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Study sheet for Cells Quiz 3 Cellular Transport

Important points to remember about how molecules are transported into and out of cells, across the cell membrane: 1. Diffusion is the movement of molecules from an area of HIGH concentration to an area of LOW concentration, and it doesnt require the cells energy (no ATP!) 2. One important factor that determines if molecules can diffuse across a cell membrane or not is their size. Small molecules can diffuse acoss cell membranes; large ones cannot. - Oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose and water are important examples of molecules that are small & diffuse easily across the cell membrane. 3. Osmosis is just a fancy name for the diffusion of water across a cell membrane. 4. Both osmosis and diffusion are examples of PASSIVE TRANSPORT because they dont require the cell to use energy (ATP). 5. ACTIVE TRANSPORT happens when the cell has to use energy (ATP) to actively move molecules across the membrane. This is needed for large molecules, or if molecules need to be moved from LOW concentration to HIGH concentration.

Diffusion Through a Membrane Regents Lab:


Lab Part 1: Observing movement of molecules across a semi-permeable membrane, in an artificial cell. Key Points for Part 1 1. Molecules often move from high to low concentration without the use of energy (diffusion). 2. Membranes may allow some molecules to pass through while not allowing others (membranes are semi-permeable; also known as selectively permeable). 3. Indicators are chemicals used to show the presence of certain kinds of molecules. Analysis for Part 1 1. Glucose and starch indicator pass through the membrane. Starch does not. This is because starch is a much larger molecule than glucose or starch indicator. 2. This shows the importance of breaking down large molecules inside the digestive system in order for nutrients to enter the bloodstream.

Lab Part 2: Observing the effect of salt water and distilled water on cells, as seen in red onion cells. Key Points for Part 2 1. Basic parts of the cell that are easily seen under the microscope are the cytoplasm, cell membrane, and cell wall (cell wall is only in plants). 2. Molecules tend to move from high to low concentration without the use of energy (diffusion). 3. The diffusion of water molecules is especially important and has the special name of osmosis. 4. The balance of water molecules inside and outside the cell is extremely important for the survival of all organisms, including humans. Cells that lose water will shrink. Cells that gain water will expand. Analysis for Part 2 1. Cells placed in very salty solutions will lose water, causing them to shrink and possibly lose the ability to perform life functions. 2. Cells placed in distilled water (100% water) will gain water, which causes them to expand. Animal cells (which have no cell wall) may even burst/break open, destroying the cell. Note the onion skin cells did not burst/break open because they are plant cells with a cell wall that keeps the cell membrane from expanding too far. 3. Freshwater organisms, especially single-celled organisms, have to handle the problem of water constantly entering the cells by osmosis. They are always gaining water, and must find ways of pumping extra water out. Saltwater organisms usually have the opposite problem because living in very salty water means the they tend to lose water by osmosis, and have to work to regain lost water.

Enzymes:
1. Enzymes are very important molecules in biology. Enzymes are proteins that help speed up chemical reactions in the body. 2. Without enzymes, many of the important processes of life could not happen. Enzymes are very specific in their functions [jobs]. This means each enzyme has only one reaction that it can help. 3. Enzymes are not changed when they perform their function [job]. This means that the same enzyme molecule can be used over and over again. 4. As with all proteins, the shape of an enzyme is what determines its function [job]. An organism has the ability to make many different enzymes, and each enzyme has one particular function [job]. 5. Sometimes, high temperature or extreme pH values may affect the shape of an enzyme molecule. This process (when the shape of the enzyme is changed), will also make the enzyme less effective, possibly even useless.