Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 36

2

2 -
2.1.
. 2.1
.

. 2.1

1 - GSM

,
Uplink
Downlink
, c.

(Bandwidth),
(Duplex
Distance),

(Channel Separation),
1
,
/.

P-GSM 900 E-GSM 900 GSM 1800

GSM 1900

890-915
935-960
~33

880-915
925-960
~33

1710-1785
1805-1880
~17

1850-1910
1930-1990
~16

25

35

75

60

45

45

95

80

200

200

200

200

124

174

374

299

270

270

270

270

2.1.1.

,
.
. .
1 . :

1

GSM 1 ,
.
.

GSM



..

.
( ).
, , .
2.1.2.

,
. -
.
.
( 3 10 8 /.).
1.1.
=

c
f

(2.1)

, GSM 900 :
=

3 10 8 /
0.33
900

2.1 , ,
.
,
, .
, ,
. FM
.

, , .
2.1.3.

, , , uplink
MS BTS.
51

.
, ,
,
.
2.1.4.
,
(Frequency Division Multiple
Access - FDMA).
GSM -
, (Absolute Radio Frequency
Channel Number - ARFCN)

. 2
.
2

(Simplex)

(Half Duplex)

(Full Duplex)

, FM

,
( )

, , FM,
. ,
, , :

, - .

uplink, downlink.
.
.

2.2

52

GSM

. 2.2 -
2.1.5.
(uplink, downlink),
.
.

. . 2.3,
GSM 900.

. 2.3
2.1.6.
,
.
FDMA.

.
,
. . 2.4 .

53

. 2.4
. 2.4 , 895.4 895.6
.
200 .

.
2.1.7.
.
,
. ,
,
.

.
,
,
.
,
.
.
,

.
.

. . 2.5
. . 2.5 ,
,
.
,
54

GSM

. ,
, .

. 2.5 -

2.1.8.
,
, .
, /.
/, GSM 270
/.
2.1.9.
, GSM 900 .
,
,
(, , ),
,
.
:
.


,
: , .
.
,
.

55

: 1 /.
1 .
, 200 /, 200
. ,
1 / 1 .
GSM
Gaussian modulation with Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK)
,
270 / 200 .
GSM GMSK
.
,

(, NMT-450).
2.1.10. : (TDMA)
(FDMA) GSM
(Time Division Multiple Access - TDMA)
.
TDMA
.
, .
TS - time slots (
). MS
TS uplink,
downlink.
, TS,
(burst).
TDMA GSM 8 .
, GSM 8
,
, . . 2.6
TDMA.

56

GSM

. 2.6 TDMA

57

2.2
2.2.1.

. .
2.2.2.
,
.

. 2.7
2.2.3.
- .
.
,
, .
2.2.4.

. 2.8
2.2.5.
.
( ), ( ).

() .
,
, .

58

GSM

, , ,
.
.
.

, .

. 2.9
,

.
.
,
.
, ,
,
.

59

2.3. ,
, .
.
2.3.1. (Path loss)
Path Loss (PL) , ,
- MS
BTS. PL (dropped calls),
,
BTS PL , , .
2.3.2. (Shadowing)
,

MS BTS ,
, , , ..
, (signal strength).
MS
MS BTS.
.
(fading dips).
. 2.10 ,
MS BTS.

.2.10 -
2.3.3. (Multipath fading)
,
MS BTS , ,
.
, ,
, , .
60

GSM

( ),

(Rayleigh fading). ,
.
,
.
MS .

. , GSM 900
17.

. 2.11
2.3.4. (Time Dispersion)
,

MS BTS.
,
,
, , .

(Inter-Symbol Interference - ISI),


()
,
.
2.12,
1, 0 BTS.

2.12

61


, 1
0 . 1
0 MS ,
.
2.3.5. (Time Alignment)
MS TS
TDMA. ,
, MS BTS.
,
, MS, TS.
TS,
, ,
MS, TS (. 2.13).
MS
BTS.
.

TDMA-frame

TS0

TS1

TS2

A.

B. Far away
from BTS

B.

BTS

A. Close to BTS

. 2.13
2.3.6. (Combined Signal Loss)
, ,
, ,
.
.
MS
.

62

GSM

. 2.14 .
,
- , .
(path loss),
.
.

. 2.14

2.15.

. 2.15
,
( 2.15
). ,
100 dBm, (-104 dBm),
, .

63

, ,
,
dB, dB
.
.

64

GSM

2.4 ,

.
, ,
(BER Bit Error Ratio). BER

.

. ,
, ,
.
,
BER.

.
, ,
,
.
2.4.1. (Interleaving)

. ,

.

. ,
.

Interleaving ( ).
,
.

65

,
(1234).
, ,
BER 25%,
100%.
.
, 2.16,
,
. ,
25%.
, BER
25%. ,
,
.

2.16

. 2.17
2.4.2. (Antenna Diversity)

-
.
:


2.4.2.1
BTS
.
2 .
66

GSM

2 , ,
,
, .
, 3 dB,
12 18
25*(12 18*) .
.
900 6 , 1800 ,
- ( 3 ).

.
. 2.18
.

. 2.18
67

2.4.2.2

(-pol).
, , , .
, 45.

Tx/Rx . ,
,
.
2.4.3. (Adaptive Equalization)
,
, .
:
1.
, (training
sequence). BTS, MS.
BTS MS

BTS.
2. MS BTS

(
.
2.19,

S). ,
,
( ).
3. BTS MS
. BTS

, MS
BTS.
, ,
,
.
4. ,
BTS
.
,
.
68

GSM

. 2.19
BTS
,
100% - .
,
. ,
GSM (Viterbi
equalizer).
2.4.4. (Frequency Hopping)
, .
,
.
GSM
Frequency Hopping - MS BTS
, .
MS BTS
.
GSM 64

, 63
, .
. 2.20, .
N- TDMA 1,
N+1 C2. ,
69

,

.

. 2.20
2.4.5. (Timing Advance - TA)

( -
).
, BTS
MS.
BSC MS .
GSM
(3,69 ), 0 63.
, MS BTS
MS BTS (Uplink).
(AB - access burst)
(RACH random access channel).

. 2.21.
70

GSM


,
RACH, FACCH (Fast Associated Common Control Channel).
,
, 49 39
. ,
(GB - guard period), 68.25 ,
- 252 .
,
.
.
2.22.

. 2.22.
. 2.22 (tail bits) ,
.
MS ,
BTS , ,
. ,
0 ,

252 ,
.

.
GSM 35 .

(63 ).
71

,
,
TA
, 2.2.
R=

DRT
(TA)
2

(2.2)

TA ; DRT
,
(2.3)

DRT = v t

v 3 10 8 [ / ] ; t = 1 = 48/13 [].

72

GSM

2.5 GSM
GSM
.
- ():
- ()
-
-



()


73

2.5.1. - . (Analog To Digital (A/D)


Conversion)
MS
: A/D Conversion.

( )

. 2.24. /

( ).
:



2.5.1.1 (Sampling)

.

. 2.25.
"",
, .
.
,

(), ,
1/2fm.
74

GSM

, ,
,
. -

.
,
,
,
.
, , ,
300 3400 . ,
.

2*3.4 = 6.8 .
8 ,
.
2.5.1.2 (Quantization)
.
( )
.
,
, ,
-
.
. 2.26.
.
, .
. ,
256 , GSM
8192 .

75

2.26
2.5.1.3 (Coding)

1/0.
13 ( 213 = 8192 ).
, 2157 0100001101101.

2.27 2157
- 8000

13 .
104 /.
, 8 ( ),
8*104 / = 832 /.
,
( ) 1 ,
, 200 , , 8
832 /..

GSM
.

76

GSM

2.5.2. (Segmentation)

,
,
, , GSM
.
: ,
(
) ..
MS,
.

.
,
20 .
GSM
20 .

2.28
.
50
8000, -
.
2.5.3. 2 (Speech Coding)
13 ,
- ,
260 . ,
260/20 = 13
/. ,

PSTN.
2

, ,
GSM, .
77

2.29
.

(waveform coders ).
,
(vocoders). GSM
(Hybrid Coders),
.
GSM 13 /
. , 8
8*13 / = 104 /.

-
832 /.

.
:


()

78

GSM

2.5.4. (Channel Coding)

. 2.30.
GSM 260 ,
, ,
, 456 .
260
:


1: 50
2: 132 -
3: 78

, 50 , (
), 3 ,
, 53 . 3
.
53 132
4 ( 189 )
1:2, 378 .

.
78 .
2.5.5. (Interleaving)
2.5.5.1.
,
456 20 .
, 8 57
. . 2.31.

79

2.32 (normal burst)


( 57 ).
. ,
, 25 % BER
20 (2/8 = 25%)

. 2.31. 20 .

. 2.32. Normal burst ( )


2.5.5.2.

. 2.33.

80

GSM

. 2.34.
,
25%.
.
BER 12.5 %
57
20 ,
20
20 .
20 ,
MS 20 .
(burst) 12.5%
, .
2.5.6. (Ciphering/Encryption)
(Ciphering/Encryption)
(burst) ,

. GSM 5.
-
, , 456
20 .

81

2.5.7. (Burst Formatting)


, MS/BTS
( ).
(
)
, ,
,
.
GSM
456 .
136 20 ,
592
.
TDMA 0.577 ,
, 156.25
( 3.69 ),
148 .
8.25
(Guard Period - GP).
MS/BTS , ,
MS/BTS.
156.25 ( )
625 ( ) 20
. , ,
.
676 20 .
33,6
/, 8- 270.4 /, ,
GSM ~270/.
2.5.8.
676
20 , , .
, GSM GSMK.
(, 916.4 )
.

82

GSM

Mobile equipment
GSM Network

Speaker

Transmitter
Modulator
33.8 kbit/s
Burst formatting
Ciphering
Interleaving
22.8 kbit/s
Channel coding
13 kbit/s
Speech coding
Segmentation
8 kHz
13 bits
A/D-conversion
Microphone

Receiver
Demodulator

Receiver
Demodulator

Transmitter
Modulator

Adaptive
Equalization

Adaptive
Equalization

De-ciphering
De-interleaving

De-ciphering
De-interleaving

Burst formatting
Ciphering
Interleaving

Channel decoding

Channel Decoding

Speech decoding

Receiving part

D/A-conversion

Channel coding
13 kbit/s
D/D-conversion
8 kHz
8 bits
64 kbit/s PCM

Transmitting part

Receiving part

Transmitting part

. 2.35 .

83