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Agarwal, an eminent & qualified Electronic professional, founded OMEGA ELECTRONICS in the year 1962. Heading the company as Chief Executive. He is continuing his expert guidance and OMEGA is achieving new horizons of success under his supervision. Attributing to his foresight, OMEGA is currently one of the organizations in the country, which enjoys an all India patronage and coverage. An ISO certified Company 9001:2000, situated in Malviya Nagar RICO Industrial Area, Jaipur, (Rajasthan).

Product Range:
ANTENNA Trainers, GPS Trainer, Radar Trainer, RFID Trainer, Instrumentation Trainers, Communication Trainers, Electricity Trainer, LAN Trainer, VLSI Trainers, Microprocessor, Microcontroller & Interfaces Trainers, Consumer Electronics Demonstration Trainers, Test and Measuring Instruments, Microwave Test Benches, Educational Wall Charts, Robotics Kits, Decade Boxes (R,L,C), Analog Electronics Lab, Digital Electronics Lab, Power Electronics Lab, Breadboards, Power Project Board, Circuit Lab Trainers, Physics Systems Training, Fibre Optics Trainers, Power Supplies.

Omega Teaching Aids & Equipments bring technical theory to life, teaching the latest technology and helping trainees to develop valuable trouble shooting skills.

Industrial tour at Omega Electronics: There are 6 sections available with manufacturing unit Jaipur .These are 1.R & D Section:
In this section basically the circuit development board,and designing of new trainer kit board has been done by respective R &D Engineers.They are trying to design the new application based trainer set-up. 2.Painting Section: In this section basically circuit layouts are developed which are approved by R&D section engineers .The layout of the circuit have been made on printed ckt. Board. 3.Mechanical Section: In this section they use to make basically transformers, and designing of their winding and inductors,sensors relays etc. All the hardware related work have been done in this section.The packaging of trainer kits is also done by this section engineers. 4.Wiring Section: In this section after layouts of ckts have been designed by painting section they are delivered to this section and here soldering of all ckt. Component on that printed ckt. Board. By section engineers.All the internal connections of the trainer board has been done in this section and also testing of trainer board are done here. Then they are again send to mchanical section for packaging and then exported to marketing unit. 5.Quality and Testing Section: In this section all type of testing on trainer board has been done both internal as well as external by quality engineers and if they measure perfect reading or desired output from that trainer board then they give their permission to exporting that kit. 6.Store and Finishing good centre: In this section, after passing all the trainer circuits board with quality-test sections are stored.They are the trainer board which are completely ready to send marketing division or for delivering.

Basic Electronics
Diodes In simple terms, a diode is a device that restricts the direction of flow of charge carriers. Essentially, it allows an electric current to flow in one direction, but blocks it in the opposite direction. There are a variety of diodes; A few important ones are described below. Switching diodes Switching diodes, sometimes also called small signal diodes, are single diodes in a discrete package. A switching diode provides essentially the same function as a switch. Zener diodes Diodes that can be made to conduct backwards. This effect, called Zener breakdown, occurs at a precisely defined voltage, allowing the diode to be used as a precision voltage reference. Schottky diodes Schottky diodes are constructed from a metal to semiconductor contact. They have a lower forward voltage drop than a standard diode. Varicap or varactor diodes These are used as voltage-controlled capacitors. These are important in PLL (phaselocked loop) and FLL (frequency-locked loop) circuits, allowing tuning circuits, such as those in television receivers, to lock quickly, replacing older designs that took a long time to warm up and lock. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) In a diode formed from a direct band-gap semiconductor, such as gallium arsenide, carriers that cross the junction emit photons when they recombine with the majority carrier on the other side. Depending on the material, wavelengths (or colors) from the infrared to the near ultraviolet may be produced. The forward potential of these diodes depends on

the wavelength of the emitted photons: 1.2 V corresponds to red, 2.4 to violet.

Transistors A transistor is a three-terminal semiconductor device that can perform two functions that are fundamental to the design of electronic circuits: amplification and switching. Put simply, amplification consists of magnifying a signal by transferring energy to it from an external source, whereas a transistor switch is a device for controlling a relatively large current between or voltage across two terminals by means of a small control current or voltage applied at a third terminal. There are two main types of transistors: Field-Effect Transistorsand Bipolar Junction Transistors. A BJT is formed by joining three sections of semiconductor material, each with adifferent doping concentration. The three sections can be either a thin n region

sandwiched between p+ and p layers, or a p region between n and n+ layers, where the superscript plus indicates more heavily doped material. The resulting BJTs are called pnpand npn transistors.Electron flow is dominant while pnp transistors rely mostly on the flow of holes".


The field-effect transistor (FET) is a transistor that relies on an electricfield to control the shape and hence the conductivity of a channel of onetype of charge carrier in semiconductor material. FETs are sometimescalled unipolar transistors to contrast their single-carrier-type operationwith the dual-carrier-type operation of bipolar (junction) transistors(BJT). The concept of the FET predates the BJT, though it was not physicallyimplemented until after BJTs due to the limitations of semiconductormaterials and the relative ease of manufacturing BJTs compared to FETs atthe time.

Soldering is a process in which two or more metal items are joined togetherby melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, the filler metalhaving a lower melting point than the work piece. Soldering differs fromwelding in that the work pieces are not melted. There are three forms ofsoldering, each requiring higher temperatures and each producing anincreasingly stronger joint strength: soft soldering, which originally useda

tin-lead alloy as the filler metal, silver soldering, which uses an alloycontaining silver, and brazing which uses a brass alloy for the filler. Thealloy of the filler metal foreach type of soldering can be adjusted tomodify the melting temperature of the filler. Soldering appears to be a hotglue process, but it differs from gluing significantly in that the fillermetals alloy with the work piece at the junction to form a gas- andliquid-tight bond. Fig.4 (a):-good joint (b):-bad joint Soft soldering is characterized by having a melting point of the fillermetal below approximately 400 C (752 F), whereas silver soldering andbrazing use higher temperatures, typically requiring a flame or carbon arctorch to achieve the melting of the filler. Soft solder filler metals aretypically alloys (often containing lead) that have liquids temperaturesbelow 350C.In the soldering process, heat is applied to the parts to bejoined, causing the solder to melt and to bond to the work pieces in analloying process called wetting. In stranded wire, the solder is drawn upinto the wire by capillary action in a process called wicking. Capillaryaction also takes place when the work pieces are very close together ortouching. The joint strength is dependent on the filler metal used, wheresoft solder is the weakest and the brass alloy used for brazing is thestrongest. Soldering, which uses metal to join metal in a molecular bond haselectrical conductivity and is water- and gas-tight.

Applications of soldering:Soldering was historically used to make jewelry items, cooking ware and tools. Currently, the two most common uses of soldering are in plumbing andin electronics where it is used to connect electrical wiring and to connectelectronic components to printed circuit boards (PCBs).

Types of soldering:1. Soft soldering. 2. Silver soldering 3. Brazing soldering

Required Items for soldering: Soldering iron

Filler metal

Solders:Soldering filler materials are available in many different alloys for differing applications. In electronics assembly, the eutectic alloy of 63% tin and 37% lead (or 60/40, which is almost identical in performance to the eutectic) has been the alloy of choice. Other alloys are used for plumbing, mechanical assembly, and other applications. Common solder alloys are mixtures of tin and lead, respectively: 63/37: melts at 183 C (361 F) (eutectic: the only mixture that melts at a point, instead of over a range) 60/40: melts between 183190 C (361374 F) 50/50: melts between 185215 C (365419 F)

Flux:The purpose of flux is to facilitate the soldering process. The obstacle toa successful solder joint is an impurity at the site of the union, e.g.dirt, oils or oxidation. The impurities can be removed by mechanicalcleaning or by chemical means, but the elevated temperatures required tomelt the filler metal (the solder) encourages the work piece (and thesolder) to re-oxidize. This effect is accelerated as the solderingtemperatures increase and can completely prevent the solder from joining tothe work piece. One of the earliest forms of flux was charcoal, which actsas a reducing agent and helps prevent oxidation during the solderingprocess. Some fluxes go beyond the simple prevention of oxidation and alsoprovide some form of chemical cleaning (corrosion). "Hard soldering" or "silver soldering" (performed with high-temperaturesolder containing up to 40% silver) is also often considered a form of brazing, since it involves filler materials with melting points in thevicinity of, or in excess of, 450 C. Although the term "silver soldering"is used much more often than "silver brazing", it may be technicallyincorrect depending on the exact melting point of the filler in use. Insilver soldering ("hard soldering"), the goal is generally to give abeautiful, structurally sound joint, especially in the field of jewellery. Induction soldering is a process which is similar to brazing. The source ofheat in induction soldering is induction heating by high-frequency ACcurrent in a surrounding copper coil. This induces currents in the partbeing soldered, heat then being generated by resistive heating. The copperrings can be made to fit the part needed to be soldered for precision in thework piece. Induction soldering is a process in which a filler metal(solder) is placed between the facing surfaces of (to be joined) metals. Thefiller

metal in this process is melted at a fairly low temperature. Fluxesare commonly used in induction soldering. This is a process which isparticularly suitable for soldering continuously. The process is usually done with coils that wrap around a cylinder/pipe that needs to be soldered.Some metals are easier to solder than others. Copper, silver, and gold areeasy. Iron, mild steel and nickel are found to be more difficult. Because oftheir thin, strong oxide films, stainless steel andaluminium are even more difficult. Titanium, magnesium, cast iron, some highcarbon steels, ceramics, and graphite can be soldered but it involves a process similar tojoining carbides.

In electronics, a switch is an electrical component that can break anelectrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from oneconductor to another.The most familiar form of switch is a manually operated electromechanicaldevice with one or more sets of electrical contacts. The mechanismactuating the transition between these two states (open or closed) can beeither a "toggle" (flip switch for continuous "on" or "off") or "momentary"(push-for "on" or push-for "off") type. In electronics engineering, an ideal switch describes a switch that: has no current limit during its ON state has infinite resistance during its OFF state has no voltage limit during its OFF state has zero rise time and fall time during state changes switches only once without "bouncing" betweenon and off positions A switch that is operated by another electrical circuit iscalled a relay. Large switches may be remotely operated by a motor drivemechanism. Some switches are used to isolate electric power from a system,providing a visible point of isolation that can be pad-locked if necessaryto prevent accidental operation of a machine during maintenance, or toprevent electric shock.Types of switches: 1. SPST (Single Pole Single Through) 2. SPDT (Single Pole Double Through)

3. DPST (Double Pole Single Through)4. DPDT (Double Pole Double Through)

Standard Switches A simple on-off switch: This type can be used to switch the power supply toa circuit.When used with mains electricity this type of switch must be in the livewire, but it is better to use a DPST switch to isolate both live andneutral. Push-to-make: A push-to-make switch returns to its normally open (off) position when yourelease the button, this is shown by the brackets around ON. This is thestandard doorbell switch. Push-to-break : A push-to-break switch returns to its normally closed (on) position when yourelease the button. Single Pole, Double Throw = SPDT: This switch can be on in both positions, switching on a separate device ineach case. It is often called a changeover switch. For example, a SPDTswitch can be used to switch on a red lamp in one position and a green lampin the other position.A SPDT toggle switch may be used as a simple on-off switch by connecting toCOM and one of the A or B terminals. ON-OFF-ON SPDT Centre Off: A special version of the standard SPDT switch. It has a third switchingposition in the

centre which is off. Momentary (ON)-OFF-(ON) version are also available where the switch returns to the central off position whenreleased. 1) SPDT toggle switch 2) SPDT slide switch


SPDT rocker switch

Double Pole, Single Throw = DPST:

A pair of on-off switches which operate together .A DPST switch is often used to switch mains electricity because it canisolate both the live and neutral connections.ExampleDPST rocker switch

Double Pole, Double Throw = DPDT:

A pair of on-on switches which operate together. As shown in omega demonstration board.


Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing. These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans in dangerous environments or manufacturing processes, or resemble humans in appearance, behavior, and/or cognition.The concept of creating machines that can operate autonomously dates back to classical times, but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow substantially until the 20th century.


Throughout history, robotics has been often seen to mimic human behavior, and often manage tasks in a similar fashion. Today, robotics is a rapidly growing field, as technological advances continue, research, design, and building new robots serve various practical purposes, whether domestically, commercially, or militarily.

The word robotics was derived from the word robot, which was introduced to the public by Czech. The word robot comes from the Slavic word robota, which means labor. The play begins in a factory that makes artificial people called robots, creatures who can be mistaken for humans similar to the modern ideas of androids.

Autonomous robots are robots that can perform desired tasks in unstructured environments without continuous human guidance. Many kinds of robots have some degree of autonomy. Different robots can be autonomous in different ways. A high degree of autonomy is particularly desirable in fields such as spaceexploration cleaning floors, mowing lawns, and waste water treatment.Some modern factory robots are "autonomous" within the strict confines of their direct environment. It may not be that every degree of freedom exists in their surrounding environment, but the factory robot's workplace is challenging and can often contain chaotic, unpredicted variables. The exact orientation and position of the next object of work and (in the more advanced factories) even the type of object and the required task must be determined. This can vary unpredictable (at least from the robot's point of view). A fully autonomous robot has the ability to:

Gain information about the environment (Rule #1) Work for an extended period without human intervention (Rule #2) Move either all or part of itself throughout its operating environment without human assistance (Rule #3) Avoid situations that are harmful to people, property, or itself unless those are part of its design specifications (Rule #4)

An autonomous robot may also learn or gain new capabilities like adjusting strategies for accomplishing its task(s) or adapting to changing surroundings.Autonomous robots still require regular maintenance, as do other machines.


Autonomous robot MOBILE ROBOT A mobile robot is an automatic machine that is capable of movement in any given environment.

Spying mobile robot A spying robot is an example of a mobile robot capable of movement in a given environment. BASIC PARTS OF ROBOTICS Construction material Regarding the material used in the actual frame of the robot, several options are available, such as e.g. aluminium, steel, various forms of plastic etc. The frame of a robot should, of course, preferably be constructed using a material that is both sturdy and light and, for that reason, aluminium is often chosen. Steel is typically too heavy to be practical in a small robot, whereas many forms of plastic easily break. The frame of the robot used in this course (the Boe-bot) is made in aluminium. Sensors The purpose of robotic sensors is to measure either some physical characteristic of the robot (for example, its acceleration) or some aspect of its environment (for example, the detected intensity of a light source). The raw data thus obtained must then, in most cases, be processed further before being used in the brain of the robot.

For example, an infrared (IR) proximity sensor may provide a voltage (depending on the distance to the detected object) as its reading, which can then be converted to a distance, using the characteristics of the sensor available from its data sheet. Sensors allow robots to receive information about a certain measurement of the environment, or internal components. This is essential for robots to perform their tasks, and act upon any changes in the environment to calculate the appropriate response. They are used for various forms of measurements, to give the robots warnings about safety or malfunctions, and to provide real time information of the task it is performing. Touch Current robotic and prosthetic hands receive far less tactile information than the human hand. Recent research has developed a tactile sensor array that mimics the mechanical properties and touch receptors of human fingertips. The sensor array is constructed as a rigid core surrounded by conductive fluid contained by an elastomeric skin. Electrodes are mounted on the surface of the rigid core and are connected to an impedance-measuring device within the core. When the artificial skin touches an object the fluid path around the electrodes is deformed, producing impedance changes that map the forces received from the object. The researchers expect that an important function of such artificial fingertips will be adjusting robotic grip on held objects. Vision Computer vision is the science and technology of machines that see. As a scientific discipline, computer vision is concerned with the theory behind artificial systems that extract information from images. The image data can take many forms, such as video sequences and views from cameras.Computer vision systems rely on image sensors which detect electromagnetic radiation which is typically in the form of either visible light or infra-red light. Infrared proximity sensors An infrared proximity sensor (or IR sensor, for short), consists of an emitter and a detector. The emitter, a light-emitting diode (LED), sends out infrared light, which bounces off nearby objects, and the reflected light is then measured by the detector (e.g. a phototransistor). Some IR sensors can also be used for measuring the ambient light level, i.e. the light observed by the detector when the emitter is switched off. Other sensors


Other common forms of sensing in robotics use LIDAR, RADARSONAR, SOUND and LIGHT. Actuators An actuator is a device that allows a robot to take action, i.e. to move or manipulate the surroundings in some otherway. Motors, of course, are very common types of actuators. Other kinds of actuation include, for example, the use of microphones (for human-robot interaction). Movements can be generated in various ways, using e.g. electrical motors,pneumatic or hydraulic systems etc. In this course, we shall only consider electrical, directcurren(DC) motors and, in particular, servo motors. Thus,when referring to actuation in this course, the use of such motors is implied.Note that actuation normally requires the use of motor controller in connection with the actual motor. This is so, since the microcontroller (see below) responsible for sending commands to the motor cannot, in general, provide sufficient current to drive the motor. Actuators are like the "muscles" of a robot, the parts which convert stored energy into movement. By far the most popular actuators are electric motors that spin a wheel or gear, and linear actuators that control industrial robots in factories. But there are some recent advances in alternative types of actuators, powered by electricity, chemicals, or compressed air. Electric motors The vast majority of robots use electric motors, often brushed and brushless DC motors in portable robots or AC motors in industrial robots and CNC machines. These motors are often preferred in systems with lighter loads, and where the predominant form of motion is rotational.

Linear actuators Various types of linear actuators move in and out instead of by spinning, and often have quicker direction changes, particularly when very large forces are needed such as with industrial robotics. They are typically powered by compressed air (pneumatic actuator) or an oil (hydraulic actuator). Series elastic actuatorsA spring can be designed as part of the motor actuator, to allow improved force control. It has been used in various robots, particularly walking humanoid robots.


Power source At present mostly (lead-acid) batteries are used as a power source. Many different types of batteries can be used as a power source for robots. They range from lead acid batteries which are safe and have relatively long shelf lives but are rather heavy to silver cadmium batteries that are much smaller in volume and are currently much more expensive. Designing a battery powered robot needs to take into account factors such as safety, cycle lifetime and weight. Generators, often some type of internal combustion engine, can also be used. However, such designs are often mechanically complex and need fuel, require heat dissipation and are relatively heavy. ROBOTIC LOCOMOTION Differential drive A differential wheeled robot is a mobile robot whose movement is based on two separately driven wheels placed on either side of the robot body. It can thus change its direction by varying the relative rate of rotation of its wheels and hence does not require an additional steering motion. To balance the robot, additional wheels or casters may be added.

Path of wheels through a turn. The wheels are not connected, despite how it appears.If both the wheels are driven in the same direction and speed, the robot will go in a straight line. If both wheels are turned with equal speed in opposite directions, as is clear from the diagram shown, the robot will rotate about the central point of the axis. Otherwise, depending on the speed of rotation and its direction, the center of rotation may fall anywhere on the line defined by the two contact points of the tires. While the robot is traveling in a straight line, the center of rotation is an infinite distance from the robot. Since the direction of the robot is dependent on the rate and direction of rotation of the two driven wheels, these quantities should be sensed and controlled precisely.

A differentially steered robot is similar to the differential gears used in automobiles in that both the wheels can have different rates of rotations, but unlike the differential gearing system,a differentially steered system will have both the wheels powered. Differential wheeled robots are used extensively in robotics, since their motion is easy to program and can be well controlled. Virtually all consumer robots on the market today use differential steering primarily for its low cost and simplicity. Car drive (Ackerman) The intention of Ackermann geometry is to avoid the need for tires to slip sideways when following the path around a curve. The geometrical solution to this is for all wheels to have their axles arranged as radii of a circle with a common center point. As the rear wheels are fixed, this center point must be on a line extended from the rear axle. Intersecting the axes of the front wheels on this line as well requires that the inside front wheel is turned, when steering, through a greater angle than the outside wheel.

Rather than the preceding "turntable" steering, where both front wheels turned around a common pivot, each wheel gained its own pivot, close to its own hub. While more complex, this arrangement enhances controllability by avoiding large inputs from road surface variations being applied to the end of a long lever arm, as well as greatly reducing the fore-and-aft travel of the steered wheels. Synchro drive


The synchro drive system is a two motor, three/four wheeled drive configuration where one motor rotates all wheels to produce motion and the other motor turns all wheels to change direction:

The left figure shows the wheels in the 0 degree position--in this position the robot will move up. The right figure shows the wheels turned -45 degrees. Note that all wheels have turned an equal amount. Using separate motors for translation and wheel rotation guarantees straight-line translation when the rotation motor is not actuated. This mechanical guarantee of straight-line motion is a big advantage over the differential drive method where two motors must be dynamically controlled to produce straight-line motion. Arbitrary motion paths can of course be done by actuating both motors simultaneously. Wheel alignment is critical in this drive system--if all wheels are not parallel, the robot will not translate in a straight line. Skid-steter drive Skid-steer locomotion is commonly used on tracked vehicles such as tanks and bulldozers, but is also used on some four- and six-wheeled vehicles. On these vehicles, the wheels (or tracks) on each side can be driven at various speeds in forward and reverse (all wheels on a side are driven at the same rate). There is no explicit steering mechanism--as the name implies steering is accomplished by actuating each side at a different rate or in a different direction, causing the wheels or tracks to slip, or skid, on the ground.


In the above left figure, the wheels on the left side are driven forward and the wheels on the right side are driven in reverse at the same rate. The result is a clockwise zero radius.turn about the center of the vehicle shown in the right figure Articulated drive Articulated drive is similar to the car-type drive except the turning mechanism is a deformation in the chassis of the vehicle, not pivoting of wheels:

This design has the same disadvantages of the car-type drive: if multiple wheels are driven and a differential is not used, wheel slippage will occur. This design is commonly used in construction equipment where wheel slippage is not an issue (speeds are slow and the coefficient of friction with the ground is low). Pivot drive Pivot drive is a unique type of locomotion used by one of the Robo-Rat groups during the previous course (pivot drive is my name for the system). The pivot drive system is composed of a two parts: 1) a four-wheeled chassis with non-pivoting wheels and, 2) a rotating platform which can be raised or lowered:


The wheels are the platform are driven by the same motor, although the platform is geared to rotate slowly. When the platform is raised, the wheels will translate the robot in a straight line--the platform will spin but as it is not touching the ground it has no effect. When a turn is required, the robot stops the drive motor and activates the motor which lowers the platform. Once the platform is in the down position, the drive motor is activated. Now the drive motor spins the robot since the wheels are off the ground. When the robot has rotated to the desired heading, the drive motor is stopped and the platform is raised. Now the robot can translate again using the drive motor. Dual differential drive The ideal wheeled drive for a Robo-Rats robot mechanically guarantees straightline motion. This is important because it simplifies odometry sensing and eliminates time-critical processing on the Handyboard. The synchro drive does give a mechanical guarantee of straight-line motion (assuming the wheels are properly aligned) but it would be difficult to build using Lego parts. The dual differential drive, given its name because it utilizes two mechanical differentials, also guarantees straight-line motion and it is relatively simple to construct in Lego. Unlike the use of the differential in a car-type drive, where it distributes input force to two output shafts, the dual differential drive, or DDD, uses its differentials to combine the forces from two input shafts and uses the resulting


sum to drive a wheel (each drive wheel has its own differential).

HANDY BOARD The Handy Board is the "brains" of your Robo-Rat. It is a hand-held, batterypowered microcontroller board that controls all the sensors and motors of your robot. The microcontroller can be programmed using an assembler or compiler, or with Interactive C--an interpreted version of the C language. For this course we will be using Interactive C because it provides an convenient environment to explore/control your robot. Vision The visual sensing system can be based on anything from the traditional camera, sonar, and laser to the new technology radio frequency identification (RFID), which transmits radio signals to a tag on an object that emits back an identification code. Visual sensors help robots to identify the surrounding and take appropriate action.[3] Robots analyze the image of the immediate environment imported from the visual sensor. The result is compared to the ideal intermediate or end image, so that appropriate movement can be determined to reach the intermediate or final goal.


Touch Touch sensory signals can be generated by the robot's own movements. It is important to identify only the external tactile signals for accurate operations. Previous solutions employed the Wiener filter, which relies on the prior knowledge of signal statistics that are assumed to be stationary. Recent solution applies an adaptive filterto the robots logic. It enables the robot to predict the resulting sensor signals of its internal motions, screening these false signals out. The new method improves contact detection and reduces false interpretation. Usage Touch patterns enable robots to interpret human emotions in interactive applications. Four measurable featuresforce, contact time, repetition, and contact area changecan effectively categorize touch patterns through the temporal decision tree classifier to account for the time delay and associate them to human emotions with up to 83% accuracy. The Consistency Index is applied at the end to evaluate the level of confidence of the system to prevent inconsistent reactions.Robots use touch signals to map the profile of a surface in hostile environment such as a water pipe. Currently, with the integration of touch sensors, the robots first acquire a random data point; the algorithm of the robot will then determine the ideal position of the next measurement according to a set of predefined geometric primitives. This improves the efficiency by 42%. Hearing (Signal processing) Accurate audio sensor requires low internal noise contribution. Traditionally, audio sensors combine acoustical arrays and microphones to reduce internal noise level. Recent solutions combine also piezoelectric devices. These passive devices use the piezoelectric effect to transform force to voltage, so that the vibration that is causing the internal noise could be eliminated. On average, internal noise up to about 7dB can be reduced. Robots may interpret strayed noise as speech instructions. Current voice activity detection (VAD) system uses the complex spectrum circle centroid (CSCC) method and a maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) beamformer. Because humans usually look at their partners when conducting conversations, the VAD system with two microphones enable the robot to locate the instructional speech by comparing the signal strengths of the two microphones. UsageRobots can perceive our emotion through the way we talk. Acoustic and linguistic features are generally used to characterize emotions. The combination of seven acoustic features and four


linguistic features improves the recognition performance when compared to using only one set of features. Movement Automated robots require a guidance system to determine the ideal path to perform its task. However, in the molecular scale, nano-robots lack such guidance system because individual molecules cannot store complex motions and programs. Therefore, the only way to achieve motion in such environment is to replace sensors with chemical reactions. Currently, a molecular spider that has one streptavidin molecule as an inert body and three catalytic legs is able to start, follow, turn and stop when came across different DNA origami. The DNA-based nano-robots can move over 100 nm with a speed of 3 nm/min. In a TSI operation, which is an effective way to identify tumors and potentially cancer by measuring the distributed pressure at the sensors contacting surface, excessive force may inflict a damage and have the chance of destroying the tissue. The application of robotic control to determine the ideal path of operation can reduce the maximum forces by 35% and gain a 50% increase in accuracy compared to human doctors. Performance Efficient robotic exploration saves time and resources. The efficiency is measured by optimality and competitiveness. Optimal boundary exploration is possible only when a robot has square sensing area, starts at the boundary, and uses the Manhattan metric. In complicated geometries and settings, a square sensing area is more efficient and can achieve better competitiveness regardless of the metric and of the starting point. Robot Control Techniques: Open Loop Control (Nonservo Control) No Feedback! Basic control suitable for systems with simple loads, Tight speed control is not required, no position or rate-of-change sensors, on each axis, there is a fixed mechanical stop to set the endpoint of the robot, its called stop-to-stop or pick-and-place systems. The desired change in a parameter is calculated (joint angles), the actuator energy needed to achieve that change is determined, and the amount of energy is applied to the actuator. If the model is correct and there are no disturbances, the desired change is achieved.


Feedback Control Loop Determine rotor position and/or speed from one or more sensors. Position of robot arm is monitored by a position sensor, power to the actuator is altered so that the movement of the arm conforms to the desired path in terms of direction and/or velocity. Errors in positioning are corrected. Feedforward Control It is a control, where a model is used to predict how much action to take, or the amount of energy to use. It is used to predict actuator settings for processes where feedback signals are delayed and in processes where the dynamic effects of disturbances must be reduced. Adaptive Control This control uses feedback to update the model of the process based upon the results of previous actions. The measurements of the results of previous actions are used to adapt the process model to correct for changes in the process and errors in the model. This type of adaption corrects for errors in the model due to long-term variations in the environment but it cannot correct for dynamic changes caused by local disturbances.


11. Power supply


A power supply is a device that supplies electrical energy to one or more electric loads. The term is most commonly applied to devices that convert one form of electrical energy to another, though it may also refer to devices that convert another form of energy (e.g., mechanical, chemical, solar) to electrical energy. A regulated power supply is one that controls the output voltage or current to a specific value; the controlled value is held nearly constant despite variations in either load current or the voltage supplied by the power supply's energy source. Every power supply must obtain the energy it supplies to its load, as well as any energy it consumes while performing that task, from an energy source. Depending on its design, a power supply may obtain energy from: Electrical energy transmission systems. Common examples of this include power supplies that convert AC line voltage to DC voltage. Energy storage devices such as batteries and fuel cells. Electromechanical systems such as generators and alternators. Solar power. A power supply may be implemented as a discrete, stand-alone device or as an integral device that is hardwired to its load. In the latter case, for example, low voltage DC power supplies are commonly integrated with their loads in devices such as computers and household electronics. Commonly specified power supply attributes include: The amount of voltage and current it can supply to its load. How stable its output voltage or current is under varying line and load conditions. How long it can supply energy without refueling or recharging (applies to power

supplies that employ portable energy sources) Power supplies types: Power supplies for electronic devices can be broadly divided into line-frequency (or "conventional") and switching power supplies. The line-frequency supply is usually a relatively simple design, but it becomes increasingly bulky and heavy for high-current equipment due to the need for large mains-frequency transformers and heat-sinked electronic regulation circuitry. Conventional line-frequency power supplies are sometimes called "linear," but that is a misnomer because the conversion from AC voltage to DC is inherently non-linear when the rectifiers feed into capacitive reservoirs. Linear voltage regulators produce regulated output voltage by means of an active voltage divider that consumes energy, thus making efficiency low. A switched-mode supply of the same rating as a line-frequency supply will be smaller, is usually more efficient, but will be more complex. DC power supply:

An AC powered unregulated power supply usually uses a transformer to convert the voltage from the wall outlet (mains) to a different, nowadays usually lower, voltage. If it is used to produce DC, a rectifier is used toconvert alternating voltage to a pulsating direct voltage, followed by a filter, comprising one or more capacitors, resistors, and sometimes inductors, to filter out (smooth) most of the pulsation. A small remaining unwanted alternating voltage component at mains or twice mains power frequency (depending upon whether half- or full-wave rectification is used)rippleis unavoidably superimposed on the direct output voltage. For purposes such as charging batteries the ripple is not a problem, and the simplest unregulated mains-powered DC power supply circuit consists of a transformer driving a single diode in series with a resistor. Before the introduction of solid-state electronics, equipment used valves (vacuum tubes) which required high voltages; power supplies used step-up transformers, rectifiers, and filters to generate one or more direct voltages of some hundreds of volts, and a low alternating voltage for filaments. Only the most advanced equipment used

expensive and bulky regulated power supplies.


An electrical connector is an electro-mechanical device for joining electrical circuits as an interface using a mechanical assembly. The connection may be temporary, as for portable equipment, require a tool for assembly and removal, or serve as a permanent electrical joint between two wires or devices. There are hundreds of types of electrical connectors. Connectors may join two lengths of flexible copper wire or cable, or connect a wire or cable or optical interface to an electrical terminal. In computing, an electrical connector can also be known as a physicalinterface (compare Physical Layer in OSI model of networking). Cable glands,known as cable connectors in the U.S., connect wires to devices mechanically rather than electrically and are distinct from quick-disconnectsperforming the latter.

Properties of electrical connectors:

An ideal electrical connector would have a low contact resistance and high insulation value. It would be resistant to vibration, water or other contaminants, and pressure. It would be easily mated/unmated, unambiguously preserve the orientation of connected circuits, reliable, carry one or multiple circuits. Desirable properties for a connector also include easy identification, compact size, rugged construction, durability (capable of many connect/disconnect cycles), rapid assembly, simple tooling, and low cost. No single connector has all the ideal properties. The proliferation of types is a reflection


of the differing importance placed on the design factors.

Some of the interfacing devices are: 1. USB Connector (Universal Serial Bus) 2. CAT5 (Category 5) 3. VGA Connector (Video Graphics Array) 4. BNC Connector (Bayonet NeillConcelman) 5. HDMI (High Definition Multimedia Interface) 6. DVI (Digital Visual Interface)

USB Connector (Universal Serial Bus):

USB (Universal Serial Bus) is an industry standard developed in the mid-1990s that defines the cables, connectors and protocols used for connection, communication and power supply between computers and electronic devices. USB was designed to standardise the connection of computer peripherals, such as keyboards, pointing devices, digital cameras, printers, portable media players, disk drives and network adapters to personal computers, both to communicate and to supply electric power. It has become commonplace on other devices, such as smartphones, PDAs and video game consoles. USB has effectively replaced a variety of earlier interfaces, such as serial and parallel ports, as well as separate power chargers for portable devices.


Category 5 cables (Cat 5) is a twisted pair cable for carrying signals. This type of cable is used in structured cabling for computer networks such as Ethernet. It is also used to carry other signals such as telephony and video. The cable is commonly connected using punch down blocks and modular connectors. Most Category 5 cables

are unshielded, relying on the twisted pair design and differential signaling for noise rejection.

Fig 24: Category 5 patch cable in T568B wiring

VGA Connector (Video Graphics Array):

A Video Graphics Array (VGA) connector is a three-row 15-pin DE-15 connector. The 15-pin VGA connector is found on many video cards, computer monitors, and some high definition television sets. On laptop computers or other small devices, a mini-VGA port is sometimes used in place of the fullsized VGA connector.

Fig 25: A VGA Cable BNC Connector (Bayonet NeillConcelman):

The BNC connector (Bayonet NeillConcelman) is a common type of RF connector used for coaxial cable. It is used with radio, television, and other radio-frequency electronic equipment, test intstruments, video signals, and was once a popular computer network connector. BNC connectors are made to match the characteristic impedance of cable at either 50 ohms or 75 ohms. It is usually applied for frequencies below 3 GHz and voltages below 500 Volts.

Fig 26: Male 50 ohm BNC connector


HDMI (High Definition Multimedia Interface):

High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) is a compact audio/video interface for transmitting uncompressed digital data. It is a digital alternative to consumer analog standards, such as radio frequency (RF) coaxial cable, composite video, S-Video, SCART, component video, D-Terminal,or VGA. HDMI connects digital audio/video sources (such as set-top boxes, DVD players, HD DVD players, Blu-ray Disc players, AVCHD camcorders, personal computers (PCs), video game consoles such as the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360, and AV receivers) to compatible digital audio devices, computer monitors, video projectors, tablet computers, and digital televisions.


INTRODUCTION: Traffic signals are used to control the flow of vehicles.Inthe recent years, the need of transportation has gain immenseimportance for logistics as well as for common human. This hasgiven rise to the number of vehicles on the road. Due to thisreason, traffic jams and road accidents are a common sight inany busy city. Traffic Signals provide an easy, cheap, automaticand justified solution to the road points where the vehicles mayturn to other directions e.g. roundabouts, culverts, busy walkthroughs etc. BASIC IDEA The project we have chosen is an 8-lanetraffic controller. The basic idea behind the design is to avoidthe collision of vehicles by providing appropriate signals todifferent directions for a limited time slot, after which the nextwaiting drivers will be given same treatment. In This way acycle will be established which will control the traffic. CONTROL SIGNALS The control signals are 3-lights.Top


light is Red(Stop), Middle light is Yellow(Wait)Bottom light is Green(Go). STATES OF TRAFFIC FLOWThere are 8-lanes and at most two ways can be safely open. WORKING PRINCIPLEIC2, which is heart of the circuit, is adecade counter. In this counter for every pulse fed to pin-14,potential keeps shifting from D1 to D9 in cyclic order. IC1 isused as a pulse generator and generates pulses in regularconfigurable intervals. These intervals can be changed byvarying VR1. The circuit is designed in such a way that out ofnine pulses, relay RL1 remains triggered for 4 pulses, relay RL2for 1 pulse and relay RL3 for remaining 4 pulses. Since D1-D4provide current to T1, T1 is on whenever there is potential onany diode D1 to D4, which keeps relay RL1 triggered. Similarlyother diodes are responsible for RL2 and RL3 triggering. Red,Yellow and Green lamps can be connected to the relays RL1,RL2 and RL3 respectively to complete your mini traffic lightcontroller.

PCB DESIGN OF ELECTRONIC STOPWATCH On day four and five we perform and analysis the circuit of electronic stop watch and understand the design of this circuit.Electronics has its impact on almost every field today. The 'Digital Stop Watch ' described here finds application in sports and different fun games where even a fraction of second matters a lot. Through this project we can count even the 1/10th of a second. The counter immediately stops counting once the Stop switch is pressed and when the Reset switch is pressed we again have 000 display in the 7-segment display.The project mainly employs two Timer IC555 (IC1 & IC2), three Decade counter IC4033 (IC3, IC4 & IC5) and 7-segment displays in common cathode configuration.


About the Circuit: In the circuit diagram, IC1 is used in bistable mode and IC2 is used in astable mode. When the START switch is pushed on, IC1 is triggered, its output at pin3 goes high which in turn is applied to reset pin4 of IC2. Hence IC2 is operating in the astable mode and it will generate pulses of frequency 10Hz. The frequency is determined by the RC time constant of the circuit. The output at pin3 of IC2 is applied to CLOCKIN (pin1) terminal of first 4033 IC i.e. IC3. This IC being a decade counter starts counting from 0 to 9. The corresponding 7-segment display thus shows 0.1 seconds of measurement. After counting from 0 to 9 this IC will generate pulse at CLOCKOUT (pin5) terminal, which is connected to the CLOCKIN terminal of second IC4033 (IC4). Thus IC4 starts counting from 0 to 9. The corresponding 7-segment display connected to IC4 display each second. The third 4033 IC (IC5) also receives pulse at CLOCKIN terminal in similar manner and counting starts. As long as the STOP switch is not pressed the Stopwatch keeps on counting. The watch can count maximum up to 99.9 seconds. The circuit being a decade-up counter, after counting 99.9 seconds all three displays shows 000 and the process of counting repeats.If the STOP switch is pressed at any instant between the counting,output of IC1 goes low and correspondingly the RESET pin of IC2 receives a negative going pulse and output goes low. So all three counters stops counting.The reset pins of all the three 4033 IC's are connected together, so when RESET switch is pressed all three counters gets reset.Here LED D1 connected at output pin3 of IC2 indicates that the output pulses/clock pulses are generated and circuit is operating properly.This is a mini digital stopwatch can be used in sports or different fun games where even a fraction of second matters a lot. The circuit counts minimum 0.1seconds and maximum 99.9 seconds when START switch is pressed. You can stop counting by pressing STOP switch. RESET switch is used to reset the counting. The display is shown on three 7-segment displays.The circuit uses total five ICs and three 7segment display.


PCB Design of electronic stopwatch

Circuit diagram of electronic stopwatch


Project on Robotics:

Name of robot :Turning frog


Circuit Diagram:

This circuit has four major parts: Sound sensor Wave shaping circuit Oscillatory circuit Locomotion circuit Sound sensor: We used a microphone as sound sensor , it converts sound signals in to electrical signals which will have a magnitude of around 100 mv are less than


that and might have frequency of 1000 2000 kHz. These signals are feed to the wave stabilizing part using capacitor to block dc part. Wave shaping circuit : In this part we have a first stage as IC1/A and R3 is used as negative feedback ,due to the negative feedback the noise tends to reduce due to the stabilizing effect of the negative feedback The second stage is also negative feedback stage with IC1/B and R5&C2 are parallel , this gives not gate and integrator circuit as feed so if there are any sharp variation in the inputs this provides a short circuit path for that and provide a smooth wave at the output. Capacitor C3 is used to block dc as wave is passed to the two inverters there may be a shift in dc . Then we used a half wave rectifier stage to remove the negative part of the wave then we pass the wave through the combination of two inverters having VR as the feedback. So the two inverters has 360 phase shift it will form positive feedback. So the wave at the input makes the low to high oscillations in the outputs.by varying the VR resistance we can vary frequency of oscillation. Locomotion stage : This oscillating input is feed to the iC2 /4017 at the clock inverse pin as clock pin (14) is given to the vcc the ic makes a transition we negative edge pulse. IC2/4017 is a decade counter it has outputs from O0 to O9 each output is raised high at the negative pulse starting from O0 to 09 one after the other . Pin 1-O5 and pin 2 O3 and pin 7 is O5. Pin 5 that is O6 is shorted with pin 15 with is reset .so the reset will happen after every 6 clock Pulse. When there is a high at pin-1 Q1&Q2 are on and ML motor rotates and other motor doesnt rotate so bot will take a turn. When there is a high at pin-2 Q1&Q2 are on & Q3 and Q4 are also on, both the ML& MR motor rotates and so RObot will go straight. When there is a high at pin-7 Q1&Q2 are off& Q3 and Q4 are also on, the ML motor rotates and so bot will go and make turn. Rest other states bot doesnt move.


Industrial Work With Omega :

Wiring Section: I also worked in wiring section with omega engineers on trainer kits like ETB-48, ETB-96,ETB-48,ETB-201,ES-215,ETB-52. Some of are given as below: 1.OEGA TYPE ETB-201: ETB-201 experimental training board has been designed specially for the study & Verification of network theorems in DC Circuits. The board here which we design in the lab is absolutely self contained. The trainer board has mainly 7 sections like: 1.DPM(20mAmp) : It is known as Digital Pulse Meter ,used for measuring current& voltage in Ac as well as Dc both.but in our trainer board it is used as DC ammeter (020mAmp). 2.DPM(0-20V): It is used for measuring voltage (DC) up to 20 V.this is only one in this trainer board. 3.Resistances: Resistance are used to prove following theorems like Thevenins ,Superposition and Reciprocity . 4.IC Regulated power supply: It is the dc power supply and variable in nature range can be 0-12V & 9V at 20 mA with a preset or potentiometer 4K7.

5.On/off Switch It is a simple on/off switch which is directly connected with transformer (step down).

2.OMEGA TYPE ES-215: Experimental set up has been designed specifically to study series & parallel resonance in an LCR circuit (air core inductors,Two decade Condensers &resistance) and damping effect by C and varying frequencies. THEORY: for resonance condition in a circuit XL=XC then f=>F0(resonant frequency ) F0 = 1/(2LC)

Introduction: Radio communication involves the transmission & reception of signals of selectable frequency. Such selection is possible because every combination of L&C responds better to voltages of one frequency than to voltages of other frequencies.The signal frequency at which the circuit responds best is called the resonant frequency of the circuit. There are 2 types of resonant circuit : 1.Series resonant circuit (R-L-C in series) 2.Parallel resonant(Tank Circuit),L-R-C in parallel. 3.OMEGA TYPE ETB-48: Experimental training board has been designed specifically for the study of the characteristics of vacuum DIODE. Design panel description: The ON-OFF Switch, mains fuse and Main ON indicator are located at the left hand lower side DPM regulator 0-20V/0-100V full scale dual range voltmeter, selected by a switch & 0-20/200m Amp full scale mili-ammeter is fitted at the top of panel.At the lower middle part of the panel,9-pin value base is provided. At the left side of valve base,variable H.T. voltage (0-300V at 100mAmp) is provided.


Application: 1.By use of this trainer kit ETB-48 are can be use of diode as RECTIFIER. 2.Study of characteristic curves of Thermionic vacuum Diode b/w Plate Current(Ib) and Plate Voltage(eb). WORKING AND PRINCIPLE OF KIT:Soon after the filament or heater is supplied with heating power ,high thermionic emission takes place from the cathode and if a small positive voltage is applied to the plate with respect to the cathode ,these electrons are attracted by the plate, thus constituting an electric current.In the external circuit the electrons flow from plate to cathode. The conventional current however flow in the reverse direction i.e. from plate to cathode inside the electron tube and from cathode to plate in the external circuit is Ib.


Spending my four weeks of training in OMEGA ELECTRONICS, Jaipur,I conclude

that it is very excellent industry of its own type. They have achieved milestone in the field of, manufacturing trainer board kits and Antenna kits. They conduct a PLC(programme learning course) for summer training in their organization which is a basic and fundamental course for learning industrial automation and manufacturing. They also include Robotics course in the curriculum with both aspects Electronics and Mechanically. They also provide a good Lab practical environment with their Engineers. I had earned a heap of knowledge about internal architecture of lab trainer kits like ETB48,96 etc. from their specialist. Beyond this they also taught and familiar us with new technology like Interfacing devices, Sensors, Drives and gears which is useful to build knowledge about Robotics. This industrial training will definitely fill the gap between theoretical and practical working.


14. REFRENCE 1. http://www.omegaelectronics.net/profile.asp 2. http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/robot.htm 3. http://engineering-ed.org/Robotics/documents. 4. http://html.alldatasheet.com/html 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/