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Unit 6: Europe in the Middle Ages

Part 1: How did Europe develop into a Feudal Society? Feudalism developed when Europeans needed protection from invaders. To provide this protection, they came up with a system where the kings gave pieces of land to lower classes, and in return, they would fight and protect the citizens. SS.WH.4.3 Describe the rise and achievements of Charlemagne and the Empire of the Franks. SS.WH.4.5 Describe how technological improvements in agriculture, the growth of towns, the creation of guilds, and the development of banking during the Middle Ages, as well as the institutions of feudalism and the manorial system influenced European civilization.

Topic Feudal Leaders

Notes Charlemagne and the Holy Roman Empire First Christian emperor of Europe (protected Christianity) Wanted to unite all the Germanic tribes into one Christian empire (holy roman empire) William the Conqueror First norman king of England Called for the Domesday book to be written, a record of all the land and who owned it Built great castles in England Helped bring feudalism to England The Domesday Book The Domesday book is a land survey from 1086 Includes records of the landholders, how much land they owned, the animals Richard the Lionheart Led a crusade to cleanse the holy land of Muslims (fought against Saladin) He barely spent any time in England even though he was their king

Source http://www.history.com/ topics/charlemagne (Staff, Charlemagne) http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/William_the_Conq ueror http://www.lordsandladi es.org/william-theconqueror.htm (Wikipedia) (Alchin, William The Conqueror) http://www.domesdayb ook.co.uk/faqs.html#1 (Unknown, Domesday Book)

http://www.lordsandladi es.org/king-richard-thelionheart.htm (Alchin, King Richard the Lionheart)

Feudalism and Manorialism in Europe

How does Feudalism work? Feudalism was the government in the middle ages, where a lord gave fighters pieces of land if they would fight for them Discouraged unified government, trade, and economic growth. (they werent allowed to move or change pieces of land without permission from their lord) Castle Design/Purpose

https://web.cn.edu/kwh eeler/feudalism.html (Wheeler)

http://csis.pace.edu/gre ndel/projs3h/castles.ht m

Were built for protection They became more complex as time went on After the 15fh century, castles were no longer used for protection, simply residence Castle Life Castles were good protection, but werent very good homes lit by narrow windows, heated by small fireplaces There wasnt much entertainment inside the castle Castles became more elegant as the feudal period ended Tournaments They had rules that regulated that the swords were dulled to prevent injury There were many events, and they could fight individually or as a team For a while they were allowed to steal the armor and weapons of the knight who lost, so they employed someone to beat the loser unconscious so they could take his things Manor Life A manor is the district which a lord (or sometimes, the king) controlled. There would be a manor house set apart from the village where the lord would live Every noble had at least one manor A manor house was built like a castle, but smaller Similar to life in a castle Social Structure The people at the top of the social pyramid was the king and nobility, the people who owned most of the land Next was knights, but they werent born into the status; they could earn it by doing something great or if they had enough money. The next class was the unfree who worked on a plot of land in exchange for residence there The next class was the unfree who lived on a small plot of land they did not own, but had to pay rent for it The bottommost class was slaves

(Roopnarine)

http://www.lordsandladi es.org/life-in-a-middleages-castle.htm (Alchin, Life in a Middle Ages Castle)

http://www.lordsandladi es.org/knightstournaments.htm (Alchin, Knights Tournaments)

http://www.lordsandladi es.org/medievalmanors.htm (Alchin, Medieval Mannors)

http://faculty.history.wis c.edu/sommerville/123/ 123%2013%20Society. htm (Medieval English Society)

New Agricultural and Architectural Methods

3 Field Systems Farmers rotated the crops 3 times instead of 2 New crops being grew (legumes) increased the nutrition of the people in northeastern Europe New Plows Redesigned plows in medieval times Used multiple oxen teams Plows allowed people to plow heavier and wetter soil of northeastern Europe Romanesque Architecture 800 1100 AD Stone used is cut with precision Stone supported in the middle by arch Gothic Architecture 1200 1500 AD Gothic rose windows More towers than in Romanesque Decorative designs and sculptures

http://www.engr.sjsu.e du/pabacker/history/mi ddle.htm (Unknown, Medieval Technology) http://www.engr.sjsu.e du/pabacker/history/mi ddle.htm (Unknown, Medieval Technology) http://www.lordsandladi es.org/middle-agesarchitecture.htm (Alchin, Middle Ages Architecture)

http://www.lordsandladi es.org/middle-agesarchitecture.htm (Alchin, Middle Ages Architecture) Towns, Guilds, Banking Development of Towns/Charters Most citizens worked in agriculture; the economy depended on it Towns grew due to more trade The towns throughout Europe had very bad roads The population in medieval Europe grew, which meant bigger towns, and more laborors Guilds/Unions A guild was an organizations for skilled people (merchants, artisans). They came together to protect their things or their craft Guilds also protected the consumer; there were regulations on how things were made They also provided services for members, such as covering funeral expenses for poor members, and building chapels Banks Economic activity increased in the Middle Ages = need for exchanging money Churches prohibited usuries (charging interest on loans) and it slowed the development of banks, but the churches eventually changed their rules Florence was the banking central of Europe financial success, very wealthy The Magna Carta First written constitution in European history put kings of England under law to prevent rebellion limited the power of the king http://faculty.history.wis c.edu/sommerville/123/ 123%2013%20Society. htm (Medieval English Society) http://historyworld.org/midtowns.ht m (Project)

http://www.public.iastat e.edu/~gbetcher/373/g uilds.htm (Technology)

http://www.faculty.umb. edu/gary_zabel/Course s/Phil%20281b/Philoso phy%20of%20Magic/D ante.%20etc/Philosoph ers/End/bluedot/bankin g.html (Group)

http://www.history.com/ topics/britishhistory/magna-carta (Staff, Magna Carta)

Part 2: How did Religion help develop a European Cultural Identity? Religion helped develop Europes cultural identity because it influenced most aspects of their life. In medieval Europe, the Catholic Church was the basis for most of their rules and laws; they looked to the pope to lead and guide them. SS.WH.4.4 Explain how the idea of Christendom influenced the development of cultural unity in Europe. SS.WH.4.6 Analyze and compare the success of the Roman and Orthodox churches in spreading the Christian religion and civilization to peoples of Northern and Eastern Europe. SS.WH.4.7 Explain the Great Schism of 1054 and the development of Eastern and Western branches of Christianity.

Topic Monastic Life

Notes Monks and Nuns Monks and nuns provided services gave shelter to travelers, helped the poor Monasteries promoted literacy nuns learned how to read, although most women in the middle ages werent very educated Both monks and nuns made a vow of chastity, a vow of poverty, and a vow of obedience Munks and nuns lives were dedicated to worship, reading, and manual labor They had chores to do for the monastery, like cooking and educating others Monks and nuns could have a variety of jobs in the monastery

Source http://www.metmuseu m.org/toah/hd/mona/hd _mona.htm (Art) http://www.lordsandladi es.org/daily-life-nunmiddle-ages.htm (Alchin, Daily Life of a Nun in the Middle Ages) http://www.lordsandladi es.org/daily-life-monkmiddle-ages.htm (Alchin, Daily Life of a Monk in the MIddle Ages)

Medieval Education

Hand Copied Books Manuscripts were books that were written by hand by scribes during the medieval period Very time consuming and expensive to make Most manuscripts were written on material made from animal skins Hand copied books were important because it showed social status; since they were so expensive to make, only the most rich and important people had many of them Illuminated Manuscripts An illuminated manuscript was a manuscript that was decoratively colored with fancy colors They used gold leaf and various minerals to embellish the letters and pictures of a manuscript Chaucers Canterbury Tales The Canterbury tales are a series of tales written by Geoffrey Chaucer in the middle ages They are about 29 pilgrims going on a pilgrimage; they tell each other their stories Chaucer is very descriptive in his writing, and gives lots of detail without bias Early Universities In the middle ages, generally only people of the church and people in a higher class were educated people were usually taught in private homes, or monastery schools (reorganizations of church schools came from Charlemagne) People who were educated usually were made to work as translators or scribes Pope Gregory VII declared that cathedral schools had to be made to educate people of the church these

http://www2.uncp.edu/ home/canada/work/ma rkport/lit/introlit/ms.htm (Canada)

https://www.getty.edu/ art/exhibitions/making/ (Center)

http://www.csis.pace.e du/grendel/projs2c/ch3 .html (Sigona)

http://www.csupomona .edu/~plin/ls201/medie val2.html (University)

eventually turned into universities, which started popping up everywhere after Roman Catholic Church and Orthodox Church Roman Catholics Basically everyone in medieval Europe practiced Catholicism the state and the church were closely linked kings and queens and people in charge helped keep the church alive the church also helped make laws based on what the bible said Orthodox Christianity The Eastern Orthodox Church formed when there was a schism in the church http://www.pbs.org/god inamerica/people/catho lic-church.html (PBS)

http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/History_of_the_Ort hodox_Church (Wikipedia, History of the Orthodox Church)

Great Schism

When an Italian pope was elected, the king of France didnt like it, so he elected one of his own choosing this caused the great schism, which was the splitting of the eastern and western churches The pope/church lost power after the split, so they thought it was best to elect a new pope who both sides could agree on They eventually settled on one pope, Martin V, and became the Roman Catholic church.

http://www.lordsandladi es.org/the-greatschism.htm (Alchin, The Great Schism) http://www.thenagain.i nfo/webchron/westeuro pe/greatschism.html (McWilliams)

Part 3: The Crusades: How did they lead Europe to a major transformation (Renaissance) The crusades helped lead Europe to the renaissance, mostly through the economic advantages. People brought goods from the east into the western market. These sales helped improve the economy; in Italy, where many banks were, they became very wealthy, which opened up opportunities to make advancements, and gave them more time to appreciate things like art. SS.WH.4.8 Explain the causes of the Crusades and their consequences for Europe and Southwest Asia, including the growth in power of the monarchies in Europe.

Topic Why did the Crusades Begin?

Notes The Crusades began when Christians wanted to claim the Holy Land for themselves Pope Urban II gave a speech, telling Christians princes to take the holy land from the Muslims The first crusaders accomplished what they were going for; they captured Jerusalem The crusaders killed many people entering the city, regardless of if they were children or women There were 9 crusades in total, which ended when the Crusaders lost their last piece of land in Palestine

Source http://gbgmumc.org/umw/bible/cru sades.stm (Women) http://www.history.com/ topics/crusades (Staff, Crusades)

Effects of the Crusades

Economically: The crusades created the need for transportation for

http://www.lordsandladi es.org/effects-of-

men and supplies, so ship building was encouraged The crusades also expanded the market for eastern products (bringing eastern goods to the western market) They became very wealthy due to this commerce, especially in Italy (helped start the renaissance) Politically: Power to Kings or Pope? The crusades increased wealth and power of the papacy The popes used this to let people look to them as leaders and guides The crusades helped get rid of feudalism, because many knights sold their land to help fund the crusaders, and nobles didnt return from the war, so their land went to the king Socially: How did Europeans gain a wider world view? The crusades helped connect the Europeans with the middle east They were introduced to chivalry, which helped them become more refined

crusades.htm (Alchin, Effects of the Crusades) http://educationportal.com/academy/le sson/results-andimpact-of-thecrusades.html#lesson (Pfington) http://www.lordsandladi es.org/effects-ofcrusades.htm (Alchin, Effects of the Crusades)

http://www.lordsandladi es.org/effects-ofcrusades.htm (Alchin, Effects of the Crusades) http://www.history.com/ topics/black-death (Staff, Black Death)

The Black Death

Bubonic Plague The bubonic plague started in 1328 and lasted until 1351 bubonic plague was called the black death because of the black boils on the body of an infected person The bubonic plague killed more than 20 million people, which was around one third of the population of Europe How did it spread? The black death was spread by infected fleas and rats they were everywhere in Europe at the time, but they didnt realize they were the cause of the disease The bubonic plague spread very quickly simply being close to someone with it could infect someone After contracting the black death, a person would die in around 1-4 days Effects on Europe The black death eliminated about one third of Europes population After the plague was over, a greater value was put on labor, since there was so many less people to do it The black death was another cause for the decline in feudalism

http://www.lordsandladi es.org/black-death.htm (Alchin, Black Death)

http://www.lordsandladi es.org/black-death.htm (Alchin, Black Death)

Part 3