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11

GSM

11 -
11.1 : MS IDLE

11.1 MS IDLE
1. , IMSI (IMSI attach)
2. (Location update)
3. LA
4. MSC/VLR
5.
MSC/VLR
6. , - .
7. (IMSI detach)
8. (
MS) (Implicit detach)
11.1.1 MS
11.1.1.1
MS Idle,
BCCH
. , .

178

11

MS Idle BCCH
Camp on .
Cell Selection.
Camp on MS
. MS
RACH .
( IDLE) MS 4
, :

PLMN (PLMN selection)

(Cell Selection)

(Cell Reselection)

(Location update).

Location Update:

IMSI attach ( MS)

Normal Location Update ( );

Periodic registration ( );

MS .
IMSI detach.
IMSI Attach/Detach
IMSI attach/detach
, /.
MS, MSC/VLR IMSI attach.
MS MSC/VLR IMSI detach.
VLR , MS.
MS, ,
.
(Normal Location Update)
MS , ,
(Location Area). MS
, BCCH
, LAI LAI,
SIM- MS. , Normal
Location Update SIM LAI.
179

GSM

(Periodic Registration)
MS
Paging. ,
,
.
MS BCCH,
,
.
T3212 BSC.
Implicit detach
MS
MSC detached (implicit detach).
BSC MSC,
MS MSC.
, MS Implicit
Detached. MSC , BSC.
Purging in VLR
Detached
( ), VLR.
MS Purging. VLR HLR
, MSC/VLR Location HLR
MS Purged from VLR.

180

11

. 7.3 IDLE

11.1.1.2 PLMN
MS GSM
PLMN. MS . MS
,
PLMN (registered PLMN).
MS . , MS
PLMN ,
. ,
.

181

GSM


PLMN, SIM- ,

. MS PLMN. PLMN
, MS .
, , -
PLMN.
(location update).

MS
. , MS
PLMN ,
1 ( ).
MS ,
. , MS
, , MS
,
.


PLMN, ,
. ,
MS, .
11.1.1.3 (Cell Selection)

.
:
Stored list selection. , BCCH
BA (BCCH Allocation list).
MS,
MS
.
Normal cell selection. .
, BA .
182

11

. (Normal cell selection)


normal cell selection MS
.

. 7.4
:
PLMN.

183

GSM

(Cell barred).
, MS ,
MS Busy ( ),
;
.
LA,



.
MS IDLE
1. 1>0.
:
C1 = A B B > 0
C1 = A 0 B < 0,

A = RXLEV ACCMIN
B = CCHPWR P

7.1

RXLEV
ACCMIN
CCHPWR
P


MS BTS (downlink).
MS, MS
(downlink). .
, MS,
(uplink). .
MS ( )

dBm.

184

11

11.1.1.4 IMSI Attach


MS ,
IMSI attach, :
1. MS IMSI attach ,
Detached IDLE.
2. VLR , q MS. ,
VLR HLR,
MS.
3. VLR MS
IDLE.
4. MS
.

11.2 IMSI attach


11.1.1.5 (LU), - IMSI attach
MS L , IMSI
attach MS.
IMSI attach VLR , LAI,
, LAI,
Location VLR. , VLR
LAI .

185

GSM

11.1.2
11.1.2.1 (Cell Reselection)
(Cell reselection measurements)
, , MS
.
MS BCCH
.
BA . , , 5
.
.

, , BCCH,
30 . , MS
TDMA , 5
, BCCH.
, .
,
. , , , ,
, BA .
MS BSIC ,
( 30 )
, .
BSIC :
BSIC=NCC+BCC
NCC - Network Color Code ( );
BCC - Base Station Color Code ( ).
BSIC, MS
, BCCH .
NCC,
.
(Cell reselection criteria)

.
,
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11

, .
CRO, TO, PT, BCCH .
2.
2.
2 :
C 2 = C1 + CRO TO * H ( PT T ) PT 31
C 2 = C1 CRO
PT = 31 ,

0 x < 0
H ( x) =
.
1 x 0

CRO, TO PT BSC
.
CRO Cell Reselection Offset , [dB];
TO Temporary Offset. , [dB];
PT Penalty Time. .
T [];
2 ,
GSM 2.
MS Idle C1, C2
.
, MS .
, MS :
.
MS , downlink
( ).
1 (1<0)
5 , ,
MS .
2
5 ;
MS
( ).
187

GSM

11.1.2.2 LA
MS . MS
LA, .
, LA,
BCCH . BCCH LAI .
MS LAI , SIM. LAI
, ,
.
11.1.2.3 MSC/VLR
MS LAI
, BCCH, .
MS , MSC/VLR
, VLR,
MSC/VLR
MSC/VLR.

11.3 MSC/VLR
1. MS BCCH , LAI.
LAI . LAI ,
.
2.

SDCCH

MS

3. , MS
.
4. LU
.

188

11

11.1.2.3
MSC/VLR
(LU) , MS
LA. ,
LA MSC/VLR. VLR
LU, :

11.4 ,
MSC/VLR
1. .
, VLR , ,
.
2. VLR MS, HLR

VLR.
3. HLR VLR,
VLR
MS ( MSC/VLR).
4. VLR MS, LAI

IDLE MS.
MS .
11.1.2.4
.

, ( ).

189

GSM

11.2 : MS
Busy.
MS Busy ,
, (,
) ( ).

. 11.5 Busy.
1. MS ( : , ,
SMS).
2. MS ( : , ,
, SMS).
3. BSC
4. BSC MSC
5. MSC
11.2.1 (MS PSTN)

, MS .
.

190

11

. 11.6 MS
.
1. MS RACH
.
2. BSC
AGCH. , AGCH
.
3. MS SDCCH MSC/VLR
. ,
,
SDCCH. :
a. .
b. .
c. .
d. - (
).
4. MSC/VLR
(/). MSC/VLR
BSC/TRC TCH. BTS MS
TCH.
5. MSC/VLR - PSTN
.
6. .

191

GSM

11.2.2 (PSTN - MS)



, MS
. ,
MS, ()
MS.

PSTN . MS
MS .

. 11.7 (PSTN- MS)


1. PSTN MS (MSISDN). MSISDN
GMSC ,
MS.
2. GMSC MSISDN, , HLR
MS. GMSC HLR
,
MSC/VLR.
192

11

3. HLR :
a. MSISDN IMSI,
b. ,
(CFU),
. CFU ,
HLR GMSC .
c. , HLR ,
MSC/VLR MS .
4. HLR MSRN MSC/VLR.
5. MSC/VLR MSRN IMSI
HLR GMSC.
6. GMSC MSRN MSC/VLR.
, MSC/VLR
MSRN.
7. MSC/VLR , LA
MS. BSC,
LA.
8. BSC BTS ,
LA. BTS
, .
IMSI TMSI,
MSC/VLR.
9. MS ,

,
.
10. BSC SDCCH, AGCH ( AGCH
SDCCH, MS).
11. SDCCH
(, ,
..).
TCH, MS .
12. . ,
.
11.2.3 (Handover)
GSM
. BSC
, MS BTS. MS
,
( Mobile Assisted HandOver).
193

GSM

11.2.3.1 Locating
MS
.
downlink, MS .
BTS BSC SACCH
( 480 ). BTS,
MS, .

. 11.8 BSC
BTS MS
(Measurement Reports). , BSC
.
locating.
()
(, ).
,
.
,
.

( BTS),
(Urgent).
MS , MS
( ).
, . MS
LA, LU
.
194

11


. MS
, .
:

;
, BSC;
, BSC,
MSC/VLR;
MSC.

.
11.2.3.2
, BSC ,
( ),
, ,
. BSC
, , MS
.
11.2.3.3 ,
BSC
MSC/VLR . MSC/VLR
.
LA,
.

195

GSM

11.9 , BSC
1. BCS
BTS TCH.
2. BSC BTS MS ,
(TS)
, .
MS FACCH.
3. MS Access Burst
.
, MS .
4. BTS
Access Burst,
FACCH.
5. MS
BSC BTS.
6. BSC BTS
.

196

11

11.2.3.4 , BSC,
MSC/VLR
BSC,
BSC MSC/VLR.

11.10 BSC, MSC/VLR


1. BSC MSC ,
IMSI ,
.
2. MSC , BSC
BSC.
3. BSC BTS .
4. BSC MS MSC
BTS, .
5. MS Access Burst,
.
6. BTS .
7. MS
MSC BSC.
8. MSC BSC
.
197

GSM

11.2.3.5 , MSC
, MSC,
LMN. , MSC/VLR,
, BSC.

11.11 MSC/VLR
1. ()
BSC
MSC (MSC-A)
.
2. MSC-A , MSC (MSCB) .
3. MSC-B IMSI (MS
Handover Number1),
.
BSC.
4. BSC BTS
.
5. MSC-B
MSC-A .
6. MSC-B MSC-A.
7. BSC, MSC-A,
MS BTS.
8. MS Access
Burst.
1

Mobile Station Handover Number MSRN.


MSHN MSRN.
198

11

9. BTS ,
.
10. MS
MSC-A MSC-B BSC.
11. MSC-A BSC
MSC-B.
12. BSC,
( . 11.11 ).
MSC (MSC-A) ,
. ,
,
.
MS
, LA MSC.
HLR VLR-B , VLR-B,
, VLR-A
.

199

GSM

11.3 .
GSM
, . ,
,
,
, 7
( , ).
.

,

. , , ,
.
11.3.1 IMSI Attach .
MS
, :
1. MS GSM
.
. MS
,
.
.
2. MS
PLMN, SIM.
,
. , MS,
, MS .
3. MS ,
,
. MS ,
IMSI (IMSI Attach).
4. MS (
). , HLR
.
11.3.2 MS
MS
, , MS
200

11

. , GMSC HLR
, MSC/VLR .
11.3.3 .
,
(
) ,
.

HLR

HLR

GMSC

BSC/TRC

GMSC

MSC/VLR

MSC/VLR

RBS

MS
+18322524300

MS
+79031234567

. 11.12 .
,
.

HLR

HLR

GMSC

BSC/TRC

GMSC

MSC/VLR

MSC/VLR

RBS
MS
+18322524300

MS
+79031234567

. 11.13 .

201

GSM

11.3.4
(SMS)

, 160
- . SMS-C (SMS Center)
.
MS :
SMS: SMS-C MS
SMS: MS SMS-C
MS IDLE BUSY.
MS ,
SACCH. , SDCCH,
.. IDLE.
11.3.5 SMS MS
SMS SMS-C, , ,
, .

11.13
1. MS ,
RACH, AGCH, SDCCH (
)2.
2. , MS
SDCCH SMS-C MSC/VLR. SMS-C
.
MS , .

MS Busy, SMS SACCH.


202

11

11.3.6 SMS
SMS -
SMS-C MS.

11.14
1. SMS-C .
2. SMS-C SMS-GMSC.
3. SMS-GMSC HLR
.
4. HLR ( MSC/VLR)
IMSI SMS-GMSC.
5. SMS-GMSC MSC/VLR.
6. MS ( MS Idle),
, ,
.
7. , MSC/VLR
MS, SDCCH (
SACCH, MS Busy).
8. , MSC/VLR
SMS-C. , MSC/VLR HLR,
SMS-C.
, SMS-C HLR VLR ,
MS. HLR SMS-C
, MS . SMS-C
, , , ,
.

203

GSM

11.4. GPRS
, GPRS GSM,
,
.
, Mobility Management (
MS) .
11.4.1. GPRS
GSM MS
MSC Serving Area Location Area. GPRS
, ..
.
GPRS Routing Area (RA),
LA.

. 11.15 Routing Area


RA (RAI) MCC+MNC+LAC+RAC.

204

11

MS GPRS GSM,
,
MS (MS Busy,
Idle), GPRS , ,
.

. 11.16. MS GPRS.
IDLE MS, GPRS.
Mobility Management .
STANDBY MS, GPRS.
MS RAI RA Update.
RA, Cell Update
. , SGSN MS Standby
RAI.
READY SGSN
(PDU Packet Data Unit). MS
, Ready
(Ready Timer, , 44 ). Ready MS
SGSN ( Cell Update).

205

GSM

11.4.2. GPRS.
11.4.2.1 GPRS Attach
GPRS , GSM.
GPRS Attach.

. 11.17. GPRS Attach.


1. MS Attach_Request ( RAI, P_TMSI)
SGSN.
2. SGSN SGSN RAI,
IMSI SGSN.
3. MS SGSN IMSI
SGSN.
4. MS SGSN, SGSN
IMSI MS.
5. SGSN IMSI
HLR.
6. SGSN MS.
7. SGSN Update Location Request (IMSI,
SGSN) HLR.
8. HLR Cancel_Location SGSN
MS.
9. HLR MS (QoS, APN ..)
SGSN.

206

11

10. , SGSN MS
(P_TMSI TLLI).
11.4.2.2 Routing Area Update
MS Standby
RA Update RA.

. 11.18 RA Update.
1. MS RA_Update_Request ( RAI, P_TMSI)
SGSN.
2. SGSN SGSN RAI,
IMSI SGSN
3. SGSN ( , PDP)
SGSN.
4. SGSN MS.
5. SGSN Update_Location (IMSI, SGSN)
HLR.
6. HLR Cancel_Location SGSN
MS
7. HLR MS SGSN.
8. SGSN MS
(P_TMSI TLLI).
207

GSM

11.4.2.3. PDP Context Activation


GPRS PDP Context
Activation (Packet Data Protocol).
MS ( ).
MS PDP context
(). Access Point Name (APN).
APN wap.beeline.ru ( wap ).
, SGSN
GGSN .
11.4.2.4. Cell Update.
Mobility Management GPRS
: GPRS , MS
(Ready), MS. MS
( Cell Reselection), SGSN
Cell Update. MS RA,
RA Update Cell Update.

. 11.19. Cell Update.


1. MS SGSN
MS (IMSI P-TMSI);
2. BSC
(CGI=MCC+MNC+LAC+RAC+CI).
208