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1

.
.
. .
(, , , )

1. .
(, , ) (. .
1).
.
dl dx, dy dz
:
dl2 = dx2 + dy 2 + dz 2 .

(1)

2. . 1
, ()
dl dq1 , dq2 dq3 :
X
dl2 =
gik dqi dqk ,
(2)
i,k

i k 1 3 ( ). gik , ,
; 2 , , . gik = 0, i 6= k.
z 6
6

dz ?

dx

s
%
%

dl %
%

%
%
s

dy

. 1:
2

( )
g11 = g22 = g33 = 1.
, , ,
( ), ( ) ( ). .
.
: r , (. 2)
:
x = r cos ,
y = r sin ,
p
r = x2 + y 2 ,
= arctg(y/x)

r
'$
>

o
&%

(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

. 2:

.
: , z (. 3),
:
z = z,
x = cos ,
y = sin ,
p
r = x2 + y 2 ,
= arctg(y/x)

HH
z 6
HH
s

3
"H
H

"

"

"

"x

HH
j

(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)

. 3:

.

r : (0 ), z (0 2) (. . 4).
:

HH
z 6
HH
s

"H
" 3HH
"
H
j

"

"

x = r sin cos ,
y = r sin sin ,
z = r cos
p
r = x2 + y 2 + z 2 ,
p
= arccos(z/ x2 + y 2 + z 2 ),
= arctg(y/x)

(12)
(13)
(14)
(15)
(16)
(17)

. 4:

3. . .
1. a b ,
|a||b| cos , - .
C a b (a, b). :
a b = ax bx + ay by + az bz .

(18)

, . 1 ij ,
:

1 , i 6= j;
,
(19)
ij =
0 , i 6= j
(i j a b ) :
X
ab=
ai bj ij .
(20)
i,j

:
ab=ba
a a = |a|2
m a n b = mn a b

(21)
(22)
(23)

ab = 0 ,
( a b )
1

(Leopold Kronecker) (18231891),

2. a b, , a b, , ,
, a b
| | = | a b | = | a | | b | sin |,

(24)

,
a, b c (. .
a, b c a b ,
c, , . . 5).
a b :

c6
b

. 5:

nx ny nz

c = a b = ax ay az = nx (ay bz az by ) + ny (az bx ax bz ) + nz (ax by ay bx ), (25)


bx by bz

X
ijk aj bk ,
ci = [a b]i =

(26)

j,k

ijk - -, 2 :

1 , ijk = xyz, yzx, zxy;


1 , ijk = xzy, yxz, zyx;
ijk =
,
(27)

0 ,
:
a b = b a
aa=0

(28)
(29)

1.1. ,
a (b c) = b(a c) c(a b).
2

(30)

-
(Tullio LeviCivita) (1873 - 1941), , ,
, , , .

4. . M
q10 , q20 , q30 ,
, .
e, M,
( ) (. . 6).
,
, n e,
.
q3

n=
~n3

6
s -~
n2

M
~n1

q1

e
|e|

(31)


.
t.

q2

. 6:
,
M (q10 , q20 , q30 )
T :
:
q1 (t) = q10 + t,
q2 (t) = q20 ,
q3 (t) = q30 ;

(32)

q1 (t) = q10 ,
q2 (t) = q20 + t,
q3 (t) = q30 ;

(33)

q1 (t) = q10 ,
q2 (t) = q20 ,
q3 (t) = q30 + t;

(34)

T ( i)

q(t)
ei =
t t=0
.
:
6

(35)

1.2.
nr , n n r,
nx , ny nz
:
, (32) r. :
xr (t) = (r + t) sin cos ,
yr (t) = (r + t) sin sin ,
zr (t) = (r + t) cos .
(35) er x :

xr (t)
= sin cos .
t t=0

(36)
(37)
(38)

(39)

, y z

yr (t)
= sin sin ,
t t=0

zr (t)
= cos .
t t=0

(40)
(41)

, :
er = sin cos nx + sin sin ny + cos nz .

(42)

, |er | = 1, . . er nr .
, ,
"". :
x (t) = r sin( + t) cos ,
y (t) = r sin( + t) sin ,
z (t) = r cos( + t);

x (t)
= r cos cos .
t t=0

y (t)
= r cos sin ,
t t=0

z (t)
= r sin ,
t t=0
7

(43)
(44)
(45)

(46)
(47)
(48)

e :
e = r cos cos nx + r cos sin ny + r sin nz .

(49)

, |e | = r, , , n = e /|e |
n = cos cos nx + sin sin ny + sin nz .

(50)

, , "", :
x (t) = r sin cos( + t),
y (t) = r sin sin( + t),
z (t) = r cos ;

x (t)
= r sin sin .
t t=0

y (t)
= r sin cos ,
t t=0

z (t)
= 0,
t

(51)
(52)
(53)

(54)
(55)
(56)

t=0

e = r sin sin nx + r sin cos ny + 0nz ,


n = sin nx + cos ny + 0nz .

(57)
(58)

.
1.3.
n , nz n , z
nx , ny nz
, :
x = cos ,
y = sin ,
1
z = ( 2 2 ).
2

(59)
(60)
(61)

1.4.
n , n n ,
nx , ny nz

5. . ,
q.
dl dq. dl
:
p
dl = dx2 + dy 2 + dz 2 .
(62)
dx, dy dz dq:
x
dq,
q
y
dy =
dq,
q
z
dq.
dz =
q

dx =

(63)
(64)
(65)

s
dl =

x
q

dq 2

y
q

dq 2

z
q

2
dq 2 =
s

s
H=

x
q

x
q
y
q

y
q
z
q

z
q

2
dq = Hdq. (66)

2
(67)

3 dl dq :
dl = Hdq.

(68)

.
dV ,
dl1 dl2 dl3 :
dV = dl1 dl2 dl3 = H1 H2 H3 dq1 dq2 dq3 =
= dxdydz
=
= dddz
=
2
= r sin drdd
.

(69)
(70)
(71)
(72)

1.5. .
3
(Gabrial Lame) (1795 - 1870) ;
, 1833 .

(12)-(14) r, (68), :
Hr = 1
H = r
H = r sin .

(73)
(74)
(75)

1.6. .
:
Hz = 1
H = 1
H = .

(76)
(77)
(78)

1.7. .
6. . dl :
dl = dl1 n1 + dl2 n2 + dl3 n3 = H1 dq1 n1 + H2 dq2 n2 + H3 dq3 n3 .

(79)

. :
v = H1 q1 n1 + H2 q2 n2 + H3 q3 n3 .

(80)

q1 , q2 , q3 , q1 , q2 , q3 .
, :
v = rn
r + rn
+ zn
z;
v 2 = r 2 + r2 2 + z 2 ;

(81)
(82)

:
+ r sin n
v = rn
r + rn
;
2
2
2
2
2 2
v = r + r + r sin 2

(83)
(84)

1.8. .
1.9. w = r ,
(80):
w = H1 q1 n1 + H2 q2 n2 + H3 q3 n3 ?

10

: .
7. , ,
f , - r. f (r) dr
M(r0 ) M(r0 + dr)
df = f (r0 + dr) f (r0 ).
, f (r) = f (x, y, z) ,
f
f
f
f
f
f
df = f (r0 ) +
dx +
dy +
dz f (r0 ) =
dx +
dy +
dz.
(85)
x
y
z
x
y
z
dx, dy, dz dr :
\
\
\
dx = |dr| cos(dr,
nx ), dy = |dr| cos(dr,
ny ), dz = |dr| cos(dr,
nz ).

(86)

s, dr
\
\
\
s = cos(dr,
nx )nx + cos(dr,
ny )ny + cos(dr,
nz )nz
s
f (r0 + dr) f (r0 )
df
= ,
dl
dl

(87)

dl dr.
f (r), :
f
f
f
f
grad f (r) =
=
nx +
ny +
nz .
(88)
r
x
y
z
, s
f (r)
df
= grad f (r) s.
(89)
dl
,
f (r) r0 ,
.
a(r) (, , a(r)). , , ,
, .
3. a a ,
.
H
an dS
S
div a = lim
(90)
V 0
V
11

x0 , y0 z0 ; dx, dy dz
. a .
, x.
(x = x0 ) ax dydz ( , n ); ,
a, :
(ax +

ax
dx)dydz.
x

. , ,
dxdydz, :
div a =

ax ay az
+
+
.
x
y
z

(91)

.
1.10. a(r) = r.
: div a = 3
a :
I
a dl,

(92)

dl .
. , . ,
a(r), rot a), :
H
a dl
(rot a)i = lim
.
(93)
Si 0
Si
i , Si , i- .
. ,
,

ay ax
ay
ax
dy dx ay dy =

ax dx + ay +
dy ax +
dxdy.
x
y
x
y
dxdy, z.
, :
az ay

,
y
z

ax az

,
z
x
12

ay ax

.
x
y

(94)

, :

nx ny nz

.
rot a =

x
y
z

ax ay az

(95)

, :
div gradf =

f
f
f
2f
2f
2f
+
+
=
+
+
= 4f
x x y y z z
x2
y 2
z 2

(96)

, f (r)
, ,
4=

2
2
2
+
+
x2 y 2 z 2

8.
4 ""( 5 )
= nx

+ ny
+ nz .
x
y
z

, ,
.
:
grad f = f
div a = a
rot a = a

(a ) = ax
+ ay
+ az
x
y
z

(97)
(98)
(99)
(100)

, , .

[a b] = [a b] + [a b] =
= a b b a

(101)

, .
4

, ,
.
5
(1805-1865)), ,

13

(f a) = f a + f a
(f a) = f a + f a
(a b) = ( b)a ( a)b + (b )a (a )b
(a b) = b a + a b + (b )a + (a )b
f = 0
a=0
a = ( a) a,

(102)
(103)
(104)
(105)
(106)
(107)
(108)

a = ax nx + ay ny + az nz .

(109)

9.
.
(68). qi dqi
, dli = Hi dqi f
df , ni :
1 f
dqi ,
Hi qi

(110)

:
grad f (r) = f (r) =

1 f
1 f
1 f
n1 +
n2 +
n3 .
H1 q1
H2 q2
H3 q3

(111)

. , (90). a
M M1 P M3 a2 dl1 dl3 (. 7). M2 N QF ,
n2
M2 , . ,
M2 N QF
a2 dl1 dl3 +

(a2 dl1 dl3 )


dq2 .
q2

M M1 P M3 M2 N QF ,
(a2 H1 H3 )
(a2 dl1 dl3 )
dq2 =
dq1 dq2 dq3 .
q2
q2

(112)

.
(69). , , :

(a1 H2 H3 ) (a2 H1 H3 ) (a3 H1 H2 )


1
+
+
.
(113)
div a = a =
H1 H2 H3
q1
q2
q3
14

M3 (q10 , q20 , q30 + q3 )


M (q10 , q20 , q30 )
s

s
P



s

0 0
0
s M2 (q1 , q2 + q2 , q3 )
Q

M1 (q10 + q1 , q20 , q30 )

. 7: .
M3 (q10 , q20 , q30 + q3 )

F
s

M (q10 , q20 , q30 )

M2 (q10 , q20 + q2 , q30 )

M1 (q10 + q1 , q20 , q30 )

. 8:
. a q3 , a M M2 N M1 (. 8).
M M2 a dl, a2 dl2 = a2 H2 dq2 ,
M2 N
(a1 H1 )
dq1 ,
a dl = a1 H1 dq1 +
q2
N M1 :

(a2 H2 )
a dl = a2 H2 dq2 +
dq2 ,
q1
, M1 M :
a dl = a1 H1 dq1 .
"" , . a dl , ,
M M2 N M1 , H1 H2 dq1 dq2 , :

(a2 H2 ) a1 H1
1

.
(114)
a3 =
H1 H2
q1
q2
15

. (96), (111) (113) :

H2 H3 f

H1 H3 f

H1 H2 f
1
+
+
.
4f = f =
H1 H2 H3 q1
H1 q1
q2
H2 q2
q3
H3 q3
(115)

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