /KQqIJKHr 2y O. G. GTzIRHNIa! 0PPz 4! iJq.! +227. 0da4tedB
Memory Work
u[I HIM LH TMNV KPJLg[K!
u[I KLqI LH sQNN! K[I VPPJ NLIH sMLR
}ZPJ K[I /KRMLKH; PJ K[I pRIJT[ TPMHK! K[I NLg[K
UNIMVH! MJq LH gPJI; K[I TNLssH Ps GJgNMJq HKMJq!
UNLVVIRLJg MJq xMHK! PQK LJ K[I KRMJfQLN `Ma.
OPVI KP K[I eLJqPe! HeIIK LH K[I JLg[K MLRc
oJNa! sRPV K[I NPJg KLJI Ps HZRMa
w[IRI K[I I`` VIIKH K[I VPPJ`NMJT[lq HMJq!
*b
the Fens: NPe VMRH[a NMJq eLK[ NPKH Ps eMKIReMaH ()
*2
moors (ZN)! VPPR: MJ MRIM Ps PZIJ eMHKI NMJq; VPPRH LJ GJgNMJq MJq /TPKNMJq MRI PsKIJ QHIq sPR ZRIHIRxLJg gMVI.
,)
The Channel Tunnel! e[LT[ NLJzH GJgNMJq MJq pRMJTI! LH M NLKKNI PxIR *) zV (4+ VLNIH) NPJg! Ps e[LT[ JIMRNa 4b zV (23 VLNIH) MRI MTKQMNNa QJqIR K[I
GJgNLH[ O[MJJIN.
,+
"the Scott country": M [LNNa TPQJKRa LJ K[I HPQK[IMHK Ps /TPKNMJq e[IRI /LR wMNKIR /TPKK (+777+b42)! K[I sMVPQH 0RLKLH[ ZPIK MJq JPxINLHK! NLxIq.
,2
the Cheviots (the Cheviot Hills): M ePPNZRPqQTLJg TPQJKRa LJ 0RLKMLJ. u[I O[IxLPK `RIIq Ps H[IIZ [MH gLxIJ LKH JMVI KP M ePPNNIJ TNPK[ Ps [Lg[ fQMNLKa.
,4
the Lake District: M `IMQKLsQN ZNMTI K[MK [MH `ITPVI sMVPQH K[MJzH KP M qLHKLJgQLH[Iq KRLP Ps ZPIKH wLNNLMV wPRqHePRK[ (+77)+b*))! /MVQIN
OPNIRLqgI (+772+b43) MJq P`IRK /PQK[Ia (+773+b34) e[P VMqI K[ILR [PVIH K[IR. (riMzI ZPIKHr LH K[I JMVI K[MK eMH gLxIJ KP K[IV.)
,3
u[IRI MRI HIxIRMN RLxIRH LJ 0RLKMLJ K[MK `IMR K[I JMVI Ps dxPJ. u[I NPJgIHK LH K[I 0RLHKPN dxPJ sNPeLJg LJKP K[I 0RLHKPN O[MJJIN! `QK `IHK zJPeJ
K[RPQg[PQK K[I ePRNq LH K[I PJI sNPeLJg LJKP K[I /IxIRJ. oJ LKH `MJzH! LJ /KRMqsPRqPJdxPJ! K[I gRIMKIHK GJgNLH[ ZPIK wLNNLMV /[MzIHZIMRI (+*,3 +,+,)
eMH `PRJ MJq HZIJK [LH aPQK[.
2*
iLHKIJc aPQ [IMR K[I gRMKLJg RPMR
os ZI``NIH e[LT[ K[I eMxIH HQTz `MTz! MJq sNLJg!
dK K[ILR RIKQRJ! QZ K[I [Lg[ HKRMJq!
0IgLJ! MJq TIMHI! MJq K[IJ MgMLJ `IgLJ!
wLK[ KRIVQNPQH TMqIJTI HNPe! MJq `RLJg
u[I IKIRJMN JPKI Ps HMqJIHH LJ.
(*ro+ rnPxIR 0IMT[r 2y vMKK[Ie dRJPNq (+b22+bbb)
VOCABULARY NOTES
1. vary ,t-i +. $6(); $6(); 6! ."g" vMRzIK ZRLTIH PsKIJ xMRa. . KRa KP xMRa Va
qLIK.
/aJ. change
2. 6! 96! ."g" oQR PZLJLPJH xMRa.
/yn" differ
Note: vary LH KP T[MJgI PR qLssIR ZMRKLMNNa.
variant n ! ."g" u[LH ePRq [MH KeP HZINNLJg xMRLMJKH.
various ad1 (M JPQJ LJ K[I HLJgQNMR LH JIxIR QHIq MsKIR LK)
+. 85! 85! ."g" u[IRI MRI xMRLPQH RIMHPJH sPR Va RIsQHMN.
i" 85! ."g" .lNN gLxI aPQ xMRLPQH ISIRTLHIH PJ K[MK RQNI.
/yn" different! ."g" u[Ia MRI fQLKI qLssIRIJK ZIPZNI.
varied ad1 85 (QHIq eLK[ JPQJH `PK[ HLJg! MJq ZL.)! ."g" xMRLIq TNLVMKI! HTIJIRa! HQRsMTI!
KIVZIRMKQRI! PZLJLPJH! HZPRKH! IKT.! ."g" u[I JPxIN qIHTRL`IH K[I xMRLIq TMRIIR Ps MJ MqxIJKQRIR.
variety n +. ! ."g" yPQ VQHK [MxI VPRI xMRLIKa LJ aPQR sPPq.
2. 6; ! ."g" .lxI gPK HPVI RMRI xMRLIKLIH Ps HQT[ HKMVZH. u[IRI MRI HPVI RMRI xMRLIKLIH Ps
NIMs`IMRLJg KRIIH LJ K[I ZMRz.
variety-show 6! E85 %
2. scene n +. %! ( 6)! ."g" u[I qQIN HTIJI LJ r|MVNIKr LVZRIHHIq QH gRIMKNa. |IR
MTKLJg eMH ePJqIRsQN LJ K[I NMHK HTIJI.
2. $ 5 ( `S.X., >TU7., ^U6TUB, ."g" .J K[I sLRHK MTK K[I HTIJI LH NMLq LJ pRMJTI. uRMsMNgMR
eMH K[I HTIJI Ps M sMVPQH `MKKNI `IKeIIJ K[I 0RLKLH[ sNIIK MJq K[I TPV`LJIq pRIJT[ MJq /ZMJLH[ sNIIKH.
4. 5>! ! =! ."g" . NLzI K[I eMa K[LH eRLKIR qIHTRL`IH RQRMN HTIJIH. yPQ TPQNq HII MesQN
HTIJIH MsKIR K[I IMRK[fQMzI.
scenery n (un5ounta29eB +. %! ."g" u[I HTIJIRa eMH LVZRIHHLxI LJ K[I NMHK MTK. u[Ia [MxI MNVPHK
JP HTIJIRa LJ K[MK ZNMa.; 2. 5>! DC! ."g" . ZRIsIR ZNMLJH KP VPQJKMLJ HTIJIRa. . NPPzIq PQK Ps K[I
eLJqPe IJPaLJg K[I HTIJIRa.
3. shaIIow ad1 +. $5! a& H[MNNPe eMKIR! M H[MNNPe qLH[
0nt" deep
2. 985! 5; 685! a& M H[MNNPe VLJq! MRgQVIJK; H[MNNPe LJKIRIHKH; M H[MNNPe
VMJ! ZIRHPJ
0nt" serious (M`PQK M ZIRHPJ! `PPz! MRgQVIJK)! qIIZ (NPxI! sIINLJgH)
Note: K[I QHHLMJ ePRq a.R>Ub [MH qLssIRIJK VIMJLJgH e[LT[ MRI RIJqIRIq LJ GJgNLH[ `a VIMJH Ps qLssIRIJK ePRqH: +) sLJI
=5 $9 5! a& fine &and, 2u5'wheat, 2) HVMNN 85 ( $)! MH &+a99 5hange
(un5ounta29eB?, 4) sNMK ;5! 5! MH a f9at 4an (49ateB"
4. extreme ad1 +. 55 (MK PR JIMR K[I IJq PR IqgI)! a& K[I ISKRIVI IJq (IqgI! `PRqIR! IKT.)! LJ K[I
ISKRIVI 1PRK[
2. 8585; $85! a& ISKRIVI ZMKLIJTI (NPxI! zLJqJIHH! LJKIRIHK)
extremely adv 85! a& KP `I ISKRIVINa LJKIRIHKIq LJ HVK[.! KP `I ISKRIVINa HPRRa sPR HV`.!
HVK[.! IKT.
5. suppIy ,t >6! ."g" .J PQR [MNN K[I HKQqIJKH MRI HQZZNLIq eLK[ MNN K[I JITIHHMRa sQRJLKQRI MJq
`IqqLJg. w[P eLNN HQZZNa K[I ISZIqLKLPJ eLK[ MNN K[I JITIHHMRa IfQLZVIJK{
supply n (PsKIJ 49B (8)! ."g" u[LH H[PZ [MH M NMRgI HQZZNa Ps eLJKIR TPMKH.
to give a good supply of, ."g" u[IHI sPRIHKH gLxI M gPPq HQZZNa Ps KLV`IR.
6. shape n C$! ! ."g" . qPJlK NLzI K[I H[MZI Ps [LH JPHI. u[LH HTQNZKQRI [MHJlK gPK VQT[
H[MZI! . H[PQNq HMa.
/yn" form, outline
in the shape Ps! ."g" . eMJK KP gIK M `RPPT[ LJ K[I H[MZI Ps M [PRHIH[PI.
shapeless ad1 C$85! ."g" |I [Mq M RMggIq TPMK MJq M H[MZINIHH [MK PJ.
shapely ad1 5 C$8; 585! 9D >85! a& M H[MZINa sLgQRI
2,
7. channeI n ! M HKRIKT[ Ps eMKIR eLqIR K[MJ M HKRMLK! PLJLJg KeP HIMH PR HIZMRMKLJg KeP `PqLIH Ps
NMJq! MH K[I GJgNLH[ O[MJJIN! K[I 0RLHKPN O[MJJIN
/yn" +. ca'nal M T[MJJIN sPR eMKIR VMqI `a VMJ! JPK `a JMKQRI! QHIq sPR H[LZH PR sPR TMRRaLJg
eMKIR KP ZNMTIH K[MK JIIq LK! a& K[I /QI OMJMN! K[I \MJMVM OMJMN! K[I :PNgMnPJ OMJMN! K[I pIRgMJM OMJMN;
2. strait M JMRRPe T[MJJIN Ps eMKIR TPJJITKLJg KeP NMRgI `PqLIH Ps eMKIR! a& K[I vMgINNMJ /KRMLK!
K[I /KRMLK Ps nPxIR
8. vaIue n %6! ! ."g" u[I NLKIRMRa xMNQI Ps K[MK `PPz LH JPK gRIMK. . qPJlK `INLIxI aPQ
RIMNLI K[I xMNQI Ps [LH MqxLTI.
to be of great (little, some, no) value to smb., ."g" .J HPVI aIMRH [LH ZLTKQRIH eLNN `I Ps gRIMK xMNQI. u[LH
`PPz eLNN `I Ps JP xMNQI LJ aPQR HKQqLIH.
value ,t +. %6! >6! ."g" . gRIMKNa xMNQI [LH sRLIJqH[LZ.
+yn. appreciate ()%6 8! ;$! ."g" wI MNN MZZRITLMKI M [PNLqMa MsKIR M aIMR Ps [MRq
ePRz. . gRIMKNa MZZRITLMKI aPQR zLJqJIHH.
2. %6! ."g" |I xMNQIq K[I [PQHI sPR VI MK b)).
valuable ad1 %85! ."g" .KlH M xMNQM`NI ZLTKQRI.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)
Words
MqxMJKMgI n sNPe , H[MZINa ad1
TMJMN n [MR`PQR n HPLN n
T[MJJIN n NPJINa ad1 HKRMLK n
TNLss n VMJQsMTKQRI n HQZZNa ,
TPVZMRMKLxINa adv ZNMLJ n xMNQM`NI ad1
TRPZ n ZNPQg[ , xMNQI ,, n
TQNKLxMKI , RPTza ad1 xMRLIq Mq
qIIR n HTIJI n xMRLIKa n
qLHKLJTK ad1 HTIJIRa n xMRLPQH Mq
IMgNI n H[MNNPe ad1 xMRa x
ISKRIVI ad1 H[MZI n eMJqIR ,
ISKRIVINa adv H[MZINIHH ad1 e[IMK n
Word Combinations
KP K[I eIHK (IMHK! JPRK[; HPQK[) Ps LJ K[I JPRK[ (HPQK[! IMHK! eIHK)
eLK[LJ M sIe VLNIH (VIKRIH! IKT.) Ps KP HIZMRMKI HVK[. sRPV HVK[.
KP zIIZ HVK[. sRPV (TPNq! RIgQNMR LJ PQKNLJI
[IMK! `Mq LJsNQIJTI! IKT.) QJqIR e[IMK (RaI, IKT.)
PJ K[I VMZ KP sNPe LJKP (K[I HIM! NMzI! RLxIR)
KP gLxI M gPPq HQZZNa Ps PeLJg KP K[I H[MZI (RMLJ! IKT.)
KP sNPe (sRPV! PQK Ps) KP `I Ps gRIMK (NLKKNI! HPVI! JP) xMNQI
EXERCISES
I. Read the text and do the foIIowing (A. Grammar, B. Word usage, C. Word-formation):
A. +. \LTz PQK MNN ZRPZIR JMVIH MJq MRRMJgI K[IV LJKP KeP gRPQZH JPQJH eLK[ K[I qIsLJLKI MRKLTNI MJq
eLK[PQK LK; ISZNMLJ K[I QHI Ps K[I MRKLTNI. 2. /IMRT[ K[I KISK sPR HIJKIJTIH eLK[ LJxIRHLPJ. uRMJHsPRV K[IV
LJKP RIgQNMR HIJKIJTIH MJq TPVZMRI K[IV eLK[ K[I PRLgLJMN PJIH. /ZITLsa e[MK zLJq Ps LJxIRHLPJ LK LH. 4.
w[MK KIJHI gRPQZ LH ZRIqPVLJMJK LJ K[I KISK MJq e[a{
B. +. \LTz PQK MNN K[I MqITKLxIH K[MK gP KPgIK[IR eLK[ K[I sPNNPeLJg JPQJH: &ea, 9a'e, riverD +ountain&,
hi99&, 59iff&D area, 9and, fie9d, +oor&, u49and, 9ow9and" 2. vMRz MNN K[I TMHIH e[IJ JPQJH MRI qIsLJIq `a KeP
MqITKLxIH; TPVVIJK PJ K[I ePRq PRqIR; LH LK ZPHHL`NI KP T[MJgI LK{ 4. \LTz PQK MNN K[I JPQJH qIsLJIq `a K[I
MqITKLxI &+a99D LH LK ZPHHL`NI KP QHI 9itt9e LJHKIMq{ 3. /IMRT[ K[I KISK sPR K[I TPV`LJMKLPJH Ps 0dv E0d1
IJqLJg LJ Ged, KRMJHNMKI K[IV LJKP QHHLMJ MJq QHI K[IV LJ HIJKIJTIH Ps aPQR PeJ.
C. +. \LTz PQK MNN K[I qIRLxMKLxIH MJq TNMHHLsa K[IV MTTPRqLJg KP K[I HQssLS. 2. /IMRT[ K[I KISK sPR
TPVZPQJqH MJq TPVVIJK PJ K[ILR HKRQTKQRI. 4. \LTz PQK sRPV K[I KISK MNN K[I ePRqH K[MK [MxI [PVPJaVH.
/ZINN! KRMJHTRL`I MJq TNMHHLsa K[IV.
II. Write EngIish equivaIents of the foIIowing:
$ ! $8 75! ! ;5 ,)) C! $6!
Y$8 $;$ 6D 2)) $6! ! = =6 23 2*)
. $6 233 ))) . $! *, $ .
III. a) Make up a Iist of geographicaI names used in the text (mind the articIes) and transcribe them.
b) Transcribe and transIate the foIIowing words:
27
MqxMJKMgI! TMJMN! T[MJJIN! TPVZMRMKLxINa! qIHPNMKI! qIKIRVLJI! IHKQMRa! ISKRIVINa! gNPRLPQH! [IMK[IR!
LJqIJKMKLPJ! VMJQsMTKQRI! VPPR! JMxLgM`NI! PTTMHLPJMNNa! ZNPQg[! HTIJIRa! HKRMLK! KPKMN! xMgQI! xMNQI! xMRa!
eMJqIR! e[IMK! eLJq.
c) TransIate the foIIowing verbs into EngIish. Give their four forms:
nxt, t, nnt, ut, t, nt, at, ut, nmnt.
d) Give the pIuraI of the foIIowing nouns. TransIate them into Russian:
qIIR! H[IIZ! sLH[! VPQK[! sPPK
IV. SuppIy adjectives:
+. ... eMKIR LH eMRVIR K[MJ ... eMKIR. 2. OPRJeMNN LH sMVPQH sPR LKH ... TNLssH. 4. .KH ... HPLN LH qIIZNa
TQNKLxMKIq. 3. u[LH ZMRK Ps K[I TPQJKRa LH JPKIq sPR ... TPNq. *. u[I }. j. ... MRIM LH HPVI 23!2*) HfQMRI VLNIH.
,. u[IRI MRI ... sLINqH LJ K[I IMHK Ps GJgNMJq. 7. u[IRI MRI ... [MR`PQRH sPR H[LZH. b. .J K[I JPRK[IRJ |Lg[NMJqH
Ps /TPKNMJq aPQlNN IJPa K[I HLg[K Ps ... VPQJKMLJH. 2. u[Ia eIRI VMzLJg K[ILR eMa K[RPQg[ ... [LNNH. +). u[IRI
eIRI ... ZNMLJH HKRIKT[LJg sPR VLNIH MJq VLNIH. ++. iPeNMJqH LH K[I ... ZNMLJ Ps /TPKNMJq.
V. Answer the foIIowing questions (use the map on p. 240):
+. w[MK qP eI TMNN K[I gRPQZ Ps LHNMJqH HLKQMKIq KP K[I JPRK[eIHK Ps GQRPZI{ 2! w[MK MRI K[I JMVIH Ps
K[I `LggIHK LHNMJqH{ 4. nP K[I }JLKIq jLJgqPV MJq URIMK 0RLKMLJ VIMJ K[I HMVI{ 3. w[MK TPQJKRLIH MRI
HLKQMKIq PJ K[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIH{ w[MK MRI K[ILR TMZLKMNH{ *. w[MK LH URIMK 0RLKMLJ ZRPZIR{ ,. w[MK MRI K[I JMVIH
Ps K[I eMKIRH eMH[LJg K[I TPMHKH Ps K[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIH{ 7. w[a qP K[I GJgNLH[ TMNN K[I HKRMLK `IKeIIJ URIMK
0RLKMLJ MJq K[I VMLJNMJq K[I r/KRMLK Ps nPxIRr MJq K[I pRIJT[ TMNN LK r\MHqIOMNMLHr (LJKIRJMKLPJMN KIRV){ b.
w[MK MRI K[I VPHK LVZPRKMJK RLxIRH LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJ{ 2. w[MK MRI K[I JMVIH Ps K[I T[LIs VPQJKMLJ RMJgIH PJ
K[I LHNMJq{ +). w[IRI MRI K[I OQV`RLMJ MJq K[I OMV`RLMJ VPQJKMLJH HLKQMKIq{
VI. TransIate the foIIowing sentences in writing. (ConsuIt EssentiaI VocabuIary (I).) Respond to the
questions and statements, using the conversationaI formuIas (see p. 164, Ex. XI 8):
+. 8 $> 6 >5D 8 { 2. h
6D5 %. 4. _ 8! ({ 3. ; 8$ >$
; > 9D$ $ 5 8. *. F ;8 7 ;7
k{ ,. F k 9 . F 87{ 7. '
"E $ 6 68 ! . b. t $> 96 8
6; 9{ 2. (6 6D 6 95 $ 7; ;
D%5. +). $ 5 8 9 6D 8 ;{ ++. 69 $9
& 9 ; F5 (ORPaqPJ)! $ $ 6D5 E.
VII. Study the foIIowing derivatives and compounds:
HMJqa! JPKLTIM`NI! ZNPQg[NMJq! HIMNPxLJg! [IMK[IRTPxIRIq! VQqqa! JMxLgM`NI! HQgMR`IIK! NPeNaLJg!
eMKIReMaH! sRQLKgRPeLJg.
a) Write out the sentences in which they are used in the text.
b) Use them in sentences of your own.
c) Give EngIish equivaIents of the foIIowing:
85! $85! >85! >85! 85! ;85! 8$85! 85!
9$85! 85! 985! 85! 685! %85! 985! $85!
$85! $85! 9=5.
d) Give Russian equivaIents of the foIIowing:
xMRLIKaH[Pe! e[IMKsLINq! TPMNHQZZNLIR! ZNPQg[VMJ! [IMK[IRVPPR! [PRHIH[PI! HIMH[PRI! HIMHTMZI!
IMRK[fQMzI;
qIIR[QJKLJg! e[IMKgRPeLJg! H[IIZ`RIIqLJg! TRPZgMK[IRLJg! NMJqZNPQg[LJg! HJPeZNPQg[LJg;
H[LZ`QLNqLJg (aMRqH)! NIMs`IMRLJg (KRIIH)! JMKQRINPxLJg (JMKLPJ)! sQR`IMRLJg (MJLVMNH)! PTIMJgPLJg
(HKIMVIRH)! sPPqZRPqQTLJg (LJqQHKRLIH);
HJPeTPxIRIq (sLINqH)! HVPzIsLNNIq (RPPV)! VMJVMqI (TMJMN)! gRMHHTPxIRIq (ZNMLJ)! HIM`PQJq (H[LZ)!
eIMK[IR`IMKIJ (sMTI)! VPPJNLK (ZMK[).
VIII. SuppIy articIes where necessary. Write answers to the questions:
+. iPPz MK... VMZ Ps ... 0RLKLH[ .HNIH. nP aPQ zJPe e[MK... KeP NMRgIHK LHNMJqH MRI TMNNIq{ 2. ... RLg[K[MJq
HLqI Ps... VMZ LH ... GMHK. w[MK HIM LH IMHK Ps ... URIMK 0RLKMLJ{ 4. .J e[MK qLRITKLPJ LH ... .RLH[ /IM sRPV ...
URIMK 0RLKMLJ{ 3. \PLJK KP ... `Pqa Ps ... eMKIR e[LT[ LH eIHK Ps ... .RINMJq. w[MK qP eI TMNN LK{ *. uPeMRqH ...
`PKKPV Ps ... VMZ LH ... /PQK[. w[MK LH KPeMRqH ... KPZ Ps ... VMZ{ ,. .J e[MK qLRITKLPJ LH ... URIMK 0RLKMLJ
sRPV ... GJgNLH[ O[MJJIN{ 7. w[MK TPQJKRa LH eIHK Ps ... GJgNMJq{ b. pLJq ... u[MVIH. ... RLxIRHl MNeMaH sNPe
KPeMRqH ... HIM. .J e[MK qLRITKLPJ qPIH ... u[MVIH sNPe{ 2. ... /IxIRJ sNPeH LJKP ... 0RLHKPN O[MJJIN! qPIHJlK
LK{ +). w[IRI qPIH ... /IxIRJ RLHI{ ++. w[MK qP eI TMNN... [Lg[IHK ZMRK Ps... /TPKNMJq{ +2. pLJq ... GqLJ`QRg[
MJq ... UNMHgPe. .J e[MK ZMRK Ps ... /TPKNMJq MRI K[Ia HLKQMKIq{ +4. w[IRI MRI ... O[IxLPK |LNNH{ +3. .J e[MK
2b
qLRITKLPJ MRI ... 0RLKLH[ .HNIH sRPV ... VMLJNMJq{ +*. w[MK eMKIR `Pqa HIZMRMKIH ... 0RLKLH[ .HNIH sRPV ...
OPJKLJIJK{
IX. Study VocabuIary Notes and transIate the iIIustrative exampIes into Russian.
X. SuppIy suitabIe words (consuIt EssentiaI VocabuIary I):
+. u[I GJgNLH[ ...! LJ LKH JMRRPeIHK ZMRK (K[I ... Ps nPxIR) LH PJNa 42 zV eLqI. 2. u[I ... Ps /TPKNMJq LH
JPKIq sPR LKH eLNq MJq qIHPNMKI `IMQKa. 4. u[I RLxIRH Ps URIMK 0RLKMLJ MRI Ps JP gRIMK... MH eMKIReMaH! HPVI Ps
K[IV MRI PLJIq `a VIMJH Ps ... . 3. u[I RINLIs Ps URIMK 0RLKMLJ ... KP M RIVMRzM`NI qIgRII. *. u[Ia KPPz ... Ps
K[ILR HKMa in iPJqPJ KP `RQH[ QZ K[ILR GJgNLH[. ,. u[I T[LIs gRMLJ.. MRI PMKH MJq `MRNIa. 7. LxIRH LJ GJgNMJq
MRI HINqPV sRPIJ. ... MRI LTIsRII. b. 1ISK KP TPMN MJq LRPJ! HKPJI MJq HNMKI MRI VPHK ... VLJIRMNH LJ GJgNMJq.
2. u[I RLT[ ... Ps HPQK[IMHK GJgNMJq LH eINN TQNKLxMKIq. +). u[I wINH[ vPQJKMLJH MRI xIRa ... MJq qLssLTQNK KP
TNLV`. ++. u[I HIMH HQRRPQJqLJg K[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIH MRI xIRa ...! QHQMNNa NIHH K[MJ 4)) sIIK qIIZ. +2. 0RLKMLJlH
TPVZNIS gIPNPga LH PJI Ps K[I VMLJ RIMHPJH sPR LKH RLT[ ... Ps HTIJIRa. +4. .J eLJKIR IMHKIRJ 0RLKMLJ sMTIH K[I
TPNqIR TPJKLJIJK e[IRIMH eIHKIRJ 0RLKMLJ sMTIH K[I ... eMRV dKNMJKLT. +3. .J VPHK MRIMH K[I sMRVIR ... PJNa K[I
xMNNIa NMJqH MJq K[I ... e[IRI HPLNH MRI qIIZIR MJq RLT[IR. +*. u[IRI MRI ... KaZIH Ps eLNq xIgIKMKLPJ! LJTNQqLJg
K[I JMKQRMN sNPRM Ps ePPqH! sIJH MJq VMRT[IH. +,. u[I iMzI nLHKRLTK LH sMVPQH sPR LKH ....
XI. Express the same idea in your own words or expIain the foIIowing substituting synonyms for the words
in itaIics:
+. uPV MVHMa HZIJK KeP [MZZa aIMRH LJ K[I variou& TMZLKMNH Ps GQRPZI. 2. 0NPqeaJ! gMLJg MK K[I qMRz
PQK/VI Ps VPQJKMLJH `IsPRI [IR! zJIe K[MK RMLJ ePQNq sMNN `IsPRI JLg[KKLVI. 4. u[I eLJqPeH Ps HIVL
TLRTQNMR &ha4e eIRI PJ K[I NIxIN Ps K[I sNPPR. 3. |I wa& wandering M`PQK eLK[ KeP ZIJTI LJ [LH ZPTzIK MJq
JPe[IRI KP gP sPR K[I JLg[K. *. .K eMH K[I HKRLJg Ps ZIMRNH vLHH P`LJHPJ eMH eIMRLJg MJq LK eMH va9ued MK
*) K[PQHMJq ZPQJqH. ,. iMRRa [Mq M ePJqIRsQNNa VINPqLPQH xPLTI eLK[ M HLJgQNMR variety Ps KPJI. 7. u[I
T[LNqRIJ a44re5iated K[I VIT[MJLTMN KPaH K[Ia [Mq JIxIR HIIJ `IsPRI. b. |LH [MJqH eIRI NPJg! `QK JPK NMRgI
sPR [LH HLI! `IMQKLsQNNa &ha4ed MJq MK K[I HMVI KLVI HKRPJg. 2. /[I [MH KeIJKa aIMRH advantage PxIR VI. +).
0PK[ [Mq the advantage Ps HZIMzLJg gPPq MJq sNQIJK pRIJT[. ++. u[Ia [MxI QHK [Mq M KIRRLsLT &5ene" +2. .
QHIq RP wander M`PQK K[I HeIIKHVINNLJg VIMqPeH LJ K[I IxIJLJg. +4. |I eMH JPK LJKIRIHKIq LJ aPQR xLIeH
PJ K[I HPTLMN MJq VPRMN va9ue Ps K[ILR RINMKLPJH[LZ. +3. u[PQg[ H[I [Mq NPHK K[I sRIH[ `NPPV Ps eZtre+e
aPQK[! K[IRI eMH JPK M NLJI PJ [IR sPRI[IMq PR QJqIR [IR [MIN IaIH. +*. u[I TNLVMKI LH HQssLTLIJKNa varied sPR
`PK[ HQ`KRPZLTMN MJq HQ`MRTKLT ZNMJKH to 2e 5u9tivated within the eZtent Ps K[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIH. +,. u[I 0RLKLH[
sMRVIR 5u9tivate& M 5o+4arative9y HVMNN KRMTK Ps NMJq ZRPqQTLJg M variety Ps ZRPqQTKH. +7. uPV RMJ MRPQJq
MJq HKPZZIq within a foot or two Ps K[I sNPeIR. +b. Mwing to JQVIRPQH RMZLqH K[I RLxIR LH JPK JMxLgM`NI. +2.
mQNLM \IJqNIKPJ NLzIq KP HLK TRPHHNIggIq PJ K[I TPQT[ QHK KP H[Pe [IR &ha4e9y NIgH LJ HLNz HKPTzLJgH.
XII. FiII in prepositions. Make a study of the text'
mQHK Pss K[I TPMHK... K[I VMLJNMJq ... JPRK[eIHKIRJ GQRPZI MJq PJNa JLJIKIIJ VLNIH qLHKMJK ... LK ... K[I
JIMRIHK ZPLJK NLIH K[I HVMNN gRPQZ ... LHNMJqH zJPeJ MH K[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIH.
u[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIH LJTNQqI URIMK 0RLKMLJ! .RINMJq MJq M JQV`IR ... HVMNN LHNMJqH. URIMK 0RLKMLJ TPJHLHKH ...
GJgNMJq! /TPKNMJq MJq wMNIH. u[I HPQK[IRJ KeP K[LRqH ... .RINMJq MRI PTTQZLIq ... K[I .RLH[ IZQ`NLT e[LT[
`PRqIRH ... 1PRK[IRJ .RINMJq. URIMK 0RLKMLJ LH M RIgLPJ ... xMRLIq NPeNMJqH! RPNNLJg [LNNH MJq sIe VPQJKMLJH.
dNK[PQg[ K[I [Lg[IHK ZIMz! 0IJ 1IxLH ... K[I URMVZLMJH ... /TPKNMJq! RLHIH ... 3!3)) sIIK! HQT[[ILg[KH HINqPV
PTTQR. u[I \IJJLJI MJgI ... JPRK[IRJ GJgNMJq RLHIH PJNa HNLg[KNa ;.. 4!))) sIIK! MH qP K[I OMV`RLMJ
VPQJKMLJH ... wMNIH.
... K[I ISKRIVI HPQK[ ... GJgNMJq MRI K[I sMVIq T[MNz [LNNH HPVI ... e[LT[ sPRV K[I nPxIR ONLssH.
u[I RLxIRH ... K[I RIgLPJ MRI H[PRK MJq ... gIJIRMN sNPe ... K[I TIJKRMN MJq HPQK[IRJ NPeNMJqH ... K[I
HQRRPQJqLJg HIMH. vMJa ... K[IV MRI TPJJITKIq ... IMT[ PK[IR ... TMJMNH. u[I TPMHKH ... K[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIH MRI
eMH[Iq ... K[I dKNMJKLT oTIMJ! K[I 1PReIgLMJ! 1PRK[ MJq .RLH[ HIMH MJq KeP `Lg T[MJJINH (K[I GJgNLH[
O[MJJIN MJq K[I 1PRK[ O[MJJIN).
XIII. Write questions about the text, using new words and phrases in each question. When asking and
answering the questions use the map.
XIV. Give EngIish equivaIents of the Russian word 45678 in its different meanings. Use them in sentences
of your own.
XV. a) Read and transIate the foIIowing text:
u[I eMRV TQRRIJKH LJ K[I dKNMJKLT oTIMJ LJsNQIJTI K[I TNLVMKI Ps URIMK 0RLKMLJ. u[I eLJKIRH MRI JPK
HIxIRINa TPNq! e[LNI HQVVIRH MRI RMRINa [PK.
MLJsMNN LH IxIJNa qLHKRL`QKIq K[RPQg[PQK K[I aIMR.
u[I ZIRTIJKMgI Ps K[I TNPQqLJIHH LH [Lg[! eINN PxIR [MNs K[I qMaH Ps K[I aIMR `ILJg PxIRTMHK; sPgH MNPJg
K[I TPMHK MH eINN MH PTTMHLPJMNNa LJ K[I LJKIRLPR sRIfQIJKNa [LqI K[I HQJ. u[I sPgH Ps iPJqPJ! PsKIJ VMqI
HIxIRI `a VLSKQRI eLK[ TLKa HVPzI (HVPg)! [MxI M ePRNqeLqI RIZQKMKLPJ! `QK PJI JPK KP `I IJxLIq.
b) TaIk (or make up a diaIogue) on the cIimate "of the European part of Russia using the terms from the text
above.
22
XVI. TransIate these sentences iato EngIish:
+. ?8 7! 89 $8 >! 6 . 2.. ; 8 5
~5. 4. ~ 8 5 D5 5 5! ; 8 8=6
6958 68. 3. A 6! $> 6 6 88 $
$$ . *. ' 6D %! 6! 8$ $. ' 8 > 9
D9 ;. ,. h 5 $ $ C$ 77 D7. 7. ~ 8 $
6 =6 E 768 >8! 8 (sMqI) . b. #85 DC
;8$ $ 7; D5 8. 2. ' !
(K[I KQJqRM). +). 5 ;>6 ; . ++. Y6 >
8 5 8 (`NMJz HZMTIH).
XVII. FiII in:
a) %o ,-$n.e, %o )$ry or to #//er.
+. u[I HPLN ... eLK[LJ M sIe VLNIH LJ VMJa qLHKRLTKH! ZRPqQTLJg H[MRZ TPJKRMHK Ps HTIJIRa MJq sNPRM. 2. u[I
TNLVMKI Ps URIMK 0RLKMLJ ... gRIMKNa sRPV K[MK Ps K[I OPJKLJIJK. 4. u[I eIMK[IR ... xIRa PsKIJ LJ GJgNMJq. 3.
u[I sMTI Ps /TPKNMJq ... sRPV K[MK Ps /PQK[ GMHK GJgNMJq. *. u[I IqQTMKLPJMN HaHKIV Ps URIMK 0RLKMLJ ... sRPV
K[MK Ps K[I }JLKIq /KMKIH. ,. uMHKIH .... 7. |I NPPzIq ISMTKNa MH H[I RIVIV`IRIq [LV! MH aPQJg! MH sRMJz! `QK
[LH ISZRIHHLPJ eMH .... b. u[I MxIRMgI eLJKIR KIVZIRMKQRI ... `IKeIIJ 4O MJq 7O. 2. w[MK TMJ [MxI
[MZZIJIq KP ... [LV HP VQT[{ +). u[MK LH M ZPLJK PJ e[LT[ aPQ MJq H[I ePQNq TIRKMLJNa....
b) #//eren%, )$r#o0& or )$r#e1
+. QHHLM [MH M ... TNLVMKI `ITMQHI Ps LKH xMHK KIRRLKPRa. 2.... `RMJT[IH Ps LJqQHKRa MRI sPQJq LJ URIMKIR
iPJqPJ. 4. u[LH gPPq e[IMK NMJq LH fQLKI ... sRPV K[PHI `ILJg TQNKLxMKIq LJ JPRK[IRJ RIgLPJH. 3. 0RLKMLJ LH
LVVIJHINa ... eLK[LJ M HVMNN MRIM. *. u[I LJHITK sMQJM LJ 0RLKMLJ LH NIHH... K[MJ K[MK Ps OPJKL JIJKMN GQRPZI. ,.
|I [MH `IIJ KP ... ZNMTIH Ps K[I ISKRIVI 1PRK[. 7. d gNMJTI MK K[I VMZ LH IJPQg[ KP HII [Pe... K[I HQRsMTI Ps
GJgNMJq LH. b. d [PVI LJ K[I TPQJKRa LH xIRa... sRPV MJ MZMRKVIJK LJ K[I TLKa. 2. . [MxI TPVI MTRPHH [LV LJ
RITIJK aIMRH PJ ... PTTMHLPJH. +). u[I aPQJg VMJ MHzIq VI ... zLJqH Ps fQIHKLPJH. ++. u[I JIeHZMZIRH
TMRRLIq ... RIZPRKH Ps K[I HKPRV. +2. w[MK eI eIMR JPeMqMaH LH fQLKI ... sRPV e[MK PQR MJTIHKPRH ePRI. +4.
|I HKMRKIq KP KIMT[ VI UIRVMJ. |I ePQNq KINN VI K[I UIRVMJ sPR K[I ... P`ITKH eI ZMHHIq! M TPe! M [PRHI! M
VMJ MJq HP PJ! MJq K[IJ VMzI VI RIZIMK HLVZNI UIRVMJ HIJKIJTIH. +3. u[RPQg[ VMJa aIMRH Ps... TPJqLKLPJH
[I zIZK K[LJzLJg Ps [LH sMVLNa. +*. |MxLJg KRLIq ... KPZLTH Ps TPJxIRHMKLPJ . sINK IS[MQHKIq.
c) %o )$l0e or %o $ppre,#$%e1
+. /[I KPNq OPQJK 0PRTINNL K[MK [IR JITzNMTI eMH... MK ILg[K K[PQHMJq ZPQJqH. 2. mQqgLJg `a [LH ePRqH
[I ... aPQR [INZ. 4. 0ILJg MHzIq e[MK [I K[PQg[K Ps M ZPHHL`NI T[MJgI LJ K[I ZNMJ [I HMLq [I... LK 3. 0QK .
ePQNq JPK NLzI [LV KP K[LJz K[MK . qP JPK... K[I [PJPQR K[MK [I [MH qPJI VI. *. u[I ZLTKQRI LH ... MK M K[PQHMJq
qPNNMRH. ,. . HQZZPHI PJNa M pRIJT[VMJ TMJ ... KP K[I sQNN K[I gRMTI Ps MTLJI MJq K[I VQHLT Ps [LH xIRHI. 7.
mMJI dQHKIJlH ePRz LH KP `I ... ZRLVMRLNa MH HMKLRI. b. vR. OPPz ... [LH HITRIKMRa sPR [IR MTTQRMTa.
d) lonely or $lone1
+. /[I HKMaIq ... LJ [IR RPPV RIsQHLJg KP TPVI qPeJHKMLRH. 2. u[ILRH eMH M ... [PQHI LHPNMKIq `a K[I
VPQJKMLJH. 4. |I sINK VLHIRM`NI MJq .... 3. ... LJ K[I [PQHI eMH vLHH /MRLI :LNNLIR. *. GNNLPK LJ [LH eINNTQK
qLJJIR MTzIK NPPzIq INIgMJK MH [I ... TPQNq NPPz. ,. rnP aPQ zJPe K[MK VIIKLJg aPQ sPR K[I sLRHK KLVI LH KP
VI NLzI M ... KRMxINNIR TPVLJg MTRPHH HPVI `RLg[K sNPeIRNIK LJ K[I qIHIRKcr HMLq /LR pRMJTLH. 7. |I eMH ...
e[IJ . eMH QH[IRIq LJ. b. pRMQ 0ITzIR HIIVIq KP NPPz sPR PZZPRKQJLKLIH Ps `ILJg ... eLK[ iMRRa. 2. u[I
0RLKLH[ sMRV[PQHI LH PsKIJ HPVI qLHKMJTI sRPV M ZQ`NLT RPMq. u[I NLsI K[IRI LH [MRq MJq .... +). yPQJg
mPNaPJ ... MVPJg K[I pPRHaKIH eMH LgJPRMJK Ps 0PHLJJIalH JLTzJMVI.
XVIII. TransIate the sentences into EngIish:
+. t$ D 8 ! 8D >5. 2. 'D
-6; 9 ~5. 4. ;5 D9 ;89 89 $
;5! 9 $ $ >. 3. ;6! $;
5 8 98 7 5 (TMHK MJT[PR). *. AF
7 $! (85 k7 X. ,! h 6 %
$ . 7. ~ 96 $ >6 >8$ $. b.
6D 6 95 $ E$ 5 D%5. 2. -> $
; $8 8 5! =9 ;. +). & >6 F5
; $ 6 ! 6 6 ; ; $ $;
9.
XIX. The tabIe beIow (ApriI, 1981) shows some simiIarities and differences between the four countries of
Great Britain:
GJgNMJq /TPKNMJq wMNIH 1PR[IRJ .RINMJq
dRIM (Hf zV) +4)!322 7b!+44 2)!772 +4!*7,
\PZQNMKLPJ 32!4))!))) *!+))!))) 2!2))!))) +!7))!)))
+))
|Lg[IHK
VPQJKMLJ
([ILg[K)
/TMsINN
\LzI
27b V
0IJ
1IxLH
+!432 V
/JPeqPJ +!)b* V /NLIxI nPJMRq
b*2 V
iMRgIHK TLKa (ZP
ZQNMKLPJ)
iPJqPJ (URIMKIR
iPJqPJ) 7!)73!4))
UNMHgPe ,++!,,) OMRqLss 4+b!))) 0INsMHK 227!2))
wI TMJ ZPLJK PQK K[I HLVLNMRLKLIH NLzI K[LH:
.J HZLKI Ps K[I P`xLPQH qLssIRIJTIH LJ HLI MJq ZPZQNMKLPJ! K[I TPQJKRLIH Ps K[I }j [MxI quite a lot in
common. wMNIH MJq 1PRK[IRJ .RINMJq MRI fairly similar LJ HLI! K[PQg[ K[I MRIM Ps wMNIH LH slightly NMRgIR.
u[IRI isn't much difference LJ ZPZQNMKLPJ `IKeIIJ OMRqLss MJq 0INsMHK! K[PQg[ 0INsMHK LH just a little
NMRgIR.
/TMsINN \LzI MJq /JPeqPJ MRI more or less the same [ILg[K! K[PQg[ /JPeqPJ LH just a few VIKRIH
[Lg[IR. Both /JPeqPJ and 0IJ 1IxLH MRI PxIR +!))) V [ILg[K! K[PQg[ neither Ps K[IV LH all that [Lg[
TPVZMRIq eLK[ K[I dNZH! sPR ISMVZNI.
a) Practise using the words and word combinations in bold type to make other comparisons between
some two-four regions of Russia. Write your best sentences down.
b) In small groups, compare your own country (republic) with another country (republic) you know
well. What are the similarities in Climate, Industry, People, Traffic, Railways, Scenery, City life,
Food, Agriculture, Education, Clothes?
XX. TaIk about your home town. Use the foIIowing diaIogue as a modeI:
d.: yPQlRI sRPV wMNIH! MRIJlK aPQ{
n.: yIH! K[MKlH RLg[K. . TPVI sRPV /eMJHIM MTKQMNNa.
d.: d[! /eMJHIMc .lxI JIxIR `IIJ K[IRI. .KlH M ZPRK! LHJlK LK{
n.: o[ aIH `Lg qPTzH! HKIIN ePRzH MJq M NPK Ps [IMxa LJqQHKRa RPQJq M`PQK. 0QK LKlH sQJJa! QHK PQKHLqI
K[I KPeJ K[IRIlH RIMNNa `IMQKLsQN TPQJKRa. .KlH ISKRIVINa `IMQKLsQN MNPJg K[I TPMHK K[I UPeIR \IJLJHQNM.
1P LJqQHKRa PR JPK[LJg QHK NLzI LK eMH M [QJqRIq aIMRH MgP.
d: /PQJqH gRIMK. dJq [Pe NMRgI LH /eMJHIM{
n.: o[! LKlH M `Lg TLKa. yPQ VQHKJlK K[LJz K[MK MNN K[I ZIPZNI LJ wMNIH NLxI LJ xLNNMgIH! wI [MxI TLKLIH KPPc
d.: yIH! . HQZZPHI HP.
XXI. Try your hand at teaching.
1. Say what you would do in the teacher's position:
\MQN! M HIJLPR LJ [Lg[ HT[PPN! VQHK PQKHVMRK IxIRa MqQNK eLK[ e[PV [I TPVIH LJ TPJKMTK. |LH JIIq KP sIIN
HQZIRLPR LH HP HKRPJg K[MK [I HZIJqH [PQRH ZNPKKLJg [Pe [I TMJ MT[LIxI [LH gPMN. |I gPIH KP K[I NL`RMRa KP
NPPz QZ qIsLJLKLPJH MJq LJsPRVMKLPJ Ps LRRINIxMJK HQ`ITK VMKKIR! MJq TPJsRPJKH K[I KIMT[IR eLK[ fQIHKLPJH
NLzI rw[MK zLJq Ps qRIHH qLq mPHIZ[LJI eIMR e[IJ H[I VMRRLIq 1MZPNIPJ{r /LJTI K[I KIMT[IR TMJJPK MJHeIR
K[LH fQIHKLPJ! \MQN ZRPTIIqH eLK[ [LH LJsPRVMKLPJ MJq ZRPxIH [LH HQZIRLPRLKa KP K[I e[PNI TNMHH.
2. a) Try and act as a teacher of geography and discuss one of the following topics. Make use of
Essential Vocabulary (1). Use the map when speaking. (Give a three-minute talk.)
b) Comment on the students' knowledge of the topic, their skill of reading the map and the choice
of the vocabulary:
+. u[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIH MJq K[I HIMH! HKRMLKH MJq T[MJJINH! eMH[LJg K[ILR TPMHK. 2. u[I RINLIs Ps GJgNMJq! LKH
[Lg[NMJqH! NPeNMJqH MJq VPQJKMLJH. 4. u[I RLxIRH Ps GJgNMJq. 3. u[I iMzI nLHKRLTK. *. /KRMKsPRqPJdxPJ. ,.
u[I RINLIs Ps /TPKNMJq. 7. u[I RINLIs Ps wMNIH. b. u[I TNLVMKI Ps URIMK 0RLKMLJ. 2. u[I RINLIs MJq TNL VMKI Ps
.RINMJq. (/II rONMHHRPPV GJgNLH[r! /ITKLPJ :...)
LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)
1. Listen to the text "The British Isles", mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat the text following the
model.
2. Paraphrase the sentences, using the suggested speech patterns. Check your sentences with the
key (oral work).
3. Complete the sentences with geographical terms. Write these terms down and check them with
the key (oral and written work).
4. Write a spelling-translation test: a) translate the phrases into English; b) check them with the
key.
5. Do the suggested exercises and check them with the key (written work).
6. Listen to the text "Soil and Vegetation" or some other text on Geography: a) write it as a
dictation; b) retell it.
TOP!: GEOGRAPHY
TEXT A. INDUSTRIAL AND AGRICULTURAL DISTRICTS IN GREAT BRITAIN
+)+
GJgNMJq LH M [Lg[Na qIxINPZIq LJqQHKRLMN TPQJKRa. u[I TLKa Ps iPJqPJ LH PJI Ps K[I wPRNqlH K[RII NIMqLJg
sLJMJTLMN TIJKRIH MNPJg eLK[ 1Ie yPRz MJq `a sMR K[I `LggIHK LJ GQRPZI u[I 0MJz Ps GJgNMJq LH K[I
TPVVIRTLMN ZQNHI Ps K[I TLKa Ps iPJqPJ e[LNI URIMKIR iPJqPJ LH LVZPRKMJK sPR ZRPqQTKH Ps MNN zLJgH LJ
TNQqLJg sPPq! LJHKRQVIJK IJgLJIIRLJg! INITKRLTMN MJq INITKRPJLT IJgLJIIRLJg! TNPK[LJg! sQRJLKQRI MJq ZRLJKLJg.
.K [MH HPVI [IMxa IJgLJIIRLJg ZNMJKH MJq HIxIRMN NIMqLJg RIHIMRT[ IHKM`NLH[VIJKH
,*
. iPJqPJ LH M gRIMK ZPRK
eLK[ VMJa qPTzH.
1PRK[eIHK Ps iPJqPJ! LJ K[I VLqNMJq TPQJKLIH (K[I vLqNMJqH) LH M xIRa LVZPRKMJK LJqQHKRLMN qLHKRLTK
e[LT[ LH zJPeJ MH K[I r0NMTz TPQJKRar. .J 0LRVLJg[MV! K[I TIJKRI Ps K[LH MRIM! MJq LJ K[I VMJQsMTKQRLJg
KPeJH JIMR`a! xMRLPQH gPPqH MRI ZRPqQTIq: VMT[LJI KPPNH! KQ`IH! qPVIHKLT VIKMNeMRI! RQ``IR ZRPqQTKH! IKT.
u[I NMRgIHK TPMN MJq LRPJ sLINqH LJ 0RLKMLJ MRI NPTMKIq LJ K[I vLqNMJqH. pQRK[IR JPRK[ LH vMJT[IHKIR! PJI Ps
K[I VMLJ TIJKRIH sPR INITKRLTMN MJq [IMxa IJgLJIIRLJg MJq sPR VI ZRPqQTKLPJ Ps M eLqI RMJgI Ps gPPqH
LJTNQqLJg TPVZQKIRH! INITKRPJLT IfQLZVIJK! ZIKRPT[IVLTMNH! qaIHKQssH MJq Z[MRVMTIQKLTMNH. u[I
vMJT[IHKIR /[LZ OMJMN NLJzH vMJT[IHKIR eLK[ iLxIRZPPN! PJI Ps 0RLKMLJlH NIMqLJg HIMZPRKH.
GMHK Ps vMJT[IHKIR LH K[I TLKa Ps /[IssLINq! eINNzJPeJ sPR LKH VMJQsMTKQRI Ps [Lg[ fQMNLKa HKIINH! KPPNH
MJq TQKNIRa. d H[PRK RMLNeMa PQRJIa KP K[I JPRK[IMHK eLNN KMzI aPQ sRPV vMJT[IHKIR KP 0RMqsPRq! K[I
TPVVIRTLMN TIJKRI Ps K[I ePPN KRMqI.
pQRK[IR JPRK[ LH 1IeTMHKNI HLKQMKIq PJ K[I 1PRK[ /IM TPMHK! M TLKa sMVPQH sPR LKH H[LZ`QLNqLJg aMRqH MJq
LKH ISZPRK Ps TPMN.
w[MK LH RIVMRzM`NI M`PQK K[I HITPJq [MNs Ps K[I 2)K[ TIJKQRa LH K[I MTTINIRMKLJg ZMTI Ps T[MJgI.
u[I /TPKKLH[ ITPJPVa [MH VPxIq MeMa sRPV K[I KRMqLKLPJMN LJqQHKRLIH Ps TPMN! HKIIN MJq H[LZ`QLNqLJg.
1PRK[IMHK /TPKNMJq LH JPe K[I TIJKRI Ps PssH[PRI PLN MJq gMH LJqQHKRLIH. u[IRI [MH `IIJ M HLgJLsLTMJK
qIxINPZVIJK LJ [Lg[KIT[JPNPga LJqQHKRLIH! HQT[ MH T[IVLTMNH! INITKRPJLT IJgLJIIRLJg MJq LJsPRVMKLPJ
KIT[JPNPga. .J /TPKNMJq! K[I RLT[IHK ZMRK LH K[MK Ps K[I iPeNMJqH. |IRI K[IRI MRI TPMN MJq LRPJ sLINqH.
UNMHgPe LH K[I NMRgIHK TLKa! HIMZPRK MJq KRMqLJg TIJKRI Ps /TPKNMJq.
ITIJK qITMqIH [MxI HIIJ sQJqMVIJKMN T[MJgIH LJ K[I wINH[ ITPJPVa. wMNIH LH MJ LVZPRKMJK TIJKRI sPR
TPJHQVIR INITKRPJLTH! LJsPRVMKLPJ KIT[JPNPga! T[IVLTMNH! MJq sPPq MJq qRLJz.
dNK[PQg[ 0RLKMLJ LH M qIJHINa ZPZQNMKIq! LJqQHKRLMNLIq TPQJKRa! MgRLTQNKQRI LH HKLNN PJI Ps LKH VPHK
LVZPRKMJK LJqQHKRLIH. nMLRaLJg LH VPHK TPVVPJ LJ K[I eIHK Ps GJgNMJq! e[IRI K[I eIKKIR TNLVMKI IJTPQRMgIH
K[I gRPeK[ Ps gPPq gRMHH. /[IIZ MJq TMKKNI MRI RIMRIq LJ K[I [LNNa MJq VPPRNMJq MRIMH Ps JPRK[IRJ MJq HPQK[
eIHKIRJ GJgNMJq. .KH `IHK sMRVNMJq NLIH LJ K[I HPQK[IMHKIRJ ZNMLJH.
u[I HPQK[ Ps GJgNMJq LH RQRMN! eLK[ VMJa sIRKLNI xMNNIaH! eINNTQNKLxMKIq sLINqH MJq ZMHKQRIH.
u[I HPQK[IMHKIRJ TPMHK LH eINNzJPeJ sPR LKH ZLTKQRIHfQI HTIJIRa MJq VLNq TNLVMKI MJq M JQV`IR Ps
ZPZQNMR RIHPRKH. oJ K[I HPQK[IRJ TPMHK Ps GJgNMJq K[IRI MRI VMJa NMRgI ZPRKH! MVPJg K[IV: /PQK[MVZKPJ!
\PRKHVPQK[! \NaVPQK[.
TEXT B. THE ENGLISH LANDSCAPE
. zJPe K[MK K[IRI MRI VMJa KaZIH Ps JMKQRMN HTIJIRa LJ GJgNMJq. 0QK e[MK LH K[IRI LJ K[I GJgNLH[
NMJqHTMZI K[MK HKRLzIH K[I IaI Ps K[I HKRMJgIR QHIq KP PK[IR TPQJKRLIH{
.KH rZMRzNLzIr MZZIMRMJTI! . `INLIxI. GJgNMJq LJ KRQK[ NPPzH NLzI PJI gRIMK eINNPRqIRIq ZMRz eLK[ LKH
PNq KRIIH! gRIIJ VIMqPeH MJq [IqgIH.
,,
0QK MH sMR MH . zJPe K[I [IqgIH KMzI QZ M TPJHLqIRM`NI ZMRK Ps HPLN HQLKM`NI sPR ZNPQg[LJg.
u[Ia qP. 0QK K[I GJgNLH[VMJ NPxIH K[I gRIIJ Ps GJgNMJq eLK[ LKH [IqgIH! KIJqIRgRIIJ LJ HZRLJg!
TPxIRIq eLK[ NIMs MJq sNPeIR LJ HQVVIR! M `NMI Ps gPNq MJq RIq LJ MQKQVJ. .J eLJKIR KPP K[Ia MRI HKLNN
`IMQKLsQN eLK[ M sIe HTMRNIK `IRRLIH MNVPHK `QRJLJg LJ K[I sRPHK.
dJq aIK! Ls GJgNMJq HeIZK MeMa [IR [IqgIH MJq ZQK LJ K[ILR ZNMTI sIJTIH K[I HMxLJg Ps NMJq ePQNq `I
IJPRVPQH.
0QK VQT[ Ps K[I ZMRzNLzI `IMQKa Ps K[I TPQJKRaHLqI ePQNq `I gPJI MJq eLK[ LK K[I ZITQNLMR T[MRMTKIR
Ps K[I GJgNLH[ NMJqHTMZI.
. [IMR K[IRI MRI M NPK Ps NPxINa gMRqIJH MNN MNPJg K[I GJgNLH[ TPQJKRaHLqI. dRI GJgNLH[ ZIPZNI sPJq Ps
gMRqIJLJg{
u[Ia MRI. dNVPHK IxIRa PJI LJ GJgNMJq KRLIH KP TPVI LJ KPQT[ eLK[ M `LK Ps ZNMJK NLsI. .J K[I GMHK Ps
iPJqPJ aPQ VMa HII ePRzLJgVMJlH rsNMKHr eLK[ K[ILR eLJqPe gMRqIJH. .J K[I wIHK GJq! NMJq e[LT[ LH ePRK[
VMJa K[PQHMJqH Ps ZPQJqH ZIR MTRI LH qIxPKIq KP gMRqIJ QHI. .J K[I HVMNN HQ`QR`MJ xLNNMH M xIRa
TPJHLqIRM`NI KMS Ps VPJIa MJq NM`PQR i& ZMLq LJ K[I IssPRK KP zIIZ LJ gPPq PRqIR M NLKKNI ZPTzIK [MJqzIRT[LIs
Ps NMeJ MJq M sIe H[RQ`H.
wINN! . K[LJz K[MK K[LH ZRPxIH K[MK K[I GJgNLH[VMJ LH MK [IMRK M gRIMK NPxIR Ps JMKQRI! K[PQg[ [I LH
HQZZPHIq KP `I HQT[ M ZRPHMLT MJq ZRMTKLTMN ZIRHPJ.
,*
1PeMqMaH K[IRI LH NLKKNI LJqQHKRa LJ iPJqPJ MH [IMxa IJgLJIIRLJg ZNMJKH [MxI `IIJ VPxIq KP K[I JIMRIHK VMJQsMTKQRLJg KPeJH.
,,
hedge: M RPe Ps `QH[IH PR NPe KRIIH e[LT[ MRI sPRVLJg M zLJq Ps `MRRLIR.
+)2
TEXT C. LOOKING AT THE MAP OF RUSSIA
.lq NLzI aPQ KP KINN VI HPVIK[LJg M`PQK aPQR TPQJKRa.
. K[LJz K[I `IHK eMa KP gIK M gIJIRMN LqIM Ps M TPQJKRa LH KP HKQqa K[I VMZ. .KlH NQTza .lxI gPK PJI eLK[
VI. |IRI LK LH.
\IR[MZH eI [Mq `IKKIR HKMRK eLK[ K[I Z[aHLTMN PQKNLJI Ps K[I TPQJKRa.
wINN! QHHLM TMJ `I qLxLqIq RPQg[Na LJKP KeP VMLJ RIgLPJH K[I [Lg[NMJqH LJ K[I IMHK MJq K[I
NPeNMJqH TPxIRLJg K[I gRIMKIR ZMRK Ps K[I TPQJKRa! eLK[ M NPJg VPQJKMLJ RMJgI TQKKLJg LK LJKP KeP QJIfQMN
ZMRKH.
yPQ VIMJ K[I }RMNH. u[Ia sPRV K[I JMKQRMN `PRqIR `IKeIIJ GQRPZI MJq dHLM. 0QK K[I [Lg[IHK
VPQJKMLJ T[MLJH! MH sMR MH . TMJ HII MRI HLKQMKIq LJ K[I HPQK[ MJq K[I HPQK[IMHK Ps K[I TPQJKRa. w[MK qP aPQ
TMNN K[IV{
u[I OMQTMHQH! `IKeIIJ K[I OMHZLMJ MJq K[I 0NMTz /IM MJq K[I dNKML LJ dHLM.
.lq NPxI KP gP K[IRI. va [P``a LH VPQJKMLJIIRLJg. 0QK PQR VPQJKMLJH MRI JPK HP [Lg[ MH aPQRH! MH sMR MH
. zJPe.
. `INLIxI K[Ia MRI JPK wI [MxI ZIMzH sPQR MJq M [MNs VLNIH [Lg[. 0QK eI MNHP [MxI NPeNMJqH HIxIRMN
[QJqRIq sIIK `INPe HIM NIxIN. wI [MxI HKIZZIH LJ K[I HPQK[! ZNMLJH MJq sPRIHKH LJ K[I VLqNMJqH! KQJqRM MJq
KMLgM LJ K[I JPRK[.
w[MK MRI K[I rHKIZZIHr{
u[Ia MRI KRIINIHH ZNMLJH TPxIRIq eLK[ gRMHH. u[I HPLN LH sIRKLNI K[IRI.
dJq LH K[I KQJqRM NLzI PQR [IMK[IR VPPRH{
1PK LJ K[I NIMHK. .KlH M zLJq Ps sRPIJ qIHIRK LJ K[I dRTKLT RIgLPJ.
dJq e[MK LH K[I lKMLgMl! . ePJqIR{
.KlH M K[LTz TPJLsIRPQH sPRIHK HKRIKT[LJg KP K[I HPQK[ Ps K[I KQJqRM. .KlH RLT[ LJ MJLVMNH! xMNQIq sPR K[ILR
sQR NLzI HM`NI! sPS! HfQLRRIN.
.lq NLzI KP gP [QJKLJg K[IRI! `QK .lV MsRMLq . ePQNq JIxIR `I M`NI KP HKMJq KPI TPNq.
oQR TNLVMKI LH MNHP xMRLIq. .J K[I HPQK[eIHK K[I eIMK[IR LH QHQMNNa VLNq MJq eIK; JPRK[IRJ dHLM LH PJI
Ps K[I TPNqIHK ZNMTIH PJ IMRK[! MJq LJ K[I HPQK[ K[I [IMK LH QJ`IMRM`NI. 0QK LJ K[I VLqqNI Ps K[I TPQJKRa K[I
TNLVMKI LH VPqIRMKI MJq TPJKLJIJKMN.
wINN! LK [MH `IIJ xIRa LJKIRIHKLJg sPR VI KP [IMR MNN K[PHI K[LJgH. u[MJz aPQ xIRa VQT[ sPR aPQR
LJsPRVMKLPJ.
Memory Work
GJgNMJqc eLK[ MNN K[a sMQNKH! . NPxI K[II HKLNN!
. HMLq MK OMNMLH! MJq [MxI JPK sPRgPK LK
. NLzI K[I KMSIH e[IJ K[IalRI JPK KPP VMJa;
. NLzI M HIMTPMN sLRI! e[IJ JPK KPP qIMR;
. NLzI M `IIsHKIMz! KPP! MH eINN MH MJa;
|MxI JP P`ITKLPJ KP M ZPK Ps `IIR;
. NLzI K[I eIMK[IR e[IJ LK LH JPK RMLJa!
u[MK LH! . NLzI KeP VPJK[H Ps IxIRa aIMR. Aeorge 3yron
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY ()
Words
`PRqIR n [IqgI n! , RIHPRK n TMKKNI n
NIxIN n RQRMN ad1 T[IVLTMNH n VMT[LJIRa n
HKIZZI n TPKKPJ n VPqIRMKI ad1 HKRIKT[ ,, n
qIHIRK n ZMHKQRI n KMLgM n qPTz n
ZIMz n KPPN n sIJTI n ZLTKQRIHfQI ad1
KQJqRM n sIRKLNI ad1 RMJgI n xMHK ad1
sLJMJTLMN ad1 RMe ad1
Word Combinations
LJsPRVMKLPJ KIT[JPNPga qIJHINa (K[LJNa) ZPZQNMKIq TPJHQVIR INITKRPJLTH
H[LZ`QLNqLJg aMRqH [Lg[Na qIxINPZIq KRMqLJg TIJKRI
TPMN (LRPJ) sLINqH RQRMN qLHKRLTK PssH[PRI PLN LJqQHKRa
RLT[ LJ (HVK[.) [IMxa (NLg[K) IJgLJIIRLJg VPqIRMKI (VLNq) TNLVMKI
Proper Names
K[I dxPJ nQ`NLJ K[I 1PRK[ /IM
0INsMHK GLRI K[I \IJJLJIH
0LRVLJg[MV UNMHgPe \PRKHVPQK[
+)4
K[I 0RLHKPN O[MJJIN K[I URMVZLMJH K[I /IxIRJ
K[I OMV`RLMJH K[I |I`RLqIH /[IssLINq
K[I O[IxLPK |LNNH K[I oRzJIa .HNMJqH /PQK[MVZKPJ
K[I ONaqI K[I /[IKNMJq .HNMJqH K[I /KRMLK Ps nPxIR
K[I OQV`RLMJH .RINMJq K[I uaJI
iIIqH K[I u[MVIH
vMJT[IHKIR
K[I vIRHIa
1IeTMHKNI
EXERCISES
I. Study Texts A and and a) transcribe the words beIow:
ZIKRPT[IVLTMNH! TPVVIRTI! sIRKLNI! IJgLJIIRLJg! LRPJ! LJqQHKRa! IfQLZVIJK! VPqIRMKI! RIHPRK!
Z[MRVMTIQKLTMNH! qMLRaLJg! RIMR! RQRMN! ZLTKQRIHfQI! VIMqPe! ZNPQg[LJg! MTRI.
b) Transcribe the geographicaI names used in Text A,
II, Pick out front Text A EngIish equivaIents of the foIIowing:
8 $8D ! =5 C85 %! > $D!
$;685 5! E ! 68 C! 7=5
$ $! 89;$ ! 8 C 8$ $!
C$% 9;! 8 E! 85 67 !
$! 9$ 8 C; 86! 69585 5! 8
8! 9D 8 ! >85 5>! $;5 $! $8 8.
III. Writte questions about Text A, using the words and phrases from Ex. II. Prepare to discuss the text (Use
he map.)
IV. Read Text and pick-out EngIish squivaIents of the foIIowing phrases:
6 = $n.! $6 .! 86 7
;%! 6 $7! $ 7$ ($5 )! 6 $ ! >
$! 5 $! $85.
V. ReteII Text in indirect speech. Try and give an additionaI piece of information on the topic.
VI. FiII in Use weirds bolder, boundary or frontier. Choose the correct aIternative.
Note: u[I QHHLMJ ePRq 7TUj [MH HIxIRMN IfQLxMNIJKH LJ GJgNLH[: `PRqIR ;
8 $%5 ! ."g" u[I ZIPZNI NLxLJg PJ K[I `PRqIR Ps KeP MqPLJLJg TPQJKRLIH QHQMNNa HZIMz
K[I NMJgQMgIH Ps `PK[.; `PQJqMRa ;% ;6 ! ! ."g" u[LH HKRIMV sPRVH M
`PQJqMRa `IKeIIJ K[I KeP sMRVH.; sRPJKLIR ;% $% ! ; ;%! ."
!, KP ZMHH K[I sRPJKLIRH! ; 5 ( `PRqIR) 6
$%5 ! ."g" KP gQMRq K[I sRPJKLIRH! sRPJKLIR HKMKLPJ! sPRKRIHH! LJTLqIJK! qLHZQKI!
+. w[IJ eI eIJK TMVZLJg! eI ZQK QZ PQR KIJKH PJ K[I ... Ps K[I NMzI. 2. u[I ... LJTLqIJK eMH RIZPRKIq `a
K[I JIeHZMZIRH LJ qIKMLN. 4. d ... qLHZQKI LH M fQMRRIN M`PQK e[IRI M ... LH PR PQg[K KP `I. 3. u[I RLxIR sPRVIq M
... `IKeIIJ K[IHI RQRMN qLHKRLTKH. *. u[I [MNsRQLJIq KPeIR QHIq KP `I M ... sPRKRIHH. ,. u[I RIgLPJ MNPJg K[I
`PQJqMRa `IKeIIJ GJgNMJq MJq /TPKNMJq LH TMNNIq K[I ... . 7. d [IqgI LH M sIJTI PR M RPe Ps `QH[IH PR NPe
KRIIH! e[LT[ MRI ZNMJKIq KP sPRV M ... RPQJq M gMRqIJ PR sLINq. b. URIMK 0RLKMLJlH .... JPRK[IRJ! IMHKIRJ MJq
HPQK[IRJ! MRI sPRVIq `a HIMH MJq PTIMJH.
VII. Study Text and use it as a modeI for a taIk between an EngIishman and a Russian who is on his first
visit to EngIand.
VIII. FiII in the words north, west east, south, or their derivatives:
+. u[I ... [MNs Ps PQR TPQJKRa TPJHLHKH VMLJNa Ps NPe ZNMLJH! e[LNI K[I gRIMKIR ZMRK Ps K[I ... [MNs Ps QHHLM
LH TPxIRIq eLK[ VPQJKMLJ T[MLJH. 2. .J /L`IRLM K[I `LggIHK RLxIRH MRI K[I o`! K[I yIJLHHIL MJq K[I iIJM. u[Ia
sNPe ... K[RPQg[ M xMHK MRIM ZMRMNNIN KP PJI MJPK[IR. 4. u[I TNLVMKI TPJKRMHKH MRI fQLKI HKRLzLJg LJ QHHLM. yPQ
TMJ sLJq K[I ... `RMxLJg K[I sRPHKH K[MK RIMT[ 7) qIgRIIH `INPe IRP OIJKLgRMqI MJq MK PJI MJq K[I HMVI KLVI
K[I ... `MHzLJg .J K[I HQJ PJ ... HIMH[PRIH NLJIq eLK[ gRIIJ ZMNVH. 3. u[I iIJLJgRMq RIgLPJ NLIH KP K[I ... Ps
vPHTPe. *. d ... LH M ZIRHPJ e[P NLxIH LJ K[I ... MJq M ... LH PJI e[P NLxIH LJ K[I ... . ,. nIxPJ MJq OPRJeMNN
MRI HLKQMKIq PJ K[I ... ZIJLJHQNM Ps GJgNMJq.
IX. SuppIy articIes where necessary:
u[IRI LH JP PK[IR TPQJKRa LJ ... ePRNq e[PHI JMKQRI LH VPRI xMRLIq K[MJ K[MK Ps ... QHHLM. ... eIHKIRJ [MNs
Ps ... TPQJKRa TPJHLHKH VMLJNa Ps... NPe ZNMLJH. u[I TPQJKRa LH qLxLqIq LJKP KeP ZMRKH `a ... }RMN VPQJKMLJH....
gRIMKIR ZMRK Ps ... IMHKIRJ [MNs LH TPxIRIq eLK[ xMHK ZNMKIMQH MJq VPQJKMLJ T[MLJH. |IRI! PJ ... jMVT[MKzM
\IJLJHQNM ... `LggIHK MTKLxI xPNTMJPIH Ps ... oNq wPRNq MRI NPTMKIq.
.J ... HPQK[ ... ZNMLJH Ps ... eIHKIRJ [MNs Ps ... TPQJKRa MRI `PQJqIq `a... [QgI VPQJKMLJ RMJgIH. |IRI MRI ...
TPQJKRalH [Lg[IHK ZIMzH.
vMJa Ps ... RLxIRH Ps... QHHLM MRI MVPJg ... ePRNqlH gRIMKIHK ... VPHK LVZPRKMJK RLxIRH Ps ... eIHKIRJ ZNMLJ
+)3
MRI ... :PNgM! ... wIHKIRJ nxLJM!... nPJ MJq ... 1PRK[IRJ nxLJM.
.J ... pMR GMHK... dVQR sNPeH LJKP ... \MTLsLT.
.J ... NMzIH! KPP! PQR TPQJKRa LH ISKRIVINa RLT[. dVPJg K[IV MRI ... ePRNqlH gRIMKIHK NMzI ... OMHZLMJ /IM
MJq ... qIIZIHK ... NMzI 0MLzMN.
X. Discuss the foIIowing topics (use the map):
+. GJgNLH[ HTIJIRa MJq TNLVMKI.
2. dgRLTQNKQRMN qLHKRLTKH Ps GJgNMJq.
4. u[I VPHK LVZPRKMJK LJqQHKRLMN RIgLPJH LJ GJgNMJq.
3. \[aHLTMN `MTzgRPQJq Ps QHHLM.
*. u[I HQRsMTI Ps QHHLM.
,. u[I TNLVMKI Ps QHHLM.
Note: Evaluate these talks according to their information content: amount and quality of
information.
XI. SuppIy prepositions where necessary:
oQR VPK[IRNMJq LH LVVIJHI. .KlH ... sMR K[I NMRgIHK MJq RLT[IHK TPQJKRa `PK[ ... dHLM MJq GQRPZI. .KH sRPJKLIR
NLJI LH K[I NPJgIHK... K[I ePRNq.
1MKQRMN TPJqLKLPJH ... QHHLM xMRa gRIMKNa. .s aPQ TRPHH QHHLM ... K[I ISKRIVI 1PRK[ ... K[I /PQK[ aPQ eLNN
gIK M gPPq LqIM ... K[I TNLVMKI TPJKRMHKH! KP HMa JPK[LJg ... K[I qLssIRIJTI ... HTIJIRa MJq xIgIKMKLPJ!
T[MRMTKIRLHKLT ... xMRLPQH gIPgRMZ[LTMN PJIH. /L`IRLM QJNLzI ... K[I }RMNH! K[I sMTI ... uMKMRa qLssIRH ... K[MK...
K[I OMQTMHQH. oJI RIgLPJ LH RLT[ ... PJI K[LJg! MJPK[IR LH RLT[ ... MJPK[IR.
\IR[MZH JP TPQJKRalH gIPgRMZ[LT NPTMKLPJ [MH ZNMaIq HQT[ M[ LVZPRKMJK ZMRK... LKH [LHKPRa MH QHHLMlH.
|MNs... GQRPZI MJq [MNs... dHLM! LKH [LHKPRa [MH RIxPNxIq ... K[LH `MHLT sMTK.
XII. 1. Describe the scenery, cIimate and industries of your home town, region or repubIic. 2. Choose four
sIides or postcards and give a commentary on them. With the first picture, concentrate on
describing what there is in the picture. With the second one try to give the position of things
accurateIy. You can use the third one for taIking about how and when the picture was taken. And the
Iast one can be the starting point for a story or joke. (See "CIassroom EngIish" Section V.)
XIII. Finish up the sentences according to the modeI. (ConsuIt a dictionary.):
GJgNLH[VIJ NLxI LJ GJgNMJq! K[Ia HZIMz GJgNLH[.
... LJ /TPKNMJq!.... ... LJ .RINMJq! .... ... LJ /eIqIJ! ....
... LJ 1PReMa! .... ... LJ nIJVMRz!.... ... LJ |PNNMJq! ...
... LJ /ZMLJ! ... ... LJ K[I }/d! .... ... LJ /eLKIRNMJq!....
XIV. Make up diaIogues between an EngIish and a Russian student on the topics:
+. vPHTPe MJq iPJqPJ TQNKQRMN MJq LJqQHKRLMN TIJKRIH.
2. u[I VMLJ LJqQHKRLMN TIJKRIH (KPeJH! ZPRKH! IKT.) Ps QHHLM MJq GJgNMJq.
4. QRMN MRIMH Ps `PK[ TPQJKRLIH.
XV. TransIate the foIIowing, putting it into your own words:
a) express your opinion;
b) say how far factors like climate, the geography of a country, its history, religion(s), system of
government, etc affect national character. Give examples.
) write some brief notes about your own national character $& yon think foreigners see yon. Then,
in small groups, describe to each other this "foreign" view of your nation and say why you agree or
disagree with it.
B x
<%685 9 7 >. < $ E 6D5
! $ ;$! 8 $! $7 >6 5
8. Y ;. (66 9
9. ' $6D ;9 >8 $ $! 9=$ $$. >! !
6! 5 6 9 E 6$ 89 >
689 ! 89 6$ 8! ; > $8; >
=! 7= ; > $> 86 .
"5 $ E${ ; $ =7 7
$! E! . < ! 7 87 >6
5 ! $ $.
<$$8 $ $9%8! $ 8 8.
X9 766 $ $6 D$ ;! $ 7 ;
8! 6 8 5 5. 9=6 C%5 95!
; $6 $. < 6 D85
+)*
>7 6 9 9. 5 = C$$! >
$ 8 8! 9 E%.
E 8! 8$! >5! 6 = : 5 5
6 ;55 9 8 ;8$ $8$.
k.TU" PUR <aa!^. ((k)! ;$ $%. +273
876 >6! ; ; $6. A$8 9 ;.
< E ! 6 $8 D! 7 ;6! 5. F D$
9D$! 8 8 ;55 8 >$ 7 $ =$ $$!
87 ; %685 9 =5 6 >.
> " WUXRU (;)! ;! +274
XVI, Comment on the foIIowing proverbs and sayings. (ExpIain their meaning, give their Russian
equivaIents.):
GMHK PR wIHK! [PVI LH `IHK. u[IRI LH JP ZNMTI NLzI [PVI.
/P VMJa TPQJKRLIH! HP VMJa TQHKPVH. w[IJ MK PVI! qP MH K[I PVMJH qP.
PVI eMH JPK `QLNK LJ M qMa. uP TMRRa TPMNH KP 1IeTMHKNI.
XVII. Read the foIIowing passage and a) discuss it in detaiI; b) give a short summary of the passage; c)
comment on the foIIowing:
K[I `IMQKa Ps 0RLKMLJ MH K[I MQK[PR HIIH LK;
K[I xMRLIKa Ps gIPgRMZ[LTMN sIMKQRIH;
M [MZZa TPVZRPVLHI `IKeIIJ 1MKQRI MJq vMJ.
wI NLxI LJ PJI Ps K[I VPHK `IMQKLsQN LHNMJqH LJ K[I ePRNq. u[LH LH M sMTK eI MRI MNeMaH sPRgIKKLJg. w[IJ
`IMQKLsQN LHNMJqH MRI VIJKLPJIq eI K[LJz Ps uRLJLqMq
,7
MJq uM[LKL.
,b
u[IHI MRI sLJI! RPVMJKLT ZNMTIH! `QK K[Ia
MRI JPK RIMNNa MH ISfQLHLKINa `IMQKLsQN MH PQR PeJ 0RLKMLJ. 0IsPRI K[I VLJIH MJq sMTKPRLIH TMVI! MJq NPJg
`IsPRI eI eIJK sRPV `Mq KP ePRHI eLK[ PQR MRKIRLMN RPMqH MJq ZIKRPN HKMKLPJH MJq [PRRL`NI `RLTz `QJgMNPeH!
K[LH TPQJKRa VQHK [MxI `IIJ MJ IJT[MJKVIJK. GxIJ JPe! MsKIR eI [MxI `IIJ `QHa sPR HP NPJg sNLJgLJg VQq
MK K[LH sMLR ZMNI sMTI! K[I IJT[MJKVIJK HKLNN RIVMLJH. /PVIKLVIH . qPQ`K Ls eI qIHIRxI KP ZPHHIHH LK. u[IRI TMJ
`I sIe ZMRKH Ps K[I ePRNq LJ e[LT[ TPVVIRTLMN gRIIq MJq ZQ`NLT LJqLssIRIJTI [MxI TPV`LJIq KP qP VPRI
qMVMgI K[MJ K[Ia [MxI [IRI. u[I ZRPTIHH TPJKLJQIH. .K LH HKLNN KPP PsKIJ MHHQVIq K[MK MJa IJKIRZRLHLJg sINNPe
MsKIR fQLTz ZRPsLKH [MH M ZIRsITK RLg[K KP qIHKRPa M NPxINLJIHH K[MK LH K[I [IRLKMgI Ps K[I e[PNI TPVVQJLKa.
u[I `IMQKa Ps PQR TPQJKRa LH MH [MRq KP qIsLJI MH LK LH IMHa KP IJPa. IVIV`IRLJg PK[IR MJq NMRgIR
TPQJKRLIH eI HII MK PJTI K[MK PJI Ps LKH T[MRVH LH K[MK LK LH LVVIJHINa xMRLIq eLK[LJ M HVMNN TPVZMHH. wI
[MxI [IRI JP xMHK VPQJKMLJ RMJgIH! JP LNNLVLKM`NI ZNMLJH. 0QK eI [MxI HQZIR` xMRLIKa. d gRIMK qIMN Ps
IxIRaK[LJg LH ZMTzIq LJKP NLKKNI HZMTI. . HQHZITK K[MK eI MRI MNeMaH sMLJKNa TPJHTLPQH Ps K[I sMTK K[MK K[LH LH M
HVMNNLH[ LHNMJq! eLK[ K[I HIM MNeMaH RPQJq K[I TPRJIR! wI zJPe K[MK IxIRaK[LJg [MH KP `I JIMKNa ZMTzIq LJKP
M HVMNN HZMTI. 1MKQRI! eI sIIN! [MH TMRIsQNNa MqQHKIq K[LJgH VPQJKMLJH! ZNMLJH! RLxIRH! NMzIH KP K[I HTMNI
Ps K[I LHNMJq LKHINs. d VPQJKMLJ +2!))) sIIK [Lg[ ePQNq `I M [PRRL`NI VPJHKIR [IRI! MH eRPJg MH M ZNMLJ 3))
VLNIH NPJg! M RLxIR MH `RPMq MH K[I vLHHLHHLZZL; u[PQg[ K[I gIPgRMZ[LTMN sIMKQRIH Ps K[LH LHNMJq MRI
TPVZMRMKLxINa HVMNN! MJq K[IRI LH MHKPJLH[LJg xMRLIKa MNVPHK IxIRae[IRI! K[MK qPIH JPK VIMJ K[MK PQR
VPQJKMLJH MRI JPK VPQJKMLJH! PQR ZNMLJH JPK ZNMLJH.
oQR T[LNqRIJ MJq K[ILR T[LNqRIJ MsKIR K[IV VQHK NLxI LJ M `IMQKLsQN TPQJKRa. .K VQHK `I M TPQJKRa [MZZLNa
TPVZRPVLHLJg `IKeIIJ 1MKQRI MJq vMJ! `NIJqLJg e[MK eMH `IHK! ePRK[ RIKMLJLJg sRPV K[I ZMHK eLK[ e[MK
`IHK RIZRIHIJKH K[I HZLRLK Ps PQR PeJ MgI! M TPQJKRa RLT[ LJ JP`NI KPeJH MH LK LH LJ KRIIH! `LRqH! MJq eLNq
sNPeIRH. (*ro+ ru[I 0IMQKa Ps 0RLKMLJr 2y m. . \RLIHKNIa)
XVIII. RoIe-pIaying:
vR. 1LTI! M NITKQRIR! LJ [LH IMRNa sPRKLIH. |LH KPZLT:
rnPJlK /ZPLN 1MKQRIr.
u [ I M Q q L I J T I : dNIS! M HTIZKLTMNNaVLJqIq aPQJg VMJ Ps 2+! M HKQqIJK Ps UIPgRMZ[a;
vLHH nPRPK[a \IMT[! MJ MRqIJK NPxIR Ps JMKQRI! MgI 74;
vR. pRIqIRLTz |IMNIa! M PQRJMNLHK ePRz LJg PJ M ZPZQNMR JIeHZMZIR!
VLqqNIMgIq.
I H K P s T N M H H : VMzI PssIRH MJq HQggIHKLPJH RINMKLJg KP K[I ZRP`NIV.
Don't Spoll Nature
0PK[ LJ qIJHINa MJq LJ K[LJNa ZPZQNMKIq TPQJKRLIH K[I MQK[PRLKLIH VMzI RIgQNMKLPJH MJq gLxI [LJKH KP
ePQNq`I KPQRLHKH KP ZRPKITK K[I TPQJKRaHLqI sRPV ZPNNQKLPJ.
|IRIlH e[MK K[I uPQRLHK ossLTI Ps pLJNMJq MqxLHIH ePQNq `I xLHLKPRH: w[LNI aPQ MRI IJPaLJg K[I
QJLfQIJIHH Ps K[I pLJJLH[ NMJqHTMZI! K[I sPRIHKH! K[I NMzIH! K[I RLxIRH! K[I HIMH! K[I eLNq NLsI MJq xIgIKMKLPJ!
,7
Trinidad; MJ LHNMJq LJ K[I dKNMJKLT! KP K[I JPRK[IMHK Ps /PQK[ dVIRLTM
,b
Tahiti: MJ LHNMJq LJ K[I \MTLsLT
+),
aPQ H[PQNq P`Ia K[I QJeRLKKIJ NMeH Ps JMKQRI. /[IIR TMRINIHHJIHH MJq K[PQg[KNIHHJIHH TMJ TMQHI gRIMK
qMVMgI. dH aPQ KRMxIN M`PQK! ZNIMHI RIVIV`IR aPQ MRI M gQIHK LJ K[I pLJJLH[ TPQJKRaHLqI.
.K LH sPR`LqqIJ KP `RIMz Pss `RMJT[IH Ps KRIIH MJq `QH[IH. \LTzLJg sNPeIRH (ISTIZK ZRPKITKIq HZITLIH) LH
MNNPeIq. w[IJ aPQ KRMxIN `a TMR ZNIMHI MxPLq K[RPeLJg NLKKIR MJq RQ``LH[ M`PQK. \QK LK LJ ZNMHKLT `MgH MJq
KMzI LK KP K[I JISK ZNMTI e[IRI eMHKI LH TPNNITKIq. .J iMZNMJq! K[I `IMQKa Ps K[I NMJqHTMZI LH ISKRIVINa
sRMgLNI MJq IMHLNa qMVMgIq. IVIV`IR K[MK LK TMJ KMzI PxIR 2)) aIMRH sPR K[I KRMTzH NIsK `a aPQR TMR KP
qLHMZZIMR.
dNK[PQg[ LK VMa `I KIVZKLJg KP qRLxI PxIR VPPRH Ps iMZNMJq aPQ VQHK MNeMaH zIIZ KP K[I RPMqH. 0ITMQHI
K[I TNLVMKI LJ iMZNMJq LH HP TPNq! VIKMN gNMHH MJq ZNMHKLT eMHKI RIVMLJ QJT[MJgIq sPR TIJKQRLIH.
/ Q g g I H K I q Z [ R M H I H : Yight, 5an we 2egin, then, do you thin'c Can you a99 hear +e at
the 2a5'O Aood, that?& fine. I?+ going to ta9' a2out: a& you 'nowD anyhow" I?d 1u&t 9i'e to run through the
+ain 4oint&""" ;he fir&t thing of 5our&e, i&""" 0nd on to4 of that... Now ha& any2ody got any 4oint& he?d 9i'e
to rai&ec Now, that?& a good Cue&tion" ;he thing here i& IR we?ve thought a 9ot a2out thi& one" I thin'
that?& it then" ;han'& very +u5h for your attention"
XIX. FiIm "Mr. Brown's HoIiday". FiIm Segment 7 "How do I Get to...?" (SaIIsbury), a) Watch and IisIen, b) Do
the exercises from the fiIm.
STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH
VII
.J LKH `RPMqIHK HIJHI MJa VIMJLJgsQN ZLITI Ps eRLKKIJ ZRPHI VMRzIq sPR LKH QJLKa! TPJKIJK MJq VIHHMgI
VMa `I TMNNIq M TPVZPHLKLPJ! K[MK LH M QJLK Ps eRLKKIJ TPVVQJLTMKLPJ LJxPNxLJg M eRLKIR! M VIHHMgI MJq M
RIMqIR.
0IKeIIJ K[I HIJKIJTI MJq K[I e[PNI TPVZPHLKLPJ HKMJqH K[I ZMRMgRMZ[. .K LH M TPVZPHLKLPJ LJ VLJLMKQRI
`ITMQHI LK VIIKH K[I HMVI RIfQLRIVIJK Ps QJLKa! TPJKIJK MJq VIHHMgI (HII r/KQqLIH Ps wRLKKIJ GJgNLH[r LJ
}JLKH oJI! ueP! u[RII).
d gRPQZ Ps ZMRMgRMZ[H TPJHKLKQKIH VPRI TPVZNIS TPVZPHLKLPJH! HQT[ MH IHHMaH! H[PRK HKPRLIH! MTTPQJKH!
NIKKIRH! TNMHHTPVZPHLKLPJH MH M HZITLMN ISIRTLHI LJ eRLKKIJ TPVVQJLTMKLPJ! IKT.
Essay LH M H[PRK ZRPHI TPVZPHLKLPJ (*2) ZMgIH) PJ M ZMRKLTQNMR HQ`ITK. }HQMNNa LK LH Ps ISZNMJMKPRa MJq
MRgQVIJKMKLxI JMKQRI (HII r/KQqLIHr LJ }JLK oJI). pPR LJHKMJTI! K[I ZMHHMgI ruIMT[IR uRMLJLJg LJ URIMK
0RLKMLJr (HII }JLK pLxI) MH eINN MH r.JKRPqQTLJg iPJqPJr (HII }JLK u[RII) LH TNPHI KP M sPRVMN IHHMa. rw[MKlH
yPQR iLJIr (HII }JLK oJI) MJq K[I sLRHK NIKKIR Ps mQqa qIHTRL`LJg [IR TPNNIgI ISZIRLIJTI (HII }JLK pLxI) VMa
`I TNMHHIq eLK[ LJsPRVMN IHHMaH PJ KIMT[LJg.
}JLKa Ps IHHMaH LH `QLNK QZ MRPQJq K[I TIJKRMN LqIM. dJa MqqLKLPJ Ps QJLVZPRKMJK qIKMLNH PR MsKIRK[PQg[KH
qIHKRPa K[I QJLKa.
OP[IRIJTI LH MT[LIxIq K[RPQg[ HzLNsQN MRRMJgIVIJK Ps qIKMLNH MTTPRqLJg KP K[I sPNNPeLJg RQNIH: M) ZRIHIJK
aPQR VMKIRLMN sRPV rK[I gIJIRMN KP K[I ZMRKLTQNMRr; `) KRa K[I PRqIR Ps IJQVIRMKLPJ! K[MK LH! MRRMJgI HIxIRMN
ZPLJKH Ps xLIe MTTPRqLJg KP K[ILR LVZPRKMJTI! PR LJKIRIHK! PR PRqIR Ps [MZZIJLJg; T) QHI zIaePRqH MH
TPJJITKLxIH MJq KRMJHLKLPJH.
u[I sPNNPeLJg LH M `RLIs NLHK Ps KRMJHLKLPJMN ePRqH MJq Z[RMHIH K[MK [INZ KP TPJJITK ZMRMgRMZ[H Ps MJ IHHMa:
on the one (otherB hand, in the &e5ond 49a5e, on the 5ontrary, at the &a+e ti+e, in 4ari5u9ar, in &4ite of thi&,
in 9i'e +anner, in 5ontra&t to thi&, in the +eanti+e, of 5our&e, in 5on59u&ion to &u+ u4, in addition,
+ore4ver, fina99y, after a99, and tru9y, in other word&"
GVZ[MHLH LH MT[LIxIq eLK[ K[I [INZ s TPJTRIKI qIKMLNH. dxPLq gIJIRMNLKLIH MJq M`HKRMTKLPJH. 0IsPRI
eRLKLJg MJ IHHMa TPJHLqIR K[I sPNNPeLJg:
+. /KQqa K[I VMKIRLMNH M`PQK K[I KPZLT.
2. u[LJz Ps K[I VMLJ LqIM aPQ MRI gPLJg KP qIxINPZ LJ aPQR IHHMa.
4. wRLKI MJ LJsPRVMN IHHMa riPPzLJg MK K[I vMZ Ps QHHLM.r
3. vMzI M ZNMJ (KPZLT ZNMJ! HIJKIJTI ZNMJ! ZMRMgRMZ[ ZNMJ).
*. nIxINPZ K[I ZMRMgRMZ[ ZNMJ LJKP MJ IHHMa MTTPRqLJg KP K[I RQNIH Ps QJLKa! TP[IRIJTI MJq IVZ[MHLH.
,. UP PxIR K[I IHHMa sPR rHINsIqLKLJgr ZQRZPHI MJq HII Ls LK VIIKH K[I VMLJ RIfQLRIVIJK Ps gPPq eRLKLJg
TNMRLKa Ps TPVVQJLTMKLPJ.
Assignments:
1. Mke an outline of the passage "The British Isles" and analyse it from the point of view of its
unity, coherence and emphasis.
2. Write a formal essay "Looking at the Map of the British Isles" according to your own plan.
LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)
+. iLHKIJ KP K[I KISKH r.JqQHKRLMN MJq dgRLTQNKQRMN nLHKRLTKH LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJr! ru[I GJgNLH[ iMJqHTMZIr!
riPPzLJg MK K[I vMZ Ps QHHLMr. vMRz K[I HKRIHHIH MJq KQJIH. IZIMK K[I KISKH sPNNPeLJg K[I VPqIN.
2. wLK[PQK NPPzLJg `MTz MK K[I KISKH! qITLqI e[IK[IR K[I sPNNPeLJg HKMKIVIJKH MRI KRQI PR sMNHI.
+)7
4. GSKIJq K[I HIJKIJTIH MTTPRqLJg KP K[I VPqIN.
3. wRLKI M HZINNLJgKRMJHNMKLPJ KIHK; M) KRMJHNMKI K[I Z[RMHIH LJKP GJgNLH[; `) T[ITz K[IV eLK[ K[I zIa.
*. iLHKIJ KP K[I KISK ru[I iMzI nLHKRLTKr MJq eRLKI LK MH M qLTKMKLPJ. O[ITz LK eLK[ K[I zIa.
,. iLHKIJ KP K[I ZPIV rGJgNMJqr `a U. U. 0aRPJ. vMRz K[I HKRIHHIH MJq KQJIH. iIMRJ LK `a [IMRK .
7. iLHKIJ KP K[I KISK ru[I .HNI Ps vMJr PR HPVI PK[IR KISK qLHTRL`LJg M ZMRK Ps URIMK 0RLKMLJ. vMzI M
HQVVMRa Ps K[I VMLJ ZPLJKH Ps K[I ZMHHMgI.
CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS
I. Quiz "Across the Globe".
Answer the following questions. It is accuracy and amount of Information that count when
choosing the winner:
+. w[MK LH K[I NPJgIHK RLxIR LJ K[I ePRNq{
2. .J e[MK eMa qP K[I eIHKIRJ H[PRIH Ps K[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIH qLssIR sRPV K[I IMHKIJ H[PRIH{
4. w[MK MRI K[I HVMNNIHK TPQJKRLIH LJ K[I ePRNq{
3. w[MK NMJgQMgI LH HZPzIJ LJ |PNNMJq{
*. w[MK MRI K[I /IxIJ wPJqIRH Ps K[I ePRNq{
,. w[MK LH K[I TMZLKMN Ps dQHKRMNLM{
7. w[MK MRI K[I PTzLIH MJq e[IRI MRI K[Ia sPQJq{
b. w[MK LH K[I TPNqIHK MRIM LJ QHHLM{
2. w[MK LH K[I JMKLPJMN IV`NIV Ps OMJMqM{
+). w[IRI LH K[I TLKa Ps |PJPNQNQ HLKQMKIq{
II. Quiz "Across the British Isles".
Answer the following questions. In this case it is resourcefulness and sense of humour that count
when choosing the winner:
+. w[MK LH K[I VMLJ qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ K[I OQV`RLMJH MJq K[I OMV`RLMJH{
2. nP GJgNLH[VIJ `RLJg TPMN KP 1IeTMHKNI{
4. nP GJgNLH[VIJ gP QZ PR qPeJ KP gIK KP GqLJ`QRg[{
3. w[MK LH K[I qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ iPT[ 1IHH MJq iPT[ iPVPJq{
*. w[MK TPNPQR LH ZRIqPVLJMJK PJ K[I VMZ Ps K[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIH{
(u[LJz KeLTI `IsPRI MJHeIRLJg. u[IRI LH URIIJeLT[ LJ K[I /PQK[! aPQ VMa HZPK URIIJPTz LJ K[I 1PRK[!
HIMRT[ K[I VMZ sLRHK.)
,. w[LT[ LH TNPHIR KP iPJqPJ! oSsPRq PR OMV`RLqgI{
7. w[MK LH K[I qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ \PRKHVPQK[ MJq \NaVPQK[{
b. w[MK LH iLxIRZPPN sMVPQH sPR{
UNIT EIGHT
1 SPEECH PATTERNS
+. wI VQHK 4revent hi+ fro+ 9eaving"
u[I TPNq eIK eIMK[IR ZRIxIJKIq K[I iPePPq gLRNH sRPV gPLJg sPR NPJg eMNzH.
|LH R[IQVMKLHV PsKIJ ZRIxIJKIq /MNxMKPRI sRPV qPLJg MJaK[LJg MK MNN.
yPQlq `IKKIR zIIZ aPQRHINs sRPV KMzLJg ISKRIVI VIMHQRIH.
:MRLPQH RIMHPJH zIZK 0LNN sRPV PLJLJg K[I ISZIqLKLPJ.
GNLM KRLIq KP zIIZ [IR NLKKNI T[LNq sRPV TRaLJg.
i" yPQ TMJlK MTK without fee9ing"
mPNaPJ HKMRKIq sPR K[I ONQ` eLK[PQK [MxLJg VMqI QZ [LH VLJq.
pRMJz JPe sINK! eLK[PQK zJPeLJg e[a! K[MK K[I PssIR eMH ZRP`M`Na gPPq.
PHI HMK K[IRI sPR M NPJg KLVI eLK[PQK QJsMHKIJLJg [IR TPMK.
yPQ TMJlK KIMT[ PJI [Pe KP QHI HZIIT[ ZMKKIRJH eLK[PQK gLxLJg M gPPq HQZZNa Ps xMRLPQH ISMVZNIH.
u[Ia TMJlK [MxI gPPq TRPZH eLK[PQK TQNKLxMKLJg HPLN.
4. |LH TNPK[IH VMqI [LV hard to re5ogni:e"
iPKH Ps VLHKMzIH VMqI [LH HZIIT[ qLssLTQNK KP sPNNPe.
u[IRI eMH HPVIK[LJg LJ 0PHLJJIalH MZZIMRMJTI K[MK VMqI [LV IMHa KP RITPgJLI.
|IR H[MNNPeVLJqIqJIHH VMzIH [IR qQNN KP HZIMz KP.
u[Ia sPQJq LK LVZPHHL`NI KP HQZZNa K[I sMTKPRa eLK[ RMe TPKKPJ.
wI sPQJq LK [MRq KP VMzI QZ PQR VLJqH M`PQK T[PPHLJg M ZNMTI sPR RIHK.
3. u[IHI NIKKIRH MRI hard9y worth the 4a4er K[Ia MRI eRLKKIJ PJ.
u[I ZRP`NIV LH [MRqNa ePRK[ K[I KRPQ`NI KMzIJ. u[I ZLTKQRI LH Ps NLKKNI xMNQI! LK LH [MRqNa ePRK[ K[I VPJIa
+)b
ZMLq.
u[I ISZIRLVIJK LH [MRqNa ePRK[ K[I KLVI aPQlxI HZIJK PJ LK. u[I LJTLqIJK LH [MRqNa ePRK[ MNN K[LH
ISTLKIVIJK. u[I HPLN eMH [MRqNa ePRK[ K[I KPLN.
EXERCISES
I. Change the sentences, using the patterns:
\ M K K I R J + : +. u[I ISZNPRIRH TPQNq JPK RIMT[ K[I HPQK[IRJ `PQJqMRLIH Ps K[I qIHIRK `ITMQHI Ps K[I
HTPRT[LJg [IMK MJq NMTz Ps sRIH[ eMKIR. 2. u[I qMa eMH sPgga; K[I sLH[IRVIJ TPQNq JPK HII K[I TPMHKNLJI. 4.
.KlH eIK PQKqPPRH. \QK PJ Va RMLJTPMK! LKlNN HMxI aPQ sPR M e[LNI. 3. |I TPQNqJlK KMzI ZMRK LJ K[I TPJsIRIJTI
`ITMQHI [I eMH LNN. *. /[I TPQNq JPK VMzI M gPPq HZIIT[ `ITMQHI Ps [IR ZPPR zJPeNIqgI Ps GJgNLH[.
\ M K K I R J 2 : +. dVa qLq JPK HMa M ePRq MJq NIsK K[I RPPV. 2. yPQ TMJ [MRqNa RIMNLI e[MK MJ
PTIMJgPLJg H[LZ LH Ls aPQ [MxIJlK `IIJ LJHLqI. 4. u[Ia eLNN JPK TPVI KP HII QH Ls K[Ia MRI JPK LJxLKIq. 3. |I
TPQNq NLHKIJ KP NPJg xIRHIH LJ iMKLJ! K[PQg[ [I qLq JPK QJqIRHKMJq M ePRq. *. |I ePQNq VMRz R[aK[V eLK[ [LH
RLg[K sPPK! K[PQg[ [I JIxIR RIMNLIq e[MK [I eMH qPLJg.
\ M K K I R J 4 : +. oeLJg KP K[I HVMNNJIHH Ps PQR `PMK LK eMH IMHa KP JMxLgMKI LJ HQT[ H[MNNPe eMKIRH.
2. .K eMH LVZPHHL`NI KP VPxI PJ `ITMQHI Ps K[I RMLJa HIMHPJ LJ K[I KRPZLTH. 4. wI TPQNq [MRqNa RITPgJLI K[I
ZNMTI MsKIR K[I [QRRLTMJI. 3. .K eMH IMHa KP T[MJgI PQR ZNMJH PeLJg KP [LH fQLTz MRRLxMN. *. . TPQNq JPK
RITPgJLI aPQR HLHKIR `ITMQHI Ps [IR JIe [MLRqP.
\ M K K I R J 3 : +. . qPJlK K[LJz aPQ MRI RLg[K KMzLJg HP VQT[ KRPQ`NI PxIR K[I ZRP`NIV. 2. u[MK
HMTRLsLTI Ps [LH eMH MNVPHK QHINIHH. mQHK KP K[LJz Ps MNN K[I IssPRKH VMqIc 4. w[MKlH K[I sMRI{ .lV MsRMLq LK LH
VPRI ISZIJHLxI K[MJ aPQR NQggMgI. 3. /[I [Mq VMqI M NPJg eMa KP TPVI K[IRI! `QK K[I TPJsIRIJTI eMH Ps
NLKKNI xMNQI KP [IR. *. u[I VMJQHTRLZK KQRJIq PQK KP `I M xMRLMJK Ps K[I PRLgLJMN. . eMH HPRRa . eMHKIq HP VQT[
KLVI KRMJHNMKLJg LK.
II. CompIete the foIIowing sentences, using the patterns. Make nse of the words and phrases in brackets:
\ M K K I R J + : +. :MRLPQH RIMHPJH ... (KP qP PZKLPJMN HQ`ITKH). 2. |IR LNNJIHH ... (KP fQMNLsa sPR K[LH
ZPHK). 4. va JILg[`PQRlH HLNNa RIVMRzH ... (KP IJPa K[I ZIRsPRVMJTI). 3. |LH MqxLTI ... (KP gIK LJKP KRPQ`NI). *.
u[I eLJqa eIMK[IR ... (KP KMzI QH sPR M qRLxI).
\ M K K I R J 2 : +. yPQ TMJlK NIMxI URIMK 0RLKMLJ ... (KP HII K[I iMzI nLHKRLTK). 2. /[I eLNN JPK KMzI MJa
VIqLTLJI ... (KP TPJHQNK M qPTKPR). 4. yPQ H[PQNqJlK NIMxI ... (KP [MxI M HJMTz). 3. /[I TMJlK HZIMz M`PQK K[I
JIeH ... (KP gIK ISTLKIq). *. yPQ ePJlK `I M`NI KP ZMHH aPQR ISMV ... (KP ePRz [MRq).
\ M K K I R J 4 : +. |IR VMJJIRH ... (QJZNIMHMJK KP qIMN eLK[). 2. iMTz Ps RMLJsMNNH... (qLssLTQNK KP
ZNPQg[). 4. iLzIJIHH Ps K[ILR JMVIH ... (IMHa KP RIVIV`IR). 3. . qPJlK sLJq LK... (KP `PK[IR [LV). *. wI sLJq LK...
(KP VMzI QHI Ps KMZIRITPRqLJg).
\ M K K I R J 3 : +. u[I ZLTKQRI LH Ps NLKKNI xMNQI! LK... (VPJIa). 2. u[I RIHQNKH Ps K[I ISZIqLKLPJ ...
(IssPRKH). 4. u[I KRLZ LH ... (KRPQ`NI). 3. u[I qITPRMKLPJH MRI ... (KLVI). *. u[I xLTKPRa eMH ... (HMTRLsLTI). ,. u[I
VIqLTLJI LH ... (VPJIa).
III. TransIate the foIIowing sentences into EngIish. Use the patterns:
\ M K K I R J + : +. A$ ! 9 8. 2. t $D
Y$ 6 ! $ = 5% >. 4. t $D $ 66
E5 $>67{ 3. ' 8 $D8 ! 8 $6 . *. E
$! 6 88 5 ; .
\ M K K I R J 2 : +. " 9 ;! $ 9 9. 2. #
! $ &E 6 8! 6 $. 4. < ; ;! #
: @">D6 B. 3. < ; ! &E 8D.
\ M K K I R J 4 : +. "> %689 $ 7 ; 8$
$. 2. _8 ; % $8$. 4. $C8 ;
$8 ;$ $. 3. 9! $ ; $6 . *. 9>!
D$ D$ $ ;6.
\ M K K I R J 3 : +. ~ E $ ;! 8 8 . 2.
9. 4. - >! $ . 3. ~ E ; $. *.
>5$ 5 ! >5 9 9 ;! 8 ;8 $.
IV. Respond to the foIIowing statements, using the patterns. (Make use of the conversationaI formuIas
given in the Reminder.):
A. +. dNISMJqIR \PZPx eMH QJM`NI KP ZIRsITK [LH LJxIJKLPJ `ITMQHI Ps K[I NMTz Ps VPJIa. 2. iLKKNI nMxLq
eMH MsRMLq Ps K[I vQRqHKPJIH! [I TPQNq JPK RIMq [LH NIHHPJ eINN LJ K[ILR ZRIHIJTI. 4. iMJJa RIMNLIq K[MK
vM`IN VLg[K gIK LJKP KRPQ`NI. |I eMJKIq KP HMxI [LH HLHKIR. 3. yPQ TMJlK ZPHHL`Na HKMRK PJ M HIM xPaMgI Ls K[I
eIMK[IR RIZPRK LH QJsMxPQRM`NI.
B. +. yPQ VQHK HII K[I iMzI nLHKRLTK eLK[ aPQR PeJ IaIH KP `I M`NI KP MZZRITLMKI LKH `IMQKa. 2. va QJTNI
qLHNLzIH vMRa K[PQg[ [I [MH JIxIR HIIJ [IR. 4. \MHHIJgIRH H[PQNq JPK `I RIVLJqIq KP ZMa K[ILR sMRIH. 3. .
+)2
[PZI! aPQ eLNN KRMJHNMKI MNN K[IHI HIJKIJTIH MJq JIxIR TPJHQNK M qLTKLPJMRa.
C. +. u[IRI eMH HPVIK[LJg HKRMJgI M`PQK K[I UMqsNalH VMJJIR Ps HZIMzLJg. 2. iMKLJ gRMVVMR LH NPgLTMN!
K[MKlH e[a LK LH IMHa KP QJqIRHKMJq. 4. 0aRPJlH xIRHIH MRI eINNR[aVIq! aPQ TMJ NIMRJ K[IV `a [IMRK fQLKI
IMHLNa. 3. .s aPQ zJPe /eIqLH[ aPQlNN sLJq NLKKNI qLssLTQNKa LJ QJqIRHKMJqLJg 1PReIgLMJ `ITMQHI K[IHI
NMJgQMgIH MRI Ps TPVVPJ PRLgLJ.
IVLJqIR: Nu&t &o" luite &o" I Cuite agree here" Natura99y" Certain9y" /ure" I thin' &o" )oo'& 9i'e that" I
di&agree with you" Lou are wrong" Lou are +i&ta'en" ;here?& &o+ething in what you &ay, 2ut""" " Certain9y
not" I+4o&&i29eO It?& unfair" It?& un1u&t"
V. Think of short situations in which you can use these patterns.
TEXT. SEEING PEOPLE OFF 9y Max Beerbohm
69
oJ M TPNq gRIa VPRJLJg Ps NMHK eIIz . qQNa KQRJIq QZ MK GQHKPJ
7)
KP HII Pss MJ PNq sRLIJq e[P eMH HKMRKLJg
sPR dVIRLTM.
oxIRJLg[K eI [Mq gLxIJ M sMRIeINN qLJJIR! LJ e[LT[ HMqJIHH eMH eINN VLJgNIq eLK[ sIHKLxLKa.
dJq JPe! [IRI eI eIRI! HKLss MJq HINsTPJHTLPQH PJ K[I ZNMKsPRV; MJq sRMVIq LJ K[I eLJqPe Ps K[I
RMLNeMaTMRRLMgI! eMH K[I sMTI Ps PQR sRLIJq; `QK LK eMH MH K[I sMTI Ps M HKRMJgIR M HKRMJgIR MJSLPQH KP
ZNIMHI! MJ MZZIMNLJg HKRMJgIR! MJ MezeMRq HKRMJgIR.
r|MxI aPQ gPK IxIRaK[LJg{r MHzIq PJI Ps QH! `RIMzLJg K[I HLNIJTI.
ryIH! IxIRaK[LJg!r HMLq PQR sRLIJq! eLK[ M ZNIMHMJK JPq.
u[IRI eMH M NPJg ZMQHI.
oJI Ps QH! eLK[ M JPq MJq M sPRTIq HVLNI MK K[I KRMxINNIR! HMLq:
rwINNr
u[I JPq! K[I HVLNI! MJq K[I QJVIMJLJg VPJPHaNNM`NI eIRI RIKQRJIq TPJHTLIJKLPQHNa.
dJPK[IR ZMQHI eMH `RPzIJ `a PJI Ps QH eLK[ M sLK Ps TPQg[LJg. .K eMH MJ P`xLPQHNa MHHQVIq sLK! `QK LK
HIRxIq KP ZMHH K[I KLVI. u[IRI eMH JP HLgJ Ps K[I KRMLJlH qIZMRKQRI.
d VLqqNIMgIq VMJ eMH KMNzLJg IMRJIHKNa KP M aPQJg NMqa MK K[I JISK eLJqPe `QK PJI KP PQRH. |LH sLJI
ZRPsLNI eMH xMgQINa sMVLNLMR KP VI. u[I aPQJg NMqa eMH IxLqIJKNa dVIRLTMJ! MJq [I eMH IxLqIJKNa GJgNLH[;
PK[IReLHI . H[PQNq [MxI gQIHHIq sRPV [LH LVZRIHHLxI MLR K[MK [I eMH [IR sMK[IR.
.J M sNMH[ . RIVIV`IRIq. u[I VMJ eMH |Q`IRK iI PH. 0QK [Pe [I T[MJgIq HLJTI NMHK . HMe [LVc u[MK
eMH HIxIJ PR ILg[K aIMRH MgP! LJ K[I /KRMJq. |I eMH K[IJ (MH QHQMN) PQK Ps IJgMgIVIJK! MJq `PRRPeIq [MNsM
TRPeJ. .K HIIVIq M ZRLxLNIgI KP NIJq MJaK[LJg KP [LV. |I eMH MNeMaH VMgJIKLT. dJq e[a [LH VMgJIKLHV [Mq
JIxIR VMqI [LV HQTTIHHsQN PJ K[I iPJqPJ HKMgI eMH MNeMaH M VaHKIRa KP VI. |I eMH MJ ISTINNIJK MTKPR.
.K eMH HKRMJgI KP HII [LV! MsKIR MNN K[IHI aIMRH [IRI PJ K[I ZNMKsPRV Ps GQHKPJ! NPPzLJg HP ZRPHZIRPQH MJq
HPNLq. .K eMH JPK PJNa K[I sNIH[ [I [Mq ZQK PJ! `QK MNHP K[I TNPK[IH! K[MK VMqI [LV [MRq KP RITPgJLI. |I
NPPzIq NLzI M `MJzIR. dJaPJI ePQNq [MxI `IIJ ZRPQq KP `I HIIJ Pss `a [LV.
r/KMJq `MTz! ZNIMHIcr
u[I KRMLJ eMH M`PQK KP HKMRK MJq . eMxIq sMRIeINN KP Va sRLIJq. iI PH qLq JPK HKMJq `MTz. |I HKPPq
TNMHZLJg LJ `PK[ [MJqH K[I [MJqH Ps K[I aPQJg dVIRLTMJ.
r/KMJq `MTz! HLR. ZNIMHIcr
|I P`IaIq! `QK fQLTzNa qMRKIq sPReMRq MgMLJ KP e[LHZIR HPVI sLJMN ePRq. . K[LJz K[IRI eIRI KIMRH LJ [IR
IaIH. u[IRI TIRKMLJNa eIRI KIMRH LJ [LH e[IJ! MK NIJgK[! [MxLJg eMKT[Iq K[I KRMLJ PQK Ps HLg[K! [I KQRJIq
RPQJq.
|I HIIVIq! JIxIRK[INIHH! qINLg[KIq KP HII VI. |I MHzIq VI e[IRI . [Mq `IIJ [LqLJg MNN K[IHI aIMRH: MJq
HLVQNKMJIPQHNa RIZMLq VI K[I [MNsTRPeJ MH K[PQg[ LK [Mq `IIJ `PRRPeIq aIHKIRqMa. |I NLJzIq [LH MRV LJ
VLJI! MJq eMNzIq VI HNPeNa MNPJg K[I ZNMKsPRV! HMaLJg eLK[ e[MK ZNIMHQRI [I RIMq Va qRMVMKLT TRLKLTLHV
IxIRa /MKQRqMa. . KPNq [LV! LJ RIKQRJ! [Pe VQT[ [I eMH VLHHIq PJ K[I HKMgI.
rd[! aIH!r [I HMLq! r. JIxIR MTK PJ K[I HKMgI JPeMqMaH.r
|I NMLq HPVI IVZ[MHLH PJ K[I ePRq rHKMgI!r MJq . MHzIq [LV e[IRI! K[IJ! [I qLq MTK.
roJ K[I ZNMKsPRV!r [I MJHeIRIq.
ryPQ VIMJ!r HMLq .! rK[MK aPQ RITLKI MK TPJTIRKH{r
|I HVLNIq.
ru[LH!r [I e[LHZIRIq! HKRLzLJg [LH HKLTz PJ K[I gRPQJq! rLH K[I ZNMKsPRV . VIMJ.r
r. HQZZPHI!r [I HMLq ZRIHIJKNa! gLxLJg VI M NLg[K sPR K[I TLgMR e[LT[ [I [Mq PssIRIq VI! raPQ [MxI `IIJ
HIILJg M sRLIJq Pss{r
|I MHzIq VI e[MK . HQZZPHIq [I [Mq `IIJ qPLJg. . HMLq K[MK . [Mq eMKT[Iq [LV qPLJg K[I HMVI K[LJg.
r1P!r [I HMLq gRMxINa. ru[MK NMqa eMH JPK M sRLIJq Ps VLJI. . VIK [IR sPR K[I sLRHK KLVI K[LH VPRJLJg! NIHH
,2
Max Beerbohm (+b72+2*,): MJ GJgNLH[ IHHMaLHK! TRLKLT MJq TMRLTMKQRLHK
7)
Euston: M RMLNeMaHKMKLPJ LJ iPJqPJ
++)
K[MJ [MNs MJ [PQR MgP! [IRI!r MJq MgMLJ [I HKRQTz K[I ZNMKsPRV eLK[ [LH HKLTz.
. TPJsIHHIq K[MK . eMH `IeLNqIRIq. |I HVLNIq.
ryPQ VMa!r [I HMLq! r[MxI [IMRq Ps K[I dJgNPdVIRLTMJ /PTLMN 0QRIMQ.r
. [Mq JPK. |I ISZNMLJIq KP VI K[MK Ps K[I K[PQHMJqH Ps dVIRLTMJH e[P ZMHH K[RPQg[ GJgNMJq K[IRI MRI
VMJa [QJqRIqH e[P [MxI JP GJgNLH[ sRLIJqH. .J K[I PNq qMaH K[Ia QHIq KP `RLJg NIKKIRH Ps LJKRPqQTKLPJ. 0QK
K[I GJgNLH[ MRI HP LJ[PHZLKM`NI K[MK K[IHI NIKKIRH MRI [MRqNa ePRK[ K[I ZMZIR K[Ia MRI eRLKKIJ PJ.
rdVIRLTMJH MRI M HPTLM`NI ZIPZNI! MJq VPHK Ps K[IV [MxI ZNIJKa Ps VPJIa KP HZIJq. u[I dd./.0.
HQZZNLIH K[IV eLK[ GJgNLH[ sRLIJqH. pLsKa ZIR TIJK Ps K[I sIIH LH ZMLq PxIR KP K[I sRLIJq. u[I PK[IR sLsKa LH
RIKMLJIq `a K[I dd./.0. . MV JPK! MNMH! M qLRITKPR. .s . eIRI! . H[PQNq `I M xIRa RLT[ VMJ LJqIIq. . MV PJNa MJ
IVZNPaII. 0QK IxIJ HP . qP xIRa eINN. . MV PJI Ps K[I HIIRHPss.r
. MHzIq sPR IJNLg[KIJVIJK.
rvMJa dVIRLTMJH!r [I HMLq! rTMJJPK MssPRq KP zIIZ sRLIJqH LJ GJgNMJq. 0QK K[Ia TMJ MNN MssPRq KP `I HIIJ
Pss. u[I sII LH PJNa sLxI ZPQJqH (KeIJKasLxI qPNNMRH) sPR M HLJgNI KRMxINNIR; MJq ILg[K ZPQJqH (sPRKa qPNNMRH)
sPR M ZMRKa Ps KeP PR VPRI. u[Ia HIJq K[MK LJ KP K[I 0QRIMQ! gLxLJg K[I qMKI Ps K[ILR qIZMRKQRI! MJq M
qIHTRLZKLPJ `a e[LT[ K[I HIIRPss TMJ LqIJKLsa K[IV PJ K[I ZNMKsPRV. dJq K[IJ eINN! K[IJ K[Ia MRI HIIJ
Pss.r
r0QK LH LK ePRK[ LK{r . ISTNMLVIq!
ros TPQRHI LK LH ePRK[ LK!r HMLq iI PH. r.K ZRIxIJKH K[IV sRPV sIINLJg PQK Ps LK. .K IMRJH K[IV K[I RIHZITK
Ps K[I gQMRq. .K HMxIH K[IV sRPV `ILJg qIHZLHIq ` K[ILR sINNPeZMHHIJgIRH K[I ZIPZNI e[P MRI gPLJg KP
`I PJ K[I `PMK. 0IHLqIH! LK LH M gRIMK ZNIMHQRI LJ LKHINs. yPQ HMe VI HIILJg K[MK aPQJg NMqa Pss. nLqJlK aPQ
K[LJz . qLq LK `IMQKLsQNNa{r
r0IMQKLsQNNa!r + MqVLKKIq. r. IJxLIq aPQ. u[IRI eMH . r
ryIH! . TMJ LVMgLJI. u[IRI eIRI aPQ! H[QssNLJg sRPV sPPK KP sPPK! HKMRLJg `NMJzNa MK aPQR sRLIJq! KRaLJg KP
VMzI TPJxIRHMKLPJ! . zJPe. u[MKlH [Pe . QHIq KP `I VaHINs! `IsPRI . HKQqLIq! MJq eIJK LJKP K[I K[LJg
ZRPsIHHLPJMNNa! . qPJlK HMa . MV ZIRsITK aIK. d RMLNeMaHKMKLPJ LH K[I VPHK qLssLTQNK Ps MNN ZNMTIH KP MTK LJ! MH
aPQ qLHTPxIRIq sPR aPQRHINs.r
r0QK!r . HMLq! r. eMHJlK KRaLJg KP MTK. . RIMNNa sINK.r
r/P qLq .! Va `Pa!r HMLq iI PH. ryPQ TMJlK MTK eLK[PQK sIINLJg. nLqJlK aPQ HII K[PHI KIMRH LJ Va IaIH
e[IJ K[I KRMLJ HKMRKIq{ . [MqJlK sPRTIq K[IV. . KINN aPQ . eMH VPxIq. /o eIRI aPQ! . qMRI HMa. 0QK aPQ
TPQNqJlK [MxI ZQVZIq QZ M KIMR KP ZRPxI LK. yPQ TMJlK ISZRIHH aPQR sIINLJg. .J PK[IR ePRqH! aPQ TMJlK MTK. dK
MJa RMKI!r [I MqqIq zLJqNa! rJPK LJ M RMLNeMaHKMKLPJ.r
ruIMT[ VIcr . TRLIq.
|I NPPzIq K[PQg[KsQNNa MK VI!
rwILN!r [I HMLq MK NIJgK[! rK[I HIILJgPss HIMHPJ LH ZRMTKLTMNNa PxIR. yIH! .lNN gLxI aPQ M TPQRHI! . [MxI M
gPPq VMJa ZQZLNH PJ [MJq MNRIMqa; `QK aIH!r [I HMLq! TPJHQNKLJg MJ PRJMKI JPKI`PPz! r. TPQNq gLxI aPQ MJ
[PQR PJ uQIHqMaH MJq pRLqMaH!r
|LH KIRVH! . TPJsIHH! MRI RMK[IR [Lg[. 0QK + qP JPK gRQqgI K[I LJxIHKVIJK.
VOCABULARY NOTES
1. serve ,t-i +. >6! ."g" 1P VMJ TMJ HIRxI KeP VMHKIRH. |I HIRxIH MH gMRqIJIR (no arti59eOB" |I
HIRxIq K[RII aIMRH LJ K[I MRVa (JMxa). u[IHI H[PIH [MxI HIRxIq VI KeP aIMRH. d ePPqIJ `PS HIRxIq MH M
KM`NI!
2. 6 ! ."g" u[I eMLKIR HIRxIq K[I HPQZ! nLJJIR LH HIRxIq!
4. >6! ."g" u[IRI eMH JP PJI LJ K[I H[PZ KP HIRxI VI.
to serve smb. right, ."g" .K HIRxIH aPQ RLg[K sPR [MxLJg qLHP`IaIq VI.
service n 1. >! ."g" < eMH LJ MTKLxI HIRxLTI qQRLJg K[I eMR. |I [MH `IIJ LJ K[I nLZNPVMKLT /IRxLTI
sPR K[RII aIMRH.
2. >! ."g" u[I VIMNH MK K[LH RIHKMQRMJK MRI gPPq `QK K[I HIRxLTI LH ZPPR. u[I KRMLJ HIRxLTI LH
gPPq [IRI.
4. ;! >! ."g" /[I JP NPJgIR JIIqH K[I HIRxLTIH Ps M qPTKPR. va RPPV LH MK aPQR HIRxLTI.
servant n ;! ;
2. famiIiar ad1 +. $85! 885! a& M sMVLNLMR xPLTI (sMTI! JMVI! HTIJI! [MJqeRLKLJg! HPJg!
VINPqa! KQJI! HTIJK! HVINN! IKT.)
to be familiar to smb., to be familiar with smth., ."g" yPQ H[PQNq `I sMVLNLMR eLK[ K[I sMTKH `IsPRI aPQ
HKMRK LJxIHKLgMKLPJ. |I LH sMVLNLMR eLK[ VMJa NMJgQMgIH. |IR sMTI HIIVH sMVLNLMR KP VI.
2. 5! $85! ."g" dRI aPQ PJ sMVLNLMR KIRVH eLK[ [LV{ nPJlK `I KPP sMVLNLMR eLK[ [LV! [IlH
RMK[IR M qLH[PJIHK VMJ.
4. C$685! ."g" nPJlK aPQ K[LJz [I LH M `LK KPP sMVLNLMR eLK[ [IR{
familiarity n $! C$66
+++
3. impress ,t 6 $! 6 ; to impress smb., ."g" u[LH `PPz qLq
JPK LVZRIHH VI MK MNN. . eMH gRIMKNa (qIIZNa) LVZRIHHIq `a [LH MTKLJg. w[MK LVZRIHHIq aPQ VPHK LJ K[I ZNMa{
impression n ; KP make (produce) an impression PJ smb., to leave an impression on
smb., e, g" |LH HZIIT[ VMqI M HKRPJg LVZRIHHLPJ PJ K[I MQqLIJTI. \QJLH[VIJK HIIVIq KP VMzI NLKKNI
LVZRIHHLPJ PJ K[I T[LNq. uINN QH M`PQK aPQR LVZRIHHLPJH Ps GJgNMJq. u[I gRPQZ NIsK M gPPq (ZPPR!
sMxPQRM`NI) LVZRIHHLPJ PJ K[I ISMVLJIR.
impressive ad1 =5 (;) ! a& MJ LVZRIHHLxI TIRIVPJa (HLg[K! HTIJI!
ZIRHPJ! gIHKQRI! IKT.)! ."g" u[I HTIJI eMH fQLKI LVZRIHHLxI.
4. obey ,t-i 6! 6! D6! ."g" /PNqLIRH VQHK P`Ia PRqIRH. O[LNqRIJ VQHK
P`Ia gRPeJQZH. 3ut D6 to follow one's advice
(n%. to disobey
P`IqLIJTI n D! ! 6! ."g" \MRIJKH qIVMJq P`IqLIJTI sRPV K[ILR
T[LNqRIJ.
0nt" disobedience
obedient ad1 D85! 85! ."g" < LH MJ P`IqLIJK `Pa. u[I T[LNqRIJ [MxI `IIJ P`IqLIJK
KPqMa.
dJK. disobedient! naughty Qof a 5hi9dB
5. Iight n ! =! a& HQJNLg[K! qMaNLg[K! VPPJNLg[K! gMH NLg[K! INITKRLT NLg[K! ."g" u[I HQJ gLxIH
NLg[K KP K[I IMRK[. . gPK QZ `IsPRI NLg[K. u[I NLg[K `IgMJ KP sMLN. iLg[KH eIRI `QRJLJg LJ IxIRa RPPV. 0RLJg M
NLg[K fQLTzNac wI HMe K[I NLg[KH Ps K[I TLKa. iPPz MK K[I VMKKIR LJ K[I RLg[K NLg[K.
0nt darkness
by the light of smth. ;.
to stand in smb.'s light ;>6 $. ; (figB $D6 $.! 6 ;. ;
to throw (shed) light on smth. 6 . ."g" u[IHI sMTKH H[Iq (M) JIe NLg[K PJ K[I
VMKKIR.
to put (switch, turn) on (off) the light >;6 (;6)
to give smb. a light 6 6! I. !" ULxI VI M NLg[K! ZNIMHI.
to come to light >6! 86! ."g" 1Ie IxLqIJTI [MH RITIJKNa TPVI KP NLg[K.
Light at the end of the tunnel % ! ."g" dH K[I ISMVH MZZRPMT[Iq! H[I sINK K[MK MK NMHK
H[I TPQNq HII K[I NLg[K MK K[I IJq Ps K[I KQJJIN.
light ad1 85! a& M NLg[K RPPV! M NLg[K qMa; NLg[K [MLR! M NLg[K TPVZNISLPJ; NLg[K `RPeJ (`NQI! gRIIJ!
gRIa! IKT.)
to get light 6! ."g" .K gIKH NLg[K xIRa IMRNa K[IHI HQVVIR VPRJLJgH.
light (NLK PR NLg[KIq) ,t-i +. >;6()! a& KP NLg[K M NMVZ (M TMJqNI! M sLRI)! ."g" |I NLK M NMVZ. \NIMHI
NLg[K K[I HKPxI.
to light a cigarette 6
0nt" turn off (K[I gMH)! blow out (M TMJqNI)! put out (M sLRI)
2. =6 (up)! ."g" u[I HKRIIKH eIRI `RLg[KNa NLK QZ. u[I RPPV eMH NLg[KIq `a HLS eLJqPeH. oQR [PQHIH
MRI NLg[KIq `a INITKRLTLKa. u[I `QRJLJg `QLNqLJg NLK QZ K[I e[PNI qLHKRLTK. u[I RLHLJg HQJ NLK QZ K[I VPQJKMLJ
KPZH.
sunlit, starlit (night, sky), moonlit ad1
6. prevent ,t =6! >6! $D6; to prevent smb. from (doing) smth., to
prevent smth., ."g" MLJ ZRIxIJKIq K[I gMVI. .lNN VIIK aPQ MK HLS Ls JPK[LJg ZRIxIJKH. .NNJIHH ZRIxIJKIq [LV
sRPV qPLJg K[I ePRz. |PeTMJ aPQ ZRIxIJK LK sRPV [MZZIJLJg{ /PVIK[LJg ZRIxIJKIq [LV sRPV TPVLJg
(ZRIxIJKIq [LH TPVLJg).
prevention n =; @rover2: \RIxIJKLPJ LH `IKKIR K[MJ TQRI.
7. earn ,t +. 86! ."g" |I IMRJH M gPPq eMgI `ITMQHI [I ePRzH sPR M sMLR IVZNPaIR.
to earn one's living 86 >6! ."g" /[I IMRJIq [IR NLxLJg `a HIeLJg.
2. >6! ."g" |LH sLRHK `PPz IMRJIq [LV K[I sMVI Ps M JPxINLHK. u[I KIMT[IR KPNq [IR ZQZLNH K[MK
K[Ia [Mq IMRJIq M [PNLqMa. |IR gPPq ePRz IMRJIq [IR K[I RIHZITK Ps [IR TPNNIMgQIH.
earnings n 49 ! ."g" |I [MH HZIJK MNN [LH IMRJLJgH.
8. do (did, done) ,t-i +. 6! 86! $6 $n.! a& KP qP PJIlH ePRz! qQKa! H[PZZLJg!
VPRJLJg ISIRTLHIH
."g" yPQ qLq eINN (eRPJg) KP RIsQHI. |MxLJg JPK[LJg `IKKIR KP qP . eIJK sPR M eMNz. u[IRIlH JPK[LJg KP `I
qPJI JPe. 1P HPPJIR HMLq K[MJ qPJI. wINN `IgQJ LH [MNs qPJI.
to do a sum D6 C$7
to do one's best 6 $>! ."g" . VQHK qP Va `IHK KP [INZ [LV!
++2
2. 6: to do good, to do harm! ."g" u[LH VIqLTLJI ePJlK qP aPQ MJa gPPq. |LH [PNLqMa [MH qPJI
[LV M ePRNq (M NPK! M gRIMK qIMN) Ps gPPq. .K eLNN qP aPQ VPRI [MRV K[MJ gPPq.
4. 6 ! a& KP qP PJIlH [MLR (RPPV! `Iq! IKT.)! ."g" . NLzI K[I eMa H[I qPIH [IR [MLR. wLNN
aPQ qP K[I `IqH e[LNI . qP K[I eLJqPe{
3. $6 $6! ."g" nLq aPQ qP K[I 0RLKLH[ vQHIQV e[IJ aPQ eIRI LJ
iPJqPJ{ wI PsKIJ HII sPRILgJIRH LJ vPHTPe qPLJg K[I HLg[KH.
*. 96! ;6: that will (won't) do! ."g" .K ePJlK qP KP ZNMa MNN qMa. u[I RPPV eLNN qP QH fQLKI
eINN. .K ePJlK qP KP HLK QZ HP NMKI. u[LH HPRK Ps ePRz ePJlK qP sPR [LV. wLNN K[LH H[IIK Ps ZMZIR qP{
,. %6! 6! ."g" iI PH qLq eINN LJ K[I 0QRIMQ. GxIRaK[LJg LJ K[I gMRqIJ LH qPLJg
HZNIJqLqNa. /[I LH qPLJg xIRa eINN MK HT[PPN.
to do away with smth., ."g" /VPzLJg H[PQNq `I qPJI MeMa eLK[.
to have to do with smb. (smth.), ."g" |I [MH KP qP eLK[ MNN HPRKH Ps ZIPZNI. wI [MxI KP qP eLK[ sMTKH! JPK
K[IPRLIH.
to have smth. (nothing, not much, little, etc.) to do with smb. (smth.), ."g" . MqxLHI aPQ KP [MxI
JPK[LJg KP qP eLK[ [LV. w[MK [MxI . KP qP eLK[ LK{
NOTES ON STYLE
+. u[IRI MRI KeP VMLJ T[MRMTKIRH LJ K[LH HKPRa: iI PH MJq K[I J M R R M K R ! L. I. K[I ZIRHPJ KINNLJg
K[I HKPRa (MNHP TMNNIq rK[I . Ps K[I HKPRar). u[I JMRRMKPR LH MJ MHHQVIq ZIRHPJMNLKa MJq H[PQNq `a JP VIMJH `I
TPJsQHIq eLK[ K[I MQK[PR Ps K[I HKPRa. .K ePQNq `I MH JMLxI KP MHHPTLMKI K[I JMRRMKPR Ps K[LH HKPRa eLK[ vMS
0IIR`P[V MH KP MHHPTLMKI K[I `Pa PJ e[PHI `I[MNs r|Pe wI jIZK vPK[IRlH nMar LH KPNq eLK[ /KIZ[IJ
iIMTPTz. u[I T[MRMTKIR Ps K[I JMRRMKPR LH sRIfQIJKNa LJKRPqQTIq LJ sLTKLPJ. .K LH M HKaNLHKLT qIxLTI! IHZITLMNNa
sMxPQRIq `a H[PRKHKPRa MQK[PRH (HII rd nMalH wMLKr `a |IVLJgeMa PR rd pRLIJq LJ 1IIqr `a w. /.
vMQg[MV)! e[LT[ [INZH K[I RIMqIR KP NPPz MK K[I qIHTRL`Iq IxIJKH MH Ls rsRPV eLK[LJr.
2. . J x I R H L P J (T[MJgI Ps K[I QHQMN PRqIR Ps ePRqH) VMa `I QHIq sPR HKaNLHKLT ZQRZPHIH ILK[IR KP
sPTQH K[I RIMqIRlH MKKIJKLPJ PJ M TIRKMLJ ZMRK Ps K[I HIJKIJTI PR KP MT[LIxI MJ IVPKLPJMN IssITK! ."g" """ MJq
sRMVIq LJ K[I eLJqPe Ps K[I RMLNeMaTMRRLMgI! eMH K[I sMTI Ps PQR sRLIJq...
4. I Z I K L K L P J LH MJPK[IR HKaNLHKLT qIxLTI QHIq sPR K[I ZQRZPHIH Ps IVZ[MHLH. .K VMa TPJHLHK LJ
RIZIMKLJg PJNa PJI ePRq! HP K[MK eLK[ IMT[ RIZIKLKLPJ K[I IVPKLPJMN KIJHLPJ LJTRIMHIH! e"g" """ `QK LK eMH MH
K[I sMTI Ps M HKRMJgIR M HKRMJgIR MJSLPQH KP ZNIMHI! MJ MZZIMNLJg HKRMJgIR! MJ MezeMRq HKRMJgIR.
u[I RIZIKLKLPJ Ps K[I HMVI HaJKMTKLTMN ZMKKIRJ KeLTI PR HIxIRMN KLVIH LH TMNNIq H a J K M T K L T M N
Z M R M N N I N L H V ! ."g" .K ZRIxIJKH K[IV sRPV sIINLJg PQK Ps LK. .K IMRJH K[IV K[I RIHZITK Ps K[I gQMRq. .K
HMxIH K[IV sRPV `ILJg qIHZLHIq `a K[ILR sINNPeZMHHIJgIRH.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)
Words
`MJzIR n sLJMN ad1 P`IqLIJTI n
`QRIMQ n gQIHH , P`IqLIJK ad1
qIZMRKQRI n LVZRIHH , P`Ia ,
qLHP`IqLIJK ad1 LVZRIHHLxI ad1 ZNMKsPRV n
IMRJ , NLg[K , ZRIxIJK ,
IJxa , VPxI , HIRxI ,
sMVLNLMR ad1 VaHKIRa n HIRxLTI n
sINNPeZMHHIJgIR n HPTLM`NI ad1
Word Combinations
KP HII HV`. Pss KP eMxI sMRIeINN KP HV`.
KP `RIMz K[I HLNIJTI KP H[QssNI sRPV sPPK KP sPPK
KP ZMHH K[I KLVI KP VMzI (NIMxI! ZRPqQTI)
KP `I sMVLNLMR eLK[ HVK[. (KP HV`.) MJ LVZRIHHLPJ PJ HV`.
LJ K[I PNq qMaH (LJ K[I PNqIJ qMaH) KP ZQK PQK K[I NLg[K
M NIKKIR Ps LJKRPqQTKLPJ KP HIRxI HV`. RLg[K sPR...
KP IMRJ PJIlH NLxLJg
++4
EXERCISES
1. Bead the text and expIain the foIIowing points (A. Grammar, B. Word usage, !. StyIe):
A. +. GSZNMLJ K[I QHI Ps KIJHIH LJ: M) K[I HITPJq HIJKIJTI Ps K[I KISK; `) K[I sPNNPeLJg HIJKIJTI: rd
VLqqNIMgIq VMJ eMH KMNzLJg IMRJIHKNa KP M aPQJg NMqa...r.
2. \PLJK PQK HIJKIJTIH LJ e[LT[ P`NLfQI VPPqH MRI QHIq MJq ISZNMLJ K[I VIMJLJg TPJxIaIq `a K[I sPRV Ps
K[I xIR` LJ IMT[ TMHI.
4. OPVVIJK PJ K[I QHI Ps K[I MQSLNLMRa did LJ r[I qLq MTKr.
3. w[a LH K[I LJqIsLJLKI MRKLTNI QHIq `IsPRI K[I ePRq qLRITKPR LJ r. MV JPK! MNMH! M qLRITKPRr{
B. +. GSZNMLJ K[I VIMJLJg Ps rK[I JISK eLJqPe `QK PJIr. (vMzI QZ HIJKIJTIH Ps aPQR PeJ eLK[ K[I
ZMKKIRJ rK[I JISK ... `QK PJIr.)
2. pLJq M ZMLR Ps MJKPJaVH LJ K[I ZMHHMgI `IgLJJLJg eLK[ r.J M sNMH[r MJq ISZNMLJ K[ILR VIMJLJgH. }HI
K[IV LJ HIJKIJTIH Ps aPQR PeJ.
4. w[MK LH K[I VIMJLJg Ps K[I ePRq 49atfor+ LJ K[I sPNNPeLJg sRMgVIJK: ... roJ K[I ZNMKsPRV!r [I
MJHeIRIq. ryPQ VIMJ!r HMLq .! rK[MK aPQ RITLKI MK TPJTIRKH{r
3. OPVVIJK PJ K[I VIMJLJg Ps 'ee4 LJ rvMJa dVIRLTMJH ... TMJJPK MssPRq KP zIIZ sRLIJqH LJ GJgNMJqr
(5f": to 'ee4 dog&, hor&e&, to 'ee4 a 5at, a 5anary, IKT.). w[MK LH K[I IssITK MT[LIxIq `a K[I QJQHQMN ePRq
TPV`LJMKLPJ to 'ee4 friend& MJq `a K[I e[PNI HIJKIJTI (rvMJa dVIRLTMJH TMJJPK MssPRq KP zIIZ sRLIJqH LJ
GJgNMJqr! L. I. HPVI Ps K[IV TMJ MJq ZRP`M`Na qP){
*. |Pe qP aPQ QJqIRHKMJq K[I ePRqH fee9ing out of it LJ r.K ZRIxIJKH K[IV sRPV sIINLJg PQK Ps LKr{
C. +. M) w[MK LH K[I MQK[PRlH ZQRZPHI LJ QHLJg LJxIRHLPJ LJ: rsRMVIq LJ K[I eLJqPe ... eMH K[I sMTI Ps PQR
sRLIJqr{ `) w[a LH K[I ePRq &tranger RIZIMKIq sPQR KLVIH LJ K[I HITPJq ZMRK Ps K[I HMVI HIJKIJTI{ w[MK LH
K[I IssITK MT[LIxIq `a K[I RIZIKLKLPJ{
2. w[MK LH K[I IssITK MT[LIxIq `a K[I HaJKMTKLTMN ZMRMNNINLHV LJ K[I ZMHHMgI `IgLJJLJg eLK[ ros TPQRHI LK LH
ePRK[ LKr{ (r.K ZRIxIJKH K[IV...r! r.K IMRJH K[IV...r! r.K HMxIH K[IV...r)
4. \PLJK PQK ZMHHMgIH `IMRLJg KPQT[IH Ps [QVPQR. nPIH K[I MQK[PR ZRIHIJK K[I T[MRMTKIR Ps iI PH
HIRLPQHNa PR [QVPRPQHNa{ (LRPJLTMNNa{ HMKLRLTMNNa{ VPTzLJgNa{) .NNQHKRMKI aPQR MJHeIR `a HIJKIJTIH sRPV K[I
HKPRa.
II. a) Write the transcribed words in traditionaI speIIing. ExpIain the ruIes for reading. Think of some other
words speIIed in the same way:
1. zNRHZ! ZRH! NRHK; 2. lZRPHZqRqH! "zPJSIlIJSqH! "zPJSqH! lP`xLqH! l xNzSqH; 3. HMIK! NMIK! qIlNMIK; 4.
E:J! lE:JIN! lE:JIsKNLR; gIH! lxIIgI.
b) Mark the stresses and expIain the reading ruIes. TransIate the words into Russian:
[PHZLKM`NI [PHZLKMNLKa; ZRPHZIRPQH ZRPHZIRLKa; sIHKLxI sIHKLxLKa; sLJMN sLJMNLKa.
III. a) Write oat from the story the sentences with the foIIowing words:
HKLss MezeMRq; P`xLPQHNa IxLqIJKNa; IMRJIHKNa gRMxINa; KP RITPgJLI KP LqIJKLsa; ZRPHZIRPQH
RLT[; KP sPRTI KP ZQVZ QZ.
b) ExpIain the difference between the synonyms within each pair. (See Notes on p. 18.) When in doubt,
consuIt dictionaries.
IV. Answer the questions. Argue your answers:
+. w[IRI LH K[I HTIJI NMLq LJ K[I HKPRa{ 2. |Pe qLq K[I HIIRHPss sIIN MJq e[a{ w[MK eIRI K[Ia qPLJg KP
ZMHH K[I KLVI{ 4. w[MK VMqI K[I JMRRMKPR Ps K[I HKPRa K[LJz K[MK K[I VMJ e[P eMH HIILJg Pss M aPQJg NMqa
eMH JPK [IR sMK[IR{ 3. w[P eMH K[I VMJ{ }JqIR e[MK TLRTQVHKMJTIH [Mq K[I JMRRMKPR VIK [LV `IsPRI{ w[MK
VMqI [LV [MRq KP RITPgJLI{ *. w[MK VMqI K[I JMRRMKPR MHz iI PH e[IRI [I MTKIq{ ,. w[a qLq K[I MJHeIR
VMzI [LV K[LJz K[MK iI PH RITLKIq MK TPJTIRKH{ 7. w[a eMH [I `IeLNqIRIq e[IJ iI PH HMLq [I [Mq sLRHK
VIK K[I aPQJg NMqa [I eMH HIILJg Pss NIHH K[MJ [MNs MJ [PQR `IsPRI{ b. w[MK TMJ aPQ HMa M`PQK K[I MTKLxLKLIH
Ps K[I dJgNPdVIRLTMJ /PTLMN 0QRIMQ{ 2. |Pe TMJ aPQ ISZNMLJ iI PHlH HQTTIHH MH MJ IVZNPaII Ps K[I
0QRIMQ{ +). |Pe qLq! LJ iI PHlH PZLJLPJ! K[I HIILJgPss TIRIVPJa [INZ dVIRLTMJH{ nP aPQ K[LJz LK eMH M
gPPq LqIM{ ++. w[MK LH K[I LVZNLTMKLPJ Ps K[I ePRq afford MZZNLIq KP sRLIJqH{ OMJ sRLIJqH RIMNNa `I afforded
PR not affordedc +2. nLq iI PH KMzI HIRLPQHNa [LH P` MJq [LVHINs LJ K[I RPNI Ps M ZRPsIHHLPJMN HIIRPss{
|Pe qPIH LK T[MRMTKIRLI [LV{ +4. w[MK LH K[I MQK[PRlH (JPK K[I JMRRMKPRlHc) MKKLKQqI KP iI PH{ w[MK LH K[I
MQK[PRlH LRPJa qLRITKIq MgMLJHK{
V. Study VocabuIary Notes, transIate the iIIustrative exampIes and a) give synonyms of:
JMQg[Ka ad1, gPPq ad1 (a2out a 5hi9dB, ZQK MJ IJq KP;
b) give antonyms oft
sMVLNLMR ad1, P`Ia ,, qIZMRKQRI n! NLg[K n! NLg[K ,D
c) give derivatives of:
ZRIHH! HIRxI! ZRIxIJK! IMRJ! P`Ia! sMVLNLMR.
VI. FiII in appropriate words (coasuIt EssentiaI VocabuIary (I) Iist):
++3
+. |I MqxLHIq pRMJz! ryPQlNN qP `IKKIR Ls aPQ HKMa MK HT[PPN QJKLN HIxIJKIIJ. .K TMJlK qP aPQ MJa... .r 2. dK
K[I MgI Ps K[LRKIIJ pRMJz OPeZIRePPq eMH M`NI ... M NLKKNI VPJIa JPe MJq K[IJ. 4. u[I MQTKLPJIIR JPKLTIq
pRMJz MJq eMH... `a K[I HPNLqLKa Ps K[I `PalH ISZRIHHLPJ. 3. dsKIR [LH NPJINa qLJJIR /PMVIH ... [LH TLgMR MJq
eMNzIq PQK MgMLJ. *. mLV... K[I TMZKMLJlH PRqIR KP RLqI sPR nPTKPR iLxIHIa MK PJTI. ,. 1P PJI TPQNq... OMZKMLJ
pNLJKlH PRqIRH. 7. u[Ia TPQNq JPK VMJa KLNN /MNxMKPRI [Mq qPJI [LH VLNLKMRa .... b. . zJIe K[MK [LH [IMRK eMH ...
`a K[I `IMQKa MJq K[I xMHVIHH MJq K[I HKLNNJIHH. 2. . H[MNN T[PPHI K[I P` . MV VPHK... eLK[. +). u[I VLNNIR
eMH TPQJKLJg PxIR `LH VPJIa `a K[I ... Ps M TMJqNI. ++. r.lV MK aPQR...r VIMJH r.lV RIMqa KP ... aPQR
TPVVMJqHr. +2. |I eMH ZIIRLJg LJKP K[I qMRzJIHH ... `a M HLJgNI TMJqNI. +4. rw[a qPJlK aPQ gP .JKP K[I
TPQJKRa{r RIZIMKIq mQJI. r.K ePQNq ... aPQ M NPK......cr +3. u[Ia eIRI MK K[ILR NLKKNI KM`NI LJ K[I RPPV! e[IRI
OMRRLI PTTMHLPJMNNa ... M VIMN. +*. w[IJ K[I `Pa eMH eLK[ QH [I eMH sRLIJqNa MJq....
VII. Express in one word (see Text Eight aad VocabuIary Notes):
M ZMaVIJK VMqI LJ RIKQRJ sPR PJIlH ePRz! TPVLJg NMHK MK K[I IJq Ps HVK[.! KP qP e[MK PJI LH KPNq! K[I
IssITK ZRPqQTIq PJ K[I VLJq PR sIINLJgH! M HLqI xLIe Ps K[I [QVMJ sMTI! ZMNI LJ TPNPQR! KP `RLJg sPPq MJq ZQK
LK PJ K[I KM`NI! HPVIK[LJg HKRMJgI PR HITRIK! sPJq Ps HPTLIKa.
VIII. The foIIowing statements are not true to fact Correct them, using the conversationaI formuIas given in
the Reminder:
G S M V Z N I : u[I MQK[PR KQRJIq QZ MK GQHKPJ KP VIIK M sRLIJq Ps [LH.
o[! JP! [I qLqJlK. |I KQRJIq QZ MK GQHKPJ KP HII [LH sRLIJq Pss.
+. u[I HIIRHPss sINK fQLKI MK IMHI PJ K[I ZNMKsPRV. 2. 1P PJI KRLIq KP `RIMz K[I HLNIJTI PJ K[I ZNMKsPRV. 4.
u[I sLK Ps TPQg[LJg [INZIq K[I HLKQMKLPJ. 3. u[IRI eMH IxIRa HLgJ Ps K[I KRMLJlH LVVIqLMKI qIZMRKQRI e[IJ
K[Ia TMVI KP K[I ZNMKsPRV. *. u[I sMTI Ps iI PH qLqJlK HIIV sMVLNLMR KP K[I JMRRMKPR. ,. iI PH eMH xIRa
HPRRa KP HII K[I JMRRMKPR. 7. iI PH HMLq [I ePRzIq PJ K[I HKMgI. b. iI PH HMLq [I eMH M qLRITKPR Ps K[I
dJgNPdVIRLTMJ /PTLMN 0QRIMQ. 2. u[I JMRRMKPR sQNNa QJqIRHKPPq e[a iI PH [Mq `IIJ QJHQTTIHHsQN PJ K[I
HKMgI. +). iI PH ISZNMLJIq K[MK MNN K[I sIIH eIRI ZMLq PxIR KP K[I IVZNPaIIH. ++. iI PH NPPzIq NLzI M
`IggMR e[IJ K[I JMRRMKPR HMe [LV PJ K[I ZNMKsPRV. +2. u[I JMRRMKPR qLqJlK IJxa iI PH. +4. iI PH HMLq K[MK
PJI TMJ MTK eLK[PQK sIINLJg. +3. u[IRI eIRI JP HLgJH Ps iI PH `ILJg VPxIq e[IJ [I HMe K[I aPQJg
dVIRLTMJ Pss. +*. u[I JMRRMKPR eMH JPK VPxIq e[IJ HIILJg [LH sRLIJq Pss. +,. u[I JMRRMKPR eMJKIq iI PH
KP KIMT[ [LV KP TPJTIMN [LH sIINLJgH.
I V L n q I R: I?+ afraid I don?t agree" I thin' you?re +i&ta'en (thereB" I don?t thin' you are right" I &ee
what you +ean, 2ut"""" I?+ not &o &ure" Mn the 5ontraryO Lou 5an?t 2e &eriou&9 I dou2t it" I di&agree with you"
I &hou9d?t &ay &o" I o21e5t to it" *ar fro+ it" /ure9y not" Noth?ing of the &ortO Nu&t the other way roundO
IX. Insert prepositions where necessary:
+. . HMe K[I VaHKIRLPQH HKRMJgIR ... K[I VPRJLJg. 2. . VIK [IR ... K[I sLRHK KLVI ... M eMRV HQJJa VPRJLJg ...
NMHK HZRLJg. 4. . RITPgJLIq [IR sMTI ... K[I eLJqPe. 3. . HMe JP HLgJ ... IJxa ... [IR IaIH. *. nLq aPQ
TPJsIHH ... MJaK[LJg ... RIKQRJ{ ,. wMLK... VI ... ZNMKsPRV 1P. 4 ... K[I /K. \IKIRH`QRg RMLNeMaHKMsLPJ ... [MNs
ZMHK KIJ. 7. w[MK [MxI aPQ gPK ... aPQR [MJq{ b. . JIxIR MTKIq ... K[I HKMgI. 2. /[I HVLNIq ... [IR sINNPe
ZMHHIJgIRH. +). . [IMRq [LV RITLKI ... M TPJTIRK ... NMHK eIIz. ++. uMNz ... [IR ... K[I sII. +2. |I HKRQTz K[I
KM`NI ... [LH [MJq. +4. nLq K[Ia HQZZNa aPQ ... IxIRaK[LJg{ +3. . RITPgJLIq [IR ... aPQR qIHTRLZKLPJ. +*. mQHK M
VLJQKI. . H[MNN TPJHQNK... K[I KLVIKM`NI. +,. w[MK ZRIxIJKIq aPQ ... TPJsIHHLJg ... IxIRaK[LJg{ +7. u[I
HLKQMKLPJ LH xIRa MezeMRq! `QK . K[LJz . TMJ [INZ ... LK. +b. ... PK[IR ePRqH aPQ [MxIJlK P`IaIq ... Va LJ
HKRQTKLPJH. +2. u[Ia RMJ ... TMRRLMgI ... TMRRLMgI ... K[I ZNMKsPRV. 2). |I HMLq LK... M sLK... MJgIR. 2+. /[I
JPqqIq ... VI ... M gRMxI MLR. 22. .KlH M VaHKIRa ... VI. 24. . eMHJlK HMKLHsLIq ... [IR xMgQI MJHeIR. 23. . TMJlK
KINN aPQ [Pe eI MNN VLHH ... aPQ. 2*. . TMJlK qP ... K[LH KISK`PPz. 2,. . TMJ [MRqNa HII MJaK[LJg ... K[LH NLg[K.
27. nP aPQ K[LJz . TMJ qP Va NIHHPJH e[IJ aPQ MRI HKMJqLJg ... K[I NLg[K{ 2b. |MH [I VMJa ZQZLNH ... [MJq{
X. TransIate these sentences into Russian:
+. /LKKLJg MK [IR `QRIMQ H[I gMIq MK K[I sMVLNLMR P`ITKH MRPQJq [IR. 2. yPQlxI qPJI VI M gRIMK HIRxLTI.
|Pe H[MNN . IxIR `I M`NI KP RIZMa aPQ sPR aPQR zLJqJIHH{ 4. .K eLNN JIxIR qP KP P`Ia aPQR IxIRa LVZQNHI. 3.
.J K[LH KPeJ aPQlNN JIxIR sLJq M JQRHIRaVMLq sPR NPxI PR VPJIa. \IPZNI [IRI [MxI NPHK KMHKI sPR qPVIHKLT
HIRxLTI. *. .J [LH [MJqHPVIJIHH MJq MHHQRMJTI O[MRNIH .xPRa eMH qRMVMKLTMNNa LVZRIHHLxI. ,. .K eMH PJNa
KeP eIIzH NMKIR K[MK pRMJz KPPz [LH qIZMRKQRI sRPV wMKIRVMJ MJq OPVZMJa. 7. 0a K[LH KLVI /LNxIR [Mq
MqPZKIq fQLKI M sRLIJqNa MJq sMVLNLMR KPJI. b. u[MK eMH [Pe [I MNeMaH RIVIV`IRIq [IR MsKIReMRqH: M HNIJqIR
gLRN eMxLJg sMRIeINN KP [LV sRPV K[I HQJNLK ZPRT[.
XI. Try your band at teaching.
Say what yon wouId do in the teacher's position:
vMRa eMH MJ ISTINNIJK ZQZLN sRPV K[I sLRHK qMa H[I IJKIRIq HT[PPN. /[I eMH zJPeJ KP MNN K[I KIMT[IRH MH
rK[I ISTIZKLPJMNNa `RLg[K gLRN.r /[I eMH K[I IJxa Ps VMJa T[LNqRIJ e[P PZIJNa MqVLKKIq K[MK K[Ia ePQNq
NLzI KP `I NLzI [IR. dK [PVI! H[I eMH ZNMTIq PJ M ZIqIHKMN!r JPK[LJg eMH IxIR qIJLIq KP [IR. u[I T[LNqRIJ
ISZITKIq MJq MTTIZKIq K[MK vMRalH ePRz eMH MNeMaH ZIRsITK. oJI TMJ LVMgLJI K[I H[PTz IxIRaPJI
ISZIRLIJTIq e[IJ PJI qMa vMRa sNIe LJKP M RMgI e[IJ H[I VLHHIq K[RII ePRqH LJ M HZINNLJg KIHK! MJq [IR
++*
RIHQNKH eIRI ePRHI K[MJ HPVI PK[IRHl. pLRHK vMRa KPRI QZ [IR ZMZIR! K[IJ H[I ZRPTIIqIq KP KIMR QZ [IR
HZINNLJg `PPz. /[I HTRIMVIq K[MK K[I PK[IRH T[IMKIq! K[MK H[I eMH MNeMaH K[I `IHK MJq MNeMaH eLNN `I.
XII. a) ReteII the text: 1) in the third person; 2) as if yon ware the narrator's friend who was Ieaving for
America; 3) as if you were the young American Iady; :' as if yon were Le Ros.
b) Give a summary of the story.
XIII. TransIate these sentences into EngIish:
+. t $D $ 5 =685 >. 2. &% $; 6 $
$8$! ! > 86! ; ; 6D. 4. ~; 6 $8$
$ 6D7 6. 3. ?$6 6$ ;
. *. ' $ 8 >6 +, . ,. $>! 8
$D6 ; ]. 7. < 5 ! E 6 ;. b. (
(LJsPRVMKLPJ) 7 9 $ 7. 2. ' 6 =685 . +). _ !
8 D! 8 D6 ; $>; . X. < ;>5 !
$; 6! 6 . +2. 88 $ $ %8 =6 ;$. +4.
< 5 ; : 8 6 6 >! 6 ! 8
86 $6D. +3. "8 8 ;8 ; =65 67.
XIV. Act out the scene:
rw[IRI MRI aPQ sPR{r K[I KRMLJ TPJqQTKPR MHzIq MJ PNq NMqa.
ryPQlRI xIRa LVZIRKLJIJK!r HJMZZIq K[I PNq NMqa. rw[MK `QHLJIHH LH LK Ps aPQRH e[IRI . MV gPLJg{ 0QK Ls
aPQ VQHK zJPe! . MV `PQJq sPR 0PHKPJ.r
u[I TPJqQTKPR P`NLgLJgNa ZLTzIq QZ [IR K[RII `MgH! sPQJq [IR M HIMK LJ K[I 0PHKPJ KRMLJ MJq ZQK K[I `MgH
PJ K[I RMTz. dH [I NIsK K[I TMRRLMgI! K[I PNq NMqa NIMJIq PQK Ps K[I eLJqPe MJq TMTzNIq MK [LV. r. gQIHH .
sPPNIq aPQ! aPQ LVZIRKLJIJK aPQJg VMJ. .lV RIMNNa gPLJg KP 0QssMNP.r
XV. Go over the text of Unit 8 again to discuss the foIIowing in cIass. Let someone agree or disagree and
express their own opinion (see the Prompts suggested):
+. w[MK zLJq Ps VMJ LH qIHTRL`Iq LJ K[I T[MRMTKIR Ps iI PH{ nP aPQ TPJHLqIR K[I T[MRMTKIR KRQI KP NLsI PR
LH LK ISMggIRMKIq{ w[LT[ VIK[Pq Ps T[MRMTKIRLMKLPJ qPIH K[I MQK[PR QHI! qLRITK PR LJqLRITK{ (\RPxI aPQR
ZPLJK.) 2. .H K[I HKPRa QHK MJ MVQHLJg MJITqPKI PR qPIH LK TPJKMLJ INIVIJKH Ps HPTLMN HMKLRI{ (\RPxI aPQR
ZPLJK) 4. w[LT[ NLJIH MJq ZMHHMgIH `IMR KPQT[IH Ps [QVPQR{ w[MK KaZI Ps [QVPQR ZRIxMLNH LJ K[I HKPRa{
OPVZMRI K[I HKPRa eLK[ r|Pe wI jIZK vPK[IRlH nMa.r w[LT[ Ps K[I KeP qP aPQ TPJHLqIR VPRI MVQHLJg
MJq e[a{ w[LT[ LH VPRI KRQI KP NLsI{ w[LT[ RMLHIH VPRI LVZPRKMJK ZRP`NIVH{ 3. w[MK TMJ aPQ HMa M`PQK
K[I NMJgQMgI Ps K[I HKPRa{ (uPQT[ PJ: M) HINITKLPJ Ps ePRqH! `) HaJKMS.)
\RPVZKH: true enoughD a2&o9ute9y-eZa5t9y-CuiteD I 5ou9dn?t agree +oreD ye&, 2ut &ure9y you don?t thin'D
ye&, 2ut on the other handD a& I &ee it, in +y view (o4inionBD 4er&ona99y I 2e9ieve (I fee9BD I?d 1u&t 9i'e to &ay,
the way I &ee itD if you a&' VI: it?& 9i'e thi&D oh, &ure9y not, md rather not &ay anything a2out"
LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)
1. Listen to the text "Seeing People Off", mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat it following the
model.
2. Respond to the given questions according to the model.
3. Extend the statements. Express your disbelief, surprise or doubt in response to the given
sentences. Follow the models.
4. Write a spelling-translation test: a) translate the phrases into English; b) check them with the
key.
5. Listen to the text "Climbing" or some other text on the topic "Seeing People off" and write it as
a reproduction.
6. Listen to the poem "Adieu, adieul.." by G. G. Byron. Mark the stresses and tunes, repeat it
following the model and learn it by heart.
TOP!: TRAVELLING
TEXT A. DIFFERENT MEANS OF TRAVEL .
d N I S : \IRHPJMNNa + [MKI HIILJg ZIPZNI Pss. . ZRIsIR `ILJg HIIJ Pss VaHINs. .lV ISKRIVINa sPJq Ps
KRMxINNLJg MJq sIIN KIRRL`Na IJxLPQH Ps MJa sRLIJq e[P LH gPLJg MJae[IRI. . TMJlK [INZ sIINLJg . H[PQNq HP
VQT[ NLzI KP `I LJ [LH ZNMTI.
0 I R K : 0QK e[MK VIK[Pq Ps KRMxINNLJg qP aPQ ZRIsIR{
d.: pPR VI K[IRI LH JPK[LJg NLzI KRMxIN `a MLR; LK LH VPRI TPVsPRKM`NI! VPRI TPJxIJLIJK MJq Ps TPQRHI sMR
fQLTzIR K[MJ MJa PK[IR VIK[Pq. u[IRI LH JPJI Ps K[I qQHK MJq qLRK Ps M RMLNeMa PR TMR PQRJIa! JPJI Ps K[I
KRPQ`NI Ps T[MJgLJg sRPV KRMLJ KP HKIMVIR MJq K[IJ KP MJPK[IR KRMLJ. 0IHLqIH! sNaLJg LH M K[RLNNLJg K[LJg. nPJlK
aPQ MgRII{
.: . K[LJz . H[PQNq NLzI KP HMa M ePRq PR KeP sPR KRMLJH. wLK[ M KRMLJ aPQ [MxI HZIIq! TPVsPRK MJq ZNIMHQRI
++,
TPV`LJIq. pRPV K[I TPVsPRKM`NI TPRJIR HIMK Ps M RMLNeMa TMRRLMgI aPQ [MxI M HZNIJqLq xLIe Ps K[I e[PNI
TPQJKRaHLqI. .s aPQ MRI [QJgRa! aPQ TMJ [MxI M VIMN LJ K[I qLJLJgTMR; MJq Ls K[I PQRJIa LH M NPJg PJI aPQ
TMJ [MxI M ePJqIRsQN `Iq LJ M HNIIZIR. 0IHLqIH! qP aPQ zJPe MJa ZNMTI K[MKlH VPRI LJKIRIHKLJg K[MJ M `Lg
RMLNeMaHKMKLPJ{ u[IRI LH K[I VPxIVIJK! K[I ISTLKIVIJK! K[I gMLIKa Ps ZIPZNI gPLJg MeMa PR eMLKLJg KP VIIK
sRLIJqH. u[IRI MRI K[I H[PQKH Ps K[I ZPRKIRH MH K[Ia ZQNN NQggMgI MNPJg K[I ZNMKsPRVH KP K[I eMLKLJg KRMLJH! K[I
TRPeq MK K[I `PPzLJgPssLTI gIKKLJg KLTzIKH! K[I [QJgRa MJq K[LRHKa PJIH [QRRaLJg KP K[I RIsRIH[VIJK RPPVH
`IsPRI K[I KRMLJ HKMRKH. 1P! RIMNNac nP aPQ zJPe M VPRI ISTLKLJg ZNMTI K[MJ M `Lg RMLNeMaHKMKLPJ{
( L N : . qP.
d.: dJq K[MK LH{
O: d `Lg HIM ZPRK! pPR VI K[IRI LH JP KRMxIN HP sLJI MH `a `PMK. . NPxI KP sIIN K[I qITz Ps K[I `PMK QJqIR Va
sIIK! KP HII K[I RLHI MJq sMNN Ps K[I eMxIH! KP sIIN K[I sRIH[ HIM eLJq `NPeLJg LJ Va sMTI MJq [IMR K[I TRa Ps
K[I HIMgQNNH. dJq e[MK ISTLKIVIJK! KPP! K[IRI LH LJ TPVLJg LJKP K[I [MR`PQR MJq HIILJg RPQJq QH MNN K[I
H[LZH! HKIMVIRH! TMRgPH[LZH! HMLNLJg H[LZH! RPeLJg `PMKH.
d.: wINN! . HQZZPHI K[MKlH MNN RLg[K sPR K[PHI K[MK NLzI LK! `QK JPK sPR VI. .lV MNeMaH HIMHLTz! IHZITLMNNa
e[IJ K[I HIM LH M NLKKNI `LK RPQg[.
.: .lxI [IMRq K[MK M gPPq TQRI sPR HIMHLTzJIHH LH M HVMNN ZLITI Ps qRa `RIMq.
d.: vMa`I; `QK . K[LJz M `IKKIR TQRI LH M NMRgI ZLITI Ps qRa NMJq.
n M x L q : wINN! aPQ VMa HMa e[MK aPQ NLzI M`PQK MIRPZNMJI sNLg[KH! HIM xPaMgIH! RMLNeMa PQRJIaH PR
KPQRH `a TMR! `QK gLxI VI M eMNzLJg KPQR MJa KLVI. w[MK qPIH K[I VPKPRLHK HII Ps K[I TPQJKRa{ 0QK K[I
eMNzIR NIMxIH K[I qQNN `RPMq [Lg[eMa MJq gPIH MNPJg NLKKNI eLJqLJg NMJIH e[IRI TMRH TMJlK gP. |I KMzIH
VPQJKMLJ ZMK[H K[RPQg[ K[I [IMK[IR! [I eMJqIRH `a K[I HLqI Ps fQLIK NMzIH MJq K[RPQg[ K[I H[MqI Ps ePPqH.
|I HIIH K[I RIMN TPQJKRa! K[I eLNq sNPeIRH! K[I aPQJg `LRqH LJ K[ILR JIHKH! K[I qIIR LJ K[I sPRIHK; [I sIINH K[I
fQLIKJIHH MJq TMNV Ps JMKQRI.
dJq `IHLqIH! aPQ MRI HMxLJg aPQR RMLNeMa sMRI KRMxINNLJg PJ sPPK 1P PJI TMJ qIJa K[MK eMNzLJg LH K[I
T[IMZIHK VIK[Pq Ps KRMxINNLJg!
/P . HMa: M eMNzLJg KPQR sPR VI.
(*ro+ rGHHIJKLMN GJgNLH[ sPR pPRILgJ /KQqIJKHr `a (. G. GTzIRHNIa! 0PPz 3! iJq.! +2**)
TEXT B. AT THE STATION
p.: wINN! [IRI eI MRI MK NMHKc w[IJ . gIK LJKP K[I `PMKKRMLJ!
7+
. sIIN K[MK [PNLqMaH [MxI MNRIMqa `IgQJ.
|MxI aPQ gPK K[I KLTzIKH! mMJ{
m.: yIH! [IRI K[Ia MRI. . `PPzIq HIMKH sPR aPQ MJq VI; KRMLJH MRI QHQMNNa TRPeqIq MK K[LH KLVI. wI [MxI
JQV`IRH d 2, MJq d 4); KeP TPRJIRHIMKH LJ M JPJHVPzIR! PJI HIMK sMTLJg K[I IJgLJI! PJI `MTz KP K[I
IJgLJI. .H K[MK MNN RLg[K{
p.: u[MKlH xIRa gPPq! mMJ. . qPJlK NLzI gPLJg M NPJg PQRJIa LJ M HVPzIR. vMa . HLK sMTLJg K[I IJgLJI{
m.: os TPQRHIc yPQ TMJ KMzI e[LT[IxIR HIMK aPQ NLzI. dH M VMKKIR Ps sMTK! . RIMNNa ZRIsIR HLKKLJg eLK[ Va
`MTz KP K[I IJgLJI. |IRIlH PQR TMRRLMgI! d! MJq [IRIlH PQR TPVZMRKVIJK. yPQ TMJ gIK LJKP K[I KRMLJ JPe.
p.: iQTa! ePJlK aPQ TPVI LJKP K[I TMRRLMgI eLK[ VI{ yPQ eLNN `I eMJJIR LJHLqI.
i: u[MJzH! . eLNN.
m.: .lNN gP MJq HII K[MK PQR NQggMgI [MH `IIJ ZQK LJKP K[I gQMRqlH xMJ! MJq .lNN `PPz KeP HIMKH LJ K[I
RIHKMQRMJK TMR sPR NQJT[. .lNN gIK HPVI JIeHZMZIRH MK K[I `PPzHKMNN MJq HPVI T[PT[PNMKI PJ Va eMa `MTz.
(_e goe& away"B
i.: mMJ LH M gPPq sINNPe sPR gIKKLJg K[LJgH qPJI! LHJlK [I{
p.: |I LH. . qPJlK zJPe MJaPJI `IKKIR. .lV xIRa gNMq [I LH TPVLJg eLK[ VI. . zJPe K[MK . H[MNN [MxI M xIRa
TPVsPRKM`NI PQRJIa. mMJ eLNN HII KP IxIRaK[LJg sLJq K[I HIMKH PJ K[I KRMLJ! HII K[MK Va NQggMgI LH MNN
RLg[K! MJq gIK LK K[RPQg[ K[I TQHKPVH. . H[MJlK [MxI KP qP MJaK[LJg MK MNN ISTIZK HLK `MTz MJq IJPa K[I
PQRJIa.
(sRPV rGHHIJKLMN GJgNLH[ sPR pPRILgJ /KQqIJKHr 2y (. ~. GTzIRHNIa! 0PPz 2. iJq.! +277)
7+
boat-train: K[I KRMLJ K[MK KMzIH ZMHHIJgIRH KP M H[LZ
++7
TEXT C. A VOYAGE ROUND EUROPE
i.: |INNP! dJJI. dRI aPQ `MTz sRPV aPQR [PNLqMaH MNRIMqa{ oPP! aPQlRI NPxINa MJq `RPeJc w[IRI [MxI
aPQ `IIJ{
d.: o[! .lxI [Mq M sMJKMHKLT KLVIm .lxI QHK `IIJ PJ M TRQLHI RPQJq GQRPZI eLK[ Va nMq.
i.: o[! aPQ NQTza K[LJgc yPQ VQHK [MxI HIIJ HP VMJa LJKIRIHKLJg ZNMTIH. w[IRI qLq aPQ HMLN sRPV{
d.: wINN! eI NIsK sRPV oqIHHM...
i.: nLq aPQ TMNN MK MJa GQRPZIMJ ZPRKH{
d.: yIH. QLKI M NPK. wI eIJK MH[PRI MK IMT[ PJI MJq eIJK PJ HPVI RIMNNa LJKIRIHKLJg KRLZH HLg[KHIILJg.
i.: nLq aPQ gP `a KRMLJ PR qLq aPQ [LRI M TMR{
d.: 1P! eI eIJK `a TPMT[.
72
1Pe . TMJ HMa .lxI HIIJ PVI! iPJqPJ! \MRLH MJq dK[IJH.
i.: oPP! .lV HP IJxLPQH. wIRI aPQ IxIR HIMHLTz{
d.: oJNa M NLKKNI! . eMH sLJI! QJKLN KeP qMaH MsKIR UL`RMNKMR! u[I HIM HQqqIJNa `ITMVI xIRa RPQg[! MJq .
[Mq KP HKMa LJ Va TM`LJ.
i.: w[MK M H[MVI. 0QK eMH aPQR sMK[IR MNN RLg[K{
d.: yIH! [I eMH sLJI MNN K[I KLVI. |IlH JIxIR HIMHLTz!
i.: nLq aPQ gP MH[PRI e[IJ aPQ RIMT[Iq /ZMLJ{
d.: 1P! eI PJNa HMe K[I TPMHKNLJI sRPV K[I qITz. .K qLqJlK RIMNNa NPPz xIRa LJxLKLJg! M `LK `MRI MJq
VPJPKPJPQH! LJ sMTK.
i.: dJq qLq aPQ gP sPR M HeLV LJ K[I vIqLKIRRMJIMJ{
d.: yIH! MJq LJ K[I dKNMJKLT oTIMJ KPP. u[IRI MRI HPVI `IMQKLsQN `IMT[IH PJ K[I eIHK TPMHK Ps pRMJTI! .KlH
HP JLTI KP [MxI M HeLV K[IRI.
i: wINN! .lV gNMq aPQlxI [Mq HQT[ M NPxINa KLVIc
Memory Work
From a Railway Carriage
pMHKIR K[MJ sMLRLIH! sMHKIR K[MJ eLKT[IH!
0RLqgIH MJq [PQHIH! [IqgIH MJq qLKT[IH;
dJq T[MRgLJg MNPJg NLzI KRPPZH LJ M `MKKNI!
dNN K[RPQg[ K[I VIMqPeH! K[I [PRHIH MJq TMKKNI;
dNN Ps K[I HLg[KH Ps K[I [LNN MJq K[I ZNMLJ
pNa MH K[LTz MH qRLxLJg RMLJ;
dJq IxIR MgMLJ! LJ K[I eLJz Ps MJ IaI!
\MLJKIq HKMKLPJH e[LHKNI `a.
|IRI LH M T[LNq e[P TNMV`IRH MJq HTRMV`NIH!
dNN `a [LVHINs MJq gMK[IRLJg `RMV`NIH;
|IRI LH M KRMVZ e[P HKMJqH MJq gMIH;
dJq K[IRIlH K[I gRIIJ sPR HKRLJgLJg K[I qMLHLIHc
|IRI LH M TMRK RQJ MeMa LJ K[I RPMq!
iQVZLJg MNPJg eLK[ VMJ MJq NPMq;
dJq [IRI LH M VLNN MJq K[IRIlH M RLxIR;
GMT[ M gNLVZHI MJq gPJI sPR IxIRc Yo2ert )" /teven&on
NOTES ON SYNONYMS
u[I MTK Ps KRMxINNLJg TMJ `I qIHTRL`Iq `a M JQV`IR Ps HaJPJaVH e[LT[ qLssIR `a xMRLPQH LVZNLTMKLPJH
(HII 1PKIH PJ /aJPJaVH! Z. +b). u[Ia MNN qIHTRL`I K[I MTK Ps gPLJg sRPV PJI ZNMTI KP MJPK[IR (K[MK LH e[a
K[Ia MRI HaJPJaVH)! `QK qLssIR `a K[I NIJgK[ Ps KLVI KMzIJ `a K[MK MTK! `a LKH ZQRZPHI! qIHKLJMKLPJ PR `a K[I
VIK[Pq Ps KRMxINNLJg.
travel n: K[I MTK Ps KRMxINNLJg! IHZ. M NPJg PJI LJ qLHKMJK PR sPRILgJ ZNMTIH! ILK[IR sPR K[I ZQRZPHI Ps
qLHTPxIRLJg HPVIK[LJg JIe PR LJ HIMRT[ Ps ZNIMHQRI MJq MqxIJKQRI. (pRIf. in the 49ura9"BD ."g" |I LH eRLKLJg M
`PPz M`PQK [LH KRMxINH LJ dsRLTM.
journey n: K[I MTK Ps gPLJg sRPV PJI ZNMTI KP MJPK[IR! QHQMNNa KMzLJg M RMK[IR NPJg KLVI; ."g" .KlH M K[RII
qMaHl PQRJIa `a KRMLJ. yPQlNN [MxI KP VMzI K[I PQRJIa MNPJI. UPLJg PJ M PQRJIa LH MNeMaH ISTLKLJg.
voyage n: M RMK[IR NPJg PQRJIa! IHZ. `a eMKIR PR MLR; ."g" .lq NPxI KP gP PJ M xPaMgI! ePQNq aPQ{ u[I LqIM
Ps MJ dKNMJKLT xPaMgI KIRRLsLIq [IR: H[I eMH HQRI KP `I HIMHLTz MNN K[I KLVI.
trip n: M PQRJIa! MJ ISTQRHLPJ! sRIf. M `RLIs PJI! VMqI `a NMJq PR eMKIR; ."g" nLq aPQ IJPa aPQR eIIz
IJq KRLZ KP K[I HIMHLqI{
tour n: M PQRJIa LJ e[LT[ M H[PRK HKMa LH VMqI MK M JQV`IR Ps ZNMTIH (QHQ. eLK[ K[I xLIe Ps HLg[KHIILJg)!
K[I KRMxINNIR sLJMNNa RIKQRJLJg KP K[I ZNMTI sRPV e[LT[ [I [Mq HKMRKIq; ."g" oJ PQR /PQK[IRJGJgNMJq KPQR eI
72
coach: a NPJgqLHKMJTI `QH
++b
xLHLKIq wLJqHPR! oSsPRq! OMV`RLqgI! /KRMKsPRqPJdxPJ MJq K[IJ TMVI `MTz KP iPJqPJ.
cruise n WzJL:: M HIM xPaMgI sRPV ZPRK KP ZPRK! IHZ. M ZNIMHQRI KRLZ; ."g" u[I vIqLKIRRMJIMJ TRQLHI
ZRPVLHIq VMJa LJKIRIHKLJg LVZRIHHLPJH.
hitch-hiking n: KRMxINNLJg `a gIKKLJg sRII RLqIH LJ ZMHHLJg MQKPVP`LNIH MJq eMNzLJg `IKeIIJ RLqIH; ."g"
|LKT[[LzLJg LH M TPVZMRMKLxINa JIe eMa Ps KRMxINNLJg e[LT[ gLxIH PJI M T[MJTI KP HII VQT[ eLK[PQK
HZIJqLJg MJaK[LJg.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY ()
Words
`PPzLJgPssLTI n PQRJIa n HVPzIR
TM`LJ n [LKT[[LzLJg n (HVPzLJgTMR) n
TMRgPH[LZ n NQggMgI n HZIIq n
TRQLHI n NQggMgIxMJ n HKIMVIR n
qITz n ZPRKIR n KPQR n
qLJLJgTMR n RPQg[ ad1 KRMxIN n
IJgLJI n HMLN , KRLZ n
sMRI n HIMgQNN n xPaMgI n
sNLg[K n HIMHLTzJIHH n eMNzIR n
gQLqI n HNIIZIR (HNIIZLJgTMR) n eMxI n
Word Combinations
KP gP PJ M PQRJIa! KRLZ! KP KRMxIN HITPJq/HKMJqMRq
xPaMgI! M ZMTzMgI KPQR TNMHH
KP KRMxIN `a MLR (KRMLJ! KP TMNN MK M ZPRK
`PMK! TRQLHIR! NLJIR! IKT.) KP gP MH[PRI
KP T[MJgI sRPV KRMLJ KP `PMK! `Mq (gPPq) HMLNPR
(TRQLHIR! NLJIR) KP VMzI M KRLZ! PQRJIa
(0QK: KP T[MJgI sPR M `PMK. PJ qITz
09&o: w[IRI qP . T[MJgI sPR PJ H[PRI
\MRLH{) KP NPPz LJxLKLJg
KP `I HIMHLTz! KP `I KRMxINHLTz KP `I qQI MK (M ZNMTI)
(LJ MJa zLJq Ps KRMJHZPRK) qLRITK/K[RPQg[ KRMLJ
HLJgNI KLTzIK aPQ TMJlK `IMK K[I KRMLJ
RIKQRJ KLTzIK (RIKQRJ `IRK[) M [PVI NPxIR/HKMaMK[PVI/
KP KRMxIN/gP sLRHK TNMHH M [PVIHKMa KaZI
EXERCISES
I. Answer the questions. Be carefuI to argue your case weII:
+. w[MK VIMJH Ps KRMxIN qP aPQ zJPe{ 2. w[a MRI VMJa ZIPZNI sPJq Ps KRMxINNLJg{ 4. w[a qP HPVI
ZIPZNI NLzI KRMxINNLJg `a KRMLJ{ 3. nP aPQ NLzI KRMxINNLJg `a KRMLJ{ w[MK VMzIH aPQ NLzI/qLHNLzI LK{ *. w[MK
MRI K[I MqxMJKMgIH Ps M HIMxPaMgI{ ,. w[MK MRI K[I MqxMJKMgIH Ps [LKT[[LzLJg{ 7. w[MK zLJq Ps ZIPZNI
QHQMNNa P`ITK KP KRMxINNLJg `a HIM{ b. w[MK MRI K[I MqxMJKMgIH MJq qLHMqxMJKMgIH Ps KRMxINNLJg `a MLR{ |MxI
aPQ IxIR KRMxINNIq `a MLR{ |Pe qP aPQ NLzI LK{ 2. w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz M`PQK eMNzLJg KPQRH{ +). w[MK LH! LJ
aPQR PZLJLPJ! K[I VPHK IJPaM`NI VIMJH Ps KRMxIN{ ++. w[MK eMa Ps KRMxINNLJg MssPRqH VPHK TPVsPRK sPR
INqIRNa ZIPZNI{ (ULxI aPQR RIMHPJH.) +2. nP aPQ K[LJz KRMxIN [INZH M ZIRHPJ KP `ITPVI eLHIR{
II. FiII in appropriate words (consuIt the Iist of synonyms on pp. 291- 292):.
.. .lq `I qINLg[KIq KP gP PJ M HIM .... `QK Va eLsI [MH JIxIR `IIJ M gPPq HMLNPR! HP eI TMJlK PLJ aPQ. 2.
iMHK eIIz eI VMqI M ePJqIRsQN ... KP K[I VPQJKMLJH. .K KPPz QH sPQR [PQRH
{{{ 223 4, =8{ 9 ;9{{{
1 L J M : dJq e[IRI qLq aPQ gP ... MH[PRI{
d N I S : o[! ... HPVI HZPK aPQ MRI JPK NLzINa KP sLJq ... MJa VMZ. wINN! e[IJ eI sPQJq PQRHINxIH ... K[I
`MJz eI LVVIqLMKINa HKMRKIq ... K[I ZNMTI e[IRI PQR ISZIqLKPJ eMH ePRzLJg.
1 L J M : nLq aPQ gP ... TMR{
d N I S : o[! JPc 1P TMR TPQNq [MxI qRLxIJ ... K[PHI ZMK[H. wI KRMxINNIq ZMRKNa... sPPK! MJq ... HPVI
ZNMTIH eIJK... HVMNN RLxIRH MJq HKRIMVH ... RPeLJg`PMKH. wI eIRI ... HZPKH e[IRI JP VMJlH sPPK [Mq
HKIZZIq ... QH.
1 L J M : |Pe ISTLKLJgc /P aPQ IJPaIq ... K[I PQRJIa! qLqJlK aPQ{
d N I S : GxIRa VLJQKI ... LK! K[PQg[ LK eMH JPK MJ IMHa PJI.
1 L J M : nLq aPQ RIKQRJ ... MLR{
d N I S : 1P!... KRMLJ. u[I sMTK LH! . [Mq [MRqNa IJPQg[ VPJIa ... K[I RMLNeMa sMRI! JPK KP HMa MJaK[LJg ...
++2
K[I ZNMJI.
VII. RoIe-pIaying.
Work in groups of four or five:
yPQ MRI M sMVLNa qITLqLJg PJ K[I KaZI Ps [PNLqMa aPQ eLNN gP PJ JISK HQVVIR. u[IJ RIZPRK KP K[I PK[IR
sMVLNLIH PJ aPQR sLJMN qITLHLPJ! ISZNMLJLJg K[I RIMHPJH sPR aPQR T[PLTI. \PLJK PQK MqxMJKMgIH MJq
qLHMqxMJKMgIH! gLxLJg eMRJLJg `MHIq PJ ZIRHPJMN ISZIRLIJTI.
VIII. TransIate the foIIowing into EngIish:
+. 8 96 @AB{ _5 { 2. 6 77 $
D. 9 D $ ; 7 $5 67. 4. (; $ D
9 5 <6. Y$ $8 $ $ ?$. 3. ' $; 6
96 . A 8 D$ 8. $5 D$
89 $D9. *. D$ $% ; D9 D 7
;. ,. " 8 ! 6 5 >8 89 7. <8
9 9! 7! $ 6. < 86
. 7. ( D D ; ;; !
D; ~. b. 8 ; D6 685 ;! $ 8
; ; $. ; 8 $. < 6 8 6
8$. 2. - 6 $; ={ Y6 $; !
$; ;>.
IX. Make up diaIogues.
/ Q g g I H K I q H L K Q M K L P J H :
d. ueP sRLIJqH MRI qLHTQHHLJg qLssIRIJK eMaH Ps HZIJqLJg K[ILR [PNLqMaH. u[Ia `PK[ eMJK KP KRMxIN! `QK
PJI Ps K[IV LH MJ IJK[QHLMHK RIMqa sPR MJaK[LJg MJq K[I PK[IR LH M TMQKLPQH MJq M HTIZKLTMN ZIRHPJ. (}HI K[I
sPNNPeLJg: there i& nothing 9i'e trave9 2y air-2y &ea, et5", it i& +ore 5onvenient to """D there i& none of the """D
&4eed, 5o+fort and 49ea&ure 5o+2inedD there i& no trave9 &o fine a& 2y"""D the ri&e and fa99 of the wave&D
5o+ing in to the har2our, that?& a99 right for tho&e that 9i'e itD when the &ea i& roughD hit5hGhi'ingD it?& ri&'y,
i&n?t itO I 4refer to 2e on the &afe &ideD I?d rather &tay at ho+e"B
0. d ZIRHPJ e[P [MH QHK RIKQRJIq sRPV M sPRILgJ TRQLHI LH MJHeIRLJg K[I fQIHKLPJH Ps MJ IMgIR NLHKIJIR.
(}HI K[I sPNNPeLJg: a +o&t eZ5iting eZ4erien5eD I rea99y envy youD do te99 +e a99 a2out it, where did you &ai9
fro+c what were your 4ort& of 5o99i go a&horeD go &ight&eeingD what wa& the 49a5e that i+4re&&ed you +o&tO
I didn?t thin' +u5h of...; the 1ourney wa& tiringD 2ut you did en1oy it, didn?t youOB
O. dJ PNq NMqa LH KMNzLJg KP M ZPRKIR MK K[I RMLNeMa ZNMKsPRV. /[I zIIZH sPRgIKKLJg K[I JMVI Ps K[I ZNMTI
H[I LH gPLJg KP MJq qPIH JPK fQLKI zJPe [Pe VMJa ZLITIH Ps NQggMgI H[I [MH. (}HI K[I sPNNPeLJg: wi99 you
&ee to +y 9uggagec where for, +ada+c it 1u&t &9i44ed +y +e+ory, it?& a &ort of re&ort 49a5eD wou9d you 9i'e
+e to have the&e trun'& 4ut in the 9uggageGvanc where on earth i& that &uit5a&ec it wi99 never go on the
9uggageGra5'D I +u&t have a &eat fa5ing the engineD dear +e, I?+ &ure to +i&& the trainD i& it a through
trainc I hate to 5hangeD when are we due to arrivecB
;. a) TransIate the foIIowing fragment into Russian in written form:
w[IJ aPQR H[LZ NIMxIH |PJPNQNQ K[Ia [MJg lNILHl RPQJq aPQR JITz! gMRNMJqH Ps HeIIKHVINNLJg sNPeIRH.
u[I e[MRs LH TRPeqIq MJq K[I `MJq ZNMaH M VINKLJg |MeMLLMJ KQJI. u[I ZIPZNI PJ `PMRq K[RPe TPNPQRIq
HKRIMVIRH KP K[PHI HKMJqLJg `INPe! MJq K[I HLqI Ps K[I H[LZ LH gMa eLK[ K[I K[LJ NLJIH Ps ZMZIR! RIq MJq gRIIJ
MJq aINNPe MJq `NQI. w[IJ K[I H[LZ VPxIH HNPeNa MeMa K[I HKRIMVIRH `RIMz HPsKNa! MJq LK LH NLzI K[I
`RIMzLJg Ps [QVMJ KLIH. vIJ MJq ePVIJ MRI PLJIq KPgIK[IR sPR M VPVIJK! `a M gMLNa TPNPQRIq HKRLZ Ps
ZMZIR! RIq MJq `NQI MJq gRIIJ MJq aINNPe! MJq K[IJ NLsI HIZMRMKIH K[IV MJq K[I ZMZIR LH HQJqIRIq! HP IMHLNa!
eLK[ M NLKKNI H[MRZ HJMZ. pPR MJ [PQR K[I sRMgVIJKH KRMLN qPeJ K[I [QNN MJq K[IJ K[Ia `NPe MeMa. u[I sNPeIRH
Ps aPQR gMRNMJqH sMqI MJq K[ILR HTIJK LH PZZRIHHLxI. yPQ K[RPe K[IV PxIR`PMRq.
(*ro+ ru[I uRIV`NLJg Ps M iIMsr 2y w. /. vMQg[MV)
b) Compare the seeing-off ceremony described in the fragment with the one you read about in the
story "Seeing People Off".
c) Comment on the second part of the fragment beginning with the wordg "...it is like the breaking
of human ties". What does the description symbolize? Comment on the stylistic aspect of the
fragment.
XI. a) Read the text beIow and transIate it into Russian oraIIy:
A Sea Trip
r1Pr! HMLq |MRRLH! rLs aPQ eMJK RIHK MJq T[MJgI! aPQ TMJlK `IMK M HIM KRLZ.r
. P`ITKIq KP K[I HIM KRLZ HKRPJgNa. d HIM KRLZ qPIH aPQ gPPq e[IJ aPQ MRI gPLJg KP [MxI M TPQZNI Ps
VPJK[H Ps LK! `QK! sPR M eIIz! LK LH eLTzIq.
yPQ HKMRK PJ vPJqMa eLK[ K[I LqIM K[MK aPQ MRI gPLJg KP IJPa aPQRHINs. yPQ eMxI MJ MLRa MqLIQ KP K[I
+2)
`PaH PJ H[PRI! NLg[K aPQR `LggIHK ZLZI MJq HeMggIR M`PQK K[I qITz MH Ls aPQ eIRI OMZKMLJ OPPz! /LR pRMJTLH
nRMzI! MJq O[RLHKPZ[IR OPNQV`QH MNN RPNNIq LJKP PJI. oJ uQIHqMa aPQ eLH[ aPQ [MqJlK TPVI. oJ
wIqJIHqMa! u[QRHqMa MJq pRLqMa! aPQ eLH[ aPQ eIRI qIMq. oJ /MKQRqMa aPQ MRI M`NI KP HeMNNPe M NLKKNI
`IIs KIM! MJq KP HLK QZ PJ qITz! MJq MJHeIR eLK[ M eMJ! HeIIK HVLNI e[IJ zLJq[IMRKIq ZIPZNI MHz aPQ [Pe
aPQ sIIN JPe. oJ /QJqMa! aPQ `IgLJ KP eMNz M`PQK MgMLJ! MJq KMzI HPNLq sPPq. dJq PJ vPJqMa VPRJLJg! MH!
eLK[ aPQR `Mg MJq QV`RINNM LJ aPQR [MJq! aPQ HKMJq `a K[I gMJgeMa! eMLKLJg KP HKIZ MH[PRI! aPQ `IgLJ KP
K[PRPQg[Na NLzI LK.
. RIVIV`IR Va `RPK[IRLJNMe gPLJg sPR M H[PRK HIM KRLZ PJTI sPR K[I `IJIsLK Ps [LH [IMNK[. |I KPPz M
RIKQRJ `IRK[ sRPV iPJqPJ KP iLxIRZPPN; MJq e[IJ [I gPK KP iLxIRZPPN! K[I PJNa K[LJg [I eMH MJSLPQH M`PQK
eMH KP HINN K[MK RIKQRJ KLTzIK.
.K eMH PssIRIq RPQJq K[I KPeJ MK M KRIVIJqPQH RIqQTKLPJ; HP . MV KPNq; MJq eMH IxIJKQMNNa HPNq sPR
ILg[KIIJ ZIJTI KP M aPQK[ e[P [Mq QHK `IIJ MqxLHIq `a [LH VIqLTMN VMJ KP gP KP K[I HIMHLqI! MJq KMzI
ISIRTLHI.
r/IMHLqIcr HMLq Va `RPK[IRLJNMe! ZRIHHLJg K[I KLTzIK MssITKLPJMKINa LJKP [LH [MJq; re[a! aPQlNN gIK
IJPQg[ KP NMHK aPQ M NLsIKLVI; MJq MH sPR ISIRTLHIc e[a! aPQlNN gIK VPRI ISIRTLHI! HLKKLJg qPeJ PJ K[MK H[LZ!
K[MJ aPQ ePQNq KQRJLJg HPVIRHMQNKH PJ qRa NMJq.
|I [LVHINs Va `RPK[IRLJNMe TMVI `MTz `a KRMLJ. |I HMLq K[I 1PRK[wIHKIRJ MLNeMa eMH [IMNK[a
IJPQg[ sPR [LV. (*ro+ ru[RII vIJ LJ M 0PMKr 2y mIRPVI j. mIRPVI. 0da4tedB
b) Answer the foIIowing questions:
+. w[MK VMqI K[I JMRRMKPR P`ITK KP K[I HIM KRLZ{ 2. w[a qLq [LH `RPK[IRLJNMe HINN [LH RIKQRJ KLTzIK{ 4.
|Pe qLq [I qIHTRL`I K[I MqxMJKMgIH Ps M HIM KRLZ KP K[I aPQK[ e[P `PQg[K [LH KLTzIK{
"' Point out the Hues and passages that you consider humorous. Is it humour of situation or humour of
words! (AnaIyse each case separateIy.)
XII. Speak individuaIIy or arrange a discussion on the foIIowing:
+. w[MK MKKRMTKH ZIPZNI LJ K[I LqIM Ps KRMxINNLJg{
2. .H K[I RPVMJKLT MHZITK Ps KRMxINNLJg HKLNN MNLxI LJ PQR KLVI{
4. u[I TINI`RMKIq KRMxINNIRH Ps K[I ZMHK.
3. w[IRI MJq [Pe ePQNq aPQ NLzI KP KRMxIN{
XIII. Try your hand at teaching.
1. Arrange and run a conversation on the foIIowing text:
u[I oJNa wMa KP uRMxIN .H PJ pPPK
w[IJ MJK[RPZPNPgLHKH KQRJ K[ILR MKKIJKLPJ KP K[I KeIJKLIK[ TIJKQRa! K[Ia eLNN HQRINa T[PPHI K[I NM`IN
riIgNIHH vMJr. |LHKPRLIH Ps K[I KLVI eLNN gP HPVIK[LJg NLzI K[LH: r.J K[I KeIJKLIK[ TIJKQRa ZIPZNI sPRgPK
[Pe KP QHI K[ILR NIgH. vIJ MJq ePVIJ VPxIq M`PQK LJ TMRH! `QHIH MJq KRMLJH sRPV M xIRa IMRNa MgI. u[I
HQRZRLHLJg K[LJg LH K[MK K[Ia qLqJlK QHI K[ILR NIgH IxIJ e[IJ K[Ia eIJK PJ [PNLqMa. u[Ia `QLNK TM`NI RMLNeMaH!
HzLNLsKH MJq RPMqH KP K[I KPZ Ps IxIRa [QgI VPQJKMLJ.r
u[I sQKQRI [LHKPRa `PPzH VLg[K MNHP RITPRq K[MK eI qLq JPK QHI PQR IaIH. .J PQR [QRRa KP gIK sRPV PJI
ZNMTI KP MJPK[IR! eI sMLNIq KP HII MJaK[LJg PJ K[I eMa. dLR KRMxIN )xIH aPQ M `LRqlHIaI xLIe Ps K[I ePRNq.
OMR qRLxIRH LJ ZMRKLTQNMR! JIxIR eMJK KP HKPZ. u[I KaZLTMN KeIJKLIK[TIJKQRa KRMxINNIR LH K[I VMJ e[P MNeMaH
HMaH l.lxI `IIJ K[IRIl VIMJLJg! r. qRPxI K[RPQg[ LK MK +)) VLNIH MJ [PQR PJ K[I eMa KP HPVIe[IRI INHI.r
w[IJ aPQ KRMxIN MK [Lg[ HZIIqH K[I ZRIHIJK VIMJH JPK[LJg: aPQ NLxI VMLJNa LJ K[I sQKQRI! `ITMQHI aPQ
HZIJq VPHK Ps aPQR KLVI NPPzLJg sPReMRq KP MRRLxLJg MK HPVI PK[IR ZNMTI. 0QK MTKQMN MRRLxMN e[IJ LK LH
MT[LIxIq! LH VIMJLJgNIHH. yPQ eMJK KP VPxI PJ MgMLJ. u[I KRMxINNIR PJ sPPK! PJ K[I PK[IR [MJq! NLxIH
TPJHKMJKNa LJ K[I ZRIHIJK. |I ISZIRLIJTIH KP ZRIHIJK VPVIJK eLK[ [LH IaIH! [LH IMRH MJq K[I e[PNI Ps [LH
`Pqa. dK K[I IJq Ps [LH PQRJIa [I sIINH M qINLTLPQH Z[aHLTMN eIMRLJIHH. |I zJPeH K[MK HPQJq HMKLHsaLJg
HNIIZ eLNN `I [LH: K[I QHK RIeMRq Ps MNN KRQI KRMxINNIRH.
+2+

Arguments:
pPR: dgMLJHK:
+. GxIJ PJ [PNLqMa: TM`NI RMLNeMaH! HzLNLsKH!
RPMqH KP KPZH Ps VPQJKMLJH.
+. pPPNLH[ KP TNLV` M VPQJKMLJ e[IJ K[IRIlH M RMLNeMa
PR RPMq QZ LK
2. w[IJ KRMxINNLJg MK [Lg[ HZIIqH ZRIHIJK
VIMJH JPK[LJg: NLsI LJ sQKQRI.
2. uRMxINNLJg MK [Lg[ HZIIqH LH M ZNIMHQRI LJ LKHINs.
4. uRMxINNIR PJ sPPK: NLxIH TPJHKMJKNa LJ ZRIHIJK 4. uRMxINNLJg PJ sPPK: IS[MQHKLJg: aPQ gIK JPe[IRI
sMHK
3. uaZLTMN KeIJKLIK[TIJKQRa KRMxINNIR: r.lxI
`IIJ K[IRI.r .KMNa! nIN[L! .RzQKHz; K[RPQg[ MK +))
VLNIH MJ [PQR.
3. .KlH JPe ZPHHL`NI KP HII VMJa TPQJKRLIH! VIIK
ZIPZNI Ps MNN JMKLPJMNLKLIH.
2. Think of some o%-er arguments and counter-arguments to carry on the discussion. (See
"Classroom English", Section IX.)
XIV. A. Do yon know how to act sensibIy when out in the wiIds? If not, the text beIow might heIp you:
.s aPQ MRI HIKKLJg Pss PJ M eMNzLJg KPQR! KMzI M TPVZMHH! M VMZ MJq sLRHKMLq IfQLZVIJK eLK[ aPQ. GxIJ
K[I VPHK ISZIRLIJTIq TMJ NPHI K[ILR eMa LJ K[I xMHK QJLJ[M`LKIq MRIMH. .s aPQ gIK NPHK qPJlK NPHI aPQR [IMq.
.JHKIMq `I HIJHL`NI! KRa KP gLxI HPVI LJqLTMKLPJ Ps e[IRI aPQ MRI MJq zIIZ aPQRHINs eMRV. dJq RIVIV`IR:
JIxIR gP Pss MNPJI! MJq LJsPRV HPVIPJI MK aPQR ZPLJK Ps qIZMRKQRI e[IRI aPQ LJKIJq KP gP! MJq e[MK RPQKI
aPQ LJKIJq KP KMzI.
B. Describe the pictures. Use the suggested phrases.
See if the traveIIers have acted sessibIy. Support your idea.
M) gLxI VI a wa9'ing tour every ti+eD you 5an?t 2eat (hit5hGB hi'ingD need you ta'e &o +u5h 9uggagec `)
KP get to wi9d, uninha2ited 49a5e&D to 2e hard9y a29e to go onD to 2e near9y drowned in a &wa+4D
uni+agina29e hard&hi4&D to over5o+e the o2&ta59e&D T) there wa& a turn in the weather, it wa& 4ouringD
f9a&he& of 9ightning, ro99& of thunder, I wi&h I were in a rai9way 5arriage nowOD q) to 59i+2 the &tee4e&t
ro5'&D to fa5e the danger of"""D to get to 49a5e& where no +an?& foot ha& ever &te44edD I) to rea5h the to4 in
&afety, to 2e hard9y a29e to 2e9ieve one?& eye&D you 5ou9d 'no5' +e down with a feather"
STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH
+22
VIII
nLssIRIJK ZMKKIRJH Ps eRLKLJg (HII r/KQqLIHr LJ }JLK oJI) HINqPV PTTQR MNPJI! VPRI PsKIJ K[Ia `NIJq LJKP
PJI MJPK[IR! IHZITLMNNa LJ NIKKIR eRLKLJg.
Letter LH M HZITLsLT zLJq Ps eRLKKIJ TPVZPHLKLPJ LJxPNxLJg M TPJTRIKI eRLKIR! VIHHMgI MJq M TPJTRIKI
RIMqIR. .J VMJa eMaH LK LH M sRII TPVZPHLKLPJ. d NIKKIR LH LJ M HIJHI! M K[IVI! gPxIRJIq `a K[I HMVI RQNIH Ps
eRLKLJg K[MK gPxIRJ IxIRa PK[IR zLJq Ps TPVZPHLKLPJ. .K VQHK `I TNIMR! eINN PRgMJLIq! TP[IRIJK. dJq LK
H[PQNq `I LJKIRIHKLJg.
0QK M NIKKIR LH MNHP gPxIRJIq `a TIRKMLJ PK[IR NMeH! PR TPJxIJKLPJH Ps QHMgI! e[LT[ K[I NIKKIR eRLKIR TMJJPK
LgJPRI.
u[IHI MRI K[I ZMRKH Ps M NIKKIR: K[I [IMqLJg! K[I LJHLqI MqqRIHH! K[I gRIIKLJg! K[I `Pqa Ps K[I NIKKIR! K[I
TPVZNLVIJKMRa TNPHI! K[I HLgJMKQRI.
pPR IMT[ Ps K[IHI ZMRKH QHMgI [MH ZRIHTRL`Iq TIRKMLJ HIK sPRVH qIZIJqLJg PJ qLssIRIJK KaZIH Ps NIKKIRH
ZIRHPJMN PR `QHLJIHH NIKKIRH! LJsPRVMN PR sPRVMN HPTLMN JPKIH.
The heading. u[I ZMRKH Ps M [IMqLJg! eRLKKIJ LJ K[I sPNNPeLJg PRqIR! MRI K[I HKRIIK! MqqRIHH! K[I JMVI Ps
M TLKa PR KPeJ (K[I JMVI Ps K[I HKMKI LJ K[I }./.d.)! K[I qMKI! ."g"
:LJI OPKKMgI oSsPRq PMq d`LJgqPJPJu[MVIH +4 vMa +2...
N t e: In Great Britain very often the house is not numbered but has a "proper" name, like "Vine
Cottage",
The inside address. .J M `QHLJIHH NIKKIR K[I LJHLqI MqqRIHH LH K[I MqqRIHH Ps K[I ZIRHPJ eRLKKIJ KP. .J
ZIRHPJMN NIKKIR K[I LJHLqI MqqRIHH LH QHQMNNa PVLKKIq.
.J M `QHLJIHH NIKKIR LK LH MNeMaH TPRRITK KP QHI M ZIRHPJMN KLKNI eLK[ K[I JMVI Ps K[I ZIRHPJ MqqRIHHIq. d
`QHLJIHH KLKNI H[PQNq JPK ZRITIqI K[I JMVI. OPRRITK ZIRHPJMN KLKNIH MRI: vR.! vRH.! vLHH! nR.! \RPsIHHPR!
vIHHRH.! ."g"
nR. Y. ( |PeMRq
/QZIRLJKIJqIJK Ps /T[PPNH
The Greeting. u[I sPNNPeLJg sPRVH MRI TPRRITK sPR `QHLJIHH MJq ZRPsIHHLPJMN NIKKIRH:
UIJKNIVIJ: iMqLIH:
nIMR /LR: nIMR vMqMV:
va qIMR /ir" Jy qIMR vMqMV:
nIMR vR. wMRRIJ: nIMR vLHH |PeMRq:
.J ZIRHPJMN NIKKIRH ILK[IR M TPNPJ PR M TPVVM VMa `I QHIq MsKIR K[I gRIIKLJg. d TPVVM LH TPJHLqIRIq NIHH
sPRVMN. .J ZIRHPJMN NIKKIRH K[I RMJgI Ps gRIIKLJgH LH QJNLVLKIq MJq LJsPRVMN! NLzI rJy own )oveyG\oveyr Ps
mQqalH rnIMR nMqqa iPJgiIgHr.
The Body of the Letter. d gPPq NIKKIR H[PQNq `I TNIMR! qLRITK! TP[IRIJK! qLgJLsLIq MJq TPQRKIPQH.
The CompIimentary CIose. OPRRITK sPRVH sPR `QHLJIHH NIKKIRH MRI:
yPQRH KRQNa! yPQRH xIRa KRQNa! :IRa KRQNa aPQRH!
IHZITKsQNNa aPQRH! pMLK[sQNNa aPQRH. /LJTIRINa aPQRH!
yPQRH HLJTIRINa! OPRqLMNNa aPQRH.
The Signature. /PVI Ps K[I TPJxIJKLPJH H[PQNq `I P`HIRxIq: M) JILK[IR ZRPsIHHLPJMN KLKNIH! JPR
MTMqIVLT qIgRIHH H[PQNq `I QHIq eLK[ M HLgJMKQRI; `) MJ QJVMRRLIq ePVMJ H[PQNq HLgJ [IRHINs MH vLHH
iMQRM 0NMJz! `QK H[I VMa ZNMTI vLHH LJ ZMRIJK[IHIH `IsPRI [IR JMVI Ls H[I sIINH K[MK LK LH JITIHHMRa sPR
ZRPZIR LqIJKLsLTMKLPJ; T) M VMRRLIq ePVMJ PR M eLqPe HLgJH [IR PeJ JMVI! JPK [IR VMRRLIq JMVI. pPR IS
MVZNI! nLMJM |PNLqMa 0RPeJ LH [IR PeJ JMVI; vRH. UIPRgI 0RPeJ LH [IR VMRRLIq JMVI!
|IRI LH MJ ISMVZNI Ps M `QHLJIHH NIKKIR:
nIMR vLHH OMRJM`a!
dNNPe VI KP IJTNPHI M TPJKRL`QKLPJ KP aPQR xIRa qIHIRxLJg pQJq `IsPRI LK LH sLJMNNa ePQJq QZ.
yPQRH xIRa KRQNa!
|IRTQNI \PLRPK.
Assignments:
1. Go over the letters (see Unit Five) and copy down the samples of the complimentary close.
2. Write a reply to 1udy's letter as if you were the person she wrote her letter to.
3. Write a letter to a friend sharing the memories of your holiday trip and your feelings at the
station on the day of departure.
4. Write a letter to your dean in which you request permission to stay at your parents' several days
more. Give your reason clearly and convincingly.
XV. Film "Mr. Brown's Holiday". Film Segment 8 "Caught in the Rain" (On the Way to Yeovil).
a) Watch and listen, b) Do the exercises from the guide to the film.
+24
LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)
1. Listen to the text "Different Means of Travel", mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat it following
the model.
2. Listen to the conversation "At the Station", mark the stresses and tunes; repeat after the tape,
learn the text by heart.
3. Listen to the dialogue "A Voyage Round Europe", mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat the text
following the model and record your variant. Compare your variant with the model and correct your
pronunctalion mistakes.
4. Write a spelling-translation test: a) translate the phrases into English; b) check them with the
key.
5. Listen to some text on the topic "Trawelling", Retell it in class.
6. Listen to some anecdotes. Put down the word combinations you find useful. Act them out in class
(oral and written work).
7. Listen to the poem "From a Railway Carriage". Mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat after the
tape. Learn it by heart.
CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS
What do you know about
1. Christopher Columbus and the history of his discovery? Why wasn't America named in his
houour? After whom was it named and why?
2. Captain Cook, Sir Francis Drake, Roald Amundsen, Mlckloukha-Macklay, the Papanin
expedition?
3. The Mystery of the Atlantis, the Mystery of the Bennudian Triangle, the Mystery of the Easter
Isle, the Loch Ness Monster?
UNIT NINE
I. SPEECH PATTERNS
+. u[Ia eIRI M`PQK vRH. 0QRNPelH MgI! &o were the attendant&"
r. KINN aPQ . eMH VPxIq. /P eIRI aPQ! . qMRI HMa.r
r. eMHJlK KRaLJg KP MTK. + RIMNNa sINK.r r/P qLq .! Va `Pa!r HMLq iI PH.
va sRLIJq gQIHHIq e[MK VaHKIRa K[Ia eIRI KMNzLJg M`PQK. /P qLq ..
/[I eMH gRIMKNa LVZRIHHIq `a iMQRIJTI oNLxLIRlH MTKLJg. /P eIRI K[Ia.
2. PHI thought hi+ fQLKI funny"
O[RLHKLJI K[PQg[K K[LH T[IfQI sPR KeIJKa gQLJIMH RMK[IR HKRMJgI.
u[Ia MNeMaH sPQJq iI PH VMgJIKLT.
u[I uRMHzIR gLRNH TPJHLqIRIq pM`IRVMT[IR xIRa RPVMJKLT.
pPR K[I sLRHK KLVI LJ M NPJg e[LNI GRLz K[PQg[K [LVHINs ePJqIRsQNNa sRII.
4. /[I &aw hi& fa5e 4eering K[RPQg[ K[MK VMHz.
iMJJa HMe URIK :LNNLIR HLKKLJg MK K[I KM`NI VPKLPJNIHH MJq LVZIRHPJMN.
w[IJ ZMHHLJg M TPssII HKMNN iMJJa JPKLTIq KeP e[LKI VIJ HKMRLJg MK [LV.
mLV MJq [LH VPK[IR [IMRq K[I `NLJq VMJ MZZRPMT[LJg K[I qPPR.
.K eMH IMHa KP LVMgLJI .qM ZIRsPRVLJg MH K[I zIIZIR Ps M HITPJqRMKI TNQ`.
nMxI sRPeJIq MH [I HMe nMJ NIMxLJg.
3. PHI eMJKIq [LV to &to4 59owning sPR K[IV.
w[IJ GRLz sLJLH[Iq RIMqLJg K[I NIKKIR! [I TPQNqJlK KMzI [LH IaIH Pss K[I ZMZIR.
\RIHIJKNa uPV ZLTzIq QZ M HKRMe MJq `IgMJ KRaLJg KP `MNMJTI LK PJ [LH JPHI.
u[I HMLNPR `IgMJ RPeLJg KPeMRqH K[I [MR`PQRlH VPQK[.
vIMJe[LNI H[I eIJK PJ KMNzLJg LJ [IR IMRJIHK! TPJxLJTLJg xPLTI.
+23
EXERCISES
I. Change the sentences, using the patterns:
\ M K K I R J 2 : +. u[I vQRqHKPJIH K[PQg[K K[MK nMxLq eMH qLHP`IqLIJK. 2. GxIRa`Pqa sPQJq K[MK
K[IRI eMH HPVIK[LJg VaHKIRLPQH M`PQK iMqa dNRPa. 4. wI K[PQg[K K[MK K[I NMHK HTIJI eMH fQLKI LVZRIHHLxI.
3. . sPQJq K[MK K[I HKRMJgIRlH xPLTI eMH xMgQINa sMVLNLMR KP VI. *. |QTz pLJJ TPQNqJlK `IMR [LH JIe NLsI MK K[I
eLqPelH! LJ [LH PZLJLPJ LK eMH ISKRIVINa qQNN.
\ M K K I R J 4 : +. /M`LJM TMVI LJKP K[I [MNN! H[I HMe K[MK [I eMH HLKKLJg MK K[I KINIZ[PJI. 2. wI
eMKT[Iq [Pe K[I HIIRHPss eIRI H[QssNLJg sRPV sPPK KP sPPK. 4. oQKHLqI [I sPQJq K[MK mPI eMH HKMJqLJg PJ
K[I ZNMKsPRV. 3. /[I eMKT[Iq [Pe [I eMH eMxLJg sMRIeINN KP [LH sRLIJqH. *. . HMe K[MK 0P` eMH ZNMaLJg
TIJKRI sPReMRq.
\ M K K I R J 3 : +. GRLz HKMRKIq KP RIMq K[I NIKKIR MgMLJ. 2. /PPJ K[I ZPRKIRH `IgMJ KP ZQNN NQggMgI MNPJg
K[I ZNMKsPRV. 4. dK NMHK mMTz sLJLH[Iq KP eRLKI JQVIRPQH NIKKIRH Ps LJKRPqQTKLPJ. 3. iIx yMH[LJ `IgMJ KP ZNMa
sPPK`MNN e[IJ [I eMH M KIIJMgIR. *. 0QRKPJlH JMVIHMzI HKMRKIq KP ZNMa ZPzIR MJq eIJK `RPzI. ,. u[I UMqsNa
ZQNNIq M T[RaHMJK[IVQV sRPV K[I xMHI MJq `IgMJ KP ZNQTz Pss PJI e[LKI ZIKMN MsKIR MJPK[IR.
II. Think of a situation. Suggest a beginning matching up the end. Use the proper pattern:
\ M K K I R J + : +. ...; HP eIRI MLN K[I ZMHHIJgIRH. 2. ...; HP qLq eI. 4....; HP MV +. 3. ...; HP TMJ eI. *. ...;
HP [MxI .. ,. ..;HP [MxI aPQ. 7. ...; HP eMH PQR TPMT[. b. ...; HP qLq K[I gPMN zIIZIR. 2. ...; HP qLq K[I PZZPJIJK.
+). ...; HP eIRI PQR JILg[`PQRH. ++. ...; HP eMH PQR NQggMgI. +2....; HP LH H[I.
\ M K K I R J 2 : +. ... xMgQINa sMVLNLMR. 2. ... fQLKI HPTLM`NI. 4. ... RMK[IR LVZRIHHLxI. 3. ... P`IqLIJK. *. ...
fQLKI qLssIRIJK. ,.... xMNQM`NI.
\ M K K I R J 4 : +.... HIRxLJg MJPK[IR VIMN. 2. ... VMzLJg M ZMQHI LJ [LH HKPRa. 4.... RQ``LJg [LH [MJqH eLK[
qINLg[K 3.... H[RQggLJg [IR H[PQNqIRH. *. ... ZMHHLJg K[I `RIMqZNMKI KP K[I VMJ JISK KP [LV. ,. ...TQRNLJg [IR NLZ
MJq H[PeLJg [IR qLHgQHK sPR K[I HTIJI.
\ M K K I R J 3 : +. ... HKPZZIq `RIMK[LJg. 2. ... HKMRKIq sLNNLJg LJ K[I MZZNLTMKLPJ sPRV. 4. ... HKPZZIq
H[LxIRLJg eLK[ TPNq. 3. ... `IgMJ KRIV`NLJg eLK[ sIMR. *. ... HKPZZIq VMzLJg JPKIH. ,.... sLJLH[Iq RIMqLJg MNPQq.
III. TransIate the foIIowing into EngIish. Use the patterns:
\ M K K I R J + : +. ' 6 9 %7. "8 >. 2.
6 $8 ;9. "8 >. 4. 77 CD $; >8$.
"5 >. 3. X$ $ ; . <$ >. *. &6 6
> >. ,. ~ 8 D85. X $5 >. 7. h $ 6 D;
76! D >! b. <D 6 =68$ $8$ 76$. <D
>.
\ M K K I R J 2 : +. ? ' 6D ; 6 8$ (Pqq). 2.
> D >5 $;9 9. 4. F; > 8
# (UeIJqPNIJ)! D D 65. 3. #
(|QRHKePPq) ! FE %8! $! $
86 $ $ >6 $ (HIJHL`NI). *. ?$E 5
;8$ 6 $8$ (qMRLJg). ,. ? ! $%8 =68! ;
9 ;$8$. 7. ' X $! ; 6 .
\ M K K I R J 4 : +. ( ;; % h7 7! t6 5. 2.
Y$ ! $6 = $% (KP gNLVVIR) . 4. !
! 7! %. 3. $; 6! $
$. *. "8 ! 8 6 $ . ,. ; 8 D ! ;
8D! ; $ .
\ M K K I R J 3 : +. >$$ ; $6! $ . 2.
7 96 ;$. 4. ' $; 6 6 ;
6. 3. F ; 6 . *. A6 =6
$ $6$ D8$ $6$.
IV. Respond to the foIIowing statements and questions, using the patterns:
\ M K K I R J + : +. iI PH eMH qINLg[KIq KP HII [LH PNq MTfQMLJKMJTI. 2. /PVI ZIPZNI sIIN RMK[IR HKLss
PJ K[I ZNMKsPRV. w[MK M`PQK aPQ{ 4. va sRLIJqH NLzIq K[I sLNV rQLIK pNPeH K[I nPJ.r w[MK M`PQK aPQRH{ 3.
OINLM NPxIq iMJJa. w[MK M`PQK /MRLI{ *. /KIZ[IJ iIMTPTz LH M sMVPQH [QVPRPQH eRLKIR. w[MK M`PQK vMRz
ueMLJ{ ,. /PVI ZIPZNI NLzI K[LJgH VMqI KP PRqIR. w[MK M`PQK aPQR sRLIJq{ 7. .lq RMK[IR RIMq HPVIK[LJg `a
O[Iz[Px! ePQNq aPQ{ b. /K. \MQNlH OMK[IqRMN LH M sLJI HZITLVIJ Ps MRT[LKITKQRI. }JsPRKQJMKINa . qLqJlK HII
wIHKVLJHKIR d``Ia. 2. vMRKLJ GqIJ NLxIq QJqIR xIRa [MRq TPJqLKLPJH e[IJ [I eMH aPQJg. w[MK M`PQK mMTz
iPJqPJ [LVHINs{ +). . sLJq K[LH ISIRTLHI ISKRIVINa IMHa.
\ M K K I R J 2 : +. w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz M`PQK /[MzIHZIMRIlH ZNMaH{ 2. |Pe qP aPQ sLJq K[I HTRIIJ
xIRHLPJ Ps rwMR MJq \IMTIr{ 4. .J Va PZLJLPJ O[. nLTzIJHl NMJgQMgI LH RMK[IR qLssLTQNK. 3. w[MK ePQNq aPQ
+2*
HMa KP M qMa PR KeP LJ K[I VPQJKMLJH{ *. w[MK LH aPQR LVZRIHHLPJ Ps K[I uPeIR Ps iPJqPJ{ ,. w[MK qP aPQ
K[LJz Ps [LKT[[LzLJg MH M VIMJH Ps KRMxIN{ 7. |Pe qLq aPQ sLJq K[I NMHK sLNV aPQ HMe{ b. w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz
Ps iI PHlH PTTQZMKLPJ{ 2. /PVI ZIPZNI NLzI KRMxINNLJg `a MLR. +). w[MK LH aPQR PZLJLPJ M`PQK K[I GJgNLH[
NMJgQMgI{
\ M K K I R J 4 : +. |MxI aPQ IxIR eMKT[Iq K[I HQJRLHI{ 2. nLq aPQ [MxI M T[MJTI KP [IMR [Pe aPQR
sRLIJq eMH RITLKLJg MK TPJTIRKH{ 4. OMJ aPQ LVMgLJI K[MK aPQ MRI KIMT[LJg M TNMHH Ps HVMNN T[LNqRIJ{ 3. nP
aPQ [IMR MJa JPLHI{ .KlH TPVLJg sRPV M`PxI! LHJlK LK{ *. w[MK zLJq Ps ZIPZNI TMJ aPQ HII PJ K[I ZNMKsPRV MJq
e[MK MRI K[Ia qPLJg K[IRI{
\ M K K I R J 3 : +. w[IJ qLq aPQ HKMRK KP NIMRJ GJgNLH[{ 2. w[LT[ Ps aPQR sRLIJqH [MxI HKMRKIq KP NIMRJ
M HITPJq sPRILgJ NMJgQMgI{ 4. w[IJ qP K[Ia sLJLH[ KP HIRxI VIMNH LJ aPQR TMJKIIJ{ 3. wI H[MNN `IgLJ KP
eRLKI K[I KIHK e[IJ IxIRa`Pqa TPVIH.
V. Write 12 questions suggesting answers with these patterns. (The questions in Ex. IV may serve as a
modeI.)
TEXT. ROSE AT THE MUSIC-HALL $rom "They WaIk in the City" by J. B. PriestIey
\RLIHKNIa! mP[J 0PLJKPJ (+b23+2b3) LH K[I MQK[PR Ps JQVIRPQH JPxINH! ZNMaH MJq NLKIRMRa IHHMaH eINNzJPeJ MNN
PxIR K[I ePRNq. os [LH ZRIeMR JPxINH K[I VPHK sMVPQH MRI ru[I UPPq OPVZMJLPJHr! rdJgIN \MxIVIJKr! ru[Ia
wMNz LJ K[I OLKar! MJq rwPJqIR |IRPr. |LH eMR JPxINH r0NMTzPQK LJ URIMKNIar! rnMaNLg[K PJ /MKQRqMar MJq ru[RII
vIJ LJ 1Ie /QLKHr! eIRI xIRa ZPZQNMR eLK[ K[I RIMqIRH qQRLJg MJq MsKIR K[I /ITPJq wPRNq wMR. u[I qMRLJg MJq
QJQHQMN TPVZPHLKLPJ Ps HPVI Ps [LH ZNMaH (HQT[ MH rnMJgIRPQH OPRJIRr! ruLVI MJq K[I OPJeMaHr) LH M qIxLTI sPR
RIxIMNLJg ZIPZNIlH RIMN HINxIH [LqqIJ QJqIR TPJxIJKLPJMN VMHzH.
\RLIHKNIa NPxIH ZIPZNI. |LH sMxPQRLKI T[MRMTKIR LH M NLKKNI VMJ! MJ QJLVZPRKMJK H[a ZIRHPJ! NPHK LJ K[I QJgNI Ps K[I
`Lg TLKa! [INZNIHH LJ K[I sMTI Ps sPRTIH e[LT[ [I TMJJPK TPV`MK. .J K[I qIHTRLZKLPJ Ps MJ INqIRNa TPVLT MTKPR LJ K[I
gLxIJ ISKRMTK aPQ eLNN sLJq HPVIK[LJg Ps K[I HMq KIJqIRJIHH MJq TPVZMHHLPJ T[MRMTKIRLHKLT Ps \RLIHKNIalH MKKLKQqI
KPeMRqH rNLKKNI VIJr.
w[IJ K[Ia MRRLxIq MK K[I VQHLT[MNN!
74
K[I qPPRH sPR K[I HITPJq [PQHI eIRI QHK PZIJLJg!
73
MJq K[Ia eMNzIq
HKRMLg[K LJKP K[I HKMNNH! e[LT[ eIRI xIRa T[IMZ. u[I MQqLIJTI VMqI M gRIMK qIMN Ps JPLHI! IHZITLMNNa LJ K[I
`MNTPJa. vRH. 0QRNPe NIq K[I eMa KP K[I sRPJK MJq sPQJq KeP xIRa gPPq HIMKH sPR K[IV. PHI `PQg[K M
ZRPgRMVVI sPR KePZIJTI! gMxI LK KP vRH. 0QRNPe! K[IJ NPPzIq M`PQK [IR `RLg[KNa.
.K eMH M JLTI sRLIJqNa NLKKNI ZNMTI! K[LH VQHLT[MNN! eMRVIR MJq TPHLIR MJq MNKPgIK[IR VPRI [QVMJ K[MJ K[I
ZLTKQRI K[IMKRIH
7*
H[I QHQMNNa MKKIJqIq. oJI K[LJg H[I JPKLTIq. u[IRI eIRI xIRa sIe aPQJg ZIPZNI K[IRI.
u[Ia eIRI JIMRNa MNN M`PQK vRH. 0QRNPelH MgI. /P eIRI K[I MKKIJqMJKH. /P eIRI K[I VIV`IRH Ps K[I
PRT[IHKRM! e[P HPPJ TRIZK LJKP K[ILR ZLK! eLZLJg K[ILR VPQK[H. :IRa sIe Ps K[I KQRJH
7,
eIRI aPQJg; K[Ia
K[IVHINxIH! K[ILR TRIMHIq MJq sMqLJg HTIJIRa! K[ILR ePRJ ZRPZIRKLIH! K[ILR PzIH MJq VMJa Ps K[ILR HPJgH
eIRI gIKKLJg PJ LJ aIMRH. dJq K[I NPQqIHK MZZNMQHI MNeMaH TMVI e[IJ M ZIRsPRVIR HMLq [I ePQNq LVLKMKI
rPQR qIMR PNq sMxPQRLKIr /PMJqHP! MJq JMVIq M VQHLT[MNN HKMR K[MK PHI [Mq JIxIR [IMRq Ps! PR e[IJ M
HLJgIR ePQNq KINN K[IV K[MK K[I JIe HPJgH eIRI MNN xIRa eINN LJ K[ILR eMa `QK K[MK K[I PNq HPJgH eIRI `IHK
MJq [I PR H[I ePQNq rIJqIMxPQR KP RIJqIRr PJI Ps K[ILR PNq sMxPQRLKI qLKKLIH. u[I RIHQNK Ps K[LH eMH K[MK
K[PQg[ K[I e[PNI ZNMTI eMH HP TPHa MJq sRLIJqNa! LK eMH MNHP RMK[IR HMq. yPQK[ [Mq sNIq sRPV LK. u[IRI eMH
JP `NPPV PJ MJaK[LJg [IRI. mPLJKH eIRI HKLss! IaIH MJSLPQH `I[LJq K[I VMHz Ps ZMLJK.
oJI KQRJ eMH MJ ITTIJKRLT sINNPe eLK[ M gRPKIHfQI VMzIQZ! M qIMqe[LKI sMTI MJq M xIRa RIq JPHI! MJq [LH
TPHKQVI eMH K[MK Ps M RMggIq KRMVZ. |I VMqI NLKKNI PzIH! sINN PxIR [LVHINs! MJq K[IJ TNLV`Iq PJ KP K[I `MTz
Ps M T[MLR! VMqI VPRI NLKKNI PzIH MJq ZNMaIq K[I MTTPRqLPJ! PHI K[PQg[K [LV fQLKI sQJJa MK sLRHK! `QK xIRa
HPPJ T[MJgIq [IR VLJq M`PQK [LV. /[I eMH HLKKLJg JIMR IJPQg[ KP HII [LH RIMN sMTI! ZIIRLJg MJSLPQHNa
K[RPQg[ K[MK VMHz. .K eMH PNq! eIMRa! qIHPNMKI. dJq sRPV e[IRI H[I HMK! H[I TPQNq HII LJKP K[I eLJgH MJq
HKMJqLJg K[IRI! JIxIR KMzLJg [IR IaIH Pss K[I ZIRsPRVIR! eMH MJ INqIRNa ePVMJ! [PNqLJg M qRIHHLJg gPeJ LJ
PJI [MJq MJq M HVMNN VIqLTLJI gNMHH LJ K[I PK[IR. dJq K[IJ PHI eMJKIq [LV KP HKPZ TNPeJLJg sPR K[IV!
eMJKIq K[I TQRKMLJ KP TPVI qPeJ! HP K[MK [I TPQNq ZQK PJ K[MK qRIHHLJg gPeJ! qRLJz [LH VIqLTLJI PR
e[MKIxIR LK LH! MJq gP MeMa eLK[ K[I INqIRNa ePVMJ! MJq RIHK MJq JPK ePRRa MJa VPRI.
0QK H[I HMLq JPK[LJg KP vRH. 0QRNPe! e[P eMH IJPaLJg [IRHINs! MJq NMQg[LJg MJq TNMZZLJg MH [MRq MH
MJaPJI K[IRI! ZIR[MZH `ITMQHI H[I KPP eMH JP NPJgIR aPQJg MJq eMH `ILJg IJKIRKMLJIq `a ZIPZNI Ps [IR PeJ
MgI.
VOCABULARY NOTES
74
music-hall: M [MNN PR K[IMKRI QHIq sPR xMRLIKa IJKIRKMLJVIJK: HPJgH! qMJTLJg! MTRP`MKLT ZIRsPRVMJTIH! QggNLJg. (1PKI: rVQHLT[MNNr VQHK JPK `I TPJsQHIq
eLK[ rTPJTIRK[MNNr.)
73
the doors for the second house were just opening: K[I HITPJq ZIRsPRVMJTI eMH M`PQK KP `IgLJ. .J VQHLT[MNNH MJq LJ TLRTQHIH KeP PR VPRI
ZIRsPRVMJTIH eLK[ K[I HMVI ZRPgRMVVI MRI gLxIJ IxIRa qMa.
u[I HMVI KIRV LH QHIq eLK[ RIsIRIJTI KP TLJIVMH: K[I sLRHK (HITPJq! K[LRq) [PQHI 85 (5! 5) .
7*
picture theatre (5o99oC"B: M TLJIVM
7,
turns: (hereB MTKPRH KMzLJg ZMRK LJ K[I ZRPgRMVVI. uQRJ M H[PRK ZIRsPRVMJTI PJ K[I HKMgI Ps M VQHLT[MNN PR M xMRLIKa K[IMKRI ($ ;$$8). u[I
ZRPgRMVVI Ps M xMRLIKa ZIRsPVMJTI QHQMNNa TPJHLHKH Ps xMRLPQH KQRJH.
+2,
1. way n +. 6! ;! ."g" u[I eMa eI KPPz NMa K[RPQg[ K[I sPRIHK. /yn" road, path, track.
2. ! ."g" OMJ aPQ H[Pe VI K[I eMa KP uRMsMNgMR /fQMRI{ (F 5...{)
N o t e : way LH `QK HINqPV QHIq KP qIJPKI M HZITLMNNa `QLNK VIMJH Ps TPVVQJLTMKLPJ `IKeIIJ KeP ZNMTIH! K[I
QHQMN ePRq sPR e[LT[ LH road; way LH VPRI PsKIJ QHIq KP qIJPKI qLRITKLPJ! ."g" + TMJ H[Pe aPQ K[I eMa KP K[I JIMRIHK
xLNNMgI (L. I. . TMJ KINN aPQ e[MK qLRITKLPJ aPQ H[PQNq KMzI LJ PRqIR KP gIK KP K[I xLNNMgI). 0QK; . TMJ H[Pe aPQ M xIRa
gPPq RPMq KP K[I xLNNMgI.; path qIJPKIH M KRMTz VMqI `a K[I sIIK Ps ZIPZNI e[P ZMHH MNPJg (! ) MH M
ZMK[ K[RPQg[ K[I ePPqH. os K[I K[RII HaJPJaVH M`HKRMTK QHMgIH MRI VPHK KaZLTMN Ps way, ."g" eMa KP zJPeNIqgI! eMa
KP [MZZLJIHH! IKT.! path LH MNHP HPVIKLVIH QHIq LJ HQT[ TPV`LJMKLPJH! MH ru[I \MK[ Ps u[QJqIRr! qMJgIRPQH ZMK[! IKT.
to make one's way ! 96! ."g" u[Ia VMqI K[ILR eMa K[RPQg[ K[I HLNIJK HKRIIKH Ps K[I
HNIIZLJg TLKa.
to lead the way 5! ;! ."g" u[I gQLqI NIq K[I eMa K[RPQg[ K[I sPRIHK KLNN eI
RIMT[Iq M JMRRPe ZMK[. u[LH eMa! ZNIMHI. A>5! 5 7.
on the way ;! ."g" iIKlH qLHTQHH LK PJ K[I eMa [PVI.
to lose one's way 6! ."g" u[I T[LNqRIJ NPHK K[ILR eMa LJ K[I sPRIHK.
by the way ! $> $! ."g" 0a K[I eMa! e[MK eMH LK H[I KPNq aPQ{
to be (stand) in smb.'s way $D6! 6 ;! ."g" iIK VI ZMHH! qPJlK HKMJq LJ Va eMa.
u[Ia TPQNqJlK IxIJ KMNz LJ ZRLxMKI: K[IRI eMH MNeMaH HPVIPJI LJ K[I eMa. w[MK eMH LK K[MK HKPPq LJ K[I eMa
Ps [IR [MZZLJIHH{
to be (get) out of smb.'s way $D6! 6! 5 ;! ."g" UIK PQK Ps Va eMac .
H[MNN gIK [IR PQK Ps K[I eMa sPR KIJ VLJQKIH! HP K[MK aPQ TMJ [MxI MJ PZZPRKQJLKa KP HIKKNI K[I VMKKIR.
in one's (own) way $ ! ."g" u[I VQHLT eMH QJQHQMN `QK fQLKI `IMQKLsQN LJ LKH PeJ eMa.
to have (get) one's own way 6 $! 6 ;! ."g" /[I NLzIH KP [MxI [IR PeJ eMa
LJ IxIRaK[LJg. |MxI LK aPQR PeJ eMa.
way out 89 >! ."g" u[MK HIIVH KP VI M xIRa gPPq eMa PQK. @rover2: w[IRI K[IRIlH M
eLNN K[IRIlH M eMa.
2. attend ,t-i +. =6! 6! ."g" dNN T[LNqRIJ PxIR HIxIJ MKKIJq HT[PPN LJ PQR TPQJKRa.
2. >6! >6! ."g" /[I eMH KLRIq Ps MKKIJqLJg PJ (QZPJ) RLT[ PNq NMqLIH e[P JIxIR
zJIe ISMTKNa e[MK K[Ia eMJKIq.
attendant n >6 ( .. ! 6)! ."g" u[I MKKIJqMJK eLNN H[Pe aPQ KP aPQR
HIMKH.
attendance n +. ! =$6! ."g" dKKIJqMJTI MK HT[PPNH LH TPVZQNHPRa. u[I MKKIJqMJTI
[MH sMNNIJ Pss. yPQR MKKIJqMJTI LH RIfQIHKIq.; 2. >; 9; ;! ."g" 1Pe K[MK K[I ZMKLIJK LH
PQK Ps qMJgIR K[I qPTKPR LH JP NPJgIR LJ MKKIJqMJTI.
3. wear (wore, worn) ,t-i +. 6 (!.^!B, 86 8$ .! ."g" dK K[I ZMRKa H[I ePRI [IR
eIqqLJg qRIHH MJq [I HMLq H[I NPPzIq NLzI M NLNaPsK[IxMNNIa. yPQ H[PQNq MNeMaH eIMR `NQI: LK VMKT[IH
aPQR IaIH.
/yn" to have smth. on
to wear make-up (paint, rouge) 6 $! 6
to wear scent D6
2. D6! 6! ."g" . [MxI ePRJ Va H[PIH LJKP [PNIH. u[I TMRZIK eHH ePRJ `a K[I VMJa sIIK
K[MK [Mq KRPqqIJ PJ LK.
4. 6 ( `RS., dU ..)! ."g" u[LH TNPK[ eIMRH eINN (`MqNa).
wear n! ."g" u[LH HKaNI Ps qRIHH LH LJ gIJIRMN eIMR JPe. (5 6 E; C. ONPK[IH
sPR IxIRaqMa eIMR. '> >85 6. /[PIH sPR HKRIIK eIMR. YC %8.
footwear 6
underwear 6
4. anxious ad1 +. 85! >85! 585! ."g" . MV MJSLPQH M`PQK [LH [IMNK[. |IR
sMTI eMH TMNV! `QK K[I MJSLPQH IaIH `IKRMaIq HPVIK[LJg Ps e[MK H[I sINK.
/yn" worried! troubled! ."g" /[I MNeMaH gIKH ePRRLIq M`PQK NLKKNI K[LJgH.
2. 6 >7=5 ;.! ."g" < ePRzH [MRq `ITMQHI [I LH MJSLPQH KP HQTTIIq. u[I MTKPR eMH
MJSLPQH KP ZNIMHI K[I MQqLIJTI.
/yn" eager! ."g" .HJlK [I IMgIR KP NIMRJ{
anxiety n +. 5! ;! ! ! ."g" wI eMLKIq eLK[ MJSLIKa sPR K[I qPTKPR KP
TPVI. dNN K[IHI MJSLIKLIH VMqI [LV NPPz ZMNI MJq KLRIq.
/yn" worry
2. $ $.! ."g" u[MK MJSLIKa sPR KRQK[ VMqI \[LNLZ RMK[IR QJZPZQNMR eLK[ HPVI
Ps [LH HT[PPNVMKIH.
anxiously ado 5$! $! ."g" wI MJSLPQHNa eMLKIq sPR [LH MRRLxMN.
+27
Note: Os. K[I HaJPJaVH to be anxious, to worry, to trouble, to bother. u[I RMJgI Ps VIMJLJg Ps ePRRa LH eLqI: LK TMJ
qIJPKI IVPKLPJMN HKMKIH Ps qLssIRIJK LJKIJHLKa e[IRIMH LKH HaJPJaVH MRI JMRRPeIR LJ VIMJLJg. .J K[I HIJKIJTI r|LH NPJg M`HIJTI
ePRRLIq [LH VPK[IR xIRa VQT[r worry ISZRIHHIH M HKRPJg sIINLJg Ps MJSLIKa. .K LH MNHP ZPHHL`NI KP HMa: r.K VMqI [IR xIRa
MJSLPQH.r u[I LJKIJHLKa Ps sIINLJg LH HNLg[KNa eIMzIR [IRI; KRPQ`NI qIJPKIH M HKLNN eIMzIR IVPKLPJ; `PK[IR qIHTRL`IH RMK[IR M HKMKI
Ps LRRLKMKLPJ MJq qLHHMKLHsMTKLPJ K[MJ Ps MJSLIKa. /PVIKLVIH ILK[IR Ps K[I HaJPJaVH TMJ `I QHIq LJ PJI MJq K[I HMVI HIJKIJTI.
u[I qLssIRIJTI NLIH LJ K[I LJKIJHLKa Ps K[I IVPKLPJ ISZRIHHIq `a IMT[ xIR`! ."g" nPJlK NIK K[MK `PK[IR aPQ ( qPJlK K[LJz M`PQK LK:
LK LH QJLVZPRKMJK). nPJlK NIK K[MK KRPQ`NI aPQ (JIMRNa K[I HMVI! `QK MNHP: nPJlK gIK JIRxPQH M`PQK LK). nPJlK `I MJSLPQH M`PQK LK.
(u[I sIINLJg Ps sIMR MJq MJSLIKa LH HKRPJgIR [IRI K[MJ LJ K[I ZRIxLPQH ISMVZNI.) nPJlK NIK K[MK ePRRa aPQ ( qPJlK NIK K[MK HZPLN
aPQR VPPq; qPJlK sIMR K[MK HVK[. `Mq eLNN [MZZIJ).
5. make (made, made) ,t-i +. 6! 6; ;6! ."g" w[MK LH K[I `PS VMqI Ps{
2. 6! 86! ."g" .lV HQRI H[IlNN VMzI MJ ISTINNIJK KIMT[IR.
4. 6! ."g" wIlNN [MxI KP VMzI [LV KMzI K[I VIqLTLJI.
N t e: .J K[LH VIMJLJg VMzI LH sPNNPeIq `a M TPVZNIS P`ITK. (o`HIRxI K[I M`HIJTI Ps KP eLK[ K[I LJsLJLKLxIc)
to make a mistake 6 D! D6
to make a report 6
to make (a) noise D$6
to make a (the) bed 6 6
to make friends with smb. >6 $n.! ."g" /PPJ H[I VMqI sRLIJqH eLK[ [IR sINNPe
ZMHHIJgIRH. /[I IMHLNa VMzIH sRLIJqH.
to make oneself at home 6 $! ."g" OPVI LJ MJq VMzI aPQRHINs MK [PVI.
to make a joke (jokes) D6! 6! ."g" w[a qP aPQ MNeMaH VMzI PzIH{ OMJlK aPQ `I HIRLPQH{
N o t e : Make LH MNHP QHIq eLK[ JQVIRPQH MqITKLxIH gLxLJg IVPKLPJMN T[MRMTKIRLHKLTH! MH KP VMzI HV`. [MZZa (MJgRa! HMq!
IKT.).
to make up +. 6 (%! X`UX> ..)! ."g" 0IsPRI ZMTzLJg VMzI QZ M NLHK Ps K[LJgH aPQ MRI
gPLJg KP KMzI.; 2. 8$86! ."g" yPQ MRI M sPPN KP NLHKIJ KP [LH HKPRa. |I [MH VMqI LK MNN QZ. vMzI QZ
aPQR PeJ HIJKIJTIH QHLJg K[I JIe ePRqH.; 4. ;$6()! 6! ."g" |Pe NPJg eLNN LK KMzI K[I
MTKPRH KP VMzI QZ{ /[I eMH HP VQT[ VMqI QZ K[MK . qLqJlK RITPgJLI [IR MK sLRHK; 3. $6! a& . MV HPRRa
sPR e[MK . HMLq. iIKlH VMzI LK QZ. yPQlq `IKKIR VMzI LK QZ eLK[ dJJ.; *. $=6! $6! ."g"
wI VQHK VMzI QZ sPR NPHK KLVI. wPJlK aPQ NIK VI KRa KP VMzI QZ sPR MNN .lxI sMLNIq KP qP LJ K[I ZMHK{
to make up one's mind KP qITLqI
make-up n ;$! $! ."g" w[a H[PQNq aPQ HZPLN aPQR ZRIKKa sMTI eLK[ MNN K[LH VMzIQZ{ u[I
ePVMJ QHIH KPP VQT[ VMzIQZ (...D$ 6 ).
6. hoId (heId, heId) ,t-i +! >6! ."g" /[I eMH [PNqLJg M RIq RPHI LJ [IR [MJq.
to hold on to smth. >6 .! ."g" |PNqLJg PJ KP M `RMJT[! [I TNLV`Iq M NLKKNI [Lg[IR. |PNq PJ
KP K[I RMLNLJg! LKlH HNLZZIRa [IRI.
to hold a meeting 6 ! ."g" d HKQqIJKHl VIIKLJg eMH [INq LJ PQR qIZMRKVIJK aIHKIRqMa.
2. $=6! >6 ! ."g" |Pe VMJa ZIPZNI eLNN K[LH NITKQRI[MNN [PNq{
4. >6 ( `7!.B, ."g" wLNN K[LH eIMK[IR [PNq{
hold n
to catch (get) hold of smth. 96 .! 96 .! 6 $n.! ."g" < JIMRNa
sINN qPeJ! `QK VMJMgIq KP TMKT[ [PNq Ps [LH TPVZMJLPJlH MRV. u[I T[LNq gPK [PNq Ps M `RLg[K sNPeIR.
to keep hold of smth. >6! 86! ."g" wLK[ IxIRa VLJQKI LK `ITMVI [MRqIR MJq [MRqIR
KP zIIZ [PNq Ps K[I HNLZZIRa RPZIH.
to lose hold of smth. 86 (6 >B, ."g" .K eMHJlK [IR JMKQRI KP NPHI [PNq Ps MJaK[LJg H[I [Mq gPK
[PNq Ps.
7. entertain ,t-i +. $6 ;5 (RMK[IR sPRVMN)! ."g" wI MRI IJKIRKMLJLJg M NPK.; 2. 6!
$6! ."g" wI eIRI MNN IJKIRKMLJIq `a [LH KRLTzH.
entertaining ad1 685! $685! ."g" u[I TPJxIRHMKLPJ eMH sMR sRPV IJKIRKMLJLJg. .J
sMTK! LK eMH [PRRL`Na qQNN.
/aJ. amusing
entertainment n ! =! ! ."g" u[IRI MRI VMJa ZNMTIH Ps IJKIRKMLJVIJK LJ
MJa `Lg TLKa.
+2b
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)
Words
MJSLIKa n MKKIJqMJK n LVLKMKI , MJSLPQH ad1
MQqLIJTI n VMzI , MJSLPQHNa adv IJKIRKMLJ ,
VMzIQZ n MKKIJq , IJKIRKMLJVIJK n eIMR ,
MKKIJqMJTI n [PNq ,, n eLJgH n, 49 eLZI ,
Word Combinations
KP VMzI (M) JPLHI M NPJg eMa sRPV
KP NIMq K[I eMa (KP) KP NPHI PJIlH (K[I) eMa
KP NPPz M`PQK PJIHINs KP `I (gIK) PQK Ps K[I eMa
M`PQK (Ps) HV`.lH MgI KP [MxI PJIlH (PeJ) eMa
VIV`IRH Ps K[I PRT[IHKRM KP TMKT[ [PNq Ps HVK[.
MJSLPQH (ePRRLIq) M`PQK HVK[. KP zIIZ [PNq Ps HVK[.
KP VMzI PzIH KP NPHI [PNq Ps HVK[.
KP VMzI PJIHINs MK [PVI KP [PNq M VIIKLJg
KP VMzI QZ HVK[. KP [PNq PJ KP HVK[.
KP VMzI PJIlH eMa
EXERCISES
1. Bead the text and expIain the foIIowing points (A. Grammar, B. Word usage, . StyIe):
A. +. GSZNMLJ K[I QHI Ps KIJHIH LJ: M) r...M ZIRsPRVIR HMLq [I ePQNq LVLKMKI lPQR qIMR PNq sMxPQRLKIl /PMJq
HP! MJq JMVIq M VQHLT[MNN HKMR K[MK PHI [Mq JIxIR [IMRq Psr; `) ryPQK[ [Mq sNIq sRPV LKr; T) r/[I eMH
HLKKLJg JIMR IJPQg[...r
2. GSZNMLJ K[I QHI Ps MNN K[I MRKLTNIH LJ K[I sRMgVIJK `IgLJJLJg eLK[ roJI KQRJ eMH MJ ITTIJKRLT sINNPer!
MJq IJqLJg eLK[ rZNMaIq K[I MTTPRqLPJ.r
B. +. |Pe qP aPQ QJqIRHKMJq K[I ePRq hu+an in r...MNKPgIK[IR VPRI [QVMJ K[MJ K[I ZLTKQRI K[IMKRIH...r{
2. M) GSZNMLJ K[I VIMJLJg Ps K[I LKMNLTLIq ePRqH LJ K[I sPNNPeLJg: r:IRa sIe Ps K[I KQRJH eIRI aPQJg;
K[Ia K[IVHINxIH! K[ILR 5rea&ed MJq fading HTIJIRa! K[ILR ePRJ ZRPZIRKa eIRI getting on in year&nD `) w[MK
zLJq Ps MKVPHZ[IRI LH TRIMKIq `a K[LH qIHTRLZKLPJ{ w[LT[ T[MRMTKIRLHKLT sIMKQRI Ps K[I ZNMTI LH HZITLMNNa
IVZ[MHLIq{
4. w[MK LH K[I VIMJLJg Ps K[I ePRq 29oo+ LJ ru[IRI eMH JP `NPPV PJ MJaK[LJg [IRIr{ w[MK zLJq Ps
LVMgI LH TRIMKIq `a K[I HIJKIJTI{
3. GSZNMLJ K[I VIMJLJg Ps K[I ePRqH anZiou& LJ rIaIH MJSLPQH `I[LJq K[I VMHz Ps ZMLJr MJq anZiou&9y LJ
r[LH RIMN sMTI ZIIRLJg MJSLPQHNa K[RPQg[ K[MK VMHz.r (0nZiou& LVZNLIH sIMR. w[a LH K[I IVPKLPJ Ps sIMR
IVZ[MHLIq LJ K[IHI KeP HIJKIJTIH{)
C. +. GSZNMLJ K[I IssITK MT[LIxIq `a LJxIRHLPJ LJ: M) roJI K[LJg H[I JPKLTIqr; `) r.../KMJqLJg K[IRI! JIxIR
KMzLJg [IR IaIH Pss K[I ZIRsPRVIR! eMH MJ INqIRNa ePVMJ...r (/II 1PKIH PJ /KaNI! Z. 277).
2. M) w[MK LH K[I IssITK MT[LIxIq `a K[I HaJKMTKLTMN ZMRMNNINLHV LJ: r.../P eIRI K[I MKKIJqMJKH. /P eIRI K[I
VIV`IRH Ps K[I PRT[IHKRMr{ `) pLJq MJPK[IR TMHI Ps HaJKMTKLTMN ZMRMNNINLHV LJ K[I NMHK ZMHHMgI `QK PJI MJq
TPVVIJK PJ LK.
II. Transcribe the foIIowing words and transIate them into Russian:
MJSLIKa! MRRLxMN! MKKIJqMJTI! LVLKMKI! MNKPgIK[IR! KePZIJTI! ZRPZIRKLIH! TRIMHIq! eIMRLJg! eIMRa! MQqLIJTI!
HKRMLg[K! qIHPNMKI! PLJK! MJSLPQH! gRPKIHfQI! RMggIq! ZIR[MZH! IJqIMxPQR.
III. a) Find in the text sentences with:
M gRIMK qIMN Ps! xIRa sIe! xIRa sIe Ps! VMJa Ps
and write your own sentences with the same word-combinations,
b) Find in the text sentences with:
MNKPgIK[IR! JIMRNa! QHQMNNa! K[IJ! MK sLRHK! HPPJ! e[MKIxIR LK LH! MJa VPRI! JP NPJgIR
and write your own sentences with the same words and phrases.
IV. Answer the questions:
+. w[IJ qLq PHI MJq vRH. 0QRNPe MRRLxI MK K[I VQHLT[MNN{ 2. w[IRI eIRI K[ILR HIMKH{ 4. wIRI K[I HKMNNH
ISZIJHLxI{ 3. .J e[MK eMa qLq K[I MQqLIJTI `I[MxI{ *. w[MK zLJq Ps ZNMTI eMH K[I VQHLT[MNN{ w[MK eMH
LKH VPHK T[MRMTKIRLHKLT sIMKQRI{ ,. wIRI K[I MKKIJqMJKH MJq K[I VIV`IRH Ps K[I PRT[IHKRM aPQJg PR INqIRNa
ZIPZNI{ 7. w[MK qLq K[I HTIJIRa MJq K[I ZRPZIRKLIH NPPz NLzI{ b. w[IJ qLq K[I NPQqIHK MZZNMQHI TPVI{
w[a{ 2. w[a qPIH K[I MQK[PR HMa K[MK K[I VQHLT[MNN eMH RMK[IR HMq K[PQg[ LK eMH TPHa MJq sRLIJqNa{ +).
w[a eIRI K[I MTKPRlH IaIH MJSLPQH `I[LJq K[I VMHz Ps ZMLJK{ ++. w[MK qLq K[I VMJ LJ K[I TPHKQVI Ps M
KRMVZ qP PJ K[I HKMgI{ +2. nLq PHI NLzI [LH MTKLJg{ +4. w[MK qLq H[I HII LJ K[I eLJgH{ +3. w[a qLq H[I HMa
JPK[LJg KP vRH. 0QRNPe{ +*. |Pe qPIH K[LH IZLHPqI T[MRMTKIRLI PHI{ +,. w[MK qPIH K[I MQK[PR eMJK KP
+22
KINN QH `a K[LH IZLHPqI{
V. Search the text for adjectives and cIassify them into two groups according to "positive" and "negative"
quaIities as suggested by the context (e.g. 1) great, good, nice... and 2) cheap, creased...). When the
Iist is ready, describe some pIace and its atmosphere using the adjectives of each group.
VI. TeII the story of Rose as your own experience in the past.
VII. Study VocabuIary Notes and a) transIate the exampIes; b) give synonyms of:
RPMq n! IMgIR a, MVQHLJg a, eIMR ,D
c) give antonyms of:
KP sLJq PJIlH eMa! KP NPHI [PNq Ps;
d) give derivatives of:
MKKIJq! IJKIRKMLJ! eIMR.
VIII. FiII in with:
a) be anxious, worry, troubIe, bother.
+. /[I MNeMaH ... e[IJ H[I qPIHJlK gIK Va NIKKIRH sPR M NPJg KLVI. 2. u[I NIKKIR K[MK LJsPRVIq QH Ps [IR
QJISZITKIq qIZMRKQRI gRIMKNa ... VI. 4. . zJIe K[MK [I ePQNq eLNNLJgNa [INZ VI! `QK . qLqJlK NLzI KP ... [LV. 3.
nPJlK...c nLJJIR eLNN `I RIMqa PJ KLVI. *. u[I T[LNq LH xIRa eIMz! MJq . TMJ xIRa eINN QJqIRHKMJq K[MK LK...
aPQ. ,. nPJlK ... M`PQK K[I KMSL. .lNN gIK aPQ [PVI LJ Va TMR. 7. . sINK K[MK [I qLqJlK ZMa MJa MK KIJKLPJ KP e[MK .
eMH HMaLJg. . qITLqIq K[MK [I ... M`PQK HPVIK[LJg. b. . H[PQNqJlK NLzI KP ... aPQ eLK[ Va KLRIHPVI MssMLRH. 2.
u[I TNLVMKI LH xIRa `Mq K[IRI! MJq . ... M`PQK [IR [IMNK[. +). .lV HPRRa KP ...aPQ! `QK . JIIq [LH MqqRIHH `MqNa.
b) anxious and its derivatives:
+. w[MK MRI aPQ HP ... M`PQK{ 2. |IR ... sMTI eMH ZMNI. 4! wI eIRI sQNN Ps ... MJq ePRRa. 3. vLT[MIN eMH ...
KP sLJq M P`. *. . eMH ... eMLKLJg sPR [LH MJHeIR. ,. |LH ... sPR HQTTIHH VMqI [LV VMJa IJIVLIH. 7.... VMzIH
ZIPZNI PNqIR.
c) attend and its derivatives:
1. From the MgI Ps HIxIJ KLNN HIxIJKIIJ .... HT[PPN. 2. u[I ... at NITKQRIH [MH sMNNIJ Pss. 4. .J this hotel you
will be eINN... on. 4. Your... LH RIfQIHKIq.
d) entertain and its derivatives:
1. Who(m) are you ... at dinner tonight? 2. |LH PzIH didn't ... us much. 3. The ZNMa was not very ...
4. Do you know any places of... LJ K[LH town? *. nP K[Ia PsKIJ ...{
IX. TransIate these sentences into Russian:
1. w[MK VMzIH aPQ K[LJz [I zJPeH K[I KRQK[{ GxIRaK[LJg. |LH NPPz. u[I eMa [I KMNzIq MK qLJJIR. 2.
/[I HVLNIq LJ K[MK T[MRVLJg eMa Ps [IRH. 4. |I HZPzI PJ PJI JPKI. .K gMxI jLKKa K[I LVZRIHHLPJ K[MK [I eMH
HZIMzLJg sRPV M NPJg eMa Pss. 3. |I [Mq ZMRKLTQNMRNa TPJgRMKQNMKIq QH PJ K[I eMa eI [Mq qPJI K[I qLssLTQNK
P`. *. . qLqJlK zJPe e[LT[ eMa KP NPPz. ,. . RIMNNa TMJlK gIK QHIq KP K[I JIe eMaH. 7. .H K[MK K[I eMa aPQ sIIN
KPeMRqH QH{ b. /[I K[RIe Va HNLZZIRH LJKP Va sMTI. /[I `I[MxIq LJ K[I VPHK PQKRMgIPQH eMa. 2. .HM`IN qLqJlK
eMJK KP HKMJq LJ iMRRalH eMa. +). /PZ[LI ZQH[Iq [IR eMa K[RPQg[ K[I qMJTIRH MJq eI NPHK HLg[K Ps [IR LJ K[I
TRPeq. ++. . VMqI eMa sPR [LV KP gP QZ K[I HKMLRH. +2. /QMJJIlH VPK[IR TPQNq [MRqNa NLxI PJ [IR ZIJHLPJ
eLK[ ZRLTIH K[I eMa K[Ia eIRI. +4. u[Ia [Mq `IIJ KP O[MRKRIH MJq eIRI PJ K[ILR eMa `MTz KP \MRLH. +3. . HMe
K[I eMLKIR K[RIMqLJg [LH eMa K[RPQg[ K[I KM`NIH. +*. u[I RPPV [Mq M JMRRPe LRPJ `Iq MJq `a eMa Ps sQRJLKQRI
PJNa K[I `MRIHK JITIHHLKLIH.
X. TransIate these sentences into EngIish, using the word way.
+. $ D 96 $ . < >8 $
D ! $ . A ; $5 6 6. F 67!
; ; (sPRIHKIR)! 85 $; $ 6 $5. 2. '
E$ ! 5 85 65 $. 4. < ! .
3. 7 E9 $! $; 8 8 { *. F5 > 89 > 8
;{ ,. 76! 6 $ $D6.
XI. Make up diaIogues:
a) between Rose and Mrs. Burlow (after the performance);
b) between the old clown and his wife (before he went on to the stage);
c) between two readers (about the episode described in the passage and the author of the story).
XII. Insert prepositions or adverbs where necessary:
+. nPJlK ePRRa aPQR ZRIKKa NLKKNI [IMq ... K[I VaHKIRLPQH xLHLKPR. 2. 0a MRRMJgLJg gPPq VMRRLMgIH sPR [IR
qMQg[KIRH H[I ISZITKIq KP VMzI......MNN K[I qLHMZZPLJKVIJKH Ps [IR PeJ TMRIIR. 4. |I HMK fQLKI HKLNN MJq HKMRIq
eLK[ K[PHI eLqI LVVP`LNI IaIH Ps [LH ... K[I ZLTKQRI. 3. |I [MH M `MK[ ... TPNq eMKIR IxIRa VPRJLJg. o[c
|I LH VMqI ... LRPJ! K[MK VMJ. *. dRI eI ... K[I eMa{ 1P! aPQ TPQNqJlK [MxI TPVI VPRI sPRKQJMKINa. ,. .
HQZZPHI LK eMH JMKQRMN... aPQ KP `I MJSLPQH ... K[I gMRqIJ ZMRKa. 0QK K[MKlH MNN... JPe. u[IRIlH JPK[LJg VPRI KP
ePRRa ... . 7. |I MRRLxIq ... K[I iPVPJq |PKIN! x; [PK MJq HeIMKa MJq IS[MQHKIq MJq [Mq MJ P`HTQRI
sIINLJg K[MK K[Ia ePQNq KMzI PJI NPPz ... [LV MJq K[IJ MHz [LV KP gP ... .
+4)
XIII. Make up a story, using the words and phrases from EssentiaI VocabuIary I.
XIV. TransIate the foIIowing sentences into EngIish:
+. 5 9! $ ; 6 . 2. ' 96 $7 !
8 6. 4. "8 6 ! >6 6. 3. 85 $6;
8 ;D. *. 65 8 6 ! 8 D!
6 ;. ,. 5 $ D85 D$! $;
6 6$. F! $; 6 9 5 ! $ 96 86
>! $D7 $. 7. (6 85! 89 ; >!
$; 5 $ D7. b. "$ 6 $ 6. X >. 2.
' 8 6 D! ! ; $6! = $. +). @
; 6 ;6. < $! $> $! ; 8 $5
>6 6; 9B. A>5 > ; = $;! $ > 9!
67 9 9D9 ;. ++. " 8 ! 8
$6 5 $65 . +2. <6! 8 ; 8 $. ~ 8 D6
! 8 6 >D6 ;.
XV. Test on synonymy. ConsuIt Notes on pp. 18 and 201.
1. Prove that the following words are (or are not) synonyms:
eMa RPMq ZMK[ KRMTz [Lg[eMa HKRIIK;
KP `I MJSLPQH KP `I HPRRa KP ePRRa KP KRPQ`NI KP `PK[IR KP `I QZHIK;
KP eMJK KP `I IMgIR KP `I MJSLPQH.
2. Point out the synonymic dominant of each group.
3. Explain how synonyms of each group differ one from another according to differentiations suggested in
Notes on Synonyms.
4. Synonyms within the following pairs differ by style. Point out which of them are bookish, colloquial or
neutral.
(Consult the context in which they are used in the text.)
ZLTKQRI [PQHI TLJIVM KP gIK PJ LJ aIMRH KP MgI KP IJqIMxPQR KP KRa
KP HLJg (ZIRsPRV) KP RIJqIR qIHPNMKI HMq KP TNMZ KP MZZNMQq
XVI. Go over the text again and try to discuss the foIIowing:
+. |Pe qPIH K[I MQK[PR qIHTRL`I K[I VQHLT[MNN{ \PLJK PQK K[I TPJKRMHKLJg T[MRMTKIRLHKLTH. w[MK zLJq Ps
MKVPHZ[IRI LH TRIMKIq `a K[I MQK[PR LJ K[I sRMgVIJK{ 0a e[MK qIxLTIH LH K[I IssITK MT[LIxIq{
2. |Pe qPIH K[I MQK[PR VMzI K[I RIMqIR QJqIRHKMJq K[MK PHM LH M zLJq[IMRKIq gLRN! TMZM`NI Ps
QJqIRHKMJqLJg MJq TPVZMHHLPJ{ w[LT[ VIK[Pq Ps T[MRMTKIRLMKLPJ qPIH K[I MQK[PR QHI{
4. OPVVIJK PJ K[I HINITKLPJ Ps ePRqH LJ K[I sRMgVIJK.
3. OPVVIJK PJ K[I HaJKMS Ps K[I sRMgVIJK MJq LKH HKaNLHKLT xMNQI.
XVII. a) TransIate the text into Russian:
.K eMH KLVI KP gP. pRMJTLH wP`QRJ ZQK PJ [LH IJPRVPQH [MK! HKMRKIq KMNzLJg M`PQK [LVHINs MgMLJ! MJq K[Ia
eMNzIq qPeJ KP K[I OPNLHIQV. |I eMH VQT[ KMNNIR K[MJ H[I [Mq HQZZPHIq [LV KP `I K[PQg[ ZIR[MZH LK
eMH K[I M`HQRq [MK MJq H[I sINK M NLKKNI qQVZa K[LJg! K[PQg[ M JLTI HIJHL`NI NLKKNI qQVZa K[LJg! MH H[I
KRPKKIq MNPJg `a [LH HLqI! ZRIKIJqLJg KP NLHKIJ! `QK `QHa MNN K[I KLVI KINNLJg [IRHINs K[MK [IRI H[I eMH! PHI
/MNKIR! gPLJg KP K[I QHHLMJ 0MNNIK MK K[I OPNLHIQV! eLK[ M KMNN! HQZIRsLJI! xIRa iPJqPJLH[ aPQJg VMJ. .K eMH
MNN xIRa HKRMJgI LJqIIq.
u[Ia TNLV`Iq KP PJI Ps K[I `MNTPJLIH Ps K[I gLgMJKLT K[IMKRI! e[LT[ HIIVIq KP PHI K[I VPHK HZNIJqLq MJq
ISTLKLJg ZNMTI H[I [Mq IxIR HIIJ. nPIJH Ps ZNMaIRH qPeJ `INPe eIRI KQJLJg QZ. dNN RPQJq K[IV! HQZIRsLJI
ZIRHPJH! JPK QJNLzI pRMJTLH wP`QRJ! eIRI HKQqaLJg K[ILR ZRPgRMVVIH. u[IJ K[I NLg[KH qLIq MeMa! ISTIZK
K[PHI K[MK LNNQVLJMKIq K[I TQRKMLJ HP `IMQKLsQNNa. u[I VQHLT `IgMJ! MJq pRMJTLH wP`QRJ HKPZZIq KMNzLJg.
PHI LJHKMJKNa sPRgPK [LH xIRa ISLHKIJTI. u[I VQHLT eMH xIRa HKRMJgI! JPK NLzI MJa H[I [Mq [IMRq `IsPRI! MJq
JPK MK MNN TPVsPRKM`NI MJq sRLIJqNa MJq HeIIK. PHI qLq JPK zJPe e[IK[IR H[I NLzIq LK PR JPK; H[I TPQNq JPK
zIIZ LK MK M qLHKMJTI KP qITLqI M`PQK LK; H[I eMH HLVZNa TMRRLIq MeMa MJq [MNs qRPeJIq `a K[I TPNPHHMN eMxIH
Ps HPQJq; H[I eMH PxIRe[INVIq `a LKH LJHLHKIJK `IMK MJq TNMJg. u[I TQRKMLJ eMH VMgLTMNNa HeIZK MeMa! MJq
K[I HKMgI `NMIq MK [IR. /[I eMH HKMRLJg MK M JIe TPQJKRa! M JIe ePRNq. .K eMH MH Ls K[I NMHK gRIMK eMxI Ps
VQHLT [Mq KMzIJ [IR MJq sNQJg [IR PxIR K[I `PQJqMRLIH Ps K[LH ePRNq. u[I NLKKNI ZIPZNI
77
LJ K[IHI JIe
TPQJKRLIH NLxIq K[ILR NLxIH PJNa LJ VPxIVIJK. /PVIKLVIH K[Ia eIRI qQNN. /PVIKLVIH K[Ia eIRI HLNNa. 0QK MK
PK[IR KLVIH K[Ia eIRI HP `IMQKLsQN LJ K[ILR IJIRga MJq gRMTI! HP P`xLPQHNa K[I TRIMKQRIH Ps MJPK[IR MJq `IKKIR
ePRNq K[MJ K[LH! M ePRNq MNN Ps VQHLT MJq TPNPQR! K[MK PHI T[PzIq MJq MT[Iq MK K[I HLg[K Ps K[IV.
\IPZNI TNMZZIq. pRMJTLH wP`QRJ TNMZZIq. 0QK PHI qLq JPK TNMZ. mQHK ZQKKLJg [IR [MJqH KPgIK[IR! VMzLJg
M HLNNa JPLHI! eMH JPK gPPq IJPQg[ sPR K[IV. /[I gMxI K[IV [IR [IMRK.
77
little people: ([IRI) sMLRLIH! INxIH! MJq gJPVIH Ps sPNzNPRI
+4+
(pRPV ru[Ia wMNz LJ K[I OLKar `a m. 0.\RLIHKNIa)
b) Comment on the foIIowing aspects of the fragment:
+. |Pe qPIH K[I MQK[PR qIHTRL`I K[I VQHLT{ w[MK qPIH [I VIMJ `a HMaLJg K[MK K[I VQHLT eMH rJPK MK MNN
TPVsPRKM`NI MJq sRLIJqNa MJq HeIIKr { |Pe qP aPQ QJqIRHKMJq K[I ePRqH r/[I TPQNq JPK zIIZ LK MK M
qLHKMJTI KP qITLqI M`PQK LKr{ nPIH VQHLT IxIR MssITK aPQ LJ K[I HMVI eMa{ w[MK zLJq Ps VQHLT qPIH{ 2.
GSZNMLJ K[I ePRqH: ru[I HKMgI `NMIq MK [IR.r ru[I NLKKNI ZIPZNI LJ K[IHI JIe TPQJKRLIH NLxIq K[ILR NLxIH PJNa
LJ VPxIVIJK.r r...K[I TRIMKQRIH Ps MJPK[IR MJq `IKKIR ePRNq K[MJ K[LH! M ePRNq MNN Ps VQHLT MJq TPNPQR.r
c) Comment on the Iiterary merit and styIe of the fragment. Do you think that the author has managed to
create a vivid and emotionaIIy charged picture of a baIIet performaAcet (Give reasons for whatever
you say.) Which Iines do you consider especiaIIy expressive? Why? What styIistic devices can you
point out in the extract?
XVIII. Write an essay describing a person's first visit to a baIIet (opera, drama) performance or to a
symphony concert. Try to imitate the styIe and manner of the fragment above (you may borrow some
phrases from it).
LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)
1. Listen to the text "Rose at the Music-Hall", mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat the text following the
model.
2. Re-word the given sentences, making all the necessary changes.
3. Extend the following sentences according to the model.
4. Write a spelling-translation test: a) translate the phrases into English; b) check them with the key.
5. Listen to the text "Chaplin" or the story of another famous actor. Pick out the main points from each
paragraph, write a summary of the text In not more than 10 sentences. Discuss the text in class.
TOP!: THEATRE
TEXT A. DRAMA, MUSIC AND BALLET .1 BRITAIN
u[I TIJKRI Ps K[IMKRLTMN MTKLxLKa LJ 0RLKMLJ LH iPJqPJ. u[IRI MRI M`PQK *) ZRLJTLZMN K[IMKRIH LJ ZRPsIHHLPJMN
QHI
7b
LJ PR JIMR K[I wIHK GJq MJq HPVI 2) LJ K[I HQ`QR`H.
vPHK Ps K[IHI MRI NIK KP ZRPqQTLJg VMJMgIVIJKH PJ M TPVVIRTLMN `MHLH
72
`QK HPVI Ps K[IV MRI
ZIRVMJIJKNa PTTQZLIq `a HQ`HLqLHIq TPVZMJLIH! HQT[ MH K[I 1MKLPJMN u[IMKRI e[LT[ HKMgIH TNMHHLTMN MJq
VPqIRJ ZNMaH LJ LKH TPVZNIS Ps K[RII K[IMKRIH PJ K[I /PQK[ 0MJz Ps K[I LxIR u[MVIH. u[I sPRVIR oNq :LT
OPVZMJa! e[LT[ eMH 0RLKMLJlH VMPR K[IMKRLTMN KPQRLJg TPVZMJa! [MH JPe KMzIJ QZ RIHLqIJTI LJ K[I 1M
KLPJMN u[IMKRI! T[MJgLJg LKH JMVI KP K[I 1MKLPJMN u[IMKRI OPVZMJa. .J MqqLKLPJ K[I PaMN /[MzIHZIMRI
OPVZMJa ZRIHIJKH /[MzIHZIMRIMJ ZNMaH MK /KRMqsPRqQZPJdxPJ MJq M VLSIq RIZIRKPLRI LJ iPJqPJ.
oQKHLqI iPJqPJ K[IRI MRI VMJa JPJRIZIRKPRa K[IMKRIH e[LT[ ZRIHIJK MNN zLJqH Ps qRMVM MJq MNHP ZQK PJ
xMRLIKa H[PeH MJq PK[IR IJKIRKMLJVIJKH. ITIJKNa K[IRI [MH `IIJ M gRPeK[ LJ K[I MTKLxLKa Ps RIZIRKPRa
TPVZMJLIH e[LT[ RITILxI sLJMJTLMN HQZZPRK sRPV K[I dRKH OPQJTLN MJq K[I NPTMN MQK[PRLKLIH. u[IHI TPVZMJLIH
IVZNPa NIMqLJg ZRPqQTIRH! qIHLgJIRH MJq MTKPRH! MJq K[I HKMJqMRq Ps ZRPqQTKLPJH LH gIJIRMNNa [Lg[. /PVI
TPVZMJLIH [MxI K[ILR PeJ K[IMKRIH! e[LNI PK[IRH RIJK sRPV K[I NPTMN MQK[PRLKLIH.
vQHLT Ps MNN zLJqH rZPZr VQHLT! sPNz VQHLT! M! NLg[K VQHLT MJq `RMHH `MJqH LH MJ LVZPRKMJK ZMRK
Ps 0RLKLH[ TQNKQRMN NLsI. u[I NMRgI MQqLIJTIH MK PRT[IHKRMN TPJTIRKH MJq MK ZIRsPRVMJTIH Ps PZIRM! `MNNIK MJq
T[MV`IR VQHLT RIsNITK K[I eLqIHZRIMq LJKIRIHK LJ TNMHHLTMN VQHLT.
u[I PaMN oZIRM |PQHI! OPxIJK UMRqIJ! iPJqPJ! e[LT[ RITILxIH sLJMJTLMN MHHLHKMJTI sRPV K[I dRKH
OPQJTLN! gLxIH RIgQNMR HIMHPJH Ps PZIRM MJq `MNNIK. .K [MH LKH PeJ PRT[IHKRM e[LT[ ZNMaH sPR K[I PaMN oZIRM
MJq K[I PaMN 0MNNIK. 0PK[ TPVZMJLIH [MxI M [Lg[ LJKIRJMKLPJMN RIZQKMKLPJ. u[I GJgNLH[ 1MKLPJMN oZIRM
e[LT[ ZIRsPRVH LJ K[I iPJqPJ OPNLHIQV gLxIH HIMHPJH Ps PZIRM MJq PZIRIKKM LJ GJgNLH[. .K MNHP KPQRH K[I
ZRPxLJTIH.
.J +22b K[I UPxIRJVIJK MJJPQJTIq K[I sPRVMKLPJ Ps K[I yPQJg vQHLT uRQHK KP qIxINPZ K[I VQHLTMN
HzLNNH Ps K[I aPQJg eLK[ HPVI VPJIa sRPV K[I 1MKLPJMN iPKKIRa! MJq qPJMKLPJH sRPV VQHLT T[MRLKLIH MJq
TPVZMJLIH LJxPNxIq LJ VQHLT `QHLJIHH. u[I JMKLPJMN aPQK[ PRT[IHKRMH Ps URIMK 0RLKMLJ [MxI IHKM`NLH[Iq [Lg[
HKMJqMRqH.
u[IRI MRI HIxIRMN K[PQHMJq MVMKIQR qRMVMKLT HPTLIKLIH LJ 0RLKMLJ. vPHK QJLxIRHLKLIH [MxI K[RLxLJg MVMKIQR
qRMVM TNQ`H MJq HPTLIKLIH. GxIRa aIMR MJ .JKIRJMKLPJMN pIHKLxMN Ps }JLxIRHLKa u[IMKRI LH [INq.
TEXT B. AT THE BOX-OFFICE
. eMJK sPQR HIMKH sPR /QJqMa! ZNIMHI.
vMKLJII PR IxIJLJg ZIRsPRVMJTI{
GxIJLJg! ZNIMHI.
7b
L. I. `QLNqLJgH VIMJK sPR K[I ZIRsPRVMJTI Ps ZNMaH `a ZRPsIHHLPJMN TPVZMJLIH.
72
.J GJgNMJq (LJTNQqLJg iPJqPJ) PJNa M sIe K[IMKRIH [MxI K[ILR PeJ ZIRVMJIJK TPVZMJa (K[Ia MRI TMNNIq RIZIRKPRa K[IMKRIH). u[IMKRLTMN TPVZMJLIH MRI
QHQMNNa sPRVIq sPR M HIMHPJ! HPVIKLVIH HKMgLJg PJNa PJI ZNMa sPR ILK[IR M NPJg PR M H[PRK RQJ! K[ILR VMJMgIVIJKH [MxLJg ZRIxLPQHNa RIJKIq M K[IMKRI sPR K[IV
KP ZIRsPRV LJ (K[I HPTMNNIq JPJRIZIRKPRa K[IMKRIH).
+42
wINN! aPQ TMJ [MxI xIRa gPPq HIMKH LJ K[I HKMNNH. Pe p.
o[! JPc .KlH JIMR K[I PRT[IHKRMZLK. va eLsI TMJlK HKMJq NPQq VQHLT.
u[IJ . TPQNq sLJq aPQ HPVI HIMKH LJ K[I ZLK.
.lV MsRMLq K[MK ePJlK qP ILK[IR. va sMK[IRLJNMe LH KIRRL`Na H[PRKHLg[KIq. |I ePQNqJlK HII VQT[ sRPV
K[I ZLK! ePQNq [I{
|V... \IR[MZH! aPQlq TMRI KP KMzI M `PS{
OIRKMLJNa JPKc .KlH KPP ISZIJHLxI. . TMJlK MssPRq LK. nRIHHTLRTNI K[IJ{
. qPJlK NLzI KP HLK LJ K[I qRIHHTLRTNI.
.lV MsRMLq K[I PJNa K[LJg K[MK RIVMLJH LH K[I gMNNIRa.
|Pe TMJ aPQ HQggIHK HQT[ M K[LJgc va VPK[IRLJNMe LH M HKPQK ePVMJ eLK[ M eIMz [IMRK. wI
TPQNqJlK qRIMV Ps NIKKLJg [IR eMNz QZ sPQR sNLg[KH Ps HKMLRH! TPQNq eI{
. sLJq! HLR! K[MK K[IRI LHJlK M HLJgNI HIMK LJ K[I [PQHI
b)

K[MK ePQNq HQLK aPQ.
u[IRI LHJlK! LH K[IRI{ wINN! . K[LJz eIlq VQT[ `IKKIR gP KP K[I VPxLIH. dH sPR VI! . qPJlK TMRI VQT[ sPR
K[LH K[IMKRIgPLJg `QHLJIHH. UPPq qMac
TEXT C. PANTOMIMES
/ M N N a : uPJa! K[IRIlH MJ MqxIRKLHIVIJK LJ K[I NPTMN ZMZIR HMaLJg K[MK K[I K[IMKRI LJ K[I |Lg[ /KRIIK LH
ZQKKLJg PJ
b+
rOLJqIRINNMr. . [MxIJlK HIIJ M ZMJKPVLVI sPR aIMRH MJq aIMRH. nP aPQ sMJTa gPLJg{
u P J a : yI[! K[MK HPQJqH gPPq. . qPJlK K[LJz .lxI HIIJ PJI HLJTI . eMH M`PQK sPQRKIIJ ISTIZK sPR PJI
PJ LTI e[IJ . eMH TRMa M`PQK HzMKLJg! MJq K[MKlH JPK fQLKI K[I HMVI K[LJg! LH LK{
/ M N N a : 1P. .TI H[PeH qPJlK [MxI MNN K[I ePJqIRsQN KRMqLKLPJMN HTIJIRa MJq K[MK gPRgIPQH K[IMKRI
MKVPHZ[IRI.
u P J a : \MJKPVLVIH MRI MesQNNa PNq! Ls aPQ K[LJz M`PQK LK! MRIJlK K[Ia{ . VIMJ eLK[ M gLRN ZNMaLJg K[I
ZMRK Ps K[I ZRLJTLZMN `Pa! MNN qRIHHIq QZ LJ KLg[KH MJq KQJLT ...
/ M N N a : vV! MJq K[I qMVI ZMRKH KMzIJ `a VIJ. .lxI JIxIR HIIJ rOLJqIRINNMr. . HQZZPHI K[I
HKIZVPK[IR MJq K[I QgNa HLHKIRH MRI K[I VIJlH ZMRKH LJ K[MK.
u P J a : dNMqqLJ QHIq KP `I Va sMxPQRLKI! e[IJ M TPVIqLMJ ZNMaIq K[I wLqPe ueMJzIa. dJq e[IJ
dNMqqLJ RQ``Iq K[I VMgLT NMVZ MJ IJPRVPQH gIJLI MZZIMRIq ...
/ M N N a : dJq K[I MQqLIJTI `PPLJg K[I eLTzIq QJTNI! MJq PLJLJg LJ K[I HLJgLJg Ps K[I ZPZQNMR HPJgH
K[Ia MNeMaH VMJMgI KP gIK LJKP K[I ZNMa HPVI[Pe.
u P J a : yIHc . ePJqIR [Pe PJ IMRK[ K[Ia VMJMgI KP sLK KPqMalH ZPZ HPJgH LJKP ZMJKPVLVI HKPRLIH{
/ M N N a : wINN! e[a qPJlK eI gIK KLTzIKH MJq sLJq PQK{
u P J a : yIH! oj. OPVI PJ! K[IJ.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)
Words
MTK , gMNNIRa n ZRPZIRKLIH MTKLJg n
LJKIRxMN n (ZRPZH) n `MNTPJa n NLg[KLJg n
RIZIRKPLRI n `PS n VMKLJII n RPe n
TMHK n PRT[IHKRMZLK n HKMgIVMJMgIR n TPVZMJa n
ZLK n HKMNNH n TPHKQVIH n ZRPqQTI ,
(K[IMKRI) [PQHI n qLRITKPR n ZRPqQTIR n KRIMKVIJK n
qRIHHTLRTNI n ZRPqQTKLPJ n
Word Combinations
ZRPsIHHLPJMN K[IMKRI K[I HIKKLJg Ps M HTIJI RIZIRKPRa TPVZMJa
NLg[K MJq HPQJq IssITKH MVMKIQR K[IMKRI KP ZRPqQTI M ZNMa
qRMVMKLT HPTLIKa
EXERCISES
I. Answer the foIIowing questions:
A. +. w[MK LH K[I TIJKRI Ps K[IMKRLTMN MTKLxLKa LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJ{ 2. w[LT[ K[IMKRLTMN TPVZMJLIH RITILxI
sLJMJTLMN HQZZPRK sRPV dRKH OPQJTLN{ 4. w[MK LH VIMJK `a M RIZIRKPRa K[IMKRI{ 3. w[MK qP aPQ zJPe M`PQK
b)
u[I ZMRK Ps K[I K[IMKRI e[LT[ [MH M HKMgI MJq HIMKH sPR K[I MQqLIJTI LH TMNNIq MQqLKPRLQV PR [PQHI (a9&o: K[IMKRI[PQHI).
u[I NPJg RPeH Ps T[MLRH HLKQMKIq PJ K[I gRPQJq sNPPR Ps K[I MQqLKPRLQV LJ. sRPJK Ps K[I HKMgI MRI TMNNIq K[I HKMNNH (sRPJK RPeH) MJq K[I ZLK (`MTz RPeH).
u[I HKMNNH MJq K[I ZLK MRI HQRRPQJqIq `a `PSIH. u[IRI MRI MNHP HPVI `MNTPJLIH IJTLRTNLJg K[I MQqLKPRLQV PJ K[RII HLqIH. u[I NPeIHK Ps K[IV (TPVLJg
LVVIqLMKINa M`PxI K[I `PSIH) LH TMNNIq K[I qRIHHTLRTNI MJq K[I [Lg[IHK (HPVIe[IRI JIMR K[I TILNLJg Ps K[I [PQHI) LH zJPeJ MH K[I gMNNIRa.
.J VPHK K[IMKRIH K[I HIMKH sPR K[I MQqLIJTI MRI HIZMRMKIq sRPV K[I HKMgI `a K[I PRT[IHKRMZLK. .J HPVI K[IMKRIH! [PeIxIR! K[IRI LH JP PRT[IHKRMZLK! MJq K[I
VQHLTLMJH MRI ZNMTIq `I[LJq K[I HTIJIH (`MTzHKMgI). u[I HLqIH Ps K[I HKMgI MJq K[I HTIJIRa ZNMTIq K[IRI MRI TMNNIq eLJgH.
b+
.K KMzIH fQLKI M JQV`IR Ps ZIPZNI KP ZQK PJ M ZNMa. u[I KRIMKVIJK Ps M ZNMa! K[I HKaNI Ps K[I ZRPqQTKLPJ! K[I KRMLJLJg Ps K[I ZIRsPRVIRH qIZIJq PJ K[I
qLRITKPR (MNHP TMNNIq `a HPVI ZIPZNI ZRPqQTIR LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJ). u[I HKMgIVMJMgIR LH K[I ZIRHPJ LJ T[MRgI Ps K[I KIT[JLTMN ZMRK Ps K[I ZRPqQTKLPJ Ps M ZNMa.
u[IRI MRI MNHP VMzIQZ MRKLHKH! ZIPZNI e[P VMzI K[I TPHKQVIH! K[PHI e[P qIHLgJ K[I ZRPZH MJq HTIJIRa! MJq sLJMNNa! HKMgI [MJqH.
u[I MTKPRH KMzLJg ZMRK LJ K[I ZNMa MRI TMNNIq K[I TMHK (5f. K[I QHHLMJ @ 5B).
+44
K[I PaMN /[MzIHZIMRI OPVZMJa{ *. w[MK zLJq Ps ZIRsPRVMJTIH MRI HKMgIq LJ K[I PaMN oZIRM |PQHI{ ,.
dRI K[IRI VMJa K[IMKRIH LJ PR JIMR K[I wIHK (GMHK) GJq Ps iPJqPJ{ 7. w[MK zLJq Ps VQHLT LH ZPZQNMR LJ
GJgNMJq{ b. dRI K[IRI MJa MVMKIQR K[IMKRIH LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJ{ 2. w[MK NIMqLJg MTKPRH Ps K[I 0RLKLH[ K[IMKRI qP
aPQ zJPe{ +). |Pe MRI K[I 0RLKLH[ dRKH OPQJTLNH gPLJg KP TINI`RMKI MZZRPMT[ Ps K[I VLNNIJJLQV{
B. +. |Pe LH K[I QHHLMJ K[IMKRI PRgMJLIq{ 2. w[MK QHHLMJ K[IMKRIH MRI `IHK zJPeJ LJ QHHLM MJq
M`RPMq{ 4. .H MKKIJqMJTI MK PQR K[IMKRIH [Lg[{ 3. |Pe VMJa KLVIH M VPJK[ (M aIMR) qP aPQ gP KP K[I K[IMKRI{
*. dRI K[IRI MJa MVMKIQR K[IMKRIH LJ QHHLM{
II. Try your band at teaching:
A. \RIZMRMKLPJ! M) pLJq ZLTKQRI RIZRIHIJKLJg M K[IMKRI[PQHI! `) /KQqa K[I sPPKJPKIH PJ Z. 427 qIHTRL`LJg M
K[IMKRI[PQHI MJq LKH ZMRKH! T) wRLKI fQIHKLPJH KP ZRPxPzI MJHeIRH TPJKMLJLJg MNN K[I JIe ePRqH.
B. wPRz LJ TNMHH. dHz aPQR fQIHKLPJH! NLHKIJ KP K[I MJ HeIRH MJq TPRRITK K[I HKQqIJKlH VLHKMzIH.
III. Learn Text by heart. Act out this diaIogue.
IV. ReteII Text in your own words.
Speak on your favourite genre (opera, drama, ballet, comedy, musical, etc). Why do you like it?
V. TransIate the foIIowing into EngIish:
F; $8 D! 8 > . t 6 $ ! ;8
$6 %. % 8 6 8! 8>8 89! 89 89
9. < E$ C 7$8 57=9 % 8; 6 ECC.
( 5 8 95! ; ! D; ;7 6! 8
. F; 8 %! $ ; 6; 8 $
; ;. $ $5 %8 6; $ D. _ 8
8. "; . F $ >! E % 8 =. ?>
6 =! 8 6 ;8 .
F; 765 %8 ! ; ! $
6 = $.
VI. Read the foIIowing and either agree or disagree with the statements. (See the Reminder.):
+. u[I [PQHI LH K[I ZMRK Ps K[I K[IMKRI e[IRI K[I VIV`IRH Ps K[I PRT[IHKRM QHQMNNa HLK. 2. dJ MQqLKPRLQV LH
M `QLNqLJg PR M ZMRK Ps M `QLNqLJg LJ e[LT[ K[I MQqLIJTI HLK. 4. u[I MQqLIJTI LJTNQqI `PK[ HZITKMKPRH MJq
MTKPRH. 3. w[IJ K[I MQqLIJTI LH ZNIMHIq LK zIIZH HLNIJK. *. wI HMa rK[I [PQHI LH sQNNr e[IJ JPK MNN K[I HIMKH LJ
K[I MQqLKPRLQV MRI PTTQZLIq. ,. u[I ZLK LH JIMRIR KP K[I HKMgI K[MJ K[I HKMNNH. 7. yPQ ZRIsIR HIMKH LJ K[I
gMNNIRa! qPJlK aPQ{ b. wLJgH MRI K[I HLqIH Ps M HKMgI eLK[ K[I HTIJIRa. 2. yPQ ePQNqJlK NLzI KP gP `I[LJq K[I
HKMgI! . `INLIxI. +). u[I T[IMZIHK HIMKH MRI LJ K[I `PSIH. ++. u[I VPHK ISZIJHLxI HIMKH MRI LJ K[I PRT[IHKRM
HKMNNH. +2. /KQqIJKH MNeMaH `Qa HIMKH LJ K[I PRT[IHKRM HKMNNH. +4. 0a K[I TMHK Ps K[I ZNMa eI VIMJ MNN K[I MTKPRH
`INPJgLJg KP K[I K[IMKRLTMN TPVZMJa. +3! u[I RPNI Ps K[I ZRPqQTIR LH JPK xIRa LVZPRKMJK. +*. yPQ qPJlK zJPe
e[P /KMJLHNMxHza eMH! . `INLIxI. +,. .K qPIHJlK KMzI VMJa ZIPZNI KP ZRPqQTI M ZNMa. +7. . `INLIxI aPQ TNMZ KP
H[Pe aPQR MZZRITLMKLPJ Ps K[I MTKLJg PR K[I ZNMa MH M e[PNI.
IVLJqIR. 3eyond a99 dou2t" I &hou9d thin' &o" I won?t deny it Jo&t 9i'e9y" I di&agree with you" Mn the
5ontrary" Lou are wrong" Nu&t the other way round" Not VIc 3y no +ean&"
VII. a) Describe your impressions of a pIay (opera, baIIet) you have seen. FoIIow the pIan beIow:
+. UPLJg KP K[I K[IMKRI. (|Pe qLq aPQ gIK K[I KLTzIKH{ w[IRI eIRI aPQR HIMKH{ wMH K[I [PQHI sQNN{)
2. u[I ZNMa. (wMH LK LJKIRIHKLJg{ w[MK eMH LJKIRIHKLJg{ w[MK qLqJlK aPQ NLzI M`PQK LK{)
4. u[I MTKLJg. (wMH K[I TMHK gPPq{ w[PHI MTKLJg LVZRIHHIq K[I MQqLIJTI{ .J e[MK HTIJIH{)
3. u[I ZRPqQTKLPJ. (nLq K[I ZRPqQTKLPJ [INZ K[I MQqLIJTI KP TMKT[ K[I VMLJ LqIM Ps K[I ZNMa{ .J e[MK
ZPLJKH Ps K[I ZRPqQTKLPJ qLq aPQ sIIN K[I ePRz Ps K[I ZRPqQTIR{ nLq K[I gIJIRMN HZLRLK Ps K[I ZRPqQTKLPJ
HMKLHsa K[I qIVMJq Ps K[I ZNMa{)
*. nIHLgJLJg. (nLq aPQ NLzI K[I HTIJIRa{ |Pe eIRI K[I NLg[K MJq HPQJq IssITKH QHIq{)
,. u[I MQqLIJTI. (w[MK zLJq Ps ZIPZNI qLq LK TPJHLHK Ps{ |Pe qLq K[Ia RITILxI K[I ZIRsPRVMJTI{)
I V L n q I R: Ls i& &ur4ri&ing to +eet a 49ay a2out ordinary 4eo49e 5aught u4 in ordinary event&, the
author &how& a re+ar'a29e ta9ent for writing dia9ogue whi5h i& entertaining and witty, the 5hara5ter& are
49ea&ant (hu+orou&, ordinaryBD one 2rief &5ene for+& the 59i+aZ of the 49ay, the 5hara5ter& a5t out a
fanta&y, the audien5e i& +ade to thin': unti9 a9+o&t the fina9 5urtainD &49endid dire5tionD it wa& one of the
fine&t rendering& of thi& 4art I?ve ever heardD I hear the &5enery wa& 49anned and de&igned 2y...; hi& +u&i5a9
ta9ent i& Cuite eZ5e4tiona9, hi& 49aying &o+eti+e& re+ind& +e of"""D the high9ight of the evening wa& ...
b) Make up diaIogues discussing the points above.
VIII. a) SuppIy articIes where necessary:
O[Iz[PxlH ZNMa r... /IMgQNNr eMH sLRHK HKMgIq LJ ... dNISMJqRLJHza u[IMKRI LJ... \IKIRH`QRg. .K eMH ...
TPVZNIKI sMLNQRI.... ZNMa eMH RQLJIq `a ... qQNN MJq ... TNQVHa ZRPqQTKLPJ. .K eMH HKMgIq LJ ... rgPPq PNq
KRMqLKLPJHr e[IRIMH ... O[Iz[PxlH ZNMaH eIRI fQLKI QJNLzI MJa PK[IR ZNMaH eRLKKIJ `IsPRI MJq qIVMJqIq ...
+43
JIe sPRVH MJq qIxLTIH.... \IKIRH`QRg MQqLIJTI qLq JPK QJqIRHKMJq r... /IMgQNN.r u[IRI eMH ... NMQg[KIR LJ
VPHK ZPIKLTMN HTIJIH MJq VMJa Ps... MQqLIJTI NIsK NPJg `IsPRI ... IJq Ps ... ZNMa. .K eMH ... TRQIN `NPe KP
O[Iz[Px. |PeIxIR! LJ... vPHTPe dRK u[IMKRI! e[LT[ eMH JPK ... aIMR PNq K[IJ (LK eMH LJ +b2b)! ... HMVI ZNMa
qLRITKIq `a j. /. /KMJLHNMxHza eMH ... KRIVIJqPQH HQTTIHH.... /KMJLHNMxHzalH ZRPqQTKLPJ Ps r... /IMgQNNr
PZIJIq ... JIe IZPT[ LJ ... [LHKPRa Ps ... K[IMKRI MJq HaV`PNLIq... KRLQVZ[ Ps... JIe MJq ... ZRPgRIHHLxI sPRVH
PxIR ... PNq PJIH.
.J ... VIVPRa Ps K[MK IxIJK... e[LKI HIMgQNN HZRIMqH LKH eLJgH PJ ... TQRKMLJ Ps ... vPHTPe dRK u[IMKRI.
b) Answer the foIIowing questions:
+. w[IJ MJq e[IRI eMH O[Iz[PxlH r/IMgQNNr sLRHK HKMgIq{ 2. w[a qLq LK sMLN{ 4. w[a eMH LK K[MK K[I
HMVI ZNMa eMH M KRIVIJqPQH HQTTIHH LJ K[I dRK u[IMKRI{ 3. w[a qLq K[I dRK u[IMKRI T[PPHI K[I HIMgQNN sPR
LKH IV`NIV{
IX. a) Give a free transIation of the foIIowing passage. Make use of the EngIish phrases given at the end:
'6! 89 6 @t5B! 8 >8 >8. $!
A t9 6 . - ; D > ; %. A
E$ D ; 8 ! 8 ; @t5B!
; $! 5 D 5 A;. <9 $;
6 ;68$ $; . ' E$ > ;
" A! $D $ . "> $! 8 $
9$! $68 D 9 6
. A7 7 6 $ ! 8$ $8! 8! 89
;6 6 $6! D5 85 . ( %! $8 D6
$ ;! 85 D $: @X;5 9D! ! 56 9!
$C. 8 ; 66! 5! ;$$8 7$85 $
6 $! 85 D$ $. 8 ; $B.
F $8 ; $7. A85 ;$ $ 6; .
' $! $ > ;9 . < ;!
;5 8! ! ! D8 $8. _ D ...
... 6 ! $8 ! 8. A$ ... ... "8
>! >! $ 6. <%! $8 9
! $ 8! $6 ; ;. ". . &5! ; "D
$ 768$ $ %9 5! $8 %7. -9
>8$ $ $C$. t9 8 ;$$.
(PTUXRX>Ub <" (. " >6 )
Use the following:
K[I TLRTQVHKMJTIH ... eIRI TPVZNLTMKIq MJq ZMLJsQN! [LH qIIZ qIZRIHHLPJ! [I VLg[K [MxI JPK HQRxLxIq
MJPK[IR sMLNQRI! LVZNPRIq QH KP TMJTIN K[I ZIRsPRVMJTI! eI `MqNa JIIqIq LK! KP RMLHI K[I `PS PssLTI RIKQRJH!
K[I LJJIR xPLTI! VQRqIRIq `a aPQR PeJ [MJqH! K[I sLRHK MTK TPJTNQqIq MVLq qIMK[NLzI HLNIJTI! KP sMLJK! . eMH
PJ Va NMHK NIgH! K[IRI eMH MJ QZRPMR! M TRMH[! M HKPRV Ps MZZNMQHI! K[I TQRKMLJ eIJK QZ ... K[IJ qPeJ MgMLJ!
eI eIRI HKMJqLJg HKQJJIq! eI eIRI HQZZPHIq KP KMzI K[I TQRKMLJTMNNH! VINKIq K[I LTI! KP T[IIR! IMT[ MTK
[ILg[KIJIq K[I HQTTIHH.
b) What can you say about the significance of the event described above for the history of Russian and
worId theatre?
X. a) Read Sir Laurence OIivier's answers given by him in a newspaper interview:
Q I H K L P J : |Pe [MH KINIxLHLPJ MssITKIq K[I K[IMKRI{
d J H e I R : wINN! LKH ZPZQNMRLKa VIMJH K[MK VLNNLPJH Ps ZIPZNI KMzI qRMVM sPR gRMJKIq. wLK[ [PQRH MJq
[PQRH IxIRa eIIz! K[I xLIeIR TMJ [MxI M `INNasQN Ps qRMVM. .s aPQlRI gPLJg KP MKKRMTK M VMJ MJq [LH eLsI
MeMa sRPV K[ILR u: HIK PJ M eLJKIRlH JLg[K! MJq [PNq K[IV KP M ZNMa LJ M K[IMKRI! aPQlxI gPK KP gRLZ K[IV MJq
zIIZ K[IV gRLZZIq.
1Pe! aPQ qP [MxI TIRKMLJ MqxMJKMgIH LJ K[I K[IMKRI. u[I KINNa LH ZIRsITK sPR K[I K[LJgH K[MK [MxI `IIJ
HZITLMNNa `QLNK sPR LK. 0QK K[I u: HTRIIJ TMJJPK gLxI aPQ K[I ZITQNLMR TPJqLKLPJ Ps K[I K[IMKRI! e[IRI eI MRI
MNNPeIq KP gIK `MTz KP NLsIHLI ZIPZNI LJ RINMKLPJ.
.: .H K[IRI MJa ZMRKLTQNMR [P``a[PRHI K[MK aPQ RLqI LJ aPQR ePRz MH MTKPR MJq qLRITKPR{
d.: . RINa gRIMKNa PJ R[aK[V. . K[LJz K[MK LH PJI K[LJg . QJqIRHKMJq K[I ISZNPLKMKLPJ Ps R[aK[V! T[MJgI
Ps HZIIq Ps HZIIT[! T[MJgI Ps KLVI! T[MJgI Ps ISZRIHHLPJ! T[MJgI Ps ZMTI LJ TRPHHLJg K[I HKMgI. jIIZ K[I
MQqLIJTI HQRZRLHIq! H[PQK e[IJ K[IalRI JPK ISZITKLJg LK! zIIZ K[IV PJ K[ILR KPIH T[MJgI sRPV VLJQKI KP
VLJQKI.
w[MK LH K[I VMLJ ZRP`NIV Ps K[I MTKPR{ .K LH KP zIIZ K[I MQqLIJTI MeMzI.
o.: |Pe KRQI LH LK K[MK MJ MTKPR H[PQNq LqIJKLsa eLK[ M RPNI{
+4*
d.: . qPJlK zJPe. . TMJ PJNa HZIMz sPR VaHINs. dJq LJ Va TMHI LKlH JPK lH[PQNql! LKlH lVQHKl. . QHK qP. . TMJlK
[INZ LK. .J Va TMHI . sIIN . MV e[P . MV ZNMaLJg. dJq . K[LJz! K[PQg[ . HZIMz PJNa sRPV Va PeJ ISZIRLIJTI!
K[MK K[I MTKPR VQHK LqIJKLsa KP HPVI ISKIJK eLK[ [LH ZMRK.
.J roK[INNPr K[I ZMHHMgI sRPV K[I [MJqzIRT[LIs HTIJI K[RPQg[ KP sNLJgLJg K[I VPJIa LJ GVLNLMlH sMTI LH!
ZPQJq `a ZPQJq! K[I [IMxLIHK `QRqIJ . zJPe K[MK [MH `IIJ NMLq QZPJ VI aIK `a M qRMVMKLHK.
dJq vMT`IK[. nP aPQ zJPe e[MK LH K[I sLRHK K[LJg KP NIMRJ M`PQK ZNMaLJg vMT`IK[{ uP gIK K[RPQg[ K[I
ZIRsPRVMJTI eLK[PQK NPHLJg aPQR xPLTI. (*ro+ vPHTPe 1IeH! +2,2! 1P +)! *rag+ent&B
b) Try your hand at teaching:
d. \RIZMRMKLPJ. u[LJz Ps LJKIRIHKLJg fQIHKLPJH PJ /LR iMQRIJTI oNLxLIRlH LJKIRxLIe.
0. wPRz LJ TNMHH. vMzI aPQR sRLIJqH MJHeIR aPQR fQIHKLPJH.
XI. SoIe-pIaying.
dK M u[IMKRI pIHKLxMN
/K. d: M sMVPQH ZRPqQTIR
/K. .: M TINI`RMKIq MTKPR
/K. O: M KMNIJKIq aPQJg MTKRIHH! e[P VMqI MJ LVVIqLMKI [LK eLK[ [IR HIJHLKLxI MJq VPxLJg ZIRsPRVMJTI
IHK Ps TNMHH: M PQRJMNLHK! M TRLKLT! M ZNMaeRLg[K MJq K[IMKRIgPIRH
dNN MRI LJxLKIq KP K[I HKQqLP.
XXI. a) TransIate the foIIowing fragments into Russian (in writing)!
A. u[IRI MRI VMJa ZIPZNI e[PV K[I K[IMKRI sLNNH eLK[ MJ ISTLKIVIJK e[LT[ JP sMVLNLMRLKa TMJ HKMNI. .K LH
KP K[IV M ePRNq Ps VaHKIRa MJq qINLg[K; LK gLxIH K[IV IJKRa LJKP M RIMNV Ps K[I LVMgLJMKLPJ e[LT[ LJTRIMHIH
K[ILR Pa LJ NLsI! MJq LKH LNNQHLPJ TPNPQRH K[I PRqLJMRLJIHH Ps K[ILR qMLNa RPQJq eLK[ K[I gPNqIJ H[LVVIR Ps
RPVMJTI. g" /" Jaugha+
B. .J K[I u[IMKRI eI MRI ZRPQq KP HIRxI! LqIMH VIRINa ZNMa NLzI HQVVIR NLg[KJLJg PxIR! M qIIZ NMzI Ps
sIINLJg; K[I LJKINNITK VMa `I fQLTzIJIq K[IRI! `QK e[MK LH VPRI LVZPRKMJK LH K[MK K[I LVMgLJMKLPJ Ps K[I
HZITKMKPR `IgLJH KP `I [MQJKIq! HP K[MK NPJg MsKIR [I [MH NIsK K[I ZNMa[PQHI K[I MTKPRH MRI HKLNN eLK[ [LV! HKLNN
KINNLJg [LV Ps K[ILR qIHZMLR MJq K[ILR [PZI. N" 3" @rie&t9ey
b) Comment on the fragments above.
XIII. Speak individuaIIy or arrange a discussion on the foIIowing:
+. w[a LH LK K[MK ZIPZNI gP KP K[I K[IMKRI{ w[MK qP K[Ia NPPz sPR K[IRI{
2. w[MK LH aPQR sMxPQRLKI K[IMKRI MJq e[a{
4. u[I sRMgVIJK M`PxI (GS. ^.. 0) qIHTRL`IH K[I TMHI e[IJ rK[I LVMgLJMKLPJ Ps K[I HZITKMKPR `IgLJH KP `I
[MQJKIq HP K[MK NPJg MsKIR [I [MH NIsK K[I ZNMa[PQHI K[I MTKPRH MRI HKLNN eLK[ [LV...r .H K[I ISZIRLIJTI sMVLNLMR
KP aPQ{ dsKIR e[MK ZNMa qLq aPQ [MxI LK NMHK KLVI{
3. w[MK LH K[I RPVMJKLT HLqI Ps K[I K[IMKRI{
*. w[MK LH K[I IqQTMKLPJMN RPNI Ps K[I K[IMKRI{ nP aPQ MgRII eLK[ \RLIHKNIa (HII K[I sRMgVIJK LJ GS. ^..
0) K[MK K[I K[IMKRLTMN MRK MZZIMNH RMK[IR KP K[I HZITKMKPRlH LVMgLJMKLPJ MJq sIINLJgH K[MJ KP [LH LJKINNITK{ ULxI
aPQR RIMHPJH.
XIV. Try your hand at teaching. 1. Say what you wouId do in the teacher's position:
vLT[MIN! M `RLg[K! aPQJg! HPPJKP`I sLsK[sPRVIR! TPJsIHHIq KP [LH KIMT[IR K[MK LJ [LH xLIe HT[PPN eMH JP
sQJ! K[I KIMT[IRH eIRI JP gPPq! HQVVIR H[PQNq NMHK sPRIxIR MJq qPgH eIRI NQTza `ITMQHI K[Ia qLqJlK [MxI KP
gP KP HT[PPN. u[I KIMT[IR ZRPKIHKIq K[MK HT[PPN eMH LVZPRKMJK. 0QK vLT[MIN! e[P qLqJlK H[MRI K[I KIMT[IRlH
PZLJLPJ! MJHeIRIq eLK[ M PJIePRq fQIHKLPJ rw[a{r.
2. Respond to the foIIowing modestIy. Here are a few possibIe ways of beginning answers:
o[! LK eMH JPK[LJg. u[I RIMN TRIqLK H[PQNq gP KP .... . [Mq xIRa NLKKNI KP qP eLK[ LK. .K eMHJlK qLssLTQNK MK MNN!
RIMNNa. u[MJz aPQ! `QK LKlH JPK RIMNNa MNN K[MK gPPq. o[! aPQlRI ISMggIRMKLJg! . ZNMaIq PJNa M HVMNN ZMRK LJ K[I
e[PNI K[LJg. .K eMH xIRa VQT[ M KIMV IssPRK. yPQlRI xIRa zLJq! `QK RIMNNa MJaPJI INHI TPQNq qP LK.
/ T I J M R L P
d.: .lxI JIxIR HIIJ HQT[ MJ MKKRMTKLxI MJq KMNIJKIq TNMHH Ps T[LNqRIJ. . K[LJz aPQ! MH K[ILR KIMT[IR! qIHIRxI
K[I [Lg[IHK ZRMLHI.
yPQ: ...
d.: .lV HQRI K[Ia MRI HZNIJqLq! `QK . qPJlK MgRII K[MK aPQ qPJlK qIHIRxI MJa TRIqLK. . zJPe aPQ ZNMJJIq K[I
NPxINa qITPRMKLPJH LJ K[ILR TNMHHRPPV! sPR M HKMRK.
yPQ: ...
d.: .lV HPRRa! . QHK TMJlK `INLIxI LK [Mq JPK[LJg KP qP eLK[ aPQ. dJq IxIJ Ls K[Ia [Mq K[I PRLgLJMN LqIM! .lV
HQRI aPQ gQLqIq K[IV LJ K[ILR ePRz.
yPQ:...
d!: o[! TPVI PJ! LK TMJlK [MxI `IIJ IMHa MJq . qPJlK MgRII K[MK MJaPJI TPQNq [MxI qPJI it
+4,
(*ro+ vMzLJg \PNLKI 1PLHIH 2y |MRgRIMxIH MJq v. pNIKT[IR. iMqr +272)
3. CIassroom EngIish. (Revision);
a) .KlH K[I NMHK ZIRLPq PJ /MKQRqMa. u[I NIHHPJ LH TPVLJg KP MJ IJq. yPQ MRI ZNIMHIq eLK[ K[I ePRz aPQ
MJq K[I ZQZLNH [MxI qPJI. yPQ sLJq K[MK aPQ QHK [MxI M`PQK 4 3 VLJQKIH KP [MxI K[I ISIRTLHI `PPzH
TPNNITKIq MJq K[I `PMRq TNIMJIq. yPQ LJsPRV K[I TNMHH K[MK K[Ia eLNN [MxI KP sLJLH[ K[I ISIRTLHI Pss MK [PVI!
KINN K[IV aPQ MRI ZNIMHIq eLK[ K[ILR ZRPgRIHH! HIK K[I [PVIePRz MJq HKMKI `RLIsNa e[MK aPQ MRI ZNMJJLJg sPR
K[I JISK NIHHPJ. dsKIR K[MK aPQ MHz aPQR ZQZLNH KP KLqa QZ K[I RPPV MJq KP `I fQLIK e[IJ K[Ia gP PQKHLqI.
yPQ eLH[ K[IV M JLTI eIIzIJq MJq HMa gPPq`aI.
b) .KlH M RPQKLJI GJgNLH[ NIHHPJ LJ K[I VLqqNI Ps K[I KIRV. u[I NIHHPJ LHJlK gPLJg KPP eINN yPQ MRI KRaLJg KP
zIIZ aPQR ZQZLNH LJKIRIHKIq LJ K[I ISIRTLHIH aPQ MRI T[ITzLJg. yPQ gIK K[IV KP RIMq K[I HIJKIJTIH LJ KQRJ MJq
TPRRITK K[ILR VLHKMzIH! `QK K[I ZQZLNH MRI KLRIq MJq sLJq LK qLssLTQNK KP TPJTIJKRMKI PJ K[I ePRz. /PVI Ps K[IV
HKMRK T[MKKLJg MJq sLqgIKLJg. yPQ KRa JPK KP H[Pe aPQR MJJPaMJTI MJq ZRPTIIq T[ITzLJg K[I ISIRTLHI.
T) yPQlxI gPK M NPK Ps ePRz KP gIK K[RPQg[ LJ K[LH NIHHPJ. yPQ MHz K[I ZQZLNH KP qP MJ ISIRTLHI sRPV K[I
KISK`PPz HLNIJKNa. yPQ T[ITz K[MK K[Ia MNN [MxI K[I RLg[K ZNMTI. w[IJ aPQR ZQZLNH [MxI NPPzIq K[RPQg[ K[I
ISIRTLHI aPQ eMJK IxIRa`Pqa KP RIMq K[RII HIJKIJTIH IMT[. yPQ TPVVIJK PJ K[ILR ePRz. .J K[I RIVMLJLJg
sLxI VLJQKIH! aPQ [MxI M fQLTz xPTM`QNMRa KIHK PJ K[I `NMTz`PMRq. yPQ VMzI HQRI K[MK K[I `PMRq LH ZRPZIRNa
ZRIZMRIq! MJq MHz 2 PR 4 ZQZLNH KP eRLKI K[I KIHK. yPQ zIIZ K[I RIHK Ps K[I TNMHH LJxPNxIq MJq TPVVIJK PJ K[I
ePRz.
q) .KlH M RIxLHLPJ NIHHPJ. yPQlxI `RPQg[K KP K[I TNMHHRPPV M VMZ Ps 0RLKMLJ! HPVI HNLqIH MJq/PR ZLTKQRIH Ps
iPJqPJ MJq M HNLqI ZRPITKPR. yPQ MHz PJI Ps K[I ZQZLNH KP [INZ aPQ sLS K[I VMZ MJq ZLTKQRIH PJ K[I `PMRq
MJq gIK K[I HNLqI ZRPITKPR RIMqa. u[I ZQZLNH ZPLJK PQK PJ K[I VMZ K[I VPHK LVZPRKMJK KPeJH! RLxIRH!
VPQJKMLJ T[MLJH PR MJaK[LJg aPQ sLJq JITIHHMRa KP VIJKLPJ. dsKIR K[MK K[Ia HZIMz `RLIsNa M`PQK iPJqPJ
HLg[KH VMzLJg QHI Ps K[I ZLTKQRIH MJq HNLqIH. yPQ zIIZ VMzLJg JPKIH e[LNI K[Ia HZIMz MJq TPVVIJK PJ K[ILR
ePRz MK K[I IJq Ps K[I RIxLHLPJ NIHHPJ.
I) dK K[I IJq Ps K[I KIRV aPQ sLJq LK JITIHHMRa KP [MxI M `RLIs RIxLHLPJ Ps K[I `PPz aPQR ZQZLNH MRI
RIMqLJg. yPQR LqIM LH KP MHz K[I ZQZLNH M JQV`IR Ps fQIHKLPJH KP IJTPQRMgI M qLHTQHHLPJ. yPQ K[LJz K[I
fQIHKLPJH PxIR xIRa K[PRPQg[Na `IsPRI[MJq MJq MHz aPQR TNMHH KP MJHeIR K[IV. yPQ MRI LJKIRIHKIq LJ
IxIRaPJIlH ZPLJK Ps xLIe MJq RIMTK KP TPVVIJKH MZZRPZRLMKINa! KRaLJg KP zIIZ K[I TPJxIRHMKLPJ gPLJg.
+47
XV. Describe these pictures: Use the foIIowing:
M) KP TPVI [PVI gRIMKNa ISTLKIq! KP eMxI HPVI HNLZH Ps ZMZIR LJ K[I MLR! KP `I qINLg[KIq! KP [MxI gRIMK sQJ
ZNMaLJg eLK[ PJIlH KPaH; `) KP qRMg HV`. MNPJg K[I HKRIIK! KP [PeN MK K[I KPZ Ps PJIlH xPLTI; T) KP [MxI
ISTINNIJK HIMKH! rwLN[INV uINNr eMH PJ! K[I VQHLT eMH HP NPQq aPQ TPQNqJlK [IMR M ePRq! KP `I `PRIq; q) K[MK
eMH VQT[ `IKKIR! KP TMKT[ HV`.lH LJKIRIHK! M `Pe W`x MJq MRRPeH! KP H[PPK Pss M[ MZZNI sRPV...; I) LJ xIRa
[Lg[ HZLRLKH! KP T[MKKIR M`PQK PJIlH LVZRIHHLPJH! KP `I ZNIMHIq; s) KP `I H[PTzIq! K[I T[LNqlH LVMgLJMKLPJ eMH
TIRKMLJNa [MQJKIq `a K[I PZIRM PR! RMK[IR! `a PJI ZMRKLTQNMR HTIJI! K[I ZPPR KIqqa`IMR! KP NPPz ISKRIVINa QJ
TPVsPRKM`NI.
XVI. FiIm "Mr. Brown's HoIiday". FiIm segments 9 "One More Substitute" (YeoviI) and 10 "Back at Home"
(London), a) Watch and Iisten, b) Do the exercises from the guide to the fiIm.
STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH
IX
oJI Ps K[I VPHK IssITKLxI ISIRTLHIH LJ gPPq eRLKLJg LH M sRII TPVZPHLKLPJ.
pRII TPVZPHLKLPJ LH M ZLITI Ps LJqIZIJqIJK eRLKLJg (4* ZMgIH LJ NIJgK[). yPQ MRI sRII KP HINITK K[I
HQ`ITK! KP qITLqI PJ K[I ZMKKIRJ Ps eRLKLJg (JMRRMKLxI! qIHTRLZKLxI! MRgQVIJKMKLxI! ISZPHLKPRa)! MJq KP T[PPHI
eRLKLJg KIT[JLfQI (zIaePRqH! KPZLT HIJKIJTIH! TPJJITKLxIH MJq KRMJHLKLPJH).
.J K[I ZRPTIHH Ps sRII TPVZPHLKLPJ K[IRI MRI K[RII VMLJ ZPLJKH KP TPJHLqIR: e[MK KP HMa HINITKLPJ Ps M
HQ`ITK MJq K[I K[IVI! [Pe KP MRRMJgI K[I VMKIRLMN LJ K[I `IHK PRqIR! MJq [Pe KP ISZRIHH aPQR K[PQg[KH LJ K[I
`IHK ZPHHL`NI NMJgQMgI.
u[I K[IVI MJq HQ`ITK H[PQNq `I HINITKIq eLK[ TMRI HP K[MK aPQ zJPe ISMTKNa e[MK aPQ VIMJ KP eRLKI
M`PQK MJq e[MK LH K[I ZQRZPHI Ps eRLKLJg LH LK qIHTRL`LJg! IJKIRKMLJLJg! ZIRHQMqLJg PR LJHKRQTKLJg{
ru[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIHr LH! sPR LJHKMJTI! Ps qIHTRLZKLxI JMKQRI! r|Pe wI jIZK vPK[IRlH nMar LH `PK[
IJKIRKMLJLJg MJq LJHKRQTKLJg! mQqalH NIKKIRH MRI HLJTIRINa ZIRHQMqLJg.
OPVZPHLKLPJ VQHK `I QJLsLIq MJq TPVZNIKI. .K VQHK [MxI M `IgLJJLJg! VLqqNI! MJq IJq. .K VQHK `I
TP[IRIJK; K[MK LH! HaHKIVMKLT LJ LKH ZRIHIJKMKLPJ! eLK[ RIsIRIJTI KP KLVI! KP ZPLJK Ps xLIe! MJq KP HLKQMKLPJ. .K
VQHK RIxIMN aPQR MKKLKQqI PR QqgIVIJK KPeMRqH VMKIRLMN MJq T[MRMTKIRH PR KPeMRqH aPQR RIMqIR! PR `PK[.
The beginning, or introduction ISZRIHHIH K[I PTTMHLPJ! K[I ZRP`NIV! MJq K[I ZQRZPHI. d gPPq
`IgLJJLJg MKKRMTKH K[I RIMqIRlH MKKIJKLPJ! [LH LJKIRIHK MJq HPVIKLVIH [LH IVPKLPJH (HII K[I `IgLJJLJg Ps r|Pe
wI jIZK vPK[IRlH nMar PR Ps rd pRLIJq LJ 1IIqr).
u[I VLqqNI PR `Pqa Ps K[I TPVZPHLKLPJ LJ LKH KQRJ VMzIH K[I ZRP`NIV TNIMR K[RPQg[ JMRRMKLPJ! qIHTRLZKLPJ!
MRgQVIJK PR ISZPHLKLPJ (TPVZMRI qLssIRIJK ZMHHMgIH sRPV K[LH KISK`PPz). }HQMNNa K[I VLqqNI LJTNQqIH K[I
qIKMLNH. .K VMa [MxI K[I KQRJLJg ZPLJK PR TNLVMS qIHTRL`LJg K[I VPVIJK Ps gRIMKIHK IVPKLPJH.
The end or concIusion LH K[I RIHQNK Ps K[MK TNMRLsLTMKLPJ. u[I MQK[PR ZRPxLqIH MJ MJHeIR KP K[I VMLJ
fQIHKLPJ. .K LH QHQMNNa VMRzIq `a M HQVVMRa HKMKIVIJK IVZ[MHLLJg K[I VIHHMgI (TPVZMRI K[I sLJMN
HIJKIJTIH LJ rd nMalH wMLKr! r|Pe wI jIZK vPK[IRlH nMar! rPHI MK K[I vQHLT[MNNr).
Assignments:
1. Write a composition explaining the message of the passage "Rose at the Music-ball.
2. Write a composition following the events described in the pictures on pp. 338-339.
3. Write a composition describing your visit to a theatre and your impressions of the prevailing
atmosphere,
4. If you have become proficient at writing compositions as an exercise you may turn to teaming how to
write compositions as art. Try your hand at writing a composition about the best way to comfort your mother
(father, child, sister or brother, friend).
Evaluate your composition according to the main principles of good writing: unity, coherence, and
emphasis.
LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)
1. Listen to the text "Drama, Music and Ballet in Britain", mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat the text
following the model.
2. Record the dialogue "At the Box-Office" in pairs. Listen to the records and discuss them in class.
3. Listen to the dialogue "Pantomimes", mark the stresses and tones. Repeat it following the model.
4. Write a spelling-translation test:
a) translate the phrases into English;
b) check them with the key.
5. Respond to the following questions or statements and correct them if necessary.
6. Listen to the story. Write ten questions about the text. Suggest a title for the text and give reasons for
your choice. Find evidence in the text to support the following statements.
CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS
1. What do you know about K. S. Stanislavsky, his role in the history of the Moscow Art Theatre and bis
influence on world theatre?
2. Where do the following quotations come from? Who says the lines? Under what circumstances?
+4b
a) The time is out of 1oint Oh, cursed plight. That ever I was bom to set it right '
b) Beware, my lord, of the jealousy;
It is the green-eyed monster, that doth mock The meat it feeds on.
c) How sharper than a serpent's tooth it is To have a thankless child.
3. What do you know about the problem of Shakespeare's authorship?
4. What do you know about the Sovremennik Theatre? about the Lenkom Theatre? about the Tovstonogov
Theatre in St Petersburg?
5. Listen to a text connectid with the topic "Theatre".
SUPPLEMENT
A. CLASSROOM ENGLISH
I. PupiI Language
u[LH HITKLPJ TPJKMLJH M NLHK Ps Z[RMHIH K[MK ZQZLNH VLg[K `I ISZITKIq KP QHI qQRLJg MJ GJgNLH[ NIHHPJ.
1. FoIIowing the Lesson
.lV HPRRa! . qLqJlK QJqIRHKMJq. yPQlRI HZIMzLJg KPP fQLTzNa.
. qLqJlK gIK K[MK qPeJ. OPQNq aPQ HMa LK MgMLJ{ OPQNq aPQ RIZIMK K[I NMHK `LK{
. VLHHIq K[I `IgLJJLJg Ps e[MK aPQ HMLq. OPQNq aPQ ISZNMLJ MgMLJ! ZNIMHI{
/[MNN eI qP K[I ISIRTLHI LJ PQR ePRz `PPzH{ dRI eI HQZZPHIq KP sLJLH[ K[LH Pss MK [PVI{
w[MK qP eI [MxI KP qP JISK{ OPQNq aPQ eRLKI LK QZ PJ K[I `PMRq! ZNIMHI{
.H LK Va KQRJ{ (dV . JISK{ /[MNN . HKMRK{)
2. Correctness of Answers
w[a TMJlK aPQ HMa ...{ .H K[LH M VLHKMzI{ w[MKlH eRPJg eLK[ (HMaLJg)...{
w[a qLq aPQ VMRz K[LH eRPJg{ w[a qLq aPQ ZQK M NLJI QJqIR K[LH ePRq{
.HJlK K[IRI M VLHKMzI LJ HIJKIJTI 4{ /[PQNqJlK K[IRI `I MJ MRKLTNI{
. K[LJz aPQlxI VMqI M VLHKMzI PJ K[I `PMRq.
3. Language Questions
|Pe qP aPQ HZINN...{ dRI K[IRI KeP NH PR PJNa PJI{
|Pe qP aPQ ZRPJPQJTI K[I JISK ePRq{ .lV JPK HQRI [Pe KP HMa K[I JISK ePRq.
OPQNq aPQ QHI K[I sQKQRI (ZMHHLxI) [IRI{ OMJ eI NIMxI K[LH PQK (VLHH K[LH PQK) {
.H K[IRI M H[PRKIR (`IKKIR) eMa Ps HMaLJg K[LH{
4. PoIiteness
.lV HPRRa .lV NMKI; .lxI `IIJ KP ... .lV MsRMLq .lxI NIsK Va `PPz MK [PVI.
OPQNq . NIMxI KIJ VLJQKIH IMRNLIR (MK KeIJKa KP ...){
OPQNq . [MxI MJPK[IR TPZa{ |MxI aPQ gPK MJ ISKRM H[IIK{
/[MNN . KQRJ K[I NLg[KH PQK{
II. Beginning of Lesson
iIK VI LJKRPqQTI VaHINs! .lNN `I KIMT[LJg aPQ GJgNLH[ K[LH aIMR.
.KlH KLVI KP HKMRK JPe! / wI TMJ gIK qPeJ KP (HPVI) ePRz.
.lNN QHK VMRz K[I RIgLHKIR. w[P LH VLHHLJg (MeMa! JPK [IRI KPqMa) {
uRa JPK KP `I NMKI JISK KLVI.
.lV eMLKLJg KP HKMRK.
III. End of Lesson
u[IRIlH K[I `QIR (`INN). / wIlNN [MxI KP HKPZ [IRI.
Lg[K. yPQ TMJ ZQK aPQR K[LJgH MeMa MJq gP.
|Pe MRI eI qPLJg sPR KLVI{
u[IRI MRI HKLNN K[RII VLJQKIH KP gP.
wI HKLNN [MxI M TPQZNI Ps VLJQKIH NIsK.
|MJg PJ M VPVIJK/QHK [PNq PJ M VLJQKI.
oJI VPRI K[LJg `IsPRI aPQ gP.
IxLHI e[MK aPQ qLq KPqMa MJq K[IJ KRa ISIRTLHI *.
nP K[I RIHK Ps K[I ISIRTLHI MH aPQR [PVIePRz sPR KPVPRRPe.
u[IRI eLNN `I M KIHK PJ K[LH JISK uQIHqMa (LJ K[I JIMR sQKQRI).
IV. BIackboard Activity
OPVI PQK KP K[I `PMRq! ZNIMHI (e[IJ K[I KIMT[IR LH MK K[I sRPJK Ps K[I TNMHH).
UP KP K[I `PMRq (e[IJ K[I KIMT[IR LH HKMJqLJg MK K[I `MTz Ps K[I TNMHH).
vPxI PQK Ps K[I eMa (HKIZ MHLqI) HP K[MK IxIRaPJI TMJ HII.
.H K[IRI MJaK[LJg KP TPRRITK (K[MK JIIqH TPRRITKLJg){
+42
w[MK NIKKIR LH VLHHLJg{ u[IRIlH M zl VLHHLJg (zl LH VLHHLJg).
ORPHH K[I ?t?& MJq qPK K[I Ll&"
wRLKI LK eLK[ M TMZLKMN l (LK `IgLJH eLK[ M ll).
wRLKI LK MH PJI ePRq (KeP ePRqH).
u[IHI KeP NIKKIRH MRI K[I eRPJg eMa RPQJq.
\QK M TPVVM (fQIHKLPJ VMRz! ISTNMVMKLPJ VMRz! TPNPJ! HIVLTPNPJ! sQNN HKPZ) MsKIR K[I ePRq (HIJKIJTI)!
ZNIMHI.
GJTNPHI K[I ePRqH LJ fQPKMKLPJ VMRzH (LJxIRKIq TPVVMH)! ZNIMHI.
iIKlH MNN RIMq K[I HIJKIJTIH sRPV K[I `PMRq.
}HI K[I qQHKIR (HZPJgI).
\QK (KMzI! gIK! eRLKI! TPZa) K[MK qPeJ LJ aPQR JPKI`PPzH.
vMzI JPKIH PJ e[MK . HMa LJ aPQR ISIRTLHI `PPzH.
wRLKI LK LJ `NPTz (`Lg) NIKKIRH (LJ `NPTz TMZLKMNH).
wRLKI (RIeRLKI) LK JIMKNa.
nP K[I ISIRTLHI LJ eRLKLJg.
wLNN aPQ! ZNIMHI! gP KP aPQR HIMK. (nPJlK HMa l/LK qPeJl Ls M ZQZLN LH JPK HKMJqLJg MK [LH HIMK.)
|MJq LJ aPQR ZMZIRH MH aPQ NIMxI (gP PQK) MJq VMzI HQRI aPQR JMVIH MRI PJ K[IV.
V. SIides, Pictures, FiIms
.lNN sLJLH[ K[I TNMHH `a H[PeLJg aPQ M sLNV (HPVI HNLqIH).
\QK K[I HTRIIJ QZ (ZQNN qPeJ K[I HTRIIJ).
nRMe K[I TQRKMLJH (TNPHI K[I `NLJqH).
iLg[KH PQK! ZNIMHI. /eLKT[ PJ K[I ZRPITKPR.
w[P ePQNq NLzI KP ePRz (PZIRMKI) K[I ZRPITKPR KPqMa {
uQRJ K[I NLg[KH PJ MgMLJ (ZQK K[I NLg[KH `MTz PJ).
1ISK ZLTKQRI! ZNIMHI/T[MJgI K[I ZLTKQRI.
.KlH M `LK PQK Ps sPTQH.
.lV MsRMLq K[LH PJI LH QZHLqI qPeJ.
w[MK LH [MZZIJLJg LJ K[LH ZLTKQRI{
w[MK TMJ aPQ HII LJ K[I sPRIgRPQJq (`MTzgRPQJq! TIJKRI! RLg[K[MJq TPRJIR! K[I KPZ NIsK[MJq TPRJIR! MK
K[I `PKKPV) Ps K[I ZLTKQRI{
.lNN NIK K[LH Z[PKPgRMZ[ gP RPQJq. |MxI M NPPz MJq K[IJ ZMHH LK PJ.
\MHH K[LH ZLTKQRI RPQJq.
OPVI PQK MJq ZPLJK KP iPJqPJ PJ K[I VMZ.
VI. Textbook Activity
OPNNITK LJ K[I ZMZIRH (H[IIKH! KISKH! ePRq NLHKH! [MJqPQKH! KIHKH)! ZNIMHI.
pIKT[ K[I qLTKLPJMRLIH sRPV K[I KIMT[IRlH RPPV (HKMssRPPV).
yPQ eLNN [MxI KP H[MRI (aPQR `PPz) eLK[ 1LTz.
uMzI PQK aPQR `PPzH MJq PZIJ K[IV MK ZMgI 27 (}JLK 2).
yPQlNN sLJq K[I ISIRTLHI PJ ZMgI 4b.
iIKlH VPxI PJ KP K[I JISK ZMgI.
IsIR `MTz KP K[I gRMVVMR JPKIH PJ ZMgI 2*.
dNN `PPzH TNPHIq! ZNIMHI (H[QK aPQR `PPzH).
u[I ZLTKQRI MK K[I KPZ (`PKKPV) Ps K[I ZMgI (MK K[I xIRa KPZ).
(u[I) KIJK[ NLJI sRPV K[I KPZ (`PKKPV) (qPeJ/QZ).
(u[I) NMHK `QK PJI NLJI (ePRq) LJ ZMRMgRMZ[ KeP.
.s K[IRI MRI MJa ePRqH aPQ qPJlK zJPe! ZNIMHI MHz.
IMq PJI HIJKIJTI IMT[.
dJJ! aPQ RIMq K[I ZMRK Ps vRH. w[LKI K[LH KLVI.
1Pe NIKlH MTK PQK K[LH qLMNPgQI.
uRa MJq MTK NLzI M KIMT[IR (M qIJKLHK! IKT.).
u[I RIHK Ps aPQ MRI K[I MQqLIJTI.
ULxI M HaJPJaV sPR lRQH[Iql. (w[MK LH M HaJPJaV sPR l[QgIl{)
uRa KP ZQK LK LJ PK[IR ePRqH.
(u[MK eMH MNVPHK RLg[K) QHK PJI NLKKNI HNLZ. u[IRI eMH M HVMNN (HNLg[K) VLHKMzI (IRRPR) LJ e[MK aPQ HMLq.
VII. CIass ControI
OPQNq . [MxI aPQR MKKIJKLPJ! ZNIMHI{
+3)
iPPz K[LH eMa. / iPPz QZ sPR M VPVIJK.
0I fQLIKc GxIRaPJI NLHKIJ.
nPJlK MNN H[PQK. / nPJlK KMNz MK PJTI.
UIK PJ eLK[ aPQR ePRz fQLIKNa.
/KPZ sLqgIKLJg. / nPJlK zIIZ KQRJLJg RPQJq.
/LK QZ (HKRMLg[K).
wPRz LJ KePH (ZMLRH).
. eMJK aPQ KP sPRV gRPQZH. u[RII ZQZLNH LJ IMT[ gRPQZ.
. eMJK aPQ KP qP HPVI ZNMa RIMqLJg LJ gRPQZH.
wPRz PJ aPQR PeJ. / wPRz `a aPQRHINxIH.
iPPzc .lxI QHK M`PQK [Mq IJPQg[ sRPV aPQ.
nPJlK aPQ KMNz! aPQ KeP gLRNH.
nPJlK HLK K[IRI qMaqRIMVLJg! vMRLM.
VIII. Right /Wrong
UPPq. Lg[K. pLJI. Lg[K aPQ MRI. QLKI RLg[K.
u[MKlH K[I eMa. u[MKlH RLg[K. u[MKlH LK. u[MKlH TPRRITK.
yIH! aPQlxI gPK LK yPQlxI gPK K[I LqIM.
w[MK aPQ HMLq eMH ZIRsITKNa MNN RLg[K.
yPQ qLqJlK VMzI M HLJgNI VLHKMzI.
u[MKlH ISMTKNa K[I ZPLJK.
u[MKlH QHK e[MK . eMH NPPzLJg sPR.
1P! K[MKlH eRPJg. 1PK RIMNNa. }JsPRKQJMKINa JPK.
yPQ TMJlK QHI K[MK ePRq [IRI.
yPQ VLHHIq K[I xIR` PQK.
yPQ sPRgPK K[I ZRIZPHLKLPJ. vLJq K[I ZRIZPHLKLPJ.
yPQ QHIq K[I eRPJg KIJHI.
yPQ VLHQJqIRHKPPq K[I LJHKRQTKLPJH.
oJTI MgMLJ! `QK RIVIV`IR K[I ePRq PRqIR.
uRa JPK KP VLS K[IHI KeP ePRqH QZ.
u[IalRI HZINK K[I HMVI! `QK ZRPJPQJTIq qLssIRIJKNa.
\IR[MZH aPQ [Mq `IKKIR HMa ...
.K eMHJlK ZRPJPQJTIq TPRRITKNa. u[I ePRq LH MTTIJKIq PJ K[I HITPJq HaNNM`NI.
0I TMRIsQN eLK[ K[I lH[lHPQJq.
1PKLTI [Pe Va KPJgQI KPQT[IH Va KIIK[. /II [Pe Va VPQK[ [MRqNa VPxIH.
dgMLJ ZNIMHI! `QK eMKT[ aPQR ZRPJQJTLMKLPJ.
iLHKIJ KP K[I eMa Va xPLTI gPIH QZ.
yPQ VQHK NIK aPQR xPLTI sMNN MK K[I IJq Ps K[I HIJKIJTI.
iIKlH HII Ls aPQlxI HZINK LK RLg[K / TPRRITKNa.
yPQ JIIq MJ ISKRM NIKKIR [IRI.
Q` PQK K[I eRPJg ePRq. wLZI PQK / Pss K[I NMHK NIKKIR.
dNeMaH T[ITz K[I ZQJTKQMKLPJ.
nPJlK KRMJHNMKI ePRq sPR ePRq.
u[LJz M`PQK K[I VIMJLJg Ps K[I e[PNI HIJKIJTI.
yPQ sLJq LK qLssLTQNK KP RIMq MNPQq.
yPQlNN [MxI KP HZIJq VPRI KLVI ZRMTKLHLJg K[LH.
/ZIMz VPRI TNIMRNa. 1PK HP fQLTzNa! . TMJlK sPNNPe.
u[IRI eMH M VLHKMzI LJ K[MK HIJKIJTI. UP `MTz MJq HII Ls aPQ TMJ sLJq/HZPK LK.
nPJlK e[LHZIR K[I MJHeIR. nPJlK [INZ [LV. nPJlK zIIZ ZRPVZKLJg.
.lV HQRI H[I TMJ VMJMgI PJ [IR PeJ.
IX. Assessment
:IRa gPPq. wINN qPJI. u[MKlH JLTI. yPQ VMqI M xIRa gPPq P` Ps K[MK.
u[MKlH VQT[ (M NPK) `IKKIR. yPQlxI LVZRPxIq M NLKKNI.
yPQ TMJlK HMa K[MK! .lV MsRMLq.
yPQ HKLNN [MxI HPVI KRPQ`NI eLK[ aPQR HZINNLJg (HPQJqH! IKT.).
yPQ JIIq HPVI VPRI ZRMTKLTI eLK[ ...
. eMHJlK xIRa HMKLHsLIq eLK[ K[MK. yPQ TMJ qP `IKKIR K[MJ K[MK.
+3+
u[MK eMH RMK[IR qLHMZZPLJKLJg.
uRa [MRqIR. d `LK VPRI IssPRK. . [PZI aPQ qP `IKKIR JISK KLVI.
;he fo99owing 5o++ent& are often u&ed on written wor':
GSTINNIJK ePRz. :IRa eINN qPJI. UPPq HKQss. jIIZ LK QZ. dqIfQMKI.
vQT[ `IKKIR. /[PeH HPVI LVZRPxIVIJK. URIMK LVZRPxIVIJK.
/MKLHsMTKPRa. OPQNq qP `IKKIR. uPP VMJa TMRINIHH HNLZH. OMRINIHH.
1IIqH KP H[Pe VPRI IssPRK. 1PK QZ KP aPQR QHQMN HKMJqMRq.
nLHMZZPLJKLJg. /II VI M`PQK K[LH.
X. Conversation
;he&e 4hra&e& he94 to 'ee4 the 5onver&ation +oving:
w[a{ (.J e[MK eMa{ w[a qP aPQ K[LJz HP{)
nPJlK aPQ K[LJz! K[PQg[! K[MK ...
.lV JPK HQRI e[MK aPQ VIMJ.
|MxI aPQ gPK MJaK[LJg KP Mqq (KP e[MK 1LTz HMLq){
nPIH MJa`Pqa H[MRI 1LTzlH PZLJLPJ (xLIeH){
OPQNq HPVIPJI HQV QZ e[MK [MH `IIJ HMLq{
iIKlH QHK RQJ K[RPQg[ K[I MRgQVIJKH sPR MJq MgMLJHK.
B. CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES
1. HandIing a DiaIogue
. HMa... |PJIHKNa... .s aPQ MHz VI ... yPQ zJPe e[MK . K[LJz ...
u[I ZPLJK LH ... nPJlK aPQ MgRII K[MK...{ uINN aPQ e[MK...
|MxI aPQ [IMRq M`PQK...{ nP aPQ [MZZIJ KP zJPe K[MK...{
|MxI aPQ gPK MJa LqIM ...{ /PVIPJI [MH KPNq VI K[MK...
. [IMR K[MK... u[MKlH e[MK . [IMRq. .lV MsRMLq . qPJlK zJPe VQT[ M`PQK...
1PK K[MK . zJPe Ps ... . ePJqIR Ls aPQ RIVIV`IR ... |MxI . gPK LK RLg[K{
dV . RLg[K KP `INLIxI ...{ 0QK e[a H[PQNq (H[PQNqJlK) .{ wINN . qPJlK (qLqJlK) K[LJz ...
0QK [Pe TPQNq .{ .s . eIRI aPQ ... . eLH[ . TPQNq `QK ... . RIMNNa TPQNqJlK LVMgLJI ...
w[MK M HLNNa eMa KP KMNzc . eLH[ aPQ ePQNq ... .lV RIMNNa HPRRa `QK...
. RIMNNa sIIN `Mq M`PQK LK. w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz . H[PQNq [MxI qPJI{
2. Reacting to News
o[! RIMNNac 1IxIR K[PQg[K M`PQK LK. yPQ qPJlK HMa HPc mQHK (PJNa) sMJTac
.JqIIq{ w[ac .H K[MK HP{ nIMR VIc w[Plq [MxI K[PQg[K Ps LKc nPIH LK HKRLzI aPQ MH QJQHQMN{
.lV HQRZRLHIq. .lV H[PTzIq. .KlH MVMLJgc .KlH LJTRIqL`NIc iPPzH NLzI K[MK.
. [MxI JP LqIM. UPPqJIHH zJPeH.
3. Discussion. Opinions
. ePQNq NLzI KP `IgLJ K[I qLHTQHHLPJ PJ K[I HQ`ITK `a ... pRPV K[I ZPLJK Ps xLIe Ps ...
dqqLKLPJMNNa ... .K [MH `IIJ ZPLJKIq PQK K[MK... .lq QHK NLzI KP HMa ...
. K[LJz! (HQZZPHI! gQIHH! `INLIxI! qMRI HMa) ... \IRHPJMNNa . `INLIxI (. sIIN) ...
.J Va PZLJLPJ (xLIe) ... dH . HII LK ... u[I eMa . HII LK ...
wINN! Va PZLJLPJ LH K[MK... va xLIe LH K[MK... u[LH LH Va eMa Ps NPPzLJg MK LK.
. qPJlK K[LJz LK ePQNq ... u[IRIlH PJI VPRI K[LJg KP `I JPKIq. vPRIPxIR ...
w[MKlH VPRI ... . VLg[K MH eINN Mqq K[MK... .J MqqLKLPJ ... oJ KPZ Ps K[MK ...
/PVIK[LJg INHI .lq NLzI KP HMa LH ... uMNzLJg Ps... yPQ VMa `I RLg[K! `QK MNN K[I HMVI ...
.s aPQ MHz VI ... . ePQNqJlK HMa K[MK... yIH! `QK PJ K[I PK[IR [MJq ...
u[IRIlH JPK[LJg NLzI ... . qPJlK fQLKI HII e[MK ZIPZNI sLJq LJ ...
. qPJlK zJPe MJaK[LJg VPRI ISTLKLJg K[MJ ... d`HPNQKINa VMRxINNPQH. . NLzI LK LVVIJHINa.
dNN K[LJgH TPJHLqIRIq . VQHK HMa K[MK... .lq RMK[IR JPK HMa MJaK[LJg M`PQK LK.
UIJIRMNNa HZIMzLJg ... .K qIZIJqH.
4. Agreeing. Disagreeing
mQHK HP. QLKI HP. . fQLKI MgRII [IRI. 1MKQRMNNa. OIRKMLJNa. /QRI. GSMTKNa.
nIsLJLKINa. QLKI. vPHK NLzINa. d`HPNQKINa. uRQI IJPQg[. . TPQNqJlK MgRII VPRI.
. H[PQNq K[LJz HP. 0IaPJq MNN qPQ`K. . ePJlK qIJa LK. iPPzH NLzI K[MK. |MZZa KP [IMR LK.
.lV JPK HQRI . fQLKI MgRII. w[a qP aPQ K[LJz K[MK...{ .lV MsRMLq . qPJlK MgRII.
. K[LJz aPQlRI VLHKMzIJ (K[IRI). . qPJlK K[LJz aPQ MRI RLg[K. . TMJlK MgRII eLK[ aPQ K[IRI.
. HII e[MK aPQ VIMJ! `QK... .lV JPK HP HQRI. . HII JPK[LJg ISTLKLJg LJ ...
. qPQ`K LK. . (aPQ) H[PQNqJlK HMa HP. u[IRIlH HPVIK[LJg LJ e[MK aPQ HMa! `QK
+32
. qLHMgRII eLK[ aPQ. yPQlRI eRPJg. yPQlRI VLHKMzIJ. 1PK VIc
|Pe TMJ aPQ HMa HQT[ M K[LJgc oJ K[I TPJKRMRac yPQ TMJlK `I HIRLPQH.
. P`ITK KP LK. /QRINa JPK. 1PK[LJg Ps K[I zLJq (HPRK).
mQHK K[I PK[IR eMa RPQJq. OIRKMLJNa JPK. .VZPHHL`NI.
.KlH QJsMLR. .KlH QJQHK.
5. Giving Advice
vLg[K LK `I MJ LqIM KP ...{ |MxI aPQ IxIR K[PQg[K Ps yPQ TPQNq MNeMaH ... .s . eIRI aPQ! .lq ... w[a qPJlK
aPQ ...{ yPQlq `IKKIR ...
EXERCISES IN INTONATION
SECTION ONE. Review of FundamentaI Intonation Patterns and Their Use
\duuG1 +: (iow \G|Gdn ) iow pdii
(YA.)
vPqINH: !yIH.
.lV M !qPTKPR.
\duuG1 A: (iow \G|Gdn ) nG/OG1n.1U
|Gdn iow pdii ( ud.i)
vPqIN: .K LHJlK lfQLKI le[MK . !eMJK.
\duuG1 ...: (iow \G|Gdn ) iow ./G (ud.i)
vPqINH: "yIH. ".H LK{ UP "PJ.
\duuG1 .:: (iow \G|Gdn ) nG/OG1n.1U
|Gdn iow ./G ( ud.i)
vPqIN: |MxIJlK leI lVIK lHPVIe[IRI "`IsPRI{
\duuG1 :: (iow \G|Gdnl) (|.U| |Gdn ) v.niG:Gi
vPqIN: /PVIKLVIH .

[MKI LK.
\duuG1 :.: (iow \G|Gdn ) pdii./G (ud.i
\duuG1 :..: (iow \G|Gdn) pdii.1U |Gdn pdii./G (YA.)
\duuG1 :...: (iow \G|Gdn) iow |Gdn iow ./G (ud.i)
EXERCISES
The exercises below are meant to revise the intonation patterns you already know.
I. Read the foIIowing conversationaI situations. Define the communicative type of the repIies. Say what
attitudes are conveyed in them. Give your own repIies to the same conversationaI contexts;
w[MK LH aPQR sMxPQRLKI HQ`ITK{ GJgNLH[.
|I LH MK K[I LJHKLKQKI. w[IRI! qP aPQ K[LJz{
.lNN qP LK VaHINs. nPJlK.
|IRIlH M JPKI sPR aPQ. u[MJzH.
w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz Ps K[I ZLTKQRI{ .KlH M KRQI VMHKIRZLITI.
vMa . [MxI aPQR `PPz{ w[MK qP aPQ eMJK LK sPR{
. H[MJlK HZIMz KP [LV MJa VPRI. nPJlK `I HLNNa.
OPVI MJq NPPz PQK [IRI. w[MK M ePJqIRsQN xLIec
|MxI aPQ HIIJ [LV{ . [MxI.
pV KeIJKaKeP. |Pe PNq MRI aPQ{
(;ea5her to 59a&&B UP PJ.
/P aPQ K[LJz [IlH JPK TPVLJg. GSMTKNa.
.lV eMLKLJg sPR vMRa. w[IJ LH H[I TPVLJg{
wI MRI [MxLJg M ZMRKa KPJLg[K. nPJlK HKMa KPP NPJg K[IRI.
+34
/II aPQ KPVPRRPe. UPPq`aI sPR K[I ZRIHIJK.
|IlH TPVLJg PJ /MKQRqMa. oJ vPJqMa! . K[LJz.
vMa . NIMxI aPQ sPR M VPVIJK{ 0I fQLTz! K[IJ.
.lNN NIMxI PJ pRLqMa. 1P! PJ /MKQRqMa. wINN! VMzI QZ aPQR VLJq.
w[MKlH K[MK qRIHH VMqI Ps{ .KlH ZQRI ePPN.
w[LT[ `QH H[MNN eI KMzI{ w[LT[ PJI qP aPQ ZRIsIR{
. TMJlK qP LK HP fQLTzNa. uINN VI [Pe . TMJ [INZ aPQ.
yPQlxI qPJI M NPK sPR [LV. 1PK LJ K[I NIMHK.
.lV HP HPRRa sPR [IR. /[I yPQlxI JP RIMHPJ KP ePRRa.
HIIVH KP `I KIRRL`Na LNN. /[IlNN `I eINN xIRa HPPJ.
. qPJlK K[LJz VQT[ Ps K[LH `PPz. .lV JPK KMzLJg LK. w[LT[ qP aPQ ZRIsIR! K[IJ{
u[MJzH MesQNNa. nPJlK VIJKLPJ LK.
.lV MsRMLq . TMJlK [INZ aPQ. :IRa eINN.
2. Read the foIIowing diaIogues. Express the suggested attitudes:
w[MK KRPQ`NIH aPQ{ Q&y+4atheti5a99y intere&tedB
.lV fQLKI QJeINN. . sIIN gLqqa MJq . TMJ [MRqNa HKMJq PJ V NIgH. (&eriou&B
dJa ZMLJ{ (&y+4atheti5a99y intere&tedB
yIH! .lxI M HPRI K[RPMK. (5onveying 4er&ona9 5on5ernB
GGGGGGGGGGGGG
/[MNN . [MxI KP HKMa LJ `Iq NPJg{ (genuine9y intere&tedB
1P! JPK VPRI K[MJ M eIIz! . [PZI. (QJTIRKMLJ)
dJq H[MNN . KMzI MJa VIqLTLJI{ (genuine9y intere&tedB
yIH! TIRKMLJNa. |IRI LH M ZRIHTRLZKLPJ sPR aPQ. (weighty, 5att gori5B
GGGGGGGGGGGGG
w[MK LH aPQR KIVZIRMKQRI{ (&y+4atheti5a99y intere&tedB
.KlH K[LRKaILg[K ZPLJK HIxIJ.
\NIMHI HKRLZ KP K[I eMLHK. . H[MNN ISMVLJI aPQ. |Pe NPJg [MxI aPQ sINK K[LH eMa{ (&y+4atheti5a99y
intere&tedB
/IxIRMN qMaH MNRIMqa. .lxI `IIJ KMzLJg ZLNNH! `QK . qPJlK sIIN MJa `IKKIR.
GGGGGGGGGGGGG
d.: |INNP! \IKI! e[MKlH [MZZIJIq KP aPQ{ w[a i& aPQR MRV LJ M HNLJg{ (&y+4atheti5a99y intere&tedB
\.: . [Mq M `Mq sMNN MJq `RPzI Va MRV.
d.: |Pe MesQNc |MxI aPQ MJa ZMLJ JPe{ (LJKIRIHKIq)
\.: .K HKLNN [QRKH! `QK JPK HP VQT[ MH `IsPRI. (re&erving 1udge+entB
GGGGGGGGGGGGG
n.: w[MKlH KRPQ`NLJg aPQ{ (LJKIRIHKIq)
d.: oJI Ps Va sRPJK KIIK[ LH ePRzLJg NPPHI.
n.: yPQ [MxI KP [MxI K[LH PJI PQK. .KlH M ZLKa aPQ qLqJlK [MxI LK NPPzIq MK `IsPRI. (gru+29ingB
d: . eLH[ . [Mq. (5onveying 4er&ona9 5on5ernB
GGGGGGGGGGGGG
. [MxI MJ M`HTIHH PJ Va sLJgIR! LK [QRKH VI MesQNNa. (&eriou&B
nLq aPQ RQJ M HZNLJKIR LJKP aPQR sLJgIR{ (intere&tedB
1P! . [MZZIJIq KP ZLTz LK eLK[ M eLRI.
w[MK qLq aPQ qP sPR LK{ (&ear5hingB
. qLq JPK[LJg! . K[PQg[K LK ePQNq [IMN `a LKHINs.
u[MK eMH JPK xIRa TNIxIR Ps aPQ. (re4ri+andB
GGGGGGGGGGGGG
yPQR xPLTI LH [PMRHI MJq aPQR sMTI LH sNQH[Iq. yPQ VQHK [MxI M TPNq. .lV HQRI. w[IRI qLq aPQ VMJMgI
KP gIK LK{ (&y+4athyB
o . qPJlK zJPe VaHINs. . VQHK [MxI TMQg[K TPNq NMHK JLg[K! e[IJ . KPPz Va TPMK Pss.
|Pe K[PQg[KNIHH Ps aPQ! K[I IxIJLJg eMH TPNq MJq eLJqa. (re4roa5hfu9B 1Pe aPQlNN [MxI KP HKMa LJ.
3. a) Listen to the diaIogue. Mark the stresses and tunes. Find sense-groups and sentences pronounced
with intonation Patterns I, II; III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII. Say what kind of sentences they are used in. Define
the attitudes expressed in them:
iIKlH [MxI KIM LJ K[I gMRqIJ! H[MNN eI{
u[MKlH M gPPq LqIM. /[MNN . KMzI K[I KM`NI PQK{
yIH! ZNIMHI. dJq K[I T[MLRH KPP.
+33
Lg[K. w[IRI H[MNN . ZQK K[IV{
o[! MJae[IRI. .lNN `RLJg K[I KIM.
UPPq. wIlNN [MxI K[I KM`NI [IRI MJq K[I T[MLRH [IRI.
w[a [MxI aPQ ZQK K[I KM`NI K[IRI{
wINN! aPQ HMLq MJae[IRI.
yIH! `QK aPQ VQHK `I HIJHL`NI. .KlNN `I KPP [PK K[IRI.
w[IRI H[MNN . ZQK LK K[IJ{
0RLJg LK QJqIR K[I KRII [IRI. u[MKlH `IKKIR.
1Pe ZIR[MZH eI TMJ [MxI HPVI KIM.
o[! qIMR. .lV HPRRa .lxI sPRgPKKIJ K[I HQgMR. wPQNq aPQ VLJq gIKKLJg LK sPR VI{
1PK MK MNN.
1Pe e[IRI qLq . ZQK K[I VLNz{ d[! [IRI LK LH.
|IRIlH K[I HQgMR.
u[MJz aPQ. u[MKlH aPQR TQZ.
u[MJz aPQ. u[LH LH xIRa ZNIMHMJK.
.K LH! LHJlK LK{ 0QK .lV M `LK TPNq [IRI. nP aPQ K[LJz aPQ TPQNq VPxI K[I KM`NI MgMLJ{ .lV HPRRa KP `I M
JQLHMJTI.
dNN RLg[K. .lNN ZQK LK `MTz e[IRI LK eMH. .H K[MK `IKKIR{
vQT[. w[IRI MRI aPQ gPLJg{
.lV gPLJg LJqPPRH. pPR M `LK Ps ZIMTI MJq fQLIK.
b) Record your reading of the diaIogue. PIay the recording back for the teacher and your feIIow-students to
detect the possibIe errors. Practise the diaIogue for test reading. Memorize and dramatize it.
c) Make up conversationaI situations, using the foIIowing phrases:
iIKlH .... H[MNN eI{ .KlNN `I KPP ... .
u[MKlH M gPPq LqIM. u[MKlH `IKKIR.
yIH! ZNIMHI. 1Pe! ZIR[MZH! ... .
Lg[K. o[! qIMR! .lV HP HPRRa.
o[! ... . 1PK MK MNN.
wINN! aPQ HMLq ... . nP aPQ K[LJz aPQ TPQNq ... {
d) Use the same phrases in a conversation.
4. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to hear and reproduce intonation in different speech
situations.
a) listen to the story "Helen's eyes were not very good..."
82
carefully, sentence by sentence. Mark the
stresses and tunes. (The teacher will help you to correct your variant.) Practise reading your corrected variant
b) Listen carefully to the narration of the story. Observe the peculiari ties in intonation-group division,
pitch, stress and tempo. Note the use of temporizers. Reproduce the model narration of the story.
5. This exercise is meant to test your abiIity to read and reproduce a story with correct intonation.
Read the jokes silently to make sure you understand each sentence. Find the sentence expressing the
essence of the joke. Split up each sentence into intonation-groups if necessary. Mark the stresses and tunes.
Underline the communicative centre and the nuclear word of each intonation-group. It is not expected that
each student will intone the text in the same way. The teacher will help you to correct your variant
Practise reading the joke several times.
Reproduce the model narration of the joke:
yPQJg \IKIR TMVI LJ PJI qMa `QRHKLJg eLK[ ISTLKIVIJK. wMNzLJg qPeJ K[I VMLJ HKRIIK [I [Mq HQqqIJNa
qLHTPxIRIq [I eMH HLqI`aHLqI eLK[ VPxLI MTKPR ONMRz UM`NI.
nLq aPQ KMNz KP [LV{ eI MHzIq.
wINN! LK eMH NLzI K[LH! [I HMLq HNPeNa. . zJIe e[P [I eMH MJq [I zJIe e[P [I eMH MJq LK QHK qLqJlK
VMzI HIJHI QH qLHTQHHLJg LK.
GGGGGGGGGGGGG
/PVI ZIPZNI eIRI gMK[IRIq PJ K[I xIRMJqM[ MsKIR qLJJIR.
d aPQJg NMqa MHzIq: rOMJ aPQ JMVI sLxI qMaH Ps K[I eIIz eLK[PQK VIJKLPJLJg vPJqMa! uQIHqMa!
wIqJIHqMa! u[QRHqMa! pRLqMa! /MKQRqMa PR /QJqMa{r 1P`Pqa TPQNq gQIHH. dK NMHK K[I aPQJg NMqa HMLq: r.K LH
xIRa IMHa. |IRI MRI K[I sLxI qMaH: KPqMa! aIHKIRqMa! K[I qMa `IsPRI aIHKIRqMa! KPVPRRPe! MJq K[I qMa MsKIR
KPVPRRPer.
SECTION TWO. Intonation Pattern IX. <igh fall
(LOW PRE-HEAD + ) HIGH FALL (+ TAIL)
b2
u[I KIHKH Ps K[I HKPRLIH MJq qLMNPgQIH RITPRqIq PJ K[I KMZI HII PJ Z. 32,.
+3*
vPqIN: w[a qLqJlK aPQ `Qa K[I ZLTKQRI{
vQT[ KPP IS!ZIJHLxI.
/KRIHHMJqKPJI VMRzH LJ K[I KISK: |Lg[ pMNN.
u[I |Lg[ pMNN LJ K[I JQTNIQH HKMRKH xIRa [Lg[ MJq QHQMNNa RIMT[IH K[I NPeIHK ZLKT[. u[I HaNNM`NIH Ps K[I
KMLN MRI ZRPJPQJTIq PJ K[I NPe NIxIN.
u[I |Lg[ pMNN ZRPxLqIH M gRIMKIR qIgRII Ps ZRPVLJIJTI sPR K[I ePRq! VMzLJg LK VPRI IVZ[MKLT. u[I
qIgRII Ps ZRPVLJIJTI qIZIJqH PJ K[I [ILg[K Ps K[I sMNN.
u[LH LJKPJMKLPJ ZMKKIRJ LH QHIq:
+ . . J H K M K I V I J K H ! TPJxIaLJg ZIRHPJMN TPJTIRJ PR LJxPNxIVIJK! HPQJqLJg NLxINa! LJKIRIHKIq!
MLRa; xIRa TPVVPJ LJ TPJxIRHMKLPJ.
."g" nP aPQ zJPe K[I VMJ{ 1P. (. qPJlK.) yIH. (. qP.) w[IRIlH Va TPZa{ \IKIR !KPPz LK !sPR
aPQ.
2 . . J f Q I H K L P J H :
M ) . J H Z I T L M N fQIHKLPJH! HPQJqLJg NLxINa! LJKIRIHKIq! ."g" . H[MNN `I NMKI! .lV MsRMLq. |Pe
!NMKI{
` ) . J g I J I R M N fQIHKLPJH! TPJxIaLJg VLNqNa HQRZRLHIq MTTIZKMJTI Ps K[I NLHKIJIRlH ZRIVLHIH.
."g" . NLzI LK [IRI. nP aPQ{ (. K[PQg[K aPQlq [MKI LK.)
4 . . J L V Z I R M K L x I H ! HPQJqLJg eMRV.
."g" w[MKlH K[I VMKKIR{ iPPz. (.KlH RMLJLJg.)
3 . . J I S T N M V M K L P J H ! xIRa IVPKLPJMN. ."g" .KlH ILg[K PlTNPTz. |IMxIJHc (.lV NMKI.)
EXERCISES
1. Iisten carefuIIy to the foIIowing conversationaI situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of
the repIies:
mer2a9 ConteZt \ri99
Statements
(conveying personal concern or involvement,
sounding interested, lively, airy)
1Pe e[MK [MxI aPQ qPJI KP vMRa{ 1PK[LJg.
w[PlH `IIJ IMKLJg Va gRMZIH{ 1P PJI. 1P PJI [MH. 1P PJIlH `IIJ IMKLJg aPQR eRIKT[Iq
gRMZIH.
w[LT[ eLNN aPQ KMzI! |IJRa{ u[LH PJI. u[MK PJI.
|Pe VMJa Ps [LH `PPzH [MxI aPQ RIMq{ dNN Ps K[IV. 1PJI Ps K[IV.
w[IJ qLq aPQ HII [LV{ oJ u[QRHqMa. (. K[PQg[K aPQ zJIe.)
wPQNq aPQ NLzI KP PLJ QH{ .lq NPxI KP.
OPVI PJ. iIKlH gIK gPLJg. wI TMJlK. .KlH RMLJLJg.
.K eMH MNN aPQR sMQNK. 0QK LK eMHJlK. dJq . TMJ ZRPxI LK.
Specia !"esti#ns (lively, interested)
. H[MNN [MxI KP gLxI LK KP [LV. w[a{
.lV gPLJg KP /eLKIRNMJq. w[IJ{
yPQlNN JIxIR gQIHH e[PlH [IRI. w[P{
yPQ TMJ eLJ IMHLNa. |Pe{ |Pe HP{
|IlH TPVLJg KP HKMa eLK[ QH. w[IJ! VMa . MHz{
. VQHKJlK KMzI K[IV. w[a VQHKJlK aPQ KMzI K[IV{
/PRRa KP `I HP NMKI. w[MKlH [MZZIJIq{
. PQg[K KP eRLKI KP [LV. w[a `PK[IR{
(|QNNP! nIJJLH.) |Pe MRI aPQ{
. HMLq JP HQT[ K[LJg. w[MK qLq aPQ HMa! K[IJ{
uPqMalH PQK Ps K[I fQIHKLPJ! KPP. w[IJ TMJ aPQ TPVI! VMa . MHz{
Genera !"esti#ns (conveying mildly surprised
acceptance of the listener's premises)
. NLzI LK [IRI. nP aPQ{
/[I LH K[LRKasLxI. .H H[I{
u[Ia ePJlK [INZ QH. wPJlK K[Ia{
. TMJlK `IMR TMKH. OMJlK aPQ{
. VQHK `I [PVI `a HLS. vQHK aPQ{
. PQg[K KP gP KP K[I NITKQRI. 0QK eLNN aPQ gP! qP aPQ K[LJz{
+3,
$mperati%es (expressing warmth)
nP aPQ K[LJz K[LH [MK eLNN sLK VI{ uRa LK.
|IlNN `I KIRRL`Na MJgRa. iIK [LV.
d NIKKIR ePJlK RIMT[ dJJ LJ KLVI. \[PJI [IR! K[IJ.
|I qPIHJlK eMJK KP ZNMa. u[IJ VMzI [LV.
.lV MesQNNa HPRRa. pPRgIK LK.
|I TMJlK MssPRq KP ZMa. wINN! gLxI LK KP [LV! K[IJ.
&'camati#ns (very emotional)
|IlH PxIR HIxIJKa. wINNc
dNLTI LH TPVLJg MH eINN. IMNNac /ZNIJqLqc
wLNN aPQ [MxI M qRLJz{ u[MJz aPQc
(u[MK aPQ vR. dRT[MR{) UPPq VPRJLJgc UPPq VPRJLJg KP aPQ.
.lNN gLxI LK KP aPQ. |Pe NPxINac
.lV VPHK gRMKIsQN KP aPQ. nPJlK VIJKLPJ LK! Va qIMR T[MZ.
/[I HMaH aPQlRI KP `NMVI. w[MK JPJHIJHIc
.HJlK LK M NPxINa xLIec GJT[MJKLJgc
2. Listen to the repIies and repeat them in the intervaIs. Start the faII high enough.
3. Listen to the VerbaI Context and repIy to it in the intervaIs.
4. In order to fix Intonation Pattern IX in your mind, ear and speech habits, pronounce each repIy severaI
times untiI it sounds perfectIy naturaI to you.
5. Listen to a feIIow-student reading the repIies and point out his (her) errors in pronunciation.
6. Listen to the VerbaI Contest said by a feIIow-student. Make your repIies sound IoveIy, warm, airy. Use the
proper intonation patterns. Continue the exercise untiI everyone has participated:
mer2a9 ConteZt \ri99
.HJlK LK KPP sMR MeMa sRPV [IRI{ desQNNa sMR.
w[IRI LH Va `PPz{ vMRa KPPz LK sPR aPQ.
|MxI aPQ `IIJ K[IRI `IsPRI{ os TPQRHI! . [MxI.
vMa . NIMxI aPQ sPR M VPVIJK{ w[a! aIH.
yPQ PQg[K KP NIK [LV zJPe. . [MxI.
w[MK LH H[I qPLJg [IRI{ /[IlH eMLKLJg sPR HPVI`Pqa.
.lq NPxI KP HKMa QZ sPR K[I ZNMa. yPQ TMJlK. .KlH KPP NMKI.
/[IlH KeIJKa. GLg[KIIJ! . K[LJz! H[I HMLq.
.KlNN KMzI VQT[ KLVI. |Pe VQT[{
ULxI K[IV PJI Ps K[IHI `PPzH. w[LT[ PJI! qP aPQ K[LJz{
. VQHK gP K[IRI. 0QK e[IJ{
.lNN sLJq [LV. 0QK [Pe TMJ aPQ sLJq [LV{
yPQ TMJlK gP K[IRI. 0QK e[a JPK{
/[I ePQNqJlK NLHKIJ KP VI. wPQNqJlK H[I{
GxIRa`Pqa MgRIIH eLK[ aPQ. o[! qP K[Ia{
1P`Pqa TMJ qP LK OMJ . [MxI M KRa{
iPTz K[I qPPR. wMLK M VLJQKI.
.lNN Z[PJI [IR. nPJlK.
vMa . [INZ aPQ{ yIH! qP.
w[MK [MH H[I qPJI{ iPPz.
u[MJz aPQ xIRa VQT[. u[MJz aPQ.
wPQNq aPQ NLzI KP HKMa QZ sPR K[I KINIxLHLPJ{ .JqIIq . ePQNq.
.lxI `IIJ [INZLJg uPV! vQVVa. u[MKlH M gPPq gLRN.
|Pe MRI aPQ gIKKLJg PJ{ wPJqIRsQNNa.
|INNP! vMRac o[! K[IRI aPQ MRI! uPV.
nP aPQ ZNMa T[IHH{ /QRINa! . qPc
7. Give your own repIies to the VerbaI Context above. Use Intonation Pattern IX in them.
8. Use Intonation Pattern I in the DriIIs. Observe the difference in attitudes.
9. This exercise is meant to revise the intonation patterns you aIready know. Work in pairs.
The teacher or one of the students will suggest a Verbal Context You in turn reply to it using:
a) statements, sounding lively, interested, airy; conveying personal concern or involvement;
b) special questions, sounding lively, interested;
c) general questions, conveying mildly surprised acceptance of the listener's premises;
+37
d) imperatives, sounding warm;
e) exclamations, very emotional.
10. Practise the foIIowing diaIogues. Use the High FaII in them. Observe the attitudes you convey:
o[! qIMRc o[c
.lV HP HPRRac . qP [PZI . [MxIJlK [QRK aPQc
o[! JP. . eMH QHK M NLKKNI HKMRKNIq! K[MKlH MNN. .KlH fQLKI MNN RLg[K.

nP aPQ NLzI K[LH sNMK{


o[! aIH! + qP! qIsLJLKINa.
.lV MsRMLq . TPQNqJlK ZPHHL`Na qP K[MK.
w[a JPK{

yPQlNN [MxI KP TNIMJ K[I eLJqPe.


1PK VIc
w[a JPK{
. qLq LK NMHK KLVI.
w[PHI KQRJ LH LK K[IJ{
|INIJlH! . K[LJz.
11. Listen to the VerbaI Context suggested by the teacher. RepIy by using one of the driII sentences beIow.
Pronounce it with Intonation Pattern IX. Say what attitude you mean to render;
mer2a9 ConteZt \ri99
.lNN RLJg aPQ QZ PJ /QJqMa! Lg[Kc UPPqc pLJIc OIRKMLJNac 1MKQRMNNac /QRINac o[! [Pc u[MK
ePJlK qPc
.K MNN qIZIJqH PJ K[I eIMK[IR. Lg[K aPQ MRIc GSMTKNa HPc 1MKQRMNNac }JqPQ`KIqNac /QRI
IJPQg[c 0a JP VIMJHc yPQ MRI eRPJgc pMR sRPV LKc OIRKMLJNa
JPKc
. H[MNN KMzI aPQ KP K[I oZIRM |PQHI. pLJIc UPPqc OIRKMLJKa JPK K[LH eIIzc dgRIIqc /IKKNIqc o[! JPc
wLNN aPQ `I RIMqa `a HLS{ OIRKMLJNac nITLqIqNac . K[LJz HPc }JqPQ`KIqNac /QRINa JPKc
. `INLIxI [IlH sLJLH[Iq `LH P`. |MRqNa IxIRc . K[LJz HPc /QRI IJPQg[c
12. Make up a diaIogue of your own, using some of the phrases from Ex. 10.
13. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to hear and reproduce intonation in conversation.
a) Listen to the dialogue "A Visit to the Doctor" carefully, sentence by sentence. Write it down. Mark the
stresses and tunes. Your teacher will help you to correct your variant. Practise reading each sentence of your
corrected variant after the cassette-recorder.
b) Record your reading of the dialogue. Play the recording back immediately for the teacher and your
fellow-students to detect your errors. Practise the dialogue for test reading.
c) Make up conversational situations with the following phrases:
wINN! e[MKlH K[I VMKKIR eLK[ ...{
yPQlq `IKKIR MHz VI e[MK LH JPK K[I VMKKIR eLK[ VI! ...
uP VMzI K[LJgH HKLNN ePRHI ...
.J sMTK...
d) Make up a talk about illnesses and their treatment, using phrases from the dialogue above. Work in
pairs.
e) Imagine you are consulting a doctor - tell him what troubles you. Imagine you are a doctor. You
diagnose the case as quinsy. Tell your
patient what he should do to get well.
14. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to hear and reproduce intonation in reading.
a) Listen to the text carefully, sentence by sentence. Write down the text. Mark the stresses and tunes. The
teacher will help you to correct your variant Practise reading each sentence of your corrected variant after
the cassette-recorder.
b) Record your reading. Play the recording back immediately for the teacher and your fellow-students to
detect your errors.
Practise the text for test reading.
15. Mark stresses and tunes in the foIIowing text, Iisten to the modeI. Mark the stresses and tunes.
Compare your intonation with that of the modeI. Practise the text according to the modeI:
Doctor, Dentist and Chemist
.s aPQ [MxI KPPK[MT[I! aPQ H[PQNq gP KP aPQR qIJKLHK. |IlNN ISMVLJI aPQR KIIK[! MJq Ls K[I MT[LJg KPPK[ LH
JPK KPP sMR gPJI! [IlNN HKPZ LK. .s LK LH KPP `Mq! [IlNN KMzI LK PQK.
.s aPQ qPJlK sIIN eINN! aPQ H[PQNq TPJHQNK M qPTKPR. .s aPQ sIIN KPP LNN KP gP KP K[I qPTKPRlH! aPQlNN [MxI KP
+3b
HIJq sPR [LV. |IlNN MHz aPQ KP qIHTRL`I KP [LV K[I HaVZKPVH Ps aPQR LNNJIHH. u[IJ [IlNN sIIN aPQR ZQNHI! NPPz
MK aPQR KPJgQI MJq ISMVLJI aPQ K[PRPQg[Na. pLJMNNa [IlNN ZRIHTRL`I K[I KRIMKVIJK MJq eRLKI PQK M
ZRIHTRLZKLPJ.
nPTKPRHl ZRIHTRLZKLPJH MRI VMqI QZ `a M T[IVLHK. dK T[IVLHKHl H[PZH LJ K[I }/d aPQ TMJ MNHP gIK ZMKIJK
VIqLTLJIH Ps MNN zLJqH! NPKLPJH! KPJLTH! TPQg[VLSKQRIH! `M`asPPqH! MHZLRLJ! ZLNNH! PLJKVIJK! `MJqMgIH!
Mq[IHLxI ZNMHKIR MJq HP PJ. yPQ TMJ `Qa RMPRH MJq RMPR`NMqIH! xMTQQVsNMHzH! [PK eMKIR `PKKNIH! HZPJgIH!
KPPK[`RQH[IH MJq KPPK[ZMHKIH! ZPeqIRZQssH! NLZHKLTzH! H[MxLJgHPMZ MJq H[MxLJg`RQH[IH MJq M [QJqRIq
MJq PJI PK[IR K[LJgH.
.s aPQ MRI LJKIRIHKIq LJ Z[PKPgRMZ[a! aPQ TMJ MNHP gIK TMVIRMH MJq sLNVH MK VPHK T[IVLHKHl. u[IalNN
qIxINPZ MJq ZRLJK aPQR sLNVH sPR aPQ! KPP. /PVI T[IVLHKH MRI MNHP fQMNLsLIq PZKLTLMJH! MJq Ls aPQR IaIHLg[KlH
sMQNKa K[IalNN KIHK aPQR IaIH MJq ZRIHTRL`I gNMHHIH sPR aPQ.
16. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to hear intonation and reproduce it in different speech
situations.
M) iLHKIJ KP K[I PzI roJI qMa vRH. mPJIH eIJK H[PZZLJg...r! HIJKIJTI `a HIJKIJTI. wRLKI LK qPeJ. vMRz
K[I HKRIHHIH MJq KQJIH. \RMTKLHI K[I PzI sPR KIHK RIMqLJg.
`) iLHKIJ KP K[I JMRRMKLPJ Ps K[I PzI. o`HIRxI K[I ZITQNLMRLKLIH LJ LJKPJMKLPJgRPQZ qLxLHLPJ! ZLKT[! HKRIHH
MJq KIVZP. 1PKI K[I QHI Ps KIVZPRLIRH. IZRPqQTI K[I VPqIN JMRRMKLPJ aPJ [MxI NLHKIJIq KP.
17. This exercise is meant to test your abiIity to anaIyse and reproduce materiaI for reading and reteIIing.
a) Read the jokes silently to make sure you understand each sentence. Find the sentence expressing the
essence of the joke. Split up each phrase into intonation-groups if necessary. Locate the communicative centre
of each sentence. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise reading the jokes.
b) Tell the jokes in your own words:
The Doctor's Advice
oJTI MJ PNq gIJKNIVMJ eIJK KP HII M qPTKPR. u[I qPTKPR ISMVLJIq [LV MJq HMLq: rvIqLTLJI ePJlK [INZ
aPQ. yPQ VQHK [MxI M TPVZNIKI RIHK. UP KP M fQLIK TPQJKRa ZNMTI sPR M VPJK[! gP KP `Iq IMRNa! qRLJz VLNz!
eMNz M NPK! MJq HVPzI QHK PJI TLgMR M qMa.r
ru[MJz aPQ xIRa VQT[!r HMLq K[I gIJKNIVMJ! r. H[MNN qP IxIRaK[LJg aPQ HMa.r
ro[! qPTKPR!r HMLq K[I gIJKNIVMJ M VPJK[ NMKIR! r. sIIN fQLKI eINN JPe. . [Mq M gPPq RIHK. . eIJK KP `Iq
IMRNa! . qRMJz M NPK Ps VLNz! . eMNzIq M NPK. yPQR MqxLTI TIRKMLJNa [INZIq VI. 0QK aPQ KPNq VI KP HVPzI PJI
TLgMR M qMa! MJq K[MK PJI TLgMR M qMa MNVPHK zLNNIq VI MK sLRHK. .KlH JP PzI KP HKMRK HVPzLJg MK Va MgI.r
Doctor's Orders
/ I R x M J K : /LR! eMzI QZ! eMzI QZc
v M H K I R : w[MK LH K[I VMKKIR{
/ I R x M J K : .KlH KLVI KP KMzI aPQR HNIIZLJg KM`NIKH.
v R H . 0 R P e J : nPJlK aPQ K[LJz! qPTKPR! aPQlxI RMK[IR PxIRT[MRgIq sPR MKKIJqLJg mLVVa e[IJ [I
[Mq K[I VIMHNIH{
n P T K P R : yPQ VQHK RIVIV`IR! vRH. 0RPeJ! K[MK LJTNQqIH KeIJKaKeP xLHLKH.
v R H . 0 R P e J : yIH! `QK aPQ sPRgIK [I LJsITKIq K[I e[PNI HT[PPNc
SECTION THREE. Intonation Pattern X
(LOW PRE-HEAD+) RISING HEAD + HIGH FALL (+ TAIL)
vPqIN: . ePJqIR e[IJ dNLTIlH KRMLJ LH qQI.
iPPz LK lQZ LJ K[I KLVI!KM`NI.
u[I HaNNM`NIH Ps K[I LHLJg |IMq ZRITIqLJg K[I |Lg[ pMNN gRMqQMNNa TMRRa K[I ZLKT[ QZ.
/KRIHHMJqKPJI VMRz LJ K[I KISK:
u[I sLRHK HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NI:
u[LH LJKPJMKLPJ ZMKKIRJ LH QHIq:
+ . . J H K M K I V I J K H ! TPJxIaLJg ZIRHPJMN TPJTIRJ! LJxPNxIVIJK! qLHgRQJKNIq ZRPKIHK.
."g" |MxIJlK aPQ `RPQg[K K[I TMRZ{ yPQ

qLqJlK MHz VI !KP.


2 . . J f Q I H K L P J H :
M ) . J H Z I T L M N fQIHKLPJH HPQJqLJg QJZNIMHMJKNa HQRZRLHIq PR qLHZNIMHIq! ZRPKIHKLJg.
."g" /IJq K[IV MK PJTI.

w[IRI KP{
` ) . J g I J I R M N fQIHKLPJH! ZRPKIHKLJg! HPVIKLVIH LVZMKLIJK.
."g" u[QRHqMalH M [PZINIHH qMa sPR VI.

OMJlK eI lVMzI LK M pRLqMa! !K[IJ{


4 . . J L V Z I R M K L x I H ! NLxINa! eLK[ M JPKI Ps TRLKLTMN HQRZRLHI.
."g" w[MK H[MNN . qP{

uRa LK MgMLJ.
3 . . J I S T N M V M K L P J H ! TPJxIaLJg MssRPJKIq HQRZRLHI! ZRPKIHKLJg.
+32
."g" mP[JlH TPVLJg. w[MK MJ IS

KRMPRqLJMRa K[LJg.
EXERCISES
1. Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the
intonation of the replies:
Verbal Context Drill
Statements
(conveying personal concern or involvement,
disgruntled protest)
. VQHK HII vR. P`IRKH. .lV MsRMLq aPQ TMJlK. |IlH QHK gPJI PQK.
w[MK qLq aPQ K[LJz Ps K[I [PQHI{ . eMH RMK[IR KMzIJ eLK[ LK. .K HIIVH fQLKI JLTI.
|I HMaH [I zJPeH JPK[LJg M`PQK LK. . QHK TMJlK QJqIRHKMJq LK. . qLHKLJTKNa RIVIV`IR KINNLJg [LV.
|MxIJlK aPQ sLJLH[Iq K[MK `PPz aIK{ .lxI PJNa QHK `IgQJ LK.
.lV MsRMLq . sMLNIq Va ISMV. .lV JPK MK MNN HQRZRLHIq. yPQ VQHK KRa ePRzLJg M `LK [MRqIR.
yPQ PQg[K KP [MxI LJsPRVIq VI MK PJTI. . qLqJlK RIMNLI! LK eMH HP LVZPRKMJK.
Specia !"esti#ns
(s#"ndin( displeased, unpleasantly surprised,
protesting)
w[MKlH K[MK aPQ HMa{ w[a qPJlK aPQ NLHKIJ{
. TMJlK sLJq K[I sLNI MJae[IRI. w[MK [MxI aPQ qPJI eLK[ LK{
yPQ TMJlK IMHLNa VIJq LK. w[MK qP aPQ VIMJ! IMHLNa{
. gMxI LK KP [IR ZIRHPJMNNa. 0QK e[IJ qLq aPQ HII [IR{
w[LT[ PJI H[MNN . [MxI{ w[LT[ ePQNq aPQ ZRIsIR{
. H[MNN eRLKI KP [LV MgMLJ. w[MKIxIR qP aPQ [PZI KP gMLJ `a K[MK{
. eMH KPP NMKI. u[Ialq HPNq PQK. w[aIxIR qLqJlK aPQ `Qa LK e[IJ aPQ [Mq K[I T[MJTI{
Genera !"esti#ns (protesting, impatient)
.lV KIRRL`Na [MRq QZc dRIJlK eI MNN{
.KlH MNeMaH ZPHHL`NI. 0QK qP aPQ K[LJz LKlH NLzINa{
.lV fQLKI `PPzIq QZ JISK eIIz. wLNN K[I eIIz MsKIR HQLK aPQ `IKKIR{
.J Va xLIe [IlH M TQNZRLK. OPQNq aPQ `I VLHKMzIJ{
. TMJlK VIIK aPQ K[LH uQIHqMa! /[MNN eI NIMxI LK KLNN JISK eIIz{
+ TMJlK HMa . qP NLzI K[LH TPMK. wPQNq aPQ [MxI ZRIsIRRIq K[I ZNQV TPNPQRIq PJI{
$mperati%es (lively, with a note of critical surprise)
w[MK PJ IMRK[ H[MNN . qP{ uRa LK MgMLJ. yPQlxI JP MNKIRJMKLxI.
w[MK H[PQNq . KINN [LV{ uINN [LV ISMTKNa e[MK aPQ K[LJz.
|Pe VMJa HMJqeLT[IH H[MNN . VMzI{ vMzI MH VMJa MH aPQ K[LJz eIlNN IMK.
. qPJlK eMJK KP gP MNPJI. OPVI MNPJg eLK[ QH! K[IJ.
.lxI NPHK Va LJxLKMKLPJ. wINN eRLKI MJq MHz K[IV KP HIJq aPQ MJPK[IR PJI.
&'camati#ns (conveying affronted surprise,
protesting)
. KPNq [LV e[MK . K[PQg[K Ps [LV. UPPq sPR aPQc
/[I HMaH H[IlH KeIJKaJLJI. d`HPNQKI JPJHIJHIc
0QK . TMJlK KMzI aPQ PQK KPJLg[K. .lV
ePRzLJg NMKI.
w[MK M ZLKa aPQ qLqJlK HMa HP HPPJIR.
iPPz. .K ePRzH. /P LK qPIH. |Pe xIRa Pqqc
yPQlRI M `LK gRQVZa KPqMa. 1PK LJ K[I NIMHKc
2. Listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Pronounce the first stressed syllable as low as
possible; the following stressed syllables of the head gradually rise to the high level. Start the fall on the
nucleus high enough.
3, Listen to the Verbal Context and reply in the intervals.
4. In order to fix Intonation Pattern X in your mind, ear and speech habits, pronounce each reply several
times until it sounds perfectly natural to you.
5. listen to your fellow-student reading the replies, tell him (her) what his (her) errors in intonation are.
6. Listen to the Verbal Context suggested by the teacher. Reply by using one of the sentences below.
Pronounce it with Intonation Pattern X. Say what attitude you mean to render:
mer2a9 ConteZt \ri99
w[a qPJlK aPQ HKMa NPJgIR{ .lxI JP KLVI. .lV HP `QHa JPe.
w[IJ qP eI gP K[IRI{ .lxI QHK KPNq aPQ. dK HIxIJ.
+*)
nP aPQ RIMNNa eMJK KP HII [IR{ . [MxIJlK HIIJ [IR sPR MgIH.
w[MK VMqI aPQ gP K[IRI{ . eIJK K[IRI `ITMQHI . eMJKIq KP.
w[a qLqJlK aPQ TPVI K[IRI LJ KLVI{ yPQ zJPe [Pe sMR LK LH.
w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz Ps K[LH ZLTKQRI{ .KlH JPK[LJg NIHH K[MJ M VMHKIRZLITI.
.lxI JP KLVI JPe. .lV NIMxLJg. w[IRI KP{
yPQ VQHK NPPz K[RPQg[ LK MgMLJ. w[MKlH eRPJg M`PQK LK{
|IlNN `I [IRI `a HLS. w[MK VMzIH aPQ HP HQRI{
yPQ VQHK Z[PJI [IR MK PJTI. w[a JPK aPQ{
. VLHHIq HPVI ePRqH. w[a qPJlK aPQ NLHKIJ{
yPQlq `IKKIR KMzI M KMSL. w[MK sPR{
vPJqMa LH M xIRa `QHa qMa sPR VI. OMJlK eI VIIK PJ pRLqMa K[IJ{
yPQ MRI JPK M gPPq HeLVVIR! MRI aPQ{ |MxI . IxIR ZRIKIJqIq KT `I{
vMRalH JPK [IRI aIK. UP MNPJI! K[IJ.
.KlH KPP NMKI KP eMNz. uMzI M `QH! K[IJ.
. qPQ`K Ls . TMJ qP LK `IKKIR. uRa MgMLJ.
|IlH gLxIJ QZ K[LH LqIM. /IJHL`NI T[MZc
|IlH ePJ. wPQNq aPQ `INLIxI LKc
7. Give your own repIies to the VerbaI Context of Ex. 1 and 6. Use Intonation Pattern X.
8. The teacher or one of the students suggests a VerbaI Context The students repIy to it in turn using:
a) statements conveying personal concern, involvement or protest;
b) special questions sounding unpleasantly surprised, displeased or protesting;
c) general questions sounding impatient, protesting;
d) imperatives sounding lively, with a note of critical surprise;
e) exclamations conveying affronted surprise, protesting. Continue the exercise until everyone has
participated. Work in pairs.
9. Read the foIIowing extracts. Observe the position of the IogicaI stress:
ruINN [IR K[MK aPQ LJKIJq KP VMRRa [IR! `QK MsKIR aPQ RIKQRJ sRPV K[LH PQKLJg! JPK `IsPRI.r (#. \rei&er"
rdJ dVIRLTMJ uRMgIqar)
ryPQ qPJlK NLxI [IRI{r r1P!r . HMLq! r. qPJlK. yPQ ePQNqJlK Ls . qLq.r QN" %" Nero+e" ru[RII vIJ LJ M
0PMKr)
r/[I eMH HP ZRIKKa MJq TQKI. yIK H[I eMH M ePRzLJg gLRN! MH [I RIVIV`IRIq JPe! KPP M sMTKPRa gLRN! MH
ULN`IRK ePQNq HMa! MJq [I eMH [IR HQZIRLPR. 0QK H[I eMH HP ZRIKKa MJq TQKI.r (u[. \rei&er" rdJ dVIRLTMJ
uRMgIqar)
r.J K[I KMSL! RIKQRJLJg MK NMHK KP O[IH`PRPQg[ uIRRMTI [I ZRPTNMLVIq [MZZLNa: rpLRHK RMKI T[MZH K[IHI!
O[RLHc |MH `IIJ M ePJqIRsQN IxIJLJg! [MHJlK LK{r /[I MJHeIRIq LJ M K[LJ HKIMqa xPLTI: r.KlH `IIJ M [MKIsQN
IxIJLJgcr (Cronin" ru[I OLKMqINr)
10. Look for simiIar situations in the books you are reading at the moment
11. This exercise is meant to practise the intonation patterns you aIready know.
a) Listen to the dialogue "Guessing Game", sentence by sentence. Write it down. Define the intonation
pattern of each sentence and the attitude expressed by it
b) Record your reading. Play the recording back for your teacher aad fellow-students to detect the possible
errors:
d.: dJq K[I JISK P`ITK LH xIgIKM`NI.
.: nPIH PJI IMK LK{
d: yIH.
.: nP aPQ IMK LK{
d: yIH.
.: nP aPQ IMK LK MK `RIMzsMHK{
d: 1P.
.: nP aPQ IMK LK MK qLJJIR KLVI{
d: 1P.
.: wINN K[IJ MK KIM KLVI.
d: yIH.
.: .H LK M RMe xIgIKM`NI{
d: yIH.
.: .H LK JLTI{
d: :IRa JLTI.
+*+
.: nLq eI [MxI HPVI sPR KIM KPqMa{
d: yIH.
Practise the dialogue for test reading. Memorize and dramatize it.
12. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to bear and reproduce intonation in different speech
situations.
a) listen to the dialogue "Sightseeing" carefully, sentence by sentence. Write it down. Mark the stresses and
tunes. The teacher will help you to correct your variant Practise reading each sentence of your corrected vari-
ant after the cassette-recorder.
b) Record your reading of the text Play the recording back immediately for the teacher and your fellow-
students to detect your errors. Practise the dialogue for test reading. Memorize and play it
c) Make up conversational situations with the following phrases:
.H LK ZPHHL`NI ...{ u[MKlH JPK M `Mq LqIM.
w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz ...{ . HQZZPHI LK LH.
MK[IR. w[MK M`PQK...{
wINN! aPQ VLg[K... . iIK VI HII ... .
.H LK VQT[ Ps M eMNz{ nP aPQ K[LJz . H[MNN [MxI KLVI sPR...{
d) Make up a talk about your recent trip. Use the phrases from the dialogue above. Work in pairs.
e) Imagine you are telling the class about your recent trip to London.
13. This exercise is meant to revise Intonation Pattern IX. Read the foIIowing diaIogue. Use the High FaII to
express personaI concern, invoIvement:
w[MK MRI aPQ gPLJg KP qP K[LH eIIz{
wINN! eI qPJlK RIMNNa zJPe.
w[a JPK xLHLK jIe UMRqIJH{
wINN! eIlxI `IIJ K[IRI.
yPQlxI HIIJ VQT[! [MxIJlK aPQ{
yIH! eIlxI HIIJ MNN K[I QHQMN K[LJgH. u[I uPeIR Ps iPJqPJ! MJq K[I PP! MJq K[I |PQHIH Ps
\MRNLMVIJK.
|MxI aPQ xLHLKIq wIHKVLJHKIR d``Ia{
yIH! eI eIJK K[IRI M sPRKJLg[K MgP. 0QK . [MxIJlK HIIJ /K. \MQNlH OMK[IqRMN HLJTI . eMH [IRI LJ +22+.
. [MxIc .lxI `IIJ K[IRI KeP PR K[RII KLVIH.
0QK . RIMNNa PQg[K KP K[LJz M`PQK K[I `QHLJIHH HLqI Ps Va xLHLK.
yIH. yPQ VQHK xLHLK M VPKPRTMR sMTKPRa. dsKIR MNN! K[MK LH aPQR VMLJ LJKIRIHK.
u[MKlH KRQI. . [MxIJlK `IIJ KP PJI aIK. . ISZITK K[LJgH [MxI T[MJgIq HLJTI +22+.
.lV HQRI K[Ia [MxI. yIH! K[IRI [MxI `IIJ HPVI xIRa `Lg qIxINPZVIJKH HLJTI aPQ eIRI [IRI NMHK.
14. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to hear intonation and reproduce it in different speech
situations.
a) Listen to the 1oke "A pretty well-dressed young lady..." sentence by sentence. Write it down. Mark the
stresses and tunes. Practise the joke for test reading.
b) Listen to the narration of the joke. Observe the peculiarities in intonation-group division, pitch, stress
and tempo. Note the use of temporizers. Reproduce the model narration you have listened to. Tell the joke in
your own words.
15. This exercise is meant to test your abiIity to anaIyze materiaI for reading.
a) Read the joke silently to make sure you understand each sentence. Find the sentence expressing the
essence of the joke. Split up each phrase into intonation-groups if necessary. Locate the communicative centre
of each sentence. Mark the stresses and tunes, concentrating your attention on the attitude expressed. It is not
expected that each student will mark the story in exactly the same way. Discuss your variants in class. Your
teacher will help you to choose the best variant. Practise your corrected variant for test reading.
b) Tell the joke in your own words.
Wrong Pronunciation
d pRIJT[VMJ e[P [Mq NIMRJIq GJgNLH[ MK HT[PPN! `QK [Mq [MNs sPRgPKKIJ LK! eMH HKMaLJg LJ iPJqPJ PJ
`QHLJIHH. .K eMH LJ K[I VPJK[ Ps 1PxIV`IR! MJq K[I eIMK[IR eMH VPHK QJZNIMHMJK! qLHMgRIIM`NI! qMVZ MJq
sPgga.
u[I \MRLHLMJ! JPK `ILJg MTTQHKPVIq KP K[I GJgNLH[ TNLVMKI! [Mq TMQg[K M HIxIRI TPNq! MJq eMH TPQg[LJg
qMa MJq JLg[K. dK NMHK [I qITLqIq PJ gIKKLJg M RIVIqa sPR [LH TPQg[ `QK MH [I qLq JPK RIVIV`IR K[LH GJgNLH[
ePRq! [I NPPzIq LK QZ LJ [LH pRIJT[GJgNLH[ qLTKLPJMRa. u[IRI [I sPQJq K[MK K[I GJgNLH[ sPR LK eMH 5ough"
}JsPRKQJMKINa [LH qLTKLPJMRa qLq JPK KINN [LV [Pe KP ZRPJPQJTI LK. IVIV`IRLJg! [PeIxIR! K[I ZRPJQJTLM
KLPJ Ps K[I ePRq 49ough, [I JMKQRMNNa TPJTNQqIq K[MK 5ough VQHK `I ZRPJPQJTIq WzMx.
/P [I IJKIRIq M T[IVLHKlH H[PZ MJq HMLq: rwLNN aPQ! ZNIMHI! gLxI VI HPVIK[LJg sPR Va TPecr u[I
T[IVLHK! K[LJzLJg [I [Mq VLHQJqIRHKPPq [LV MHzIq ZPNLKINa: r. `Ig aPQR ZMRqPJ! HLR{r
+*2
u[I pRIJT[VMJ RIZIMKIq [LH RIfQIHK sPR HPVI RIVIqa sPR [LH 5ow"
rpPR aPQR TPe! HLR{r RIZNLIq K[I T[IVLHK. rdRI aPQ M sMRVIR K[IJ{r
rd sMRVIR{r MJHeIRIq K[I pRIJT[VMJ RMK[IR LJqLgJMJKNa. rw[MK LJ K[I ePRNq VMzIH aPQ K[LJz HP{ o[!
JP! . TMVI sRPV \MRLH! sRPV `IMQKLsQN \MRLH!r [I MqqIq ZRPQqNa.
u[I T[IVLHK JPe MNVPHK `IgMJ KP K[LJz K[MK [I eMH qIMNLJg eLK[ M VMqVMJ. .J gRIMK `IeLNqIRVIJK [I
MHzIq MgMLJ: r0QK aPQR TPe! HLR{ w[IRI LH aPQR TPe{r
r|IRIcr TRLIq K[I pRIJT[VMJ! TPQg[LJg xIRa NPQq MJq ZPLJKLJg KP [LH T[IHK. r|IRI LK LHc . [MxI M xIRa `Lg
TPe LJ Va T[IHKcr
iQTzLNa! K[I T[IVLHK QJqIRHKPPq [LV MJq gMxI [LV K[I RIVIqa [I eMJKIq.
SECTION FOUR. Intonation Pattern XI
(LOW PRE-HEAD + ) FALLING HEAD+ HIGH FALL (+ TAIL)
vPqIN: |Pe MRI aPQ sLJqLJg aPQR JIe P`{
iLzLJg K[I ePRz LVVIJHINa.
u[I |Lg[ pMNN HKMRKH sRPV M [Lg[IR ZLKT[ K[MJ K[I ZRITIqLJg HaNNM`NI Ps K[I pMNNLJg |IMq.
.s K[I [IMq TPJKMLJH PJNa PJI HKRIHHIq ePRq K[I |Lg[ pMNN HKMRKH sRPV K[I NIxIN Ps K[I HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NI.
."g" |Pe JLTIc
u[LH LJKPJMKLPJ ZMKKIRJ LH QHIq:
+ . . J H K M K I V I J K H ! TPJxIaLJg ZIRHPJMN TPJTIRJ! HPQJqLJg NLg[K! MLRa! eMRV `QK eLK[PQK K[I
qLHgRQJKNIq IssITK Ps \MKKIRJ ^.
."g" w[a qPJlK K[Ia ePRz LJ K[I IxIJLJgH{ /PVI Ps K[IV qP! . `INLIxI.
2 . . J f Q I H K L P J H :
M ) . J H Z I T L M N fQIHKLPJH! HPQJqLJg LJKIRIHKIq! `RLHz! `QHLJIHHNLzI.
."g" .lxI QHK HIIJ K[MK JIe VQHLTMN. w[MK LH LK TMNNIq{
` ) . J g I J I R M N fQIHKLPJH! TPJxIaLJg VLNqNa HQRZRLHIq MTTIZKMJTI Ps K[I NLHKIJIRlH ZRIVLHIH;
HPVIKLVIH HPQJqLJg HTIZKLTMN! `QK eLK[PQK K[I LVZMKLIJTI Ps \MKKIRJ ^. (u[I fQIHKLPJ LH ZQK sPReMRq MH M
HQ`ITK sPR qLHTQHHLPJ.)
."g" /[MNN eI KRa MgMLJ{ wINN lePQNq LK `I MJa QHI{
4 . . J L V Z I R M K L x I H ! HPQJqLJg NLxINa; HQggIHKLJg M TPQRHI Ps MTKLPJ KP K[I NLHKIJIR.
."g" u[I KIMlH KPP [PK. \QK HPVI VPRI VLNz LJ LK.
3 . . J I S T N M V M K L P J H ! TPJxIaLJg VLNq HQRZRLHI `QK eLK[PQK K[I MssRPJK Ps \MKKIRJ ^.
."g" iPPz! LKlH HJPeLJg. o[! ye&O
EXERCISES
1. Listen carefuIIy to the foIIowing conversationaI situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation
of the repIies:
Verbal Context Drill
Statements (conveying personal concern; sounding
light, airy, warm)
w[IJlH K[I TPJTIRK{ 1ISK /QJqMa. 1ISK wIqJIHqMa.
.KlH gPLJg KP `I M sLJI ZNMTI. /P LK HIIVH. /P .lxI [IMRq.
w[MK eMH K[I H[Pe NLzI{ pLRHK RMKI. /LVZNa HZNIJqLq.
.KlH JPK xIRa xMNQM`NI! LH LK{ .K TPHK PxIR K[RII [QJqRIq ZPQJqH.
wIlNN JIxIR gIK K[IRI. .KlH JPK MH sMR MH aPQ LVMgLJI.
w[LT[ ePQNq aPQ NLzI! KIM PR TPssII{ .lq ZRIsIR KIM.
. VMa `I M `LK NMKI. u[MK ePQNqJlK VMKKIR LJ K[I NIMHK.
Specia !"esti#ns (sounding interested, bris,
business!lie)
.lxI QHK HIIJ K[MK JIe VQHLTMN. w[MKlH LK TMNNIq{
r}JqIRJIMK[ K[I dRT[IH!r w[MK qLq aPQ K[LJz Ps LK{
QLKI gPPq! RIMNNa. w[P TPVZPHIq K[I VQHLT{
mP[J dqMVH! . K[LJz [LH JMVI LH. w[LT[ K[IMKRI LH LK ZNMaLJg MK{
ru[I \RLJTI Ps wMNIH.r w[LT[ ISMTKNa LH ru[I \RLJTI Ps wMNIHr{
u[I PJI JIMR \LTTMqLNNa OLRTQH. |Pe qLq aPQ gIK K[IRI{
0a M sPQRKIIJ `QH. w[a qLqJlK aPQ gP `a KQ`I{
. TMJlK `IMR K[I }JqIRgRPQJq.
Genera !"esti#ns
+*4
(conveying mildly surprised acceptance of the
listener's premises; sometimes sceptical)
nlaPQ K[LJz . H[PQNq RLJg [LV{ vLg[KJlK LK `I `IKKIR KP eMLK{
. [MKI K[I K[PQg[K Ps HZRLJg TNIMJLJg. oQg[K eI KP qINMa LK MJa NPJgIR! K[PQg[{
. qPJlK RIMNNa eMJK KP VIIK K[IV. wLNN aPQ `I M`NI KP gIK PQK Ps LK{
.lV HPRRa! `QK . [MKI TPTPM. wPQNq aPQ NLzI M TQZ Ps KIM! K[IJ{
u[MJz aPQ sPR MNN aPQlxI qPJI. .H K[IRI MJaK[LJg INHI . TMJ qP KP [INZ{
|IlH ZRPVLHIq KP HKPZ HVPzLJg. nPIH [I RIMNNa VIMJ e[MK [I HMaH{
$mperati%es
(sounding lively; suggesting a course of action to
the listener)
. [MKI fQMRRINNLJg eLK[ ONMRM. u[IJ VMzI LK QZ eLK[ [IR.
. H[MJlK `I M`NI KP Z[PJI aPQ. nRPZ VI M NLJI! K[IJ.
/PRRa . sPRgPK KP T[MJgI Va H[PIH. mQHK NPPz MK K[I VQq aPQlxI `RPQg[K LJ [IRI.
. TMJlK K[LJz e[MK KP HMa. nPJlK HMa MJaK[LJg MK MNN. iIMxI LK IJKLRINa KP VI.
w[MK H[MNN . qP eLK[ K[LH{ \QK LK LJ K[I eMHKI ZMZIR `MHzIK.
&'camati#ns (conveying mild surprise)
|I ePJlK gLxI QH ZIRVLHHLPJ. /P K[MKlH K[MK.
. gMxI [LV M ZLITI Ps Va VLJq. wINN qPJIc UPPq sPR aPQc
uPV [MH ZMHHIq [LH ISMV. wINN sMJTa K[MKc
.lxI QHK `ITPVI M sMK[IR. OPJgRMKQNMKLPJH! Va qIMR T[MZc
. sPRgPK IxIRa ePRq M`PQK LK. w[MK M sLJI VIHH aPQlxI VMqI Ps K[LJgHc
wIlNN gP K[IRI PJ pRLqMa. u[I HPPJIR K[I `IKKIRc
.lV HPRRa KP [MxI KP xPKI MgMLJHK aPQ. d sLJI sRLIJq aPQ KQRJIq PQK KP `Ic
2. Listen to the replies and repeat them is the intervals. Make your voice follow the intonation line exactly.
3. Listen to the Verbal Context above and reply in the intervals concentrating your attention on the
intonation line.
4. In order to fix Intonation Pattern XI in your mind, ear and speech habits pronounce each reply several
times until it sounds perfectly natural to you.
5. listen to your fellow-student reading the replies. Tell him (her! what his (her) errors in pronunciatioa
and intonation are,
6. a) Listen to a fellow-student reading the Verbal Context below. Pronounce each of the following replies
in two ways: first with Intonation Pattern X, then with Intonation Patters XI. Observe the intonation line.
State the difference in attitude. Ask a fellow-student to comment oa the attitudes you are trying to render:
mer2a9 ConteZt \ri99
|MH H[I TMQg[K QZ eLK[ K[I gRPQZ{ 0IKKIR K[MJ K[MK. /[I LH K[I `IHK LJ K[I gRPQZ JPe.
.lV gNMq aPQlxI VMqI HPVI ZRPgRIHH. /P LH Va KIMT[IR.
w[a qPIHJlK H[I PLJ PQR KRLZH{ /PVIKLVIH H[I qPIH.
w[MKlH [LH VMRz LJ Z[aHLTH{ . qPJlK RIVIV`IR.
.lV MJ MVMKIQR. . H[PQNq JIxIR `INLIxI LK. yPQlRI gPPq MK KIJJLH LJqIIq.
w[IRI LH Va ZIJ{ .KlH gPJI MgMLJ. yPQ JIxIR RIVIV`IR e[IRI aPQ ZQK aPQR K[LJgH.
u[MJz aPQ xIRa VQT[ sPR aPQR [INZ. 1PK MK MNN. mQHK [MZZa KP [INZ aPQ MJa KLVI.
iIKlH gP KP K[I ZLTKQRIH LJ K[I IxIJLJg. . RIMNNa TMJlK. .lxI gPK M NPK Ps ePRz KP qP.
wIlRI NIMxLJg KPJLg[K: .KlH M ZLKa. yPQ ZRPVLHIq KP HKMa eLK[ QH M `LK NPJgIR.
.lV gPLJg KP TPJHQNK M qPTKPR. .KlH [Lg[ KLVI aPQ K[PQg[K M`PQK aPQR [IMNK[.
.KlH JPK Va HLI. wINN! e[MK HLI qP aPQ KMzI! K[IJ{
. HMe vLzI K[I qMa `IsPRI aIHKIRqMa. |Pe LH [I gIKKLJg PJ{
/[I eIJK KP K[I TLRTQH PJ /QJqMa. w[a qLqJlK H[I KMzI K[I T[LNqRIJ eLK[ [IR{
vMRa LH eMLKLJg sPR aPQ. w[a [MH H[I TPVI{
. gPK `MTz aIHKIRqMa. dJq e[IRI qLq aPQ gP! . ePJqIR{
. qPJlK zJPe \IKIRlH MqqRIHH. w[a qLqJlK aPQ MHz [LV M`PQK LK `IsPRI{
/[I ZRPVLHIq KP `RLJg K[I `PPz. nPIH H[I MNeMaH zIIZ [IR ZRPVLHIH{
u[Ia HMa K[IalNN [INZ QH. nP K[Ia RIMNNa VIMJ K[MK{
/[MNN eI MHz [IR KP HZIMz KP [LV{ wLNN LK `I Ps MJa QHI{
/[MNN eI gP sPR M eMNz KP K[I sPRIHK{ .HJlK LK HKLNN ZPQRLJg{
. qLqJlK QJqIRHKMJq K[I RQNI. wPQNqJlK LK `I `IKKIR sPR aPQ KP MHz K[I KIMT[IR KP ISZNMLJ LK MgMLJ{
u[Ia ePJlK TPVI KP K[I ZMRKa. nP K[Ia HKLNN sIIN PssIJqIq{
+*3
. TMJlK eMLK sPR [LV MJa NPJgIR. OPQNqJlK eI RLJg [LV QZ! K[IJ{
.lV xIRa VQT[ P`NLgIq KP [LV. uINN [LV M`PQK LK! K[IJ.
|I MHzIq [IR M`PQK [IR MgI. |Pe HLNNa Ps [LVc
/[I VMqI VI TPVI sPR K[I HITPJq KLVI. w[MK M H[MVIc
/[IlH NMLq QZ eLK[ fQLJHa MgMLJ. \PPR K[LJgc
u[MJz aPQ sPR aPQR xIRa gPPq JIeH. nPJlK VIJKLPJ LK.
|I ZRPVLHIq KP HZIMz KP [IR. u[I HPPJIR K[I `IKKIR.
b) listen to a fellow-student reading the first sentence of the Verbal Context above. Reply in your own way,
using Intonation Pattern XI. The drill will continue until every student has participated. Keep the exercise
moving rapidly. Be careful about the intonation line and try to convey the proper attitude.
7. Read the foIIowing diaIogue with a feIIow-student using Intonation Pattern XI. SpeciaI questions shouId
sound interested, IiveIy, brisk. The repIies sound IiveIy, friendIy and warm:
d: w[MK eMH K[MK aPQ HMLq{
0: w[IRI qLq aPQ gP sPR aPQR HQVVIR [PNLqMa{
d: pLRHK KP iPJqPJ MJq K[IJ KP OPRJeMNN.
0: |Pe NPJg qLq aPQ NLxI LJ iPJqPJ{
d: mQHK M eIIz.
0: w[LT[ ZMRK Ps aPQR [PNLqMa qLq aPQ ZRIsIR{
d: o[! PQR sPRKJLg[K LJ OPRJeMNN.
0: w[IRI qLq aPQ HKMa e[LNI aPQ eIRI qPeJ K[IRI{
d: .J M NLKKNI xLNNMgI JIMR \IJMJTI.
0: w[MK HPRK Ps eIMK[IR qLq aPQ [MxI LJ iPJqPJ{
d: u[I `IHK eI TPQNq ZPHHL`Na [MxI [PZIq sPR.
0: w[MK qLq aPQ qP K[IRI{
d /Lg[KHIILJg VPHKNa.
8. A student wiII read the VerbaI Context beIow. Other students wiII read the repIies in turn, using the High
FaII and the IogicaI stress on the same word to make the utterance emphatic. Define the attitude you
are trying to express:
mer2a9 ConteZt \ri99
|IlH RQLJIq Va H[PIH. vMzI [LV `Qa aPQ M JIe ZMLR.
1PJI Ps QH eMJKH KP gP. /PVIPJI eLNN [MxI KP gP! ePJlK K[Ia{
dRIJlK aPQ NQTza{ u[MKlH e[MK IxIRa`Pqa HMaH.
|Pe qPIH aPQR eLsI sLJq LK{ /[I NLzIH LK MH VQT[ MH . qP.
w[MKlH :IRJPJlH PZLJLPJ{ |I TMJlK VMzI QZ [LH VLJq e[LT[ [I ZRIsIRH.
w[MK MJ MVMLJg KRLTzc . OMJlK LVMgLJI [Pe LKlH qPJI.
. TMJlK VMzI [IMq PR KMLN Ps LK. iIK mP[JHPJ [MxI M NPPz MK LK.
nPJlK `PK[IR KP sIKT[ VI. .KlH JPK LJ K[I NIMHK KRPQ`NI. . qP K[I HMVI sPR MNN Va gQIHKH.
9. Listen to your teacher read the context sentences beIow. Pronounce each of the foIIowing repIies in two
ways: first with Intonation Pattern II, then with Intonation Pattern XI. Observe the intonation Iine.
Convey the suggested attitudes:
mer2a9 ConteZt \ri99
w[IJlH K[I TPJTIRK{ 1ISK /QJqMa.
M) 5ategori5, di&4a&&ionate
`) war+, airy, 9ive9y
. sIIN HP HNIIZa. /P qP ..
M) 5ategori5, di&4a&&ionate
`) 9ive9y
w[MK eMH LK NLzI LJ 1LgIRLM{ o[! K[I [IMK eMH KIRRL`NI.
M) 5ategori5, di&4a&&ionate
`) 9ive9y
. H[MJlK `I HIILJg aPQ! w[aIxIR JPK{
.lV MsRMLq. M) &eriou&
`) intere&ted, 2ri&'
. TMJlK QJqP K[I qPPR. uRa K[I PK[IR zIa.
M) 4re&&ing, weighty
`) &ugge&ting a 5our&e of a5tion
. [PZI .lV JPK qLHKQR`LJg OPVI LJ. /LK qPeJ.
aPQ. M) 4re&&ing, weighty
+**
`) &ugge&ting a 5our&e of a5tion
|QNNP! pRIqc wINN Ls LK LHJlK Va PNq sRLIJq uPVc
M) weighty
`) +i9d9y &ur4ri&ed
|IlH HIJqLJg aPQ M TPZa. |Pe xIRa JLTI Ps [LVc
M) weighty
`) +i9d9y &ur4ri&ed
10. Listen to a feIIow-student say the context sentences beIow. Pronounce each of the foIIowing repIies,
trying to convey the suggested attitudes. Be carefuI with the intonation Iine. Define the Intonation
Pattern of your repIy:
mer2a9 ConteZt \ri99
OMJ aPQ TPVI KPVPRRPe{ yIH.
M) 4h9eg+ati5, re&erved
`) 9ive9y, intere&ted
w[P PJ IMRK[ ePQNq KMzI . ePQNq.
HQT[ M RLHz{ M) 5a9+, re&erved
`) 9ive9y, 5on5erned
yPQ VQHKJlK HZIMz KP [LV. w[a JPK{
M) 4h9eg+ati5, re&erved
`) un49ea&ant9y &ur4i&ed
w[MKlH K[MK aPQ HMa{ w[a qPJlK aPQ NLHKIJ{
M) un&y+4atheti5
`) un49ea&ant9y &ur4ri&ed
.lV MsRMLq .lxI NPHK aPQR ZIJ. w[MK MRI aPQ gPLJg KP qP M`PQK LK{
M) ho&ti9e
`) intere&ted
+ TMJlK VIIK aPQ K[LH uQIHqMa. /[MNN eI NIMxI LK KLNN JISK eIIz{
M) 4h9eg+ati5, re&erved"
`) wi99ing to di&5u&& the Cue&tion, i+4atient
u[QRHqMalH M [PZINIHH qMa sPR VI. OMJlK eI VMzI LK M pRLqMa! K[IJ{
M) 4h9eg+ati5, re&erved
`) wi99ing to di&5u&& the Cue&tion
0LNNlH RIsQHIq Va RIfQIHK. wINN! MHz HPVIPJI INHI.
M) 5a9+, 5o9d
`) war+, with a note of 5riti5a9 &ur4ri&e
. [MxIJlK gPK M HZPPJ. UP MJq gIK PJI! K[IJ.
M) 5a9+, une+otiona9
2B &ugge&ting a 5our&e of a5tion
|IlH MTKQMNNa IJgMgIq. wPQNq aPQ `INLIxI LKc
M) 5a9+, un&ur4ri&ed, re&erved
`) +i9d9y &ur4ri&ed
uPVlH TPVLJg PJ vPJqMa. 1Pe sMJTa K[MK.
M) 5a9+! re&erved
`) affronted &ur4ri&e
11. listen to the Verbal Context and reply expressing critical surprise or suggesting a course of
action to the listener. Use the proper intonation pattern:
mer2a9 ConteZt \ri99
.lNN H[Pe aPQ [Pe KP qP LK. nPJlKc nPc nPJlK aPQ ePRRac uRac
wIlRI VPxLJg PJ uQIHqMa. nPJlK `I HLNNac .KlH QZ KP aPQc nPJlK VMzI HP VQT[ sQHH M`PQK LK.
. TMJlK QJqP K[I qPPRc uINN VI e[MK + TMJ qP! K[IJc nPJlK aPQ ePRRac
.KlH Va KQRJ KP ZMac nPc |MxI M gPc nPJlK `I RLqLTQNPQHc nPJlK `I HLNNac nPJlK aPQ
ePRRac .KlH QZ KP KP aPQc
. TMJlK sLJq Va ZQRHI MJae[IRI. nPJlK aPQ ePRRac nPJlK VMzI HP VQT[ sQHH M`PQK LK.
12. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to hear and reproduce intonation in conversation.
a) Listen to the dialogue "Dinner-table Talk" carefully, sentence by sentence. Write it down. Mark the
stresses and tunes. The teacher will help you to correct your variant. Practise reading each sentence of your
+*,
corrected variant
b) Record your reading. Play the recording back immediately for your teacher and fellow-students to
detect your errors. Practise the dialogue for test reading. Memorize and play it with a fellow-student.
c) Pick out of the dialogue sentences pronounced with Intonation Patterns IX, X, XI. Define the attitudes
conveyed in them. Make up conversational situations with these phrases.
d) Make up conversational situations, using the following phrases:
UPPq IxIJLJg!... . . eMH MHzLJg ... .
.lV HP gNMq .... o[! . K[LJz LKlH M ... .
o[! PJNa.... dJq [Pe qP aPQ NLzI ... {
.... KP `I ISMTK. .H K[LH aPQR sLRHK... {
iIKlH gP LJKP ... . . sIIN fQLKI MK [PVI ....
wLNN aPQ HLK... { wINN! LKlH RMK[IR ....
|Pe NPJg ... { oJ K[I e[PNI! ....
w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz Ps ... { .KlH JPK HP `Mq! PJTI ....
. `Ig aPQR ZMRqPJ! . qLqJlK fQLKI TMKT[ e[MK aPQ HMLq. wLNN aPQ [MxI HPVI VPRI ... {
w[MK M`PQK... {
13. TransIate into EngIish. Use the corresponding phrases from item(d) above. Do not Iet your Russian
pronunciation habits interfere:
+. ! 8 $; $ 6. 2. ' ! $; ; ;6. 4.
! 8 $; 6 E $. 3. t5 ;. -> ;. (6 ;. *. (6 $
8 96 "{ ,. 8 > 6{ 7. h { b. h
D { 2. h { +). 7 7; $. ++.
7 A89 $. +2. 7 A; $. +4. A!
>5! 6 $ { +3. 8D! 8 . +*. D! ; 8
6. +,. D! 5 ;% @"B. +7. '! F 9
$. +b. '! $7! A; 985! ;. +2. '! $7! E 985
. 2). F $ D { 2+. F $ D 9{ 22. F $ E
{ 24. '! E 6 ! { 23. '! 6 ! { 2*. =
> 9! 5 86. 2,. < 9 = 88{ 27. < 9 =
=5{ 2b. ( 9. ' 8 . Y . 22. ! $
. 4). ! E 6. 4+. 8 D6 6 {
14. Head the foIIowing diaIogue:
Ordering a Meal
.H K[LH KM`NI sRII! eMLKIR{
.lV HPRRa! HLR! K[PHI KeP KM`NIH [MxI QHK `IIJ RIHIRxIq `a KINIZ[PJI! `QK K[MK PJI PxIR K[IRIlH sRII.
w[MK M ZLKac wI eMJKIq KP `I JIMR K[I qMJTI sNPPR. /KLNN! LK qPIHJlK VMKKIR! eIlNN KMzI LK... u[I VIJQ!
ZNIMHI.
|IRI aPQ MRI! HLR. wLNN aPQ qLJI a 9a 5arte PR KMzI K[I ta29e d?hotec
wINN! NIKlH HII. w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz! qMRNLJg{
o[! . qPJlK eMJK VQT[ KP IMK. .lV JPK xIRa [QJgRa. . K[LJz .lNN [MxI IR HPVI PSKMLN HPQZ MJq sRLIq
ZNMLTI eLK[ T[LZH.
|V. .lV RMK[IR [QJgRa. .lNN HKMRK eLK[ HPVI hor& d?xuvre"
o dJq KP sPNNPe{
d gRLNNIq HKIMz eLK[ `MzIq ZPKMKPIH MJq ZIMH!
wLNN aPQ [MxI MJaK[LJg KP qRLJz! HLR{
wINN! .lV RMK[IR K[LRHKa. 0RLJg VI [MNs M ZLJK Ps `LKKIR. w[MK M`PQK aPQ! qMRNLJg{
wINN! . qPJlK TMRI sPR `IIR! `QK . eLNN [MxI M gNMHH Ps T[IRRa.
:IRa gPPq... w[MK HeIIK ePQNq aPQ NLzI{
.lNN [MxI sRQLK HMNMq.
/P eLNN .. dJq eIlNN [MxI KeP TPssIIH! ZNIMHI.
0NMTz PR e[LKI{
w[LKI! ZNIMHI. o[! MJq KeP NLfQIQR `RMJqLIH.
w[MK M NPxINa eMNK K[Ia MRI ZNMaLJg. /[MNN eI qMJTI{
yIH! .lq NPxI KP...
wMLKIRc u[I `LNN! ZNIMHI.
:IRa gPPq! HLR.
|IRI aPQ MRI.
+*7
u[MJz aPQ xIRa VQT[! HLR.
15. Make up a diaIogue of your own, using some of the phrases of the diaIogue above.
16. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to read and reteII a story with correct intonation.
a) Listen to the story "Insufficient Local Knowledge" carefully, sentence by sentence. Mark the stresses
and tunes. The teacher will help you to correct your variant. Practise reading your corrected variant.
b) listen carefully to the narration of the story. Observe the peculiarities in intonation-group division, pitch,
stress and tempo. Note the use of temporizers. Reproduce the model narration you have listened to.
17. This exercise is meant to test your abiIity to anaIyze and reproduce materiaI for reading and reteIIing.
a) Read the joke silently to make sure you understand each sentence. Underline the sentence expressing the
essence of the joke. Split up each phrase into intonation groups if necessary. Locate the communicative centre
of each sentence. Mark the stresses ana tunes, concentrate your attention on the attitude expressed. It is not
expected that each student will mark the story in exactly the same way. Discuss your variants in class. The
teacher will help you to choose the best variant. Practise your corrected variant for test reading,
b) Retell the joke in your own words:
u[I sMK[IR Ps M sMVLNa! e[P eMH MJgRa eLK[ [LH T[LNqRIJ `ITMQHI K[Ia eIRI qLHZNIMHIq eLK[ K[ILR sPPq!
ISTNMLVIq MJgRLNa PJI qMa MK qLJJIR: ryPQ T[LNqRIJ MRI LJKPNIRM`NI; aPQ KQRJ QZ aPQR JPHIH Ps IxIRaK[LJg.
w[IJ . eMH M `Pa! . eMH PsKIJ gNMq KP gIK qRa `RIMq IJPQg[ KP IMK.r r\PPR ZMZM!r HMLq PHI! r.lV HP gNMq
aPQ MRI [MxLJg HQT[ M JLTI KLVI JPe NLxLJg eLK[ VMVM MJq QH.r
SECTION FIVE )#mp#"nd *"nes FALL + RISE
dNN K[I KQJIH TPJKMLJLJg VPRI K[MJ PJI JQTNIMR KPJI MRI TMNNIq TPVZPQJq.
u[I pMNN LHI LH M TPV`LJMKLPJ Ps K[I |Lg[ pMNN MJq K[I iPe LHI.
u[I sMNN MJq K[I RLHI MNeMaH PTTQR PJ HIZMRMKI HaNNM`NIH. u[I sMNN HKMRKH sRPV M xIRa [Lg[ NIxIN MJq IJqH
xIRa NPe. dJa HaNNM`NIH PTTQRRLJg `IKeIIJ K[I |Lg[ pMNN MJq K[I iPe LHI MRI HMLq PJ M xIRa NPe ZLKT[.
1PKLPJMN ePRqH MRI HKRIHHIq. u[I sMNNLJg ZMRK VMRzH K[I LqIM e[LT[ K[I HZIMzIR eMJKH KP IVZ[MHLI MJq K[I
RLHLJg ZMRK VMRzH MJ MqqLKLPJ KP K[LH VMLJ LqIM.
u[I TPV`LJMKLPJ Ps K[I |Lg[ pMNN eLK[ K[I iPe LHI LH QHIq LJ HIJKIJTIH ISZRIHHLJg [Lg[Na IVPKLPJMN
RIMTKLPJ KP K[I HLKQMKLPJ. .K LH PsKIJ [IMRq:
+ . . J H K M K I V I J K H ! HPQJqLJg MZPNPgIKLT! MZZRITLMKLxI! gRMKIsQN! RIgRIKsQN! HaVZMK[IKLT!
ZIRHQMHLxINa RIMHHQRLJg! ZNIMqLJg! ZNMLJKLxI.
."g" w[PHI KQRJ LH LK K[IJ{ .KlH VLJI !MTKQMNNa.
|Pe qLq K[LH gIK `RPzIJ{ .lV VPHK KIRRL`Na !HPRRa.
2 . . J f Q I H K L P J H :
M) . J H Z I T L M N fQIHKLPJH! HPQJqLJg ZNMLJKLxI! ZNIMqLJg! eIMRa! qIHZMLRLJg; HPVIKLVIH eMRV!
HaVZMK[IKLT.
."g" /PRRa .lV NMKI. o[ e[a TMJlK aPQ TPVI PJ
/
KLVI sPR PJTI{
` ) . J g I J I R M N fQIHKLPJH! TPJxIaLJg M ZNMLJKLxI! ZNIMqLJg! HPVIKLVIH LVZMKLIJK KPJI.
."g" |I ZNMaIq xIRa `MqNa KPqMa. wLNN [I IxIR `I MJa !`IKKIR qlaPQ K[LJz{
4 . . J L V Z I R M K L x I H ! HPQJqLJg ZNMLJKLxI! ZNIMqLJg! RIZRPMT[sQN.
."g" .KlH MNN HP qIZRIHHLJg. O[IIR !QZ. (.K TMJlK NMHK sPR !IxIR.)
.lxI JPK[LJg KP qP eLK[ LK. 1Pe qP `I !RIMHPJM`NI! O[MRNIH.
3 . . J I S T N M V M K L P J H ! eMRV! HaVZMK[IKLT! IJTPQRMgLJg! HPVIKLVIH ZNMLJKLxI! ZQNIq!
+*b
HQRZRLHIq.
URIIKLJgH MJq NIMxIKMzLJgH HPQJq ZNIMHMJK MJq sRLIJqNa `ILJg ZRPJPQJTIq K[LH eMa.
."g" UPPq JLg[K! \Igga. UPPq JLg[K! vRH. !/VLK[. /II aPQ PJ pRLqMa. Lg[K aPQ !MRIc
EXERCISES
1. Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the
intonation of the replies:
Verbal Context Drill
Statements
(s#"ndin( apologetic, appreciative, grateful, regretful,
sympathetic, persuasively reassuring, pleading, plaintive)
nPJlK aPQ NLzI LK{ . qPJlK! sRMJzNa.
dJa JIeH Ps uLV{ |IlH TPVLJg [PVI HPPJ.
|MxIJlK aPQ sLJLH[Iq LK aIK{ .lxI PJNa QHK `IgQJ LK! MH M VMKKIR Ps sMTK.
.K NPPzH NLzI RMLJ! .lV MsRMLq. \IR[MZH LK ePQNq `I `IKKIR KP HKMa MK [PVI LJ K[MK TMHI.
.lxI [Mq LK HLS aIMRH JPe. yPQlNN `I `QaLJg M JIe PJI HPPJ! . LVMgLJI.
w[aIxIR `RLJg M VMT{ .K eMH RMLJLJg e[IJ . NIsK K[LH VPRJLJg.
. K[PQg[K Ps gPLJg sPR M HKRPNN. .lNN TPVI KPP! Ls . VMa.
.K eMH fQLKI MJ MTTLqIJK 0QK . KPNq aPQ JPK KP KPQT[ LK.
/P LK eMH aPQ e[P `PRRPeIq Va HZMqI. . qP [PZI aPQ qLqJlK VLJq.
|IlH MTTIZKIq aPQR PssIR. . qLqJlK qRIMV [Ilq KMzI VI HIRLPQHNa.
.KlH M ePJqIRsQN Z[PKP. . zJIe aPQlq NLzI LK.
|INZ{ OIRKMLJNa. . eMH HQRI . TPQNq TPQJK PJ aPQ.
0QK e[a qLqJlK aPQ KINN VI{ /P HPRRa.
. K[PQg[K aPQ PQg[K KP zJPe. u[MJz aPQ sPR KINNLJg VI! . qP MZZRITLMKI LK.
. RIMNNa VQHK gP JPe. . qP [PZI aPQ [MxI M TPVsPRKM`NI PQRJIa.
.KlH MNN HP qLHTPQRMgLJg. . zJPe ISMTKNa [Pe aPQ sIIN.
/PRRa . [MxIJlK RIKQRJIq LK aIK. u[MKlH fQLKI MNN RLg[K. .lV LJ JP ZMRKLTQNMR [QRRa sPR LK.
.lxI MNRIMqa `IIJ eMLKLJg M aIMR. u[IJ HQRINa M sIe VPRI qMaH ePJlK VMzI VQT[ qLssIRIJTI.
.KlH MJ M`HPNQKI HTMJqMN. u[IRIlH JP JIIq KP gIK HP ePRzIq QZ M`PQK LK.
. qP eLH[ [Ilq VLJq [LH PeJ `QHLJIHH. 0QK [I eMH PJNa KRaLJg KP `I [INZsQN.
w[MKlH [MZZIJIq KP mMTz{ .KlH MNeMaH K[I HMVI. |IlH [MRqNa IxIR PJ KLVI.
.lV MsRMLq [I sMLNIq [LH ISMV. .lV JPK MK MNN HQRZRLHIq. |I qLq M`HPNQKINa JP ePRz sPR LK.
Specia !"esti#ns
(sounding plaintive, pleading, weary, despairing,
arm,sympathetic)
.K eMH Va KRIMK. |Pe VQT[ eMH LK{
|Pe `Lg qLq aPQ HMa LK eMH{ o[! e[a qPJlK aPQ NLHKIJ! O[MRNIa{
u[RII K[PQHMJq [I ZMLq sPR LK. w[IJ eLNN K[I ZPPR sPPN NIMRJ eLK{
nLq aPQ TMNN! pRMJz{ yIH! e[MKlH K[I KLVI ZNIMHI{
. [MxI KP gP PQK JPe. w[IJ eLNN aPQ `I `MTz! qlaPQ K[LJz{
Genera !"esti#ns
(s#"ndin( plaintive, pleading, sometimes impatient)
\IR[MZH . TPQNq [INZ. nP aPQ K[LJz aPQ QNq{
OPVI MJq [MxI M gMVI! \[LN. wLNN aPQ HKPZ `PK[IRLJg VI{ OMJlK aPQ HII .lV `QHa{
vMa . [MxI MJPK[IR `QJ{ nlaPQ RIMNNa K[LJz aPQ TMJ IMK LK{
$mperati%es
(s#"ndin( plaintive, pleading, reproachful)
.lV MsRMLq .lxI NPHK LK. 1IxIR VLJq.
QLTzNa. wMLK M VLJQKI.
w[MKlH MNN K[I zJPTzLJg lM`PQK{ o[! qPJlK QHK HLK K[IRI. oZIJ K[I qPPR.
w[MKlH QZHIKKLJg aPQ{ nP H[QK K[I qPPR. u[IRIlH HQT[ M qRMQg[K.
. RIMNNa VQHK gP. \NIMHI HKMa M NLKKNI NPJgIR.
.lq eLNNLJgNa sIKT[ HPVI VPRI. \NIMHI qPJlK `PK[IR PJ Va MTTPQJK.
w[MKIxIR H[MNN . qP{ OMRRa PJ MH QHQMN! Ls aPQ TMJ.
w[IJ H[MNN . HKMRK{ /KMRK RLg[K MeMa! Ls K[MKlH TPJxIJLIJK sPR aPQ.
&'camati#ns
+*2
(warm, sympathetic, encouraging, plaintive, pu""led,
surprised)
.lxI LJxLKIq [LV sPR KIM. mPNNa gPPqc UPPq H[Pec
u[MKlH K[I HITPJq KLVI [IlH sMLNIq. \PPR PNq \IKIRc
. K[PQg[K . MHzIq aPQ KP VMzI QZ K[I sLRI. dNN RLg[Kc
dJq eIlNN [MxI M JIe TMRZIK. mQHK M HITPJqc (w[IRIlH K[I VPJIa TPVLJg sRPV{)
|IRI . MV MK NMHK. |QNNP! /KIZ[IJc (.K LH gPPq KP HII aPQ.)
2. listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Start the fall high enough.
3. Listen to the Verbal Context and reply to it in the intervals.
4. In order to fix the intonation pattern in your mind, ear and speech habits, pronounce each reply several
times until it sounds perfectly natural to you.
5. Listen to a fellow-student reading the replies, point out his errors in pronunciation.
6. Use the Fall + Rise in the replies. Say what attitude you mean to render
mer2a9 ConteZt \ri99
|PelH aPQR VPK[IR gIKKLJg PJ{ /[IlH Pss KP K[I ORLVIM LJ M eIIz.
dJq e[IJ qP eI HKMRK{ dK JLJI LJ K[I VPRJLJg! LVMgLJI.
w[PHI ZNMJ LH LK K[IJ{ .KlH pRIqlH! + HQZZPHI.
0QK aPQ HMLq [I NLxIq LJ /K. \IKIRH`QRg. /P [I qLq! K[I NMHK KLVI . [IMRq sRPV [LV.
oQg[KJlK H[I KP KINN sMK[IR{ /[I qLq! MZZMRIJKNa.
yPQlRI gPLJg PQK LJ K[I RMLJ{ yIH. . NLzI eMNzLJg LJ HQT[ eIMK[IR.
w[MKlH K[I sLNV NLzI{ .KlH JPK `Mq! MTKQMNNa.
. ePJqIR e[IRI K[I T[LNqRIJ MRI. o[! K[IRI K[Ia MRI.
. K[PQg[K aPQ sLJLH[Iq aPQR.ePRz MK sLxI. /P . qP! QHQMNNa.
.lV M HKQqIJK Ps K[I }JLxIRHLKa JPe. .lq NPxI KP HKQqa MK K[I }JLxIRHLKa.
o[! e[a MRI aPQ NMKI{ .lV MesQNNa HPRRa. .K eMH JPK Va sMQNK.
(OMJ . `PRRPe aPQR QV`RINNM{) . HIIV KP [MxI NPHK VLJI.
/[I gPK K[I NIMqLJg ZMRK LJ K[I JIe ZNMa. . qLqJlK zJPe H[I eMH HQT[ M gPPq MTKRIHH.
.KlH M ePJqIRsQN ZLTKQRIc . zJIe aPQlq NLzI LK.
. VLHHIq aPQ HP VQT[. yPQ TMJlK LVMgLJI [Pe gNMq .lV KP HII aPQ.
va VPK[IR LH qMJgIRPQHNa LNN! mMJI. yPQ [MxI MNN Va HaVZMK[a. /PRRa! . TMJlK TPVI MJq
[INZ aPQ! qIMR.
. sIIN HP VLHIRM`NI! VPK[IR. w[MKlH K[I VMKKIR! qIMRIHK{
1P! aPQ VQHKJlK gP KP K[I TLJIVM KPqMa. 0QK .lxI PJNa `IIJ K[IRI PJTI K[LH eIIz.
. K[LJz! .lNN JIxIR `I [MZZa MgMLJ. o[! aPQlNN HPPJ gIK PxIR LK.
. KINN aPQ! . ePJlK qP LK. w[a MRI aPQ MNeMaH HP P`HKLJMKI{
yPQ VQHK sPNNPe [IR MqxLTI. vQHK . MNeMaH qP MH H[I HMaH{
.lV gPLJg KP gIK QZ. 1Pe! qPJlK `I HP HLNNa. (yPQlNN TMKT[ MJPK[IR TPNq.)
vQVVa! .lV `PRIq! TPVI MJq ZNMa eLK[ VI. w[IJ MRI aPQ gPLJg KP HKPZ `PK[IRLJg VI{
yPQ VQHK `RLJg K[I `PPz MK PJTI. wPQNq aPQ VLJq eMLKLJg QJKLN IxIJLJg{
. VQHK gP JPe. UPPq JLg[K! mMJIc
o[ qIMR! P[ qIMRc w[MK H[MNN + qP{ nP HKPZ TRaLJgc w[MKlH K[I VMKKIR{
vMa . TPVI MJq HII aPQ PJ vPJqMa{ nP aPQ RIMNNa K[LJz aPQ TMJ TPVI{
(OPVI! vMRgMRIK. .K LH KPP NMKI.) . LJHLHK PJ gPLJg [PVI LVVIqLMKINa.
(|IRI aPQ MRI MK NMHK.) . MV [MZZa KP HII aPQ.
. K[LJz .lNN JIxIR qP LK. o[! qPJlK HMa K[MKc
vPK[IR! .lxI NPHK aPQR gNPxIH. . KPNq aPQ JPK KP KMzI K[IV.
0QK . TMJlK HZIMz GJgNLH[. yIH! aPQ TMJ.
nP aPQ RIMNNa eMJK [LV KP TPVI{ . eLH[ [I ePQNq.
dRI aPQ RIMqa! 0LNN{ 1P! . TMJlK ePRz LK PQK sPR VaHINs.
1P! JP! . H[MNN JIxIR qP LK 1Pe! qP `I RIMHPJM`NI.
nP aPQ eRLKI ZPIKRa{ . qP! PTTMHLPJMNNa.
wPQNq aPQ NLzI KP [IMR PJI Ps Va RITPRqH{ (o[! .lq NPxI KP.) . MqPRI VQHLT.
|Pe MRI aPQ! vRH. 1INHPJ{ :IRa eINN LJqIIq! K[MJz aPQ.
nP aPQl [MxI VLNz LJ aPQR KIM! uPJa{ yIH! ZNIMHI.
|Pe LH aPQR qMQg[KIR! vRH. /VLK[{ /[I LH HKMaLJg eLK[ Va VPK[IR sPR M sIe qMaH.
w[MKlH [IR JMVI{ u[MKlH K[I K[LRq KLVI aPQlxI MHzIq VI K[MK.
/[IlH sMLNIq K[I HITPJq KLVI KPqMa. w[MK M qLHMZZPLJKVIJK sPR [IRc
+,)
7. Say the foIIowing sentences with a) the High FaII + the Low Rise; b) the Descending Head + the Low Rise.
Observe the difference in attitudes:
mer2a9 ConteZt \ri99
. NPxI VMRVMNMqIc nPJlK IMK LK MNN MK PJTI.
. VQHK `I Pss JPe. UPPq`aIc iIK VI HII aPQ MgMLJ KPVPRRPe.
wPQNq aPQ NLzI M TQZ Ps KIM{ yIH! ZNIMHI.
|IRI . MV! vPK[IR. w[IRI [MxI aPQ `IIJ MNN K[LH KLVI{
w[a qPJlK aPQ PLJ PQR gPNs TNQ`{ . K[LJz . H[MNN PJI Ps K[IHI qMaH.
|I [MH `IIJ MeMa sPR KeP [PQRH. nPJlK ePRRa. .KlH JPK KPP NMKI.
(iPPzc GxIRaK[LJg LH e[LKIc) . K[PQg[K LK eMH gPLJg KP HJPe.
(O[IIR QZc) . qP [PZI aPQlNN ZMHH aPQR ISMV.
|I HMLq [I sPRgPK KP RLJg aPQ QZ. wMH K[MK K[I RIMN RIMHPJ{
yPQR HPJ eMH NMKI sPR K[I sLRHK NIHHPJ KPqMa. . eMH MsRMLq [I VLg[K `I NMKI.
(o[! HKPZ `PK[IRLJg VI! T[LNq.) OMJlK aPQ HII .lV KLRIq{
wLNN aPQ ZPHK K[LH NIKKIR sPR VI{ dNN RLg[K.
UPPq VPRJLJg! nMxLq. |QNNP K[IRI.
. K[PQg[K + MHzIq aPQ KP gP KP K[I qIMJlH PssLTI. dNN RLg[K. mQHK M VLJQKI.
8. Give your own repIies to the VerbaI Context of Ex. 1 and 6.
9. Read the foIIowing situations. Convey the attitudes suggested in brackets:
nPJlK TRa. . eLH[ . [MqJlK `IIJ HP RQqI. yPQ [MxI MNN VI HaVZMK[a. (regret, &y+4athyB
o[! KINN VI LK LH JPK KRQIc iLI KP VIc iLI KP VIc uINN VI LK LH JPK KRQIc (49eadingB
o[! e[MK M qIMR NLKKNI ZQZZac (&in5ere a44re5iationB
u[MJz aPQ HP VQT[. (&in5ere gratitudeB
. qPJlK K[LJz LK eLNN NMHK NPJg. (rea&&uringB
. K[LJz .lNN gP KP `Iq. .lV HP KLRIq. (49aintiveB
10. Listen to the diaIogue on the tape ("Dinner-tabIe TaIk"). Pick out sentences containing the High FaiI +
the Low Rise. Say what attitude is conveyed in them. Use these sentences in conversationaI
situations of your own.
11. Listen to the VerbaI Context and express sympathy in the repIies. Use the proper intonation pattern:
mer2a9 ConteZt \ri99
o[ .lV TPNq. \PPR K[LJgc . qP K[LJz! LKlH M ZLKa. .lV HP HPRRac 1IxIR VLJq.
|I HMaH [IlH LNN. w[MK M qLHMZZPLJKVIJKc OMJ aPQ LVMgLJI LKc uPP `Mqc 0Mq NQTzc mQHK
sMJTac u[LJgH qP [MZZIJc
. TMJlK TPVI K[LH IxIJLJg. oQg[KJlK aPQ KP `I MH[MVIq Ps LKc w[MK M qLHMZZPLJKVIJKc |Pe
ISKRMPRqLJMRac
. [MxIJlK HIIJ mIJJa sPR MgIHc uIRRL`NI! LHJlK LKc uPP `Mq sPR ePRqHc UPPq |IMxIJHc |Pe xIRa
ZITQNLMRc w[MK M ZLKac
mMJIK HIIVH KP `I MxPLqLJg VI. .HJlK H[I M sPPNc w[MK M KRMgIqac . HLVZNa TMJlK K[LJzc . qP K[LJz LKlH M
ZLKac
yPQlxI VMqI K[I HMVI VLHKMzI
MgMLJ.
dRIJlK . M sPPNc UPPq |IMxIJHc pMJTa K[MKc . HLVZNa TMJlK K[LJzc w[MK
M H[MVIc
u[I MTzIKlH ePRJ PQK MNRIMqa. w[MK M qLHMZZPLJKVIJKc \PPR VIc w[MK M ZLKac
vLT[MIN [MH QHK qLIq. \IRsITKNa [PRRLqc uPP `Mq sPR ePRqHc w[MK M KRMgIqac wMHJlK LK
M`HPNQKINa KRMgLTc
u[Ia ePJlK [INZ QH. wPQNqJlK LK `I HLVZNa MZZMNNLJg. oQg[KJlK K[Ia KP `I MH[MVIq Ps LKc
0IMHKNa! LHJlK LKc
12. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to hear and reproduce intonation in conversation.
a) Listen to the dialogue "About the 1ob" carefully, sentence by sentence. Write it down. Mark the stresses
and tunes. The teacher will help you to correct your variant. Practise reading each sentence of your corrected
variant after the cassette-recorder.
b) Record your reading. Play the recording back immediately for your teacher and your fellow-students to
detect your errors. Practise the dialogue for test reading.
13. Make up conversationaI situations, using the foIIowing phrases:
|I [MHJlK IxIJ gPK KP ... aIK.
u[MKlH Va LqIM Ps ... .
dRI aPQ HQRI aPQ qPJlK eMJK KP `I ...{
.H LK Va ... eIlRI ZNMJJLJg! PR aPQRH{
1P! .lV HPRRa! ... `QK .... .
+,+
iPPz [IRI.
dNN RLg[K! MNN RLg[K! K[IRI LH JP JIIq KP ... .
. RIMNNa eMJKIq KP `I ... .
. [MxIJlK VMqI QZ Va VLJq aIK.
vMa`I JPK.
wINN! K[MKlH JPK K[I eMa . NPPz MK LK.
yPQ [MxIJlK MJHeIRIq Va fQIHKLPJ aIK.
. qPJlK eMJK KP MK MNN.
14. Make up a diaIogue about your future profession.
15. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to hear intonation and reproduce it in reading and
narration.
a) listen to the joke "Nothing to Complain About", sentence by sentence. Write it down. Mark stresses and
tunes. Practise the joke for test reading.
b) Listen to the narration of the joke. Observe the peculiarities in intonation-group division, pitch, stress
and tempo. Note the use of temporizers. Reproduce the model narration of the joke.
16. This exercise is meant to test your abiIity to anaIyze and reproduce materiaI for reading and reteIIing.
a) Read the jokes silently to make sure you understand each sentence. Underline the sentence expressing
the essence of the joke. Split up each sentence into intonation groups if necessary. Locate the communicative
centre of each sentence. Mark the stresses and tunes, concentrating your attention on the attitude expressed.
It is not expected that each student will mark the story in exactly the same way. Discuss your variants in class.
The teacher will help you to choose the best variant. Practise your corrected variant for test reading.
b) Retell the jokes in your own words:
No Music Lessons
oJTI K[I KIMT[IR MHzIq [LH ZQZLN: r0P``a! [Pe VMJa sLJgIRH [MxI aPQ{r u[I ZQZLN MJHeIRIq MK PJTI: r.
[MxI KIJ sLJgIRH.r
u[I KIMT[IR MHzIq [LV MJPK[IR fQIHKLPJ: rwINN! Ls sPQR eIRI VLHHLJg e[MK ePQNq aPQ [MxI K[IJ{r r1P
VQHLT NIHHPJH!r eMH K[I MJHeIR.
At the Lessen
rwINN! dNIS! [Pe VQT[ LH KeP ZNQH PJI{r MHzIq K[I KIMT[IR! r. qPJlK zJPe! HLR!r MJHeIRIq K[I `Pa. rwINN!
dNISc pMJTa . gLxI aPQ KeP qPgH MJq K[IJ PJI qPg VPRI. vPe VMJa qPgH [MxI aPQ JPe{r rpPQR qPgH!r K[I
`Pa MJHeIRIq KLVLqNa. rw[a! dNIS{r r0ITMQHI . [MxI PJI qPg MNRIMqa! HLR.r

oJI VPRJLJg M `Pa eMH gPLJg `a M iPJqPJ `QH KP HT[PPN. |I [Mq M TPNq MJq eMH HJLssLJg MNN K[I KLVI MJq
HP NPQqNa K[MK K[I ZIPZNI `IgMJ KP NPPz MK [LV MJq H[MzI K[ILR [IMqH. dJ PNq gIJKNIVMJ eMH HLKKLJg JISK KP
K[I `Pa. |I HQssIRIq K[I `PalH HJLssLJg sPR HPVI KLVI `QK MK NMHK NPHK [LH ZMKLIJTI MJq HMLq: r|MxIJlK aPQ gPK
M [MJqzIRT[LIs! Va `Pa{r
ryIH! .lxI gPK M TNIMJ [MJqzIRT[LIs LJ Va ZPTzIK!r HMLq K[I `Pa! r`QK . TMJlK NIK aPQ [MxI LK. vPK[IR HMaH LK
LH JPK ZPNLKI KP MHz MJa`Pqa sPR M [MJqzIRT[LIs. yPQ VQHK QHI aPQR PeJ.r
SECTION SIX Compound Tunes
TWO OR MORE FALLS WITHIN ONE SENSE-GROUP
.J HIJHIgRPQZH eLK[ K[I |Lg[ pMNNLJg PR pMNNLJgLHLJg JQTNIMR KPJI K[IRI VMa `I PJI PR VPRI PK[IR
ePRqH VMRzIq `a M RINMKLxINa [Lg[ sMNNLJg KPJI. u[I sQJTKLPJ Ps HQT[ pMNNH LH KP ZRPxLqI M gRIMKIR qIgRII Ps
ZRPVLJIJTI sPR K[I ePRqH PJ e[LT[ K[Ia PTTQR. dNN PK[IR ePRqH Ps K[I [IMq MRI JPK HKRIHHIq. u[I MKKLKQqI
ISZRIHHIq `a K[I HIJKIJTI LH JPK T[MJgIq `QK K[I QKKIRMJTI HPQJqH IVZ[MKLT. .J K[LH TMHI K[I [IMq LH TMNNIq
/9iding"
OPVZMRI:
+,2
1. Listen carefuIIy to the foIIowing conversationaI situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation
of the repIies:
2er"$l !on%e3% 4r#ll
w[MK eMH K[I ZMRKa NLzI{ u[I sPPq eMH KIRRL`NI! .lV HPRRa KP HMa.
uPVlH [MxLJg KIM. w[MK sPR aPQ! dRK[QR{ .lq ZRIsIR M TQZ Ps TPssII.
.KlH HQT[ M KLRLJg PQRJIa `a KRMLJ. wINN e[a JPK sNa{
w[LT[ PJI TMJ . [MxI{ w[LT[ ePQNq aPQ ZRIsIR{
o[ . zJPe [I TPQNqJlK [INZ LK u[IJ e[a MRI aPQ HP MJgRa eLK[ [LV{
.lV gPLJg KP iPJqPJ KPVPRRPe. |Pe NPJg qlaPQ LJKIJq `ILJg MeMa{
u[I qPPR ePJlK PZIJ. w[a JPK KRa KQRJLJg K[I zIa{
dLN RLg[K. iIKH gP KP K[I ZLTKQRIH. nP aPQ RIMNNa eMJK KP{
u[MKlH JPK xIRa TPJxLJTLJg. wINN! TMJ aPQ K[LJz Ps M `IKKIR MRgQVIJK{
/[IlH PJNa ePRzLJg [MNs KLVI JPe. yIH! `QK JIIq H[I gP KP ePRz MK MNN{
|MxI aPQ [IMRq M`PQK dNIS{ .HJlK LK LJTRIqL`NI{
os TPQRHI [IlNN MgRII. nPJlK `I KPP HQRI.
u[IHI HKIeIq MZZNIH MRIJlK xIRa HeIIK. |MxI HPVI VPRI HQgMR eLK[ K[IV.
w[MK KLVIlH TPJxIJLIJK sPR aPQ{ OPVI e[IJIxIR aPQlRI sRII.
. TMJlK VMJMgI MNN K[MK. wINN! IMK MH VQT[ MH aPQ TMJ! K[IJ.
|I qLqJlK HMa M ePRq. |Pe xIRa QJQHQMNc
|Pe M`PQK M H[Pe KPJLg[K{ .s PJNa aPQ MHzIq VI IMRNLIRc
.KlH Va `LRK[qMa KPqMa. :IRa VMJa [MZZa RIKQRJHc
2. Listen carefully to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Make your voice fall on every stressed
syllable.
3. listen to the Verbal Context and reply in the interval.
4. In order to fix the intonation in your mind, ear and speech habits repeat the replies yourself until they
sound perfectly natural to you.
5. Listen to a fellow-student reading the replies. Tell him (her) what his (her) errors in intonation are.
6. Listen to your teacher reading the Verbal Context below. Reply by using Sliding Head + High Fall in the
drill sentences. Say what attitude you mean to render:
mer2a9 ConteZt \ri99
dJq JPe e[MK HeIIK eLNN aPQ [MxI! vMRa{ .lq ZRIsIR M ZLITI Ps MZZNI
KMRK.
|Pe VMJa HPJH [MH H[I gPK{ . [MxIJlK K[I HNLg[KIHK LqIM.
|I LH JPK TPVLJg. |IlH MJ MZZPLJKVIJK. yPQ PQg[K KP [MxI LJsPRVIq VI `IsPRI.
yPQ zJPe \IKIR xIRa eINN! . ISZITK. 1P! .lxI JIxIR VIK [LV LJ Va NLsI.
|Pe VQT[ LH K[I sMRI{ .lxI JP LqIM.
dJq e[MK qP aPQ K[LJz Ps iPJqPJ! vRH.
u[PVZHPJ{
.lxI JIxIR `IIJ [IRI `IsPRI. . NLzI LK HP VQT[.
1Pe e[MK ePQNq aPQ T[PPHI{ . qPJlK eMJK MJaK[LJg.
w[MK eLNN aPQ qP K[LH MsKIRJPPJ{ . MV ZNMJJLJg KP HII K[I \LTKQRI UMNNIRa.
. [MxI M sRII MsKIRJPPJ KPqMa. wINN e[a JPK gP HLg[KHIILJg{
. HQggIHK eI H[PQNq gP KP K[I TLJIVM. w[LT[ sLNV ePQNq aPQ ZRIsIR KP HII{ |MxI aPQ MJa
+,4
ZMRKLTQNMR sLNV LJ VLJq{
u[MK eMH \IKIR PJ K[I Z[PJI. w[a qLqJlK aPQ MHz [LV M`PQK K[I `PPzH [I [Mq
`PRRPeIq{
. TMJlK sLJq Va ZIJ MJae[IRI. dRI aPQ HQRI aPQ qLqJlK NIMxI LK MK K[I .JHKLKQKI{
w[MK MRI aPQ NPPzLJg sPR! dJJ{ |MxI aPQ HIIJ Va QV`RINNM MJae[IRI{
. [Mq M `Mq sMNN sRPV K[I HKMLRH MJq `RPzI Va MRV. |MxI aPQ MJa ZMLJ JPe{
OPVI MK HLS PJ /QJqMa. nP aPQ RIMNNa eMJK VI KP{
mMTz qPIHJlK eMJK LK. ULxI LK KP VI! K[IJ.
. TMJlK PZIJ K[LH TMJlK HPVIPJI INHI KRa{ ULxI LK KP VI! .lNN qP LK.
. TMJlK TPVI MK HLS. OPVI e[IJIxIR LKlH TPJxIJLIJK sPR aPQ.
w[MK H[MNN . qP eLK[ Va NQggMgI{ iIMxI LK LJ K[I TNPMzRPPV MK K[I HKMKLPJ.
. VMJMgIq KP gIK M KLTzIK. w[MK M ZLITI Ps NQTzc
vMJa [MZZa RIKQRJH Ps K[I qMa. |Pe JLTI Ps aPQ KP RIVIV`IRc
iIK VI qP LK sPR aPQ. u[MJz aPQ xIRa VQT[c
/II aPQ KPVPRRPe. va NPxI KP MNN MK [PVI.
7. The teacher wiII suggest the VerbaI Context of Ex. 1 and 6. The students wiII repIy to it, using SIiding
Head + High FaII. The driII continues untiI every student has participated. Keep the exercise moving
on rapidIy.
II. (LOW PRE-HEAD +) HIGH FALLS + FALL-RISE
8. Listen carefuIIy to the foIIowing conversationaI situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation
of the repIies. Note aII the prominent words of the bead:
mer2a9 ConteZt \ri99
nlaPQ HVPzI{ . qP HPVIKLVIH.
w[MK M JMHKa TPNq qMac .KlH `LKKIRNa TPNq. 0QK LKlH JPK JMHKa.
wPQNq [I NIJq VI [LH ZNMaIR{ |I VLg[K Ls aPQ KMNzIq JLTINa KP [LV.
yPQ `RPzI K[I eLJqPe! qLqJlK aPQ{ yIH! `QK JPK PJ ZQRZPHI.
. qPJlK HQZZPHI LK KRPQ`NIq aPQ VQT[. .K eMHJlK M gRIMK qIMN Ps KRPQ`NI. 0QK LK eMHJlK MNKPgIK[IR IMHa.
OMJlK . KMzI K[LH PJI{ yPQ TMJ Ls aPQ LJHLHK. 0QK K[I PK[IR PJIlH `IKKIR.
yPQ eLNN ZNMa! ePJlK aPQ{ .lq RMK[IR JPK.
OMJ . `PRRPe aPQR ZIJzJLsI{ .KlH JPK xIRa H[MRZ.
wINN e[MK M`PQK K[LH TPNPQR{ .K LHJlK ISMTKNa K[I H[MqI . eMJK
. eMJK K[PHI H[PIH VIJqIq fQLTzNa. . TMJlK gIK K[IV qPJI KPqMa.
iIK VI zJPe KPVPRRPe. . qPQ`K e[IK[IR . TMJ gLxI aPQ MJ MJHeIR `a K[IJ.
yPQ MRI JPK KRaLJg. . VPHK TIRKMLJNa MV.
wI gPK [IRI M`PQK VLqJLg[K. .K eIKH IMRNLIR K[MJ K[MK.
dNMJlH sPRgPKKIJ [LH QV`RINNM. |I MNeMaH NIMxIH HPVIK[LJg `I[LJq.
iIK VI [MxI K[IV `a KPJLg[K. . `Ig aPQR ZMRqPJ! `QK LKlH PQK Ps K[I fQIHKLPJ.
w[IRI [MH [I `IIJ MNN K[LH KLVI{ |IlH HPRRa KP `I HP NMKI! `QK [I eMH qINMaIq MK K[I PssLTI.
yPQR TPJqQTK eMH LJISTQHM`NI. 0IsPRI aPQ QVZ KP TPJTNQHLPJH! aPQ VLg[K MK NIMHK [IMR VI
PQK.
w[MK qLq aPQ K[LJz Ps K[I NITKQRI{ .K eMHJlK ISMTKNa HIJHMKLPJMN! eMH LK{
/[IlH MJ M`HPNQKI sMLNQRI. 1Pe `I sMLR.
wIlNN NIMxI `IsPRI qMeJ. |MxI M [IMRK. |MxI M `LK Ps HIJHI.
. K[LJz LKlH gPLJg KP RMLJ. o[ qPJlK HMa K[MK.
.lNN [MxI K[LH PJI. 1P! K[LH. .lV HPRRa. wINN! VMzI QZ aPQR VLJq. wINN! HMa LK MH Ls aPQ VIMJK LK.
OMJ . TPVI [PVI `a VaHINs! vQVVa{ wINN! `I TMRIsQN e[IJ aPQ TRPHH K[I VMLJ RPMq.
9. Listen carefully to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Make your voice fall on the stressed
syllables. Start the rise from the lowest pitch and do not go up %oo high,
10. Listen to the Verbal Context and reply in the intervals.
11. In order to fix the intonation in your mind, ear and speech habits repeat the replies until they sound
perfectly natural to you.
12. Listen to a fellow-student reading the replies. Tell him (her) what his (her) errors in intonation are.
13. Your teacher will suggest the Verbal Context of Ex. 8. You in turn reply to it, using High Falls. The
drill will continue until every student has participated. Keep the exercise moving on rapidly.
14. Read the sentences taking into consideration the suggestions in brackets. Observe the changes in
+,3
sentence stress:
|PTzIa LH PJI Ps K[I VPHK ZPZQNMR gMVIH LJ eLJKIR. (Not foot2a99"B QNot in &u++er"B
pPPK`MNN LH K[I VPHK ZPZQNMR gMVI LJ GJgNMJq. (Not tenni&"B (Not in India"B
OMRH MRI qRLxIJ PJ K[I NIsK HLqI Ps K[I RPMq LJ iPJqPJ. (Not on the right &ide"B (Not in Jo&5ow"B
.J K[I VLqqNI Ps uRMsMNgMR /fQMRI HKMJqH 1INHPJlH VPJQVIJK. (Not in the +idd9e of @i55adi99y Cir5u&"B
(Not a &tatue of Cro+we99"B
0RIMzsMHK LH gIJIRMNNa M `Lg VIMN LJ GJgNMJq. (Not &u44er"B (Not on the Continent"B
OPNNIgIH Ps GqQTMKLPJ LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJ qPJlK TPJsIR qLZNPVMH PJ K[ILR gRMqQMKIH. (3ut award 5ertifi5ate&"B
(Not te5hni5a9 5o99ege&"B
oQR KIRVLJMN ISMVLJMKLPJH MRI [INq MK K[I IJq Ps IMT[ KIRV. (Not fina9 eZa+&"B (Not every other ter+"B
15. Read the foIIowing sentences expressing the attitudes suggested in brackets. Use them In
conversationaI situations of your own;
(deta5hed, 4h9eg+ati5, re&ervedB
/[MNN . MHz [LV M`PQK LK MgMLJ{
OMJ aPQ KRMJHNMKI M sIe HIJKIJTIH{
wINN! eLNN aPQ TPVI MJq HII [IR KPVPRRPe{
OPQNq eI VIIK PJ wIqJIHqMa! K[IJ{
vMa eI MNN zJPe e[MKlH MVQHLJg aPQ{
nP aPQ K[LJz HP{
wLNN aPQ KINN [IR M`PQK LK sRMJzNa{
(9ive9y, intere&ted, &o+ewhat un49ea&ant9y &ur4ri&edB
wINN e[IJ TMJ aPQ HZMRI K[I KLVI{
w[MKlH K[MK gPK KP qP eLK[ aPQ{
w[MK VMzIH aPQ HP HQRI{
w[a JPK MHz [LV M`PQK LK{
|Pe qLq aPQ VMzI K[MK{
(wondering, +i9d9y 4u::9edB
|Pe PNq LH H[I{ w[PlH [I gPJI KP HII{ |Pe VQT[ qP aPQ VMzI LK{ |Pe PsKIJ VQHK [I KMzI LK{ |Pe NPJg
qP aPQ eMJK KP zIIZ LK{ w[LT[ LH Va TMR{ w[IRI qLq . sLJq K[IV{
(5ontradi5tingB
yPQ qPJlK NLzI LK. yPQ eMJK LK `MTz. |IlH qIsLJLKINa gPLJg. |I ePJlK `I M`NI KP [INZ. yPQlxI gPK IJPQg[
VPJIa.
(di&a44rovingB
w[IJ eLNN K[MK `I{ w[MK qP aPQ eMJK LK sPR{ |Pe PNq qLq aPQ HMa{ w[MK LH K[I TRPeq NPPzLJg MK{ w[IJ
qLq . HII [LV{ |Pe VQT[ qLq . gLxI sPR LK{ |Pe VMJa qLq aPQ HMa{ 0IsPRI e[IJ{
16. The teacher wiII suggest a VerbaI Context You in turn repIy to it in the form of statements and
questions, expressing personaI concern or interest:
w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz Ps K[I [PQHIH LJ vLT[QRLJHzL dxIJQI{
w[MK MRI aPQR gIJIRMN LVZRIHHLPJH Ps vPHTPe{
w[MK INHI eMH LK K[MK aPQ IHZITLMNNa NLzIq LJ vPHTPe{
1Pe e[MK qP aPQ eMJK{
w[a qLqJlK aPQ VIIK VI MK K[I HKMKLPJ{
w[MK eMH [IR HLHKIR NLzI{
|Pe qLq mQqa gIK PJ eLK[ K[I gLRNH{
.lq NPxI gPLJg KP K[I TLJIVM.
yPQ [MxIJlK NIsK aPQR `PPz [IRI.
vMRa HMLq H[I LJKIJqIq KP TPVI `MTz.
|Pe VMJa `PPzH qP aPQ eMJK{
nP NIKlH `Qa K[LH qRIHH! vQVc
u[I NMHK `QH [MH gPJI.
|MxI aPQ [IMRq M`PQK vMRa{
17. Read the story "A Friend in Need" by S. Maugham (see p. 104). The sentences from the text given beIow
are not true to fact. One of the students wiII read a sentence, another win correct him, using
Intonation Patterns VI or VII.
+,*
vR. 0QRKPJlH JMVIHMzI eMH MJ QJZNIMHMJKNPPzLJg VMJ.
|I eMH PNq; [LH sMTI eMH ePRJ MJq eRLJzNIq MJq [I eMH MNeMaH ZPPRNa qRIHHIq.
|I ePRzIq [MRq KP IMRJ [LH NLxLJg.
oJTI [I TMVI KP vR. 0QRKPJlH PssLTI KP [INZ [LV eLK[ [LH ePRz.
|I KPNq vR. 0QRKPJ [I eMH gIKKLJg PJ LJ NLsI.
|I PssIRIq vR. 0QRKPJ M gPPq P`.
vR. 0QRKPJlH JMVIHMzI qLqJlK MTTIZK K[I TRQIN KIRVH [I eMH PssIRIq.
|I eMH M ZPPR HeLVVIR MJq [I TPQNqJlK VMJMgI K[I TQRRIJKH RPQJq K[I `IMTPJ.
vR. 0QRKPJ eMH HQRI K[MK [LH JMVIHMzI ePQNq HQTTIIq LJ TPxIRLJg K[I qLHKMJTI.
vR. 0QRKPJlH JMVIHMzI RIgMRqIq vR. 0QRKPJlH PssIR MH MJ IMHa MJq ePRK[a P`.
u[I aPQJg VMJ TMVI KP K[I TRIIz Ps uMRQVL PJ KLVI.
/P vR. 0QRKPJ ZRPxIq [LVHINs M RIMN sRLIJq.
.KlH RMK[IR M sQJJa HKPRa PJ K[I e[PNI.
18. Make statements to be corrected according to the modeI above. The driII wiII continue untiI every
student has participated. Keep the exercise moving on rapidIy.
19. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to bear the intonation and reproduce it in proper speech
situations.
a) listen to the dialogue "Sports and Games Popular in England", sentence by sentence. Write it down.
Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise the dialogue.
b) Record your reading of the dialogue. Play the recording back immediately for the teacher and your
fellow-students to detect your possible errors in pronunciation. Practise the dialogue for test reading and
memorize it.
c) Pick out of the dialogue sentences containing compound tunes and the logical stress.
d) Make up conversational situations about sport, using the following phrases:
w[MK ePQNq aPQ HMa eIRI o[! aIH! MJa MVPQJK.
K[I VPHK ZPZQNMR...{ yPQ H[PQNq PLJ Ls aPQlRI
wINN! . HQZZPHI.... zIIJ PJ....
w[MK M`PQK...{ . K[LJz . H[MNN Ls . gIK K[I
. H[PQNq HMa K[MK.... T[MJTI....
u[IJ K[IRI MRI! Ps TPQRHI.... 0a K[I eMa....
.lxI `IIJ KPNq K[MK.... wINN! . qP! `QK...
.H K[IRI MJa... KP `I [Mq JIMR...{
20. Make up a diaIogue of your own, using phrases from the diaIogue above.
21. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to hear the intonation and reproduce it in proper speech
situations.
M) NLHKIJ KP K[I mPzI rwIMK[IR pPRITMHKH! HIJKIJTI `a HIJKIJTI. wRLKI LK qPeJ. vMRz K[I HKRIHHIH MJq
KQJIH. \RMTKLHI K[I KISK
`) NLHKIJ TMRIsQNNa KP K[I JMRRMKLPJ Ps K[I PzI. o`HIRxI K[I ZITQNLMRLKLIH LJ LJKPJMKLPJgRPQZ qLxLHLPJ!
ZLKT[! HKRIHH MJq KIVZP. 1PKI K[I QHI Ps KIVZPRLIRH. IZRPqQTI K[I VPqIN JMRRMKLPJ aPQ [MxI NLHKIJIq KP.
22. Read the jokes siIentIy to make sure you understand each sentence. Find the sentence expressing the
essence of each joke. SpIit up each sentence into intonation groups if necessary. Mark the stresses
and tunes. UnderIine the communicative centre and the nucIear word of each intonation group. It is
not expected that each student win intone the text in the same way. The teacher win heIp you to
correct your variant. Practise reading the jokes severaI times:
u[I TQZ eMH [MJqIq PxIR LJKP K[I aPQK[lH [MJqH MJq K[IRI eIJK TRLIH Ps r/ZIIT[c /ZIIT[cr
vIMJe[LNI K[I NMq eMH M`NI KP TPNNITK [LH K[PQg[KH MJq! Ps TPQRHI! KP TMKT[ [LH `RIMK[. u[IJ [I HKIZZIq QZ
PJ M `IJT[. u[IRI TMVI MJ M`RQZK MJq IMgIR [QH[c rUIJKNIVIJ!r [I HMLq! r. [MxI ePJ K[I TQZ `a K[I QHI Ps
Va NIgH. . KRQHK . VMa JIxIR NPHI K[I QHI Ps Va NIgH `a K[I QHI Ps K[LH TQZ.r

yPQlxI `IIJ eMKT[LJg VI sPR K[RII [PQRH. w[a qPJlK aPQ KRa sLH[LJg aPQRHINs{
. MLJlK gPK K[I ZMKLIJTI.

r0P`!r HMLq 0LNN! MH [I TMQg[K QZ eLK[ 0P` PJ K[I eMa `MTz KP TMVZ! rMRI MNN K[I RIHK Ps K[I `PaH PQK Ps
K[I ePPqH aIK{r
ryIH!r HMLq 0P`.
+,,
rdNN HLS Ps K[IV{r
ryIH! MNN HLS Ps K[IV.r
rdJq K[IalRI MNN HMsI{r
ryIH!r HMLq 0P`! rK[IalRI MNN HMsI.r
ru[IJ!r HMLq 0LNN! [LH T[IHK HeINNLJg! r.lxI H[PK M qIIR.r

u[I VMJ PJ K[I `RLqgI MqqRIHHIq K[I sLH[IRVMJ. rdJa NQTz{r [I MHzIq.
rdJa NQTzcr eMH K[I MJHeIR. rw[a! . gPK sPRKa ZLzI PQK Ps [IRI aIHKIRqMa.r
rnP aPQ zJPe e[P . MV{r r1P!r HMLq K[I sLH[IRVMJ.
r.lV K[I T[LIs VMgLHKRMKI [IRI MJq MNN K[LH IHKMKI LH VLJI.r
rdJq qP aPQ zJPe e[P . MV{r MHzIq K[I sLH[IRVMJ fQLTzNa.
r1P.r
r.lV K[I `LggIHK NLMR LJ :LRgLJLM.r
SECTION SEVEN Intonation pattern XII
I. (LOW PRE-HEAD + ) HIGH RISE (+TAIL) II. (LOW PRE-HEAD + ) (HIGH HEAD+) HIGH
RISE ( + TAIL)
83
/KRIHHMJqKPJI VMRzH LJ K[I KISK: |Lg[ LHI l
.s K[IRI LH JP KMLN K[I xPLTI LJ K[I JQTNIQH RLHIH sRPV M VIqLQV KP M [Lg[ ZLKT[.
.s K[IRI MRI QJHKRIHHIq HaNNM`NIH sPNNPeLJg K[I JQTNIQH K[I NMKKIR LH ZRPJPQJTIq PJ M sMLRNa [Lg[ NIxIN ZLKT[
MJq K[I HaNNM`NIH Ps K[I KMLN RLHI gRMqQMNNa. u[I HaNNM`NIH Ps K[I ZRI[IMq RLHI sRPV M NPe ZLKT[ QZ KP K[I HKMRK
Ps K[I |Lg[ LHI.
u[LH LJKPJMKLPJ ZMKKIRJ LH QHIq LJ fQIHKLPJH! IT[PLJg! TMNNLJg sPR RIZIKLKLPJ PR MqqLKLPJMN LJsPRVMKLPJ!
HPVIKLVIH H[MqLJg LJKP qLHMZZRPxMN PR ZQNIVIJK! HPVIKLVIH VIMJK KP zIIZ K[I TPJxIRHMKLPJ gPLJg.
."g" wI H[MNN [MxI KP RIKQRJ. .VlVIqLMKINa{
.KlH KIJ sIIK NPJg. l|Pe NPJg{
w[MKlH K[MK `PeN sPR{ lw[MKlH LK sPR{
.H LK RMLJLJg{ .H LK lRMLJLJg{
OMRIsQN. lOMRIsQN{
\LKa. l\LKa{
EXERCISES
1. Listen carefuIIy to the foIIowing conversationaI situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation
of the repIies:
2er"$l !on%e3% 4r#ll
lue&tion& e5hoing, 5a99ing for re4etition or additiona9
infor+ation, &o+eti+e& &hading into
di&a44rova9 or 4u::9e+ent
. eMJK aPQ K[LH VLJQKI. yIH{
. H[PQNq Z[PJI [LV M`PQK LK. 1Pe{
.KlH HJPeLJg. ! ! vQT[{
w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz Ps Va qRIHH{ 1Ie{
OPQNq . [MxI MJPK[IR TQZ Ps KIM{ /QgMR{
.lxI QHK RIMq K[MK JIe KRMxIN `PPz. .JKIRIHKLJg{
. NLHKIJIq KP IxIRa ePRq [I HMLq. GxIRa ePRq{
GxIRa`Pqa K[LJzH LKlH VMgJLsLTIJK. GxIRa`Pqa{
b4
u[I |Lg[ LHI MJq K[I |Lg[ |IMq K[I |Lg[ LHI `INPJg KP K[I HMVI ZMKKIRJ HLJTI K[Ia [MxI JP qLssIRIJTI LJ MKKLKQqIH.
+,7
|IlH gPLJg PJ [PNLqMa. dNPJI{
.lxI gLxIJ QZ HVPzLJg. pPR gPPq{
w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz Ps K[I TMR{ yPQR PeJ{
.lxI QHK VIK [IR [QH`MJq. yPQ NLzI [LV{
|MxI aPQ HIIJ Va ZIJ MJae[IRI{ yPQlxI NPHK LK{
w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz Ps Va TPMK{ .KlH M JIe PJI{
.lxI QHK [Mq M JIe HQLK VMqI. UPPq sLK{
dNMJlH JPK [IRI! .lV MsRMLq. |IlH gPJI [PVI{
wIlRI gPLJg H[PZZLJg. Lg[K MeMa{
iIKlH gP KP K[I ZLTKQRIH. yPQlxI gPK IJPQg[ VPJIa{
. K[LJz K[LH LH mPMJlH QV`RINNM. w[PHI{
u[MK `Lg PJIlH VLJI. w[LT[ PJI{
. H[MNN JIIq M qPIJ! MK NIMHK. |Pe VMJa{
u[IHI sNPeIRH MRI sPR aPQ. w[P MRI K[Ia sPR{
|I VQHK `I VMqI KP P`Ia. |I VQHK `I e[MK{
|IlNN VIIK QH MK K[RII sLsKIIJ. dK e[MK KLVI{
w[MK LH LK{ w[MK LH LK{
w[MK RIMHPJ qLq [I gLxI sPR [LH `I[MxLPQR{ w[MK RIMHPJ{
nPIH LK VMKKIR{ vMKKIR{
nP aPQ VIMJ LK{ vIMJ LK{
.H K[MK aPQR NLKKNI `Pa{ va NLKKNI `Pa{
wMHJlK LK HKQZLqc wMH LK HKQZLq! . ePJqIR{
w[MK NPxINa T[IRRLIHc wMJK HPVI{
. NLzI 0MR`MRM. nP aPQ{
|Pe qP aPQ NLzI Va HPJg{ nP aPQ MNeMaH HLJg MH sNMK MH K[MK{
wPQNq aPQ NLzI PJI{ wPQNq . NLzI PJI{
wI [Mq M VIIKLJg NMHK JLg[K. /[PQNq . [MxI `IIJ K[IRI{
.H LK RMLJLJg{ .H LK RMLJLJg{
|MxI aPQ MJHeIRIq [LH NIKKIR{ |MxI K MJHeIRIq LK{
|MxI aPQ sLJLH[Iq LK{ |MxI . sLJLH[Iq LK! qLq aPQ HMa{
nLq aPQ IJPa K[I TPJTIRK{ nLq . IJPa LK{
w[MK M qINLg[KsQN VIMNc wLNN aPQ [MxI HPVI VPRI TPssII{
/KPZ LK. /KPZ LK{
uINIZ[PJI VI! K[IJ. uINIZ[PJI aPQ{
jIIZ K[IV sPR VI. jIIZ K[IV sPR aPQ{
0I JLTI KP K[IV. 0I JLTI KP K[IV{
UIK RLq Ps LK. UIK RLq Ps LK{
\NIMHI qPJlK ePRRa. nPJlK ePRRa! qLq aPQ HMa{
uMzI LK [PVI. uMzI LK [PVI{
uINN VI K[I KLVI! ZNIMHI. uINN aPQ K[I KLVI{
vMRxINNPQHc vMRxINNPQH{
wPJqIRsQN JIeHc wPJqIRsQN JIeH{
pMJKMHKLTc pMJKMHKLT{
wINN qPJIc wINN qPJI{
2. listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Make your voice rise from a medium level to a high
pitch.
3. listen to the Verbal Context and reply to it in the intervals.
4. In order to fix High Rise in your mind, ear and speech habits, pronounce each reply several times until it
sounds perfectly natural to you.
5. Listen to a fellow-student reading the replies. Tell him (her) what his (her) errors in pronunciation are.
6. listen to your teacher reading the Verbal Context below. Reply by using one of the drill sentences.
Pronounce it with Intonation Pattern XII. Say what attitude you mean to render:
mer2a9 ConteZt \ri99
.lV KeIJKaKeP KPqMa. IMNNa{
. NLzI K[I eMa [I HZIMzH. yPQ qP{
. `INLIxI [I LH LJ /K. \IKIRH`QRg JPe. .J /K. \IKIRH`QRg{
u[Ia HZIJK K[I e[PNI qMa PJ K[I `IMT[. u[I e[PNI qMa{
+,b
wLNN aPQ ZMHH VI K[I ZIJTLN! ZNIMHI. u[I RIq PJI! aPQ VIMJ{
.KlH gIKKLJg eMRVIR. yPQ K[LJz HP{
w[IRI MRI aPQ gPLJg{ w[IRI{
|Pe VQT[ qP . PeI aPQ{ |Pe VQT[{
w[a TPQNqJlK aPQ eMRJ VI{ w[a TPQNqJlK .{
|Pe qP aPQ NLzI [LH JIe IHHMa{ |LH JIe e[MK{
.lV IS[MQHKIq. yPQlRI e[MK{
w[MK qLq [I ZRPVLHI K[MK qMa{ w[MK qLq [I ZRPVLHI{
|I LH M KMNIJKIq aPQJg VMJ. .H [I{
.lV MsRMLq . TMJlK `INLIxI LK. OMJlK aPQ `INLIxI LK{
wI qPJlK `NMVI [LV sPR MNN K[MK. yPQ qPJlK{
. TMJlK sPRTI [LV KP gP K[IRI. OMJlK aPQ sPRTI [LV{
u[Ia [MxIJlK T[MJgIq MJaK[LJg [IRI. |MxIJlK K[Ia{
. IJPaIq IxIRa VLJQKI Ps LK nLq aPQ{
/ZNIJqLq) /ZNIJqLq{
/[Pe [LV PQKc /[Pe [LV PQK{
ULxI LK QZc ULxI LK QZ{
nLHgQHKLJgc nLHgQHKLJg{
|QRRa QZc |QRRa QZ{
iIMxI LK MH LK LHc iIMxI LK{
7. Respond to the foIIowing sentences. Use Intonation Pattern X casing for a repetition of the information
aIready given.
vPqIN: u[LH HMq HKPRa VMqI K[I NLHKIJIRH TRa.
vMqI K[I lNLHKIJIRH lqP le[MK{
. eMJK aPQ KP RLJg VI QZ MgMLJ.
yPQ eMJK VI KP lqP le[MK{
u[I `PalH `I[MxLPQR VMqI VI K[LJz [I eMH LNN.
|LH HKMRI VMqI VI sIIN LNN MK IMHI.
u[I RMLJ VMqI QH RIKQRJ [PVI.
u[I TPNq VMqI QH ZQK PJ PQR TPMKH.
u[I ZNMa VMqI QH NMQg[ M NPK.
|LH NIKKIR VMqI VI T[MJgI Va ZNMJH.
u[I sPRILgJIR eMJKH VI KP KINN [LV HPVIK[LJg M`PQK Va TPQJKRa.
/[I eMJKH aPQ KP NIMxI [IR MNPJI.
|I eMJKH aPQ KP HKMRK LVVIqLMKINa.
/[I eMJKH [IR HPJ KP IJKIR K[I }JLxIRHLKa.
|I eMJKH QH KP gP K[IRI MK PJTI.
|I eMJKH VI KP KRMJHNMKI K[LH MRKLTNI.
8. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to near and reproduce intonation in different speech
situations.
a) listen to the dialogue "At the Station" carefully, sentence by sentence. Write it down. Mark the stresses
and tunes. Your teacher will help you to correct your variants. Make a careful note of your errors in each
tune and work to avoid them. Practise reading each sentence of your corrected variant after the cassette-
recorder.
b) Record your reading. Play the recording back immediately for the teacher and your fellow-students to
detect your errors. Practise the dialogue for test reading. Memorize it. Play it with a fellow-student.
9. Make up conversationaI situations, using the foIIowing phrases:
uRa MJq sLJq VI ... Ls aPQ TMJ. yPQlRI qQI KP MRRLxI MK... .
|MxI aPQ gPK aPQR ... aIK! HLR{ wINN! .lxI HKLNN gPK M sIe
1PK aIK. VLJQKIH KP HZMRI.
OPVI MNPJg eLK[ VI MJq .lNN.. . vLJq aPQ qPJlK VLHH K[I ....
|IRI LK LH. u[MKlH MNN RLg[K.
nP . [MxI KP ...{ .K ePJlK KMzI VI VPRI K[MJ
|IRI aPQ MRI. sLxI VLJQKIH KP ... .
w[MK KLVI qP eI gIK KP ...{
10. Read the foIIowing diaIogues. Define the communicative type of the sentences and say what attitudes
you mean to convey:
+,2
u[IRI aPQ MRI! K[IJ! . K[PQg[K aPQ VLg[K `I [IRI IMRNLIR. wMH aPQR KRMLJ NMKI{
1P! . qPJlK K[LJz HP; QHK M`PQK PJ KLVI. w[LT[ PJI qLq aPQ K[LJz . eMH TMKT[LJg K[IJ{
wMHJlK LK K[I PJI K[MK gIKH LJ MK sLxI KIJ{
1P! K[MKlH /MKQRqMaH PJNa. nLqJlK aPQ zJPe{
os TPQRHI! [Pe HLNNa Ps VI! MJaeMa! LK qPIHJlK VMKKIR.

GSTQHI VI! eLNN K[LH RPMq KMzI VI KP K[I HKMKLPJ{


yIH! HKRMLg[K PJ. uQRJ KP K[I NIsK e[IJ aPQ gIK KP K[I IJq. yPQlNN HII M JPKLTI K[IRI. yPQ TMJlK gP
eRPJg.
.H LK sMR{
d`PQK K[RII PR sPQR VLJQKIH.
u[MJz aPQ xIRa VQT[.
11. Make up a diaIogue of your own, using some of the phrases from the diaIogues above.
12. Read the foIIowing sentences. The prompts in brackets wiII heIp you to determine the position of the
IogicaI stress. Make up a situation to prove the position of the IogicaI stress:
wI MRI gPLJg HITPJq TNMHH. (Not fir&tB
. eMJK M RIKQRJ KLTzIK KP oSsPRq. (Not &ing9e"B
w[MK KLVI qP aPQ gIK QZ LJ HQVVIR{ (I u&ua99y get u4 at &even"B
w[MK H[MNN . qP eLK[ [LH NQggMgI{ (I 'now what to do with your&B
OMJ . [MxI M KRa{ (No2ody &ee+& anZiou& to do it"B
|I RMJ MNN K[I eMa KP K[I HKMKLPJ. (_e wa& afraid to 2e 9ate"B
. HMe vMRa MK K[I K[IMKRI aIHKIRqMa. (1PR Nohn"B
.lq NLzI KP [MxI HPVI KIM. (Not ;o+"B
. MHzIq K[I ZPRKIR KP HII KP Va NQggMgI. (1PR you"B
13. Listen to the text on the tape ("Commerce and Industry"). Write it down. Mark the stresses and tunes.
Practise the text.
14. Read the foIIowing sentences. Use Intonation Patters VI to singIe out the subject:
Model:
\
Bri
/
tain [ is one of the most important commercial and trading centres in the world.
dQHKRMNLM LH K[I HVMNNIHK TPJKLJIJK LJ K[I ePRNq.
vMJT[IHKIR LH PJI Ps K[I VPHK LVZPRKMJK LJqQHKRLMN TLKLIH LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJ.
oSsPRq LH PJI Ps K[I PNqIHK TIJKRIH Ps IqQTMKLPJ.
wMH[LJgKPJ LH K[I TMZLKMN Ps K[I }JLKIq /KMKIH.
vMRa LH Va `IHK sRLIJq.
u[I ZLMJP LH KP K[I RLg[K Ps K[I eLJqPe.
GJgNMJq LH M [Lg[Na qIxINPZIq LJqQHKRLMN TPQJKRa.
15. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to hear the intonation and reproduce it in proper speech
situations.
a) Listen to the text "Mother's Day" sentence by sentence. Write it down. Mark the stresses and tunes.
Practise the text.
b) listen carefully to the narration of the text Observe the peculiarities in Intonation-group division, pitch,
stress and tempo. Note the use of temporizers. Reproduce the model narration of the text.
16. Read the text "May Day" siIentIy to make sure you understand each sentence. SpIit up each sentence
into intonation groups if necessary. Mark the stresses and tones. UnderIine the communicative
centre and the nucIear word of each intonation group. It is not expected that each student wiII intone
the text in the same way. The teacher wiII heIp you to correct your variant
Practise reading the text several times.
Retell the text in your own words:
May Day
pPR PxIR +)) aIMRH JPe vMa nMa [MH `IIJ RITPgJLIq LJ HPVI TPQJKRLIH Ps K[I ePRNq MH K[I ePRzIRHl
qMa. .K LH K[I qMa PJ e[LT[ ePRzIRH LJ K[IHI TPQJKRLIH VMHKIR K[ILR HKRIJgK[! MJq qIVPJHKRMKI K[ILR
qIKIRVLJMKLPJ KP HKRQggNI KP MT[LIxI K[I qIVMJqH e[LT[ [MZZIJ KP `I ZMRKLTQNMRNa ZRIHHLJg MJq QRgIJK.
iMHK aIMRlH vMa nMa LJ 0RLKMLJ `RPzI JIe gRPQJq LJ KeP eMaH.
.K eMH K[I NMRgIHKIxIR qIVPJHKRMKLPJ KP `I [INq PJ vMa + LKHINs LJ MqqLKLPJ KP K[I KRMqLKLPJMN
qIVPJHKRMKLPJH PJ vMa /QJqMa.
0QK LK eMH VPRI K[MJ M qIVPJHKRMKLPJ. .K MHHQVIq K[I T[MRMTKIR Ps M JMKLPJMN HKRLzI! LJxPNxLJg [QJqRIqH Ps
K[PQHMJqH Ps ePRzIRH e[P qPeJIq KPPNH LJ iPJqPJ MJq M JQV`IR Ps PK[IR VMPR TLKLIH.
.K eMH K[I TQNVLJMKLPJ Ps MJ QJZRITIqIJKIq TMVZMLgJ qLRITKIq MgMLJHK K[I UPxIRJVIJKlH LJKIJKLPJH KP ZQK
K[I TNPTz `MTz M TIJKQRa MJq VPRI PJ KRMqIQJLPJ RLg[KH.
+7)
.K eMH M [Lg[ ZPLJK LJ K[I TPJKLJQPQH HKRQggNI Ps K[I KRMqI QJLPJH sPR K[I QJsIKKIRIq RLg[K KP QHI K[I HKRLzI
eIMZPJ LJ sQRK[IRLJg K[I LJKIRIHKH Ps K[ILR VIV`IRH[LZ.
.K eMH M [LHKPRLT vMa nMa JPK PJNa LJ K[I RPNI LK ZNMaIq LJ MT[LIxLJg K[I LVVIqLMKI qIVMJq Ps RIKMLJLJg
K[I HPxIRILgJKa MJq LJqIZIJqIJTI Ps K[I QJLPJH.
d`PxI MNN! K[I sNISLJg Ps K[ILR VQHTNIH MJq K[I xLTKPRa MT[LIxIq K[I sPNNPeLJg mQNa! gMxI K[I ePRzIRH Ps
0RLKMLJ M JIe HIJHI Ps TPJsLqIJTI MJq M qIIZIR QJqIRHKMJqLJg K[MK PJI [PQR Ps MTKLPJ LH ePRK[ VPRI K[MJ M
K[PQHMJq [PQRH Ps MRgQVIJK MJq ZNIMH sPR QHKLTI.
SECTION EIGHT. HIGH PRE-HEAD
/KRIHHMJqKPJI VMRzH LJ K[I KISK: K[I |Lg[ \RI|IMq .
u[I |Lg[ \RI|IMq JIxIR TPJKMLJH MJa HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NIH. 0IsPRI K[I |Lg[ pMNN LK LH HMLq PJ K[I HMVI
ZLKT[ MH K[I `IgLJJLJg Ps K[I sMNN. 0IsPRI MJa PK[IR JQTNIMR KPJI PR MJa [IMq K[I ZLKT[ Ps K[I |Lg[ \RI|IMq
LH [Lg[IR K[MJ K[I `IgLJJLJg Ps K[I sPNNPeLJg HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NI.
dH TPVZMRIq KP K[I iPe \RI|IMq K[I |Lg[ \RI|IMq LH QHIq KP Mqq xLxMTLKa! NLxINLJIHH PR ISTLKIVIJK KP
K[I MKKLKQqIH ISZRIHHIq LJ K[I HIJKIJTI.
EXERCISES I.
HIGH PRE-HEAD + LOW FALL (+ TAIL)
Model:
-
I
\
do
/
think it's a
I
pity.
1. Listen carefuIIy to the foIIowing conversationaI situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation
of the repIies:
mer2a9 ConteZt \ri99
yPQ ePJlK sPRgIK! eLNN aPQ{ .JqIIq . ePJlK.
.lq NPxI KP [INZ. . zJPe aPQ ePQNq.
. qPJlK `INLIxI aPQ ZPHKIq LK. . qLq ZPHK LK.
mP[JlH K[I eLJJIR. |I eLNN `I HQRZRLHIq.
nlaPQ K[LJz [IlH sPRgPKKIJ{ .lV HQRI [I [MHJlK.
.KlH JP gPPq MK MNN. yPQlRI MNeMaH qLHHMKLHsLIq.
.KlH fQLKI KRQI! aPQ zJPe. wINN aPQ qP MVMI VI.
. KINN aPQ . ePJlK MTTIZK. |Pe TMJ aPQ `I HP P`HKLJMKI{
. [MxIJlK KLVI JPe. w[IJ eLNN aPQ [MxI KLVI! VMa . MHz{
u[MKlH JPK VQT[ gPPq. wINN TMJ aPQ qP MJa `IKKIR{
w[MKlH QZ{ 0I fQLIK sPR M VLJQKI!
/[MNN . PR H[MJlK . MHz K[IV{ o[ qP VMzI QZ aPQR VLJq.
|QNNP! mMTz. UPPq IxIJLJg! vR. nIMJ.
wIlxI gPK KP ePRz PJ /MKQRqMa. o[ JPc
. [MxI KP gP JPe. w[MK M ZLKa aPQ TMJlK HKMa NPJgIR.
2. Listen to the repIies and repeat them in the intervaIs. Make your voice rise high when pronouncing the
initiaI unstressed syIIabIes.
3. Listen to the VerbaI Context and repIy to it in the intervaIs.
4. In order to fix the High Pre-Head in your mind, ear and speech habits pronounce each repIy severaI times
untiI it sounds perfectIy naturaI to you.
5. Listen to a feIIow-student reading the repIies. TeII him (her) what his (her) errors in pronunciation are.
6. Read the driII sentences according to the given modeI. Concentrate your attention on the High Pre-Head:
mer2a9 ConteZt \J
|I VLHHIq vH NIHHPJ aIHKIRqMa. |I MNeMaH VLHHIH [LH NIHHPJH.
+7+
.s aPQ MRI LJ M [QRRa! e[a JPK KMzI M KMSL{ . K[LJz . eLNN.
|I ePJlK TPVI KPqMa. w[IJ LH [I gPLJg KP TPVI{
|I LH JPK LJ. w[IRI LH [I! K[IJ{
. MV NIMxLJg. o[! TMJlK aPQ HKMa M `LK NPJgIR{
/[I LH TRaLJg. o[! [MHJlK H[I ZMHHIq [IR ISMV{
u[I ZLTKQRIlH ePJqIRsQN. iIK VI [MxI M NPPz MK LK.
vPK[IR LH MHNIIZ. nPJlK qLHKQR` [IR! uPV.
iPPz MK [LH TNPK[IH. UPPq |IMxIJHc
UPPq MsKIRJPPJ! vRH. w[LKI. |MNNP! 0IKKa qIMRc
II. HIGH PRE-HEAD + HIGH FALL (+TAIL)
Model:
-
I'd simply
\
love to.
7. Listen carefuIIy to the foIIowing conversationaI situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation
of the repIies:
mer2a9 ConteZt \ri99
nLq [I HMa MJaK[LJg{ 1P! JPK[LJg! aPQlNN `I ZNIMHIq KP [IMR.
wIlRI gPLJg M[IMq eLK[PQK \MQN. u[MKlH P`xLPQHNa K[I `IHK HPNQKLPJ.
|MxI HPVI VPRI ZQqqLJg! dJJ. . TPQNqJlK ZPHHL`Na.
yPQlNN [INZ! ePJlK aPQ! vMS. w[a VI{
. eMH MgMLJHK K[I ZRPZPHMN. w[MK qLq mMTz [MxI KP HMa M`PQK LK{
yPQ TMJ `PRRPe VLJI. nlaPQ VIMJ K[MK{
|I HMaH [IlNN qP `IKKIR LJ sQKQRI. nPIH [I RIMNNa LJKIJq KP ePRz [MRqIR{
/[MNN . MHz [LV KP KIM{ 0a MNN VIMJH MHz [LV.
.lV gPLJg KP ZNMa KIJJLH. iIKlH MNN [MxI M gMVI.
1P NQTz! .lV MsRMLq. uRa PJTI VPRI! K[IJ.
.lV JPK HQRI . eMJK KP gP. /KMa MK [PVI! K[IJ.
|IlH `RPzIJ M NIg. |Pe MesQNc
iPPzLJg sPR VI! uIRRa{ o[! K[IRI aPQ MRI! \IKIR.
8. Listen to the repIies, and repeat them in the intervaIs. Make your voice rise high when pronouncing the
High Pre-Head.
9. Listen to the VerbaI Context and repIy in the intervaIs.
10. In order to fix the High Pre-Head in your mind, ear and speech habits pronounce each repIy severaI
times untiI it sounds perfectIy naturaI to you.
11. Listen to a feIIow-student reading the repIies. TeII him (her) what his (her) errors in pronunciation are.
12. Read the driII sentences according to the given modeI. Concentrate your attention on the High Pre-
Head:
mer2a9 ConteZt \ri99
wMH LK qLssLTQNK{ /QRZRLHLJgNa HP.
. K[PQg[K aPQlxI `IIJ K[IRI. /P . [MxI.
.KlH JPK vMRa e[P Z[PJIq aPQ aIHKIRqMa. wINN e[P! K[IJ{
|IlH NIMxLJg KPJLg[K. |Pe qlaPQ zJPe{
|I HMaH [I LH gPLJg KP NIMxI. nPIH [I RIMNNa LJKIJq KP NIMxI{
u[LH `PPz LHJlK LJKIRIHKLJg. wLNN K[MK PJI `I VPRI LJKIRIHKLJg{
/[MNN . KINN [LV M`PQK LK{ 0a MNN VIMJH KINN [LV.
.lxI sMLNIq. uRa PJTI VPRI! K[IJ.
.lV JPK eINN. UP [PVI! K[IJ.
u[MJz aPQ HP VQT[. 1PK MK MNNc
iPPz MK K[LH ZLTKQRI. |Pe ePJqIRsQNc
|IRI LH M `PPz sPR aPQ. |Pe gPPq Ps aPQc
III. HIGH PRE-HEAD + LOW RISE (+ TAIL)
Model:
-
He
/
won't
13. Listen carefuIIy to the foIIowing conversationaI situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation
of the repIies:
mer2a9 ConteZt \ri99
uLVI KP gP. . zJPe.
.H K[MK RLg[K{ . K[LJz HP.
nLq [I T[ITz K[I RIHQNK{ |I qLq.
|MxI aPQ MJa TLgMRIKKIH NIsK{ d sIe.
+72
. ePQNqJlK qRIMV Ps gPLJg LJ sPR LK. w[a JPK{
yPQ ePJlK TMKT[ VI gPLJg `a MLR. w[a qPJlK aPQ NLzI sNaLJg{
1Pe eRLKI qPeJ aPQR MJHeIR. wLNN ZIJTLN qP{
dJa`Pqa sPR VPRI KIM{ vMa . [MxI MJPK[IR TQZ{
w[MK M VLHIRM`NI qMac O[IIR QZ.
iIK VI TMRRa LK sPR aPQ. iPPz PQK.
wPQNq aPQ NLzI MJ PRMJgI{ yIH! ZNIMHI. 1P! K[MJz aPQc
.lV Pss KP `Iq. UPPq JLg[K! qIMRc
14. Listen to the repIies and repeat them in the intervaIs. Make your voice rise high when pronouncing the
High Pie-Head.
15. Listen to the VerbaI Context and repIy in the intervaIs.
16. In order to fix the High Pre-Head in your mind, ear and speech habits pronounce each repIy severaI
times untiI it sounds perfectIy naturaI to you.
17. Listen to a feIIow-student reading the repIies. TeII him (her) what his (her) errors in pronunciation are.
18. Read the driII sentences according to the given modeI. Concentrate your attention on the High Pie-
Head:
mer2a9 ConteZt \ri99
nP aPQ JIIq MJa VPRI VMgMLJIH{ u[MKlNN qP.
.lV MsRMLq . TMJlK qP LK. dH QHQMN.
|I LH M gPPq eRLKIR. |I LH.
|I [MH NIsK |I [MH e[MK{
.lV gPLJg KP /K. \IKIRHQRg KPVPRRPe. uP e[IRI{
.lV gPLJg KP K[I K[IMKRI KPJLg[K. vMa . gP eLK[ aPQ {
wLNN aPQ `I ZRIHIJK MK K[I ZMRKa{ nP aPQ eMJK VI KP{
w[MK H[MNN . qP JISK{ UP [PVI.
mMTz LH HKLNN PQK. nPJlK ePRRa.
UPPq VPRJLJg! vRH. 0RPeJ! |MNNP! vMRac
/II aPQ ZRIHIJKNa. /P NPJg! PNq T[MZ.
19. Give your own repIies to the VerbaI Context of Ex. 1, 6, 7, 12, 13, 18.
20. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to hear and reproduce intonation in different speech
situations.
a) Listen to the dialogue "Broadcast Programme" carefully, sentence by sentence. Write it down. Mark the
stresses and tunes. The teacher will help you and all the members of the class to correct your variant. Practise
reading every sentence of your corrected variant after the cassette-recorder.
b) Record your reaing. Play the recording back immediately for the teacher and your fellow-students to
detect your errors. Practise the dialogue for test readiag. Memorize the dialogue and play it with a fellow-
student.
c) Make up conversational situations, using the following phrases:
o[! JPK KPP `MqNa.
\IRHPJMNNa! .lV JPK xIRa zIIJ PJ ... .
pPRKQJMKINa sPR VI! LK eMH M ....
w[MK zLJq Ps ... qP aPQ NLzI `IHK! K[IJ{
wLK[ MNN K[I ZRMTKLTI LJ IMRKRMLJLJg .lxI [Mq ....
. eLH[ . [Mq aPQR gLsK sPR ... .
w[IRI K[IRIlH M eLNN K[IRIlH M eMa! aPQ zJPe.
d) Make up a talk with a fellow-student, using phrases from the dialogue above.
21. Read the foIIowing sentences, using intonation patterns you find suitabIe. Use them in conversationaI
situations of your own:
vLJIlH RMK[IR MJ PNqsMH[LPJIq VPqIN TPVZMRIq KP aPQRH.
.KlH VQT[ KPP `Lg KP `I HIIJ LJ MJ [PQR PR HP.
u[IRI qPIHJlK HIIV KP `I MJaK[LJg RMqLTMNNa eRPJg eLK[ aPQ.
wI [MxI LTITRIMV KeLTI M eIIz MJq eI JIxIR [MxI TPRJVIMN VQH[.
. TMJlK eMLK [IRI MNN qMa.
. eLH[ aPQlq KPNq VI IMRNLIR.
.KlH MNN xIRa eINN KP VMzI ZRPVLHIH.
. TMJlK ZPHHL`Na sLJLH[ LK.
OPVI PJ! 1PRM. wI MRI gPLJg KP VLHH K[MK KRMLJ.
\IKIRlH JPK PNq IJPQg[ KP VMzI QZ [LH VLJq M`PQK HQT[ K[LJgH.
+74
dRI aPQ HQRI aPQ qPJlK eMJK KP `I M sMRVIR! P`IRK{
.lq JIxIR [MxI gPJI Ls . [Mq zJPeJ LK eMH gPLJg KP `I HP HLNNa.
nPJlK aPQ HII e[MK M gPPq K[LJg LK eMH K[MK aPQ VIK VI{
. H[MNN HZIMz KP GqeMRq K[I VPVIJK [I TPVIH LJ.
. eMH [PZLJg . VLg[K `I Ps QHI KP aPQ.
. sLJq HPVI Ps K[I KMNzH xIRa LJKIRIHKLJg! KPP.
|I LH gIKKLJg PJ fQLKI eINN! K[MJz aPQ.
vLJq aPQ qPJlK VLHH K[I KRMLJ! \IKIR.
. ZRIsIR RIq Ls aPQlxI gPK LK.
. H[PQNq NLzI KP RIMq LK! e[IJ aPQlxI sLJLH[Iq eLK[ LK.
wI TMJ eMNz K[IRI Ls K[IRIlH KLVI.
yPQlNN `I NMKI Ls aPQ qPJlK [QRRa QZ.
. qPJlK QJqIRHKMJq aPQ e[IJ aPQ HZIMz HP sMHK.
u[MKlH fQLKI RLg[K MH sMR MH . zJPe.
yPQ VQHK `Qa K[I KLTzIKH `IsPRI[MJq Ls aPQ eMJK KP HII K[I ZNMa.
.lNN VIIK aPQ KPVPRRPe Ls JPK[LJg ZRIxIJKH.
wIlNN [IMR rOMRVIJr KPVPRRPe Ls . VMJMgI KP gIK KLTzIKH.
. VQHK ZQK QZ eLK[ LK HLJTI LK TMJlK `I [INZIq.
GxIRa`Pqa `ITMVI HLNIJK e[IJ [I `IgMJ ZNMaLJg K[I ZLMJP.
22. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to introduce teaching materiaI in cIass with correct
intonation.
a) Listen to an extract from the lecture on intonation very carefully. Write it down. Intone it Single out the
communicative centres and observe the intonation means they are made prominent with.
b) Read and act the extract according to the model.
23. This exercise is meant to test your abiIity to introduce some teaching materiaI in cIass with correct
intonation.
Read the extract from the lecture silently. Intone it Single out the communicative centres. Make
them prominent as in the model above. Read and act the extract according to the model:
d: .J PQR sLRHK KMNz eI qIHTRL`Iq e[MK . TMNN lK[I gNLqI qPeJl! M KQJI LJ e[LT[ K[I sLRHK HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NI Ps
K[I HIJKIJTI LH HMLq PJ M sMLRNa [Lg[ JPKI. u[I sPNNPeLJg HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NIH MRI HMLq gRMqQMNNa NPeIR MJq
NPeIR QJKLN aPQ TPVI KP K[I NMHK HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NI. u[LH HaNNM`NI HKMRKH PJ M sMLRNa NPe JPKI MJq K[IJ sMNNH
qPeJ KP K[I NPeIHK JPKI ZPHHL`NI. u[I e[PNI HIJKIJTI gNLqIH gRMqQMNNa qPeJ.
.: u[I e[PNI HIJKIJTI gNLqIH gRMqQMNNa qPeJ. u[I e[PNI HIJKIJTI gNLqIH gRMqQMNNa qPeJ.
d.: yIH! QHK NLzI K[MK. 0QK . eMJK KP ZPLJK PQK KP aPQ K[MK LJ M HIJKIJTI NLzI K[LH e[LT[ [MH sLxI HKRIHHIq
HaNNM`NIH! LKlH JPK xIRa IMHa KP VMzI K[I xPLTI gP gRMqQMNNa NPeIR MK IMT[ HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NI.
.: 1P. .s aPQlRI JPK TMRIsQN aPQ sLJq K[MK aPQR xPLTI [MH sMNNIJ VQT[ KPP NPe LJ K[I VLqqNI Ps K[I
HIJKIJTI! e[IJ aPQ eMJK KP gP HKLNN NPeIR.
d.: GSMTKNa. 0QK K[IRIlH RIVIqa sPR K[MK. iLHKIJ MgMLJ KP K[I HMVI HIJKIJTI HMLq LJ M HNLg[KNa qLssIRIJK
eMa.
.: u[I e[PNI HIJKIJTI gNLqIH gRMqQMNNa qPeJ. u[I e[PNI HIJKIJTI gNLqIH gRMqQMNNa qPeJ.
d.: nLq aPQ JPKLTI K[I qLssIRIJTI{ dsKIR K[I ePRq lHIJKIJTIl! K[I xPLTI gPIH QZ M NLKKNI LJHKIMq Ps qPeJ! MH
LK JPRVMNNa ePQNq LJ M gNLqI qPeJ! HP K[MK K[I ePRq lgNLqIHl LH PJ M HNLg[KNa [Lg[IR JPKI. iLHKIJ MgMLJ.
.: u[I e[PNI HIJKIJTI gNLqIH HIJKIJTI gNLqIH gRMqQMNNa qPeJ.
d: u[IRI. nLq aPQ [IMR K[MK{ .KlH QHK M NLKKNI KRLTz eI [MxI sPR VPqLsaLJg K[I gNLqI qPeJ LJ M NPJgIR HIxIJ
HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NIH. wI HKMRK Pss fQLKI JPRVMNNa PJ M [Lg[ JPKI! MJq K[I HITPJq HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NI lHIJKIJTIl
LH PJ M NPeIR JPKI! QHK MH LK LH LJ K[I PRqLJMRa gNLqI qPeJ; K[IJ K[I NLKKNI RLHI PTTQRH; MJq MsKIR K[MK K[I KQJI
TPJKLJQIH MgMLJ ISMTKNa MH `IsPRI.
.: u[IRIlH PJI ZPLJK . K[LJz eI PQg[K KP VIJKLPJ! MJq K[MK LH K[MK e[IJ K[I xPLTI RLHIH LJ K[I VLqqNI Ps
K[I HIJKIJTI! LK qPIHJlK gP QZ MH [Lg[ MH K[I sLRHK HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NI.
d.: o[ JP! LKlH PJNa fQLKI M HVMNN RLHI! MJq aPQ VQHKJlK VMzI LK KPP `Lg! PR LK eLNN HPQJq eRPJg. iLHKIJ KP LK
QHK PJTI VPRI.
.: u[I e[PNI HIJKIJTI gNLqIH gRMqQMNNa qPeJ.
d.: wIlNN TMNN K[MK KQJI lK[I LJKIRRQZKIq gNLqI qPeJl HLJTI LK LH HLVZNa M HNLg[K xMRLMKLPJ PJ PQR JPRVMN
gNLqI qPeJ; MJq! `a K[I eMa! LK LH QHIq sPR ISMTKNa K[I HMVI zLJqH Ps HIJKIJTIH.
(*ro+ n0 OPQRHI Ps GJgNLH[ .JKPJMKLPJr `a m. n. olOPJJPR)
24. Act as a teacher in cIass, using the materiaI from the Iectures above.
SUPPLEMENT
+73
SECTION ONE
Ex. 4. |INIJlH IaIH eIRI JPK xIRa gPPq. /P H[I QHQMNNa ePRI gNMHHIH. 0QK e[IJ H[I eMH HIxIJKIIJ MJq
`IgMJ KP gP PQK eLK[ M aPQJg VMJ! H[I JIxIR ePRI [IR gNMHHIH e[IJ H[I eMH eLK[ [LV. w[IJ [I TMVI KP K[I
qPPR KP KMzI [IR PQK! H[I KPPz [IR gNMHHIH Pss `QK e[IJ H[I TMVI [PVI MgMLJ H[I ZQK K[IV PJ.
oJI qMa [IR VPK[IR HMLq KP [IR: r|INIJ! e[a qP aPQ JIxIR eIMR aPQR gNMHHIH e[IJ aPQlRI eLK[ mLV{ |I
KMzIH aPQ KP `IMQKLsQN ZNMTIH LJ [LH TMR `QK aPQ qPJlK HII MJaK[LJg.r rwINN! vPK[IR!r HMLq |INIJ! r. NPPz
ZRIKKLIR KP mLV e[IJ .lV JPK eIMRLJg Va gNMHHIH MJq [I NPPzH `IKKIR KP VI! KPP.r
SECTION TWO
Ex. 16. oJI qMa vRH. mP[JIH eIJK H[PZZLJg. w[IJ [IR [QH`MJq TMVI [PVI LJ K[I IxIJLJg! H[I `IgMJ KP
KINN [LV M`PQK M `IMQKLsQN TPKKPJ qRIHH. /[I HMe LK LJ K[I H[PZ K[MK VPRJLJg H[I HMLq MJq... rdJq aPQ eMJK KP
`Qa LK!r HMLq [IR [QH`MJq. r|Pe VQT[ qPIH LK TPHK{r rpLsKIIJ ZPQJqH.r rpLsKIIJ ZPQJqH sPR M TPKKPJ qRIHH{
u[MK i& KPP VQT[.r 0QK IxIRa IxIJLJg e[IJ vR. mP[JIH TMVI `MTz sRPV ePRz [LH eLsI TPJKLJQIq KP HZIMz
PJNa M`PQK K[I qRIHH MJq MK NMHK MsKIR M eIIz [I HMLq: ro[! `Qa K[I qRIHH. |IRI LH K[I VPJIar /[I eMH xIRa
[MZZa. 0QK K[I JISK IxIJLJg e[IJ vR. mP[JIH TMVI [PVI MJq MHzIq: r|MxI aPQ gPK K[LH sMVPQH qRIHH{r H[I
HMLq: r1P.r rw[a JPK{r [I MHzIq. rwINN! LK eMH HKLNN LJ K[I eLJqPe Ps K[I H[PZ MsKIR M eIIz! HP . K[PQg[K
JP`Pqa INHI eMJKIq K[LH qRIHH! HP . qPJlK eMJK LK ILK[IR.r
SECTION/THREE
Ex. 12. /II Z. +)3.
Ex. 14. d ZRIKKa eINNqRIHHIq aPQJg NMqa HKPZZIq M KMSL LJ M `Lg HfQMRI MJq HMLq KP K[I qRLxIR: rnP aPQ
HII K[MK aPQJg VMJ PJ K[I PK[IR HLqI Ps K[I HfQMRI{r ryIH!r HMLq K[I KMSLqRLxIR. u[I aPQJg VMJ eMH
HKMJqLJg PQKHLqI K[I RIHKMQRMJK MJq NPPzLJg LVZMKLIJKNa MK [LH eMKT[ IxIRa sIe HITPJqH. ruMzI VI PxIR
K[IRI!r HMLq K[I aPQJg NMqa. u[IRI eIRI M NPK Ps TMRH MJq `QHIH MJq KRQTzH LJ K[I HfQMRI! HP K[I KMSLqRLxIR
MHzIq: rdRI aPQ MsRMLq KP TRPHH K[I HKRIIK{r ro[! JP!r HMLq K[I aPQJg NMqa! r`QK .lV K[RII fQMRKIRH Ps MJ [PQR
NMKI. . HMLq K[MK .lq VIIK K[MK aPQJg VMJ sPR NQJT[ MK PJI PlTNPTz! MJq LK LH JPe M fQMRKIR KP KeP! `QK Ls .
MRRLxI LJ M KMSL! LK eLNN MK NIMHK HIIV MH Ls . KRLIq JPK KP `I NMKI.r
SECTION FOUR
Ex. 12. Dinner-table Talk
UPPq IxIJLJg. .lV HP gNMq aPQ eIRI M`NI KP TPVI ... . nLJJIRlH RIMqa. iIKlH gP LJKP K[I qLJLJgRPPV.
vRH. u[PVZHPJ! eLNN aPQ HLK [IRI PJ Va NIsK! MJq aPQ! vR. u[PVZHPJ! K[IRI .... |Pe NPJg [MxI aPQ `IIJ LJ
iPJqPJ{
o[! PJNa M sIe qMaH! HLJTI NMHK vPJqMa! KP `I ISMTK! MJq .lV HPRRa KP HMa eI [MxI KP RIKQRJ KPVPRRPe
eIIz.
.H K[LH aPQR sLRHK xLHLK{
.KlH Va eLsIlH sLRHK xLHLK! `QK .lxI `IIJ [IRI HIxIRMN KLVIH `IsPRI. . [MxI KP TPVI PxIR MK NIMHK PJTI M
aIMR PJ `QHLJIHH! MJq . sIIN fQLKI MK [PVI LJ iPJqPJ.
dJq e[MK qP aPQ K[LJz Ps iPJqPJ! vRH. u[PVZHPJ{
GR . `Ig aPQR ZMRqPJ! . qLqJlK fQLKI TMKT[ e[MK aPQ HMLq.
. eMH MHzLJg e[MK aPQ K[PQg[K Ps iPJqPJ.
o[! . K[LJz LKlH M ePJqIRsQN ZNMTI. u[IRI MNeMaH HIIVH KP `I HPVIK[LJg LJKIRIHKLJg KP qP.
dJq [Pe qP aPQ NLzI PQR eIMK[IR{
wINN! LKlH RMK[IR T[MJgIM`NI! LHJlK LK{
yIH! LK LH! `QK PJ K[I e[PNI LKlH JPK HP `Mq! PJTI aPQ gIK QHIq KP LK. wLNN aPQ [MxI HPVI VPRI T[LTzIJ{
1P! K[MJz aPQ.
w[MK M`PQK aPQ! vR. u[PVZHPJ{
yIH! ZNIMHI! QHK M NLKKNI. .KlH qINLTLPQH.
.lV HP gNMq aPQ NLzI LK... MJq JPe e[MK HeIIK eLNN aPQ [MxI! vRH. u[PVZHPJ{ u[IRIlH MZZNI KMRK MJq
TRIMV! PR T[PTPNMKI KRLsNI.
GR KRLsNI sPR VI! ZNIMHI.
dJq aPQ vR. u[PVZHPJ{
uRLsNI sPR VI! KPP! ZNIMHI.
Insufficient Local Knowledge
Ex. 16.
d iPJqPJIR e[P eMH gPLJg KP K[I wIHK Ps GJgNMJq sPR M [PNLqMa! MRRLxIq `a KRMLJ MK M KPeJ! MJq sPQJq
K[MK LK eMH ZPQRLJg. |I TMNNIq M ZPRKIR KP TMRRa [LH `MgH KP M KMSL. oJ K[I eMa PQK Ps K[I H MKLPJ! ZMRKNa KP
VMzI TPJxIRHMKLPJ MJq ZMRKNa KP gIK M NPTMN PZLJLPJ PJ ZRPHZITKH Ps eIMK[IR sPR [LH [PNLqMa! [I MHzIq K[I
ZPRKIR:
r|Pe NPJg [MH LK `IIJ RMLJLJg NLzI K[LH{r
+7*
r. qPJlK zJPe HLR! .lxI PJNa `IIJ [IRI sPR sLsKIIJ aIMRH!r eMH K[I RIZNa.
SECTION FIVE
Ex. 12. About the 1ob
| M R R a : wINN! P`IRK! [MxI aPQ VMqI QZ aPQR VLJq aIK e[MK aPQ eMJK KP qP e[IJ aPQ NIMxI
TPNNIgI{
1 P R M : o[! |MRRa! HQRINa [IlH M `LK aPQJg KP qITLqI PJ [LH TMRIIR{ `I [MHJlK IxIJ gPK KP TPNNIgI aIK.
| M R R a : 1PK MK MNN! 1PRM. .KlH eLHIHK KP qITLqI LJ gPPq KLVI. iPPz MK VI! sPR ISMVZNI. . RIMNNa eMJKIq
KP `I M HMLNPR! `QK JPe . HZIJq Va qMaH HLKKLJg MK M qIHz LJ MJ PssLTI. yIH! LKlH HLNNa KP KRMLJ sPR K[I eRPJg P`.
dJq MsKIR MNN! P`IRK eLNN `I gPLJg KP TPNNIgI HPPJ.
1 P R M : (+u&ingB 1Pe Ls . eIRI M VMJ .lq `I M sMRVIR. uP HII K[I TRPZH gRPeLJg K[MKlH Va LqIM Ps
M gPPq NLsI.
| M R R a : wINN! aPQ [MxIJlK MJHeIRIq Va fQIHKLPJ MK! P`IRK. w[MK ePQNq aPQ NLzI KP qP{
1 P R M : (wi&tfu99yB dRI aPQ HQRI aPQ qPJlK eMJK KP `I M sMRVIR! P`IRK{ oR M VMRzIK gMRqIJIR{
` I R K : 1P .lV HPRRa! vQV! `QK . qPJlK eMJK KP MK MNN. .lq RMK[IR `I M TLxLN IJgLJIIR. . eMJK KP `QLNq
RPMqH MJq `RLqgIH.
| M R R a : 1PK H[LZH{ .HJlK LK `IKKIR KP `I M H[LZ`QLNqLJg IJgLJIIR{
P ` I R K : (5ro&&9yB iPPz [IRI! LH LK Va TMRIIR eIlRI ZNMJJLJg PR aPQRH{
| M R R a (huffedB dNN RLg[K! MNN RLg[K! K[IRIlH JP JIIq KP NPHI aPQR KIVZIR. 0QK aPQlq `IKKIR eLJ K[MK
HT[PNMRH[LZ sLRHK.
Ex. 15. Nothing to Complain About
dJ LJKINNLgIJK HVMNN `Pa eMH HLKKLJg LJ M `QH. d ZMHHIJgIR HLKKLJg JISK KP [LV MHzIq [LV M fQIHKLPJ:
r|Pe PNq MRI aPQ{r
r.lV sPQR!r MJHeIRIq K[I T[LNq.
r. eLH[ . eIRI sPQR!r HMLq K[I ZMHHIJgIR. |I eMH TPJHLqIRM`Na KMzIJ M`MTz! [PeIxIR! e[IJ K[I T[LNq!
KQRJLJg RMK[IR M HQRZRLHIq gMI QZPJ [LV! RIZNLIq:
r0QK aPQ eIRI sPQR PJTI.r
SECTION SIX
Ex. +2. /II Z. 2++.
Ex. 21. Weather Forecasts
ueP VIJ eIRI KRMxINNLJg LJ M xIRa eLNq ZMRK Ps dVIRLTM. u[Ia HMe JP VPqIRJ [PQHIH MJq JP KRMTIH Ps
TLxLNLMKLPJ sPR VMJa qMaH. w[MK K[Ia HMe eIRI PJNa M sIe [QKH VMqI Ps ePPq PR KIJKH e[IRI .JqLMJH NLxIq.
oJI qMa K[Ia VIK MJ PNq .JqLMJ e[P eMH M [QJKIR. |I eMH xIRa TNIxIR MJq zJIe IxIRaK[LJg M`PQK K[I sPRIHK
MJq K[I MJLVMNH NLxLJg LJ LK MJq VMJa PK[IR K[LJgH. |I TPQNq MNHP HZIMz GJgNLH[ fQLKI eINN.
rOMJ aPQ KINN QH e[MK K[I eIMK[IR eLNN `I NLzI qQRLJg K[I JISK sIe qMaH{r PJI Ps K[I KeP KRMxINNIRH MHzIq
[LV.
ro[! aIH!r [I MJHeIRIq. rMLJ LH TPVLJg! MJq eLJq. u[IJ K[IRI eLNN `I HJPe sPR M qMa PR KeP `QK K[IJ K[I
HQJH[LJI eLNN TPVI MgMLJ MJq K[I eIMK[IR eLNN `I sLJI.r
ru[IHI PNq .JqLMJH &ee+ KP zJPe VPRI M`PQK 1MKQRI K[MJ eI eLK[ MNN PQR HTLIJTI!r HMLq K[I VMJ KP [LH
sRLIJq. u[IJ [I KQRJIq KP K[I PNq .JqLMJ.
ruINN VI!r [I MHzIq! r[Pe qP aPQ zJPe MNN K[MK{r
u[I .JqLMJ MJHeIRIq: r. [IMRq LK PxIR K[I RMqLP.r
SECTION SEVEN
Ex. 8. /II Z. 2b2.
Ex. 13. Commerce and Industry
URIMK 0RLKMLJ LH PJI Ps K[I VPHK LVZPRKMJK TPVVIRTLMN MJq KRMqLJg TIJKRIH LJ K[I ePRNq. 0RLKMLJ `QaH
VPRI gPPqH K[MJ H[I HINNH; [IR LVZPRKH ISTIIq [IR ISZPRK. 1PK `ILJg M gRIMK MRgLTQNKQRMN TPQJKRa! GJgNMJq
[MH KP P`KMLJ [IR sPPq HQZZNLIH NMRgINa sRPV M`RPMq. /[I MNHP [MH KP LVZPRK VMJa RMe VMKIRLMNH! HQT[ MH
ePPN sRPV dQHKRMNLM; KLV`IR sRPV /eIqIJ MJq pLJNMJq; TPKKPJ! ZIKRPNIQV MJq KP`MTTP sRPV K[I }JLKIq
/KMKIH. wLJI MJq sRQLK MRI LVZPRKIq sRPV pRMJTI! .KMNa! /ZMLJ! MJq K[I nPVLJLPJH; qMLRa ZRPqQTI sRPV
nIJVMRz MJq |PNNMJq! MJq HP PJ.
oJI Ps K[I VPHK ISKIJHLxI LJqQHKRLIH LJ GJgNMJq LH K[I KISKLNI LJqQHKRa! LVVIJHI fQMJKLKLIH Ps TPKKPJ MJq
ePPNNIJ gPPqH MJq MRKLsLTLMN HLNz MRI ZRPqQTIq MJq ISZPRKIq. GJgNLH[ NIMK[IR gPPqH MRI MNHP LJ gRIMK qIVMJq
LJ PK[IR TPQJKRLIH. URIMK 0RLKMLJ LH JPKIq sPR LKH TPMN VLJIH MJq sPR LRPJ MJq HKIIN gPPqH! MJq LK HQZZNLIH
VMJa TPQJKRLIH eLK[ TIRKMLJ TNMHHIH Ps VMT[LJIRa. dJPK[IR NIMqLJg LJqQHKRa LJ K[LH TPQJKRa LH H[LZ`QLNqLJg.
u[I VPKPR LJqQHKRa LH MNHP xIRa sNPQRLH[LJg.
Ex. 15. Mothering Sunday (Mother's Day)
vPK[IRlH nMa LH KRMqLKLPJMNNa P`HIRxIq PJ K[I sPQRK[ /QJqMa LJ iIJK (K[I O[QRT[ HIMHPJ Ps ZIJLKIJTI
+7,
`IgLJJLJg PJ dH[ wIqJIHqMa! K[I qMa Ps e[LT[ xMRLIH sRPV aIMR KP aIMR). u[LH LH QHQMNNa LJ vMRT[. u[I qMa
QHIq KP `I zJPeJ MH vPK[IRLJg /QJqMa MJq qMKIH sRPV K[I KLVI e[IJ VMJa gLRNH ePRzIq MeMa sRPV [PVI
MH qPVIHKLT HIRxMJKH LJ `Lg [PQHI[PNqH! e[IRI K[ILR [PQRH Ps ePRz eIRI PsKIJ xIRa NPJg. vPK[IRLJg /QJqMa
eMH IHKM`NLH[Iq MH M [PNLqMa sPR K[IHI gLRNH MJq gMxI K[IV MJ PZZPRKQJLKa Ps gPLJg [PVI KP HII K[ILR ZMRIJKH!
IHZITLMNNa K[ILR VPK[IR. u[Ia QHIq KP KMzI ZRIHIJKH eLK[ K[IV! PsKIJ gLxIJ KP K[IV `a K[I NMqa Ps K[I [PQHI.
w[IJ K[I NM`PQR HLKQMKLPJ T[MJgIq MJq IxIRaPJI eMH IJKLKNIq KP RIgQNMR KLVI Pss! K[LH TQHKPV RIVMLJIq!
MNK[PQg[ K[I qMa LH JPe PsKIJ TMNNIq rvPK[IRlH nMar. \IPZNI xLHLK K[ILR VPK[IRH Ls ZPHHL`NI MJq gLxI K[IV
sNPeIRH MJq HVMNN ZRIHIJKH. .s K[Ia TMJJPK gP! K[Ia HIJq M rvPK[IRlH nMa TMRq!r PR K[Ia VMa HIJq PJI LJ MJa
TMHI. u[I sMVLNa KRa KP HII K[MK K[I VPK[IR [MH MH NLKKNI ePRz KP qP MH ZPHHL`NI! HPVIKLVIH K[I [QH`MJq PR
T[LNqRIJ KMzI [IR `RIMzsMHK LJ `Iq MJq K[Ia PsKIJ [INZ eLK[ K[I VIMNH MJq K[I eMH[LJg QZ. .K LH TPJHLqIRIq KP
`I VPK[IRlH qMa Pss.
SECTION EIGHT
Ex. 20. Broadcast Programme
wINN! [PelH aPQR HIK gPLJg{
o[! JPK KPP `MqNa! K[PQg[ .lxI [Mq HPVI qLssLTQNKa NMKINa LJ gIKKLJg gPPq RITIZKLPJ sRPV K[I VPRI
qLHKMJK HKMKLPJH.
yIH! .lxI JPKLTIq fQLKI M NPK Ps LJKIRsIRIJTI PJ Va PeJ HIK KPP. . HQZZPHI LKlH K[I eIMK[IR. os TPQRHI!
VLJIlH RMK[IR MJ PNqsMH[LPJIq VPqIN TPVZMRIq KP aPQRH. 0a K[I eMa! qLq aPQ [IMR rOMRVIJr K[I PK[IR
JLg[K{
yIH! . qLq. \IRHPJMNNa! .lV JPK xIRa zIIJ PJ PZIRM! `QK Va eLsI LH! MJq rOMRVIJr [MZZIJH KP `I PJI Ps
[IR sMxPQRLKIH! HP . qLqJlK NLzI KP HQggIHK HeLKT[LJg KP MJPK[IR HKMKLPJ. pPRKQJMKINa sPR VI! LK eMH M KRMJHNMKIq
xIRHLPJ. .lV JPK gPPq MK NMJgQMgIH! aPQ zJPe.
w[MK zLJq Ps ZRPgRMVVI qP aPQ NLzI `IHK K[IJ{
o[! . NLzI M HKRMLg[K ZNMa... . sLJq HPVI Ps K[I KMNzH xIRa LJKIRIHKLJg KPP! MJq . JIxIR VLHH K[I HZPRKLJg
IxIJKH. . gPK VPHK ISTLKIq PxIR K[I LJKIRJMKLPJMN RQggIR VMKT[ NMHK /MKQRqMa... yPQ NLHKIJ KP K[I GJgNLH[
HKMKLPJH M gPPq qIMN! qPJlK aPQ{
yIH! . NLzI K[ILR ZRPgRMVVIH xIRa VQT[ MJq . QJqIRHKMJq JIMRNa IxIRaK[LJg. wLK[ MNN K[I ZRMTKLTI LJ
IMRKRMLJLJg .lxI [Mq! GJgNLH[ ZRPJQJTLMKLPJ MJq LJKPJMKLPJ [PNq JP KIRRPRH sPR VI JPe! MJq Ls M HZIMzIR QHIH
M ePRq .lV JPK sMVLNLMR eLK[! K[I TPJKISK QHQMNNa gLxIHl K[I TNQI KP K[I VIMJLJg.
yPQlRI NQTza! aPQ zJPe GJgNLH[. . eLH[ . [Mq aPQR gLsK sPR NMJgQMgIH.
wINN! . qPJlK K[LJz . H[PQNq TMNN LK M gLsK. dJaPJI e[PlH ZRIZMRIq KP KMzI M NLKKNI KRPQ`NI TMJ qP K[I
HMVI. w[IRI K[IRIlH M eLNN K[IRIlH M eMa! aPQ zJPec
Ex.22.
d.: |Pe qP aPQ K[LJz eI PQg[K KP HKMRK{
.: va LqIM LH K[LH. /QZZPHI eI QHK HMa M sIe PRqLJMRa HIJKIJTIH. dsKIR K[MK eIlNN gP `MTz MgMLJ MJq
JPKLTI [Pe eIlxI HMLq K[IV! MJq e[MK HPRK Ps KQJIH eIlxI QHIq! MJq K[IJ eIlNN KRa KP VMzI HPVI TNIMR MJq
gIJIRMN RQNI M`PQK K[IV.
d.: yIH! K[MKlH M gPPq LqIM. 1Pe K[I sLRHK K[LJg . HMLq eMH K[LH: |Pe qP aPQ K[LJz eI PQg[K KP HKMRK{ .
ePJqIR Ls K[I NLHKIJIRH TMJ [IMR K[I KQJI{ |Pe qP aPQ K[LJz eI PQg[K KP HKMRK{
.: yPQ HII! NLHKIJIRH! K[MK HIJKIJTI HKMRKH PJ M sMLRNa [Lg[ JPKI MJq LK TPJKLJQIH PJ K[MK HMVI JPKI QJKLN LK
RIMT[IH K[I ePRq lPQg[Kl. mQHK NLHKIJ.
|Pe |Pe qP aPQ K[LJz eI |Pe qP aPQ K[LJz eI PQg[K KP HKMRK{ iLzI K[MK! aPQ HII. u[I ePRq
lPQg[K LH HMLq PJ M HNLg[KNa NPeIR JPKI! MJq K[I HIJKIJTI TPJKLJQIH PJ K[MK NPeIR JPKI QJKLN LK gIKH KP K[I xIRa
NMHK HaNNM`NI.
d.: l|Pe qP aPQ K[LJz eI PQg[K KP HKMRK{l l|Pe qP aPQ K[LJz eI PQg[K KP HKMRK{l
.: dgMLJ! aPQ HII! K[I ePRq lHKMRKl LH PJ M HNLg[KNa NPeIR JPKI MJq JPK PJNa K[MK! LK sMNNH MH aPQ HMa LK: lHKMRK
HKMRKl.
d.: yIH! LK qPIH. .K sMNNH RLg[K qPeJ KP K[I `PKKPV Ps Va xPLTI! NLHKIJ: l|Pe qP aPQ K[LJz eI PQg[K KP
HKMRK{ |Pe qP aPQ K[LJz eI PQg[K KP HKMRK{l
.: /P K[I HIJKIJTI LH RIMNNa LJ K[RII ZMRKH! TPRRIHZPJqLJg KP K[I JQV`IR Ps HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NIH: l[Pel
sPNNPeIq `a sPQR eIMz HaNNM`NIH; K[IJ lPQg[Kl sPNNPeIq `a PJI eIMz HaNNM`NI! MJq NMHKNa lHKMRKl! sPNNPeIq `a
JPK[LJg MK MNN.
d: |Pe qP aPQ K[LJz eI PQg[K KP HKMRK{
.: wI TMJ VMzI M gPPq RQNI PQK Ps K[MK. .J HIJKIJTIH NLzI K[LH! K[I sLRHK HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NI MJq MJa eIMz! PR
QJHKRIHHIq HaNNM`NIH sPNNPeLJg LK! MRI HMLq PJ M sMLRNa [Lg[ JPKI; K[I HITPJq HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NI! MJq MJa VPRI
eIMz HaNNM`NIH MsKIR K[MK! MRI HMLq PJ M HNLg[KNa NPeIR JPKI! MJq K[I HMVI eLK[ K[I K[LRq! MJq K[I sPQRK[! MJq
HP PJ! QJKLN aPQ TPVI KP K[I NMHK HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NI Ps MNN! e[LT[ JPK PJNa `IgLJH PJ M NPeIR JPKI K[MJ K[I
ZRIxLPQH PJI! `QK MNHP sMNNH RLg[K qPeJ QJKLN LK TMJ HTMRTINa `I [IMRq MK MNN. wINN! JPe eI VQHK gP `MTz KP
+77
K[I `IgLJJLJg! MJq HII Ls PQR RQNI ePRzH sPR HPVI Ps PQR PK[IR HIJKIJTIH.
(*ro+ rd OPQRHI Ps GJgNLH[ .JKPJMKLPJ 2y m. n. olOPJJPR)
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
THE INDICATIVE MOOD
REVISION EXERCISES ON TENSE AND VOICE
(To Units One-Three)
1. a) Comment at the use of the Present Indefinite and the Present Continuous:
L. .lV gNMq KP zJPe K[MK aPQ MRI TPVLJg KP GJgNMJq K[LH HQVVIR. 2. yPQR KIIK[ MRI T[MKKIRLJg. w[MKlH K[I
VMKKIR eLK[ aPQ{ 4.+ MV MNeMaH KINNLJg mIRRa K[MK [LH QJTNI VIMJH VPRI KP [LV K[MJ [LH ZMRIJKH. 3. dJJI LH
ePRzLJg [MRq sPR [IR ISMVH JPe! H[I TPQNqJlK KMzI K[IV LJ HZRLJg. *. |PKINH PJ K[I HPQK[ TPMHK MRI
ISZIJHLxI. ,. nP aPQ [IMR MJaK[LJg{ yIH! . [IMR VQHLT. 7. wI VMa xLHLK aPQ MJq HKMa eLK[ aPQ JISK aIMR
Ls LK LH TPJxIJLIJK KP aPQ K[IJ. b.+ `INLIxI [IlNN `I VQT[ HKRPJgIR MsKIR [I HZIJqH [LH [PNLqMaH LJ K[I
VPQJKMLJH.
b) Use the Present Indefinite or the Present Continuous instead of the infinitives in brackets:
1. w[MK aPQ (KP K[LJz) Ps K[LH qRMeLJg{ . (KP K[LJz) LK (KP `I) ISTINNIJK. 2. d [PNLqMa TMVZ QHQMNNa (KP
[MxI) LKH PeJ HeLVVLJgZPPN MJq KIJJLH TPQRKH. 4. /[I (KP ZNMa) MK K[I TPJTIRK KPJLg[K. 3. yPQ (KP NLzI) KP
HZIJq aPQR [PNLqMaH eLK[ [QJqRIqH Ps PK[IR ZIPZNI{ *. w[MK aPQ (KP NLHKIJ) KP{ .K (KP HIIV) KP VI . (KP
[IMR) M HKRMJgI JPLHI PQKHLqI. ,. yPQ (KP RIMq) MJaK[LJg LJ GJgNLH[ JPe{ yIH! . (KP RIMq) M ZNMa `a oHTMR
wLNqI. 7. .lNN PLJ K[IV LJ K[ILR KRLZ eLK[ ZNIMHQRI Ls K[Ia (KP LJxLKI) VI. b.+ (JPK KP HII) e[MK aPQ (KP qRLxI)
MK. 2! yPQ (KP IJPa) K[I KRLZ{ +)! OMJ . HII nPTKPR uRIJT[{ .lV HPRRa aPQ TMJlK; [I (KP [MxI) [LH `RIMzsMHK
NL. . (JPK KP NLzI) K[I gLRN; H[I TPJKLJQMNNa (KP `PK[IR) VI eLK[ HLNNa fQIHKLPJH. +2. \NIMHI eMLK KLNN [I (KP
sLJLH[). +4. 1INN (KP [MxI) M RIHK LJ K[I HPQK[! KPP! . (KP gQIHH). yIH! aPQ (KP gQIHH) RLg[K. +3. yPQ PsKIJ (KP
gIK) NIKKIRH sRPV [IR{ 1PK HP xIRa PsKIJ.
2. TransIate the sentences into EngIish, using hear and am told where possibIe:
Notes:
+. .J HZPzIJ GJgNLH[ I hear LH PsKIJ QHIq LJHKIMq Ps . [MxI [IMRq.
GSMVZNIH: I hear aPQ eMJKIq KP HII VI.
|I LH gPLJg KP eRLKI M JIe ZNMa! I hear.
. [IMR aPQ [MxI `IIJ MHzLJg sPR VI{
2. I am told MJq I was told `PK[ TPRRIHZPJq KP K[I QHHLMJ @$ B! . MV KPNq LH QHIq eLK[
RIsIRIJTI KP K[I ZRIHIJK.
GSMVZNI: I am told H[I LH HIRLPQHNa LNN. ( . [IMR H[I LH HIRLPQHNa LNN.)
+. 8D! D 7 ;. 2. " ! $ $ $%;.
4. 8D! . 3. 8D! 8 6 6. *. 8D!
6 ;.l,. " ! 8 85 . 7. ' > 9
A;! 8D. b. 8D! 9D . 2. 8D! 5 $.
+). <$ ! >7 . ++. 8D! 8 6$ ;
; ". +2. >5 $ >6! 8D.
3. a) Comment on the Present Perfect and the Present Perfect Continuous:
+. .lV HPRRa . TMJlK MTTIZK aPQR LJxLKMKLPJ; eI [MxI MNRIMqa VMqI PQR ZNMJH sPR K[I [PNLqMa. 2. |INNP!
dJJI. |MxIJlK HIIJ aPQ HLJTI K[I IJq Ps K[I KIRV. 4.+ K[LJz K[IRI LH HPVIK[LJg LJ K[I HKPRLIH K[MK [MxI `IIJ
gPLJg MRPQJq. 3. yPQ [MxIJlK aIK HMLq M ePRq M`PQK aPQR [PNLqMa! vLzI. .lxI `IIJ eMLKLJg sPR Va T[MJTI
KP ZQK M ePRq LJ.
b) Use the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Continuous instead of, the infinitives in brackets:
+. r|Pe NPJg aPQ (KP `I) [IRI{r H[I qIVMJqIq MJgRLNa. 2. u[LH ZMLR Ps H[PIH LH QHK e[MK . (KP NPPz sPR) KP
VMKT[ Va JIe sRPTz. 4.+ eMJK aPQ KP RIVIV`IR K[MK . JIxIR (KP MHz) aPQ sPR MJaK[LJg `IsPRI. 3. w[MKlH K[MK
JPLHI{ vMRa (KP `RIMz) M KIMTQZ. *.+ (KP K[LJz) M`PQK LK K[I NMHK K[RII qMaH! LKlH HQT[ M `PK[IR KP VI. /P LK
RIMNNa LH M RINLIs KP KMNz LK PxIR eLK[ aPQ. ,. iLHKIJ KP VI! MNN Ps aPQc . (KP TPVI) eLK[ K[I VPHK KRIVIJqPQH
JIeH. 7.+ HII aPQ (JPK KP qP) VQT[. w[MK aPQ (KP qP MNN K[I VPRJLJg{ b. .KlH [MRq KP `INLIxI K[MK LK (KP `I)
PJNa KeP aIMRH MJq M [MNs HLJTI . VIK [LV. 2. wI (JPK KP HII) GqeMRq sPR M NPJg KLVI. |I (KP T[MJgI) xIRa
VQT[{ 1P! [I LH QHK K[I HMVI. +). os TPQRHI! eI KRQHK [IR. dsKIR MNN! vMRgMRIK MJq . (KP zJPe) iQTa MNN
PQR NLxIH. ++.+ (JPK KP eIMR) K[LH qRIHH sPR KeP aIMRH. +2. va eMKT[ (KP gP) sPR K[RII qMaH MJq LK (JPK KP HKPZ)
aIK +4. mMTz (KP gP) KP 0QNgMRLM sPR M [PNLqMa! . [IMR. . VaHINs JIxIR (KP `I) K[IRI.
c) TransIate these sentences into Russian:
+. .lxI `IIJ eMJKLJg M ePRq eLK[ aPQ! iIeLH. 2. /[I [MHJlK `PQg[K MJa JIe TNPK[IH HLJTI K[I `IgLJJLJg Ps
K[I aIMR. 4. |I [MH eRLKKIJ VI PJNa PJTI HLJTI [I eIJK MeMa; .lxI HIJK [LV sPQR NIKKIRH. 3. .lV gPLJg KP
HQggIHK HPVIK[LJg KP aPQ. .lxI `IIJ KMNzLJg LK PxIR eLK[ aPQR VPK[IR. *. 0IRaN [MH `IIJ KINNLJg VI K[I VPHK
+7b
MVMLJg K[LJgH. /QRINa! H[I VQHK `I ISMggIRMKLJg. ,. .lxI MHzIq [LV KP NQJT[ PJ /QJqMa. 7. u[MKlH e[MK .lxI
`IIJ KRaLJg KP RIVIV`IR HLJTI . VIK [LV. b. r.K TMJlK `I KRQI. .KlH M qRIMV .lxI `IIJ [MxLJg!r H[I K[PQg[K. 2.
yPQ zJPe! .lxI VLHHIq aPQ xIRa VQT[ K[IHI NMHK sIe eIIzH. +). .lV MsRMLq . qPJlK QJqIRHKMJq aPQ! UIRMNq. .
[MxIJlK T[MJgIq Va VLJq. |MxI aPQ T[MJgIq aPQRH{
4. Use the Past Indefinite or the Present Perfect instead of the infinitives in brackets:
N o t e : Remember that the Present Perfect is always associated with the present, and the Past
Indefinite refers the action to some past moment.
+. .K LH [MNs ZMHK ILg[K MJq aPQ (JPK KP qP) aPQR VPRJLJg ISIRTLHIH aIK. 2.+ (KP gIK QZ) eLK[ M [IMqMT[I
KPqMa MJq (KP qITLqI) KP eMNz KP Va PssLTI LJHKIMq Ps KMzLJg M `QH. 1Pe . MV sIINLJg VQT[ `IKKIR. 4. yPQ (KP
VIIK) MJa LJKIRIHKLJg ZIPZNI MK K[I [PNLqMa TMVZ{ 3. /[I (JPK KP [MxI) M [PNLqMa sPR KeP aIMRH. *. yPQ (KP
IJPa) vMRalH HLJgLJg{ ,. w[IRI aPQ (KP `Qa) K[IHI NPxINa gNPxIH{ 7. w[IRI H[I (KP gP){ vMa`I H[I LH LJ
K[I NM`{ 1P! . QHK (KP `I) K[IRI. .KlH NPTzIq. b. w[a aPQ (KP H[QK) aPQR `PPz{ \NIMHI PZIJ LK MgMLJ PJ ZMgI
KIJ. 2.+ MV HPRRa. w[MK aPQ (KP HMa)! vR. |MRKNIa{ +). |LH sMTI HIIVH sMVLNLMR KP VI. w[IJ MJq e[IRI . (KP
HII) [LV{ ++.+ [IMR aPQ QHK (KP gIK) VMRRLIq. w[IJ K[I TIRIVPJa (KP KMzI ZNMTI){ +2. oNq UIPRgI (JPK KP
`I) [IRI sPR aIMRHc +4. yPQ (KP RIMq) ru[I vMJ Ps \RPZIRKar{ . (KP `IgLJ) K[I `PPz NMHK eIIz MJq QHK (KP
sLJLH[) LK. +3. d sIe VPJK[H MgP K[Ia (KP ZQNN) qPeJ HPVI PNq [PQHIH LJ PQR HKRIIK MJq (KP `IgLJ) KP `QLNq M
JIe `NPTz Ps sNMKH. +*. nP aPQ RIVIV`IR Va JMVI! PR aPQ (KP sPRgIK) LK{ +,. w[IJ . (KP TMNN) PJ [LV . (KP
sLJq) K[MK [I (KP `I) PQK. +7. |LH sLRHK fQIHKLPJ KP K[I gLRN (KP `I): rw[IRI aPQ (KP HII) K[I VMJ{r +b. w[MK (KP
`I) [IR MJHeIR KP aPQR fQIHKLPJ{ +2. w[IRI aPQ (KP ZQK) Va QV`RINNM{ . JIIq LK. 2). |I (KP HLK) K[IRI fQLIKNa
sPR M e[LNI MJq K[IJ (KP NIMxI) QJJPKLTIq.
5. a) Comment on the Past Indefinite, the Past Continuous, the Past Perfect and the Past Perfect
Continuous:
+. |I eMH KLRIq [I eMH HP xIRa KLRIq. .K HIIVIq KP [LV K[MK [I [Mq `IIJ KLRIq sPR M xIRa NPJg KLVI. 2.
URMJK eIJK KP K[I qRMeLJgRPPV! e[IRI dNLHPJ eMH HLKKLJg eLK[ M `PPz. 4. /[I NLHKIJIq! `QK TPQNq JPK sPNNPe
e[MK eMH `ILJg HMLq. 3. w[IJ LK eMH KLVI KP gP . MHzIq Ls . TPQNq HII K[I RPPVH . [Mq NLxIq LJ sPR sLxI aIMRH.
*. 1P`Pqa zJIe [I eMH gPLJg KP iPJqPJ PJ /QJqMa. ,. dNN K[I HKPRLIH LJ K[LH `PPz eIRI eRLKKIJ `IsPRI K[I
sLRHK wPRNq wMR.
b) Use the required past tense instead of the infinitives in brackets:
+. .K (KP `I) K[I ZPPRIHK RPPV |LNMRa IxIR (KP HII). 2. 1P HPPJIR H[I (KP MRRLxI) MK K[I HKMKLPJ K[MJ M sMHK
iPJqPJ KRMLJ (KP TPVI LJ). 4. .K (KP `I qITLqIq) KP HMa JPK[LJg KP /LqJIa QJKLN K[I MJHeIR (KP `I RITILxIq). 3.
dRK[QR (KP gP) QZ KP [LH RPPV. 1PK[LJg LJ LK (KP `I T[MJgIq) HLJTI [LH MRRIHK. *. 1P ePJqIR [I (KP `I) xIRa
KLRIq. |I (KP ePRz) KPP [MRq sPR K[I NMHK K[RII VPJK[H! ,. . (KP KRIV`NI) KLzI M NIMs. 7. vR. nIJJMJK!
MTTQHKPVIq KP NMQg[ MK PK[IR ZIPZNI! (KP HQHZITK) K[MK [I (KP `I NMQg[Iq) MK. b. /[I (KP HMa) LK LJ M xPLTI [I
JIxIR (KP [IMR) `IsPRI. 2.+ (KP NPPz) LJKP K[I zLKT[IJ. vMRadJJ (KP ZQK) K[I HQZZIR PJ M KRMa KP KMzI LK LJKP
K[I qLJLJgRPPV. +).+ (KP `I) sLsKIIJ MJq QHK (KP TPVI) `MTz sRPV HT[PPN sPR K[I HQVVIR [PNLqMa. ++. .K (KP
RMLJ) [IMxLNa HLJTI K[I VPRJLJg MJq H[I (JPK KP MNNPe) K[I T[LNqRIJ KP gP PQK. +2. /PPJ . (KP gIK) M NIKKIR sRPV
[IR KP K[I IssITK K[MK H[I (KP RIKQRJ) sRPV K[I /PQK[ Ps pRMJTI; H[I (KP eMJK) VI KP VIIK [IR. +4. uRMsMNgMR
/fQMRI (KP `I NMLq) M`PQK M [QJqRIq aIMRH MgP. +3.+ (KP sLJLH[) Va ePRz sPR K[I qMa MJq (KP RIHK) fQLIKNa LJ
Va MRVT[MLR! sNQJzLJg Ps K[I qMaH K[MK (KP gP) `a. +*. UIPRgI! e[P (KP NMQg[) NPQqNa! HQqqIJNa (KP `RIMz
Pss). +,. w[IJ 0MV`aH VPK[IR (KP HKMJq) QZ [IR [IMq (KP `I [LqqIJ) MVPJg K[I `RMJT[IH. +7. /[I (KP RIMq)
K[I `PPz IxIR HLJTI H[I (KP TPVI) sRPV HT[PPN MJq TPQNqJlK KIMR [IRHINs MeMa sRPV LK. +b. /[I (KP zJPe) mLV
sPR VPRI K[MJ KIJ aIMRH! IxIR HLJTI [IR [QH`MJq! e[P (KP KIMT[) MK K[MK KLVI LJ M URMVVMR HT[PPN LJ iPJqPJ!
sLRHK [Mq VMqI [LH MTfQMLJKMJTI K[RPQg[ K[I iM`PQR \MRKa. +2. |I (KP HMa) [I (KP eMLK) sPR VPRI K[MJ MJ
[PQR. 2). . (KP `I) HQRI K[Ia (KP KMNz) M`PQK VI! `ITMQHI K[Ia (KP `RIMz Pss) MH HPPJ MH . (KP IJKIR). 2+. |I (KP
HMa) [I (KP gIK) KeP NIKKIRH sRPV dNLTI. 22. u[I RMLJ K[MK (KP sMNN) HLJTI K[I VPRJLJg (KP TIMHI) `a K[I
MsKIRJPPJ! `QK M HKRPJg eLJq HKLNN (KP `NPe) MJq K[I Hza (KP `I TPxIRIq) eLK[ qMRz TNPQqH.
6. TransIate the sentences into EngIish, paying attention to the use of tenses:
+. 8D! 6; . 2. AD5! Y$! 9
;6 5. 4. "8 >! ! D. 3. ' 8 > !
; $. *. X 6! $ E$ $. ,. -
;. Y8 { 7. X! 7 $ 5 8! 5D 8$. b. '
> 8D $; 8$6 . 2. ; ; 7!
8;. +). ' > ;! 7 ! D . ++. 6 $
86! $8 >$ $. +2. _$ 8 8 { < % 6 D$. +4.
8 D >! 85 { . ; 8 ; D{ < 6$$
%. ' ; 6 $. +3. ( $ $ %! $ 6
8D $8. +*. ' ; 8. +,. - 5 85 . ' $
5 ;{
7. a) Comment on the use of the future tenses (the Future Indefinite, the Future Continuous and the Future
+72
Perfect):
+. nPJlK TPVI HP IMRNa. mLV eLNN HKLNN `I HNIIZLJg! .lV HQRI. 2. 0a K[I +HK Ps mMJQMRa [I eLNN [MxI ePRzIq
MK K[I NM`PRMKPRa sPR HLS aIMRH. 4. nPJlK KINN aPQR MQJK M`PQK LK. /[I eLNN `I KINNLJg LK KP PK[IR MQJKH. 3. .lNN KRa
KP gIK K[IRI MH HPPJ MH . TMJ. *. dJPK[IR KIJ aIMRH MJq aPQlNN [MxI sPRgPKKIJ MNN M`PQK LK. ,. r. VQHK `I Pss!r [I
HMLq. r.NN `I `MTz sPR NQJT[.r
b) Use the required future or present tense instead of tee infinitives in brackets where necessary:
+. |Pe aPQlxI gRPeJc UPPq gRMTLPQH VI! aPQ (KP gIK) M VPQHKMT[I HPPJc 2.+ [PZI aPQ (JPK KP sPRgIK) MNN
K[LH `a KPVPRRPec 4. 0a JISK /QJqMa aPQ (KP HKMa) eLK[ QH sPR sLxI eIIzH. 3. .s eI (JPK KP gIK) K[IRI `IsPRI
HIxIJ! K[Ia (KP qP) IxIRaK[LJg. *.+ ZRP`M`Na (KP eMJK) KP HII K[I `PPz `IsPRI [I (KP sLJLH[) LK. ,. yPQ VQHK
JPK IMK MJa HPNLq sPPq QJKLN aPQR KIVZIRMKQRI (KP gP qPeJ). 7.+ zJPe aPQ (KP e[LHZIR) e[IJ \Ig (KP gP).
yPQ MNeMaH qP. b. w[IJ eI (KP gIK) `MTz K[Ia (KP [MxI) HQZZIR. 2. iPPzc u[I NIMxIH MRI aINNPe! K[Ia (KP
sMNN) HPPJ. +). w[LNI . (KP NLxI)! . MNeMaH (KP RIVIV`IR) [LH sMTI. ++.+ qPJlK K[LJz [I (KP eLRI) `IsPRI [I (KP
MRRLxI). +2. 1P`Pqa zJPeH e[IJ LK MNN (KP `I HIKKNIq). +4. .lV JPK HQRI Ls [I (KP `I) gNMq KP HII VI. +3. /[I
(KP qP) [IR [PVIePRz MsKIR HQZZIR. +*.+ HQZZPHI aPQ (KP ePRz) xIRa [MRq LJ K[I MQKQVJ.
8. Use the reguired tense instead of the infinitives in brackets:
r/[MNN . TMNN MgMLJ KPVPRRPe{r (KP MHz) K[I qPTKPR! `IsPRI KMzLJg NIMxI Ps K[I PNq VMJ.
ro[! JP! eI (KP HIJq) sPR aPQ Ls H[I (JPK KP `I) HP eINN!r [I (KP RIZNa). r/[I (KP [MxI) [MRqNa MJa
KIVZIRMKQRI KPqMa; [IR TPQg[ LH IMHLIR; MJq K[I ZMLJ fQLKI (KP qLHMZZIMR). . TMJlK K[LJz! K[PQg[! [Pe H[I (KP
TMKT[) K[LH gIRV. /[I [MRqNa (KP `I) PQK Ps K[I [PQHI sPR K[I NMHK K[RII eIIzH! PeLJg KP K[I LJKIJHIJIHH Ps
K[I TPNq! MJq JP`Pqa INHI (KP [MxI) LJsNQIJM! PR IxIJ M TPNq.r
r/[I (KP `I) TIRKMLJNa xIRa HQ`ITK KP LJsITKLPJ. /[I IxIR (KP KRa) M TPQRHI Ps LJITKLPJH KP HKRIJgK[IJ [IR
HaHKIV MgMLJHK K[IHI gIRVH{ u[RII LJITKLPJH MK LJKIRxMNH Ps M eIIz! MK K[I `IgLJJLJg Ps K[I eLJKIR! eLNN
PsKIJ ePRz VMRxINH.r
r.K (KP `I) qLssLTQNK KP ZIRHQMqI [IR KP KMzI TMRI Ps [IRHINs! qPTKPR!r (KP HLg[) K[I sMK[IR! r`QK e[IJ H[I (KP
`I) `IKKIR . TIRKMLJNa (KP HQggIHK) LK KP [IR.r
9. RepIace the Infinitives in brackets by the required tense, paying attention to the sequence of tenses:
vMJa aIMRH MgP . (KP `I K[RPeJ) `a MTTLqIJK MVPJg M TIRKMLJ HPTLIKa Ps GJgNLH[VIJ! e[P! e[IJ K[Ia (KP
`I) MNN KPgIK[IR! JIxIR (KP KMNz) M`PQK MJaK[LJg ePRK[ KMNzLJg M`PQK. u[ILR gIJIRMN TPJxIRHMKLPJH (KP `I)
M`HPNQKINa IVZKa MJq qQNN! MJq . (KP TPJTNQqI)! MH aPQJg VIJ HP IMHLNa (KP TPJTNQqI)! K[MK K[PHI KeIJKa PR
K[LRKa gIJKNIVIJ (KP [MxI) JPK [MNs M qPIJ LqIMH MVPJg K[IV. d NLKKNI RIsNITKLPJ (KP RIVLJq) VI! [PeIxIR!
K[MK Va PeJ KMNz (KP `I) JP `IKKIR K[MJ K[ILRH! MJq TPJHIfQIJKNa K[MK K[IRI (VMa) `I PK[IRH LJ K[I TPVZMJa
e[P MNHP (KP zJPe) VPRI MJq (KP K[LJz) VPRI K[MJ K[Ia (KP ISZRIHH). . (KP sLJq) PQK `a MTTLqIJK! MsKIR M
e[LNI! K[MK HPVI os K[IHI VIJ (KP [MxI) VPRI K[MJ TPVVPJ TQNKQRI LJ xMRLPQH qLRITKLPJH: PJI PR KeP (KP
KRMxIN) sMR! MJq (KP `RLJg) [PVI K[I RIHQNKH Ps VQT[ P`HIRxMKLPJ; PJI PR KeP (KP RIMq) NMRgINa! MJq eLK[
ZRPsLK; VPRI K[MJ PJI (KP HKQqa) M HTLIJTI; sLxI PR HLS (KP HII) M gRIMK qIMN Ps K[I ePRNq. .K (KP `I) M aPQK[sQN
VLHKMzI KP TPJTNQqI K[I VIJ (KP `I) qQNN `ITMQHI K[ILR gIJIRMN TPJxIRHMKLPJ (KP `I) xIRa qQNN. u[I gIJIRMN
TPJxIRHMKLPJH Ps GJgNLH[ HPTLIKa (KP `I) qQNN; LK (KP `I) M JMKLPJMN T[MRMTKIRLHKLT.
10. Change the foIIowing from direct into indirect speech:
/QqqIJNa K[IRI TMVI M zJPTz KP K[I qPPR MJq nPRLMJ [IMRq iPRq |IJRalH xPLTI PQKHLqI: rva qIMR `Pa! .
VQHK HII aPQ. iIK VI LJ MK PJTI. . TMJJPK `IMR aPQR H[QKKLJg aPQRHINs QZ NLzI K[LH.r
nPRLMJ VMqI JP MJHeIR MK sLRHK! `QK K[IJ QVZIq QZ MJq QJNPTzIq K[I qPPR.
r. MV HPRRa sPR LK MNN! nPRLMJ!r HMLq iPRq |IJRa! MH [I IJKIRIq. r0QK aPQ VQHK JPK K[LJz KPP VQT[ Ps LK.
uINN VI! qLq aPQ HII /L`aN :MJI MsKIR K[I ZNMa eMH PxIR{r
ryIH! MJq . eMH `RQKMN KP [IR! |MRRa ZIRsITKNa `RQKMN. 0QK LK LH MNN RLg[K JPe!r
rd[! nPRLMJ! . MV HP gNMq. . eMH MsRMLq Ps sLJqLJg aPQ KIMRLJg K[MK JLTI TQRNa [MLR Ps aPQRH.r
r. [MxI gPK K[RPQg[ MNN K[MK!r HMLq nPRLMJ! H[MzLJg [LH [MJq MJq HVLNLJg. r. MV ZIRsITKNa [MZZa JPe. .
eMJK KP `I gPPq; . TMJlK `IMR K[I LqIM Ps Va HPQN `ILJg HP `Mq MJq QgNa. . H[MNN `IgLJ `a VMRRaLJg /L`aN
:MJI.r (0fter oHTMR wLNqI)
11. Use the required teases instead of the infinitives in brackets:
. (KP JPKLTI) K[MK e[IJ HPVIPJI (KP MHz) sPR aPQ PJ K[I KINIZ[PJI MJq! sLJqLJg aPQ PQK! (KP NIMxI) M
VIHHMgI `IggLJg aPQ KP TMNN [LV QZ K[I VPVIJK aPQ TPVI LJ! K[I VMKKIR (KP `I) VPRI LVZPRKMJK KP [LV K[MJ
KP aPQ. w[IJ LK (KP TPVI) KP VMzLJg aPQ M ZRIHIJK PR qPLJg aPQ M sMxPQR VPHK ZIPZNI (KP `I) M`NI KP [PNq
K[ILR LVZMKLIJTI. /P e[IJ . (KP `I) KPNq `a vLHH pINNPeH! Va NMJqNMqa! K[MK vR. dNRPa jIMR (KP eLH[) VI KP
RLJg [LV QZ MK PJTI! . (KP sIIN) K[MK . (TMJ) HMsINa LgJPRI [LH RIfQIHK.
. (JPK KP HII) Pa sPR K[RII VPJK[H MJq K[IJ PJNa sPR M sIe VLJQKIH MK M ZMRKa. riPJqPJ (KP `I) MesQN!r [I
(KP HMa). roJI JIxIR (KP [MxI) KLVI KP HII MJa Ps K[I ZIPZNI PJI (KP eMJK) KP. iIKlH NQJT[ KPgIK[IR PJI qMa!
H[MNN eI{r
dH . (KP HVPzI) M ZLZI `IsPRI gPLJg KP `Iq . (KP KQRJ) PxIR LJ Va VLJq K[I ZPHHL`NI RIMHPJH sPR e[LT[ Pa
+b)
(VMa) eMJK VI KP NQJT[ eLK[ [LV. (0fter /. vMQg[MV)
12. Think of a suitabIe context to use the foIIowing sentences:
+. .KlH `IIJ M ePJqIRsQN IxIJLJg sPR VI.
2. wI MRI HKMRKLJg MK qMeJ.
4. .lxI `IIJ NPPzLJg sPR aPQ IxIRae[IRI. w[a MRI aPQ MNeMaH [LqLJg sRPV VI{
3. va qIMR mPJJac |Pe NPJg aPQlxI `IIJ TPVLJg [PVIc
*. /ZNIJqLq KP K[LJz eIlNN `I gIKKLJg LJKP K[I TPQJKRa K[LH eIIzIJqc
,. . eMH HQRI . [Mq HIIJ [IR. 0QK e[IRI{ w[IRI [Mq . HIIJ K[I gLRN{
13. TransIate these sentences Into EngIish:
+. '! >! ; ; { <! . ' 9 P $. 2. '
]9 % $! ; $6. 4. ' 6 ;5; 8.
' 9 ! . 3. # 8 8 E ${ X!
! 8 $ >. *. ' ; ! 9 $. ,. F7
$; ! ; $; 5. 7. 8 9 6! > $ ;.
b. 8 ; ;{ 2. (5 > . +). <6 5 8 $!
$ 8 ! $8 5 . A. =$ ; +) !
> ?. +2. ' ! D ;$$! 9 5 $.
+4. 8D! 9 6%. 7 6% { +3. h
> >= 8$ %$ 8$ $ ;85 6%8. $; 5
8D! 5 9D 87. +*. F >6! D ;! ;
$6 7. +,. ! $ 86 $ 9 9!
=9 .
14. Use the required tenses instead of the infinitives in brackets:
u[I NMJqNMqa (KP `RLJg) K[I KIM. . (JPK KP eMJK) MJaK[LJg! `QK uIq (KP VMzI) VI IMK HPVI [MV. u[IJ . (KP
HLK) MK K[I eLJqPe. . (JPK KP NPPz) RPQJq e[IJ K[I NMJqNMqa (KP TPVI QZ) KP TNIMR MeMa! . (JPK KP eMJK)
MJaPJI KP HZIMz KP VI. uIq (KP RIMq) M `PPz; MK NIMHK [I (KP ZRIKIJq) KP! `QK [I (JPK KP KQRJ) K[I ZMgI! MJq .
(KP HII) K[I KIMRH qRPZZLJg PJ LK. . (KP zIIZ PJ) NPPzLJg PQK Ps K[I eLJqPe. .K (KP `I) K[I IJq Ps mQJI! MJq K[I
qMaH (KP `I) NPJg. . (KP NPPz) MK K[I ZIPZNI gPLJg LJ MJq PQK Ps K[I ZQ`NLT[PQHI MJq K[I KRMVH gPLJg QZ MJq
qPeJ. . (KP K[LJz) K[I qMa JIxIR (KP TPVI) KP MJ IJq; K[IJ MNN Ps M HQqqIJ . (KP JPKLTI) K[MK LK (KP `I) JLg[K.
dNN K[I NMVZH (KP `I NLK).
rw[a aPQ (JPK KP NLg[K) K[I gMH{r . (KP HMa) KP uIq. r.KlH JP gPPq HLKKLJg LJ K[I qMRz.r
|I (KP NLg[K) K[I gMH. . qPJlK zJPe e[MK (KP TPVI) PxIR VI. . (KP sIIN) K[MK Ls . (KP gP PJ) HLKKLJg LJ K[MK
RPPV . (KP gP) VMq. . (KP eMJK) KP gP HPVIe[IRI e[IRI K[IRI (KP `I) NLg[KH MJq ZIPZNI.
15. Comment on the use of tenses in the foIIowing sentences and transIate them into Russian:
+. /[I NPPzIq MK VI ePJqIRLJgNa MH Ls MHzLJg! rw[MK [MH `IIJ [MZZIJLJg KP VI{r 2. |IR HPsK xPLTI VMqI
[LV KRIV`NI. r. sIIN aPQlxI `IIJ [IRI sPR aIMRH!r H[I HMLql. 4. dJq JPe! nMqqa! . K[LJz .lq `IKKIR gP `MTz! LJ
TMHI vQVValH ePJqIRLJg e[IRI . MV. 3. u[IJ H[I ePzI QZ MJq HMLq! r|MxI . `IIJ MHNIIZ{r *.+ [PZI .
[MxIJlK qLHKQR`Iq aPQ. yPQ eIRIJlK MHNIIZ! eIRI aPQ{ ,. ryPQlxI gRPeJcr HMLq MJqMNN. .K eMH KRQI. /[I [Mq
T[MJgIq. 7. UPPqJIHH gRMTLPQHc w[MKlH K[MK{ .KlH K[I TNPTz HKRLzLJgc /P NMKI! MJq . [MxI `IIJ zIIZLJg aPQ
MeMzI. UPPq JLg[K! GNNIJ. b. r/KIxI NPxIq `LRqH!r HMLq vLRMJqM. r|I MNeMaH QHIq KP sIIq K[IV. |I ePQNq
RLJg M `INN IxIRa VPRJLJg MJq K[I `LRqH ePQNq TPVI.r 2. u[I eLJq [Mq qRPZZIq M NLKKNI MJq sRPV HPVIe[IRI
`I[LJq K[I [PQHI M TQTzPP eMH TMNNLJg. +). yPQ HZIMz KP VI! MH aPQ MNeMaH qP! eLK[ K[I xPLTI Ps RIMNLKa.
dJq e[MK aPQlxI `IIJ HMaLJg LH fQLKI RLg[K. ++. GVVM RIVPxIq [IR gNMHHIH MJq HIK [IR zJLKKLJg MHLqI. /[I
TMRIHHIq [IR TNPHIq IaIH sPR M VPVIJK eLK[ NPJg sLJgIRH. +2. /[I HMLq! RPQHLJg [IRHINs! r/PRRa! iQTa! e[MK
qLq aPQ HMa{r +4. w[IJ pRMJTLH MJq pPa NIsK! jMK[IRLJI MHzIq iIeLH e[MK K[Ia [Mq `IIJ KINNLJg [LV M`PQK
aPQJg iQzI. +3. nP aPQ zJPe e[IJ K[I RIHQNKH eLNN `I PQK{ +*. |I NPPzIq MK [LH eMKT[. .K eMH KLVI KP gP LJ
JPe. vLNqRIq ePQNq `I eMLKLJg sPR [LV!
16. Use the required tenses instead of the infinitives in brackets and transIate the sentences into Russian:
.. iIKlH [MxI qLJJIR QZ [IRI. .s eI (KP gP) qPeJ KP K[I RIHKMQRMJK eI (KP `I LJKIRRQZKIq)! MJq K[I VQHLT (KP
`I) HP NPQq K[IRI. wI (JPK KP `I) M`NI KP [IMR IMT[ PK[IR HZIMz. 2. yPQ RIMNNa JIxIR (KP `I) KP M `MNN `IsPRI!
iILNM{ 4. va eLsI (KP `I) LJ GQRPZI sPR K[I NMHK KIJ VPJK[H PJ M xLHLK KP PQR INqIHK gLRN! e[P (KP `I VMRRLIq)
NMHK aIMR. 3. |INNP! mP[Jc yPQ (KP eMLK) NPJg{ *. /[I (KP KINN) [LV K[MK H[I (KP RLJg) [LV! `QK H[I (JPK KP qP)
HP. ,. |I (KP NPPz) QZ eLK[ HQRZRLHI! r.JqLM{ yPQ (KP gP) KP .JqLM{r 7.+ JIxIR (KP zJPe) MJaPJI . (KP NLzI) MH
VQT[ MH . (KP NLzI) aPQ. . JIxIR (KP sIIN) HP [MZZa eLK[ MJaPJI. 0QK . (KP `I) HQRI LK (JPK KP `I) e[MK ZIPZNI
MJq e[MK `PPzH (KP VIMJ) e[IJ K[Ia (KP KMNz) M`PQK NPxI. b. .K eMH JPe PxIR M aIMR. |I (JPK KP [IMR) sRPV
[IR HLJTI H[I (KP NIMxI)! ISTIZK sPR M ZPHKTMRq. 2. u[I gRIIJ qPPR (KP PZIJ) MJq (KP H[QK) MgMLJ MJq MNN (KP `I)
HLNIJTI. |I (KP eMLK) M VLJQKI PR KeP. w[MK K[Ia (KP HMa) KP IMT[ PK[IR JPe{ +). /[I (KP `I) qLHMZZPLJKIq Ls
aPQ (JPK KP TPVI). MJqMNN (KP [IHLKMKI). r1P!r [I (KP HMa). r. (JPK KP TPVI) LJ. yPQ TMJ gP MNPJI.r ++. UPPq
+b+
[IMxIJH! Va PNq qPNNc yPQ (KP sLJq) LK LJ dJJlH RPPV{ . (KP sPRgIK) MNN M`PQK LK `a JPe. +2. va VPK[IR (KP
TPVI) KP HKMa eLK[ QH JISK eIIzIJq. +4. u[I gMRqIJ (KP NPPz) fQLKI qLssIRIJK JPe e[IJ K[I NIMxIH (KP sMNN).
+3.+ (KP `I) HQRI aPQ (KP sLJLH[) aPQR ePRz `a HLS PlTNPTz. +*. /[I (KP HMa) H[I (KP qP) K[I eMH[LJg
KPVPRRPe. +,. mMgP KPNq GNLPK K[MK 1Lg[KLJgMNI MJq [I QHK (KP qLHTQHH) K[I sQKQRI Ps K[I TPNNIgI.
17. Use the required tenses instead of the infinitives in brackets and comment on their use:
+.+ PJNa eMJK KP MHz e[IJ K[I qITLHLPJ (KP KMzI); eIlq NLzI KP zJPe K[I qMKI! K[MKlH MNN 2. r|MNNP! aPQ KeP!r
[I (KP TRa) gMLNa. rw[IRI aPQ (KP [LqI){r 4. .lV MsRMLq . VQHK `I Pss JPe. va ZMRIJKH (KP TPVI) KP HII VI
QJISZITKIqNa. u[MJz aPQ! vRH! wINT[. . (KP IJPa) VaHINs xIRa VQT[. UPPq`aI. 3. vMRgMRIK \IIN (KP KINN)
VI K[MK 0IRKRMJq (KP TPVI) qPeJ MK K[I eIIzIJq. *. |I eMH MNMRVIq `a K[I K[PQg[K K[MK [I (KP [MxI) KP KMNz
KP K[I gLRN MNN K[I eMa `MTz. ,. .J K[I qLJLJgHMNPPJ [I (KP JPKLTI) K[MK K[I qMRz VMJ e[P (KP HLK) MNPJI (KP `I)
JPe MK M KM`NI eLK[ vRH. OPTzHPJ MJq vRH. 0IJHPJ. 7. vR. \LJsPNq (JPK KP HNIIZ) sPR xIRa NPJg. |I (KP
MeMzI) MH QHQMN xIRa IMRNa. b.+ qPJlK HII e[MK aPQ (KP qRLxI) MK. 2. . zJPe xIRa NLKKNI Ps [LV! K[PQg[ eI (KP
NLxI) HP JIMR MNN K[IHI aIMRH. +).+ (KP eMJK) QH KP [MxI M NLKKNI KMNz sPR fQLKI HPVI KLVI! PNq `Pa. GxIR HLJTI
K[MK HQVVIR 0MNN! LJ sMTK. ++. dH K[Ia (KP HKRPNN) QZ OPNNIgI PMq! 0IIHNIa `IgMJ KMNzLJg M`PQK K[I
ISMVLJMKLPJ RIHQNKH LJ [LH nIZMRKVIJK +2.+ eMJK KP HIJq M KINIgRMV. . (JPK KP sIIN) xIRa eINN. . (KP ePJqIR)
Ls aPQ (TMJ) eRLKI LK sPR VI{ +4. nLSPJ eMH M `LK qLHMZZPLJKIq! [I (KP sIIN) JPJI Ps K[I ZNIMHQRM`NI
ISTLKIVIJK [I (KP ISZITK). +3. wI (KP TPVI) sPR aPQ e[IJ eI (KP eMJK) aPQ. 0IKKIR NPTz K[I qPPR. +*.+ (KP
[MxI) Va IaI PJ [LV IxIR HLJTI eI (KP HKMRK). yPQ (KP JPKLTI) MJaK[LJg Pqq M`PQK [LV{ +,. |I eMH JPK M
TRQIN VMJ `a JMKQRI! MJq (KP `I) HITRIKNa M NLKKNI MH[MVIq Ps K[I ZMRK [I (KP ZNMa) qQRLJg K[I NMHK VPJK[.
I8. Pay attention to the use of the Continuous tenses. TransIate the sentences into Russian:
+. r|Pe MRI aPQ{r H[I MHzIq. rdNN RLg[K! K[MJzH; . have 2een wor'ing"n 2. I?ve 2een ta9'ing KP K[I
\RLJTLZMN M`PQK K[I OPNNIgI oZIJ wIIz MK K[I IJq Ps K[I KIRV. 4. rwI are MNN waiting, 1Iq!r vRH. wINT[
HMLq sRPV K[I ZLMJP. 3. .lxI eRLKKIJ KP }JTNI MHzLJg [LV KP NIK VI zJPe e[IJ [IlH 5o+ing `MTz. *. wINN! .lV
HQRI aPQ MZZRITLMKI! \RPsIHHPR! K[MK .lxI 2een worrying M`PQK Va ZPHLKLPJ [IRI LJ K[I NMHK sIe VPJK[H. ,. .
[PZI xIRa VQT[ aPQ?99 2e 5o+ing PJ /MKQRqMa. . [PZI HP KPP. UPPq`aI. 7. |I wa& 9oo'ing for hi&
TLgMRIKKIH e[IJ mP[J TMVI LJ MK K[I qPPR. _ad [I 2een 9i&teningO b. o[! `a K[I eMa! OMRPN! .lxI 2een
+eaning KP KINN aPQ K[MK O[RLHKLJIlH 5o+ing KP K[I qMJTI MsKIR MNN! MJq H[IlH 2ringing [IR QJTNI eLK[ [IR. 2.
.lxI 2een fee9ing xIRa qIZRIHHIq RITIJKNa. +). r|Pe are aPQ fee9ing, /KIxI{r [LH eLsI MHzIq [LV! rJPK HP
KLRIq! . [PZI{r ++. dK K[I IJq Ps qLJJIR vRH. /TMRsLINq MHzIq: rdRI aPQ 1oining QH sPR M RQ``IR{r MJq [I
RIZNLIq: r1PK K[LH IxIJLJg! .lV MsRMLq.r +2. r.lV MesQNNa HPRRa!r HMLq UNPxIR. r. HLVZNa qPJlK zJPe e[MK
aPQlRI ta9'ing a2out" +4. w[a! K[MKlH ISMTKNa e[MK .lxI 2een &aying, LJ qLssIRIJK ePRqH. +3. nLSPJ! e[P had
2een &howing M qLHZPHLKLPJ KP KRIV`NI! sPQJq [LH HZLRLKH zLTzLJg QZeMRqH MK K[I HLg[K Ps M KRMa eLK[ TQZH! M
sNMHz! MJq `LHTQLKH. +*. o[! vR. nLSPJ! .lxI 2een wondering e[IJ . H[MNN HII aPQ MgMLJ. . [MxI PJI PR KeP
ZPLJKH . eMJK KP KMzI QZ eLK[ aPQ. +,. u[MK IxIJLJg `IsPRI qLJJIR [I PLJIq K[I /TMRsLINqH. r.J M TPQZNI Ps
qMaH it wi99 2e getting [PK!r HMLq vRH. /TMRsLINq. +7. 1Pe K[IJ! nPRLH! eIlxI PJNa 2een &4ea'ing KP aPQ sPR
aPQR PeJ gPPq.
THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD AND THE CONDITIONAL MOOD
(To Units One-Three)
19. Name the obIique moods used in the foIIowing sentences and transIate the sentences into Russian:
+. .s . eIRI aPQJg . H[PQNq [MxI M eMNzLJg [PNLqMa. 2. .s . eIRI aPQ . H[PQNq ZMa JP MKKIJKLPJ KP e[MK H[I
HMaH. 4. u[I xMHI LH `IMQKLsQN. yPQ ePQNqJlK sLJq MJPK[IR KP VMKT[ LK Ls aPQ KRLIq. 3. .s aPQ [MKIq HLTz ZIPZNI
aPQ ePQNqJlK `I M qPTKPR! qIMR. *. u[Ia HMa pRMJz [MH T[MJgIq gRIMKNa. o[! aIH. yPQ ePQNq [MRqNa zJPe
[LV Ls aPQ VIK [LV. ,. .s . [Mq zJPeJ K[MK! . H[PQNqJlK [MxI TPVI. 7. wI H[PQNq JIxIR [MxI sPQJq K[I [PQHI
Ls M ZMHHIR`a [MqJlK [INZIq QH. b. .s aPQ [Mq NIsK IMRNLIR aPQ ePQNq [MxI TMQg[K K[I KRMV. 2. .s aPQ [Mq KMzIJ
K[I VIqLTLJI K[I qPTKPR ZRIHTRL`Iq aPQ! aPQ ePQNq sIIN `IKKIR JPe. +). .s aPQ [Mq RIMq K[I MRKLTNI .
RITPVVIJqIq! aPQlq zJPe [Pe KP MJHeIR HQT[ fQIHKLPJH.
20. Comment on the mood of the verb in the foIIowing sentences:
+. .lNN [INZ aPQ Ls . TMJ. 2. /[QK K[I qPPR MsKIR aPQc 4. /[I qLq JPK zJPe e[IRI H[I eMH MJq e[MK [Mq
[MZZIJIq. 3.+ RIVIV`IR LK HP TNIMRNa MH Ls LK [Mq [MZZIJIq PJNa aIHKIRqMa. *. /[I ZRPVLHIq H[I ePQNq `I
TMNV. ,. /[I ePQNqJlK `I TMNV Ls H[I zJIe e[MK [MH [MZZIJIq. 7. /[I HMLq H[I qLqJlK zJPe VI. b. nPJlK NPPz
MK VI MH Ls aPQ qLqJlK zJPe VI. 2. u[I MRKLTNI eMH JPK qLssLTQNK MJq . TPQNq KRMJHNMKI LK. +). .s . [Mq M
qLTKLPJMRa . TPQNq KRMJHNMKI K[I MRKLTNI. ++. .s . [Mq JPK KPNq [LV! [I ePQNq JIxIR [MxI zJPeJ. +2. /[I eMH
HQRI . [Mq JPK KPNq [LV K[I `Mq JIeH.
21. CompIete the foIIowing sentences a) using the ConditionaI Mood;
+. .s LK eIRI JPK HP NMKI ... . 2. .s LK eIRI /QJqMa KPqMa ... . 4. .s aPQ LJxLKIq [LV ... . 3. .s . eIRI aPQ ... . *.
.s H[I NLxIq LJ vPHTPe ... . ,. .s aPQ [Mq eMLKIq M NLKKNI ... . 7. .s . TPQNq ZNMa K[I ZLMJP.... b. .s aPQ [Mq qPJI
MH . KPNq aPQ .... 2. .s H[I eIRI Va HLHKIR.... +). .s K[I eIMK[IR eIRI sLJI ... .
b) using the Subjunctive Mood:
+b2
+. wI H[PQNq gP KP K[I TPQJKRa Ls .... 2.+ H[PQNq [INZ [IR Ls.... 4. |I ePQNq [MxI qPJI LK sPR aPQ! JP qPQ`K!
Ls.... 3. u[Ia ePQNq ZNMa KIJJLH JPe Ls .... *.+ H[PQNq [MxI TPVI aIHKIRqMa Ls.... ,. w[MK ePQNq aPQ qP Ls... {
7. .K ePQNq `I xIRa JLTI Ls.... b. .lq [MxI M eMNzLJg [PNLqMa Ls.... 2. u[Ialq `I PJNa xIRa gNMq Ls.... +).
GxIRaK[LJg ePQNq [MxI `IIJ MNN RLg[K Ls....
22. SuppIy the correct mood of the verbs in brackets:
+. .s K[Ia (JPK KP [INZ) QH eI (JPK KP sLJq) K[I eMa. 2. .s . (KP [MxI) IJPQg[ VPJIa . (KP `Qa) K[LH TMHHIKKI
RITPRqIR. 4. yPQ (KP `I) M`NI KP HZIMz GJgNLH[ `IKKIR Ls aPQ (KP HKQqa) [MRqIR. 3. .s H[I (KP `I) PNqIR H[I (KP
QJqIRHKMJq) aPQ `IKKIR. *. .s [I (KP `I) LJ KPeJ aIHKIRqMa [I (KP TMNN) PJ QH. ,. wI (KP IJPa) K[I ZNMa `IKKIR
Ls LK (JPK KP `I) HP NPJg. 7. va QJTNI (KP `I) M`NI KP [INZ QH Ls [I (KP `I) [IRI. b.+ (KP qP) K[I HMVI Ls . (KP `I)
K[IRI. 2. .s . (KP zJPe) Ps aPQR MRRLxMN . (KP VIIK) aPQ. +). .s aPQ (KP zJPe) e[MK LK LH MNN M`PQK! aPQ (JPK KP
zIIZ PJ) HVLNLJg. ++. .s aPQ (KP gP) KP K[I K[IMKRI NMHK JLg[K! .lV HQRI! aPQ (KP IJPa) K[I ZNMa. +2. |I (KP MTK)
qLssIRIJKNa Ls [I (KP RIMNLI) K[I HLKQMKLPJ. +4. .s H[I (KP TPVI) IMRNLIR H[I (KP `I) M`NI KP HII K[IV `IsPRI K[Ia
eIJK PQK. +3. 1P`Pqa KPNq VI M`PQK aPQR KRPQ`NI. . (KP [INZ) aPQ Ls . (KP [IMR) M`PQK LK. +*.+ (KP TPVI)
HPPJIR Ls . (KP zJPe) aPQ eIRI [IRI. +,. wI (JPK KP zJPe) MJaK[LJg M`PQK K[ILR ZNMJH sPR K[I HQVVIR
[PNLqMaH Ls vMRLP (JPK KP HIJq) QH M NIKKIR. +7. .s aPQ (KP TPVI) `IKeIIJ KeP MJq K[RII aIHKIRqMa aPQ (KP
sLJq) [LV LJ. +b. .s . (KP `I) aPQ . (KP [MxI) M NPJg eMNNl rH K[I ZMRz. +2. .s + (TMJ) [INZ aPQ . RIMqLNa (KP qP)
HP! `QK aPQ zJPe . TMJlK. 2).+ VQHK `I Pss JPe. .s LK (JPK KP `I) HP NMKI . (KP HKMa) M NLKKNI NPJgIR.
23. Change into sentences of unreaI condition:
G S M V Z N I H: /[I ePJlK [INZ QH MH H[I LH JPK [IRI. /[I wou9d he94 QH Ls H[I were [IRI.
wI qLq JPK VIIK HP PsKIJ `ITMQHI H[I NLxIq sMR sRPV Va ZNMTI. wI &hou9d have +et
VPRI PsKIJ Ls H[I had not 9ived HP sMR sRPV Va ZNMTI.
+. u[Ia eLNN qP LK Ls K[Ia TMJ. 2. .K LHJlK HQVVIR JPe! MJq eI qPJlK gP KP K[I TPQJKRa. r4. |I qPIHJlK eRLKI
KP VI! MJq . qPJlK eRLKI KP [LV. 3. /[I qLqJlK sLJq K[I `PPz `ITMQHI H[I qLqJlK PZIJ K[I `Mg! *. .K eLNN `I
`IKKIR Ls K[Ia qPJlK TPVI. ,.+ qLqJlK gLxI LK KP aPQ `ITMQHI aPQ eIRI PQK. 7.+ TMJlK zJLK MJPK[IR HeIMKIR MH .
[MxI JP VPRI ePPN. b.+ qPJlK HKQqa .KMNLMJ MH . [MxIJlK VQT[ HZMRI KLVI. 2. /[I qLqJlK sPNNPe K[I qPTKPRlH
MqxLTI MJq sINN HIRLPQHNa LNN. +). u[I `Pa LH H[LxIRLJg. |I LHJlK fQLKI eINN. ++. |I RIsQHIH Va [INZ! MJq K[I
ePRz ePJlK `I sLJLH[Iq KPqMa. +2.+ [MxI M [IMqMT[I `ITMQHI . [Mq M HNIIZNIHH JLg[K. +4. dJJI TMJlK KRMJHNMKI
K[LH HPJg: H[I qPIHJlK zJPe pRIJT[ eINN IJPQg[. +3. yPQ MRI JPK fQLKI MNN RLg[K JPe `ITMQHI aPQ qLqJlK KMzI
K[I VIqLTLJI RIgQNMRNa. +*. u[Ia KPPz M KMSL MJq qLqJlK VLHH K[I KRMLJ. +,. |I qPIHJlK zJPe [IR MqqRIHH! PR [I
eLNN eRLKI KP [IR! .lV HQRI. +7. u[I gMRqIJ qPIHJlK NPPz `IMQKLsQN `ITMQHI K[I KRIIH MRI `MRI. +b. |I VMzIH HP
VMJa VLHKMzIH `ITMQHI [I qPIHJlK zJPe gRMVVMR eINN IJPQg[. +2. wLNN aPQ qP LK sPR VI Ls . MHz aPQ{
24. TransIate these sentences into EngIish:
+. t 8 8 ! 8 ; ; $ 96{ 2. F
8 8 $! $6 ;{ 4. ~ 8 $ 9D ;6
! 8 8; . 3. "6 > 8! 8 $ 8 9. 5 $
D ;; . *. "8 8 6$ = ! 8 8 . ,.
~ 8 ! 8 $! 8 6! 8 D. 7. ~ 8 8 ;
$ ! 8 ! 8 8 6 ; D. b.
~ 8 $8 6 $! $8 8 > . 2. < D$ $ 8 $
. Y! ;! . +). _5 $8 E ;! $8 8 $8. X. ~ 8
8 ! 8; 8 $ 8$. +2. 8 E ! 8 !
E >. +4. ~ 8 8 $$ ! 8 8 6 . +3. ~
8 8 6 ; >! $8 8 9 $! 8 6 . +*.
! 8 $; 8 6 E $5 $=! 8 6. h 8
. +,. 8! >5! 6! 8 $ D. +7. 8 8 E$ $! 8
9 $! 9$. +b. ~ 8 8 ; > 9D! ! 8 8 $ >
. +2. 8 5 ! 8 $;. 2). ~ 8 8 $ !
8 D . 2+. < D$ $ 8 D ;D.
25. Comment on the use of the Subjunctive Mood and transIate the sentences into Russian:
M) +. yPQ eIRI xIRa zLJq KP K[MK sPRILgJIR! nLTz. . eLH[ K[MK eI TPQNq HII [LV. 2. nPRM eLH[Iq H[I [Mq
gPK [IR `PPz PQK Ps K[I HQLKTMHI `IsPRI K[I KRMLJ HKMRKIq. 4.+ eLH[ . [Mq K[PQg[K Ps LK `IsPRI. .KlH M gPPq LqIM.
3. |I JPqqIq [LH [IMq KP [IR MJq KQRJIq [MHKLNa LJ K[I qLRITKLPJ Ps [LH PeJ RPPV. |I eLH[Iq H[I [Mq JPK
HIIJ [LV. |I eLH[Iq H[I [Mq JPK `IIJ K[IRI. *. |I eLH[Iq [IMRKLNa K[MK vLNqRIq [Mq JPK TPJHQNKIq [LV. ,. .K
eMH M `IMQKLsQN LqIM. . eLH[Iq . [Mq K[PQg[K Ps LK VaHINs. 7.+ eLH[ . TPQNq sIIN HQRI M`PQK it b. nPJlK aPQ
eLH[ aPQ [Mq TPVI IMRNLIR{
`) +. .K HIIVIq MH K[PQg[ [I eLH[Iq KP HZIMz! `QK sIMRIq KP gLxI PssIJTI. 2.+ RIVIV`IR JPe K[MK [LH
TPNPQR [Mq gPJI LJ M VPVIJK MJq [I HIIVIq KP `RIMK[I MH Ls [I [Mq `IIJ RQJJLJg. 4. |IR IaIH [Mq H[MqPeH
MH K[PQg[ H[I [Mq JPK HNIZK. 3. /QqqIJNa [I HVLNIq MJq HZPzI LJ M T[MJgIq xPLTI! MH Ls [I eIRI TPJsLqLJg M
HITRIK. *. /[I NPPzIq TPJKIJK! MH K[PQg[ H[I [Mq `IIJ eMLKLJg sPR K[LH VPVIJK MNN qMa. ,. |Qg[ eMH
+b4
HQRZRLHIq MJq MJJPaIq MJq T[LNNIq MH Ls K[I KIVZIRMKQRI Ps K[I RPPV eIRI HLJzLJg HKIMqLNa. 7. dJq aPQ
`I[MxI MH Ls eI eIRI KeP ZIPZNI e[P eIRI MTfQMLJKIq. b. yPQlRI MNVPHK gRPeJQZ JPe! MJq .lV gPLJg KP
KMNz KP aPQ MH Ls aPQ eIRI gRPeJQZ. dJq aPQ VQHK [INZ VI. 2. u[Ia HKMRIq MK IMT[ PK[IR LJ K[I HLNIJTI Ps
K[I [PQHI! MJq LK eMH MH Ls K[Ia eIRI NLHKIJLJg sPR qLHKMJK sPPKHKIZH. +). u[IRI eMH M TQRLPQH TMRIsQNJIHH
M`PQK [LH VMJJIR! MH K[PQg[ [I eIRI TPJTIMNLJg HPVI ZMLJ.
T) +. GxIJ Ls aPQ PJNa K[PQg[K K[MK . TPQNq `I Ps MJa [INZ KP aPQ! .lq `I xIRa gNMq! .lq `I xIRa [MZZa KP `I
MNNPeIq KP HKMa MRPQJq. 2. w[a HMa LK IxIJ Ls LK eIRI KRQI{ 4.+ H[PQNq gIK K[IRI IxIJ Ls . [Mq KP eMNz MNN K[I
eMa. 3. GxIJ K[PQg[ aPQ MHzIq [LV KeLTI [I ePQNq qP LK MgMLJ; [IlH M HKQ``PRJ `Pa. *. yPQ TPQNqJlK [MxI
gPK LJ KPQT[ eLK[ [LV IxIJ Ls aPQ [Mq KRLIq; [I eMHJlK LJ KPeJ. ,. |Mq eI zJPeJ LJ KLVI eI TPQNq [MxI
ZRIxIJKIq K[I TMKMHKRPZ[I. 7. ryPQ HII!r HMLq MJqMNN! r. ePQNqJlK gP Ls aPQ qLqJlK eMJK VI KP.r b.+ K[LJz LK
ePQNq `I JMKQRMN Ls aPQ PLJIq K[IV. 2. rwPQNq IxIRaK[LJg [MxI `IIJ qLssIRIJK Ls VPK[IR [MqJlK qLIq{r H[I
K[PQg[K +). 1P qPQ`K HPVI`Pqa ePQNq [MxI JPKLTIq Ls H[I [MqJlK `IIJ K[IRI.
q) +. .s PJNa sMK[IR eIRI MNLxIc 2. .s PJNa LK eIRI KRQIc 4. .s PJNa . TPQNq `INLIxI K[MKc 3. .s PJNa [I [Mq KPNq
aPQ K[I e[PNI HKPRac *. .s PJNa H[I eIRI eLK[ QHc ,. .s PJNa . [MqJlK VIJKLPJIq [LH JMVIc |Pe sPPNLH[ Ps VIc
26. SuppIy the correct mood of the verbs in brackets:
+. . qPJlK zJPe [Pe KP MqqRIHH [LV. . eLH[ . (KP zJPe) [LH JMVI. 2. . sIIN MH Ls Va [IMq (KP `I) PJ sLRI. 4.
.s PJNa . (KP zJPe) IMRNLIR! . (KP HIJq) aPQ M KINIgRMV. 3. va eLsI HMaH H[I eLH[IH . (KP `I) M K[PQHMJq VLNIH
MeMa. *. |I sINK MH Ls [I (KP sNPMK) LJ K[I MLR. ,. |I HKMRIq MK VI MH Ls . (KP MHz) [LV HPVIK[LJg xIRa Pqq. 7. dK
K[MK VPVIJK H[I eLH[Iq H[I (JPK KP HIJq) sPR [LV. b. .s . (KP KINN) aPQ aPQ VLg[K [MxI K[PQg[K LK eMH Va
T[PLTI. 2. GxIJ Ls LK (KP `I) KeLTI MH qMJgIRPQH . (KP TMRRa PQK) Va ZNMJ. +).+ eLH[ . JIxIR (KP HII) aPQ. ++.
nPJlK NPPz MK VI MH Ls aPQ JIxIR (KP HII) VI `IsPRI. +2.+ K[LJz LK (KP `I) JMKQRMN Ls aPQ (KP PLJ) K[IV. +4.
IVIV`IR [IRc dH Ls . (TMJ) sPRgIK [IRc +3. u[IJ [I HQqqIJNa HMLq! ryPQ (KP KMzI) VI KP URMa[MNNPTz Ls . (KP
MHz){r +*. nPJlK aPQ K[LJz LK (KP `I) RMK[IR JLTI Ls eI (KP MHz) [IR KP HKMa PJ sPR M eIIz MH PQR gQIHK{ +,.
r|Pe . eLH[ . (KP `I) K[IRI eLK[ aPQ!r . HMLq eLK[ qIIZ RIgRIK. +7. rnPJlK `I HPRRa!r H[I HMLq. r. (KP `I)
RINLIxIq Ls aPQ (KP gP)! Ls LK (KP `I) HIKKNIq HPVI[Pe.r +b. wINN! MK MJa RMKI! K[I eIMK[IR LHJlK gPLJg KP ZRIHIJK
qLssLTQNKLIH. .K NPPzH MH K[PQg[ LK (KP HIK LJ) sLJI. +2.+ (KP `I) HQRI Ps LK Ls . (KP `I) aPQ.
27. Comment on the use of the ConditionaI Mood and transIate the sentences into Russian:
+. . H[PQNqJlK ePRRa JPe LJ aPQR ZNMTI. GxIRaK[LJg eLNN TNIMR QZ xIRa HPPJ! .lV HQRI. 2. .K ePQNqJlK [MxI
MHKPJLH[Iq VI Ls [I [Mq sPQJq HPVI RIMHPJM`NI ISTQHI MJq HKMaIq MeMa. 4. 0QK IxIJ Ls aPQ eIRI RLg[K .
H[PQNq ZRIsIR KP MTK LJ Va PeJ eMa. 3. 0QK sPR Va [INZ [I ePQNq [MxI sMLNIq MK K[I sLJMN ISMV. *. .K HIIVH
KP VI K[MK e[MK H[I RIsQHIq K[IJ H[I ePQNq `I gNMq KP gIK JPe. ,. /LR |PRMTI MHzIq VI PJI PR KeP fQIHKLPJH
MJq LK ePQNqJlK [MxI `IIJ qITIJK VMJJIRH JPK KP RIZNa. 7. d sIe aIMRH `IsPRI [I ePQNq JPK [MxI HMLq HP Ps
mMgP. b. OPVI MNPJg! mMHHLIc .K ePQNq qP aPQ VPRI [MRV KP HKMa `a aPQRHINs. 2. .lV K[LJzLJg Ps gPPq RIHQNKH
eIlxI MT[LIxIq KPgIK[IR. wI H[PQNqJlK [MxI VMJMgIq K[IV MNPJI. .KlH M ZLKa KP sLJq QH qLxLqIq JPe. +). .s
aPQ `RIMz aPQR ZRPVLHI! ZIPZNI eLNN HMa K[MK ORMesPRq ePQNq JIxIR [MxI qPJI HP LJ HLVLNMR TLRTQVHKMJTIH
++. 0QK sPR K[I `IIH eI H[PQNq [MxI JP [PJIa. +2. /[I IxIJ qLqJlK eMJK KP NPPz LJ Va qLRITKLPJ; PR INHI .lq
[MxI TPVI QZ MJq MZPNPgLIq. +4. |I eMH LJ M gRIMK [QRRa MJq [Mq JP KLVI KP K[LJz LK PxIR. oK[IReLHI [I
ePQNq [MxI sPQJq M `IKKIR eMa PQK. +3. 0QK vRH. mMgPlH LVLKMKLPJ Ps iMqa vQRLIN eMH JPK ISMTK. iMqa
vQRLIN ePQNq JIxIR [MxI TMNNIq VIJ `a K[ILR TPNNIgI KLKNIH. +*.+ VaHINs H[PQNqJlK MgRII KP K[MK. +,. u[Ia
ePQNq MNN `I PJNa gNMq KP HII aPQ. +7.+ H[PQNq [MxI HIJK [IR MeMa! PJNa . K[PQg[K aPQ eMJKIq [IR KP KMNz
LJKP aPQR VMT[LJIH. +b. yPQ JIxIR qLq MJaK[LJg gPPq KP MJaPJI. .s aPQ [Mq qPJI aPQ ePQNq [MxI VPRI
HQZZPRK JPe.
28. TransIate the sentences into EngIish, paying attention to the use of the ConditionaI Mood:
+. 8 8 6 $. 2. 8 8 86! : 8
. 4. 8 8 6 7 >7 ;. 3. 8 8 9D 86 D
C. *. 8 8 > 6 ; $ E$ . ,. $ 8 8 6 6
$. 7. ' 8 9D 6! . b. "8 8 9 $
$;! $8 6 8 ;. 2. $7! 6 8!l > 6 8 D$.
+). 9 8 7;! $5 $ $. ++. 8 D $ 7!
$ . +2. D! 8 D6 ! $ 8 8 >6
;9. +4. D 6 >6 %85 6! $8 9 8 ;
+3. ' ;! ; %$! 8 89
9. +*. ~ 8 ; 6! 8 6 D5 $. +,. ' 8
8 ! 8 9D5 9 6%. +7. ~ 8 ;
9D 6! $; 8 8>6 9 5 E5 E%. +b. ~ 8 D
7! ! $ 8 > 6%. ' . +2. ~ 8 8 6
! 8 8 ; D 9. 2). ~ 8 8 $$8 ! 8 8
> ! E 8 . 2+. ' 9 8 $! 8 ; 6.
22. ( >=c ' 8 6 $! > 8
+b3
9. 24. > 8 $ %7! E $; 8. ~$ > $ 6 8
$6. 23. 8 ! 8 8 ! 8 65 !
6 $ . 2*. F 8 8 E { 2,. t 8 8
$$ ${ 27. 8 $ 6 $ . 2b. 8 E;
; D5 $=.
29. SuppIy the correct mood of the verbs in brackets:
+. . zJIe [I (KP `I) HLNNa! `QK . (JPK KP `INLIxI) K[MK [I (KP `I) MH HLNNa MH K[MK. 2.+ eLH[ [I (KP `I) M `LK
HKRPJgIR MgMLJHK ORMesPRq. 4. dsKIR M VPVIJKlH HLNIJTI [I (KP `RIMz PQK): r.K (KP `I) M JQLHMJTI Ls . (KP `Ig) M
TQZ Ps KIM LJ aPQR RPPVH{r 3. yPQ VQHK K[MJz [LV! JPK eI. wLK[PQK [LV eI (JPK KP MT[LIxI) MJa HQTTIHH. *.
. eLH[ H[I (JPK KP NPPz) HP ZMNI. ,. r.s . (KP `I) ORMesPRq! . (KP K[MJz) wLJHNPe VQT[!r HMLq O[RaHKMN. 7.+ (KP
gLxI) M gPPq qIMN sPR K[MK MHHQRMJTIc b. dRI aPQ gNMq KP HII VI{ yPQlRI sQJJa! nLTzc dH Ls aPQ (JPK KP
zJPe). 2. .s . (KP K[LJz) MH aPQ qP . (KP sIIN) VLHIRM`NI. +). vR. nIRVMJKlH gNMJTI RIHKIq PJ /[INKPJ MJq
fQLTzNa sINN qPeJ KP K[I gRPQJq MH K[PQg[ [I (KP HII) HPVIK[LJg K[MK MNMRVIq [LV. ++.+ eLH[ aPQ (KP H[Pe)
VPRI HLgJ Ps JPK NLzLJg LK LJ ZRMTKLTI. +2.+ TMJlK sPR K[I NLsI Ps VI QJqIRHKMJq e[a aPQ qLqJlK eMLK `IsPRI K[Ia
qITLqIq. . (KP ISZITK) aPQ KP qLHTQHH LK eLK[ VI. +4. w[IJ |LNMRa PZIJIq K[I qPPR K[I HKRMJgIR VMqI M fQLTz
VPxIVIJK sPReMRq! MNVPHK MH Ls [I (KP `I) gPLJg KP HKLTz [LH sPPK [QRRLIqNa KP K[I PZIJLJg. +3. |IR xPLTI
HPQJqIq MH K[PQg[ HPVIK[LJg (KP PssIJq) [IR. +*.+ eLH[ . (TMJ) ZNMa KIJJLH MH eINN MH aPQ qP. +,. |I NPPzIq
QZ H[MRZNa MH Ls [I (KP VMzI) M qMJgIRPQH RIVMRz +7.+ VMa KRMxIN PQK eLK[ }JTNI! `QK LK (KP `I) HQT[ sQJ Ls
aPQ (KP TPVI). +b. |I HMe LK MH TNIMRNa MH K[PQg[ LK (KP `I) `IsPRI [LH IaIH. +2. 0QK sPR aPQR sRLIJqH[LZ . (KP
sIIN) NPJINa [IRI.
30. TransIate the sentences into EngIish paying attention to the use of the Subjunctive and the ConditionaI:
.. F >6! 9. 2. ' >! 8 8 6 $ ! 8 !
. 4. F >6! $! 8 6 7. 3. F >6! ;
6! 8 5 . *. "8 >! ; $ ;. ,. '!
8 $ . ; $8 . {. ' >! D . b. ?E
! 8 8 ; 8 6;. 2. < $ $ !
; $ 6D. +). - 5 ! ! 6. ++.
> 8 $8 ;$$ ! 8 8 D$ . +2. > 8
8 6 ! 8 D $ 6 6%. +4. ~ 8 6
8 $ 8$c +3. '! 8 $; 86 5! E c +*. ~ 8 !
8 ;. +,. ~ 8 D 6! ; D 8. +7.
~ 8 ; 66! $8 8 8 8 8 5
8. +b. ~ 8 ! 8 D6! 8 $. +2. 8 D $! $
D! $ . 2). h 8 8 > ;! 6. 2+. $ 8
8 6 88$ $ ;85 ;
31. Comment on the use of the OId Present Subjunctive and transIate the sentences into Russian:
+. r/P 2e LK!r RIKQRJIq /KIIRsPRq. 2. /QTTIHH attend aPQc 4. 1Pe LK eMH wIqJIHqMa! MJq [I eMH
qIKIRVLJIq KP gP! 5o+e e[MK VLg[K! LJ K[I NMKI MsKIRJPPJ. 3. va HIJKIJTI LH K[MK K[I ZRLHPJIR 2e hanged" F"
w[PIxIR [I 2e, [I VQHK `I ZQJLH[Iq. ,. /II K[MK MNN 2e ZRIHIJK! e[IJ [I TPVIH. 7. |I LJHLHKIq K[MK K[I `Pa
re+ain LJ `Iq. b. u[I ePRzIRH qIVMJqIq K[MK K[ILR eMgIH 2e in5rea&ed"
MODAL VERBS
84
(uP }JLKH pPQR/LS)
5an, +ay
42. /Ma e[IK[IR 5ou9d LH K[I sPRV Ps K[I .JqLTMKLxI PR Ps K[I /Q`QJTKLxI. uRMJHNMKI K[I HIJKIJTIH LJKP
QHHLMJ:
+. |I KPPz QZ M ZPHLKLPJ sRPV e[LT[ [I TPQNq HII e[MK eMH gPLJg MRPQJq. 2. o[c .s . PJNa TPQNq gP `MTz
KP Va sNPeIR `MHzIKc 4. .s . K[PQg[K NLzI aPQ . TPQNqJlK HKMa MJPK[IR qMa LJ .JqLM. 3. . qPJlK `INLIxI . TPQNq
QKKIR PJI Ps K[I PNq HPQJqH Ls . KRLIq. *. o[! UQHKMxI! eIlRI HP K[LRHKa. OPQNq aPQ `RLJg QH HPVI gLJgIRMNI{
,.+ TMJlK KINN HKPRLIH! JIxIR TPQNq. 7. /[INKPJ TPQNq JPK [INZ M HVLNI; iMqa 0PJLJgKPJ LJ K[I ZNMTI Ps K[I
ZPPRc b. 0QK [I TPQNq JPK! qLq JPK zJPe [Pe KP KQRJ MJq gP MeMa. 2. |Pe TPQNq aPQ `I HP HLNNa! |IJRa{ +).
nP aPQ K[LJz aPQ TPQNq TPVZNIKI LK `a K[I IxIJLJg{ ++. .s H[I [Mq HMLq r|IlH gPJI KP vMRHr H[I TPQNq JPK
[MxI qIMNK mMVIH M VPRI HKQJJLJg `NPe. +2. w[MK TPQNq [I qP KP [INZ [IR{ .s PJNa [LH sMK[IR eIRI MNLxIc |I
TPQNq [MxI qPJI HP VQT[c +4. |I TPQNq JILK[IR VPxI JPR HZIMz. +3. w[MK TPQNq aPQ zJPe Ps HQT[ K[LJgH{
+*. OPQNq aPQ `INLIxI K[MK{ +,. OPQNq LK `I K[MK [I LH NaLJg{ +7. . ePJqIR e[MK K[MK TPQNq [MxI VIMJK{ +b.
|I TPQNqJlK `I HP HQRI Ls [I qLqJlK zJPe LK sPR TIRKMLJ. +2! nP aPQ K[LJz aPQ TPQNq TPVVMJq MJ MRVa{ 2).
u[I VPQJKMLJH eIRI M NPJg eMa MeMa MJq aPQ TPQNq HII HJPe PJ K[ILR KPZH.
33. Comment on the form and meaning of the verb can. TransIate the sentences into Russian:
b3
0IsPRI HKQqaLJg VPqMN xIR`H K[I HKQqIJKH VQHK NIMRJ MNN K[I sPRVH Ps K[I LJsLJLKLxI.
+b*
+. . TMJlK ISMTKNa ISZRIHH Va VIMJLJg. 2. |I TPQNq JPK KMzI [LH IaIH Pss [IR. 4. /[I TMJ ZNMa K[I ZLMJP
fQLKI `IMQKLsQNNa. 3. wIlNN gP MeMa KPqMa! Ls aPQ NLzI. wI TMJ IMHLNa TMKT[ K[I 4.3). *. .K LH fQLKI sLJI! ONMRM!
K[I RMLJ [MH HKPZZIq. wI TMJ eMNz KP M VPKPR `QH. ,. yPQ TMJlK KMzI K[I zJPeNIqgI aPQ gMxI VI. 7.+ eLNN NIK
aPQ zJPe! HP aPQ TMJ `I K[IRI. b. |I eMH HP eIMz K[MK [I TPQNq JPK NLsK [LH [IMq. 2. |I LH VQT[ `IKKIR MJq
TMJ eMNz eLK[PQK Va [INZ JPe. +). o[c .K TMJlK `I KRQIc ++. o[{ pRIqqa! K[IRI VQHK `I PJI (M TM`). yPQ
TMJlK [MxI KRLIq. +2. |I TMJlK [MxI KMzIJ LK (K[I `PS) QZHKMLRH K[LH VPRJLJg. +4. dJJI TMJlK VIMJ K[MK! LKlH JPK
NLzI [IR. +3. |I TPQNqJlK [MxI qPJI LK MNN `a [LVHINs. /PVI`Pqa [INZIq [LV! .lV HQRI. +*. OMJ aPQ `INLIxI
K[I gLRN{ OMJ LK `I KRQI{ +,. rOMJ [I `I Va HPJ{r H[I K[PQg[K. +7. OPQNq H[I [MxI qPJI LK eLK[PQK TPJHQNKLJg
VI{ +b. OMJ LK RIMNNa `I MH `Mq MH K[MK{ +2. u[IRIlH HQT[ M HVINN Ps `QRJLJg. nMqqa. OMJ . gP qPeJ MJq HII{
2). mMVIH! aPQ TMJ KMzI dgMK[M qPeJ. 2+. yPQ TMJ eMLK LJ K[I zLKT[IJ. 22. yPQ TMJ zIIZ K[I T[MJgI. 24.
yPQ TMJ KMzI Va PK[IR QV`RINNM. 23. w[MK LH qPJI TMJJPK `I QJqPJI. 2*. 1PK[LJg TMJ `I qPJI! LKlH KPP NMKI.
2,.+ qPJlK `INLIxI M HLJgNI ePRq Ps [LH; [I TMJlK [MxI sMLNIq to NIMV K[I JIeH `IsPRI QH.
34. Use the verb can in the correct form foIIowed by the appropriate infinitive:
+. |MxI aPQ M sRLIJq e[PV aPQ ... (KP KRQHK){ 2. w[MK ... pRIqqa (KP qP) MNN K[LH KLVI{ |I [MH `IIJ gPJI
sPR KeIJKa VLJQKIH. 4. |I ... JPK (KP HII) VI. . TMVI e[IJ [I [Mq gPJI. 3. . MV JPK M ZIRHPJ e[P ... (KP KINN)
M NLI. *. |Pe ... aPQ (KP VMzI) HQT[ M VLHKMzI MH KP HQZZPHI K[MK . eMH aPQJgIR K[MJ aPQ{ ,! /QRINa aPQ ...
(KP qP) LK `IsPRI. w[MK [MxI aPQ `IIJ qPLJg MNN K[I VPRJLJg{ 7. /Ma e[MK aPQ NLzI! `QK K[I ePRz ... JPK (KP
qP) LJ KeP qMaH. b. vR. pIJeLNNlH [PQHI eMH `QLNK PJ K[I KPZ Ps K[I [LNN MJq ... (KP HII) sRPV MsMR. 2.+... JPK (KP
HNIIZ) KeP [PQRH! . HKLNN sIIN KLRIq. +). |I ... JPK (KP `I) [IR sMK[IR: [I LH KPP aPQJg. ++. u[Ia .JPK (KP [IMR)
QH. jJPTz MgMLJ. +2. .s aPQ [Mq MHzIq VI sPR VPJIa .... (KP NIJq) aPQ HPVI. +4. |I ... (KP KINN) VI K[I
MJHeIR `QK [I RIsQHIq KP. +3. ... [I HKLNN (KP HNIIZ){ .K HIIVH KP VI K[Ia HLVZNa qPJlK eMJK QH KP HII [LV.
+*.+... JPK (KP HeLV) . eLH[ .... . +,. /[I [MH M QJLxIRHLKa IqQTMKLPJ MJq ... (KP VMzI) M TMRIIR sPR [IRHINs Ls
H[I [MqJlK VMRRLIq. +7. yPQ ... JPK (KP sPRgIK). . qPJlK `INLIxI aPQ.
35. TransIate Into EngIish, using; the verb can;
+. |I $> 86! 8 ;. h ; 9>. 2. <> E !
8$ ${ 4. < $> 86! 8 8 . ' $ 9> ;
;. 3. E . $ $8 $>$ E 6. *. X! 8 $;
8 >6 89 69{ ,. $; 6 7 D. '
885 >. 7. <> E D6 ; C{ b. ~ 8 ! $8 $; 8
6. -> $. 2. < D$ $ 8 $ ! $> $6 . +).
$. $ ; 8 8 9. ++. 8 ; ; $> 6
;$ $ C7. +2. < $> 86! 8 $. "8 8 6
9. +4. < $> 86! 8 $. "8 8 $ . +3. <6
6 D. <>6 $. +*. <> E $6 &{ F
8c +,. "; 6 7=;{ F >7! . ' ; +2. +7. < $;
8 8 6 $ 8 ! 9 { +b. ' ! $>
>6 %. +2. "> 8 6! 8 ! 9 8;6
8$. 2). "> 6 { <! $ { 2+. h 6 6
8. $ >6. 22. ' $ 6 8 $; 6! $
. 24. <> 8 $>D6 ]6 $! 8 96
{ 23. A $; =6 6 D! ; % 6. 2*. < $;
E; 6. ' ;! 8 $D6. 2,. 8 $; E 6! 8 !
E . 27. [ 7! 6 ! 8 6 6. "8 $!
9 6. 2b. < $> 86! 8 E 8 .
36. Comment on the form and meaning of the verb may. TransIate the sentences into Russsian:
+. .K VMa `I HP PR LK VMa `I JPK... . qPJlK zJPe! MJq e[MKlH VPRI! . qPJlK TMRI. 2. ru[I PNq MTKPR eMH
qRQJz!r K[PQg[K [I. r/KLNN K[IRI VMa `I KRQK[ LJ e[MK [I HMLq.r 4. u[LH VMa `I K[I RIMHPJ Ps K[ILR RIsQHMN KP
PLJ QH. 3. yPQ VMa eMJK M sRLIJq HPVI qMa. *. . K[LJz eI VLg[K `I gRIMK sRLIJqH. ,. /[I VLg[K `I M HLHKIL Ps
vIRTa! . H[PQNq K[LJz! HLR. 7. mMJI VMa [MxI VIK [LV MK [IR QJTNIlH. b. u[Ia VMa JPK [MxI TPVI `MTz aIK.
iIKlH RLJg K[IV QZ MJq sLJq PQK. 2. . HQZZPHI H[I VLg[K `I gNMq KP HII [LV! K[PQg[ . MV JPK HQRI. +). /KLNN
K[IRI LH K[I RLHz K[MK [I VLg[K TPVI. ++. .s [I [Mq `RPQg[K M eIMZPJ /PMVIH VLg[K [MxI QHIq LK MK K[MK
VPVIJK. +2. .s [I eIRIJlK LNN [I VLg[K `I LJ VQT[ gRIMKIR qMJgIR. +4. |I [Mq zJPeJ `IsPRI [I NPPzIq! `QK M
xMgQI [PZI K[MK [I VLg[K [MxI `IIJ VLHKMzIJ [Mq IJTPQRMgIq [LV. +3. vMa . TPVI! vR. nPPNLKKNI{ . H[PQNq
`I xIRa HPRRa KP VLHH aPQR eIqqLJg. +*. vMa . MHz e[IK[IR aPQ TPVZNMLJ Ps aPQR KRIMKVIJK [IRI{ +,. vR.
|LggLJH KPNq VI . VLg[K TPVI. +7. . K[LJz aPQ VLg[K ePRz [MRqIRc +b. /QRINa |PNNa VLg[K [MxI KPNq [LV MNN
K[LH `IsPRI. +2. IMNNa! VMVVM! aPQ VLg[K [MxI HZMRIq pRIqqa K[MKc 2). |I VLg[K `I HIIJ LJ K[I TNQ` MJa
JLg[K Ps K[I aIMR. 2+. . HQssIRIq VPHK sRPV K[I K[PQg[K K[MK ZIPZNI VLg[K gQIHH Va HKMKI. 22. iIKlH gP M NLKKNI
sMRK[IR! .lV MsRMLq K[Ia VMa [IMR QH sRPV K[I [PQHI. 24. .K LH ZPHHL`NI K[MK [I VMa NIMxI LK MH LK LH. 23. . [PZI
aPQR qRIMV VMa TPVI KRQI. 2*. |PeIxIR [MRq [I VMa ePRz [I ePJlK TMKT[ QZ eLK[ K[I gRPQZ MsKIR `ILJg HP
+b,
HIRLPQHNa LNN sPR M NPJg KLVI. 2,. vMa . KMNz KP aPQ HPVIKLVIH{ . zJPe .lV JPK M `LK TNIxIR `QK .lNN KRa JPK KP
`I M `PRI.
37. TransIate these sentences into EngIish, using the verb may.
+. 5 >$ $;. '! $>! = . 2. '! $> 86! ; E$
. 4. "; $> 6 $ 88$ >5 . 3. "5 ! $>!
! > 9 6 ;. ">{ *. @YD! $> $ 6 = 9{B
Y$. ,. ">! E 9 ! ;D $ . 7. ">
6 $! $> 96 ! b. A <! ! $>! > 85 C6$.
(! ; $6. 2. $$ ! >! 8 $; 8 ]6 $ $; !
6 E 8 >. K). ~ 8 8 &! 8! $>! $! E ;
. ++. 7! ; ! $> 86! ! ! $> 86! D . +2. <
. "> 86! = 8. +4! $7! ! $>! 9
5! $ . +3. "> 86! E >! > $! 8
6D 9. +*. ~ 8 $ 5 $! $8 8! $>!
; ; 6D . +,. " > $> 5! { +7. $>!
> . +b. 76! $8 $>$ 6. +2. <76! $8 $ $ D .
2). ' 6! 9! $>! ! $ Y$ D $. 2+. F 8 8
6! >6 . 22. $ 6D5 =! 8 8 $; 6 D
;.
38. FiII in the bIanks with the verbs "an or may in the correct form:
+. w[IJ aPQ gIK K[IRI KINN K[IV KP eMLK. .... `I M NLKKNI NMKI. 2.+ ... TPVI MK HLS. .lNN `I sRII `a K[MK KLVI. 4. ...
K[LH PNq VMJ `I uPV 0RPeJ{ |I ... JPK [MxI T[MJgIq HP VQT[c 3. 1PJI Ps QH zJPe e[MK... [MZZIJ `IsPRI LK
LH sLJLH[Iq. *. u[LH ... `I M gRIMK LqIM. .K ... MNHP `I M KRMZ LJ e[LT[ GJgNMJq eLNN ZIRLH[. ,. .lV JPK HQRI! `QK
H[I ... [MxI gPJI KP K[I xLNNMgI H[PZ. 7. . KPNq K[IV [I ... `I LJ K[I gMRqIJ. b. /[c /[I ... [IMR aPQ. 2. |Pe
HKRMJgIc... aPQ `INLIxI K[MK{ +).+ [MxIJlK HIIJ [IR sPR MgIH. /[I ... `I fQLKI VLqqNIMgIq `a JPe. ++. nPJlK
HIJq [LV MeMa. wI ... JIIq [LH MqxLTI. +2. . sIMR K[Ia ... VLHH K[I KRMLJ. u[Ia NIsK RMK[IR NMKI. +4. .K ... `I HIIJ
K[MK [I eMH ZQNIq. +3. w[a qP e[MK... JIxIR `I JIIqIq{ +*. \IPZNI ... T[MKKIR M`PQK [IR! `QK K[Ia qPJlK
zJPe MJaK[LJg qIsLJLKI MgMLJHK [IR. +,. |I ... JPK [MxI K[PQg[K Ps K[LH [LVHINs. w[P HQggIHKIq LK KP [LV{ +7.
|I... `I M VIqLTMN HKQqIJK K[PQg[ .lV JPK HQRI. +b. 0QK e[MK VPRI [I ... [MxI HMLq . qPJlK zJPe sPR . NIsK.
+2r. yPQ ... KINN VI e[MK [I HMLqc . [MxI M RLg[K KP zJPe. 2). vLHH OMRKIR ... [MxI gPJI KP K[I HT[PPN KP TMNN
PJ vR. GxIRMRq. 2+. u[IJ [I sPQJq K[MK [I ... JPK HKMa LJ `Iq. 22.+... JPK HeLV. . ISZITK aPQ .... GxIRaPJI ...
ISTIZK VI. 24. yPQ ... [MxI eMRJIq VI `IsPRI[MJqc 23. |I ... JPK [MxI HMLq K[MK. . qPJlK `INLIxI aPQ. 2*. .K
eMH M aIMR PR KeP MgP! PR LK... `I K[RII aIMRH MgP. 2,. /[I TMVI KP MHz [IR VPK[IR Ls H[I ... HKMa MJq qMJTI M
NLKKNI NPJgIR.
39. Point out the obIique moods and modaI phrases with can and may. TransIate the sentences into
Russian:
+. wLNN aPQ `I TPVLJg MgMLJ K[LH aIMR! vR. wINT[{
. VLg[K VMJMgI LK! . HQZZPHI.
2. .K VLg[K JIxIR [MxI [MZZIJIq Ls aPQlq HIJK [LV KP M RIMN qPTKPR e[IJ [I sLRHK gPK HLTz.
4. ru[MK ePQNqJlK HQRZRLHI VI LJ K[I NIMHK!r 0IRKRMJq HMLq! HKMJqLJg MHLqI HP K[MK vMRgMRIK TPQNq ZMHH [LV.
3. /[I gNMJTIq QZ fQLTzNa MH Ls H[I [Mq `IIJ ISZITKLJg KP `I MHzIq K[LH! `QK [I TPQNqJlK KINN e[IK[IR H[I
eMH gNMq PR HPRRa e[IJ LK TMVI.
*. OMJ aPQ HKPZ KMNzLJg M`PQK LK{
. eLH[ . [MqJlK HMLq e[MK . qLq HMa. . eMH M sPPN. . MTKIq NLzI M ZIRsITK sPPN.
,. . K[LJz K[Ia gPK `MTz `IsPRI QH. u[Ia VLg[K [MxI gPK M KMSL.
7. w[a qLqJlK aPQ KINN VI{
. TPQNqJlK. .K ePQNqJlK [MxI qPJI VI MJa gPPq.
b. 0QK sPR aPQR zLJqJIHH MJq QJqIRHKMJqLJg . TPQNqJlK [MxI qPJI LK MNN LJ HP H[PRK M KLVI.
2. . eLH[ . [Mq Va TMR [IRI HP K[MK . VLg[K qRLxI aPQ [PVI.
+). |Mq H[I `IIJ M VMJ H[I VLg[K [MxI `IIJ qIHTRL`Iq MH M `RLg[K aPQJg VMJ Ps `QHLJIHH.
40. TransIate these sentences into EngIish, using can or may.
+. <> E >$ (C{ ' $ ! 5 85c 2. $7! B 9
$5 ;6. 8 $. "> 86! $ 4. < $> 86!
8 $ 9! 85 . 3. X 8 $; ;6! > 6;{ *.
">! E$! 9 6 $. ,. < $> 86! 8 D D;
$. $ 5 D . 7. <> = { $ ; 6! b.
8 $; 8 6 $ E$ c 2. 8 6$ D! ! $>!
. +). "> 86! E ! $>! . A. < $; 8 8 >6 $ 4 {
+b7
+2. 7 $! $>! ! 6. +4. $ 6! 8
$> 6. +3. 7 ! $;! 8 $6 $. +*. F 8 E $; 5{ +,. 8
$; 8 6 E $! 8 86. +7! A5 >! 8 $; D
$6. +b! 8 $> ; 6 C;C{ +2. < $9 6! E;
$> 6. 2). $>! 6 > $ . 2+. < $> 86! 8
E$. ' 8 . 22. F 8 E $; 6 7 =6{ 24. '! $>! $ >
. 23. A>! . "> 86! ] $! $ .
m0&%
41. Comment on the meaning of the verb must. TransIate the sentences into Russian;
+. oNq MgI VQHK NIMJ PJ HPVIK[LJg! 2. d VMJ VQHK HKMJq QZ sPR [LH RLg[KH. 4. yPQ VQHKJlK K[LJz LKlH HP
xIRa IMHa. 3. vQHK LK `I qPJI `IsPRI KPVPRRPe{ *. /[I VQHK ePRz sRPV VPRJLJg KLNN JLg[K KP IMRJ [IR NLxLJg!
,. oJI VQHK [MxI M RIHK MsKIR M qMa Ps [MRq ePRz. 7. u[I PJNa K[LJg [I zJIe sPR TIRKMLJ eMH K[MK [I VQHK JPK
VIIK dJKPJLM. b. yPQ MRI RLg[K! . VQHKJlK HKMa [IRI. 2. yPQ VQHK `I RIMHPJM`NI! vR. |LggLJH; RIMNNa aPQ
VQHK. +). ULxI [LV HPVIK[LJg KP IMK. |I VQHK `I [QJgRa. ++. u[MK sINNPe VQHK `I VMqI Ps HKIIN. |IlH JIxIR
KLRIq. +2. .KlH fQLKI M T[MRVLJg NIKKIR. vQHK [MxI KMzIJ K[I ZPPR aPQJg VMJ MJ [PQR KP eRLKI LK. +4. |I VQHK
`I fQLKI PNq `a JPe. +3. yPQ VQHK [MxI sRLg[KIJIq [IR. +*. u[MK sINNPe [MH HIIJ MJq sINK KIJ KLVIH MH VQT[
MH .! MNK[PQg[ [I VQHK `I KIJ aIMRH aPQJgIR. +,.+ sINK K[MK `IsPRI NPJg Va HITRIK VQHK `I zJPeJ. +7.+ [IMR
HPVI`PqalH HKIZH PJ K[I HKMLRH. /[I VQHK `I TPVLJgc +b. mQqgLJg sRPV K[I `PPzH MJq ZMZIRH PJ [LH eRLKLJg
KM`NI [I VQHK [MxI `IIJ ePRzLJg sPR HIxIRMN [PQRH.
42. TransIate the foIIowing sentences Into EngIish:
Note: IVIV`IR K[MK must LJ K[I VIMJLJg Ps HQZZPHLKLPJ LH JPK QHIq LJ K[I JIgMKLxI.
+. Y$! > 86! ; . 2. '! > 86! ; . 4. '!
! $! = $ "8! 3. 8! 5 !
! 9 ; &. *. '! ! 6
5. ,. 8! ! ; ; $6D! D Y$. 7. $!
> 86! ; E$ 6. b. ! > 86! $! > $. 2. '!
! ; E$ . +). '! ! $ 8 $%9
5 ;5; 5. ++. h! > 86! > $ 8$! E C. +2.
'! > 86! .
43. Change the foIIowing sentences from Active into Passive:
+. yPQ VQHK KMzI K[LH VIqLTLJI RIgQNMRNa. 2. /KQqIJKH VQHK qP [PVIePRz LJ KLVI. 4. wI TMJ eLJ ZIMTI.
wMR LH JPK LJIxLKM`NI. 3. yPQ VMa ZQK K[I `PPz PJ K[I QZZIR H[INs. *. yPQ VMa MNNPe K[I T[LNqRIJ KP gP sPR M
eMNz. ,. wI VQHK qLHTQHH K[I VMKKIR JPK NMKIR K[MJ KPVPRRPe. 7. 1P`Pqa TMJ qP LK eLK[PQK aPQR [INZ. b. wI
VQHK NPPz LJKP K[I VMKKIR. 2. yPQ VQHKJlK KMzI K[I VMgMLJI MeMa. +). yPQ VQHK ZPHK K[I NIKKIR MH HPPJ MH
aPQ [MxI eRLKKIJ LK. ++. vMa . KMzI K[I `PPzH MJq ZMZIRH MeMa{ +2. . VQHK ZMa sPR K[I qLJJIR. +4. yPQ VQHK
ePRz sPR HQTTIHH! +3. yPQ TMJlK qIHTRL`I LK. oJI VQHK QHK HII LK.
44. FiII in the bIanks with the verbs "an, may or must:
1. . [MxI sPRgPKKIJ Va PeJ NMJgQMgI MJq ... HZIMz JPK[LJg `QK aPQRH. 2! wI ... gP HPVIe[IRI. wI ... JPK
eMJqIR M`PQK sPR IxIR. 4. 0QK . K[LJz aPQ ... [MxI KPNq QH K[LH [MNs MJ [PQR MgPc 3. yPQ ... HII VQT[ Ps
LJKIRIHK K[IRI. *. . qLq JPK [IMR [LV RIKQRJ KP K[I RPPV. .... [MxI `IIJ MHNIIZ. ,. yPQ ... [MxI VLHKMzIJ [LV!
Va qIMR. |I ... JPK [MxI LJKIJqIq KP HMa K[MK. 7. .K HIIVIq ZPHHL`NI K[Ia ... RIKQRJ. b. .K.. JPK [MxI [MZZIJIq
MK dLJHeLTz. 2. 1P gPPq NPPzLJg `MTz; K[LJgH [MZZIJ MH K[Ia .... +). uP `I MH[MVIq Ps [LH PeJ sMK[IR LH
ZIR[MZH K[I `LKKIRIHK ISZIRLIJTI M aPQJg VMJ ... gP K[RPQg[. ++. |Pe ... aPQ NIK K[LJgH HNLqI NLzI K[MK! nLTz{
+2.+ K[LJz aPQ ... `I gNMq Ps HPVI TPssII `IsPRI aPQ HKMRK `MTz KP aPQR [PKIN. .KlH HQT[ M TPNq JLg[K. +4. .K eMH
zJPeJ e[LHZIRIq MVPJg K[I PNq! qLHTQHHIq MVPJg K[I aPQJg K[MK K[I sMVLNa ZRLqI ... HPPJ RITILxI M
`NPe. +3. dJq K[PQg[ [I QJqRIHHIq MJq gPK LJKP `Iq [I ... JPK HNIIZ. +*. yPQ ... JPK gP PQK HP NMKI MK JLg[K.
+,.+ K[LJz LK... [MZZIJ HPPJIR PR NMKIR. +7.+... TPVI KPJLg[K! ... . JPK{ +b. /PVI`Pqa LH zJPTzLJg MK K[I qPPR.
.K... `I mP[J. .K ... JPK `I mP[J. .KlH KPP IMRNa sPR [LV KP `I `MTz. +2.+ qPJlK zJPe sPR TIRKMLJ! `QK [I ... [MxI
`IIJ M HMLNPR LJ [LH aPQK[. 2). u[Ia... MHz VI M`PQK [LV. w[MK H[PQNq . HMa{
:=, TransIate these sentences into EngIish, using the verbs "an, may, mash
+. ~ 8 $! 8 8. 8 >8 $6. 2. $>!
D; ; 6D! E 8{ 4. Y6 8 $>D6 6!
. 3. ~ E$! > 86! 6. *! '! $> 86! ; $! $8
$ $6 $6 ; ! ,.
6 . ' $ 8 $; ; 86. 7! ~ 8 D6 6
$; $ $! $> 6 ;. b. "6! $>! 8
;! 7 8 . 2. ~ E ! ; > 6. +) 8
$> 5 ; ! ;7. '! > 86! ; >$$. ... '! $>
+bb
86! ; E$. 8 > >8 5 ; ;6 . +2. ' ;!
& 8$ . ' ; $! E
$> 86 : 6 $! 89 ;. +4. "8 $; 8 5
; 6 $! 8 ! &. +3. A =
%8! 8 D6 C;C7. (> $! $>D6! E. +*. X!
$> 6 6 { $>! > "E. +,. t E D${ h! >
86! 5 . F $. +7. ~ 8 E $> 8 6 ! 8
8 8$. +b. F 8 E $; 86 7 $ 6$$ { <>
>${ +2. < $> 86! 8 >$ 8 7. ! ; $. 2). < $;
8 8 5 $; 6D{ h 8 8 $. 2+. ' ! $8! $>
$ $ 5! "! ; . 22. $7 ;6 C%!
; $. 24. > 86! 6 8$ 8$! {
46. Comment on the meaning of ha3e to. TransIate the sentences into Russian:
+. .lV MsRMLq! . H[MNN [MxI KP HIJq [LV MeMa. 2. wMH K[I sLRI MNRIMqa NMLq PR qLq aPQ [MxI KP NMa LK{ 4. u[I
RPZI eMH HP HKRPJg K[MK [I [Mq KP KMzI M zJLsI KP TQK LK. 3. 0QK eMH LK ePRK[ e[LNI gPLJg KP `Iq e[IJ [I [Mq
KP `I QZ MgMLJ MK sLxI{ *. . HQZZPHI . H[MNN [MxI KP gP `MTz KP iPJqPJ! H[MJlK .{ ,. nP aPQ [MxI KP gIK QZ
IMRNa IxIRa VPRJLJg{ 7. |I eLNN [MxI KP ZMa VI `MTz `IsPRI /QJqMa. b. |Pe NPJg qLq aPQ [MxI KP HKMa
K[IRI{ 2. rwI H[MNN [MxI KP eMLK M NPJg KLVI sPR PQR [PNLqMaH!r H[I HMLq eLK[ M HLg[. +). dJq aPQ [MxI KP gP
K[IRI KeLTI M eIIz! qPJlK aPQ{
47. FiII in the bIanks with must or ha3e to:
+. nPJlK ePRRa M`PQK K[MK. yPQ ... qP MH aPQ K[LJz `IHK. 2. va VPK[IR eMH QJeINN! MJq .... gP KP K[I
T[IVLHKlH. 4.+... gP MJq NPPz MK K[I qLJJIR. 3. yIHKIRqMalH RMLJ HZPLNK Va [MK TPVZNIKINa; . ... `Qa M JIe PJI.
*. u[IRI eMH JP PJI KP [INZ [LV HP [I ... VPxI K[I sQRJLKQRI [LVHINs. ,. ro[! [MNNP!r H[I HMLq; r. K[PQg[K aPQ
... [MxI gPJI [PVI.r 7. u[Ia qLqJlK MJHeIR Va sLRHK zJPTz HP . ... zJPTz KeLTI. b. yPQ ... MNeMaH TPVI KP VI
Ls MJaK[LJg gPIH eRPJg. 2. |I eMH xIRa HPRRa KP K[LJz K[MK [I ePQNq ... ZMRK eLK[ LK. +). . [Mq M HNIIZNIHH
JLg[K. . ... gP MJq HII K[I qPT MJq gIK [LV KP gLxI VI HPVIK[LJg! . TMJlK gP PJ NLzI K[MK.
48. Make the foIIowing sentences negative and interrogative:
+. |I eLNN [MxI KP TPVI MgMLJ. 2. va HLHKIR [MH KP gP KP ePRz. 4. u[Ia [Mq KP gP `MTz MNPJI. 3. yPQ [MxI
KP MJHeIR MNN K[IHI fQIHKLPJH. *. . H[MNN [MxI KP gP PQK MsKIR MNN. ,. |I eLNN [MxI KP TPVI PJ sPPK. 7. u[I
HKQqIJKH [Mq KP RIMq K[I e[PNI `PPz. b. /[I [MH KP TPVI IxIRa eIIz. 2. |I [MH KP HKMa K[I JLg[K. +). u[Ia
[Mq KP `IgLJ xIRa IMRNa.
49. Change the foIIowing statements into disjunctive questions:
+. . gMK[IR aPQ [MxI KP RIMq M NPK LJ GJgNLH[. 2. |I [Mq KP eMLK MK K[I HKMKLPJ KLNN LK HKPZZIq RMLJLJg. 4. u[I
ePRz eLNN [MxI KP `I qPJI `IsPRI JLg[KsMNN. 3. u[Ia QHQMNNa [MxI qLJJIR MK [PVI. *. /[I PsKIJ [MH KP gP KP
K[I qIJKLHKlH. ,. yPQ [MxI KP gP KP HT[PPN PJ /MKQRqMa. 7. u[Ia eLNN [MxI KP qP e[MK K[Ia MRI KPNq. b. wI
[MxI KP `IgLJ `IsPRI sLxI PlTNPTz. 2. dH sMR MH . QJqIRHKMJq aPQ [Mq KP HKMa K[IRI M sPRKJLg[K. +). yPQ NPPz M
`LK KLRIq! aPQlxI [Mq M NPJg eMNz. ++. /[I [MH KP TNIMJ K[I [PQHI [IRHINs. +2. u[Ia [Mq KP sLJLH[ K[MK NMHK JLg[K
50. Group the exampIes according to the meaning of the >be + infinitive" construction: (i) expressing a
previousIy arranged pIan (2) expressing instructions or commands:
+. . MV KP HII [LV KPVPRRPe. 2. w[MK MV . KP qP JPe{ 4. yPQ MRI JPK KP TPVVQJLTMKI eLK[ MJa`Pqa. 3.
/[I HMLq K[MK . eMH JPK KP NIMxI K[I [PQHI. *. /[I LH KP RIKQRJ KPVPRRPe. ,. |I HMLq K[MK uPV eMH KP
MZPNPgLI. 7. |I LJfQLRIq e[IJ K[I HITRIKMRa eMH KP TPVI. b. /[I HMaH . MV JPK KP NMa K[I KM`NI `IsPRI
KeINxI PlTNPTz. 2. dK e[MK KLVI MV . KP TPVI{ +). /PVIK[LJg VQHK [MxI [MZZIJIq. |I eMH KP [MxI TPVI MK
ILg[K. ++. mLV RIVLJqIq VI K[MK eI eIRI KP `I MK K[I HKMKLPJ JPK NMKIR K[MJ HIxIJ. +2. w[LT[ Ps aPQ LH KP
`RLJg K[I VMgMLJIH MJq JIeHZMZIRH{
51. Comment on the use of must, ha3e to, be to and transIate the sentences into Russian:
+. . eMJK aPQ KP P`Ia [IR. yPQ VQHK qP ISMTKNa MH H[I HMaH MJq VMzI JP JPLHI. 2. rwINN! e[MK MV . KP qP
M`PQK qLJJIR{r HMLq vLHH |MJqsPRK[. r/ZPLN LK `a PxIRTPPzLJg PR NIK LK gIK TPNq{r 4. MJqMNN eMH ISTLKIq. |I
K[PQg[K [I VQHK KINIZ[PJI [IR MK PJTI! [I VQHK HII [IR! HPVI[Pe! K[MK xIRa qMa. 3. GVVM VQHK [MxI `IIJ
xIRa `IMQKLsQN e[IJ H[I eMH aPQJg. /[I [MH M sLJI sMTI. *. rwI MRI JPK KP `I KRLsNIq eLK[!r RIKQRJIq K[I
ZPNLTIVMJ LJ M K[RIMKIJLJg xPLTI. ,. yPQ VQHK TPVI MJq [MxI qLJJIR eLK[ VI HPVI KLVI. 7. |I NPHK MNN [LH
VPJIa MK K[I RMTIH MJq . [Mq KP NIJq [LV sLxI ZPQJqH. b.+ [PZI . ePJlK QZHIK PR MJJPa aPQ `a HZIMzLJg
sRMJzNa. . VQHK [MxI aPQR MqxLTI. 2. wMzI QZ! qP aPQ [IMRc yPQ MRI KP eMzI QZ MK PJTI. +). /P pRMJz [MH
TPVI{ o[! aIH; fQLKI QJISZITKIqNa. |I eMH KP [MxI HKMaIq M eIIz NPJgIR. ++. yPQ MRI JPK KP HKMa HP NMKI.
yPQ VMa NIMxI MsKIR qLJJIR. +2. u[I HKPRa eMH HKLNN TNIMR LJ [LH VLJq. |I zJIe e[MK [Mq KP `I qPJI. |I KPPz
[LH ZIJ MJq eRPKI LJ [LH JIMK! HKIMqa [MJq K[I KLKNI Ps [LH JIe JPxIN.
nee
52. Comment on the meaning of the verb need:
+b2
+. |I JIIqH HIM MLR. 2. wI qPJlK JIIq MJaK[LJg INHI. 4.+ JIIq JPK sLJLH[ Va HIJKIJTI! sPR aPQ MNRIMqa
zJPe e[MK . eMH gPLJg KP HMa. 3. 1IIq LK `I sLJLH[Iq `a /MKQRqMa{ *. w[MK VPRI qP aPQ JIIq{ ,. |I JIIq
HMa JP VPRI KP [IR K[LH IxIJLJg! MJq RLHz gLxLJg [LVHINs MeMa. 7. yPQ JIIqJlK [MxI TMRRLIq MNN K[IHI ZMRTINH
aPQRHINs. u[I H[PZ ePQNq [MxI qINLxIRIq K[IV Ls aPQ [Mq MHzIq K[IV. b. yPQ JIIqJlK KMzI MJa VPRI ZLNNH
MsKIR JISK vPJqMa. 2.+ VQHK gP MK PJTI! `QK aPQ JIIqJlK. +). yPQ JIIqJlK [MxI eMLKIq sPR VI! . TPQNq [MxI
sPQJq K[I eMa. MNN RLg[K. ++. iPPzLJg `MTz . TMJ HII ISMTKNa [Pe LK [MZZIJIq. .K JIIq JIxIR [MxI [MZZIJIq.
+2. dJq [I eMH MNeMaH TMRIsQN KP [MxI VPJIa LJ [LH ZPTzIK! MJq KP `I VPqLH[ LJ [LH qRIHH! HP K[MK [LH HPJ
JIIq JPK `NQH[ sPR [LV.
53. FiII in the bIanks with didn?t ha3e to or needn?t ha3e:
+. yPQ ... (KP `RLJg) aPQR QV`RINNM! MH eI MRI gPLJg `a TMR. 2. yPQ ... (KP eMKIR) K[I sNPeIRH! MH LK LH gPLJg
KP RMLJ. 4. . ... (KP KRMJHNMKI) LK sPR [LV! [I qLq LK [LVHINs! [I QJqIRHKMJqH iMKLJ. 3. .... (KP MJHeIR) K[I
fQIHKLPJH! e[LT[ HMxIq VI M NPK Ps KRPQ`NI. *. . zJIe . ... (KP NPTz) K[I qPPR MsKIR VI! `QK [Pe eMH . KP zJPe
aPQ eMJKIq KP TPVI PQK! KPP{ ,.+... (KP RLJg) K[I `INN `ITMQHI K[I qPPR PZIJIq `IsPRI . gPK KP LK. 7. .... (KP
[INZ) K[IV MK MNN! K[Ia K[IVHINxIH zJIe e[MK KP qP. b. . ... (KP eRLKI) [LV `ITMQHI K[I JIeH eMH MNRIMqa
zJPeJ KP [LV. |I Z[PJIq VI H[PRKNa MsKIReMRqH. 2. yPQ ... (KP NLHKIJ) KP [LV. |LH LJsPRVMKLPJ eMH
VLHNIMqLJg. +). yPQ ... (KP `Qa) HQT[ M NPK Ps sNPeIRH. wIlxI MNRIMqa gPK VPRI K[MJ JITIHHMRa. ++. |I... (KP
gIK QZ) HP IMRNa IxIRa qMa. .K eMH PJNa PJ K[MK ZMRKLTQNMR PTTMHLPJ K[MK [I qLq. +2. yPQ ... (KP HMa) Ls aPQ
qLqJlK eMJK KP. wI TPQNq [MxI qPJI eLK[PQK aPQ QHK MH eINN.
54. FiII in the bIanks with mast, ha3e to, be to or need:
+. yPQ ... JPK (KP `RLJg) aPQR `PPzH KP TNMHH KPVPRRPe! eI MRI gPLJg KP NLHKIJ KP M eLRINIHH ZRPgRMVVI. 2.
.lV gNMq K[I NIHHPJH eLNN `IgLJ NMKIR JPe. u[I T[LNqRIJ ePJlK... (KP gIK QZ) HP IMRNa. 4. yPQ ... JPK (KP NIMRJ)
K[I ZPIV. yPQ ... PJNa (KP RIMq) LK. 3. O[LNqRIJ ... JPK (KP ZNMa) eLK[ VMKT[IH. *. .K eMH NMKI! MJq K[Ia ...(KP
NLg[K) M sLRI KP TPPz K[ILR HQZZIR. ,. yPQ ... (KP gLxI) LK `MTz KP VI `IsPRI aPQ gP. 7. yPQ ... JPK (KP `I) NMKI
sPR K[I TPJTIRK. b.+ VMqI M sIe VLHKMzIH! HP .... (KP qP) K[I e[PNI ISIRTLHI MgMLJ. 2.+... [MRqNa (KP HMa) [Pe
LVZPRKMJK LK LH. +). /[I ... (KP `I VMRRLIq) JISK VPJK[. ++. yPQ... JPK (KP VLHH) K[MK sLNV! LK LH ISKRMPRqLJMRa
gPPq. +2. yPQ ... JPK (KP HKRLzI) M VMKT[; . TMJ HII eINN IJPQg[. +4. mLV ... (KP VMzI) M HZIIT[ MK K[I VIIKLJg!
`QK [I [Mq sMNNIJ LNN! HP uPV ... (KP HZIMz) LJHKIMq! +3. yPQ ... JPK (KP `RLJg) MJa sPPq eLK[ aPQ KPVPRRPe. .lNN
[MxI IJPQg[ sPR `PK[ Ps QH. +*. wI ... (KP `I) K[IRI MK +2 H[MRZ. +,! wI ... JPK (KP eMLK) NPJg. d `QH TMVI
MNVPHK MK PJTI. +7. yPQ ... (KP NIMRJ) K[I e[PNI ZPIV.
55. TransIate the sentences into EngIish, using must, ham to, be to or need:
+. _ $8 8D $ ! . 2. "8 $>$ D6. <$
> 86 $ 6D b.4). 4. 8 >8 6 9 $. h 8 8 ; D5
8. 3. X! 6 5 { *. " D6 6 6!
> . ,. @~ 685 $! $6! $>
96 DB. 7. $ $ 6! . <! >6
>5 Y$8 A$: 9 6 . b. < > 86! X
h > ! $ $ 7 >6 E; ;$; ;. 2. $
6 >6! 7! 8 >! 989 $ &
$ $ ! ^... . +). ' >8 8
6 $ , . ++. t $ 6 D$ ;$
&{ 'D $ %$7 ; YE. +2. ' !
$ $8 >8 8 5! 86. +4. "8 D! >8
. +3. < >8 $6! F$6 87=5 $5 $ 8.
h $ . +*. " D6 6 E ;D! 9 6 >
. 9 6 9 89 5. +,. ' ! $! $>!
>6 $ 6D $%. +7. ( ! ; > D
C. +b. $8 >8 8 6 7 6% E$ $; 5 .
ought
56. Comment on the meaning of the verb ought. TransIate the sentences into Russian:
+. . K[LJz sPR aPQR eLsI MJq T[LNqRIJlH HMzI aPQ PQg[K KP [MxI M KRa. 2. u[IRI MRI ZIPZNI e[P K[LJz K[Ia
PQg[K KP `I RIsPRVIq. 4. wI MNN zJPe K[MK K[LJgH MRI JPK MNeMaH e[MK K[Ia PQg[K KP `I. 3. yPQ PQg[K KP qP
HPVIK[LJg! aPQ zJPe; LKlNN `I sMKMN sPR aPQ KP [MxI JPK[LJg KP qP. *. |MxI . HMLq MJaK[LJg . PQg[KJlK{ ,. r.
PQg[K KP [MxI KPNq /PMVIH!r [I K[PQg[K! rK[MK . K[LJz [LV TPVLT.r 7. . HQZZPHI H[I LH RLg[K. . PQg[KJlK KP
[MxI KRLIq KP HZIMz KP [IRc b. 0a K[I IJq Ps K[I IxIJLJg . MNVPHK sINK K[MK . PQg[K KP TMNN [LV r}JTNI mMTz.r 2.
.KlNN `I NPxINa RPQJq K[IRI KPqMa. yIH! LK PQg[K KP `I fQLKI JLTI. +). .K LH K[I NMHK Ps K[I vMqILRM . [Mq sRPV
vR. mPNaPJ e[IJ eI TMVI LJ [IRI; LK PQg[K KP `I LJ ZRLVI TPJqLKLPJ HKLNN.
57. Paraphrase the foIIowing sentences so as to use ought &oughtn?t' foIIowed by a correct form of the
infinitive:
G S M V Z N I: . sINK LK ePQNq `I PJNa ZRPZIR KP sPNNPe [LH MqxLTI.
. sINK . ought KP sPNNPe [LH MqxLTI.
+. . zJIe LK ePQNq `I LVZRPZIR Ls . PZIJIq K[I NIKKIR. 2. . RITPVVIJqIq aPQ KP sLJLH[ aPQR ePRz `IsPRI
gPLJg PQK. 4. . MqxLHI aPQ JPK KP IMK `IKeIIJ VIMNH; LK eLNN VMzI aPQ sMK. 3. . qLHMZZRPxI Ps aPQR HVPzLJg HP
VQT[; aPQ MRI eMHKLJg aPQR VPJIa MJq qPLJg [MRV KP aPQR [IMNK[. *. .KlH M ZLKa . qLqJlK KMzI K[PHI `PPzH
`MTz KP K[I NL`RMRa NMHK eIIz. ,. .K eMH eRPJg Ps aPQ JPK KP KINN PQR gQLqI K[MK aPQ eMJKIq KP gP HLg[KHIILJg
+2)
MNN `a aPQRHINs. 7. yPQ qLqJlK eMLK KLNN K[I NLg[KH eIRI gRIIJ `IsPRI TRPHHLJg K[I RPMq! MJq LK eMH eRPJg! aPQ
zJPe. b. .K eMH QJRIMHPJM`NI Ps aPQ KP [MxI TRPHHIq K[I RPMq e[IJ K[I NLg[KH eIRI RIq. 2. . eLH[ aPQ [Mq
`IIJ K[IRI. u[I ZIRsPRVMJTI eMH ePJqIRsQN. +). .s [I HKMRKH MK ILg[K [I eLNN ZRP`M`Na `I K[IRI `a PJI
PlTNPTz.
58. FiII in the bIanks with ought, ha3e to, be to or need foIIowed by the appropriate infinitive:
+. vPK[IR MNeMaH KINNH VI K[MK . ... (KP `I) VPRI TMRIsQN. 2. yPQ ... JPK (KP KINN) [LV Va KINIZ[PJI JQV`IR!
[I zJPeH LK. 4. yPQ ... JPK (KP HMa) K[MKc /II [Pe qLHKRIHHIq H[I LH. 3.+ qPJlK eMJK KP qP LK! `QK ..... *. dNN K[I
HMVI! . K[LJz aPQ ... (KP HII) M qPTKPR. u[IRI VQHK `I HPVIK[LJg K[I VMKKIR eLK[ aPQ. ,. nPJlK sPRgIK K[MK aPQ
... (KP gIK QZ) MK HIxIJc 7. 0QK K[IRI eMH JP PK[IR eMa PQK. +... (KP TPVVQJLTMKI) eLK[ [LV. 1P PJI INHI zJIe
[IR MqqRIHH. b. /QT[ K[LJgH ... JPK (KP `I MNNPeIq). 2! yPQ ... JPK (KP eRLKI) HQT[ M NPJg TPVZPHLKLPJ. u[I
KIMT[IR PJNa MHzIq sPR 2)) ePRqH! MJq aPQ [MxI eRLKKIJ 3)). +). r\IR[MZH .... JPK (KP KRPQ`NI) aPQ.r |I
TNPHIq [LH NLZH KLg[K. |I eMH PssIJqIq.
should
59. Comment on the meaning of the verb should. TransIate the sentences into Russian:
+. OMJ aPQ H[Pe VI MJa GJgNLH[ ePVMJ e[P HZIMzH GJgNLH[ MH LK H[PQNq `I HZPzIJ{ 2. d eLsI H[PQNq
P`Ia [IR [QH`MJq. 4. 0IHLqIH aPQ H[PQNqJlK TQK aPQR PNq sRLIJqH JPe K[MK aPQ [MxI RLHIJ LJ K[I ePRNq. 3.
u[Ia H[PQNq `I KMQg[K M NIHHPJ. *. . TPJsIHH . qLq JPK sPRIHII K[LH KQRJ Ps IxIJKH. 0QK . H[PQNq [MxI sPRIHIIJ
LK. ,. yPQ [MxI qLHTPxIRIq e[MK . LJKIJqIq aPQ H[PQNq JIxIR [MxI zJPeJ. 7. |I H[PQNq JPK [MxI HMLq LK. u[I
VPVIJK K[I ePRqH TRPHHIq [LH NLZH [I zJIe LK eMH JPK K[I RLg[K K[LJg KP HMa. b. OPJHLqIRM`NI qI`MKI KPPz
ZNMTI `IKeIIJ K[I KeP HLHKIRH e[IK[IR uLVPK[a H[PQNq PR H[PQNqJlK `I HQVVPJIq KP HII dJJIKKI. 2. ryPQ
H[PQNq TPVI [IRI PsKIJ!r [I HMLq KP /[INKPJ... ryPQ PQg[K KP TPVI [IRI PsKIJ!r [I RIZIMKIq KP /[INKPJ. +).
yPQ PQg[K KP sLJLH[ aPQR ePRz `IsPRI gPLJg PQK. . zJPe . H[PQNq.
60. State whether should is auxiIiary or modaI:
+. r/P aPQ K[LJz . H[PQNq gP! K[IJ{r HMLq MJqMNN `I[LJq [LV. 2. dK `RIMzsMHK . KPNq vMRa K[MK . H[PQNq `I
M`HIJK MK NIMHK sPQR qMaH. 4. . H[PQNqJlK [MxI `INLIxIq LK Ls . [MqJlK HIIJ LK eLK[ Va PeJ IaIH. 3. yPQ RIMNNa
H[PQNqJlK [MxI HMLq K[MK! pINLS. .lNN KMNz KP [LV VaHINs. *. |Pe M`PQK \LJsPNq{ /[PQNqJlK [I `I [IRI{ ,. u[MJz
UPq sPR PQR ULN`IRK. w[MK H[PQNq eI qP eLK[PQK [LV{ 7. 1P PJI zJIe e[IJ . eMH KP `I `MTz PR Ls . H[PQNq
`I `MTz MK MNN. b. pINLS HMLq [MHKLNa! rpPRgLxI VI. . H[PQNqJlK [MxI KRPQ`NIq aPQr. 2. 1INN [MH QHK KPNq VI aPQ
eMJKIq KP HII VI PR . H[PQNqJlK [MxI KRPQ`NIq aPQ. +). u[Ia [Mq JPK HIIJ JP PJI H[PQNq HII [IR qLHKRIHH!
JPK IxIJ [IR gRMJqsMK[IR.
61. TransIate the sentences into EngIish, using must, ought, should, need, ha3e to or be to:
+. X! > ! $ 8 6 $5 6! 8 $
> . 2. % % $8 D! $ $ 6D 6
> 6 ;8. 4. Y8 > 6 $ D! 9! 8 8
9 D . 3. 8 >8 8 ;6 $D . Y;
8 $ D6 6 89 . *. < 8 > 6 $. Y 8
D 8 6 $ . 8 ! 8 9! ,. '! > 86! 7
. < $ $D6. 7. A$ 8 D { > 8 6
77 . Y; 8 > 8 8 6! $8 8 >. b.
A5! D6! 76 $D6 ! $ ;! $ 96. 2.
! ! 8$. (8 ; ; ;. +). < ; $D;
$! . <> 86 6. X. ~$ 6 6!
$. +2. Y8 ! E D ! 6. <> 86 $68$
7$. +4. A; 9 %85 6. F>$ D6 6! +3.
Y 7 58 9=. +*. " D ; ;6 $! 8.
+,. < D5 $ ;6 $5 $. ' $ 9 $! $
6 . +7. $ > 8 6 C. $; 8 6
$ 7 9$7 C$%7. +b. X$ 8 >6 ; ; $; D;.
' = >7 E$. +2. 7 $! 8 . 9D 7!
;$ 6.
62. Comment on the use of should for the sake of emotionaI coIouring. Pay attention to the structure of the
sentences and the word combination it is found in:
+. ghy &hou9d aPQ `I qLssIRIJK sRPV PK[IR VIJ{ 2. 0QK why &hou9d [I KMzI K[I HTMJqMc PJ [LVHINs{ .K eMH
JPK sMLRc 4. u[Ia PJNa eMJK K[ILR LJqIZIJqIJTI! MJq why &hou9dn?t K[Ia [MxI LK{ 3. rnP aPQ HII VQT[ Ps
MJqMNN{r r|I ZRMTKLTMNNa NLxIH [IRI. 0QK aPQ zJIe{!r r1P!r HMLq |Qg[! |I eMH HQRZRLHIq MJq MJJPaIq. r
ghy IxIR HJPQLq . zJPe{r *. w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz PQg[K KP `I qPJI{ nPJI{ _ow &hou9d . zJPe{ ,! rpRIH[
MLRcr ISTNMLVIq mMVIH! nghat &hou9d . qP eLK[ sRIH[ MLR{r 7. v R H. | L g g L J H: 0QK e[IRI qPIH K[I gLRN
NLxI{ | L g g L n H: wLK[ QH! Ps TPQRHI. ghere &hou9d H[I NLxI{ b. /trange that K[I qPg &hou9d die QHK JPec 2.
Ironi5a9 that /PMVIH &hou9d 5o+e qPeJ [IRI KP K[LH [PQHI! `QLNK sPR [LVHINsc +). |I [IMRq K[I JQRHI
TRaLJg PxIR K[IRI `a K[I sLRI; 5uriou& that H[I! M HKRMJgIR! &hou9d 2e K[I PJNa PJI Ps K[IV e[P TRLIqc ++. .KlH
+2+
xIRa intere&ting that aPQ &hou9d &ay K[MK! GqeMRq xIRa LJKIRIHKLJg. +2. It &tru5' her 2itter9y that H[I! e[P
[Mq `IIJ [LH sLRHK MqPRIq! &hou9d have KP HT[IVI KP HII [LV. +4. ... it annoyed hi+ very +u5h that [LH
TPVZMJLPJ! e[P eMH MNHP KLRIq! &hou9d grow VPRI T[IIRsQN. +3. It?& very &trange that [I &hou9d have to9d
aPQ K[I KRQK[c +*. ... HQqqIJNa [I [IMRq [LH JMVI TMNNIq sRPV `I[LJq! MJq who &hou9d RLqI QZ KP [LV PJ
ILK[IR HLqI 2ut 0LNN nIJJMJK MJq dJKPJLM [IRHINsc
63. Pay attention to the use of should in subordinate cIauses after some verbs and expressions.
85
TransIate
the sentences into Russian:
(. I" It i& ne5e&&ary K[MK . H[PQNq HII [IR `IsPRI aPQ qP. 2. It i& nor+a9 K[MK K[IRI H[PQNq `I M ZIRLPq Ps
RI`QLNqLJg MsKIR eMR. 4. r/[I [MH HLS T[LNqRIJ!r HMLq dQJK mQNa! nif& very 4ro4er K[MK H[I H[PQNq `I TMRIsQN.r
3. It i& e&&entia9 K[MK aPQ H[PQNq sLJq PQK KP e[PV K[PHI PRqIRH MRI gPLJg. *. . VIMJ Ls eI MRI KP qIxINPZ
nLIHIN ZNMJIH if& vita9 K[MK eI H[PQNq [MxI PQR PeJ VMgJIHLQV HQZZNLIH.
B. ,. |I de+anded K[MK ePRz H[PQNq HKMRK MK PJTI. 7. wI re5o++end K[MK [I H[PQNq `I T[PHIJ PQR
qINIgMKI. b. |I ordered K[MK K[Ia H[PQNq MNN NIMxI K[I [PQHI. 2. |I &ugge&ted K[MK K[I ePRzLJg [PQRH H[PQNq
`I RIqQTIq. +). u[I qPTKPR in&i&t& K[MK K[I T[LNqRIJ H[PQNq `I HIJK KP K[I TPQJKRa.
C. ++. .s H[I H[PQNq Z[PJI . eLNN KINN [IR e[IRI aPQ MRI. +2. /[PQNq aPQ RIfQLRI MJaK[LJg VPRI! ZNIMHI
RLJg K[I `INN sPR K[I MKKIJqMJK.
64. FiII in the bIanks with mast, should or need:
+. .lV HQggIHKLJg K[MK! aPQ ... VMRRa ;;! vLqgI. 2. /[I ... `I ZLTzLJg T[IRRLIH LJ K[I PRT[MRq! KINN [IR KP
TPVI LJKP K[I [PQHI. 4. rwINN.r HMLq GVLNa eLK[ TMNV! raPQ ... JPK gIK LJKP HQT[ sQHHIH e[IJ eI KINN aPQ
K[LJgH.r 3. .H LK JITIHHMRa! qP aPQ K[LJz! K[MK K[I ZPNLTI ... zJPe M`PQK LK{ *. yPQ ... JPK `I MsRMLq Ps [LV. |IlH
M zLJq PNq VMJ. ,. .K i& IHHIJKLMN K[MK [I ... `I ZRIZMRIq sPR LK. 7. /PsK VQHLT sLNNIq K[I RPPV. ru[MK ... `I M
gRMVPZ[PJI RITPRq!r K[PQg[K [I. b. . ZRPZPHI K[MK K[I ZRLI ... `I qLxLqIq. 2. o[! . qPJlK zJPe. .KlH RIMNNa
RMK[IR Pqq K[MK [I ... IxIR [MxI `IIJ KMzLJg [IR KP K[I 0MNN. +). yPQ ... [MxI HIIJ K[MK sLNV e[IJ LK eMH [IRI
NMHK eIIz. ++. .K LH HKRMJgI K[MK aPQ ... RIVIV`IR K[I ZNMTI. +2. w[a ... JPK . KMNz KP OMK[IRLJI{ nP aPQ K[LJz
.lV JPK ePRK[a KP! PR HPVIK[LJg{ +4. \PPR `Pac |I ... [MxI HQssIRIq HP. +3. yPQ ... JPK MJHeIRMNN Va
fQIHKLPJH Ls aPQ qPJlK eMJK KP. +*. w[a ... aPQ HMa HQT[ qLHMgRIIM`NI K[LJgH{ +,. UP QZHKMLRH MK PJTI. yPQ ...
T[MJgI aPQR eIK TNPK[IH. +7. .K eMH PJNa ZRPZIR K[MK nPRM! e[P eMH aPQJg MJq [IMNK[a! ... gLxI [IR HIMK KP
K[MK PNq NMqa. +b. . K[LJz .lNN TPVI PJ KLVI! `QK Ls . ... `I NMKI! ZNIMHI zIIZ M HIMK sPR VI. +2. |I PRqIRIq K[MK
K[I gMKI ... `I NPTzIq. 2). /[I TPJsLHTMKIq K[I VPRJLJg ZMZIRH HP K[MK K[I T[LNqRIJ ... JPK HII K[IV. 2+.
yPQ ... JPK eMzI QZ `IsPRI HIxIJ PlTNPTz. wIlNN HKMRK MK [MNs ZMHK ILg[K. 22. . eMH QHK ePJqIRLJg Ls Va eLsI
eMH [IRI.l 1P! H[I LHJlK [IRI. w[a ... H[I `I{ 24. yPQ ... JPK ePRz HP [MRq MsKIR aPQR LNNJIHH. 23. |IJRLIKKM
HQggIHKIq KP UIRqM K[MK K[Ia ... gP MJq NPPz MK K[I zLKT[IJ gMRqIJ.
shall, will
65. Comment on the modaI coIouring of the foIIowing sentences with shall:
+. yPQ H[MNN JPK HIMRT[ Va RPPVH. yPQ [MxI JP RLg[K KP qP LK. . sPR`Lq aPQc 2. |I [MHJlK HIIJ aPQ MJq [I
H[MJlK. 4. u[I ZPNLTI H[MNN KMzI aPQ QZ. 3. dNN RLg[K; Ls H[I eMJKH KP `I PZIJIq QZ! H[I H[MNN `I. *. yPQ H[MNN
gP QZ MJq qPeJ MJq RPQJq K[I KPeJ LJ M KMSL IxIRa qMa. ,. yPQ H[MNN [MxI MNN K[I JIeH . TMJ HIJq aPQ. 7.
r/[MNN . PRqIR M KMSL{r [I MHzIq. b. u[MK H[MNN `I ZQK MJ IJq KP JPe MJq sPR IxIRc
66. Comment on the meaning of will and would. TransIate the sentences into Russian:
+. . eLNN NIK aPQ zJPe! HP aPQ TMJ `I K[IRI. 2.+ eLNN KINN aPQ e[MK LK LH. 4. . eLNN VMzI aPQR ISTQHIH KP
vMRgMRIK. 3. .s LK [Mq `IIJ M gLRN . ePQNq [MxI TMNNIq [IR MsKIR Va VPK[IR. *. wLNN aPQ gP PQK PJ K[I KIRRMTI
MJq NPPz MK K[I HQJHIK{ ,. . MV MsRMLq Ls aPQ eLNN ISTQHI VI . VQHK PLJ Va eLsI. 7. dRK[QR! ePQNq aPQ
VLJq HIILJg Ls vRH. GRNaJJI [MH TPVI `MTz{ b. . eMJK M Z[PKPgRMZ[ Ps aPQ! ePQNq aPQ gLxI VI PJI{ 2.
wLNN aPQ MHz K[IV KP TMNN Va TMRRLMgI! ZNIMHI{ +). wLNN aPQ gP MJq NPPz PxIR K[I Z[PKPgRMZ[ MN`QV K[MK .
HII K[IRI{ ++. . eLNN JIxIR HZIMz KP aPQ MgMLJ. +2. 1P! JPc . eLNN gP `MTz! NIK dRK[QR qP eLK[ VI e[MK [I
ZNIMHIH. +4. 0QK . KPNq [LV . ePQNqJlK gLxI [LV MJ MJHeIR KLNN KPVPRRPe. +3. yPQ qLq eMJK KP TPVI! MNK[PQg[
aPQ ePQNqJlK HMa HP. +*. /[Ilq NLzI aPQ KP RLJg [IR QZ K[LH MsKIRJPPJ! `IsPRI sLxIK[LRKa! Ls aPQ ePQNq. +,. .
H[PQNq `I HP gNMq Ls aPQ ePQNq KINN [LV KP TPVI QZ! mMJI. +7. . zJPTzIq VPRI K[MJ PJTI `QK H[I ePQNqJlK NIK
VI LJ. +b. r. eLH[l aPQ ePQNq NIMxI VI MNPJI HPVIKLVIH!r HMLq nPRM. +2.+ HQZZPHI K[LH eLNN `I K[I NMHK `MNN
Ps K[I HIMHPJ{ 2). |I ePQNq HLK PJ K[I `Iq `IHLqI [LV MJq eMKT[ [LV sPR [PQRH. 2+. . HVPzI NLzI M T[LVJIac
dJq Va NLg[KIR ePJlK ePRz.
67. Comment on the meaning of shall and will. TransIate the sentences into Russian:
+. w[IRI H[MNN eI ZQK K[LH xMHI{ 2. . eMJK KP `I [INZsQN KP aPQ `PK[; Ls aPQ eLNN NIK VI. 4. nPJlK aPQ
ePRRa M`PQK MJaK[LJg. . eLNN `I MNN RLg[K. 3. ryPQ VQHK MNeMaH TPVI KP VI Ls MJaK[LJg gPIH eRPJg.r ros
TPQRHI! . eLNN!r H[I HMLq MH Ls H[I eIRI HPPK[LJg [LV. *. wLNN K[IRI `I KLVI KP `Qa K[I KLTzIKH{ ,. .lNN `IgLJ
MgMLJ MJq aPQ H[MJlK HKPZ VI K[LH KLVIc 7! rnP gLxI Va NPxI KP O[RLHKLJI!r HMLq nPRM. r/QRINa . eLNN!r HMLq
vLT[MIN. b. O[LNqRIJ! [MxI aPQ `IIJ ZNMaLJg eLK[ Va QV`RINNM{ .K ePJlK PZIJc 2. u[Ia H[MNN JPK ZMHHc +).
wLNN aPQ [MxI HPVIK[LJg KP qRLJz{ ++. |Pe NPJg eLNN aPQR sRLIJqH `I [IRI{ +2. yPQ H[MNN [MxI LK `MTz
KPVPRRPe. +4. dH [I TMJlK TRIMKI MJaK[LJg [LVHINs! [I LH qIKIRVLJIq aPQ ePJlK! +3. wLNN aPQ TPVI KP KIM
KPVPRRPe{ +*. |I H[MNN JIxIR TPVI [IRI MgMLJc .lNN KMzI TMRI Ps LK. +,. .s aPQ eLNN eMLK [IRI M VPVIJK! .lNN
b*
/Q`PRqLJMKI TNMQHIH eLK[ K[MK . H[PQNq TMJ `I QHIq MH MJ MNKIRJMKLxI KP K[I VPRI QHQMN LJsLJLKLxI TPJHKRQTKLPJH: ;hey de5ided that the &tri'e &hou9d
5ontinue, LJHKIMq Ps ;hey de5ided to 5ontinue the &tri'e" /II: rd \RMTKLTMN GJgNLH[ URMVVMR sPR pPRILgJ /KQqIJKHr `a d. m. u[PVHPJ MJq d. :. vMRKLJIK!
iJq.! +2,3! Z. +73+7*.
+22
sIKT[ aPQ M T[MLR.
68. RepIace shall and will with the suggested aIternative verb, making any necessary changes:
+. .K eLNN HPPJ RMLJ. iPPz MK K[I TNPQqH! (KP `I gPLJg) 2. yPQ H[MNN HKMa [IRI KLNN . TPVI `MTz! (KP `I KP) 4. .
ePJlK qP e[MK aPQ KINN VI. (KP RIsQHI) 3. yPQ H[MNN [MxI MJ MZZNI MsKIR qLJJIR! (KP ZRPVLHI) *. w[MK eLNN aPQ
qP JPe{ (KP `I gPLJg) ,. wI H[MNN xLHLK MNN K[I HLg[KH Ps iPJqPJ! (KP [PZI) 7. w[IJ eLNN aPQ NIMRJ GJgNLH[
ZRPZIRNa{ (KP LJKIJq) b. u[LH KLVI JISK eIIz . H[MNN `I LJ /K. \IKIRH`QRg! (KP [PZI) 2. wLNN [I NLHKIJ KP Va
HLJgLJg! qP aPQ K[LJz{ (KP NLzI) +). nP aPQ K[LJz K[IalNN sPNNPe QH MNN K[I eMa [PVI{ (KP VIMJ)
69. FiII in the bIanks with should or would:
+. r.s . HII [LV!r . HMLq! r.lNN NIK aPQ zJPe.r r. ... `I xIRa VQT[ P`NLgIq Ls aPQ ... !r HMLq 0RPeJ. 2. 0QK
. ...nlK NLI M`PQK M K[LJg NLzI K[MK!... .{ 4. ... aPQ qRLxI QH `MTz KP OMVZqIJ |LNN{ 3. /[I ...JlK gP LJ KP HQZZIR
eLK[ MJaPJI `QK wLJKPJ. *. .s . eIRI aPQ .... `Qa K[MK [MK! . NLzI K[I TPNPQR xIRa VQT[. ,! .KlH RLqLTQNPQH K[MK
aPQ ... TPJTIMN LK sRPV aPQR VPK[IR. 7. .s PJNa |IJRLIKKM ... VMzI QZ [IR VLJq KP VMRRa [LV. b. w[a ... .
HQssIR VPRI K[MJ .lxI HQssIRIq MNRIMqa{ w[a ... .{ 2. ... aPQ TMRI KP TPVI KP KIM eLK[ QH{ +). |I ...JlK NPPz MK
[IR. |I H[PPz [IR Pss gIJKNa MJq gIJKNa HMLq! rwIlNN HII M`PQK K[MK.r ++. |I ZRIHHIq HPVIK[LJg LJKP [IR
ZMNV. r|IRIlH M H[LNNLJg LJ TMHI aPQ ... JIIq LK.r +2. . ePJqIR Ls aPQ ... VLJq VI NMaLJg qPeJ Va QV`RINNM.
+4. w[a! P[c w[a ... . [MxI KP ISZPHI Va VLHsPRKQJI KP K[I ZQ`NLT NLzI K[LH{ +3. |I ... RMK[IR NLHKIJ KP K[I
PK[IRH K[MJ KMNz [LVHINs. +*. |I PRqIRIq K[MK K[I [PRHIH ... `I HMqqNIq. +,. /[I ... HLK sPR [PQRH eMKT[LJg K[I
H[LZH. +7. . eLH[ aPQ ...nlK fQMRRIN eLK[ mIHHLI. +b. |I sQNNa `INLIxIq! [Mq LK `IIJ JITIHHMRa! H[I... [MxI `IIJ
M gIJLQH MK MJaK[LJg. +2. .J PRqIR KP VMzI K[IHI qIVMJqH IssITKLxI eI HQggIHKIq K[MK K[IRI ... `I JP RIKQRJ KP
ePRz KPqMa. 2). w[a qPJlK aPQ eMJK KP HKMa MJPK[IR eIIz LJ K[I TPQJKRa{ .K... qP aPQ PJNa gPPq.
70. TransIate the sentences into EngIish, using should or would:
+. ' >! 8 8 %. 2. "8 $$!
> ; $D. 4. " 8 96! 8 8 %$
. 3. ( 5 $;6 ${ ' $> 6 $. *.
-6! 8 $68 $ $c ,. !
8 9 6 $> 6D ! 8 ; 7. 7. < 8
78 $; >6{ D $8 = ;8. b. <$ 96 6 8
! ; >6 $. "8 8 8. 2.
$! 8 ; 7 . +). A $ 8{ ! 8
78. X. <9$! 8 >85 $ ; %5. +2. ~
; E$! >! 5 $ D $. +4. < 9D6 $;
{ ' 6 85. +3. _ $! 85 $$! ($ !
5. +*. _$ $ 6 ! $ { <>! E .
h 6! 8 E D6. +,. ! >5! 7 $. - $
;. +7. 8 8 $ $; ! 8 8 D D6 . +b. A$
$ 6! 7 6{ ' ; ; $ ;. +2. F !
= 8;. 2). $ 8 6 $ 7 7 ;.
REVISION EXERCISES ON MOOD AND MODAL VERBS
71. RepIace the infinitives in brackets by the appropriate obIique mood:
+. .s . (KP `I) MH aPQJg MH aPQ MRI! . (KP [MxI) M eMNzLJg [PNLqMa. 2. \IR[MZH! H[I (JPK KP NPPz) HP `Mq! Ls
H[I (JPK KP ZQK PJ) HP VQT[ eILg[K. 4. |I eMNzIq HNPeNa MH K[PQg[ LK (KP MT[I) KP VPxI. 3. .K (KP `I) JMKQRMN
sPR [LV KP gP KP HNIIZ! *. .K HIIVIq MH Ls MNN K[I `MRI KRIIH! KPI `QH[IH! K[I TQK `RQH[ MJq MNN K[I gRMHH MJq K[I
`MRI gRPQJq (KP `I xMRJLH[Iq) eLK[ LTI. ,. nMqqa! Ls aPQ (KP `I qRIHHIq) LJ T[ITzIq gLJg[MVH MNN aPQR NLsI!
aPQ (KP QJqIRHKMJq) [Pe . sIIN. 7.+ (KP NLzI) KP gP [QJKLJg K[IRI! `QK .lV MsRMLq . JIxIR (KP `I M`NI) KP `IMR K[I
TPNq. b. |I NPPzIq NLzI MJ PssLTIR. dJa PJI (KP `I ZRPQq) KP `I HIIJ Pss `a [LV. 2. |I RIZMLq VI K[I [MNs
TRPeJ MH K[PQg[ LK (KP `I `PRRPeIq) aIHKIRqMa. +). u[I gLRNH (JPK KP K[LJz) HP VQT[ Ps [LV Ls K[Ia (KP HII)
[LV K[IJ. ++. u[I aPQJg NMqa eMH IxLqIJKNa dVIRLTMJ MJq [I eMH IxLqIJKNa GJgNLH[: PK[IReLHI . (KP gQIHH)
sRPV [LH LVZRIHHLxI MLR K[MK [I eMH [IR sMK[IR. +2. .s GJgNMJq (KP HeIIZ MeMa) [IR [IqgIH MJq (KP ZQK) LJ
K[ILR ZNMTI sIJTIH! K[I HMxLJg Ps NMJq (KP `I) IJPRVPQH. +4. wINT[ HMLq LK TPNqNa MH Ls [I (KP `I MHzIq) KP
VMzI HPVI TPJTIHHLPJ. +3. r. (KP `I MH[MVIq) Ps VaHINs! ONMRM!r RIKQRJIq vLHH vQRqHKPJI! rLs . (TMJJPK)
QJqIRHKMJq K[I `Pa PR MJa `Pa.r +*. .s . (VMa) HQggIHK . (KP HMa) K[MK LK (KP `I) `IKKIR KP ZQK Pss K[I KRLZ. +,.
w[MK (VMa) [MxI [MZZIJIq PR (KP [MZZIJ) Ls nPRM MJq . JIxIR (KP zJPe) IMT[ PK[IR{ +7. va TPVZMJLPJ
HKQV`NIq! K[I `RMJT[ [I [Mq `IIJ [PNqLJg HJMZZIq MJq [I (KP sMNN) Ls [LH [MJq (JPK KP TMKT[) MJPK[IR `RMJT[.
72. Answer the foIIowing questions:
+. w[MK ePQNq aPQ HMa Ls aPQ eIRI MHzIq KP KMzI ZMRK LJ M TPJTIRK KPJLg[K{ 2. w[IRI ePQNq aPQ gP Ls aPQ
eIRI PJ NIMxI{ 4. w[MK ePQNq aPQ `I qPLJg JPe Ls LK eIRI K[I 4+HK Ps nITIV`IR{ 3. w[IRI ePQNq aPQ NLzI
KP ePRz MsKIR gRMqQMKLJg sRPV K[I }JLxIRHLKa{ *. w[MK ePQNq aPQ HMa ss aPQ eIRI PssIRIq KP gP KP K[I
vPPJ{ ,. w[MK ePQNq aPQ qP Ls aPQR sRLIJq sINN LNN MNN Ps M HQqqIJ{ 7. w[MK ePQNq aPQ `I qPLJg JPe Ls aPQ
eIRI JPK [MxLJg M NIHHPJ{ b. w[MK ePQNq aPQ qP Ls HPVI`Pqa MHzIq aPQ KP TMNN M qPTKPR{ 2. w[MK ePQNq
aPQ RITPVVIJq KP M ZIRHPJ e[P [MH M xLPNIJK [IMqMT[I{ +). .s aPQR sRLIJq [Mq `IIJ LNN [Pe ePQNq aPQ [INZ
[LV KP TMKT[ QZ eLK[ K[I gRPQZ{ ++. w[IRI ePQNq aPQ gP KP `Qa HPVI VIMK (`RIMq! xIgIKM`NIH){ +2! w[MK
ePQNq aPQ eIMR KP M 1Ie yIMR ZMRKa{ +4. w[MK ePQNq aPQ ZRIsIR KP [MxI sPR qIHHIRK{ +3. w[MK ePQNq aPQ
NLzI KP qP Ls LK eIRI PZZRIHHLxINa [PK{ +*. w[MK ePQNq aPQ qP Ls aPQ [Mq M [Lg[ KIVZIRMKQRI{ +,. w[MK HIMKH
ePQNq aPQ ZRIsIR Ls aPQ eMJKIq KP gP KP K[I K[IMKRI{
+24
73. RepIace the infinitives in brackets by the correct form of the obIique moods:
+. GxIJ Ls K[I qPTKPR (KP `I) [IRI [I (TMJJPK) [INZ aPQ. 2. .s LK (KP `I) HQVVIR eI (KP [MxI) M eMNzLJg
[PNLqMa. 4. .s PJNa [I (KP MxPLq) TPVZNLTMKLPJHc 3. .s PJNa . (TMJ) zIIZ sRPV K[LJzLJg M`PQK Va KRPQ`NIHc *. .s
aPQ (JPK KP eMNz) `MRI[IMqIq aPQ (JPK KP TMKT[) TPNq. ,. 0QK sPR aPQ . JIxIR (KP sLJq) M eMa PQK K[IJ. 7. .s .
(TMJ) sPRgIK IxIRaK[LJgc b. .s aPQ (JPK KP `I) TPNq aPQ (JPK KP H[LxIR) sRPV [IMq KP sPPK. 2. .s K[LH VIqLTLJI
(JPK KP `RLJg qPeJ) K[I sIxIR eI (KP [MxI KP) HIJq sPR M qPTKPR! +). .s dJJI (KP ZMHH) [IR ISMVH LJ HZRLJg H[I
(KP sIIN) M HITPJqaIMR HKQqIJK. ++. .s [I (KP sPNNPe) MNN K[I qPTKPRlH LJHKRQTKLPJH [I (KP MxPLq) ZJIQVPJLM. +2.
.s K[I `Pa (KP zJPe) M`PQK K[I OIJKLgRMqI K[IRVPVIKIR [I (JPK KP K[LJz) Ps qIMK[. +4. .s LK (KP MT[I) [LV KP
VPxI [I (JPK KP eMNz) [LVHINs. +3. .s [I (KP [IMR) aPQR ePRqH [I (KP gIK) PssIJqIq.
74. TransIate these sentences into EngIish:
.. F >6! 8 ; $. 8 $ E 8. 2. >7! E
6. ~ 8 8 $ 8! 8 $; 8 E 6. 4. 6 8 $ > 9D
6! ! 8. 3. @6! 9 F5B! $ &E. *. "8 >!
D $ $ . ,. F >6! $ ! 6 9 9. 7.
D 8 6 D $ ; $. b. 6! 8 9 $8
$; 6D ;6. 2. ' ; 5 5! > $!
D . +). 6! 8 D . $ 8 8 5 ;
D. .K. F >6! 8 D6 $. "8 $; 8 5 8 $.
+2. 6! 8 7 $. 8 8 6$ D E .
75. TransIate the foIIowing sentences Sato EngIish. Pay attention to the use of the obIique moods;
+. F >6! 8 8 >8. h; 8 6! 8 8 D
D9 5! 2. ~ 8 ! 5 8 8 $ $. 4. ' 8; $ 8$!
89. 3. 6! 8 ; ! $8 $; 8 96 $
;. *. - $ ! 8 ; >. ,. ~ 8 8 D$
$! 8 D6 5 %. 7! E $> 8 8 6!
; E $ ; $8. b. 6! $ 8 $! ; E 6. 2.
@ 8 ! 8 $5 ! ; 8 $8$ 8$B! . +).
&75 $ $ 8 > $. ++. < $5 ! ; =
! $; 8! 8 D 6D. +2. ~ 8 9 8
! $8 8 $; 8D6. +4. ~ 8 8! $5 ! 8 $; 6. 8
$ >6. +3. 6 D$ $! 8 E 9. +*. !
>6 ! 5 .
76. CompIete the foIIowing sentences:
+. .s aPQ [Mq KMzIJ Va MqxLTI .... 2. u[I eMKT[ ePQNqJlK `I HNPe Ls .... 4. |IR NLsI VLg[K [MxI `IIJ HMxIq
Ls .... 3. .s aPQR VPK[IR HMe LK... . *. .lq [MxI `RPQg[K sNPeIRH Ls... . ,. .s aPQ [Mq MHzIq [IR ZIRVLHHLPJ ... . 7.
yPQ ePQNq [MxI `IIJ MJgRa Ls... . b. .s . [Mq M TMR... . 2. w[a qLq aPQ `I[MxI MH Ls... { +.). w[IJ . VIK [LV
[I NPPzIq MH Ls ... . ++. GxIJ Ls . [Mq M KPPK[MT[I.... +2. wI H[PQNq [MxI sPQJq K[I ZNMTI .... +4. |I LH
HZIMzLJg xIRa HNPeNa MH Ls .... +3. \QK PJ aPQR e[LKI qRIHH MJq aPQlNN NPPz MH K[PQg[ ... . +*. GxIJ Ls K[Ia [Mq
gPK K[LH KINIgRMV ... . +,. .K ePQNq `I xIRa gPPq Ls.... +7. .s . eIRI gPLJg KP KRMxIN ... . +b. .s K[I `PPz eIRI JPK
HP `PRLJg ... . +2. u[I gLRN `IgMJ TRaLJg MH Ls....
77. RepIace the infinitives in brackets by the correct form of the obIique mood:
+. uINN VI! e[MK aPQ (KP qP) Ls aPQ (KP `I) LJ Va ZNMTI{ 2. 0QK sPR aPQ . (KP NIMxI) NPJg MgP. 4. /[I HZIMzH
HP HNPeNa MH Ls H[I (KP KRMJHNMKI) sRPV M sPRILgJ NMJgQMgI. 3. . eLH[ . JIxIR (KP VIIK) [LV. *. \IPZNI eIRI
HKMJqLJg MRPQJq MH Ls K[Ia (KP ISZITK) HPVIK[LJg KP [MZZIJ. ,. . eLH[ aPQ (KP `I) NLzI VI sPR KeP VLJQKIH. 7.
.s 0P` (KP gP) PQK `IsPRI! eI (KP JPKLTI) [LV. b. 0QK sPR K[I QJqIRgRPQJq K[I KRMssLT LJ vPHTPe (KP `I) xIRa
[IMxa. 2. /[I LH NPPzLJg MK VI MH Ls H[I (KP zJPe) VI. +). u[MK (KP LJKIRIHK) VI HPVI sPQR aIMRH MgP. ++. .s .
(KP zJPe) e[MK LK MNN VIMJK . (JPK KP TPVI). +2. .K HIIVH KP VI K[MK e[MK H[I RIsQHIq K[IJ H[I (KP `I) gNMq KP
gIK JPe. +4. va qIMR dNga! aPQ KMNz ISMTKNa MH Ls aPQ (KP `I) M qIJKLHK. +3. 0QK sPR [IR ePRqH Va NLsI (KP
KMzI) M qLssIRIJK TPQRHI. +*. dK K[MK VPVIJK H[I MNVPHK eLH[Iq H[I (JPK KP HIJq) sPR [LV. +,. /[I eRPKI eLK[
[IR PeJ [MJq K[I NIKKIRH e[LT[ QJqIR JPRVMN TLRTQVHKMJTIH H[I (KP qLTKMKI) KP [IR HITRIKMRa.
78. TransIate these sentences into EngIish. Pay attention to the use of the obIique moods:
.. A$ 8 { ~ 8 8 ! !
8 8 ; ; D. 2. F >6! ! ;
$6 7. 4. ~ 8 E ! $ 8 8 >8 ;8 ! 3. >
8 8 $8! $ 8 8 D >6 ;. *. - ; 5 !
. ,. 8 8 $ 6 ! 8 8 $
$ 6 D. 7. F >6! 85 > D$ .
<$ 9 6 $; $ ;. b. ~ 8 8 6 ;8
! 8 8 6 >6. 2. ' > 86
5 $ $! E $ $ . +). 6! %
E$ $ $; $6 $! ++. > 8 $! 8
. A6 $c +2. ~ 8 C! 8 8
$ $6. +4. < 9 6 ;5{ 8 6$
8 C 5. +3. ' 5! ;
+23
; 6. +*. ( ; $! $ . +,. 8
$6 $5. (c" F >6! E D D . 6 8 6!
8 $; 8 E 6. +b. ~ 8 $ 8 6D $! 8 ; 9
8 $. +2. 6 >7! 8 $6 8 58 D;
;!
79. Comment on the meaning of the modaI verbs and transIate the sentences into Russian;
+. .s aPQ eMJK KP VIIK NPKH Ps GJgNLH[ ZIPZNI! aPQ VLg[K NLzI KP gP KP M [PNLqMa TMVZ. 2. u[I PJNa KRPQ`NI
LH + TPQNqJlK KMzI Va ISMVH LJ HZRLJg MJq VQHK [MxI K[IV JPe. 4. va ZMRIJKH [Mq KP gP PJ MJ ISZIqLKLPJ!
K[Ia MRI gIPNPgLHKH! MH aPQ zJPe! MJq . eMH NIsK KP zIIZ [PQHI. 3. yPQ MRI KP KMzI M KM`NIHZPPJsQN Ps K[LH
VLSKQRI K[RII KLVIH M qMa. /. .J K[LH [QRRaHTQRRa . VQHK [MxI NIsK K[I HQgMR`MHLJ LJ K[I qRIHHIR. ,. |I
TPQNqJlK ZMa [LH [PKIN `LNN MJq K[Ia ePQNqJlK gLxI [LV MJa VPRI TRIqLK. 7. u[I HeLV H[PQNqJlK KMzI aPQ VQT[
PxIR MJ [PQR MJq M fQMRKIR. b.+ JIIqJlK [MxI [QRRLIq; [I eMHJlK RIMqa aIK. 2! wI MRI KP [MxI M NITKQRI JPe!
+). vMa . [MxI M NPPz MK K[I Z[PKPH{ ++. u[IRI VQHK `I HPVI VLHKMzI [IRI. +2. |I HMLq aPQ eIRI K[I
ZRIKKLIHK gLRN ZRIHIJK. |I TMJlK [MxI ZPHHL`Na VIMJK LK. +4. .s aPQ MRI LJKIRIHKIq LJ T[QRT[IH MJq [LHKPRLT
ZNMTIH aPQ H[PQNq gP KP wIHKVLJHKIR d``Ia! K[I |PQHIH Ps \MRNLMVIJK! /K. \MQNlH MJq K[I uPeIR. +3. .lV
KPNq PJI PQg[K KP HII K[I 0RLKLH[ vQHIQV! +*. . TPQNqJlK LVMgLJI K[MK LJ MJ GJgNLH[ ZMZIR . H[PQNq [MxI KP
NPPz sPR K[I T[LIs MRKLTNIH LJ K[I VLqqNI Ps K[I ZMZIR. +,. .s aPQ qPJlK KMzI TMRI Ps aPQRHINs! aPQ VMa [MxI M
JIRxPQH `RIMzqPeJ MJq [MxI KP gP KP [PHZLKMN. +7. yPQ TMJlK TPVI LJ. yPQ VQHKJlK [MxI K[I qLHIMHI . [MxI.
+b. u[I gIRVH Ps LJsNQIJM TMJ PJNa ISLHK LJ MJ MTLq TPJqLKLPJ. +2.+ [IMR K[Ia MRI KP T[PPHI K[I ZNMaIRH
KPVPRRPe sPR K[I dNN}JLPJ VMKT[.
80. Use the verbs can oi may.
+. oJI ... JIxIR zJPe e[MK... [MZZIJ. 2. yPQ ... [MxI HIJK QH M JPKI MK NIMHKc wI eMLKIq sPR aPQ K[I e[PNI
qMa. 4. nP aPQ K[LJz aPQ ... TPVVMJq MJ MRVa{ 3. wINN! aPQR eLxIH ... JPK NLzI K[I NMqa .lV gqLJg KP VMRRa.
*. iMHK eLJKIR [I ... `I HIIJ LJ K[I TNQ` MJa JLg[K. ,. w[MK... dJJI `I qPLJg MNN K[LH KLVI LJ K[I zLKT[IJ{ 7.
w[MKIxIR K[I RIMHPJ ... `I! K[I sMTK RIVMLJH. b. /[I ... [MxI NPHK [IR RLJg [IRHINs! LK ... JPK [MxI `IIJ HKPNIJ. 2.
w[P ... [MxI HMLq HQT[ M K[LJg{ +). /PVI`Pqa... [MxI gLxIJ [IR Va MqqRIHH. ++. /QT[ qLssLTQNKLIH ... `I
IMHLNa ZQK QZ eLK[. +2. .s PJNa .... VMzI [LV QJqIRHKMJq VI ZRPZIRNa. +4. . ... [MxI [INZIq [LV `QK . qLqJlK
RITILxI [LH NIKKIR.
81. FiII in the bIanks with should, need, hare to with the appropriate form of the Infinitive:
+.+... (KP ZRIZMRI) sPR Va TPVLJg ISMV aIHKIRqMa! `QK .... (KP NPPz MsKIR) Va HLTz HLHKIR. 2. |I ... JPK (KP
gIK QZ) IMRNa. |I `IgLJH ePRzLJg MK 2.4). 4. r. ... (KP HMa) K[PHI ePQJqLJg ePRqH!r [I RIZRPMT[Iq [LVHINs. 3.
.K LHJlK K[I HPRK Ps K[LJg PJI ... (KP qLHTQHH) eLK[ QJzJPeJ ZIPZNI. *. yPQ ... JPK (KP ePRRa) M`PQK VPJIa. .lxI
gPK IJPQg[ sPR `PK[ Ps QH. ,. yPQ ... JPK (KP eMNz) MNN K[I eMa KP K[I HKMKLPJ. yPQ ... (KP KMzI) M `QH RPQJq K[I
TPRJIR. 7. /PPJIR PR NMKIR PJI ... (KP T[PPHI). b. vPK[IR ... (KP gIK QZ MJq qPeJ) M gPPq `LK qQRLJg K[I VIMN!
sIKT[LJg K[LJgH `MTz MJq sPReMRq. 2. . VMJMgIq KP gIK K[IRI MK [MNs ZMHK KeINxI. 0QK . ... JPK (KP [QRRa). u[Ia
[Mq MNRIMqa NIsK. +). 0RIMzsMHK LH PsKIJ M fQLTz VIMN! `ITMQHI K[I sMK[IR Ps K[I sMVLNa ... (KP gIK) MeMa KP [LH
ePRz! T[LNqRIJ ... (KP gP) KP HT[PPN! MJq K[I VPK[IR [MH [IR [PQHIePRz KP qP. ++. .s aPQ MRI LJKIRIHKIq LJ
[LHKPRLT ZNMTIH aPQ ... (KP gP) KP wIHKVLJHKIR d``Ia. +2. /[I qRIe M T[MLR JIMR [LH [I ePJqIRIq Ls [I ...
(KP [INZ) [IR eLK[ K[I T[MLR MJq HMK qPeJ `IHLqI [LV. +4. u[Ia ... (KP zJPTz) KeLTI `IsPRI K[I qPPR eMH
PZIJIq. +3. /[I ... (JPK KP gLxI) VPJIa KP [IR `Pa. u[IJ LK ePQNqJlK [MxI [MZZIJIq. +*. /[I ... (KP TPJTIMN)
[IR RIMN sIINLJgH NIHK MJaPJI ... (KP JPKLTI) [Pe QJ[MZZa H[I eMH. +,. yPQ ... (JPK KP TPVI) aPQRHINs. yPQ
VMa HIJq HPVI`Pqa INHI.
82. TransIate the sentences into EngIish, using modaI verbs:
+. - ; 9 $! 8> 6 . 2. < > 6! $
6 7! 4. < $> 86! 8 6 8 8. $ . 3. $>! >
8! $8 $>$ 5 $6 6. *. <> 8 8 D5
{ ,. ~$ 8 86 > E$. 7. t $>
6 $ ;{ <! . Y8 > D6! $> 6 ; ;
7 $. b. <; 6 6 $ 7. ' $> 6 D8$.
2. $ 6 E ;. ' $ > 6. +). $ 6 =!
E$ 9$6. ++. '! 8 > 9 9c +2. ' 8; 6
8$: ; ! ! . +4. $$ ! 8 $; 8 6 $
c Y; $ D6 8 6 6 $ . +3. 8 >8 8
6 ! $! 9$. +*. > 86! 6 D6
7;. +,. 8 $; 8 $ > 9$ 6 E $. +7! < $> 86! 8
;$$. ' 89 $. '! ! 8. +b. $ 8 8 =6 $
E$ ;. "> 8 >6 .
83. Insert tee appropriate modaI verb:
+. |I [MH LJHQNKIq PQR sMVLNa MJq [I ... HQssIR sPR LKc 2. yPQ ... JPK [MxI gPJI PQK eLK[PQK MJ QV`RINNM LJ
HQT[ RMLJa eIMK[IR. 4. .lV MsRMLq . ... [MxI HPQJqIq M `LK QJsRLIJqNa PxIR K[I Z[PJI. 3. r.... KP [MxI KPNq
/PMVIH!r [I K[PQg[K! rK[MK . K[LJz [LV TPVLT.r *. wI ... NLxI KP K[ILR MgI! ZIR[MZH. ,. |IRI H[I... HLK! HIeLJg
MJq zJLKKLJg! e[LNI [I ePRzIq MK K[I KM`NI. 7. w[a ... aPQ `I qLssIRIJK sRPV PK[IR ZIPZNI{ b. rUPPq
VPRJLJg!r HMLq K[I gLRN. r. `INLIxI aPQ ... `I uP`a. |MxI . gQIHHIq RLg[K{r 2. .s aPQ ... RIMq eLK[PQK
HZITKMTNIH! MJq . `INLIxI aPQ ... `I HP gPPq MH KP RIMq K[LH NIKKIR sPR VI. +). OMZKMLJ /KIIRsPRK[ ... . HZIMz KP
aPQ sPR M VPVIJK{ ++. dJJI sINK H[I ... JPK HKMJq VQT[ VPRI Ps K[LH qLHTQHHLPJ. /[I HMLq H[I ... gP PJ eLK[
+2*
[IR ePRz MJq `IgMJ KP RLHI. +2. w[a... PJI VMzI KRPQ`NI sPR PJIHINs e[IJ PJI LH PNq{ +4. ... aPQ qP VI M
sMxPQR MJq VIIK [IR .MK K[I HKMKLPJ{ +3. |I eMH JPK PNq! [I ... JPK [MxI `IIJ VPRI K[MJ sPRKa. +*. u[I qMa eI
... KP HKMRK LK RMLJIq ePRHI K[MJ IxIR. +,. yPQ ... not [QRRa. u[IRI LH ZNIJKa Ps KLVI. +7. v