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1

GSM

1 GSM

1 GSM
1.1.

, , ,
.
.

21.10.1832

-
..
.
(1786-1837)
,

.
1836

24.05.1844 .
.
14.02.1876 .

!
. , ,
(Alexander Graham Bell) .
, , , ! ,
. 14 1876 , 7 .
, :
.
500 . .
! , ,
. ,
. B 1877 a a
, . B
c Cc c
a, a .

GSM
07.05.1895
.

1895
..
.

-
.
. (1856 - 1943)
32 , . 1901 .
.
19.02.1900 .
..
45 .
2
1921
.
.
()
1930-
.
01.10.1932
.
1896

:
. . 1930- .
1935

1940-

1947
1948
1950-

()
. ,

.
.
(FCC) ,

(DPLM). DPLM 1946 . (St. Louis). 150 . 1947
- , 35-40 .
D.H. Ring Bell Laboratories .
Shockley, Bardeen Brittain Bell Laboratories ,
, ,
.


1950- .
.
8

1 GSM
1969

1973
1981
1991
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002

(, , , )

.

(Nordic Mobile Telephone - NMT),
.
NMT ,
, ,
. .

NMT 450.
(GSM).
200 .
GPRS.
, 3G,
3G.
3G .
TDMA GSM.

GSM

1.2.

.
,
.
.
, .
(1G) ,
,
. ,
.
(2G) .

, .
GSM (Global System for Mobile communication)
2G.

, ISDN (Integrated Service Digital Network).
(SMS Short
Message Service).
(IN)
( : Pre-paid, Free Phone ..), ,
.

2G. GPRS (General
Packet Radio Services)
GSM.
2G,

,
.
(3G), ,
,
().
2G,
,
, ,

10

1 GSM

. 3G
(UMTS).
, GSM ,

,
.

11

GSM

1.3.
, :
;

.

, ,
:
- ;
- ;
- .

,
. ,
:
-
;
- ;
- ;
- ,
;
- (, ..).
2002 GSM 71%
68%
.
, 1981
NMT 450, .

,
, .
, , ,
. ,
, :

12

1 GSM

1-2.

1981 NMT 450

1983

1985
1986
1991
1991
1993
1992
1994
1995
2000
2001


Nordic Mobile Telephony 450
MHz
AMPS
Advanced
Mobile
Phone
System
TACS
Total Access Communication
System
NMT 900
Nordic Mobile Telephony 900
MHz
GSM
Global System for Mobile
communication
TDMA
(D- Time Division Multiple Access
AMPS) (IS136) (Digital-AMPS)
CDMA One
Code Division Multiple Access
(IS 95)
One
GSM 1800
Global System for Mobile
communication
PDC
Personal Digital Cellular
PCS 1900
Personal
Communication
Services
UMTS
Universal
Mobile
Telecommunication Systems
GSM 800
Global System for Mobile
communication

13

GSM

1.4. .

1992

. 200 .
.

12 . "".

16 . "".

.

.
.
"". 15
"" .
.

1993

11 ""
AMPS .

6 " ".

1994

10000
Ericsson.
" ".

DAMPS
TDMA ( " 800").
""
,
: , ,
.

"", "-"
( )
14

1 GSM

" ",

.
1995

"" " 800",


AMPS/DAMPS.

"" ,
,
. 200
.
"" .

1996

"" -
(NYSE), ,
. ""
(ADR) , ,
NYSE VIP
60 . .

1997

" " GSM


1800. ,
.
20 .
GSM 1800.


GSM 1800 - " 1800". 1997
120 . , 160
.

" 1800"
DAMPS
IS-136.

1998

28 1998
GSM-1800 .
"" GSM1800 -, , .
""
.

15

GSM

7
GSM-1800
, ,
GSM-900/1800 .

1998 " ",


, " "
" ".

30 1998 " "


141600 .

21
GSM-900/1800.

"" GSM
" ", .
" "

(pre-paid).

1 ""
Telenor
. Telenor 162 .
25% "".

"" ,
" " 500.

"
GSM" . 22

"-GSM".

1999

10 ""
ICO Global
""
.
ICO-R ( "-")
.

20
" ",
GSM-900/1800,
.

16

1 GSM

25 , " " GSM,


" 800" (DAMPS).

26
" GSM"
37 .
""
, GSM-900/1800/1900,
61.
GSM ,
.

""
" ",
,
.

1999
""
"" ,
DAMPS GSM-900/1800.
,
.

24 "" " "


GSM, ,
GSM-900 GSM-1800
.

5 1999 ""
,
GSM-900/1800.

, " GSM"
, .

, ,
, - , .

15 " GSM"
, 20%
.

18 ""
- .
49 ,
. Philips
Aeon $10.
17

GSM

""
GSM
-, , .
, , ,
.

1999 ""
" 1999
" ".
"" "
". 150 52 , ,
.


, 75 . .

" ".

1999 ""
, 352 . , 47%.
184%.
1999 170 . .

2000

"" Nokia
GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) "
GSM" . ""
,

.

2000 "" Ericsson


WAP " GSM". 10
WAP- - .
" GSM"
, , ,
.

2000 ""
" GSM" ,
99% .
GSM 600.

"",
1999
" ". ,
18

1 GSM

"
"
23
.

24 ""
" GSM" .
"" - "
".

20 2000 ""
" ", 573700 .

29 "" " ",


" " , ,

, SMS, WAP, GPRS.

2000 ""
:
225,4 .
.

" "
" GSM", 195
.
, 20-30%

.

" "
. C 7 8

" . ".

(, , ). ,
,
" ".

" GSM"
" ",
" " "
", 2000 .


. ""
"-".
19

GSM

10 " GSM",
,
.

18 ""
"-"
,
.


" GSM".
62%. " "
, ,
, , . "
GSM" 41600 . ( 31 1999 ) 44200,
94% .
" GSM".
270
92 , ,
GSM/iDEN.
""
.

2001

2
,

.

6
"+"
, .

" " .
- ,
.

23 "" "",
, FMC
(Fixed-Mobile Convergence), ,
. FMC
,
, "",
" ". FMC

20

1 GSM

,
.

,
.

""
" ".
- (),
"" .
""

,
.
, .

14 "" IBM,
,
IBM Lotus
"".

30 "", Telenor " "


.
"- ",
" ",
""
"-", 100%
"".
"" GSM. Telenor,
"",
.

-
SIM Application Toolkit.
" GSM"
SIM (32 kb 16
kb) .
- SIM.
.

26 "" -

GPRS. " GSM"
,

21

GSM

GPRS ,
PDA, WAP-
.

12 ""
Amdocs,

IP .
Amdocs
GSM GPRS "".

27 ""

" " Telenor,
99% , .

"" " ..."


-
.

"-"

- "
" (Mobile eMail)
.

20
( Mobile Telecommunications Limited,
GSM-900). ,
"" .

.

3 "" "+ GSM",


.

4 "-"

.

"",
,
"" WAP
" GSM" - .

" "
,

.
22

1 GSM

14 .

18 .

""
,
"+ GSM".

2 .

" "
"" - SMS.
SMS SMS-
" " .

17 GSM.

24 " GSM" ,
SMS,
"-",
SMS .

25 .

30 .

30 "" " ",


,

" " " ".

1 .

C 1 2001 " GSM"


: GPRS-, "
GSM",
WAP GPRS ,
, .

""
"-"
"-".

28 "-"

"" "GSM", SIM Application Toolkit.


23

GSM

"" "
"
" ". " "

"".

.

" - 2001",
""
"
", "
" 2001 .

""
(3G)

26
.

2001 "" 422,6 .


, 54, 2% 247,1 .
.
47,3 .
77,8 . 2000 . 31
"" 2,11 .
, ,
153,3 % 2000
. ,
,
. 2001 "-"

GSM-900/1800 50 ,
(
- , , ,
), 85 . .

4 2001 ,
. 2001
, ,
, , .

30
Beepay. Beepay ,
:
, , ,
.

24

"-"

1 GSM

, , .
, 2001
UMTS.

2001 422,6 .
USD, 54,2%.
47,3 . USD. 31 2001
2,11 .
, 153,3%. 2001


,
50 .

25

GSM

1.5. (GSM)
1.5.1 GSM. GSM.

1982- (CET)
1985 900 .

(GSM).
1986 ,
: (FDMA)
(TDMA).
1987 GSM TDMA FDMA.
12 (MoU),
GSM 1991 .
1988 CEPT GSM . 5
MoU. - MoU , .
1989 (ETSI)
GSM.
1990 1 GSM ,
.
1991 GSM 1800. MoU ,
, CEPT. 1
GSM.
1992 1.
GSM 1.
() ().
1993 - , MoU.
MoU 70 .
GSM , , , .
GSM .
DCS 1800.
1994 MoU 100 60 . GSM.
GSM 3 .
1995
(PCS). GSM, 1900 .
1996 GSM 1900.
PCS 1900.
1998 MoU 253 100 GSM
70 .
GSM 31% .
1999 GSM 179 .
2002 GSM ,
EDGE, AMR,
.

, GSM - ,

GSM, ,
GSM.
26

1 GSM

, GSM,
, ,
(SMS), (IN),
, (MVPN).
GSM
,
.
GSM ,
, ,

.
1.5.2 ETSI GSM
C GSM .
GSM
, ,

GSM .

GSM,


.
12 ETSI GSM,
1-4.
, , ETSI.
1-2 ETSI

01

02

03

04
MS - BSS
05

06

07
MS
08
BSS - MSC
09

10

11

12

27

GSM

DCS-1800 PSC-1900
ETSI GSM900. DCS-1800 PSC-1900 ,
, PSC-1900 - , American
National Standards Institute (ANSI).

28

1 GSM

1.6 GSM
1980 -
GSM ,
.
GSM 1.
GSM ( 2, 2+) .

. 1.1. GSM
1
1 :
;
;
( 9.6
/);
;
;
.
, 1
(Subscriber Identity Module - SIM).
2
2 ETSI 1996
ETS 300 522. GSM 03.02.
1
, :
29

GSM

;
;
;
;
-;
;
.
2+

2+.
2+ ETSI 2000
GSM 01.04, V 8.0.0.

. ,
2+, :

;
;
;
GSM 1800, GSM 1900 DECT
.


, , .

, :
EDGE Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution,
, ;
CAMEL - Customized Application for Mobile Enhanced Logic, ,
IN ;
HSCSD High Speed Circuit Switched Data,
,

( 4-) .

30

1 GSM

1.7 GSM
GSM 2 .
, ,
.
:
- Switching System (SS)
- Base Station System (BSS)
. . 1.2
.

. 1.2. GSM
, . 1.2.
AUC

Authentication Center

BSC
BTS
EIR
HLR

Base Station Controller


Base Transceiver Station
Equipment Identity Register
Home Location Register

(
)

()


31

GSM
MS
MSC
NMC
OMC
VLR

Mobile Station
Mobile Switching Center
Network Management Center
Operation and Maintenance Center
Visitor Location Register


GSM


,
MSC/VLR

SS
, .
SS :

Mobile Switching Center (MSC)


Home Location Register (HLR)
Visitor Location Register (VLR)
Authentication Center (AUC)
Equipment Identity Register (EIR).

BSS , .
:
Base Station Controller (BSC)
Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
(OMC)
- , ,
,
.
OMC SS, BSS.
MS ,
.

32

1 GSM

1.8 SS
1.8.1 Mobile Switching Center (MSC)
MSC .
,
.
PSTN, ISDN, ,
, .
MSC. MSC
.
MSC . MSC ,
,

(-).
MSC ,
.
MSC ,
.
1.8.2

Home Location Register (HLR)

GSM ,
PLMN.
HLR , , ..
.
HLR
( )
,
HLR.
HLR :
() .
, .
,
MSC/VLR.
().
HLR MSC/VLR,
. HLR ,
33

GSM

HLR. HLR
.
. , HLR, MSC
VLR, ,
.
1.8.3

Visitor Location Register (VLR)

VLR
, MSC.
, MSC VLR. VLR
, MSC
,
MSC. HLR VLR
, ,
.
MSC, VLR,
MSC,
HLR, . HLR
VLR
.
, MS
/ .
1.8.4

Authentication Center (AUC)



. AUC - ,

( ). MSC
,

1.8.5

Equipment Identity Register (EIR)

EIR ,
.
. (EIR)
, ,
.

34

1 GSM

1.9 BSS
1.9.1 Base Station Controller (BSC)
BSC ,
GS. , ,
MS, .
MSC BSC.
1.9.2 Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
BTS MS. BTS
, - ,
. BSC
BTS.
1.9.3
1.9.3.1 Operation & Maintenance Center (OMC)
OMC
GSM.
( X.25) , MSC, BSC ..
,
.
,
.
1.9.3.2 Network Management Center (NMC)

(NMC). ,
OMC.
, NMC
,
, OMC

.
OMC NMC ,

.
1.9.4

(MS)

MS
. MS,
.
35

GSM

MS ,
,
.
MS
, ,
. , ,
, , ,
, ,
.
MS GSM :
();
(SIM).
GSM, ,
.
- SIM. SIM
, GSM.
,
, . ,
.

. 1. 3

36

1 GSM

1.10 GSM

.
,

,
.
1.10.1 (Cell)
, GSM,
.
, .. .
, ,

GSM (
).
,
(CGI). , , ,
, .

1.4.
1.10.2 (Location Area - LA)
(LA) ,
.
LA,
. (LAI) VLR.
MS ,
LA, LA.
, MS Idle.
37

GSM

,
. MS
LA,
. MS
,
LA.
1.10.3 MSC (MSC Serving Area)
MSC LA
, MSC.
, MS MSC
,
(HLR).

. 1.5 MSC
1.10.4 PLMN
PLMN ,
,
.
PLMN, .
MS
PLMN .
MSC/VLR. . 1.6
.
1.10.5 GSM
GSM
, GSM.
GSM ,
,
38

1 GSM

. GSM

.
,
, MS PLMN
PLMN.
GSM
PLMN
(SA) MSC
(LA)

1.6. GSM
. 1.7, 1.8 .
. 1.7
.

39

GSM

. 1.7
.
. 1.8
.

. 1.8 -
.

40

1 GSM

1.11. GSM
GSM ,
: 900, 1800, 1900 .
900

. 1.9 GSM
GSM 900 .
.
,
. E-GSM R-GSM,
P-GSM (primary).
P-GSM900 890-915/935-960 MHz
E-GSM900 880-915/925-960 MHz
R-GSM900 890-925/935-970 MHz
R-GSM1800 1710-1785/1805-1880 MHz
1800
1990 . ,
GSM,
1800.
.
,
, ,
.

, ,
. 1800
: GSM 1710-1805/1785-1880 MHz.
1997 1800 Digital Cellular System (DCS)
1800 MHz, GSM 1800.
1900
1995 PCS (Personal
Cellular System).
, ,
. PCS ,
41

GSM

,
.
, PCS, 1900 .
GSM 900
- , , GSM
1900 .
GSM 1900 GSM 900 , GSM
1900 ANSI.
GSM 800
800
TDMA (AMPS D-AMPS). GSM
1800 ,


.
2
.
2 -


P-GSM 900

E-GSM 900

R-GSM 900

GSM 1800

GSM 1900

Uplink

890 915

880 - 915

890 925

1710 1785

1850 1910

Downlink

935 960

925 - 960

935 970

1805 1880

1930 1990

1.12
,
.
.
Idle: MS ,
;
Active (Busy): MS
;
Detached: MS
Implicit Detach: MS
.
3 , GSM
.
42

1 GSM

(Registration)
(Roaming)

IDLE

, MS ,
MS.
, ,
LA, MSC/VLR .. (
MSC/VLR PLMN)

(International
Roaming)

PLMN,
.

Location Update


MS.

Cell
selection/reselection

/ IDLE.

Paging
Locating
BUSY
Handover

MS.

, MS , ..
MS

MS

. BSC
, MS BTS.

.

. 1.10
43

GSM

MS ,
Detached. MS ,
GSM, .
MS ,
, MS.
, , MS
.
MS ,
,
IDLE. , MS LA, MS
.
MS

.
MS , 1 .
LA, MS
Location Update LA
VLR.

! IDLE MS,
Busy - BSC.

44

1 GSM

1.13 GSM
, GSM
.
MS. ,

.
1.13.1. International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)
IMSI
GSM. GSM
. IMSI SIM, HLR, VLR AUC.
IMSI :

1.11 IMSI

MCC (Mobile Country Code)


MNC (Mobile Network Code)
MSIN (Mobile Station Identification Number)
MS

GSM IMSI
15 .
1.13.2. Mobile Station ISDN Number (MSISDN)
(MSISDN) , .
.
MSISDN .

45

GSM

1.12 MSISDN
CC (Country Code) -
NDC (National Destination Code) -
( )
SN (Subscriber Number)
PLMN NDC. ,
NDC 086 087, PLMN.
PLMN NDC. MSISDN
. 15 ,
(+7).
Beeline +7 903 XXX XXXX 905.
1.13.3. Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI)
TMSI - IMSI, MS
.
. MS
TMSI.
TMSI IMSI,
8 . TMSI ,
IMSI, ,
.

1.13.4. International Mobile Terminal Identity (IMEI)


IMEI
.

.
GSM IMEI 15 :
TAC (Type Approval Code) - .
FAC (Final Assembly Code) - ,
.
46

1 GSM

SNR (Serial Number) - .


TAC
FAC
Spare - .
. MS,
0.

1.13 IMEI
1.13.5. International Mobile Terminal Identity Software Version number
(IMEISV)
IMEISV MT,

,
MS, .
, ,
MS, .
, , PLMN
MS (, half rate/full rate,
.).
IMEISV.

1.14 IMEISV
SVN (Software Version Number) - ,
MS
MS. SVN
99, .

47

GSM

1.13.6. Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN)


MSRN ,
MSC, MS.
MSRN ,

.
MSRN :

1.15 MSRN

SN MSC/VLR.

1.13.7. Location Area Identity (LAI)


LAI (LA), LA
GSM.
LAI :

1.16 LAI

Location Area Code (LAC) ,


LAC 16 , 65536 LA
PLMN.

1.13.8. Cell Global Identity CGI


CGI LA.
Cell
Identity (CI) LAI. CI 16 .
48

1 GSM

CGI :

8.7 CGI
1.13.9. Base Station Identity Code (BSIC)
BSIC MS .
BSIC :

8.8 BSIC

NCC - Network Color Code ( ).


,
, .

BCC Base station Color Code ( ).


,
, .

1.13.10.
, MS (LU,
) MSC/VLR TMSI
IMSI, MSC/VLR TMSI MS,
SIM-. MSC/VLR MS
TMSI. , IMSI
. IMSI , Location Update
TMSI.

49