Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 341

..

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210402
210400


2007

621.373.14(075.8)
3204

: / .. - : , 2007. 433 .
ISBN 5-256-01816-7

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,

AWR icrowave Office .

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.

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..

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210402

210400 , ,
- ,
;
210405 ,
, 210302 , 210403
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.

. 472, . 45 .
: ..., . .. . -,
..., . .. . ,




.. , ..
010164 29.01.97 .
21.05.07
ISBN 5-256-01816-7

.. , 2007


.......................................................................7
1 10
1.1

11
1.1.1 11
1.1.2
13
1.1.3 17
1.1.4
.............................................20
1.1.5 ,

...........................22
1.1.6
28
1.1.7

..................................................... 34
1.2
..............38
1.2.1
Microwave Office ........................................39
1.2.2
......................49
1.2.3
.....54
1.2.4
.....60
1.2.5
64
2
96
2.1
.........................................96
2.1.1
Microwave Office ........................................96
2.1.2 ...101
2.1.3 105
3
........................................116
3.1 116
3.1.1 ,
116
3.1.2

118
3.1.3 121
5

3.1.4
.......................................................122
3.2
122
3.2.1 - ........123
3.2.2 -..............................139
3.2.3 -..............................146
3.2.4 -
.......................................................154
3.2.5
.........................162
4
176
4.1 M
....................................................176
4.1.1 -------------- 177
4.1.2 180
4.2
....................................................189
4.2.1.
189
4.3
....................................................213
4.3.1 ...................................214
4.3.2
....................................................215
4.3.3
..................................................235
4.3.4
.......245
4.3.5
..................................................248
5
254
5.1 254
5.2
.........................256
5.3
269
5.4
....................................281
6 .......................292
6.1
..........................................292
6.2 294
6.2.1 .......................295
6.2.2 .....298
6.3 .........306
6

6.3.1 306
6.3.2 ...........................308
6.3.3 .................309
6.3.4 ....................311
6.3.5 .....312
6.4 ........................314
6.5 317
6.5.1. ..............317
6.5.2
322
6.5.3 324
7 ............................................355
7.1 .......................355
7.1.1 ................356
7.1.2 ......................357
7.1.3 .........................357
7.1.4 360
7.1.5
..........................................360
7.1.6 363
7.2 364
7.2.1 .....................364
7.2.2 .............................366
8
368
8.1
368
8.1.1
................................................383
8.1.2
..............................................388
8.1.3 DECT 399
8.2 C
..............................................406
8.3
.......................................................411
8.4 ...413
8.5 414
8.5.1 C
,
, , 418
8.5.2 420
8.6 ................421
8.6.1 ......................................421
8.6.2
..............................................424
9 427

...............................................................430

.


. ,
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, , .


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. , ,

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[1-3].
,
.


AWR Microwave Office (AWR MWO) [4, 6-10, 12, 1518, 20, 37-45].
,
,

.
Hewlett-Packard, Ansoft, Eagleware 70-
80- OC UNIX,
Windows. , HP
Advanced Design System, Momentum, Maxwell EM, HFSS, Microwave Explorer,
Serenade, GENESYS, IE3D
Windows AWR MWO.
AWR MWO Applied Wave Research (AWR)
1998 .
AWR Windows, ,
: ,
, .
8

AWR MWO ++
, ,

.

.

,

AWR icrowave Office.

, .
.

.

.

,
,
.
,
,
.
,

,
. .. , ..
. 1.2.31.2.5
.. , 2.1.2, 2.1.3, 4.3.2, 4.3.3
..
.
210402

210400 , ,
- ,
;
210405 ,
, 210302 , 210403
,
, ,
.
, , -,

,
9


.
1
, ,

" " "" [2,3].
()
( , ,
.).
.

:
1. ,
.
2. ,
.
3.
.
4. , ,
.
,

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[1].
, , .
,
.
.
.
, ,
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,
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, ,
(,
.).
1.1

10

1.1.1
,
e t , e t i t , i t
[1-3].
.
i e , e ,
i e , e .

.
, i i e
e .
.
, ,
.

, . i e
e (. 1.1) .

1.1
e 0 , . .
e 0 .
.
i e e (.1.2)
.

1.2

11

I II
e i .
I II .
II , ,
, ,
,
. - ,

.
: (
n p n ). ,
,
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.
- . ,
,
, .

(.1.1, 1.2) :
S ;

e

const . Si

Si

;
, .. e
.

E ,

1.1.2
,
,
.
, , ,
.
, .

.

.



(.1.1) (.1.2) .
, ,

12

U const . (.1.3)
emax .

1.3

i e ,
e e max . e E
. E - .
(.1.3)
i e , e e max

, ,
e min . e min
, E ,
(.1.3).

i e ,

E 0 (.3.1). ,
,
E .
.
. , E E ,
900 . E E

900 , E E
900 .
.
,
. ,

.
(.1.3).

.
13


. 1.3.

.



. (.1.1)
(.1.2) . ,
,
U const. (.1.1)
emax .

1.4

, (.1.4)

i e , e e max

,
e min .
e min ,
E , (.1.4).

.
, .
D,
,
, e max
(.1.4).
, , D
.

(.1.4).

14

.

.1.4. (.1.3, 1.4)
,
, .
.


[2,3].
.

,
, .
e e min (.1.3, 1.4).

i e , e e max .
,
. .
900
. .
.

,
i e , e e max .
(.1.3) ,
(.1.4).
.
.
1 .
. - .
i .
1.1.3

[1,3].
.
i

I 0

I 1 cos

I 2 cos2

I 3 cos3

....

I 0 - ; I 1 , I 2 , I 3 , , ..
.

15

i , I 1 , I 2 , I 3 ,,
:
1

I 0

d ;

i
0

I n

cos n d


I 0

SU

1
0

sin

cos

n -
I n

SU

n 1,2,3,... ,

1
2
sin 2 ,
2
1
2 sin 3 ,
3
cos .
2



I m .

,
n
I n I m n , n 0,1,2,...

n
n

1 cos



g1

n , n
g1
. .1.5. ,
n n

, g1 .

16

1.5
3


3
0
0
90
180 ,
.

1800 ( )
.
I 1 I 0 ;
1800
, .. . 0
n
n
n 2,3,... ; n
, ,
1200
.
n

(.1.5.) ,
1200 .
,
600
g1 , , ,
.
I m P1 ,
1200 , .. 1 .
.
, , .
,
, .
1.1.4
,
[1-3]
U , E ,
E , .. .
.
, : Z R .
R :
U R I 1 . , I 1 ,
, U .
R U I 1 . R ,
17

, . . I 1 U
(.1.6,). I 1 ,
. R R
. R R U
U ,
, I 1 .
I 1 R

1.6
. 1.6, I 0
I 1 g1

, .
R .
. 1.6,
P0 , P1 , P
R . P0 - , P1 -
, P - , .
E const , P0 R
E I 0 R
I 0 R . P1 0,5U I 1 , . 1.6,
R , R R ,
R R R .
P R P P0 P1 .
R 0 , ,
. R R R
R R . , P1 0 ,
.
U E .
R

U E E const .
U R ,
18



g1 I 1 I 0
, .
g1 R - ,
, I 1 I 0 .

,
.
,

P1 ,
.
1.1.5 ,

U E
. -,
. -,
E ,
, . . U .
, U E .
,
[3].
,
U . , E , E
R , U , .

900 U .
E E .
U
, .
I 1 SU 1 .
900
0,5 .

I 1 0,5SU . ,
900 ,
U U ,
U . U U

.
, U .
I 1
I 0 ,
(.1.7,) - .

19

1.7

E

E , U

(
1800 ,
1 ) I 1 SU .
900 U

.
I 1 U ,
, 0,5S (. 1.7,6). E E U
, E E .

U .
I 1 ,
900 .

E E U E E I 1
.
I 1 -
U .
(. 1.7,6). U ,
I 1 , E E .
, , ,
, I 1 U
,
i

[1].
E .
, U , E R .
E
I 1 SU 1
I 0 SU 0


. I 1 E I 0 E
.1.8.
E

20

1.8

I 1
U
, E
. E
I 1 I 0
. , E ,
, U , E
R .
E
. I 1 , I 0 , I 0
E U , E , R E
, , ..
U U . E , e min
.
U . ,
E E E I 1 , I 0 I 0
(. 1.9).

1.9
,

21

E E E
,
I 1 I 0 . E 0 ,
, (. 1.9).
,
I 1 E . I 0 E
. I 0
E (.1.9).
[1].


, ,
, .

, (.1.10).
E .
I 1 , I 0 E
U , E , E R .

1.10

, T
. , .1.10,
. I 1
. ,
I 1 U I 1 R , ,
.1.10,
. -
I 1 , I 0 T (.1.11).
,
.
T

.

22

, ( ) -
, P1 , , P
. , E , ,
, E .

1.11

1.1.6

.

.


[1] (. 1.12), i
i

1.12
q
C C . C

C

C . C . ,

(1.1)

23

C . - , ,
C . - , .
.1.12, ( i . , i . )

i .

i.

dq
dt

(1.2)

i . - ,
; i . - ; -
; - .

1

, a

h21 .

(1.2),

h21

i .
i .

.
dq
0
dt

(1.3)

,

(1.4)
q Q ee
1,

I . .

- ;

( T 290K

(1.2)

40

kT

).

i .

q, , ,
. i . q
,
q .
1 ,

.
(. . 1.1)

i . i. ,

i . i . (7.2), a
C :

i . C

i .

de
dt

i .

(1.5)

24

i .

C .

d e e
dt

C .

d e e
dt

(1.6)

(1.2) - (1.6)
. . 7.1
, ,
i .

i . C

de
dt

C . :
i . C

de
dt

C .

d e e
.
dt

i . (1.2),
e

dq
dt

C .

de
dt

C .

de
dt

(1.7)

(1.2) - (1.7) ,
.

(1.4)
-:
q

C e

C e

(1.8)

C -
; E - ( ,
).
(7.8) (7.2),

i .

S e

E,

(1.9)

(1.10)

i.

S ,

1
r

E
r

d e

E
dt

,
25

1
r

S
.
h21


~
C

di .
,
de

~
S

dq
,
de

~
S
h21

1
~
r

Q :

~
C

i .

i .

~
S

i .

1
~
r

h21

-
(1.8) - (1.10)
i . .

S ,

1
r

i . 0,5 i .
, i . .
i i . ,
e e i r .
i e i e . 1.13.

K S ;

K
;
r

S e

S e

e E

e E

(1.11)
,

(1.12)

K -

26

1.13 - ,
,
U
U

r
0

(1.13)

-
(. 1.14).

1.14 -

C . , C . C
,
. ( )
, - .
, e
E .
1.1.7

[1], ,
,
e

E U cos ,

(1.14)

, . 1.14,
i , i
e .
e , C . C . 0 .

(1.15)
r C
K r C C ,

cos

E E
.
U

27

0 . (1.7) q e

- (1.8), e

S

de
d

U cos

de
d

cos

K U cos

cos

E ; (1.16)

, e

E .

e

e

.
E .

e
E
(1.16).

K U
cos
1

S
2

cos

cos

S
2

cos

, (1.17)

S arctg S .
e . ( )
e . ( ) .

K U
1

U
U
K

:
U
U

K
1 j

(1.18)
S

e ,
i . , i , i
C . C . 0 (1.9), (1.10),
. 1.15.
. 1.15, ,
,
e E .
0

.
e

i i . (1.9) (
de
d

), .

28

,
arctg S .
S
,
.
, i .
.1.15, ,
e
E , - .

1.15 e ,
e , i . , i i


i 2

de
dt

de
dt

i 1

r ,

- , i 2 0 ,

0 , . . .

.
, i i i
(.1.15, ).

,
, e

i .

de
d

0 .

(1.16) ,
e

K U cos

cos

(1.19)

(1.9) S K S
i .

SU cos

cos

29

,
S .1.16.

( ). ,
0 .
,

1.16 ( ),
( )
1.2


[4, 6-10, 12, 15-18, 20, 37-45],
.
,

,
.

.

[2, 3].

,
.

30


, ,

Microwave Office.
1.2.1
Microwave Office
Microwave Office
Microwave Office,
Windows. > AWR Suite
2002>AWR Design Environmtnt.
(.1.17).
Microwave Office.

1.17 Microwave Office

1.18 Microwave Office



.
File - , Project - , Simulate - , Options -,
Windows - , Help - .

31

1.19 .
.
,
.
:
Proj (Project View) - ,
(. 1.20)
:

1.20 Proj
Design Notes
.
- Project Options ( , .)
- Global Definitions
.
- Data Files .
- System Diagrams ,
VVS (Visual System Simulator)
- Circuit Schematics
, .
- EM Structures (EM)
, EM .
- Conductor Materials
, EM .

32

- Output Equations
, .
- Graphs ,
, .
- Optimizer Goals
,
.
.
- Yield Goals
,
.
- Output Files
,
.
- Wizards ,
: (Filter Synthesis),
(Load Pull)
(Swept Variable).
- Scripting
, C++.
Elem (Element Browser) - .
Var (Variable Browser) - .
Layout (Layout Browser) - .

Microwave Office.
1:
File () New Project ( ).
Save Project As , , UM
.
2:
Project (), Add Schematic ( ),
New Schematic ( )

1.21
Create New Schematic Untitled 1,
, , BFG591. OK.
3:
Elem.

33

1.22
4:
- + > Nonlinear > BJT (. 1.22).
BFG591 GBJT3.
BFG591 (. 1.23).

1.23
5:

. ,
.
6: SPICE- BFG591.
Spice ,

[19].
(DC),
(transient) (AC).
, ,
, , ,
: , (BJT),
(JFET), - (MESFET)
- (MOSFET).

34

Spise-
BFG591. Edit
Element GBJT3 (. 1.24).

.1.24 SPICE-
parameters () ,
value (. 1.24) .1.1.
1.1 Spise-
BFG591.
1.1 Spise- BFG591

/

1
2

m 1.341
IS .
A
e-012
- 123.5
BF



.
- 0.988
NF

.
VAF V 75.85
.

35

6
7

10
11

12
13

14
15

16

17

IKF
BF
A

ISE
.A
NE


.
BR



.
NR

.
VAR
.

IKR
BF
A

ISC
. A
NC


.
RB
.
m
IRB ,
Rb A
50%

RB RBM.
RB
m
M
.
RE

m 9656

m 2.32e
-010
- 2.134

10.22

1.016

V 1.992
m 294.1

m 2.11e
-013
- 997.2

Oh 5
m 0.001

Oh 5

Oh 1.275

36

18
19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

. m
RC
.
m

CJE

.

VJE

-.
MJE ,

.
TF

.
XTF ,

TF
.
VTF ,

TF .
ITF ,
TF
A

.
PTF

freq=1.0/(TF*2PI) .
CJC

VJC

-.
MJC ,

Oh 0.920
6
pF 3.821

V 0.6

0.348
5

ns 0.013
6
-

71.73

V 10.28

m 1929

pF 1.409

V 0.219
4
-

0.166
5

37

30 XCJ

.
31 TR

.
32 CJS

.
33 VJS


-.
34 MJS ,

.
35 XTB
BF BR.
36 EG
.
37 XTI
IS.
38 KF
39 AF
40 FFE 41 FC
-

42 TYP
E
43 NK
44 TNO
M
45 KB
46 AB
47 FB
48 TSS
49 NS
50 TS
51 LB
52 LE
53 LC
54 AFA
C

- 0
De 27

0.234

ns 543.7

pF 0

V 0.75

EV 1.110
-

0
0
0
0.733
2
0

gC
-

ns
nH
nH
nH
-

0
1
1
0
1
0
1.5
0.5
0
1

38

7: ,

Elem. + >
Lumped Element > Capacitor. BFG591
CAP. Inductor. IND.

. ,
, ,
. 1.25.
8: BFG591,
Project
(), Add Schematic ( ), New Schematic
( ), Create New Schematic
, Schematic 1, IVCurve . OK.

1.25 BFG591

Elem, Subcircuits, BFG591
IVCurve (. 1.26).

. 1.26 BFG591
39

. 1.26 -.
,
(Edit Element).
(Change Symbols . 1.27) .

1.27
Replae Symbol
BJT3@system.syf (. 1.28).

1.28
npn (.
1.29).

40

1.29 BFG591

BFG591
Microwave Office Spise-
.
1.2.2

BFG591
,
.
VCBO
20 V
VCES RBE = 015 V
ICDC ...........120 mA
Ptot

Ts = 1400 .............................................650 mW
hFE DC
IC = 40 mA; VCE = 8 V; Tj = 25 0C ..............120
, ,
IVCurve (. 1.29)
BFG591
.
1:
Elem,
+MeasDevice > IV IVCURVE (. 1.30)
(. 1.31).

1.30

41

1.31

. 1.32.

1.32
.

, .
.

.
Edit Element (. 1.33)

.

42

1.33

VSWEEP_stop
, VSTEP_stop
( ).
VSWEEP_strt VSWEEP_step
. VSTEP strt VSTEP_stop -
.
2:


. Add Graph (
) . Create Graph ( )

1.34
Rectangular
Graph name IVCurve. .
IVCurve (. 1.35).

43

1.35

3:
. Project Add
Measurement ( )

1.36
.
(. 1.37).

1.37
Meas Type ( ) Nonlinear Current
( ). IVCurve Measurement.
Data Source Name ,
IVCurve. Apply OK (. 1.37).
4:


Analyze
.
(. 1.38)
BFG591.

44

1.38 BFG591
1.2.3

.
()
, , , ..
.

.
1:
. ,
BFG591,
.1.29. Schematic2 , ,
BFG591
(. 1.39).
. 1.39 .
Elem.
.
- + Lumped Element, Inductor.
Schematic2 IND. Capacitor.
Schematic2 CAP.

1.39
- Resistor. Schematic2
RES.
45

- Sourses. Schematic2
DCVS.
- Meters. Schematic2
I_METER, V_METER .
BFG591 Schematic2
.
+ Ports, Harmonic Balance.
Schematic2 PORT_PS1.
Add Ground .
.

.
. 90-
, Rotate.

1.40
.1.39
.
. 1.41 .

1.41
Z- , Pstart- , Pstop , Pstep- .
. 1.42
900 .

46

1.42
L1 , C1- .

1.43

C2 - , R1 .

1.44

47

1.45 .
2:
,
Proj .
Project Options, .
Project Options. Frequency Values
Modify Range ( 290 MHz ) ( 310 MHz )
, 1 MHz. Replace
Apply. ( MHz )
Data Entry Units.

1.46
3:

:
- IVCurve;
- Project Add Measurement.
(. 1.47 2.32);
- Meas.Type Nonlinear Current;
- Measurement IVDLL;
- Data Source Name
( Schematic2 )
- Voltage Measure Component ,
V_METER.VM1;
- Current Measure Component ,
I_METER.AMP1;
- Frequency Swp Index 11,
300 ;

48

1.47

- Power Swp Index 12, 11


dBm ;
- .

. ,
. IVGurve

(. 1.48).
.

1.48

4:


.

49

1.49

1.50
1.2.4

.
1:
. ,
BFG591,
.1.29, .1.40. ,

, .
Ports, Harmonic Balance,
Port1 (.1.51).

50

1.51
Z=50, Prw=10, Ang=0,
Z- , Prw- , Ang .

1.52

2:
,
Proj .
Project Options, .
Project Options. Frequency Values
Modify Range ( 290 MHz ) ( 310 MHz )
, 1 MHz. Replace
Apply. ( MHz )
Data Entry Units.

1.53
3:
Project Add Graph (
). (. 1.54),
.
. Tabular
( ). Graph 1 Graph
name LargeSignal_Tab. .

51

1.54

. (. 1.54) Smit Chart.

1.55
4:
. Project Add
Measurement ( ).
(. 1.56), .

1.56
Meas Type ( ) Nonlinear Parameter
( ). Measurement Zcomp. Data
Source Name LargeSignal _Zin. Measurement
Component ( ) Port1.
Harmonic Index,
1. Power Swp Index ( )
1. Complex (Result Type) .
. 1.56.

52

Analyze, .


(. 1.57, 1.58).

1.57

1.58

1.2.5
,


.

Microwave Office.
1:
File () New Project ( ).
Save Project As , , UM1
.
2:
Project (), Add Schematic ( ),
New Schematic ( ) (.1.59).

53

1.59
Create New Schematic Untitled 1,
. OK.

1.60
3:
Elem.
4:

.
.
. 1.61.

1.61
5:

54

, ,
Proj .
Project Options, .
Project Options. Frequency Values (. 1.62).

1.62
Start 290 MHz, Stop 310 MHz
1 MHz. Apply (). Current Range
(. 1.62). OK.
6:

Z 11 290310
. Add Graph (
) . (. 1.63) Create Graph (
)
(Graph1, Graph2) Create Graph (. 1.63)
(Rectangular).

1.63

(Graph3) Create Graph (. 1.64)
(Smit Chart).

55

1.64
7:
.
Graph 1 Add Measurement (
).
:

1.65
Meas. Type ( ) Port Parameters.
Measurement () Z (Z Parameters). Data Source Name
Schematic 2. Real Complex Modigier. Add
> OK.
.
Graph 2 Add Measurement (
). :

1.66

56

Meas. Type ( ) Port Parameters.


Measurement () Z (Z Parameters). Data Source Name
Schematic 2. Imag Complex Modigier.
Add > OK.
.
Graph 3 Add Measurement (
). :

1.67
Meas. Type ( ) Port Parameters.
Measurement () Z (Z Parameters). Data Source Name
Schematic 2. Add > OK.
8:
, , .
. 1.68 - 1.70.
(.1.68) ,
. ,
r11, x11, .
300
r11
50

0,149 ,

x11
50

2.232 ,

r11=7,45 , x11= 111,6 . 300


.

57

1.68

(. 1.69, 1.70)
.

1.69
Z11

1.70
Z11

.

58

,
.
, .
9:

.
, ..
.
0

290310 .
1,0.
10.


L3 = 30 .
.

1.71
L3
Microwave Office
Var (Variable Browser). Schematic 2 (. 1.72).

1.72

59


.
"T", "O" "C" ,
Tuning (), Optimization () Constraints
() .

L3, "T", "O" "C" .
(. 1.72) (Lower)
(Upper).
11. .
Microwave Office
Proj. , Optimizer Goals,
Add Opt Goal (. 1.73).

1.73
New Optimization Goal
(. 1.74).

1.74

Measurement (. 1.74)
Schematic2:Im(Z[1,1]),
0 .
(Goal Type) Meas = Goal, ..
Meas
Goal .
Range.

60

Start Stop Min Max.


290 310 (. 1.74).
Goal start 0.
1.0 Weight
( 9).
New Optimization Goal (. 1.74)
OK. Proj
Microwave Office
(. 1.75).

1.75

Microwave Office Proj. ,
+ Optimizer Goas >
Schematic 2:Im(Z[1,1])=0 [w=1,Range=2.9e+008..3.1e+008]
Edit Goal Properties(. 1.76).

1.76

Modify Optimization Goal
(.1.77), .

1.77

12.

61

Simulate Optimize (. 1.78)


. Optimize
Show All Iterations ( )
Optimization
Methods (. 1.79).

1.78
Pointer Robust Optimization
100 Maximum Iterations.

1.79

Start ().
Relative Goal Cost
( ) Cost History ( ),
(Graph 1 Graph 3).
Relative Goal Cost
,
.
Optimize
. 1.80. .
1.81.

62

1.80

1.81

1.82

63

1.83

,
. 1.84.

1.84


.
13.


(. 1.85),

.
.

64

1.85


(Graph 4, Graph 5).
Graph 4.
Graph 4 Add Measurement ( ).
, . 1.86.
Meas. Type ( ) Nonlinear Power.
Measurement () Pcomp. Data Source Name
Schematic 2. Measurement Component P_METER 3.P1.
Real Complex Modigier. Add > OK.

1.86
Graph 5.
Graph 5 Add Measurement ( ).
:

65

1.87
Meas. Type ( ) Nonlinear Power.
Measurement () PGain. Data Source Name
Schematic 2. Power In Component > PORT_1. P_METER
3.P1 Power Out Component. DB.
Add > OK.

. ,
, .
. 1.88 1.90.
(.1.88).

1.88
40

(. 1.89).

66

1.89 Pcomp
40

1.90 PGain
40

.
,

14:

.
, ..
.


290310 .


.
1,0.
15.

67

Microwave Office
Var (Variable Browser). Schematic 2 (.1.91).

1.91


.
"T", "O" "C" ,
Tuning (), Optimization () Constraints
() .
o
R1, "T", "O" "C" .
(. 1.91) (Lower)
(Upper).
16. .
Microwave Office
Proj. , Optimizer Goals,
Add Opt Goal (. 1.92).

1.92
New Optimization
Goal (. 1.93).

68

1.93

Measurement (. 1.93)
Schematic 2:Re(Pcomp[P_METER 3.P1,1,1]),



.
(Goal Type)
Meas = Goal, ..
Meas
Goal .
Range.
Start Stop Min Max.
295 305 (. 1.93).
Sloped Goal start 220 mW
Goal stop 165 mW (. 1.93).
1.0 Weight

( 14).
New Optimization Goal (.
1.93) OK. Proj
Microwave Office
(. 1.94).

1.94

Microwave Office Proj. ,

+
Optimizer
Goas
>
Schematic
2:Re(Pcomp[P_METER3.P1,1,1])=
=0.22..0.165[w=1,Range=2.95e+008..3.05e+008] Edit Goal
Properties(. 1.95).

69

1.95

Modify Optimization Goal (.
1.96), .

1.96

17.
Graph 4, Graph 5
40 :

1.97 Pcomp

. 1.97 .

70

1.98 PGain

Simulate Optimize
(. 1.99) .
Optimize Show All Iterations (
)
Optimization Methods (. 1.100).

1.99

1.100

Pointer Robust Optimization


100 Maximum Iterations.
Start ().
Relative Goal Cost
( ) Cost History ( ),
(Graph 1 Graph 5).
Relative Goal Cost
71

,
. Optimize
. 1.101
. 1.102 1.105.

1.101

1.102

1.103 Pcomp

72

1.104 PGain

.
1.105.

1.105

,
R1=20,696 (. 1.102)
(. 1.103).

(. 1.104).
18.

- ,
L4 R2 (. 1.106).
. 1.106 ,
L3, L4, R1, R2,
0,5 .

1.106
73

-
. 1.107. ,

,
.
R1=20,35 .

. 1.108 1.114.

1.107
-

1.108 Pcomp

74

1.109 PGain

1.110

1.111

75

1.112

1.113

1.114

1.115

76

.
1.108 1.115 ,
.
19:
.
Design Notes, .
, , .

1.116
20:
, File () Save
().
2
(
) [11,13]
,
[5, 6, 8, 15, 18, 21, 27].

,
.

- .

.
2.1


BFG591.

77


Microwave Office.
2.1.1
Microwave Office


(.2.1).
1:
, ,
Proj .
Project Options, .
Project Options. Frequency Values (. 2.2).
Start 700 MHz, Stop 760 MHz
1 MHz. Apply (). Current Range
(. 2.2). OK.
2:

Z 11 700760
. Add Graph (
) . (. 2.3) Create Graph (
)

2.1

78

2.2
(Graph1, Graph2) Create Graph (. 2.3)
(Rectangular).

2.3

(Graph3) Create Graph (. 2.4)
(Smit Chart).

2.4
3:
.
Graph 1 Add Measurement (
).
. 2.5.

79

Meas. Type ( ) Port Parameters.


Measurement () Z (Z Parameters). Data Source Name
Schematic 2. Real Complex Modigier. Add
> OK.

2.5
.
Graph 2 Add Measurement (
). :

2.6
Meas. Type ( ) Port Parameters.
Measurement () Z (Z Parameters). Data Source Name
Schematic 2. Imag Complex Modigier.
Add > OK.
.
Graph 3 Add Measurement (
). :

80

2.7
Meas. Type ( ) Port Parameters.
Measurement () Z (Z Parameters). Data Source Name
Schematic 2. Add > OK.


(Graph 4, Graph 5).
Graph 4.
Graph 4 Add Measurement ( ).
. 2.8.
Meas. Type ( ) Nonlinear Power.
Measurement () Pcomp. Data Source Name
Schematic 2. Measurement Component P_METER 3.P1.
Real Complex Modigier. Add > OK.
Graph 5.
Graph 5 Add Measurement ( ).
. 2.9.
Meas. Type ( ) Nonlinear Power.
Measurement () PGain. Data Source Name
Schematic 2. Power In Component > PORT_1. P_METER
3.P1 Power Out Component. DB.
Add > OK.

2.8

81

2.9
50
.
2.1.2
, , .
. 2.10 2.15.
(.2.10) ,
. ,
r11, x11, .
730,35
x11
r11
0.846 ,
0,814 ,
50

50

r11=40,7 , x11= 42,3 . 730,35


.

2.10

(.2.11, 2.12)
.

82

2.11
Z11

2.12
Z11

.

(. 2.13)

2.13
50

1 dBm (. 2.14).

83

2.14 Pcomp

2.15 PGain
,


Pgain. .

.
2.1.3
1.

.

, .. .
-, 50

700760 .
0,4.
-, 0

700760 .
0,4.

84


17 700760 .
0,2.
2.

Microwave Office
Var (Variable Browser). Schematic 2 (. 2.16).

.
"T", "O" "C" ,
Tuning (), Optimization () Constraints
() .
:
R2, R3, R4, L3, C6,
"T", "O" "C" .
(. 2.16) (Lower) (Upper).

. 2.16

3. .
Microwave Office
Proj. , Optimizer Goals,
Add Opt Goal (.2.17).

85

2.17
New Optimization
Goal (. 2.18).
Measurement (.2.18)
Untiteld 1:Re(Z[11]),
50 .

2.18

(Goal Type) Meas = Goal, ..
Meas
Goal .
Range.
Start Stop Min Max.
700 760 (. 2.18).
Goal start 50.
0,4 Weight
( 1).
New Optimization Goal (.
2.18) OK. Proj
Microwave Office
(. 2.19).

.

2.19
New Optimization Goal (. 2.20), Measurement

86

Untiteld 1:Im(Z[11]),
.

2.20

(Goal Type) Meas = Goal, ..
Meas
Goal .
Range.
Start Stop Min Max.
700 760 (.2.20).
Goal start 0.
0,4 Weight
( 1).
(.2.21).
Proj
Microwave Office
(.2.22).

2.21

87

2.22
4.
Simulate Optimize (. 2.23)
. Optimize
Show All Iterations ( )
Optimization
Methods (. 2.24).

2.23

2.24
Pointer Robust Optimization
100 Maximum Iterations.
Start ().
Relative Goal Cost
( ) Cost History ( ),
(Graph 1 Graph 3).
Relative Goal Cost
,
.
Optimize
. 2.25.

88

2.25

.
2.26 2.31.

2.26

2.27

89

2.28 -

2.29

90

2.30

2.31
,
. 2.32.

2.32
. 2.33
Vaiue.

91

2.33
. 2.32, L3, , R2,
R3, R4, C6 17
0,5 .
,

,
700760 50
1%.

.
5:
.
Design Notes, .
, ,
.

2.34

92

6.
, File () Save
() Save As ( ).
3

3.1

[1-3].
,
.
3.1.1 ,
, ,
, .
[2, 3],
.3.1. ,
, :
1.

Z( ) Z( ),
( R) .
,

(), .
, ,
Z(
) Z( )
Z ( ), ,
,
.

() Z.( ),
Z( ), ( R)
.
Z( ),

.
. 3.1 U( )
Z( );

93

3.1

2.
() Z(n )
Z(n
). , , ,
.
3. () (
,
) , .
4. , . .
.
5.
. ,

.
,
.
6. ,
.

, , , .

,
, . ,

Z( )
Z( ) .

. ,
, , ,
, ,
.

,

( ),

94

.


.
3.1.2

, ,
-, - - [2].
-, -, - :
, (. 3.2).


LC-
. ,
10...18 (
, ),

100...300 .

R2 R1
( . 3.2 R1 >
R2). - - (..2,)
- ,
(R1 R2).
R2, R0, R0 - R1.
- R()0 R1 R2, , -
R()0 - R1 R2 (. . 3.2). , - R2 R0 R0 R1,
-,
R()0
R()0= R1R2 (. . 3.2).
-
r= R1/R2, - - -
( 3...5
). - - -
,
,
L - . ,
R()0 - R()0 -
,
, .

95

3.2 LC- :
-; -; -: -
;
- - .
(, )
( - ).
- . 3.3.


.
(- )
().

, ,
, .
. 3.3 ,.

3.3 ,

-,-, -
.
. 10...20%.
, f =f/f >1.1,2,

96

-,
(. 3.4) -.

R R Z
R

)

> . ( )
r =R /R ,
Z f
-, . . . r < 10 r > 0,1 f< 2...3.
LC- - 6 8.
- . 3.3.

, , L < 10...20
.
L . L= L -L

= 1/ 2L, . , L ,
,
, .

3.4 -

, ,
(, )
LC- 1.
3.1.3
100.300 ,
[2],
(.3.5).
LC-

20300, .. l< /18.. /12.
0,5.2 ,
.
l= /4.

97

3.5
3.1.4

,
.
0,11000
. ,
1:1, N ,
.

Z C
. ,

. ,
,
R

NZ .

ZC

R R .

,
1:1, 1:4, 1:9, 1:16 ..
,
.
3.2

.
[1-3] ,
.
.

,
.

,
.

98


, ,

Microwave Office.

Microwave Office -.
3.2.1 -

,
,
.
1:
File () New Project ( ).
Save Project As , , G1
.
2:
Project (), Add Schematic ( ),
New Schematic ( ) (. 3.6, 3.7).
Create New Schematic Untitled 1,
. OK.
3:
Elem.
4:
- + Lumped Element, Inductor.
Untitled 1 IND. Capacitor.
Untitled 1 CAP.
- Resistor. Untitled 1
RES.

3.6

99

3.7
5:
. ,
Add Port .
. Add Ground .
.
6:

.
.
7:
,
Rotate, 90-.
8:
.
, .3.8.
9:
, ,
Proj .
Project Options, .
Project Options. Frequency Values (.3.9):

3.8 -

3.9
100

Start 390 MHz, Stop 410 MHz


1 MHz. Apply (). Current Range
. OK.
10:
Z 11
390410 .
Add Graph ( ) .
(. 3.10) Create Graph ( )

3.10
Smith Chart ( ) Graph name
Graph 1. OK.
(Graph2,
Graph3) Create Graph (.3.11)
(Rectangular).

3.11

11:
.
Graph 1 Add Measurement (
). :

101

3.12
Meas. Type ( ) Port Parameters.
Measurement () Z (Z Parameters). Data Source Name
Untitled 1. Add > OK.
.
Graph 2 Add Measurement (
). :

3.13
Meas. Type ( ) Port Parameters.
Measurement () Z (Z Parameters). Data Source Name
Untitled 1. Real Complex Modigier. Add >
OK.
.
Graph 3 Add Measurement (
). :

102

3.14
Meas. Type ( ) Port Parameters.
Measurement () Z (Z Parameters). Data Source Name
Untitled 1. Imag Complex Modigier. Add
> OK.
12:
, , .
. 3.15 3.17.
(.3.15) ,
. ,
r11, x11, .
400
r11
50

0,28091 ,

x11
50

0,24785 ,

r11=14,1 , x11=12,4 . 400


. (.
3.16, 3.17)
.


.

3.15

103

3.16
Z11

3.17
Z11
,
.
, ..
50 . ,
.
13:

.

, .. .
-, 50

390410 .
0,5.
-, 0

390410 .
0,5.

104

14.

Microwave Office
Var (Variable Browser). Untitled 1 (. 3.18).

3.18


.
"T", "O" "C" ,
Tuning (), Optimization () Constraints
() .

C1, C2, C3, "T", "O" "C" .
(. 3.18) (Lower)
(Upper).
15. .
Microwave Office
Proj. , Optimizer Goals,
Add Opt Goal (. 3.19).

3.19
New Optimization
Goal (. 3.20).

105

3.20

Measurement (.3.20)
Untiteld 1:Re(Z[11]),
50 .
(Goal Type)
Meas = Goal, ..
Meas
Goal .
Range.
Start Stop Min Max.
390 410 (. 3.20).
Goal start 50.
0,5 Weight
( 18).
New Optimization Goal (.
3.21) OK. Proj
Microwave Office
(. 3.21).

3.21

. New Optimization Goal (. 3.22), Measurement

Untiteld 1:Im(Z[11]), 0
.

106

3.22

(Goal Type) Meas = Goal, ..
Meas
Goal .
Range.
Start Stop Min Max.
390 410 (. 3.22).
Goal start 0.
0,5 Weight
( 18).
New Optimization Goal (.
3.22) OK. Proj
Microwave Office
(. 3.23).

3.23

Microwave Office Proj. ,
+ Optimizer Goas >
Untiteld 1:Im(Z[1,1])=0 [w=0.5,Range=3.9e+008..4.1e+008]
Edit Goal Properties(. 3.24).

3.24

107

Modify Optimization Goal (.


3.25), .

3.25

16. .
Simulate Optimize (. 3.26)
. Optimize
Show All Iterations ( )
Optimization
Methods (. 3.27).

3.26

3.27

Pointer Robust Optimization


5000 Maximum
Iterations.
108

Start ().
Relative Goal
Cost ( ) Cost History ( ),
(Graph 1-Graph 3).
Relative Goal Cost
,
.
Optimize
. 3.28.

3.28

. 3.29 3.32.

3.29

109

3.30

3.31

,
. 3.32.

3.32

110

17:
.
Design Notes, .
, , - .

3.33
18:
, File () Save
() Save As ( ).
,
.

.
3.2.2 -
50- , .
(
R1=10 L1=1.0 )
.
-, -.

3.34 -

111


. 390410 ,

(. 3.34).
. 3.35 3.37.
(. 3.35) ,
. , r11,
x11, .

3.35

r11
50

400,1
x11
0,3486 ,
0,35125 ,
50

r11=17,43 , x11=17,56 .
400,1
. (. 3.36, 3.37)

.


.

3.36
Z11

112

3.37
Z11
,
.
, ..
50 . ,
.
-, 50

390410 .
0,5.
-, 0

390410 .
0,5.
,
,

.
Microwave Office Var (Variable Browser).
Untitled 1 (. 3.38).
(. 3.38)

.
"T", "O" "C" ,
Tuning (), Optimization () Constraints
() .

3.38

113


L2,
C2, L3, "T", "O" "C" .
(. 3.38) (Lower)
(Upper).

. Proj
Microwave Office (.
3.39).

3.39
.
Simulate Optimize .
Optimize
Show All Iterations ( )
Optimization Methods (. 3.40).
Pointer Robust Optimization
5000 Maximum
Iterations.
Start ().
Relative Goal
Cost ( ) Cost History ( ),
(Graph 1-Graph 3).
Relative Goal Cost
,
.

3.40


. 3.41.

Optimize

114

3.41.

. 3.42 3.44.

3.42

3.43

,
. 3.45.

115

3.44

3.45

Design Notes, .
- .

116

3.46
, File () Save
() Save As ( ).
3.2.3 -
50- , .
(
R1=10 L1=1.0 )
.
-, -
(.3.47).

. 390410 ,

(. 3.47).
. 3.48 3.50.
(.3.48) ,
. , r 11,
x11, .

117

3.47 -

3.48

399,9
r11
50

0,40942 ,

x11
50

1,1294 ,

r11=20,47 , x11= 56,47 .


399,9 .
(. 3.49, 3.50)
.


.

118

3.49
Z11

3.50
Z11
,
.
, ..
50 . ,
.
-, 50

390410 .
0,5.
-, 0

390410 .
0,5.
,
,
.
Microwave Office Var (Variable Browser).
Untitled 1 (. 3.51).

119

3.51

(. 3.51)

.
"T", "O" "C" ,
Tuning (), Optimization () Constraints
() .
C1,
C2, L3, "T", "O" "C" .
(.3.51) (Lower) (Upper).

. Proj
Microwave Office
(. 3.52).

3.52
.
Simulate Optimize .
Optimize
Show All Iterations ( )
Optimization Methods (. 3.53).
Pointer Robust Optimization
5000 Maximum
Iterations.
Start ().
Relative Goal
Cost ( ) Cost History ( ),
(Graph 1-Graph 3).
Relative Goal Cost
,
.
120

3.53


. 3.54.

Optimize

3.54

. 3.55 3.57.

3.55

121

3.56

3.57

,
. 3.58.

3.58

Design Notes, .
- .

122

3.59
, File () Save
() Save As ( ).
3.2.4 -
50- , .
(
R1=10 L1=1.0 )
.
(.3.60) -
().
.
390410 ,
(. 3.60).
. 3.61 3.63.
(. 3.61) ,
. , r11,
x11, .

3.60

123

3.61

r11
50

400,1
x11
0,26658 ,
0,26902 ,
50

r11=13,329 , x11=13,451 .
400,1 .
(. 3.62, 3.63)
.


.

3.62
Z11

124

3.63
Z11
,
.
, ..
50 . ,
.
-, 50

390410 .
0,5.
-, 0

390410 .
0,5.
, ,
.
Microwave Office
Var (Variable Browser). Untitled 1 (.
3.64).

3.64

125

(. 3.64)

.
"T", "O" "C" ,
Tuning (), Optimization () Constraints
() .
C1,
C2, TL1, TL2 "T", "O" "C" .
(. 3.64) (Lower)
(Upper).

. Proj
Microwave Office (.
3.65).

3.65
.
Simulate Optimize .
Optimize
Show All Iterations ( )
Optimization Methods (. 3.66).
Pointer Robust Optimization
5000 Maximum
Iterations.
Start ().
Relative Goal
Cost ( ) Cost History ( ),
(Graph 1-Graph 3).
Relative Goal Cost
,
.

126

3.66


. 3.67.

Optimize

3.67

. 3.68 3.70.

3.68

127

3.69

3.70

,
. 3.71.

3.71

Design Notes, .
- .

128

3.72
, File () Save
() Save As ( ).
3.2.5

3.1.4 ,

1:1, 1:4, 1:9, 1:16 ..

. .3.73
1:4.
50- , .
50


R
12 .5
4

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Z C = 12.5 50 =25 . ,
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. 3.73.
(. 3.74).

129

3.73 1:4

3.74 Z11

3.75
Z11

130

3.76
Z11
. 3.74 3.76 ,
390 410 - 1:4.


390410
(. 3.73)
PORT1.
Elem, + Ports > Harmoniic Balance (.
3.77) PORT1.

3.77

.
Elem,
MeasDevice P_METER3 (. 3.78, 3.79)

131

3.78

3.79
1:4
Graph 4 .
Graph 4 Add Measurement
( ).
:

3.80
PGain

132

Meas. Type ( ) Nonlinear Power.


Measurement () Pgain ( ). Data
Source Name Untitled 1. PORT1 Power In
Component.
Power Out Component P_METER3.P1.
DB Result Type. Add > OK.

(. 3.81).

3.81
PGain
. 3.81 , PGain
1:4
390410 0
, .. .
1:9,
. 3.82.
50- , .
50


R
5.555
9

.
,
.
Z C = 5.555 50 =16.666 .

133

3.82 1:9
,
390 410 , . 3.82.
(. 3.83).

3.83 Z11

134

3.84
Z11

3.85
Z11
. 3.83 3.85 ,
390 410 - 1:9.
Z11 0 . 3.85

R 5.555 Z C = 16.666.


390410
(. 3.82)
PORT1
(. 3.86).

3.86
1:9

(. 3.87).
135

. 3.87 , PGain
1:9
390410 0
, .. .

3.87
PGain
1:16,
. 3.88.

3.88 1:16
50- , .
50


R
3.125
16

.
,
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,
Z C = 3.125 50 =12.5

136

390
410 , . 3.88.
(. 3.89).

3.89 Z11

3.90
Z11

3.91

137

Z11
. 3.89 3.91 ,
390 410 - 1:16.


390410
(. 3.88)
PORT1
(. 3.92).

3.92
1:16

(. 3.93).
. 3.93 , PGain
1:16
390410
0 , .. .

3.93
PGain
138

4.

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149

4.2.1
GHz
TECHNOLOGY. ,

-


470-860 .
GHz TECHNOLOGY
0,5 100 .
0,5 20 .
100
. 8 20
.
,

-
.

UTV005
0,5 ,
, 20 ,
. 4.8.

4.8 UTV005
POUT
PIN . 4.9.

4.9 POUT
PIN
IMD POUT

150

. 4.10. 0,5
60 ,

. 1
45 .

4.10 IMD
POUT
IMD I cq
. 4.11.
0,2 . 0,15
0,37 60 .

4.11 IMD
I cq

Z IN RIN jX IN
. 4.12.
RIN 6 4,5
400 900 . X IN
0,2 6 .

151

4.12
Z IN RIN jX IN


ZOUT ROUT jX OUT
. 4.13.
ROUT

4.13
ZOUT ROUT jX OUT
50 30 400 900 .
X OUT
42 20 .
UTV010
1,0 ,
, 20 ,
. 4.14.

4.14 UTV010
POUT
PIN . 4.15.

4.15 POUT
PIN

152

IMD I cq
. 4.16.
0,4 . 0,3 0,5
60 .

4.16 IMD
I cq

Z IN RIN jX IN
. 4.17.
RIN 2,8 1,7
400 900 . X IN
0,6 5 .

4.17
Z IN RIN jX IN


ZOUT ROUT jX OUT
. 4.18.
ROUT 23 7
400 900 . X OUT
25 13 .

153

4.18
ZOUT ROUT jX OUT
UTV020
2,0 ,
, 25 ,
. 4.19.

4.19 UTV020
POUT
PIN . 4.20.

4.20 POUT
PIN
IMD POUT
. 4.21. 2,0
65 ,

154


. 3,8
54 .

4.21 IMD
POUT
IMD I cq
. 4.22.
0,4 . 0,35
0,45 60 .

4.22 IMD
I cq

Z IN RIN jX IN
. 4.23.

RIN

4.23
Z IN RIN jX IN
155

1,0 0,8 400 900 .


X IN
3,8 9,0 .

ZOUT ROUT jX OUT
. 4.24.
ROUT 0,8 0,9
400 900 . X OUT
23 15 .

4.24
ZOUT ROUT jX OUT
UTV040
4,0 ,
, 25 ,
. 4.25.

4.25 UTV040
POUT
PIN . 4.26.

156

4.26 POUT
PIN
IMD POUT
. 4.27. 4,0
60 ,

. 5
57 .

4.27 IMD
POUT
IMD I cq
. 4.28.

0,8 .
0,65 1,0 60 .

4.28 IMD
I cq

Z IN RIN jX IN
. 4.29.
RIN 1,3 0,5
400 900 . X IN
0,5 4,8 .

ZOUT ROUT jX OUT
157

. 4.30.
ROUT 14 4,0
400 900 . X OUT
10 6,0 .

4.29
Z IN RIN jX IN

4.30
ZOUT ROUT jX OUT



,
.
UTV080

8,0 ,
, , ,
28 ,
. 4.31.

158

4.31 UTV080
POUT
. 4.32.

4.32 POUT
PIN
IMD POUT
. 4.33. 8,0
60 ,

. 20
38 .

4.33 IMD
POUT
IMD
. 4.34.
1,5 .

I cq

159

4.34 IMD
I cq

Z IN RIN jX IN
. 4.35.
RIN 1 13
400 900 . X IN
8 20 .

4.35
Z IN RIN jX IN


ZOUT ROUT jX OUT
. 4.36.
ROUT 20 5
400 900 . X OUT
11 2 .

160

4.36
ZOUT ROUT jX OUT
UTV120

12 ,
, , ,
28 ,
. 4.37.

4.37
POUT
PIN . 4.38.

4.38 POUT
PIN
IMD POUT
. 4.39. 12
56 . 20
44 .

4.39 IMD
161

POUT
IMD
. 4.40.
1,5 2,0 .

I cq

4.40 IMD
I cq

Z IN RIN jX IN
. 4.41.
RIN 2 6
400 900 . X IN
3 10 .

4.41
Z IN RIN jX IN


ZOUT ROUT jX OUT
. 4.42.
ROUT 6 1
400 900 .

162

4.42
ZOUT ROUT jX OUT
X OUT
10 2 .
UTV200

20 ,
, , ,
28 ,
. 4.43.

4.43 UTV200
POUT
PIN . 4.44.

4.44 POUT
PIN
IMD POUT
. 4.45. 20
53 . 30

163

40 .

4.45 IMD
POUT
IMD I cq
. 4.46.
3,0 .

4.46 IMD
I cq

Z IN RIN jX IN
. 4.47.
RIN 3 23
400 900 . X IN
12 17 .

164

4.47
Z IN RIN jX IN


ZOUT ROUT jX OUT
. 4.48.
ROUT 5 3
400 900 .
X OUT
4,5 13 .

4.48
ZOUT ROUT jX OUT
UTV100

100 ,
, ,
28 ,
. 4.49.

165

4.49 UTV100
POUT
PIN . 4.50.

Z IN RIN jX IN
. 4.51.

4.50 POUT
PIN
RIN
2 6 400 900 .
X IN
7 14 .

4.51
Z IN RIN jX IN

ZOUT

ROUT

jX OUT

166

. 4.52.

4.52
ZOUT ROUT jX OUT
ROUT
10,5 4 400 900 .
X OUT
-10 2 . 700
.
4.3

[6, 8].
,

.


, ,
Microwave Office.


Microwave Office.

, .
, ,
.
,
,
,
.

.
167

4.3.1
, , 0,5 .
, 69 ,
854,0862,0 .
, .
4.53.

4.53
GHz TECHNOLOGY.
,
860 :

UTV005
. 4.54.

168

4.54
4.3.2
. 4.53
(L1, L2, L3) :
L1 - (5,0 4,0) .
1,66 .

= 2,74.
Microwave Office,
Windows () TXLine.
TXLine, (.
4.55) :

4.55
L1
Physical Characteristic
Physical Length (L)
5,0 mm
Width (W)
4,0 mm
Gap (G)
1,6 mm
Height (H)
1,66 mm
Thickness (T)
0,1 mm
Material Parameters
Dielectric Const

2,74

169

Frequence 860 MHz,


,
,
L1 (. 4.55) :
Electrical Characteristics L1
Impedanse
Electrical Length
Frequency

50,005 Ohms
7,506 deg
860 MHz


L2 (13,0 4,0) , L3 (15,0 4,0)
Microwave Office 2001
L2 L3 (. 4.56, 4.57).

4.56
L2
Electrical Characteristics L2
Impedanse
Electrical Length
Frequency

50,005 Ohms
19,516 deg
860 MHz

170

4.57
L3
Electrical Characteristics L3
Impedanse
Electrical Length
Frequency

50,005 Ohms
22,518 deg
860 MHz


UTV005 860 ,
. 4.12.
R= 4,7 , L = 5,4 , L
f

XL
2 f

1 ,

(4.1)

860


Microwave Office.
1:
File () New Project ( ).
Save Project As , , UM1
.
2:
Project (), Add Schematic ( ),
New Schematic ( ) (. 4.58).

171

4.58
Create New Schematic Untitled 1,
. OK.

4.59
3:
Elem.
4:
- + Transmission Lines, Phase.
Untitled 1 TLIN.
- + Lumped Element. Capacitor.
Untitled 1 CAP.
- Resistor. Untitled 1
RES.
- Inductor. Untitled 1
IND.
5:
. ,
Add Port .
. Add Ground .
.
6:

.
.
7:

172

,
Rotate, 90-.
8:

.4.53.
:

4.60
9:
, ,
Proj .
Project Options, .
Project Options. Frequency Values (. 4.61).

4.61
Start 854 MHz, Stop 862 MHz
1 MHz. Apply (). Current Range
(. 4.61). OK.
10:
Z 11
854862 .
Add Graph ( ) .
(. 4.62) Create Graph ( )

173

4.62
Smith Chart ( ) Graph name
Graph 1. OK.
(Graph2,
Graph3) Create Graph (. 4.63)
(Rectangular).

4.63

11:
.
Graph 1 Add Measurement (
).
:

4.64

174

Meas. Type ( ) Port Parameters.


Measurement () Z (Z Parameters). Data Source Name
Untitled 1. Add > OK.
.
Graph 2 Add Measurement (
). :

4.65
Meas. Type ( ) Port Parameters.
Measurement () Z (Z Parameters). Data Source Name
Untitled 1. Real Complex Modigier. Add >
OK.
.
Graph 3 Add Measurement (
). :

4.66
Meas. Type ( ) Port Parameters.
Measurement () Z (Z Parameters). Data Source Name
Untitled 1. Imag Complex Modigier. Add
> OK.
12:

175

, , .
. 4.67 4.69.
(. 4.66) ,
. ,
r11, x11, .
858
r11
50

0,3115 ,

x11
50

0,24612 ,

r11=15,57 , x11=12,3 . 858


. (.
4.68, 4.69)
.

4.67

4.68
Z11


.

176

4.69
Z11
,
.
, ..
50 . ,
.
13:

.

, .. .
-, 50

854862 .
0,5.
-, 0

854862 .
0,5.
14.

Microwave Office
Var (Variable Browser). Untitled 1 (. 4.70).

177

4.70


.
"T", "O" "C" ,
Tuning (), Optimization () Constraints
() .

C1-C3 TL1-TL4,
"T", "O" "C" .
(. 4.70) (Lower) (Upper).
15. .
Microwave Office
Proj. , Optimizer Goals,
Add Opt Goal (. 4.71).

4.71
New Optimization
Goal (. 4.72).

178

4.72

Measurement (. 4.72)
Untiteld 1:Re(Z[11]),
50 .
(Goal Type)
Meas = Goal, ..
Meas
Goal .
Range.
Start Stop Min Max.
390 410 (. 4.72).
Goal start 50.
0,5 Weight
( 18).
New Optimization Goal (.
4.72) OK. Proj
Microwave Office
(. 4.73).

4.73
. New Optimization Goal (. 4.74), Measurement

Untiteld 1:Im(Z[11]), 0
.

179

4.74

(Goal Type) Meas = Goal, ..
Meas
Goal .
Range.
Start Stop Min Max.
854 862 (. 4.74).
Goal start 0.
0,5 Weight
.
New Optimization Goal (.
4.74) OK. Proj
Microwave Office
(. 4.75).

4.75

Microwave Office Proj. ,
+ Optimizer Goas >
Untiteld 1:Im(Z[1,1])=0 [w=0.5,Range=3.9e+008..4.1e+008]
Edit Goal Properties(. 4.76).

180

4.76

Modify Optimization Goal (.
4.77), .

4.77

16. .
Simulate Optimize (. 4.78)
. Optimize
Show All Iterations ( )
Optimization
Methods (. 4.79).

4.78

181

4.79

Pointer Robust Optimization


5000 Maximum
Iterations.
Start ().
Relative Goal Cost
( ) Cost History ( ),
(Graph 1-Graph 3).
Relative Goal Cost ,

.
Optimize
. 4.80. .
4.81 4.83.

4.80

182

4.81

4.82

4.83

,
. 4.84.

183

4.84
17:
.
Design Notes, .
, ,
.

4.85
18:
, File () Save
() Save As ( ).

.
4.3.3

. 4.53
(L6, L7) :
L6 - (37,0 4,0) .
184

1,66 .

= 2,74.

4.3.2. . 4.86
.

4.86

Physical Characteristic
Physical Length (L)
Width (W)
Gap (G)
Height (H)
Thickness (T)

37,0 mm
4,0 mm
1,6 mm
1,66 mm
0,1 mm

Material Parameters
Dielectric Const

2,74

Electrical Characteristics L6
Impedanse
Electrical Length
Frequency

50,004 Ohms
55,543 deg
860 MHz


L7 (13,0 4,0)
Microwave Office 2001 L7.
L2 (. 4.56), ..
L2 L7 .

Electrical Characteristics L7

185

Impedanse
Electrical Length
Frequency

50,005 Ohms
19,516 deg
860 MHz

. 4.13
UTV005 860 .
R= 32 , L = 27 , L
f

XL
2 f

5 ,

(4.2)

860.


Microwave Office ,
.
:

4.87


. 854862 ,

(. 4.87).
. 4.88 4.90.
(. 4.88) ,
. , r11,
x11, .
858,03
x11
r11
0,010178 ,
0,25676 ,
50

50

r11=12,84 , x11=0,5 . 858,03


. (.
4.89, 4.90)
.

186

4.88

4.89
Z11

187

4.90
Z11
,
.
, ..
50 . ,
.
-, 50

854862 .
0,5.
-, 0

854862 .
0,5.
,
,

.
Microwave Office Var (Variable Browser).
Untitled 1 (. 4.91).

4.91

188

(. 4.91)

.
"T", "O" "C" ,
Tuning (), Optimization () Constraints
() .
L2,
C2, L3, "T", "O" "C" .
(. 4.91) (Lower)
(Upper).

. Proj
Microwave Office (.
4.92).

4.92
.
Simulate Optimize .
Optimize
Show All Iterations ( )
Optimization Methods (. 4.93).
Pointer Robust Optimization
5000 Maximum
Iterations.
Start ().
Relative Goal
Cost ( ) Cost History ( ),
(Graph 1-Graph 3).
Relative Goal Cost
,
.

4.93

189


. 4.94.

Optimize

4.94

. 4.95 4.97.

4.95

4.96

190

4.97

,
. 4.98.

4.98

Design Notes, .
.

191

4.99
, File () Save
() Save As ( ).


UTV005.
4.3.4


:
(.4.53);
(. 4.84, 4.98)
, .

.
Microwave Office.
Windows () TXLine. TXLine,

L1:
Electrical Characteristics L1
Impedanse
Electrical Length
Frequency

50,0 Ohms
30,0 deg
860 MHz

:
Physical Characteristic

Material Parameters

192

Gap (G)
Height (H)
Thickness (T)

1,6 mm
1,66 mm
0,1 mm

Dielectric Const 2,74

Frequence
860 MHz,
,
,
(. 4.100):

4.100
L1
Physical Characteristic L1
Physical Length (L)
Width (W)

19,9 mm
4,0 mm


:
Electrical Characteristics L1

Physical Characteristic L1

Impedanse
Electrical Length
Frequency

Physical Length (L)


Width (W)

50,0 Ohms
30,0 deg
860 MHz

19,9 mm
4,0 mm

Electrical Characteristics L2

Physical Characteristic L2

Impedanse
Electrical Length

Physical Length (L)


Width (W)

50,0 Ohms
13,28 deg

8,8 mm
4,0 mm

193

Frequency

860 MHz

Electrical Characteristics L2

Physical Characteristic L2

Impedanse
Electrical Length
Frequency

Physical Length (L)


Width (W)

50,0 Ohms
9,0 deg
860 MHz

5,9 mm
4,0 mm

Electrical Characteristics L3

Physical Characteristic L3

Impedanse
50,0 Ohms
Electrical Length 17,3 deg
Frequency
860 MHz

Physical Length (L)


Width (W)

11,5 mm
4,0 mm

Electrical Characteristics L6

Physical Characteristic L6

Impedanse
50,0 Ohms
Electrical Length
47,4 deg
Frequency
860 MHz

Physical Length (L) 31,5 mm


Width (W)
4,0 mm

Electrical Characteristics L6

Physical Characteristic L6

Impedanse
Electrical Length
Frequency

Physical Length (L)


Width (W)

50,0 Ohms
77,2 deg
860 MHz

51,4 mm
4,0 mm

Electrical Characteristics L7

Physical Characteristic L7

Impedanse
Electrical Length
Frequency

Physical Length (L)


Width (W)

50,0 Ohms
22,6 deg
860 MHz

15,0 mm
4,0 mm

Electrical Characteristics L7

Physical Characteristic L7

Impedanse
Electrical Length
Frequency

Physical Length (L)


Width (W)

50,0 Ohms
2,0 deg
860 MHz

1,3 mm
4,0 mm

. 4.101
.

194

4.101
4.3.5

.

854862 ,
PORT1.
Elem, + Ports > Harmoniic Balance (.
4.102) PORT1.

4.102

.
Elem,
MeasDevice P_METER3 (. 4.103, 4.104)

195

4.103

4.104

,
. Graph 1
. Graph 1
Add Measurement
:

4.105
Meas. Type ( ) Nonlinear Power.
Measurement () Pgain ( ) . Data
Source Name Untitled 1. PORT1 Power In
196

Component.
Power Out Component P_METER3.P1.
DB Result Type. Add > OK.

(. 4.106).

4.106

854862
0,01 .
.
, ,
PORT1.
Elem, + Ports > Harmoniic Balance
PORT1.
.
Elem,
MeasDevice P_METER3 (. 4.107).

4.107

,
. Graph 1
.
Graph 1 Add Measurement ( ).
:

197

4.108
Meas. Type ( ) Nonlinear Power.
Measurement () Pgain ( ). Data
Source Name Untitled 1. PORT1 Power In
Component.
Power Out Component P_METER3.P1.
DB Result Type. Add > OK.

(. 4.109).

4.109

854862
0,01 .
POUT
PIN
(. 4.50),
,
.
P

P
KK K

0 ,5
0 ,05
1 10 1

198


;
;
860 ;
K .
,

854862
0,01 .
P
K
K

.



Microwave Office [20].


[32].
5.1

(.5.1,).

.

5.1
. . , . .
. . .

199

.
.
. (.1.6
5.1) a, b
, ,
, cd, ef, .
.
U , U
4 cd, ef, . . .
, .5.1,
I (
) ( H).
:
,
;

.
,
. , ,
.
, .. .
( ) . .
, ( ) ,
:
, - ,
.
.

(.5.2).
[32],
, Em Hm
,
,
, , ,
, .

200

5.2
zy
, , zx,
, .
5.2


Microwave Office.
1:
File () New Project ( ).
Save Project As , , Vibrator
.
2:
Project (), Add EM Structure (
), New EM Structure (
). .5.3, 5.4.

5.3

201

5.4 EM
Create New EM Structure EM Structure1,
. OK.
,
(. 5.5).

5.5 EM

: Draw (), Structure (), Animate ();
(. 5.6),
.

5.6
3:
Enclosure ()
Substrate Information (. 5.7).

202

5.7

:
Enclosure ();
Ditltctric Layers ( );
Boundaries ().
Enclosure :
X- Dimensions Y- Dimensions;
X- Divisions Y- Divisions;
Units ().
.
304,8304,8 , 120,
(. 5.7).
Ditltctric Layers
(. 5.8).

5.8
Layer (), Hatch (), Via Hatch ( ), Thickness
(), er ( ), Loss Tangent (
), Bulk Conductivity ( ), View Scale (), Add
Above ( ), Add Below ( ).
.
,
. Add Above , Add
Below.
(. 5.9).
Perfect onductor ( ), Specify Material
( ), Approximate Open (377 Ohms) (
). .
Infinite Waveguide ( )
.

203

5.9
4:

,
900
4

83,3 .

- 2,5 .
5:
EM
Structure1 , Add Rect Conductor (
), EM Structure1 ,
,
.
.
(. 5.10 2.12). Internal port
( ) Draw ()
, ( )
. . 5.11
.

204

5.10

5.11


Draw Edit Shape Props (. 5.12),
Conductor Properties ( ),
(.
5.13).

205

5.12

5.13
New Material,
(. 5.14) Create New Material (
).

5.14
Material name, Electrical
parameters .


Physical parametr, (Conductor thickness)
(Material conductivity) /.

5.1.

206

5.1

6,14x107

5.88x107
4.10x107
3.53x107

1.47x107


Edit .
,
, .
6:

( , ..)
- .

Z 11 900910
.
Add Graph ( ) . (. 5.15) Create
Graph ( )
(Graph1, Graph2) Create Graph
(Rectangular).

5.15

(Graph3) Create Graph (. 5.16)
(Smit Chart).

207

5.16
7:
.
Graph 1 Add Measurement (
).
:

5.17
Meas. Type ( ) Port Parameters.
Measurement () Z (Z Parameters). Data Source Name
EM Structure. Real Complex Modigier.
Add > OK.
.
Graph 2 Add Measurement (
). :

208

5.18
Meas. Type ( ) Port Parameters.
Measurement () Z (Z Parameters). Data Source Name
EM Structure. Imag Complex Modigier.
Add > OK.
.
Graph 3 Add Measurement (
). :

5.19
Meas. Type ( ) Port Parameters.
Measurement () Z (Z Parameters). Data Source Name
EM Structure. Add > OK.
8:
, ,
Proj .
Project Options, .
Project Options. Frequency Values (. 5.20).

5.20
Start 900 MHz, Stop 910 MHz
1 MHz. Apply (). Current Range
(. 5.20). OK.
209

9:
, , .
. 5.21 5.23.
(.5.21) ,
. ,
r11, x11, .
904,99
r11
50

4.45 ,

x11
50

0.401 ,

r11=222,5 , x11= 20,05 .


904,99 .

5.21

(. 5.22, 5.23)
.

5.22
Z11

210

5.23
Z11



.
5.3


.
1:


Project > Add Schematic > New Schematic
.

5.24

Schematic ( ).

(. 5.25) Create New

211

5.25
Schematic 1 OK.
,
.
(. 5.26),
: X=Y ( ), GND ( ),
PORT ( ), SUB ( ,
).

5.26

,
, Data Files .
Project > Add Data
File > Import Data File (. 5.27). ,
Proj, Data
Files (. 5.28).

5.27

212

5.28
EM Structure 11 (. 5.29).

5.29
Vibrator Rename Data Source
OK (. 5.30)

5.30
Data Files
(. 5.31)

5.31

SUB
(. 5.32), Select data source for
insertion Vibrator (. 5.33) OK.
213

5.32

5.33

SUBCKT (. 5.34 2.36)

5.34



Microwave Office.
2:
Elem (. 5.35).
3:
+ Transmission Lines, Phase.
Untitled 1 TLIN (. 5.35).

214

5.35

+ Lumped Element. Capacitor.
Untitled 1 CAP (. 5.36).

5.36

215

4:
. ,
Add Port .
. Add Ground .
.
5:

.
.
6:
,
Rotate, 90-.
7:
.
:

5.37

8:

Z 11 900910
. Add Graph (
) . (. 5.38) Create Graph (
)
(Graph4, Graph5) Create Graph (. 5.38)
(Rectangular).

216

5.38

(Graph6) Create Graph (. 5.39)
(Smit Chart).

5.39
9:
.
Graph 4 Add Measurement (
).
:

5.40

217

Meas. Type ( ) Port Parameters.


Measurement () Z (Z Parameters). Data Source Name
Schematic 1. Real Complex Modigier. Add
> OK.
.
Graph 5 Add Measurement (
). :

5.41
Meas. Type ( ) Port Parameters.
Measurement () Z (Z Parameters). Data Source Name
Schematic 1. Imag Complex Modigier.
Add > OK.
.
Graph 6 Add Measurement (
). :

5.42
Meas. Type ( ) Port Parameters.
Measurement () Z (Z Parameters). Data Source Name
Schematic 1. Add > OK.
10:
, , .
. 5.43 5.45.

218

(.5.43) ,
. ,
r11, x11, .
905,02
r11
x
1,93 , 11 5.23 , r11=96,5 , x11=
50

50

261,5 . 905,02
.

5.43

(. 5.44, 5.45)
.

5.44
Z11

219

5.45
Z11


.
5.4

,
.
, ..
50 . ,
.
1:

.

, .. .
-, 50

900910 .
0,9.
-, 0

900910 .
0,1.
2.

Microwave Office
Var (Variable Browser). Schematic 1 (. 5.46 2.48).

220

5.46


.
"T", "O" "C" ,
Tuning (), Optimization () Constraints
() .

C1, C2, C3, "T", "O" "C" .
(. 5.46) (Lower)
(Upper).

3.
Microwave Office
Proj. , Optimizer Goals,
Add Opt Goal (. 5.47).

5.47
New Optimization
Goal (. 5.48).

221

5.48

Measurement (. 5.48)
Schematic 1:Re(Z[11]),
50 .
(Goal Type)
Meas = Goal, ..
Meas
Goal .
Range.
Start Stop Min Max.
900 910 (. 5.48).
Goal start 50.
0,9 Weight
.
New Optimization Goal (.
5.48) OK. Proj
Microwave Office
(. 5.49).

5.49

. New Optimization Goal (. 5.50), Measurement

Schematic 1:Im(Z[11]), 0
.

222

5.50

(Goal Type) Meas = Goal, ..
Meas
Goal .
Range.
Start Stop Min Max.
900 910 (. 5.50).
Goal start 0.
0,1 Weight
.
New Optimization Goal (.
5.50) OK. Proj
Microwave Office
(. 5.51).

5.51

Microwave Office Proj. ,
+ Optimizer Goas >
Schematic 1:Im(Z[1,1])=0 [w=0.1,Range=9e+008..9.1e+008]
Edit Goal Properties(. 5.52).

5.52

223

Modify Optimization Goal (.


5.53), .

5.53

4.
Simulate Optimize (. 5.54)
. Optimize
Show All Iterations ( )
Optimization
Methods (. 5.55).

5.54

5.55

224

Pointer Robust Optimization


5000 Maximum
Iterations.
Start ().
Relative Goal
Cost ( ) Cost History ( ),
(Graph4-Graph 6).
Relative Goal Cost
,
.
Optimize
. 5.56.

5.56

. 5.575.59.

5.57

225

5.58

5.59

,
. 5.60.

5.60

226

5.61

5:
.
Design Notes, .
, ,
.

5.62
6:
, File () Save
() Save As ( ).
6

,
[3, 11].

.
227

( )
.
-.

. , ,
,
-.


[11].
6.1
:
;
;
;
;
;
;
.
.

f
() f
()
k f

f .


f .
f
f

10 5 10 9 .

, , .
, ,
.
,
10 10... 10 13 .
-

.
. ,
,
.

.

228


D 10 log

P
.
P

D (-40) + (-70)
, (-100) .


.
.
.


S f
1 .
f - , 10
107 .


Sf f
f 2S f .


f
2

f df ,

f -
f ,
.



()
(),

2
2
,
f
f .

,
, ,
.
.

6.2

. ,
,
.
,
, .

229

,
:
;
.
, ,
, ,
, .

. , ,
,
, .


[11].

().
,

.
6.2.1
:
;

;
;
.

: -,
,
; -,
. . 6.1. ,
.

6.1 ,
()
() .
.
() .

230

-

.


. 6.2.

6.2 ,


().
().

.


, .
, ,
.

.


.6.3,
10 ,
f 0 .

6.3

231

f1
af0

1, 10.
2 bf0 ,
10.

.

cf 0

bf 0
10

af 0
100

f1
100

f0
.
100
a, b, c

n
n 9 . c ( , , 1
) 1 , np b - 100
, a - 10 .
.

,
, ,
.
,
. Me

.
, ,
, ,
.
.6.4.
.
.6.4.
, , .

.

232

6.4

,
.
6.2.2
,
, .
:
;
, ,
.

(.6.5),
,
.

(),
, .
() ()
(, ), ,
.

6.5

,
. ,
. , ,

.

.
:
() - ,
,
, ,
;
( ) - ,
;

233

- ,
.
,
.

,
,
[11].
, . . .

, .
, .

, ,
2
.

.
,
.
.

U , , ,
,
.

. ,
.

,
. ,
, , ,
,
.
.

, ,
, , .

(. . ) ,
. ,
.

.

234


. .

6.6

. 6.6 ,
,

-
;
- ;
t - .
,
, ,
.

, . .
.

,
,
1
-

.
.

,
. ,

.
, ,
.
235


,
,
, . ,

.
,
.
,
:
;
;
;
;
, .

(.6.7.)
f 0 .

. , ,
f , , f nf0 , n -
. , .

6.7

n 1 n 1 ,
.
.


.

236

6.8
f Nf 0 .
N ,
.

, ,
.
, f1 f 2 .
,
- ,
.

6.9

(. 6.10) (.1.8)
.

6.10
f f1 ,
. f f1 Nf 0 .
f 0
f1 .
.
,
10


af0
f1
, 10.
237

bf0 ,
10 .

.

bf0

af0
10

f1
100

6.11 ,

.
6.3
,
, ( )
.
.

,
.
6.3.1
.
(
, - ) [11].
238

,

ut
U0 A t sin 0t
t ,
U 0 0
; A t , t -
.
.6.12.

6.12
[ A t
t ], .
, A t

d
dt

1,

(.6.13).

6.13


B (
), f m ,
, B . , B
B - ,

f m ,
f m , 1 f .


,

239

.
,

.


S f m

S 0 [11]
fm

B 1

10lg

S fm
S0



f m B B , 1
,
fm

B 1

fm

10lg B

1

fm

B 1

fm



.
fm

, 10 ,
10 .
[11].
6.3.2
,
, .
.
.
,
.
,
.

,
.
. ,

.

240

. ,
.
-.

, .
,
-

.
6.3.3
,
. 6.14.

6.14
.6.14 : S f m
,
; f m - ,
; f1 , f 2 - ; f -
, 30
/ 20 /. f
-.
1 3 . f
f

.
f []
:
1. 5 .................... 104
2. .............................. 105
3. 105
4. 3 105
5. .............................. 3 103
6. .......................................... 102

241

.6.15
S 0 1

2
;

6.15
,

.

.

,
2040 .

.
6.3.4

,
. ,
(),
( ,
), . 5.16.

6.16
,
, ,
N , 20lg N .


1


f

242

, .
, . 6.17.
1 1000.
,
,
. 20lg103 60 , ,
( 1 .6.17) 60 ,
2. ,
.
,
4 ,
-. ,
0 .
- [11]
132 10lg f m .
[11], 0
4
,
174 / 4 , . 170 / ,
,
. 6.17, 3.

6.17
,
,
1 ,
.
6.3.5


, ,
.
,
.
, ,
,

243

,
.

.
,

, (
)
.

,
.


.
40 5 -
,

20 .
. 6.18.

6.18

1 ,
40 .
12 100 .
10
.
,

, . 10
,
,
,
.
6.4

244

, - , ,

: ; ;
; ;
.
[11] . 6.19 6.21, ,
. .5.19
,
:
1. , ....................... 220,0300
2. , ......................................1
3. ,1/ ..................... 10-8
4. ,
60

6.19
.5.19 .

(.5.20).
:
1. , ..................... 220,0300
2. , .......................................1
3. , 1/ ..................... 10-8
4. ,
60
5. , ....................................5

6.20

245

,

(.6.21).
:
1. , .................... 220,0300
2. , ....................................100
3. , 1/ ................... 10-12
4. ,
5. , ....................................5

90;

6.21

, .

,
.

.
6.5

246

[11].


.
.
6.5.1.
,
[11],
p(

) K ( )

F( )

p - ;
-
; p , p -
,
; p - ; U S -
; U -
; S - ;
F ( ) - ; K p -
; -
.
. 6.22

6.22


,
,
. ,
,
, ..
S , S .

p(

) ( )

F(

0.

-
; F ( ) -
.

247

( )

( )

( ) ,

W ( )

( )

( ) ,

( ) - .


.
,

, ,
,
.


. 6.23

6.23

(. 6.23),

F

W p
1

K p

1
p

1
K p
p

-

( )

1 m pT
,
1 pT

248

T
,
T

0,5m

1 2

( )

; T F 0
-
; T - ;
m - m 1 .
,
,

S f S
f W2
f ,
1

S
f -
; W f -
; f -
.

W2

T1

T
2

,
1

T2

4T 2
2 2
T1 1

2
2

T2

2 f.

1
T1 T2 T


W2

4T 2

2 2


. 6.24.

249

6.24

(. 6.24),

1

W p
1

1
K p
p

-

1 m pT
,
1 pT

( )




mT
2T
p1
p
2
m
T 2 p 2 2T p 1

W ( )

,
,

S

f W2

f ,

S
f -
; W f -
; f -
.

T4

W2

T1

T
2

;
1

T2

T1

T
2

m 2T 2
4 2
.
2 2
1
T2

2 f.

250

T1 T2 T

2
4

W2

m 2T 2
4
.
2
2



.
6.5.2



S

f W2

f W2


F
F
F
2

( f ) df .


(),

F

f df .

, ,

.

2 min .
T , T T ,

2

min .
:

1
2 T

;
m

- ;

f
f
- .
m
0

251


S f

100,1

f -

,

f

10 lg S f

6.5.3




S (f ) 1 [ 11
].


(6.1)
S f ( f ) f 2S ( f ) .


.

()

(),

12

S ( f )df

(6.2)

(6.3)

F
12

S f ( f )df

f
F

F , F - .
, ,

252

(6.4)
1 ,

( f ) 10lg(S ( f ) SO ) .

, SO

S ( f ) 100,1

(f)

(6.5)

(f ) , ..
.


(6.6)
S ( f ) S ( f )W12 ( f ) S ( f )W22 ( f ) ,
S (f ) S (f ) -
; W1 ( f ) , W2 ( f )
.

-

2
1

W (f)

1
(1

(1
4

2
2

W (f)

4 2
2
1 2 )(1
2

m 2
2
1 2 )(1
2

2 2 )

4 2
2
2 2 )

(6.7)

,
,

(6.8)

1)

1) ,

(6.9)

(6.10)
(6.11)

,
(6.12)
0,5m .
- ; -
;
1 - ; 2 -
- .
;

, [ 11 ] ( 6.12)
1 .
1 2 ,
(6.7),(6.8)
2
2
(6.13)
W12 ( f ) (1
4 2 ) (1
2 )2 ,
2 2
(6.14)
W22 ( f ) ( 4 4
m 2 ) (1 2 2 ) .
(6.13),(6.14) (6.6),
.

(6.15)
1 1 2 f ,
-
.

253

, (6.15)
2
.
.
(6.11) T ,
2
,
min .

m
C

(6.16)

f C

m 2
,
4 2
4
f C
/ F1(

)/m

(6.17)
(6.18)

f C 1 2 - .


20 lg N1 ,
(6.19)
N1 - .
[
11 ]
(6.20)
132 10lg f i
170
F .
f i - F

. [11],
.

,
.

.
. 6.25
.
1. .

f1 ; f 2 ; f 3 ;; f n 1 ; f n

F
F , n - ,

.


, [/],
, ..
1

( f1 ) ;

( f2 ) ;

( f 3 ) ;;

n 1

( fn 1) ;

( fn ) .

254

. 6.25
2.
S i (6.5)
, i = 1,2,3,...,
.
S i 100,1

i

S 1 ( f1 ) ; S 2 ( f 2 ) ; S 3 ( f 3 ) ;; S

n 1

( fn 1) ; S n ( fn ) .

3.
Sf i (6.1)
Sf i

fi 2 S i ( fi ) .


S f 1 ( f1 ) ; S f 2 ( f 2 ) ; S f 3 ( f 3 ) ;; S f n 1 ( f n 1 ) ; S f n ( f n ) .

4.
(6.2). (6.2)

12

n 1

fi

S 1 ( f1 ) f1 S 2 ( f 2 ) f 2 S

n 1

( fn 1) fn 1

12

i 1

f i f i 1 f i - .

180

5.
(6.3).

255

(6.3)

12

n 1

S f i fi

S f 1 ( f1 ) f1 S f 2 ( f 2 ) f 2 S f n 1 ( f n 1 ) f n 1

12

i 1

6. .

.


. 6.26.
.
1. .
:

. 6.26

256

f1 ; f 2 ; f 3 ;; f n 1 ; f n - ;

-
;
-
1 ( f1 ) ; 2 ( f 2 ) ; 3 ( f 3 ) ;; n 1 ( f n 1 ) ; n ( f n )
.
2.

1

( f1 ) ;

( f2 ) ;

20lg M

( f 3 ) ;;

n 1

( fn 1) ;

( fn )

M -
.

1

( f1 ) ;

( f2 ) ;

( f 3 ) ;;

n 1

( fn 1) ;

( fn )

3.

(6.5)
S

100,1

( f1 ) ; S

( f2 ) ; S

( f 3 ) ;; S

n 1

( fn 1) ; S

( fn ) .

4.

S

0,1

10

( f1 ) ; S

( f2 ) ; S

( f 3 ) ;; S

n 1

( fn 1) ; S

( fn ) .

5. ( f )
.

S

fi

( fi ) S

( fi )

- .
6.

1 2 f
1 2 (6.9),(6.10).

7.
(6.3)
S

i ( f i )

i ( f i )

1
(1

i ( f i )

(1
4
i

24
)(1

2
i
2
2
i 1

m 2
2
i 1 )(1
2
i
2

2 2 )

2
i

4 2
.
2
2
i 2 )

257

( f1 ) ; S

( f2 ) ; S

( f 3 ) ;; S

n 1

( fn 1) ; S

( fn ) .

8.
(6.2).
,
12

n 1

fi

i 1

i ( f i )

(1
4
i

m 2
2
i 1 )(1
2
i
2

4 2
2
2
i 2 )

1 2 f

2
9.
( ).
2
2

11.
min
2
2

10.
min
10.

7.
11. S i ( f i )
2
2
; S i ( f i ) S i ( f i )
min , ..


S

( f1 ) ; S

( f2 ) ; S

( f 3 ) ;; S

n 1

( fn 1) ; S

( fn ) ,


( 2 min ).
12.
f C

1 2

13. :

m
(6.16),
(6.18).
C (6.17),
14.
(6.4)
i

( f i ) 10lg S

( fi )

( f1 ) ;

( f2 ) ;

( f 3 ) ;;

( fn ) ;

15.
S f i (6.1)
S f i ( f i )

fi 2 S

( fi ) ,

i 1, 2 , 3,, n

:
S f 1 ( f1 ) ; S f 2 ( f 2 ) ; S f 3 ( f 3 ) ;; S f n ( f n ) .

258

16.
(6.2).

12

n 1

( fi ) fi

i 1

( f1 ) f1 S

( f2 ) f2 S

n 1

( fn 1) fn 1

12

f i - .

180

17.
(5.3).
,
12

n 1

S f i ( f i ) f i

f
i 1

S f 1 ( f1 ) f1 S f 2 ( f 2 ) f 2 S f n 1 ( f n 1 ) f n 1

12

18. .


. 6.27.
.
1. .
:
f1 ; f 2 ; f 3 ;; f n 1 ; f n

- ;
1

( f1 ) ;

( f2 ) ;

( f 3 ) ;;

n 1

( fn 1) ;

( fn )

-
;
1

( f1 ) ;

( f2 ) ;

( f 3 ) ;;

n 1

( fn 1) ;

( fn )

-
.

259

. 6.27

2.
,
i

20lg N

N - .

1

( f1 ) ;

( f2 ) ;

( f 3 ) ;;

n 1

( fn 1) ;

( fn )

3.
, (6.5)
S

0,1

10

( f1 ) ; S

( f2 ) ; S

( f 3 ) ;; S

n 1

( fn 1) ; S

( fn ) .

4.

S

0,1

10

( f1 ) ; S

( f2 ) ; S

( f 3 ) ;; S

n 1

( fn 1) ; S

( fn ) .

260

5. ( f )
.

S

( fi ) S

fi

( fi )

- .
6.

1 2 f
1 2 (6.9),(6.10)
1

, 2

1)

1) .

7.

S

i ( f i )

i ( f i )

1
(1

4
i

( fi )

24
)(1

2
i

2
i
2
2
i 1

(1

2 2 )

2
i
2

m
2
i 1 )(1

4 2
2
2
i 2 )

( f1 ) ; S

( f2 ) ; S

( f 3 ) ;; S

n 1

( fn 1) ; S

( fn ) .

8.
(6.2).
,
12

n 1

fi

i 1

( f1 ) f1 S

( f2 ) f2 S

n 1

( fn 1) fn 1

12


1 2 f
2
9.
( )
2
2

min 11.
2
2

10.
min
10.

7.
11. S i ( f i ) .
2
2
; S i ( f i ) S i ( f i )
min , ..


S

( f1 ) ; S

( f2 ) ; S

( f 3 ) ;; S

n 1

( fn 1) ; S

( fn ) ,


( 2 min ).
261

12.
1 2

f C

13. :

m (6.16), C
(6.17), (6.18)
4

f C N
1

/F (

)/m

14.
(6.4)
i

( f i ) 10lg S

( fi )

( f1 ) ;

( f2 ) ;

( f 3 ) ;;

( fn )

15.
S f i
fi 2 S

S f i ( f i )

i 1, 2 , 3,, n

( fi ) ,


S f 1 ( f1 ) ; S f 2 ( f 2 ) ; S f 3 ( f 3 ) ;; S f n ( f n ) .

16.
(6.2).

12

n 1

( fi ) fi

i 1

( f1 ) f1 S

( f2 ) f2 S

n 1

( fn 1) fn 1

12

f i - .

180

17.
(6.3).

12

n 1

S f i ( f i ) f i

f
i 1

S f 1 ( f1 ) f1 S f 2 ( f 2 ) f 2 S f n 1 ( f n 1 ) f n 1

12

18. .

. 6.28.
.
D1. .

262

:
f1 ; f 2 ; f 3 ;; f n 1 ; f n

- ;
1

( f1 ) ;

( f2 ) ;

( f 3 ) ;;

n 1

( fn 1) ;

( fn )

-
;
1

( f1 ) ;

( f2 ) ;

( f 3 ) ;;

n 1

( fn 1) ;

-
;
1

( f1 ) ;

( f2 ) ;

( f 3 ) ;;

n 1

( fn )

( fn 1) ;

( fn )

-
.
D2.

0,1

10

( f1 ) ; S

( f2 ) ; S

( f 3 ) ;; S

n 1

( fn 1) ; S

( fn ) .

. 6.28

263

D3.

S
S

0,1

10

i
1

( f1 ) ; S

( f2 ) ; S

( f 3 ) ;; S

n 1

( fn 1) ; S

( fn ) .

D4.

S


S 1 ( f1 ) ; S 2 ( f 2 ) ; S 3 ( f 3 ) ;; S

n 1

( fn 1) ; S n ( fn ) .

D5.

S

0,1

10

( f1 ) ; S

( f2 ) ; S

( f 3 ) ;; S

n 1

( fn 1) ; S

( fn ) .

D6. ( f )

S

fi

( fi ) S i ( fi )

- .

D7.

1 2 f
1

(6.9),(6.10)

D8.

i ( f i )

S i ( fi )

1
(1

i ( f i )

4
i

(1

24
)(1

2
i
2
2
i 1

2
2
i 1 )(1
4

2
i

2 2 )

2
i

4 2
.
2
2
i 2 )

( f1 ) ; S

( f2 ) ; S

( f 3 ) ;; S

n 1

( fn 1) ; S

( fn ) .

264

D9.
(6.2).
,
12

n 1

fi

i 1

( f1 ) f1 S

( f2 ) f2 S

n 1

( fn 1) fn 1

12

1 2 f
2
D10.
( ).
2
2

D12.
min
2
2

D11.
min
D11.

D8.
D12. S i ( f i ) .
2
2
; S i ( f i ) S i ( f i )
min , ..


S

( f1 ) ; S

( f2 ) ; S

( f 3 ) ;; S

n 1

( fn 1) ; S

( fn ) ,


( 2 min )
D13.
f C

1 2

D14. :

m (6.16),
C (6.17), (6.18)
4

f C

/ F1(

)/m

D15.

i

( f i ) 10lg S

( fi )

( f1 ) ;

( f2 ) ;

( f 3 ) ;;

( fn )

D16.
S f i (6.1)
S f i ( f i )

fi 2 S

( fi ) ,

i 1, 2 , 3,, n


S f 1 ( f1 ) ; S f 2 ( f 2 ) ; S f 3 ( f 3 ) ;; S f n ( f n ) .

265

D17.
(6.2).

12

n 1

i ( f i ) f i

( f1 ) f1 S

i 1

( f2 ) f2 S

n 1

( fn 1) fn 1

12

f i - .

180

D18.
(6.3).
,
12

n 1

S f i ( f i ) f i

f
i 1

S f 1 ( f1 ) f1 S f 2 ( f 2 ) f 2 S f n 1 ( f n 1 ) f n 1

12

D19. .


. 6.29.
:
K1. .
:
f1 ; f 2 ; f 3 ;; f n 1 ; f n

- ;
1

( f1 ) ;

( f2 ) ;

( f 3 ) ;;

n 1

( fn 1) ;

( fn )

-
;
1

( f1 ) ;

( f2 ) ;

( f 3 ) ;;

n 1

( fn 1) ;

-
;
1

( f1 ) ;

( f2 ) ;

( f 3 ) ;;

n 1

( fn )

( fn 1) ;

( fn )

-
.
K2.
,
i

20lg N

N - .

266

( f1 ) ;

( f2 ) ;

( f 3 ) ;;

n 1

( fn 1) ;

( fn )

. 6.29

K3.
,
S

0,1

10

( f1 ) ; S

( f2 ) ; S

( f 3 ) ;; S

n 1

( fn 1) ; S

( fn ) .

K4.

S

0,1

10

K5.

S


S 1 ( f1 ) ; S 2 ( f 2 ) ; S 3 ( f 3 ) ;; S

n 1

( fn 1) ; S n ( fn ) .

267

K6.

S

0,1

10

( f1 ) ; S

( f2 ) ; S

( f 3 ) ;; S

n 1

( fn 1) ; S

K7.

( fn ) .

( f )

S

fi

( fi ) S i ( fi )

- .
K8.

1 2 f
1 2 (6.9),(6.10)
1

, 2

1)

1) .

K9.

S

( fi )

S i ( fi )

1
(1

i ( f i )

24
)(1

2
i
2
2
i 1

4
i

(1

2
2
i 1 )(1
4

2
i

2 2 )

2
i

4 2
2
2
i 2 )

( f1 ) ; S

( f2 ) ; S

( f 3 ) ;; S

n 1

( fn 1) ; S

( fn ) .

K10.
(6.2).
,
12

n 1

fi

i 1

( f1 ) f1 S

( f2 ) f2 S

n 1

( fn 1) fn 1

12

1 2 f
K11. 2 ( ).
2
2
min K13.
2
2
min K12.
K12.

K9.
K13.
2
2
; S
min , ..

S
i

( fi ) S

( fi ) .
i

( fi ) .

268

( f1 ) ; S

( f2 ) ; S

( f 3 ) ;; S

n 1

( fn 1) ; S

( fn ) ,


( 2 min ).
K14.
1 2

f C

K15. :

m (6.16),
C (6.17), (6.18)
4

f C
1

/F (

)/m

K16.

i

( f i ) 10lg S

( fi )

( f1 ) ;

( f2 ) ;

( f 3 ) ;;

( fn )

K17.
Sf i (6.1)
fi 2 S

S f i ( f i )

( fi ) ,

i 1, 2 , 3,, n


S f 1 ( f1 ) ; S f 2 ( f 2 ) ; S f 3 ( f 3 ) ;; S f n ( f n ) .

K18.
(6.2).

12

n 1

( fi ) fi

i 1

( f1 ) f1 S

( f2 ) f2 S

n 1

( fn 1) fn 1

12

f i - .

.
180
K19.
(6.3).
,
12

n 1

S f i ( f i ) f i

f
i 1

S f 1 ( f1 ) f1 S f 2 ( f 2 ) f 2 S f n 1 ( f n 1 ) f n 1

12

269

K20. .
,

. 6.30.
.
L1. .
:
f1 ; f 2 ; f 3 ;; f n 1 ; f n

- ;
1

( f1 ) ;

( f2 ) ;

( f 3 ) ;;

n 1

( fn 1) ;

( fn )

-
;
1

( f1 ) ;

( f2 ) ;

( f 3 ) ;;

n 1

( fn 1) ;

-
;
1

( f1 ) ;

( f2 ) ;

( f 3 ) ;;

n 1

( fn 1) ;

( fn )

( fn )

-
10;
1

( f1 ) ;

( f2 ) ;

( f 3 ) ;;

n 1

( fn 1) ;

( fn )

-
.

270

. 6.30 ,

L2.

i

20lg M

M -
.

1

( f1 ) ;

( f2 ) ;

( f 3 ) ;;

n 1

( fn 1) ;

( fn )

L3.
,
i

20lg N1 ,

N1 =10 -

20 .
i
i

271

L4.

S

0,1

10

( f1 ) ; S

( f2 ) ; S

( f 3 ) ;; S

n 1

( fn 1) ; S

( fn ) .

L5.
,

0,1

10

L6.

S

0,1

10

( f1 ) ; S

( f2 ) ; S

( f 3 ) ;; S

n 1

( fn 1) ; S

( fn ) .

L7.
10
S

0,1

10

( f1 ) ; S

( f2 ) ; S

( f 3 ) ;; S

n 1

( fn 1) ; S

( fn ) .

L8.
,
10
S' i


S 1 ( f1 ) ; S

( f 2 ) ; S 3 ( f 3 ) ;; S n ( f n ) .

L9. f
.

fi

( fi ) S i ( fi )

- .
L10.

1 2 f
1 2 (6.9),(6.10)
1

1) , 2

1) .

L11.

272

i ( f i )

S i ( fi )

1
(1

i ( f i )

24
)(1

2
i
2
2
i 1

2
2
i 1 )(1

4
i

(1

2
i

2 2 )

2
i

4 2
.
2
2
i 2 )

( f1 ) ; S

( f2 ) ; S

( f 3 ) ;; S

n 1

( fn 1) ; S

( fn ) .

L12.
(6.2).
,
12

n 1

fi

i 1

( f1 ) f1 S

( f2 ) f2 S

n 1

( fn 1) fn 1

12

1 2 f
L13. 2 ( ).
2
2
min L15.
2
2
L14.
min
L14.

L11.
L15. S i ( f i ) .
2
2
; S i ( f i ) S i ( f i ) .
min , ..


S

( f1 ) ; S

( f2 ) ; S

( f 3 ) ;; S

n 1

( fn 1) ; S

( fn ) ,


( 2 min ).
L16.
f C

1 2

L17. :

m (6.16),
C (6.17), (6.18)
4

f C
1

/F (

)/m

L18.

i

( f i ) 10lg S

( fi )

( f1 ) ;

( f2 ) ;

( f 3 ) ;;

( fn )

273

L19.
S f i (6.1)
S f i ( f i )

fi 2 S

( fi ) ,

i 1, 2 , 3,, n


S f 1 ( f1 ) ; S f 2 ( f 2 ) ; S f 3 ( f 3 ) ;; S f n ( f n ) .

L20.
(6.2).

12

n 1

i ( f i ) f i

( f1 ) f1 S

i 1

( f2 ) f2 S

n 1

( fn 1) fn 1

12

f i - .

.
180
L21.
(6.3).
,
12

n 1

S f i ( f i ) f i

f
i 1

S f 1 ( f1 ) f1 S f 2 ( f 2 ) f 2 S f n 1 ( f n 1 ) f n 1

12

L22. .
7

.


,
(
)
.


.

, ,
, .
,
( , ,
),
.

274

,
[3, 23, 24]. ,
,
. ,

,
,
,
. , ,
.
7.1
,
: , .
,
(.7.1),
:
(ASKAmplitude-Shift Keying),
(FSKFrequency-Shift Keying),
(PSK PhaseShift Keying).
,
.

7.1
) ASK , ) FSK , ) PSK

275

7.1.1

.
, , ; ..
,
(. 7.1).

.
1200 /.
.
,
.

,
.
7.1.2

(BFSK),
(. 7.1).
,
. BFSK 1200 /
, 3 30 ,
, .
, ,
(MFSK),
M . MFSK
.

TS LT ,
T , L .
R 1 T .
7.1.3

.
(BPSK)
(. 7.1).
BPSK
PSK (DPSK), . 7.2.
,
, 1
,
.

276

,
, - .
,
.

7.2
,
. ,
,
(quadrature phase-shift keying QPSK),
1800 ,
2 900 .
, .
. 7.3 QPSK.

7.3 QPSK.
R
.
R 2
. I
Q . fc
.
, 900.
.
. 7.3 QPSK, QPSK
, QPSK (OQPSK). ,

277

,
.
. 7.4 QPSK.
BPSK ,
. ,

.

7.4 QPSK OQPSK.


OQPSK QPSK
,
. .7.4 ,
. ,
0
2 (90 ).

OQPSK ,
.
,
.
,
OQPSK QPSK.
7.1.4
: , ,
,
. MPSK
.
.
9 600 /, , 12 ,
.

R ( ) () .
278

, ,
;
, , .
R 1 Tb .
L 4 ,
M 16 . ,
R 4 ,
. , 2400 ,
9600 /. ,
,
.
7.1.5


/.
BT ASK
BT 1 r R ,
R , r 0 r 1
.
,
. PSK.
FSK
:
BT 2 F 1 r R ,
F .
MPSK
:
BT

1 r
R,
L

L , .

M 2L .
,
1
1 Eb N o [13].
. 7.5
Eb N o .
, Eb N o
. DPSK BPSK 3
ASK BFSK.
. 7.6

279

Eb N o MPSK
M.
,
Eb N o .

7.5
: BPSK, DPSK, ASK, BFSK

7.6
MPSK M.
,
,
.

MPSK,
,

(. 7.6) M.
280

7.1.6
(Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
QAM) ,
.

. QAM
,
,
900.
. ,
. ,

.
QAM . 7.7. R /
. (
),
R/2 / .
(.7.7) ,
ASK, . ,
,
.
900,
ASK.
.
|
,
2 2 = 4 .
(.. )
4 4 = 16 . pea
, 64 256 .
, ,
.

7.7 QAM

281

, , ,

.
7.2

: (AM),
(FM) ().
7.2.1
(AM)
, . 7.8.

7.8

. -
, (.
7.9).

7.9
282

, , S(f) ,

.
, (single sideband SSB)
.

.

(double sideband suppressed carrier
DSBSC), ,
. ,
, .
SSB DSBSC
, .
(VSB
vestigial sideband),
, .
7.2.2


At

A sin

A ; .


t
,
,
.
( )

()
.
,

U ,

K U sin t
sin t .
0
0

K U sin t
sin t .
0
0
K , K
.
.
,

K U .

283


K U .


d
,
dt

dt


.
,
sin tdt

cos t

cos t .

,
K U


d
dt

sin t

cos t

cos t .


K U .
,
,
.
. 7.10 .

7.10
8
8.1

. . 8.1
,
.

284

, ( )
, ,
.
.

, ,
,

.

[2, 3, 23, 24, 30, 31].
8.1 ,


,
,

1..0,1
0,3..3

,
,

,

*
0,1..0,01
3..30

,

,


0,01..0,00 30..300

1
0,001..7,5 3*102..4 ,

*10-7
*105
WD**
(7,5...4,0) (4,0...7,5

*10-7
)*105
*) -
;
**) WDM -
.

( 15...23 ).
, 50 ( ).

285

, ,
.
,
.
( ),
.
( )
, (
15-20 ).
: , -
.

()
Radiothernet ( IEEE 802.11).
.
.
- .
IEEE 802.11
,
.
(DSSS Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum). -
11 ("").
, ,
.
,
,
.
- (FHSS - Frequency Hopping Spread
Spectrum). .
( 20...400 )
,
,
.

,
.

.
, ,
.
:
1. ,
. ,
, ,
286

.
2.

.
.
3. , ,
, ,
..

, .
.
, ,
, .
- ,
,
,
. .

().
() , .
NMT-450
(NMT - Nordic Mobile Telephone). c 1991 .
NMT-450 - , 453-468
.
(
)

. ,

.

,
. CDMA
TDMA.
1. CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) -
, 1
0 .

.
2. TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) -
.
( ),
.
, .
.
287

DECT
. 10 24
() .
. 1,8...1,9 .
10 .

,
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications), TDMA.
GSM (270 /),
(..
),
. : GSM-900
900 ( 890-960 ),
GSM-1800 (DCS-1800) 1800 (1710-1880 ).
, ,
.
. - 1-2 .
GSM-
, .8.1.

8.1
BTS (Base Transciever Station),
. BTS
, .
BTS (BSC Base Station Controller) , BSC
BTS. (MSC Mobile services Switching Centre) ,
,
.
, ,
.

288

(..

)
. (
). :
()
;
;
,
;

, ;
,
; .
.
:
-1327 TETRA.

(BS) (DXT). BS
,
. TETRA TDMA
. , TETRA Nokia 64 256
. , -1327,
80-800
12,5 . , ,
, .
(Radiothernet)

. ,

, ,
, ,
.

. , ,
.
,
.

[24]
: , ,
.

,
289

1980-, .

, .

.
,
, .


.
.8.2 ,
.
, , Ethernet, ,
.
(control module ),
.

8.2


.
, , ,

. ,
, , .

(user module UM),
.
, . 8.2,
;
.

290

(.8.3).

8.3

,
.
. ,
, ,
; ,
, , .


,
.
. ,
.

,
.


,
, , .
,
,
. , , ,
.

.

(
),
. , ,
, -
291

.
.

.8.4

,
,
.

,
.
.
. .

, .

,
, :
, ,
. ,
,
. .

8.4
.

.
.
.
.
.

292

, ,

, .

.
.
100-300 .
.
,
.
MAC, ,
.
. ,
,
.
,
.
.
,
,
.
MAC
.
.

.
/. MAC (Medium Access Control)
, ,

.
.


,
,
.
IEEE 802.11
1990 , IEEE 802.11,

MAC
.
.8.5 , 802.11.

(basic service set BSS),
, MAC
.
293

BSS
.
.

8.5 IEEE 802.11


MAC
, .
,
.
,
.
.8.5 ,
BSS; ..
BSS.
BSS (),
BSS. ,
BSS . ,
, .
(extended service set ESS)
,
.

().
.8.5 , (access point )
. ,

; , .
IEEE 802.11 .
, ,
,
.
(DS) :
294

. ,
,
, BSS
, BSS.
.
. ,
, BSS.
BSS. BSS
ESS.
.
ESS. BSS ESS BSS ESS.

, .
, ,
, .. ,
-.
BSS.

. .
,
.
, ,
.
.
.
.
. ,
. (
) .
IEEE 802.11
IEEE 802.11
: 1997 , 1999.
, IEEE 802.11, MAC
2,4
, 1 2 /.
IEEE 802a 5 54 /; IEEE
802.b 2,4 5,5 11 /, .
.
(DSSS)
DSSS ,
, ,
, . IEEE 802.11
295

.
(Barker sequence)
+1 1. (
):
:
n=2
=3
=4
=5
n=7
n = 11
n = 13

++
++
+++
++++
++++
+ ++ +++
+++++++++

802.11 = 11. ,
{+ ++ +++
}, { + + +++}.

.
(FHSS)
C FHSS ,

. IEEE 802.11 1
. 23 () 70 ().
FHSS . , ,
2,5 .
( )
6 , 5 .
1 /
(GFSK).
.
2 / GFSK,
2
.

, IEEE
802.11, . 20 .
1 /
(pulse position modulation PPM).
I
I 802.11
296

IEEE 802.11 5 .
2,4 , ,
(OFDM). OFDM,
,
,
. ,
, .
IEEE 802.11 : 6, 9,
12, 18, 24, 36, 48 54 /. 52 ,
BPSK, QPSK, 16-QAM 64-QAM,
.
0,3125 .
1/2, 2/3 3/4.
IEEE 802.11b
IEEE 802.11b IEEE 802.11 DSSS,
5,5 11 /.
11 , .. ,
DSSS, , .


(complementary code keying ).
8.1.1

()
.

.
,
, , , ,
.
.

.
,
,
(
).
,

,
, ,
.
:
297

( );
( ).

, ( 50
100 ).


100 250 ,
.
,
. ,
:

, ;

;

, ,
;
;

.



,
.

60-70-
,
.

, ,
(""),

, .

- 1-2 .
-

.
:

, , ,

;
298

,
.
()
.
()
,
.

. :
, ,

, ,
, .

.

,
.

.

1327
TETRA.
1327
1327 -
( ).
1327

, 1988 .
1327
,
,

.
90- . 1327
, .
1327 Rohde & Schwarz, Tait
Electronics, Fylde Microsystems, Nokia, Zetron, Teltronic .


1327.

,

299

1327,
.
, "- 1327" -

"
" ". "- 1327"
,
, ,
, ,
, .

.

DAXON 600,

. .
"" ,

.
1


2

3

6
7

146-174;
300,0-308,0 ,
336,0-344,0 ;
403-486
12,5/25
12.5
50

36 , 3

2,5/5

8.2
- 1327
TETRA
TETRA (TETRA - Terrestrial Trunked Radio) -

300

.
TETRA :
, ;

( 24 /
),
;

,
;
.
2002 62 06.06.02
"" TETRA

. 30
.
TETRA TDMA
,
4-
( 8.3).
8.3 TETRA
1
18K0D7W
2 , 380-400; 410-430;

450-470;
806-825; 851-870;
871-876; 915-921
3
25
,
4
25


,
5
10

,
6
3

,
7
TDMA

301

9
(/)
10
11

12
,
8

7,2; 14,4; 21,6;


28,8
p\4 DQPSK
CELP (4,8 /)

min 0,2 (

)
min 0,17 (

)
0,3

TETRA
, ,

( ) 28 /.
TETRA

,
.
TETRA
AIR IF, TEI, ISI
DMO. TETRA , ,
, ,
.
.
TETRA

(
) TETRA
.
TETRA ,
: .
,
. TETRA
.

,

302

. TETRA
.
8.1.2


.
.
: . AMPS
(), NMT ( ), HCMTS (), -450 (), TACS
(), ETACS (), RTMS-101H (), Radiocom-2000 ).
GSM (),
ADC D-AMPS (), CDMA (), JDC PHS ().
,

,
.
: NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone) GSM
(Global System for Mobile communication).
800 330 .

AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System)
D-AMPS (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System).


.
, Internet,
.
.
.

.
, .

.
,
8.4.
8.4

AMPS NMT NMT


450
900

1981 1981 1986
,

870 463 935
():
890
467,5 960
;
825 453 890
303

.

,


,

,

845
30

457,5
25/20

915
12,5

666
100

180
225
50

1000
1999
100

15/2

6/1

220

140

0,5
20

NMT-450/900
NMT.
,
,



.
:
; ; .


.
. ,
, .
,
.
, , , ,
. ,
, . ,
,
.
,
.
, ,
, ,

304

, , .

1200/1800 / FFSK (Fast Frequency Shift Keying).
NMT-450/900
: 453-457,5 463-467,5; 890-915 935960 .
10 .
25/20 12,5 ( 8.4).
NMT
.
, , NMT
,
4,8 /.
AMPS
AMPS
. AMPS
, . ,
,
AMPS .
AMPS 825890 666
30
,

.
:
N-AMPS D-AMPS. ,
,
. N-AMPS
, D-AMPS
.
,

. ,
.
.

( )
.
,

, ,
.
: 666

305

, , ,
.

.

FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access).
,
100% . ,
,
() .
: " ",
,
.
.
FDMA
.
,


(TDMA)
(CDMA).
TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) -
,
.
,
- ( ).
- . ,
, ..
TDMA -
;
.
,
.
- .
,
TDMA, 6-
( ). ,
TDMA ,
. , TDMA
,
. TDMA
64 / 120 /.
,

306

, SMS, , ,
.
CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)

,
, , .. CDMA .
CDMA ""
,
,
.
, CDMA.
CDMA , ,
.
. ,
, .
-, CDMA
( 1,25 ), ,

.
-, , ,
. ,
,
. ,
.
GSM D-AMPS,
TDMA,
(
8.5).
8.5

GSM-900 GSMD1800
S

TDMA
TDMA
TDMA
,
890-915; 1710
824935-965 1785;
840;
1805
8691880
894
,
200
200
30

8
8
3

GMSK
GMSK
/4
DQPSK
/, 9
9
16
, / 13
13
8

RPELTP RPE
VSELP

307

0,5-35
2

LTP
0,5-35

0,5-20
0,63

GSM
1990 GSM.
1991
, 1993 36 GSM 22
, 25 GSM
.
, GSM ,
. GSM
105 , , ,
.
GSM - Global System for
Mobile communications ( ).
GSM
. .
GSM

UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System).
: GSM-900, GSM-1800
GSM-1900 ( ).
, GSM-900: 890915
, 935960
. GSM-1800: 17101785 18051880
. 200 ,
992 .
GSM-900 2 , GSM-1800 1 .
TDMA
. , FDMA,
,
, . ,
.

: .

.
DAMPS
DAMPS (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone Service)
AMPS.
DAMPS GSM-900. DAMPS
1990 AMPS .
308

,
.
DAMPS AMPS,
: ,
,
, .. .
,
,

.
, AMPS DAMPS 825
890 . 30 ,
666 .
1 . DAMPS
.
DAMPS , ,
,
.
.
CDMA

. , ,
, , AMPS NMT,
FDMA,
- , IS-136
GSM --
(TDMA). FDMA TDMA
.
,
.

(CDMA) .
.
.
IS-95
, 1,25 .


,
(Direct Sequence DS). DS-
,
.
,
:
309

50 . ,
,
:

;
.
CDMA

: ,
. ,
:
,
.
, , 13 /,
, , 8
/, .

CDMA
TDMA,
CDMA .

GSM.

,
CDMA
TDMA,
.


,
.

- .
.
"
". AMPS
,
, . .
1/7 .
CDMA ,
. CDMA

( ).

310

CDMA 810
, CDMA
20 . , CDMA
, .
, ,
. ,
CDMA
.
.
, CDMA
,
.

CDMA

,
, ,
"" (handover)
.
, TDMA FDMA.

CDMA
.
,
.
. CDMA

. , TDMA
.


, .
, TDMA,
,

,
.
CDMA Qualcom
( 8.6).
8.6 Qualcom CDMA

824,040 848, 860
(MS)


869,040 893,970
(BTS)


5 10
8

311

(BTS)

(MS)

c:
3
40
-
BTS 1

MS
:

.

BTS
MS

2,5 10 6

QPSK(BTS), OQPSK(MS)
1,25
1,50
1,2288
1 -
1

7

55
1
1
1200 /c
9600, 4800 /
9600, 4800, 2400,
1200 /

R=1/2, =9

R=1/3, K=9
50


BTS
6,3 1,0
MS

CDMA Qualcom
800 . CDMA
64 ,
.
CELP
8000 / (9600 / ).
4800, 2400, 1200 /.
CDMA ,
, .
1,25 .
8.6.
,
, ,

312

.
4
, 3 .

" " .

. ,
,
.
,
"" ,
, "
".
8.1.3 DECT
DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications)

.
DECT , ,
[23, 24].
DECT
:
, ... 18801900
...........................10
, ......................................1,728
TDMA , ..........................10
TDMA , .......... ........... 0,417
.......................... ................ 24
.......................... ...............120
, / ........................ 1152
, / ...................... . 32
.................................................. .......... GFSK
, / ..................... 30
,
-86

(./.), ............... ........... 10/250

, ............................................ ........ 50300

, ........................................ .................< 5
DECT (radio access method)
,
(Multi Carrier, Time
Division Multiple Access, Time Division Duplex, MC/TDMA/TDD).
313


(Dynamic Channel Selection)

.

DECT
. ,
,
, .
, DECT
,
:
;
;
,
;
;
, ;
, ,
;
;
, 2 /;
CRC, ARQ FEC,
;
,
, ;

, 10000
.
DECT,
() ,
.
,
(Mobility):
( )
.

(Interface).

.
.

,
-.
,
(Radio interface).
314

DECT
DECT
.8.6.

(Residential Telephones) , ,
DECT ,
,
.
50 , 300 .

8.6 DECT
(cordless phones) DECT
,
,
.

FP
( -).
DECT
. , DECT

,
.
DECT
.
-
- (business applications) DECT
.
, (Telephone
Systems for Small Businesses)
.

315

12
12 .
,
, .
,
, , , .
DECT,
- (Large Business Telephone Systems)
,
,
.
DECT - .
DECT
,
, ,
40005000.
- ,
DECT .

, WLL (Wireless Local Loop) RLL (Radio Local
Loop),
,
, ,

.

(Cordless Terminal
Adapter), . ,
, ,
DECT,
.
, , ,
5 ,
Internet 15 ,
25 .
WRS (Wireless Relay Station)
. WRS
, ,

, .
WRS ,
.
DECT WLL
( )
316

. DECT WLL,
,
,
.

DECT. ,

DECT, DECT
WLL.

DECT (Public
Telecommunications Applications) , ,
(Cordless Terminal Mobility},
.
,
( 30 /) . DECT
,
, ,
, , , ,
. ,
, .
.
,
(private base station),
. ,

(Public Radio Fixed Parts).
, DECT
DECT .
,
, (, , , ,
, , , )
.
DECT, ,
.

DECT GSM .
GSM, 900 ,
,
. DECT, ,

.
, .
317



GSM/DECT.
GSM,
.
, DECT.
, ,
DECT .
,
GSM ,
DECT .

DECT
. ,
(Portable terminations)
, FP,
(. 8.7, ).
DECT
, . (. 8.7,).

8.7 ()
()
, ,
, 100 .
, DECT
(out-of-range),
.
, , ,
(Walkie Talkie Mode), ,
DectWeb, DECT .
8.2 C

(),
,
(. 8.8).

318

() [2, 3].
:
(), , ()
.
( ),
, ,
. .


.


()
.

8.8
,
(), , ,
. (),
, ,
: , , ,
.
:

(),
,

, ;

()
;

319

;
(
);
,
GSM, 43 13 2 ;
1...2
(3,5...5 ).

.
. 8.9
. 1
- 2,

().

( ), ,
,
() 10.
2,
() () 3
.

8.9

()
() 4, , .
().
.

10 ,
5 13... 15 .
5 . . 8.9
,
11.
12.
() 6
7. ,
() 8 9.
.
.
320

,
13
.
. 8.10.

8.10

. 8.9 8.10 , .
,
().
() 1 2
- () 8
, ,
(, GSM). ,

,

UMI UMQ .
UMI, UMQ, 8, 2,

3. 9 ()
,
( 10).
( GSM)
.
5 .
4
5. () 6 7.
(GSM,
DECT) .
, ().
.
, GSM, Siemens,
,
. 8.10, , .
: 900 1800 .
1800 5

321

.
DECT Siemens 0,25
, .
. 8.9 8.10.
,
. ,
.
()
.

.
, 1500
, , ,
, .
10
.
,
, .

.
8.3

() ,
,
[3].
.

(),

.
. 8.11.
,
(. 8.11) (. 8.11) ,
( ),
.

322

8.11
() ()
,
.
, , .

.
( ).
(. 8.11)
().

.
(. 8.12). :
(),
(), (),
(),
().

() .

, ,
,

.

8.12
(), ()
(). ,

323


.
(. 8.12)
f1... f 4 ,

,
.

.
10-710-9.

, ,

.
, .01
.
[2, 3],
.
8.4

, ,
, ,
[2, 3].
. 8.13
. (. 8.13)
.
U

,
.
.
,

( ) .
(
), .

,
.
,
, . 8.13,
.

.
,
.

324

, . 8.13
.
-.

8.13
, ,

().
[11] ().
().


(. 8.13) .
8.5

,
.
,
.

[30, 31]. -



.
20% , 80%
.
, ,
,
"" .
325


: "", "", "", "".
.
"" (Inmarsat -International Mobile Satellite Organization),
1979 ,
.
"" , 30

. 98% ,
8 1 ,

.

,
.
""
. :
, ......................................... 35600
:
- , .............. 1626,5-1660,5
-, ................... 1525,0-1559,0
- , ......................3,6
- , ......................6,4
"" (Iridium) - ,
(100%) .
1998 .
""
........................66
...........................6
, ..............................................780
......................... 100 . 28
:
"" - , .. 1616-1626,5
- ""/, 1616-1626,5
- , ......................... 23,18-23,38
- , 19,4-19,6
- , 29,1-29,3
,
.
-
"",

326

2,4 10 /.
400 .
,
.
Honeywell Icarus
Instruments. - AirSat 1
, 7,5 .
""
, ,
. ,
( 120)
( 5- 10 ).
"" :
100% ;
;
;
;
GSM, CDMA, AMPS.
"" (Globalstar) -
. , 48
80% ,
,
-
. , , ,
, , ,
,
. :
........................48
...........................4
, ............................................1414
......................... 100 . 28
:
"" - , . 1610-1625,5
- "", .. 2483,5-2500
- , ........................ 23,18-23,38
- , 6875-7055
- , 5091-5250
- , ,
"",
GSM, CDMA, AMPS.
"":
;
327

/
;
GSM, CDMA, AMPS.
"" (Thuraya) -
. 21 2001
. "", ""
,

.
:
..........................1
...........................0
, ..........................................36000
:
"" - , ... 1626,5-1660,5
- "", .......... 1525-1559
- , ........................ 23,18-23,38
- , 6425-6725
- , 3400-3625
"Thuraya" . ""
, ,
. : ,
9,6 /. -,
, Ascom Hughes.
, .
: ,
GSM.
.
8.5.1 ,
,,

- , ,
[30, 31].
- ( ) 2- . ,
Thuraya, Globalstar Iridium
, GSM-.
, ,
, GSM CDMA,
10 . . ,
GSM-,
: GPS- (),
, , GSM 900-Satellite ( ),
328

Satellite-CDMA-AMPS (). -
,
().
, .
220 . ( )
460 . ( Motorola 9500, Telit SAT 550).

. ,
, .
( , ),
, ,
.

, .
8.7

36500
780
1414

2
66
48

112

2001
1998
2000

, /
4,8
4,8
4,8
, /
9,6

2,4
,
9,6
2,4
4,8
/
SMS

0,22
0,37-0,47
0,35-0,42
,

:
Hughes Network System (USA);
GSM "Thuraya";
2.4, 4.8 9.6
/c;
(SMS);
;
;
;

329

- 650 1300 /;
2.4 ,
GSM - 4 ;
"Thuraya" - 34.1 , GSM - 33.3
();
- SIM-;
;
;
GPS 10
GPS
PC GPS;
GPS;
;
220 (14 x 5 x 2,5 );
- 2
SAT:
( - ) 1626,5 - 1660,5 ;
( - ) 1525 - 1559 ;
GSM: 900 .
8.5.2

: ,
, , ,
, .

:
. ,
, ..
, , .
[3]
.8.14.
,
.
.

.
.

, .

330

8.14

[2, 3]. ,
. 8.15.

8.15 ,

.
1 2 f 01 f 02 .

(1 2).

.
() .
.
f 1 f 2 , 1 2.

,
(. 6).

, () ,

.

.


, 8.2.
8.6
8.6.1

331



.



.

.
f . . f . . - 0,75 f . . + 6
.
.
f .. 6,5 f . . . ,
, , 8
(. 8.16).

8.16 ,


():
I - 48,5..66;
IV - 470..582;
II - 76,0.100;
V - 582.870.
III - 174..230;
70 ,
8.8. , 2..3

MMDS (Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Sustem).

,
,
, .. (. 8.17).

332

8.17
8.8




, ,

1
48,556 49,75 40
622,0
623,25
2
,6
59,25 41 630,0 631,25
3
58,066 77,25 42
630,0
639,25
4
,0
85,25 43 638,0 647,25
5
76,084 93,25 44
638,0
655,25
6
,0
175,2 45 646,0 663,25
7
84,092
5
46
646,0
671,25
8
,0
183,2 47 654,0 679,25
9
92,010
5
48
654,0
687,25
10
0,0
191,2 49 662,0 695,25
11 174,01
5
50
662,0
703,25
12
82,0
199,2 51 670,0 711,25
21 182,01
5
52
670,0
719,25
22
90,0
207,2 53 678,0 727,25
23 190,01
5
54
678,0
735,25
24
98,0
215,2 55 686,0 743,25
25 198,02
5
56
686,0
751,25
26
06,0
223,2 57 694,0 759,25
27 206,02
5
58
694,0
767,25
28
14,0
471,2 59 702,0 775,25
29 214,02
5
60
702,0
783,25
30
22,0
479,2 61 710,0 791,25
31 222,02
5
62
710,0
799,25
32
30,0
487,2 63 718,0 807,25
33 470,04
5
64
718,0
815,25
34
78,0
495,2 65 726,0 823,25
35 478,04
5
66
726,0
831,25
36
86,0
503,2 67 734,0 839,25
37 486,04
5
68
734,0
847,25
38
94,0
511,2 69 742,0 855,25
39 494,05
5
70
742,0
863,25
02,0
519,2
750,0
502,05
5
750,0
10,0
527,2
758,0
510,05
5
758,0
333

18,0
535,2
518,05
5
26,0
543,2
526,05
5
34,0
551,2
534,05
5
42,0
559,2
542,05
5
50,0
567,2
550,05
5
58,0
575,2
558,05
5
66,0
583,2
566,05
5
74,0
591,2
574,05
5
82,0
599,2
582,05
5
90,0
607,25
590,05 615,25
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