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..

1998

22.161.5
71
: .-. , .. , .-. , .. , .-. , ..
-

71

..
. : ,
1998.-124 .
ISBN 5-85534-147-X

.


.
.

ISBN 5-85534-147-X

c .., 1998

c
, 1998


70 .

.
, , . ,

. , .
.
.
.,
.
.
. ,
.
.., .
.

I

1.

, i, i2 = 1,
+ i = a. R
x2 + 1 = 0. R i
( ,
,
),
+ i, , R. , ( )
. , , + i 0 + i 0
,
( 0 ) = i( 0 )

( 0 )2 = ( 0 )2 ,

= 0 , = 0 .
, a =
+ i, R a
Re a, R Im a.

. , R, C.
, a = + i C
a = i. ,
6

1.

:
a = a.
a a a :
Re a =

a+a
,
2

Im a =

aa
.
2i

,
a + b = a + b,

ab = a b.

a/b z b = a z b = a
( ),

a
a
=
.
b
b

, R(a, b, . . .) ,
a, b, . . . ,
R(a, b, . . .) = R(a, b, . . .).
,
c0 z n + c1 z n1 + + cn1 z + cn = 0,

c0 z n + c1 z n1 + + cn1 z + cn = 0.
, ,
.
, aa = 2 + 2 . , a,
|a|. .
, aa = |a|2 |a| = |a|.
|ab|2 = ab ab = a b a b = |a|2 |b|2

I .

, ,
|ab| = |a| |b|.
b 6= 0, a/b,
b (a/b) = a |b|


a


b


a


b

= |a|,

|a|
.
|b|
, . ,
. .
:
=

|a| Re a |a|,

|a| Im a |a|.

Re a = |a| ,
a 0.
|a + b|2 = |a|2 + |b|2 + 2 Re ab |a|2 + |b|2 + 2|a||b| = (|a| + |b|)2 ,
:
|a + b| |a| + |b|.
,
, ab 0.
, :
|a| = |(a b) + b| |a b| + |b|

|a| |b| |a b|.

|b| |a| |a b|.


:

|a| |b| |a b|.

2
n

ai bi

i=1

n
X
i=1

|ai |

n
2 X
i=1

|bi |

1.

, C
0

n
X

|ai bi | =

i=1

n
X

|ai |2 + ||

n
2X

i=1

n
X

i=1

ai bi /

i=1

n
X

|bi |2 2 Re

|bi |

n
X
i=1

a i bi

i=1

1. (1 + i)n + (1 1)n .
2. z = x + iy, :
1
z1
1
z4,
,
,
.
z
z+1
z2
3. ,
3

3
1

= 1.
2
4. :
|a + b|2 + |a b|2 = 2(|a|2 + |b|2 ).
5.
2i(3 + i)(2 + 4i)(1 + i),
6. ,

ab

1 ab

(3 + 4i)(1 + 2i)
.
(1 i)(3 i)
= 1,

|a| = 1, |b| = 1.
7. ,
.
8. ,

|a| < 1 |b| < 1.

ab

1 ab

< 1,

10
2.

I .

a = + i
(, ),
, .
.

. , |a|, |a + b|2 + |a b|2 =
2(|a|2 + |b|2 ) |a + b| |a| + |b|.
a a . , a
, a.
.
. , , .
(r, ) (, ), =
r cos , = r sin . :
a = + i = r(cos + i sin ).
r = |a|, arg a.
a1 = r1 (cos 1 + i sin 1 )
a2 = r2 (cos 2 + i sin 2 ).
a1 a2 = r1 r2 [(cos 1 cos 2 sin 1 sin 2 ) + i(sin 1 cos 2 + cos 1 sin 2 )].
, :
a1 a2 = r1 r2 [cos(1 + 2 ) + i sin(1 + 2 )].
:

2.

11

, . ,
arg(a1 a2 ) = arg a1 + arg a2 , . arg a , , .
. a = r(cos + i sin ) 6= 0.
1
1
1
1
1
=
= (cos i sin ) = [cos() + i sin()].
a
r cos + i sin
r
r
, :


, . , a 1/a ,
.
z n = a.
z = (cos + i sin ) :
z n = n (cos n + i sin ).
= 1 . , z n = a = r(cos + i sin ) :
n = r,

n = + 2k,

k Z.

z n = a :
z=

"

+k
+ i sin
+k
r cos
n
n
n
n

!#

k = 0, 1, . . . , n 1. n- a 6= 0.
, .
, a = 1 :
1, w, . . . , wn1 ,

12

I .

w = cos

2
2
+ i sin .
n
n

.
x y. z z.
, ,
.
, |z a| = r
(z a)(z a) = r2 . ,
,
.

z = a + bt, a b 6= 0 , t . z = a + bt
z = a0 + b0 t
, a0 a b0 b .
arg b. z = a + bt z = a0 + b0 t
arg b0 /b ( ). , b0 /b .
|z a| < r . , z = a + bt Im{(z a)/b} < 0
Im{(z a)/b} > 0.
. C . a+ = +a = a b = b =
b 6= 0, b = . + 0
.
a/0 = a 6= 0 b/ = 0 b 6= .
C C = C
. S,

2.

13

x21 + x22 + x23 = 1.


S, (0,0,1),

x1 + ix2
z=
.
1 x3
. ,
x21 + x22
1 + x3
|z| =
=
(1 x3 )2
1 x3
2

, ,

|z|2 1
x3 = 2
.
|z| + 1

zz
z+z
,
x
=
.
x1 =
2
1 + |z|2
i(1 + |z|2 )

(0, 0, 1) . ,
x3 < 0 |z| < 1 x3 > 0
|z| > 1.
,
z-. ,
1 x1 + 2 x2 + 3 x3 = 0 ,
12 + 22 + 32 = 1 0 0 < 1. z z
:
1 (z + z) 2 i(z z) + 3 (|z|2 1) = 0 (|z|2 + 1),
, z = x + iy,
(0 3 )(x2 + y 2 ) 21 x 22 y + 0 + 3 = 0.
0 6= 3 , 0 = 3
.
.
d(z, z 0 ), . (x1 , x2 , x3 ) (x01 , x02 , x03 ) S,
(x1 x01 )2 + (x2 x02 )2 + (x3 x03 )2 = 2 2(x1 x01 + x2 x02 + x3 x03 ).

14

I .

, , :
x1 x01 + x2 x02 + x3 x03 =
(z + z)(z 0 + z 0 ) (z z)(z 0 z 0 ) + (|z|2 1)(|z 0 |2 1)
=
=
(1 + |z|2 )(1 + |z 0 |2 )
(1 + |z|2 )(1 + |z 0 |2 ) 2|z z 0 |2
.
=
(1 + |z|2 )(1 + |z 0 |2 )
,
d(z, z 0 ) =

2|z z 0 |
.
(1 + |z|2 )(1 + |z 0 |2 )

z 0 = :
d(z, ) =

2
.
1 + |z|2

1. , a , .
2. , a1 , a2 , a3 , a21 +a22 +a33 =
a1 a2 + a2 a3 + a3 a1 .
3. , a b . .
4. 1 + cos + . . . + cos n sin + sin 2 +
. . . + sin n.
5. ,
a1 , a2 , a3 .
6. , .
7. , , a 1/a, |z| = 1 .

3.

3.

15

. . ,
.

. .
.
.
, f (z) A z a
lim f (z) = A,

za

(1)

> 0

> 0 : |f (z) A| < 0 < |z a| < .

, a =
A = ( ). , a = |z| > R 0 < |z a| < .
, ,
. , :
|ab| = |a| |b|

|a + b| |a| + |b|.

, (1)
lim f (z) = A.

za

(1) (2) :
lim Re f (z) = Re A,

za

lim Im F (z) = Im A.

za

(2)

16

I .

, ,
(1), (2). f (z) a,
limza f (z) = f (a).
, f , .
f (z) + g(z) f (z)g(z)
; f (z)/g(z)
a, g(a) 6= 0. , f (z) ,
Re f (z), Im f (z) |f (z)|.
. ,
:
f (z) f (a)
f 0 (a) = za
lim
.
za

, , . .
, , ,
.
1. w = f (z) = u(x, y) +
iv(x, y) z , (..
u(x, y) v(x, y)) :
v
u
v
u
=
,
= .
(3)
x
y
y
x
. f
z = x + iy :
u(x + , y + ) u(x, y) = u0x + u0y + o(||),
v(x + , y + ) v(x, y) = vx0 + vy0 + o(||),

3.

17

= + i. ,
f z
f (z + ) f (z) = f 0 (z) + o(||).
,
(f 0 (z) = + i):
u(x + , y + ) u(x, y) = + o(||),
v(x + , y + ) v(x, y) = + + o(||).

u0x = ,

u0y = ,

vx0 = ,

vy0 = ,

(3).
, (3). , f
(3), , , .
2
, :
f 0 (z) =

f
u
v
v
u
f
=
+i
=
i
= i .
x
x
x
y
y
y

, f 0 (z).
(3):
f
f
= i .
(4)
x
y
. f,
D , , D,
D.
, f
E C,
D, E.

18

I .

(3),
- . ,
, u v , (3) :
2u 2u
2v
2v

= 0,
+
=
x2 y 2
xy yx
. . u . v.
, (3):
!

u 2 u v u v
u 2
0
2
+
=
|f (z)| =

.
x
y
x y y x
, |f 0 (x)|2 (x, y) (u, v).
(3)
(4), . ,
, .
dx, dy dz, dz :

df =

f
f
1 f
1 f
dx +
dy =
(dz + dz) +
(dz dz) =
x
y
2 x
2i y

!
1 f
f
f
1 f
=
i
+i
dz +
dz.
2 x
y
2 x
y

/z /z :

1 f
f
f
=
i
,
z
2 x
y

f
1 f
f
=
+i
.
z
2 x
y

(4) ,
f /z = 0.

3.

19

, z, z.
2. f |z a| < r
f 0 (z) = 0 . f (z) const.
. f (z) = u(x, y)+iv(x, y),
u0x = u0y = vx0 = vy0 = 0. , u v . ,
,
.
2
.
C , . ,
P (z) = a0 + a1 z + + an z n
C . an 6= 0,
n P.
P 0 (z) = a1 + 2a2 z + + nan z n1
n 1. .
.
n > 0 P (z) = 0
, , 1 . P (z) = (z 1 )P1 (z),
P1 n 1.

P (z) = an (z 1 ) . . . (z n ),

(5)

1 , . . . , n . P (z)
, P (z) ,
1 , . . . , n . , .

20

I .

j (5) kj , kj
j P (z). ,
, , ,
n n .
. , k- P (z), P (z) =
(z )k Pk (z), Pk n k Pk () 6= 0. ,
P () = P 0 () = = P (k1) () = 0,
P (k) () 6= 0. ,
.
: P () = 0, P 0 () 6= 0.


R(z) =

P (z)
,
Q(z)

. , P (z) Q(z) , ,
. , R(z)
, .
Q(z) R(z)
.
P 0 (z)Q(z) Q0 (z)P (z)
R (z) =
(Q(z))2
0

z, Q(z) 6= 0. ,
, R(z).
R0 (z)
R(z).
, z
C (R : C C ). R()
.

3.

21

. R1 (z) = R(1/z),
,
R() = R1 (0).
R1 (0) = 0 , R1 (z)
z = 0.
a0 + a1 z + + an z n
R(z) =
,
b0 + b1 z + + bm z m

n
n1
+ + an
mn a0 z + a1 z
R1 (z) = z
,
m
m1
b0 z + b1 z
+ + bm
z mn m n
. m > n, R(z) m n
, m < n, n m. m = n
R() = an /bn .
.
m n .
.
a ,
R(z) a ( ), R(z). , .
R(z) a R(z) = a,
.
3. R(z) k k
k . , R(z) = a k .

1. , |za| < r .

22

I .

2. , u(x, y)

2u
= 0.
zz
3. , f (z) f (z)
.
4.

, ,
. .
. ,
,
. .
.
, ,
( ).

a0 + a1 z + + an z n + . . . ,

(1)

an , ,
z .
P
n

n=0 an (z z0 ) ,
. (1)
= (z z0 ).
, 1 + z + z 2 + . . . .

4.

23


1 + z + . . . + z n1 =

1 zn
.
1z

z n 0 |z| < 1 |z n | 1 |z| 1,


1/(1 z) |z| < 1 |z| 1. , .
,
.
(). (1)

R = 1/ n
lim |an | ,

(2)

, :
(i) |z| < R (1) ;
(ii) |z| > R, (1) ;
(iii) |z| < R
(1).
. < R. 0 (, R).
q
1
1
n
>
=
lim
|an |,
0
n

R
q

N, n |an | < 1/0 , n N. , z |z|

|an z | = |an | |z | 0

!n

n N. , |z| (1)
. /0 < 1,
(i) .

24

I .

(ii) , |z| > R,


|z| > > R
q

lim n |an | =
n

1
1
>
R

n,

q
n

|an | > 1/.

|z|
|an z n | > .

,
an z n
( ) .
(iii), , P
n1

n=1 nan z
, (1). (2)

n
n 1, n .
Sn =

n
X

ak z k ,

f (z) =

X
n=0

k=0

an z n ,

g(z) =

X
n=1

nan z n1 .

f (z) = limn Sn (z) g(z) = limn Sn0 (z), Sn0 (z)


g(z).
z0 , |z0 | < R, > 0
|z0 | < < R. z 6= z0 |z|
:

f (z)

f (z0 )

g(z0 )

z0

0
+|SN
(z0 ) g(z0 )| +

=
+|Sn0 (z0 ) g(z0 )| +

SN (z)

SN (z0 )

0
SN (z0 ) +

z0

SN (z) SN (z0 )
0

SN (z0 ) +

z z0

X
1

n
n

an (z z0 ) =

z z0 n=N +1

SN (z) SN (z0 )

SN (z0 ) +

z z0

n1
n1

an (z
+ + z0 )

n=N +1

X
0
|SN
(z0 ) g(z0 )| +
n|an |n1 .
n=N +1

4.

25
P

n1
> 0 N ,
<
n=N +1 n|an |
0
/3 |SN (z0 ) g(z0 )| < /3. N P
n|an |n1 Sn0 (z0 ) g(z0 ), n . ,
SN , , 0 < <
|z0 |, ,

SN (z)

SN (z0 )

0
SN (z0 ) < ,

z0
3

0 < |z z0 | < . z

f (z)

f (z0 )

g(z0 ) < + + = .

z0
3 3 3

, (2) . , R = 0 .

1. limn an = A. ,
1
lim
(a + a2 + + an ) = A.
n n 1
2. , , , .
P

3. , |an | , , , , > 0,
P
an , < arg z <
+ , .
4. :
X

np z n ,

X n2 n

q z

(|q| < 1),

X n!

z .

5. an z n R,
P
P
an z 2n a2n z n ?
6. f (z) =

an z n ,

n3 an z n ?

26

I .

7. z

X
n=0

z
1+z

!n

8. z1 , z2 , . . .
arg z ,

< /2,


z1 + z2 +

|z1 | + |z2 | +

, .
9. z1 , z2 , . . . Re z 0.
z1 + z2 + . . .

z12 + z22 + . . . ,

|z1 | + |z2 | + . . . .
5.


f 0 (z) = f (z)
f (0) = 1.
f (z) =

an z n ,

f 0 (z) =

nan z n1 ,

: an1 = nan
a0 = 1. an =
1/n!, n = 1, 2, . . . . ,
zn
X
z
e =
.
n=0 n!

n n! ,
n , .

5.

27

.
:
ez1 +z2 = ez1 ez2 z1 , z2 C.
, a C
(ez eaz )0 = ez eaz ez eaz = 0
, , ez eaz ea ( z = 0).
a = z1 +z2 z = z1 , .
, , ez ez 1,
, ez 6= 0 z C. ,
, ex > 1 x > 0, ex ex = 1 0 < ex < 1 x < 0. ,
:
ez = ez .
, y R |eiy |2 = eiy eiy = 1
|ex+iy | = ex |eiy | = ex .
,
. ,
.
:
eiz + eiz
,
cos z =
2

eiz eiz
sin z =
.
2i


z2 z4
z3 z5
cos z = 1
+
,
sin z = z
+
.
2!
4!
3!
5!
z
. :
eiz = cos z + i sin z,

28

I .

:
(cos z)2 + (sin z)2 = 1.
, :
cos(a + b) = cos a cos b sin a sin b,
sin(a + b) = cos a sin b + sin a cos b.
sin z cos z ( (ez )0 = ez ) :
(sin z)0 = cos z,

(cos z)0 = sin z.

sin z cos z tg z, ctg z, sec z cosec z. ,


eiz .
. , f c, f (z +
c) = f (z) z C. c

ez+c = ez ec = 1.
c = + i, = 0 cos + i sin = 1, =
2k, k . , ez

c = i2k,
k Z.
,
. , w = eiy
, 1.

. ez , w = ez
( z = ln w) w = 0.
, . w 6= 0 ex+iy =
w
w
ex = |w|,
eiy =
.
|w|

5.

29

:
x = ln |w|,
.
, , 2i. ,
, , , , 2.
ln w w arg w. (0, w).

ln w = ln |w| + i arg w.
|z| = r arg z = , :
z = rei .
,

ln(z1 z2 ) = ln z1 + ln z2 (mod 2i),


arg(z1 z2 ) = arg z1 + arg z2 (mod 2).
, :
ab = exp(b ln a),
a 6= 0. , ab , ,
, e2inb .
D = C \ R .
z D ln z, ,
. , | Im ln z| < .
w = ln z. ,

30

I .

ln z D. , w 0 z 0.

dw
w
1
1
1
1
= lim
= lim
=
= w = .
w0 z/w
z0 z
dz
dz/dw
e
z
. . ln z D
1
(ln z)0 = .
z
ln z D
2in : 1/z.
:
az , a 6= 0.

1. sin i, cos i.
2. z, ez 2, 1, i.
3. 2i , ii .

II

1.

( ),
.
> 0 . -
a C
O (a) = O(a, ) = {z C : |z a| < },
a 6= ,

1
O(, ) = z C : |z| >
.

E C C
.
a E , E
-. E
Int E.
E C \ E Ext E.
C, ,
E E E. , a E ,
- E, .
31

32

II .

E , , .. E = Int E.
.
. .
a C E, O(a, ) E.
E ,
E. E
, E = E. , E = E \ Int E.
.
.

.
.
(C
2
R ), E C . :
. ,
.
,
.
C .
( ) . , . ,

.
.

1.

33

. E C , G1 G2 ,
:
S

(i) E G1 G2 ;
T

(ii) E G1 G2 =
T

(iii) G1 E 6= , G2 E 6= .
, E .
1. . ,
, , .
. , . . G1 G2 , (i)(iii),
E . E a G1
b G2 . , (i)(iii) E E1 = [a, b]. E1
E2 ,
G1 G2 . , E1 E2 . . .
. , ,
{En }. (i), (ii) , G1 G2 . G1 .
G1 En , En G1
n. En .
2
. .

E , G1 G2 .

34

II .

. 2 3
, |az| < r .
.
2. E
,
, E.
, .
. E a E . G1 E,
E a , . G2 E,
. , G1 G2 S
E = G1 G2 . E
, G1 G2 , . ,
G1 6= , .
, E
, E. E
. ,
G1 G2 S
E = G1 G2 , a G1 , b G2 ,
E. , G1 G2 .
.
2
.
3. {E }A ()
T
S
E 6= . E = E .
. , . . S
G1 G2 , E = E (i)(iii).
T
a E . (i)

1.

35

: G1 G2 . a G1 .
T
E G2 b. E,
0 A, b E0 . E0 G1 G2 (i)(iii),
E0 .
2
. . K E ,
E.
4.
.
. E .
a E C(a) E, a. C(a) ,
.
, C(a) E. , C(a) C(b)
, .
T
d C(a) C(b). C(d) ,
C(a) C(d). : a C(d) C(a)
C(d) C(a). , C(a) = C(d). C(b) = C(d).
2
. D C , C \ D
.
, D ,
C \ D . ,
.
.
5. .

36

II .

. w = f (z) , E Q. , H1 H2
S
, Q H1 H2
T
T
Q H1 H2 = . , ,
T
T
Q H1 Q H2 , .
E1 = {z E : f (z) H1 }, E2 = {z
T
E : f (z) H2 }. E1 E2 =
S
E1 E2 = E. , z0 E1 w0 = f (z0 ),
H1 > 0, O(w0 , ) H1 .
f > 0, |f (z)f (z0 )| <
T
|z z0 | < , . . O(z0 , ) E E1 . ,
T
G1 , G1 E = E1 . G2 ,
T
G2 E = E2 . E , E1
E2 , . E1 .
T
Q H1 .
2
. :
1. , , .
2. .

1. , E ,

T
E1 E2 , E1 E2 =
T
E1 E2 = .
2. , , T
(ii) G1 G2 = .
3. ,
.

2.

2.

37

. ,
. .
, .
,
.
,
. , ,
. .
. z = z(t) [, ] R C ( C). z() = a z() = b
, . , a = b.
.
, . ,
z = z1 (t), 1 t 1 , z = z2 (t), 2 t 2 ,
, = (t), 1 t 2 , , (1 ) = 2 , (1 ) = 2
z1 (t) = z2 ( (t)) t [1 , 1 ]. , ,
. ,
.
. .
z = z(t), ,
.
, , , . , [0, 1]. , ,

38

II .


, .
, ,
, .. .
, z =
z(t), t ,
[, ]. , [, )
z() = z(). ,
.
. z = z(t), t ,
( ), z = z(t), t . ,
.
, 1 : z = z1 (t), 1 t 1 ,
2 : z = z2 (t), 2 t 2 , 1
2 1 + 2

z=

z1 (1 + 2t(1 1 ))
0 t 1/2,
z2 (2 + (2t 1)(2 2 )) 1/2 t 1.

( ) . ,
.
.
.
z = z(t) = x(t) + iy(t),

t ,

, x(t) y(t) [, ] z 0 (t) = x0 (t) + iy 0 (t) 6= 0


t [, ].
= (t), 0 (t) > 0
t. , z 0 (), .
.

2.

39

, : z = z(t), t ,
z(t) arg z 0 (t). , .

.
w = f (z) D .
, f D, f (z1 ) = f (z2 ),
z1 = z2 D. , f 0 (z) 6= 0
D. |f 0 (z0 )|2 w = f (z) z0 ,
w0 = f (z0 )
z = f 1 (w). ,

1 0

z
1
1
= lim
= 0 .
w0 w
z0 w/z
f (z)

(w) = lim

, D . (. . D). f (z) = z 2 , 1 < |z| < 2.


: z = z(t), t , D. w = f (z(t))
w-. ,
w0 (t) = f 0 (z(t)) z 0 (t)
(1)
f , w0 (t) 6= 0. , (1)
, w0 = w(t0 )
z0 = z(t0 )
:
arg w0 (t0 ) = arg f 0 (z0 ) + arg z 0 (t0 ).
(2)
(2) ,
z0 w0 arg f 0 (z0 ).
, , ,
z0 ,
f , w0

40

II .

. , 1
2 , z0 , 1 2 , w0 ( ).
w = f (z) z0 .

.
|f (z) f (z0 )|
= |f 0 (z0 )|
0
|z z0 |

lim
zz

, w = f (z)
z0 |f 0 (z0 )| . , |f 0 (z0 )|
z0 , .
, .
w = f (z) D
, . . D f /x f /y.
, f ,
w = f (z)
.
w(t) = f (z(t))
w0 (t0 ) =

f
f
(z0 )x0 (t0 ) +
(z0 )y 0 (t0 ).
x
y

z 0 (t0 ) = x0 (t0 ) + iy 0 (t0 )

f 0
1 f
f 0
1 f
i
z (t0 ) +
+i
w (t0 ) =
z (t0 ),
2 x
y
2 x
y
0

w0 (t0 )
1 f
f
1 f
f z 0 (t0 )
=

i
+
+
i
.
z 0 (t0 )
2 x
y
2 x
y z 0 (t0 )

(3)

w = f (z) z0 ,

w0 (t0 )

arg 0
z (t0 )

3.

41

arg z 0 (t0 ). , (3)


. arg z 0 (t0 )
(3)
1
1
2 [f /x if /y] 2 [f /x + if /y]. , ,

f
f
= i .
x
y
, , , .
(3) arg z 0 (t0 ).
,
(3), . , , , . .
f .
f
f
=i .
x
y
, f (z)
. ,
. .
, D f ,
. , f , D.
3.

.
1 . , .
,
.

42

II .


L(z) =

az + b
,
cz + d

(1)

a, b, c, d ,
,
ad bc 6= 0,

(2)

w = L(z).
, b/a d/c
(1). (2) , .

L
C , C L(z) = C
. L() = a/c L(d/c) = . ,
L0 (z) =

ad bc
,
(cz + d)2

L C\{d/c}.

.
L1 (z) =

a1 z + b1
,
c1 z + d1

L2 (z) =

a2 z + b2
c2 z + d 2

- ,
az + b
L(z) = L1 L2 (z) =
cz + d
- adbc = (a1 d1
b1 c1 )(a2 d2 b2 c2 ). , -
. ,

dw b
z = L1 (w) =
cw + a

3.

43

. ,
. ,
.
. ,
.
1. z1 , z2 , z3 C. T , 1, 0 .
. z1 , z2 z3 :
z z2
T (z) =
z z3

z1 z2
.
z1 z3

,
:

T =

z z2
z z3
z1 z3
z z3
z z2
z1 z3

z1 = ,

z2 = ,

z3 = ,

.
. , S . L = S T 1
1,0 . L() = ,
L(z) = az + b. L(0) = 0 L(1) = 1, L(z) = z. , S(z) = T (z).
2
. z1 , z2 , z3 z-
w1 , w2 , w3 w- - L, L(zk ) = wk , k =

44

II .

1, 2, 3.
(z, z1 , z2 , z3 ) = (w, w1 , w2 , w3 ).
. (z1 , z2 , z3 , z4 ) z1 , z2 , z3 z4 z1
- , z2 , z3 z4 1,0 .
,
.
2. z1 , z2 , z3 , z4 L
.
(L(z1 ), . . . , L(z4 )) = (z1 , . . . , z4 ).
. T (z) = (z1 , z2 , z3 , z4 ). T L1 L(z2 ), L(z3 ) L(z4 ) 1,0 . ,
(L(z1 ), L(z2 ), L(z3 ), L(z4 )) = T L1 = T (z1 ) = (z1 , z2 , z3 , z4 ).
2
. ,
.
C , .
C .
1. C.
. L (1)
(2) . z,
Im L(z) = 0, . .
az + b a z + b

= 0.
cz + d c z + d

3.

45


(ac ca)|z|2 + (ad cb)z + (bc da)z + (bd db) = 0.

(3)

ac ca = 0, (3)
, . . C.
, ac ca 6= 0. (3)
|z|2 +

ad bc
bc ad
bd bd
z+
z+
=0
ac ca
ac ca
ac ca

bc ad ad bc
,
+
=
ac ca ac ca

2. (z1 , z2 , z3 , z4 ) , z1 , z2 , z3 , z4
C.
. , T (z) =
(z1 , z2 , z3 , z4 ).
2
3. C
C.
. L - C z-.
z1 , z2 , z3 .

(z, z1 , z2 , z3 ) (L(z), L(z1 ), L(z2 ), L(z3 )).


2
, z C. 2

46

II .

, L(z) , L(z1 ), L(z2 )L(z3 ) L(z3 ), z


C.
2
. , , z z, , .
. , .
2, , .
,
.
3. z1 , z2 , z3 C
C ( ), .
z z C ,

(z , z1 , z2 , z3 ) = (z, z1 , z2 , z3 ).

(4)

. T (z) = (z, z1 , z2 , z3 ) C , ,
(4) z z .
.
1) . (z1 z2 )/(z1 z3 ) (4) :
z z2
z z2
=
.

z z3
z z3

z z2
z z2
arg
= arg
,
z z3
z z3

|z z2 |
|z z2 |
=

|z z3 |
|z z3 |

z , z2 , z3 z, z2 , z3 . , .
z z.

3.

47

2) C a R.
:
(z , z1 , z2 , z3 ) = (z, z1 , z2 , z3 ) = (z a, z1 a, z2 a, z3 a)

R2
R2
R2
= z a,
,
,
=
z

a
z

a
z

a
1
2
3

2
R
=
, z1 a, z2 a, z3 a
z

2
R
=
+ a, z1 , z2 , z3 ,
za
,
z = a + R2 /(z a)

(z a)(z a) = R2 .

,
arg(z a) = arg(z a)

|z a| |z a| = R2 .
2

4. L
C1 C2 ( ),
, C1 ,
, C2 .
. z1 , z2 , z3 C1 . z z C1
(z , z1 , z2 , z3 ) = (z, z1 , z2 , z3 ) .

(L(z ), L(z1 ), L(z2 ), L(z3 )) = (L(z), L(z1 ), L(z2 ), L(z3 )) ,

48

II .

L(z ) L(z)
, L(z1 ), L(z2 ) L(z3 ), . . C2 .
2
, ,
C (. . ) .
. ,
(w, w1 , w2 , w3 ) = (z, z1 , z2 , z3 ) ,
z1 , z2 , z3 , w1 , w2 , w3
. .
, .
, . ,
A, Im A > 0, , .
z = A w = .
, ,

zA
w=k
.
(5)
zA
|x A| = |x A| x R,

|k| = 1. , (5), A k
Im A > 0 |k| = 1.
,
, , :
za
w=k
,
1 az
|a| < 1 |k| = 1.

4.

49

1. ,

a b
c d


2 2 , .
2. ,
w = z + a,

w = bz,

w = 1/z,

a b 6= 0 ,
.
3. , ,
, .
4. . ,
.
5. ,
|z| = 1 Re z = 2 . ?
4.

,
, , .
,
. , , .

50

II .

, . , , ,
. x = x0
y = y0 . f (z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y),
x = x0 , u = u(x0 , y), v = v(x0 , y), < y < . y = y0
.
w-.
, .

, , .
. w = z , 0 < < . ,

C \ R z .
|w| = |z| ,

arg w = arg z,

, ,
, .
(z )0 =

w
z

, , z 6= 0, .
, 0 < 1
C \ R
{w : < arg w < }. > 1
C \ R .
{w : / < arg w < /}.
. w = ez x = x0 y = y0 ,

4.

51

. z- . , ,
2i. ,
{z : y1 < Im z < y2 } y2 y1 < 2
{w : y1 < arg w < y2 }, y2 y1 = .

!
1
1
1 + z2
w=
z+
=
,
2
z
2z
, .
z = 0 .

dw
1
1
=
1 2
dz
2
z

C \ {0}, z = 1.

D C. z1 , z2
C \ {0}.

1
1
1
= (z1 z2 ) 1
z1 + z2 +
z1
z2
z1 z2

, D ,
z1 , z2 , z1 z2 = 1. .
, , z = r ei , w = u + iv.

1
1
u=
r+
cos ,
2
r

1
1
v=
r
sin .
2
r

, |z| = r0 , r0 > 1,

1
1
a=
r0 +
,
2
r0

1
1
b=
r0
2
r0

52

II .

w = 1, a2 b2 = 1. r + 0 1
b 1 [1, 1]. = 0 ,
1 < r < ,
u2
v2
=1

cos2 0 sin2 0
1. .

III

1.

: z = z(t), t , C.

length() = sup

n
X

|z(ti ) z(ti1 )|,

i=1

= t0 < t1 < . . . < tn =


[, ] ( ). ,
.
f , (
{z = z(t) : t [, ]}), :
n
X

n
X

f (z(i ))(z(ti ) z(ti1 )),

i=1

f (z(i ))|z(ti ) z(ti1 )|,

i=1

i [ti1 , ti ], i = 1, . . . , n. ,
,
f , max i |ti ti1 | 0.
:
Z

f (z) dz = (u dx v dy) + i (u dy + v dx),

f (z) |dz| =

u ds + i

53

v ds,

54

III .

f (z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y), z = x + iy, ds .



Z

f (z) dz =

f (z(t))z (t) dt,

f (z) |dz| =

f (z(t))|z 0 (t)| dt.

:
Z

(af + bg) dz = a

f dz + b

f dz =
1 +2

f dz +
1

g dz (),

f dz

().

dz |dz|.
Z

f dz =

f dz,

f |dz| =

f |dz|.

, :

f (z) dz

|f (z)| |dz|.

, f (z) 1 , . .
Z
|dz| = length().

, , , . D F f ,
F 0 (z) = f (z) z D. , f (z) dz D.
.
1. f D .

Z
f (z) dz

1.

55

,
D,
, f (z) dz D.
. f (z) dz , . . D F , F 0 (z) =
f (z) z D. : z = z(t), t ,
D,
Z

f (z) dz =

d
F (z(t)) dt = F (z()) F (z()).
dt

f (z(t))z (t) dt =


.

.
R
, f (z) dz
D. z0 D

Z
F (z) = f (z) dz,

, z0 z. F . ,
D F 0 (z) = f (z). , z
D > 0. D f > 0, (z +) D |f (z +)f (z)| <
|| < .
Z

F (z + ) F (z) =

f () d,
[z,z+]

[z, z + ] , z z + .
Z

f () d = f (z) +
[z,z+]

F (z

+ ) F (z)

[f () f (z)] d,
[z,z+]

f (z)

1
||

[z,z+]

[f () f (z)]

56

III .

length ([z, z + ]) = .
||
2

,
n
Z

(z a)n dz = 0.

, (z a)n+1 /(n + 1)
, .
n , 1,
, a,
C\{a} . n = 1 .
= {z : |z a| < r}. .
, , , ,

, ,
.

, .
, : z = a + reit , 0 t 2,
. z 0 = ireit dt
Z

dz
=
za

Z2

i dt = 2i.
0

,
a, :
Z

dz
= 0,
za


ln(z a), .

1.

57

1.

1
1
r2
x = (z + z) =
z+
2
2
z
|z| = r,
Z

x dz,

= {z : |z| < r}.


2.

|z 1| |dz|,

= {z : |z| < 1}.


3. , f
f 0 . ,
Z

f (x)f 0 (z) dz

.
R

. f f 0 dz = w dw (uiv) d(u+iv) = (u du+


R
R
R
v dv)i(v duu dv), Re f f 0 dz = u du+v dv = 12 d(u2 +v 2 ) = 0
( ).
4. , f D |f (z) 1| < 1 z D.
f 0 , ,
Z

f 0 (z)
dz = 0
f (z)

D.
R

5. f dz = f dz. , P (z)
= {z : |z a| < r},
Z

P (z) dz = 2ir2 P 0 (a).

58

III .

.
r2k
P (z) =
bk (z a) P (z) =
bk
(z a)k
k=0
k=0
n
X

n
X

P dz = 2ib1 r2 .

2.

,
f D R
f dz .
D.
, 1 2 D , 1 2
R
R
R
1 2 1 = 2 . ,
, .

. .
.
. f D D .
Z

f (z) dz = 0.

. :
Z

() =

f (z) dz.

2.

59

,
(1) , . . . (4) . ,
() = ((1) ) + . . . + ((4) ),
. , (1) , . . . , (4)
, 1 , |(1 )| 41 |()|. (4)
(1)
1 1 , . . . , 1
2 , |(2 )|
1
4 |(1 )|. , 1 2 . . .
|(n )| 14 |(n1 )|. , n
1
|()|.
(1)
4n
, n
z , .
> 0 > 0 ,

O(z , ) D z O(z , )

f (z) f (z )
0

f
(z
)
(2)

< .

z z
n
|(n )|

1
,
2n
= length(), n, n O(z , ).
,
length(n ) =

dz = 0,
n

z dz = 0,
n

dz z dz C.

Z
(n ) =
[f (z) f (z ) (z z )f 0 (z )] dz
n

60

III .

(2)

|(n )|

|z z | |dz|.


n , . . /2n , :
2
|(n )| n .
4
(1),
|()| 2 .
, () = 0 .
2
1. f D . f(z) dz D
Z

f (z) dz = 0

D.
. D a
D
Z

F (z) =

f () d.
[a,z]

,
Z

F (z + ) F (z) =

f () d
[z,z+]

z D , (z + ) D.
D.
,
, F F 0 (z) = f (z).

3.

61

, f (z) dz D
.
2
. . f D, D
. D.
, . ,
.
3.


, ,
. , .
. ,
a. J(, a) a
1 Z dz
J(, a) =
.
2i z a
J(, a)
a. . z = z(t), t
, . a , = t0 < t1 < . . . < tn =
[, ], k : z = z(t), tk1 t
tk , k = 1, . . . , n, k ( ),
a. , = 1 + . . . + n
n Z
1 Z dz
1 X
dz
J(, a) =
=
.
2i z a
2i k=1k z a

62

III .

C , k
ln(z a)
Z
k

dz
z(tk ) a
z(tk ) a

+ i arg
= ln
.

z(tk1 ) a
za
z(tk1 ) a


ln(z a) k ,
( ) , z a
k . k 1 n,
,
z a . J(, a), , a
, a
z(t), . , ,
.
.
,
J(, a) = J(, a).
1. a J(, a) C \ .
. a b C \ .
. , , , J(, a) = J(, b) ,
[a, b] .
w = (z a)/(z b)

[a, b] C \ R ,
za
.
ln
zb

za
ln
zb

, ,

!0

1
1

za zb
!

1
1

dz = 0,
za zb

3.

63

J(, a) = J(, b).


, J(, a) = 0.
,
Z
k

dz
za

, a .
, = = {z : |z a| < r}.
( , 1) ,
J(, a) = 1. J(, ) = 1
J(, ) = 0 C \ . . . ,
a, J(, a) . , , J(, a) .
.
, , ,
J(, a)
, a.
1 , . . . , n , ,
a. k ,
k , 1 + . . . + n
J(, a) = J(, a).

1. , J(, a)
.
2. ,
.
3. 1 .
,
. , ,

64

III .

. , , ,
.
.
Z

f (z) dz =
1 +...+n

f (z) dz + . . . +
1

f (z) dz,

(1)

, 1 , . . . , n ,
= 1 +. . .+n . , (1)
, 1 , . . . , n .

1 + 2 + . . . + n =

(2)

. , (2) . ,
(2), ,
(1) f . , :
(i) i j ;
(ii) ;
(iii) .
. .
.

= m1 1 + . . . + mn n ,

(3)

mj , j .
m() = m,

3.

65

(3) , , mj
. , (3)
j . .
, .
,
(3), j .
, ( ) D,
(3), j D. .
, a 6 (. .
(3), j a)

J(, a) =

n
X

mj J(j , a).

j=1

, ,
.
. D
D, J(, a) = 0 a 6
D. 0(mod D) 0, ,
.
1 2 (mod D) , 1 2 0(mod D).
D, , , . . .
.
2. D C , D D.

66

III .

. , D
D. C \ D , C \ . , 1 J(, a) = 0 a 6 D,
0(mod D).
, , A = C \ D .
G1 G2 , A1 =
A G1 A2 = A G2 A = A1 A2 ,
G1 G2 A 6= 0.

(4)

A A1 A2 . , , , , A2
A1 , O(, ) A1 6= 0 > 0. , G2 , > 0,
O(, ) G2 .
(4).
, A2 , . A1 > 0
A1 A2 . a A1
/2 , , , a
Q0 .
Q1 , . . . , Qn ,
A1 . A1 , , A2 .

n
X

Qj .

(5)

j=0

, Q0 , a
,
J(, a) =

n
X

J(Qj , a) = J(Q0 , a) = 1.

j=0

, ,
, D. , , A1 , (5)

4.

67

. ,
D, D.
2
4.

, ,
.
1. f D
D.
Z

f (z) dz = 0.

. 1 , . . . , n
, j j D.
f (z) dz j ,
Z

f (z) dz,

f (z) dz =
j

j , j j ,
P
. = nj=1 j
, , .
Z

f (z) dz =

f (z) dz.

(1)

, (1) D
f . , a 6 D, 1/(z a) D
J(, a) = J(, a) = 0, . . 0.
, , . , Q1 , . . . , Qn0
H1 , . . . Hn00 . , ,
, . . n0 6= 0.

68

III .

aj Qj ,
=

n0
X

J(, aj )Qj .

(2)

j=1

,
=

n0
X

J(, aj )Qj

j=1

.
, ij , Qi Qj . , ij Qi .
, ij k.
kQi ij ai , aj
C \ ( kQi ). 1

J( kQi , ai ) = J( kQi , aj )

(3)

, J(Qr , as ) = rs
,

J( kQi , ai ) = J

n0
P
r=1

J(, ar )Qr kQi , ai =

= J(, ai ) J(, ai ) J(Qi , ai ) kJ(Qi , ai ) = k

J( kQi , aj ) = J(, aj ) J(, aj ) 1 k 0 = 0.


, (3) k = 0 ij
.
, ij
Qi Hj .
ai , Qi Hj .
, ai
C\( kQi ) , , J( kQi , ai ) = 0. ,
J( kQi , ai ) = k,
k = 0.

4.

69

, (2) . ,
D. , (2)
Qi , Qi D. , a Qi
a 6 D. 0(mod D), J(, a) = 0. , [ai , a] 1
J(, ai ) = J(, a) = 0, . .
Qi (2) .

Qi D
Z

f (z) dz = 0,
Qi

f (z) dz = 0,

(1) .
2

( 2 )
2. f D
D,
Z

f (z) dz = 0.

. , D ,
. , . 1
1

.: Ahlfors L.V., Complex analysis, New York: McGrawHill, 1966, . 150.

70

III .

. .
. ,
D, J(, a) 1 a D
, a 6 D.
, D D
D0 , 0(mod D0 ).
3. D f D .
Z

f (z) dz = 0.

5.

1. f D
D.
a D \
1 Z f (z) dz
J(, a) f (a) =
.
2i z a

(1)

. D \ ,
r > 0 = {z : |z a| r}
D \ . , J(, a)
D \ {a}. ,
f (z)/(z a) ,
,
1 Z f (z) dz
1 Z f (z) dz
= J(, a)
.
2i z a
2i z a

(2)

1 Z

2i

f (z) dz

za

f (a)

1
=
2

f (z) f (a)
za

dz

f (z)
max
z
z

f (a)

5.

71

r 0.
(2) r 0, (1).
2
. , D f
D .
z D :
1 Z f () d
f (z) =
.
2i z

(3)

.
f D
.

.
, ,
D. , ,
,
. , (1) (3).

.
1 Z () d
F (z) =
2i z
. (3)
, f D .
. .
Z

Fn (z) =

() d
,
( z)n

n = 1, 2, . . ., , ,
Fn0 (z) = nFn+1 (z).

72

III .

. F1 . z0 C \ > 0 , O(z0 , ) . z O(z0 , /2)


|F1 (z) F1 (z0 )| = |z

z0 |

2 Z
() d

|z z0 |
|()||d|,
( z)( z0 )
2

F1 z0 .
,
F1 (z) F1 (z0 ) Z
() d
=
z z0
( z)( z0 )
, F1 , /( z0 ). ,
, z z0 F2 (z0 ).
, F10 (z) = F2 (z) .
, 0
Fn1
(z) = (n 1)Fn (z).
Fn (z) Fn (z0 ) =

Z () d
() d

n1
n
( z) ( z0 ) ( z0 )
Z

+(z z0 )

() d
( z)n ( z0 )

Fn . , z z0 , /( z0 ), (z z0 )
. zz0
Fn /( z0 ), :
Fn (z) Fn (z0 )
= (n 1)Fn+1 (z0 ) + Fn+1 (z0 ) = nFn+1 (z0 ),
0
z z0

lim
zz

.
2
. 1 . ,

5.

73

(3) :
n! Z f () d
f (n) (z) =
,
(4)
2i ( z)n+1

.
.
2 (). f
R
D f dz = 0

D, f D.
. , f dz
D. , D
F , F 0 (z) = f (z). , f
.
2
.
3. f D
f (z) 6= 0 z D. D
ln f (z) (f (z))a , a C.
. f 0 D f D, f 0 /f D
D F , . .
F 0 = f 0 /f . z0 D ln f (z0 )
F F (z0 ) = ln f (z0 ).

f (z)eF (z) = f 0 (z)eF (z) F 0 (z)f (z)eF (z) = 0

D f (z0 )eF (z0 ) = 1, f (z)eF (z) 1 f (z) eF (z) . , F (z) = ln f (z).


f a f a = ea ln f .
2
.

74

III .

4. f C
, .
. |f (z)| M z C. (4)
z = z0 |z z0 | < r,
|f (n) (z0 )| n!M rn .

(5)

r , f (n) (z0 ) = 0.
z0 , f (n) (z) 0.
n = 1 .
2
. (5) . .
5 ( ). f D
O(a, r) D.
1
f (a) =
2

Z2

f (a + rei ) d.

. (3) z = a : = a + rei , 0 2,
.
2

IV


1.

D C H(D)
D .
. ,
fn H(Dn ), n = 1, 2, . . ., D
f , z0 D
O (z0 ) N , , O (z0 ) Dn n N
fn (z) f (z) O (z0 ) n .
. D : fn f
D K D N , ,
K Dn n N fn (z) f (z) K.
. fn (z) = z/(1 + 2z n ), n = 1, 2, . . . fn
Dn = {z : |z| < 21/n } fn 6 H(D).
, fn (z) z D. , f (z) z
C.
1 (). fn H(Dn ), n = 1, 2, . . . ,
fn (z) f (z) D. f H(D) fn0 (z)
f 0 (z) D.
75

76 IV .

. , z0 0 < r <
dist(z0 , D). Or (z0 ) D N , , Or (z0 ) Dn
n N . fn f Or (z0 ). , f
Or (z0 ) :
Z

lim

fn (z) dz =

f (z) dz.

.
f
Or (z0 ) . z0 D, f H(D).

:
1 Z fn () d
1 Z f () d
0
, f (z) =
,
f (z) =
2i ( z)2 n
2i ( z)2
0

z Or (z0 ), n N . |z z0 | = r. Or/2 (z0 ) :

|f (z)

fn0 (z)|

1 Z f () fn () 4
=
d max{|f () fn ()|}

2 ( z)2
r

z Or/2 (z0 )
n , f 0 n f 0
Or/2 (z0 ).
2
. .
P

2. f (z) =
n=1 fn (z), D , D,
D ,
.

2.

77

2.

,
. ,

.
1. f H(D) z0 D,
Or (z0 ) D

f (z) =

X
n=0

cn (z z0 )n .

(1)

. Or (z0 ) D z Or (z0 ).
r Or (z0 ).

f (z) =

1 Z f ()
d.
2i r z

1
:
z

(z z )n
X
1
1
0
!

=
=
.
n+1
z

z
0
z
(

z
)
0
n=0
( z0 ) 1
z0

r
|z z0 |
|z z0 |
=
< 1,
| z0 |
r

r . r ( ,
1
)
f (). 2i
, (1),
cn =

1 Z
f (n) (z0 )
f ()
d
=
.
2i r ( z0 )n+1
n!

(2)

78 IV .

(2) (1) z,
r , (1)
f , - O (z0 ), = dist(z0 , D).
2
(1), (2),
f z0 .
2. f Or (z0 ) (1), cn = f (n) /n!, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
. (1) z = z0 , f (z0 ) = c0 . n = 1, 2, . . . n-
z = z0 .
2

.
:
. , 2
. f (x) = e1/x .
a C f , f (a) = 0.
. ( ) a C f ,
, f (n) (a). , a f m,
f (a) = . . . = f (m1) = 0 , f (m) (a)6=0.
, . ,
a , f (z) 0 Or (a). , a m,

3.

79

O (a), f , a. , Or (a)
f :
f (z) = (z a)m

X
n=0

cm+k (z a)k = (z a)m (z).

Or (a) (a) = cm 6= 0.
O (a), .
f (z) 6= 0 z O (a) \ {a}.
3 ().
D f g E,
a, D, f (z) g(z)
D.
. , h(z) = f (z) g(z) D . h
E. a
h. ,
, , h O (a).
A h.
, A a A. , B = D \ A
. , b B , A, . . b
h.
A. , D = A B, A B
. D
. A 6= . , B = D = A.
2
. f (z) 6 0 D,
.
3.


:
b0 + b1 z 1 + b2 z 2 + . . . .

80 IV .

z = 1/
P
n

,
n=0 bn ,
q
n
, || < R, R = 1/(n
lim |bn |). ,
|z| > 1/R, . ,
P
n
:
n= cn z ,
P
n
n= cn (z a) , ( ) .
1 (). f ,
K = {z : r < |z a| < R},
K
f (z) =

X
n=

cn (z a)n ,

(1)

:
1 Z f ()d
cn =
,
2i ( a)n+1

(2)

| a| =
, r < < R.
. ,
(2) (r, R). ,
0 , 00 (r, R), 0 00 0(mod K) , f (z)/(z a)n+1 , n = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,
Z
0

Z
f () d
f () d
=
.
n+1
n+1
( a)
00 ( a)

r < r0 < R0 < R. R0 r0

K 0 = {z : r0 < |z a| < R0 }.

3.

81

K 0
1 Z f () d
1 Z f () d
f (z) =

= f1 (z) + f2 (z)
2i R0 z
2i r0 z
f1
|z a| < R0 . (., , 1 ) :
f1 (z) =

X
n=0

cn (z a)n ,

cn (2).
f2 |z
a| > r0

1
=
z

(z a) 1

a
za

( a)n1
.
n
(z

a)
n=1

|z a| > z 0 r0

r0
a
=
< 1,
a |z a|

r0
.
1
f () ,
2i
f2 (z) =

bn =

bn
,
n
n=1 (z a)

1 Z
( a)n1 f () d = cn .
2i r0

f1 f2 , (1) f K 0 . r0 R0
cn , K.

82 IV .

. (1),
(2), f K. , .
2 (). f
K = {z : r < |z a| < R}
(1), (2).
. (r, R). (1) . .
, . (1) (z a)m1 , m
, ,
Z
Z

X
f (z) dz
nm1
cn (z a)
dz =
.
m+1
n=

(z a)
, n = m,
Z

cm 2i =

f (z) dz
.
(z a)m+1
2

2 :
(1) . (2)
.

.
.

4.

83

4.

a C Or (a), f O r (a) = Or (a) \ {a},


a f .
.
. a f :
(I) ,
lim f (z) = A;
za
(II) , f (z) z a;
(III) , f ,
z a.
1. a f
, f
O r (a).
. .
, |f (z)| M
z O r (a) M > 0. f
O r (a) :
f (z) =

X
n=

cn =

cn (z a)n ,

1 Z f () d
,
2i ( a)n+1

|z a| = ,
(0, r).
|cn |

1
M n 2 = M n ,
2

84 IV .

cn = 0 n. ,
f O r (a) , , Or (a) g,
f O r (a).
2
. , ( ) f a
Or (a). .
. f H(D) a (a D) m
f . D :
f (z) = (z a)m g(z),
g H(D) g(a) 6= 0.
. g, g(z) =
f (z)
, D\{a}. , a
(z a)n
g . , g H(D).
g(a) = 0 , f a
, m. , g(a) 6= 0.
2 (, ). ,
, C.
. . A C > 0 , |f (z) A| > z O r (a),
a f , Or (a)
. g(z) = 1/(f (z) A)
O r (a). 1 a
g. g(a) 6= 0, f (z) 1/g(a) + A z a a
f . g(a) = 0

4.

85

f (z) z a, a f .
.
2
1 , a f
,
. .
3. a C f
( ) ,
f
O r (a) ()
.
. f
O r (a)
f (z) = cm (z a)m + cm+1 (z a)m+1 + . . . ,

cm 6= 0.

,
(z) =

ckm (z a)k ,

k=0

Or (a) (a) = cm 6= 0. f (z) = (z a)m (z) , f (z) z a.


, a .
, a . f
O r (a) , ,
1/f . ,
1/f (z) 0 z a. 1 , a 1/f . m 1/f
a.
1
= (z a)m g(z),
f (z)

86 IV .

g H(Or (a)) g Or (a). 1/g


Or (a)

X
1
=
cn (z a)n ,
g(z) n=0

c0 6= 0.


f (z) = (z a)m

X
n=0

cn (z a)n ,

2
f .

.
2
. ( ) a f 1/f .
3 ,
.
C . ,
f |z| > R,
. z = 1/ = 0
f (1/) z = f (z). , . . z
|z| > R,
,
, .

. , , , , . ,

5.

87

f P (z) = c1 z + . . . + cm z m , cm 6= 0.
g = f P ,
g . , g(z) const f
.

. ez , sin z, cos z.
5.

a f O r (a) , f .
,
1 Z
f (z) dz,
2i
= O (a), 0 < < r, .
f a Res
f Res
f (z).
a
z=a
1. f a
C (z a)1 f
a.
P

n
. f (z) =
n= cn (z a)
, :
1 Z
f (z) dz = c1 J( , a) = c1 .
2i

2
. , , O r (a),
1 Z
f (z) dz = c1 J(, a) = J(, a) Res
f.
a
2i
. .

88 IV .

a , , . m 1 . f
O r (a)
f (z) = cm (z a)m + cm+1 (z a)m+1 + . . .
cm 6= 0. g(z) = (z a)m f (z) a
, c1 (z
a)m1 .

Res
f = c1
a

g m1 (a)
1
d(m1)

=
=
lim
(z a)m f (z) .
m1
za
(m 1)!
(m 1)!
dz

m = 1 :
Res
f = za
lim(z a)f (z).
a
2. D , , f
D ,
a1 , . . . , aN , D.
N
X
1 Z
f (z) dz =
Res
f.
ak
2i
k=1

. > 0 , O (ak ) D
P
k = 1, . . . , N O (ai ) O (aj ) = i 6= j. N
k=1 k ,
k = O (ak ),
f . , :
N Z
1 X
1 Z
f (z) dz
f (z) dz = 0,
2i
2i k=1 k

.
2
, f |z| > R
.
:
1 Z
Res
f=
f (z) dz,

2i

5.

89

|z| = , > R.
P
n
f (z) =
n= cn z
,
Res
f = c1 .

,
.

,
.
3. f C , a1 , . . . , aN .
Res
f+

N
X
k=1

Res
f = 0.
a
k

. , ak , k = 1, . . . , N , ,
.
.
2

. ,
.
, , . , ,
. , .
1.
Z2

R(cos , sin ) d,
0

R , . z = ei

90 IV .

i
|z|=1

1
1
1
1
R
z+
,
z
2
z 2i
z

!!

dz
.
z

,
.
,
Z
0

d
,
a + cos

a > 1.

, (0, 2) ,
Z
0

Z
d
1 Z2
d
dz
=
= i
.
2
a + cos
2 0 a + cos
z
+
2az
+
1
|z|=1

z 2 + 2az + 1 = (z z1 )(z z2 ),

zk = a + (1)k a2 1, |z1 | > 1, |z2 | < 1,


Z
0

d
i

.
= 2 Res
=
z=z2 z 2 + 2az + 1
a + cos
a2 1

2.
Z

R(x) dx,

R , , R , , 2 . > 0 , R
O (0). + |z| = , .

R(x) dx +

R(z) dz = 2i
+

Im a>0

Res
R(z).
z=a

5.

91

M
|R(z)| M/2 . ,

R(z) dz

|R(z)| |dz|
+

M
0

,
Z

R(x) dx = 2i

X
Im a>0

Res
R(z).
z=a

,
Z

1
1
dx
=
2i
Res
=
2i
= .
z=i 1 + z 2
1 + x2
2i

V

1.

H(D) D , . . , . f /g H(D),
D, g. , g(a) = 0, a D.
Or (a) D, f g f (z) = (z a)n f1 (z) , g(z) = (z a)m g1 (z), f1 g1
Or (a) .
O r (a) :
f1 (x)
f (z)
= (z a)nm
g(z)
g1 (x)
f1 /g1 H(Or (a)), f /g a n m n < m.
m n.
, f D,
D, , , . , M(D) D .

.
, , D , K D
. ( )
92

1.

93

K (, ), K.
1. D , , f
D , . N P D

N P =

1 Z f 0 (z)
dz.
2i f (z)

(1)

. D f , D
. a1 , . . . , an D s1 , . . . , sn ,
b1 , . . . , bm q1 , . . . , qm . N = s1 + + sn P = q1 + + qm .
g(z) =

n
Y

(z aj )sj

j=1

m
Y

(z bj )qj f (z).

j=1

, a1 , . . . , an , b1 , . . . , bm
g . , g D.
f (z) = (z a1 )s1 . . . (z an )sn (z b1 )q1 . . . (z bn )qm g(z)

m
n
X
X
f 0 (z)
sj
qj
g 0 (z)
=

+
,
f (z)
g(z)
j=1 z aj
j=1 z bj

, D g 0 /g,
n
m
X
X
1 Z f 0 (z)
dz =
sj J(, aj )
qj J(, bj ) = N P.
2i f (z)
j=1
j=1

2
. ,
w = f (z).
1 Z f 0 (z)
1 Z dw
dz =
= J(, 0).
2i f (z)
2i w

94

V .

, (1) ( 2) w,
. (1) .

.
2 (
). D , ,
f, g D ,
|f (z)| < |g(z)| z . g g +f D
.
. , g g + f
. N1 g, N2
g + f D . F = (g + f )/g
D N
P D N P =
N2 N1 . , ,
N P = J(, 0),
= F (). , |F (z) 1| < 1 z
, |w 1| < 1 J(, 0) = 0.
, N2 N1 = 0 N2 = N1 .
2
, .
3 (). fn H(D), n = 1, 2, . . . ,
D fn f D.
f (z) 0 D, f D.
. f (z) 6 0.
a D. r > 0 ,
Or (a) D f = Or (a).
|f | , . . |f (z)| > 0

1.

95

z . {fn } , 1/fn 1/f . ,


1 Z fn0 (z)
1 Z f 0 (z)
lim
dz =
dz.
n 2i
2i f (z)
fn (z)
fn Or (a)
, , .
f Or (a). , f (a) 6= 0.
2
. D
fn H(D) D
f (z) 6 const. f D.
. , z1 6= z2 D
f (z1 ) = f (z2 ) = A. U1 U2 z1 z2 ,
D. fn , U1
U2 , A. , {fnk } ,
A .
U1 .
fnk (z) A U1 , , f (z) A
U1 . , f (z1 ) = A.
2
. f (z) 6 0
f (a) = 0 a D.
r > 0, O r (a)
f . , f = Or (a). ,
min
|f (z)| = > 0. z
{fn } N , |fn (z) f (z)| < /2
n N z .
fn = f + (fn f ) Or (a) ,
f , .. .
.
2

96
2.

V .

,
,
.
1 ( ). f D f (z0 ) = w0 , z0 D. ,
f (z) w0 z0 n, .. f 0 (z0 ) = . . . =
f (n1) (z0 ) = 0 f (n) (z0 ) 6= 0.
Or (z0 ) O (w0 ), w0 = f (z) n
O r (z0 ) w0 O (w0 ).
. , f (z) 6 const.

Or (z0 ), D f (z) w0 , f 0 (z) Or (z0 )\{z0 }.
= Or (z0 ) = f (). ,
w0 , > 0 , w0 .
w0 O (w0 ).

|w0 w0 | < |f (z) w0 |
z .
f (z) w0

f (z) w0 = (f (z) w0 ) + (w0 w0 )

Or (z0 ) . f (z) w0 Or (z0 ) z = z0 n.


f 0 (z) 6= 0 z O r (z0 ), f (z) w0
Or (z0 ) . , Or (z0 )
n z1 , . . . , zn ,
f (z) = w0 .
2
. f 0 (z) 6= 0 f D.

2.

97

2 ( ).
, .
. 1.
2
3 ( ). f D ,
|f |, Ref Imf D.
.
.
4 ( ).
D f : f (0) = 0 |f (z)| 1
z D.
|f 0 (0)| 1 |f (z)| |z| z D.
, f (z)
ei z, R.
. D (z) = f (z)/z. r (0, 1)

max |(z)| = max |(z)| =
|z|r

|z|=r

1
1
max |f (z)| .
r |z|=r
r

z D
|(z)| 1/r r 1. , |(z)| 1 z
D, |f (z)| |z|. |f 0 (0)| 1
, (0) = f 0 (0).
, . , |(z0 )| = 1 z0 D. ,
(z) ei z.
2

98
3.

V .

D ,
D .
. F H(D) D, z0 D Or (z0 ) D M > 0, , |f (z)| M
z Or (z0 ) f F.
, K D F K.
1. F H(D)
D . F 0 = {f 0 : f F}
D .
. z0 D.
r > 0 M > 0, , Or (z0 ) D |f (z)| M
z Or (z0 ) f F . = Or (z0 ). ,
,
z Or/2 (z0 ) f F :
1
|f (z)| =
2
0

f () d

( z)2

4M
1 Z M

|d|
=
.
2 r2 /4
r
2

2. F H(D)
D . K D
.
. K
D. r > 0 K D.
K1 = {z : dist(z, K) r}

3.

99

D.
M > 0,
|f 0 (z)| M z K1 f F.
> 0 . < min{r, /M }. z 0 , z 00 K
|z 0 z 00 | < [z 0 , z 00 ] K1
|f (z 0 ) f (z 00 )| =

[z 0 ,z 00 ]

0
f (z) dz

M |z 0 z 00 | < M .
2

3 (). F H(D)
D ,
{fn } F {fnk }, D.
. K1 K2

S
D, . . Kj D
Kj = D.
j=1

,
, . R > 0 N ,

{z D : dist(z, D)

1
, |z| R}
N

.

Kj = {z D : dist(z, D)

1
, |z| R + j},
N +j

j = 1, 2, . . . .

F Kj , . .
Kj . , {fn }
F, {f1,k }, K1 .

100

V .

, , {f2,k }, K2 .
,
f1,1 , f1,2 , f1,3 , . . .
f2,1 , f2,2 , f2,3 , . . .
... ... ... ...
j = 2, 3, . . . . {fj,k }
k=1

{fj1,k }k=1 {fj,k }


Kj .
, fnk = fk,k
, ,
{fj,k }. , {fnk }
Kj . {Kj } D,
K D j, K Kj . ,
{fnk } D.
2

4.



. , .
1851 . ,
, ,
. , .
.
.
.
,
.

4.

101

1. D ,
, z0 D. D f , D D f (z0 ) = 0,
f 0 (z0 ) > 0.
. . ,
f1 f2 , . = f2 f11 D (0) = 0, 0 (0) > 0.
|(w)| |w|. ,
1 () |1 ()| ||.
= (w),
|w| |(w)|. , |(w)| |w| (w) = ei w.
0 (0) > 0 (w) w f1 (z) f2 (z).
f
F D g, : g(z0 ) = 0, g 0 (z0 ) > 0 |g(z)| 1 z D.
. D 6= C a 6 D. D
, ln(z a)
Q(z) =

z a = e 2 ln(za)

(. III). ,
z1 , z2 D
Q(z1 ) = Q(z2 )
z1 = z2 . , Q D
Q(D) ,
. Q(z0 ) = w0 Q(D) Or (w0 ), Or (w0 ) Q(D) = . ,
|Q(z) + w0 | > r z D
h(z) =

r
w0 + Q(z)

102

V .

D D.
h0 (z0 ) h(z) h(z0 )
g(z) = 0
.
|h (z0 )| 1 h0 (z0 )h(z)
, h h0 (z)
. , g F F .

= sup {g 0 (z0 ) : g F } .
= . {fn } F,
fn0 (z0 ) n . F
D , {fnk },
D f . f f 0 (z0 ) = ,
, , .
f . f F
.
, f . .
, w D
f (D).

1/2

f (z) w

H(z) =
1 w f (z)


D .

|H(z)| < 1 z D H(z0 ) = w =


f (z) w
2
(H(z)) =
,
1 w f (z)

1 |w |2
1 |w |2
H (z0 ) =
=
.
2
2 w
0

5.

103


F (z) =

H 0 (z0 ) H(z)
.
|H 0 (z0 )| 1 H(z)

, F F . ,
F 0 (z0 ) =

|H 0 (z0 )|
(1 |w |2 )
1 + |w |
q
q
=
=

>,
1 | |2
2 |w |(1 |w |)
2 |w |

.
2
,
. , F , f (z) = (F (z)),

W + 2
+ w
1 + W
(W ) =
,

!2
W
+

1 + w
1 + W

H 0 (z0 )
.
|H 0 (z0 )|

, |0 (0)| < 1.

f 0 (z0 ) = 0 (0)F 0 (z0 ) < F 0 (z0 ), .. f 0 (z0 ) < F 0 (z0 ) .


5.

. ,
,
, , . . . ,
, . , ln f (z) f (z), D,
z0 D f 0 (z)/f (z).

104

V .

D
.
, .
f D (f, D).
(f1 , D1 ) (f2 , D2 ) , D1 D2 6= f1 (z) = f2 (z) z D1 D2 .
, (f2 , D2 ) (f1 , D1 ) D2 . , , .
(f1 , D1 ) (f2 , D2 ) , (f, D), D = D1 D2 , f f1 f2 D1 D2
. , .
(f1 , D1 ), (f2 , D2 ), . . . ,(fn , Dn ), (fk , Dk )

(fk1 , Dk1 ).
.

z
D1 = {z : Im z > 0}, D2 = {z : Re z > 0},
D3 = {z : Im z < 0}, D4 = {z : Re z < 0}
,
, .
, , ,
.
. f (f, D),
f.

5.

105


, .
, , , . ,
( , ) . . . ,
f , D,
, (f, D),
(f, D0 ), D0 D.
f f0 , (f 0 , D). , (f1 , D1 ) (f2 , D2 ) ,
(f10 , D1 ) (f20 , D2 ).

f g. ,
(f, D) f (g, D) g ,
.
, f g, f + g f g , (f + g, D) (f g, D),
(f, D) f. , f
h, , f + h f h .

.
. , ,
, .
, D1 D2 , -

106

V .

. .
1. D , , D+ , , , D.
, f D+ ,
D+ .
D,
:
f (z) = f (z).

(1)

. D F ,
F (z) = f (z) z D+ F (z) = f (z) z D = D {z :
Im z < 0}. , F D, (F, D)
(f, D+ ).
F f , F D. F D . , z0 D , z0 D+

F (z) F (z0 )
f (z) f (z0 )
f (z) f (z0 )

lim
=
lim
=
lim
= f 0 (z0 ).
zz0
zz
zz
0
0
z z0
z z0
z z0
x0 . r > 0, , Or (x0 ) D. = Or (x0 )
1 Z F () d
(z) =
.
2i z
F () (z)
Or (x0 ). = D ,
1
1 Z F () d
+
(z) =
2i + z
2i [x

0 r,x0

F () d
1
+
z
2i [x
+r]

Z
0 +r,x0

F () d
+

z
r]

1 Z F () d
1 Z F () d
1 Z F () d
+
=
+
= + (z) + (z) ,
2i z
2i + z
2i z

5.

107

Or (x0 )D . z D+ Or (x0 ),
+ (z) = f (z) , = 0 , F ()/( z), D .
,
[x0 r, x0 + r]
F . , z D Or (x0 ), + (z) = 0 (z) = f (z). ,
(z) = F (z) Or (x0 ), F .
2
. D
C , f (z) C 0 , z
C. f , , C,
, C 0 .
.

VI

1.

, D

u(z) = u(x, y), z = x + iy,

2 u 2 u
+
=0
u =
x2 y 2
,
h(D) D .
,
. ,
.
f (z) = u(z) + iv(z) D , u v
D.
1. D u h(D). f H(D), u(z) = Re f (z).
108

1.

109

. u h(D). g, D :
g(z) =

u
u
i ,
x
y

x + iy = z.

u , g , . . g H(D).
D
Z

f (z) = U (z) + iV (z) = g() d,


U (z0 ) = u(z0 ), z0 D.
f .
f 0 (z) = g(z)
u
U
=
,
x
x

U
V
u
=
=
.
y
x
y

, U (z) u(z).
2
:
a) .
b) . u G , g D
g(D) G, v = u g D.
c) . D
u .
. a) u h(D) z0 D.
r > 0 , Or (z0 ) D. 1, f H(Or (z0 )),
Re f (z) = u(z). u Or (z0 ).

110

VI .

b) g(z) const, . ,
g(z) 6 const. z0 D. Or (z0 ) D.
g(Or (z0 )) w0 = g(z0 ). , O (w0 ) g(Or (z0 )). 1,
f H (O (w0 )), , u(w) = Re f (w)
w O (w0 ). Or (z0 ) Or0 (z0 ) , g(Or0 (z0 )) O (w0 ), v(z) = Re f g(z)
Or0 (z0 ). , v z0
.
c) , u(z0 ) ( ) u Or (z0 ) D.
1, f H(Or (z0 )), u(z) = Re f (z)
Or (z0 ). f (z) const,
u(z) const Or (z0 ). D,

g(z) =

u
u
i ,
x
y

D. Or (z0 )
g(z) = f 0 (z) = 0. g(z) 0 D, u(z) const
D.
2

.
2 (). u h(D)
:
(i) u(z) = 0 Or (z0 ) D;
(ii) u D D u(z) = 0 D.
u(z) 0 D.

1.

111

, , , .
. ,
.
3 ( ). u Or (z0 ) Or (z0 ) .
1
u(z0 ) =
2

Z2
0

1 Z
u(z0 + r)| d|.
u(z0 + re ) d =
2 T
i

T
D.
. u Or (z0 ) ,
:
1
u(z0 ) =
2

Z2

u(z0 + ei ) d

(0, r). Or (z0 ) u


.

, .
2
. , u,
r = |z z0 |, :
u(z) = ln |z z0 | + .

. u(z) = (r),
u
r
x
= 0 (r)
= 0 (r),
x
x
r

2 u
x2 00
y2 0
= 2 (r) + 3 (r)
x2
r
r

1
u = 00 (r) + 0 (r).
r

112

VI .

1
00 (r) + 0 (r) = 0,
r
.
2
2.

1. u h(D) D.
a D :
1
u(a) =
2

Z2
0

1 |a|2
1 |a|2
1 Z
i
u()
u(e ) d =
| d|.
|ei a|2
2 T
| a|2

(1)

. a = 0 (1)
. a 6= 0
`(z) = (z a)/(1 az)
v = u`1 .
v h(D)
D.
u(a) = v(0) =

1 Z
u(`1 ()) |d|.
2 T

:
`1 () = ,

= `(),

d = `0 () d,

1 Z
1 Z
1 |a|2
0
u(a) =
u()|` ()||d| =
u()
|d|.
2 T
2 T
|1 a|2

u T
|1 a| = |1 a| = | a|,
(1).
2

2.

113

2. f D ,
u(z) = Re f (z) D .
z D :
1 Z +z
f (z) =
u() |d| + i Im f (0)
2 T z
1 Z +z
d
=
u()
+ i Im f (0).
2i T z

(2)

. 1 u

u(z) =

1 |z|2
1 Z
1 Z +z
u()
|d|
=
Re
u()
|d|
.
2 T
| z|2
2 T z

, . , u
(|d| = |i d| = d, = ei ) :
1 Z +z
1 Z
u() |d| =
2 T z
2i T
1 Z
=
2i T

+z
d
u()
=
z

u()
1 Z u() d
d + z
z
2i T z


+z
u()

D . , f , (2), D
Re f (z) = u(z). ,

.
2
. (1) (2) .

114
3.

VI .

T .
z D
1 Z 1 |z|2
1
P (z; ) =
()
|d|
=
2 T | z|2
2

Z2
0

1 |z|2
(ei ) d,
i
2
|e z|

.
S(z; ) =

1 Z +z
() |d|.
2 T z

,

Re S(z; ) = P (z; ).
1. L1 (T) . S(z; ) D . ,
T, S(z; )
.
. z0 D.
> 0 z0 T = D.
1 Z
2 ()
S(z; ) S(z0 ; )
=
|d|
z z0
2 T ( z)( z0 )

()
1


|()|

z)( z0 ) 2

z
z0 . S(z; )
D. () = 0 T.

3.

115

z0 z0 T \

1 Z +z
S(z; ) =
() |d|,
2 T\ z
, z0 D,
S(z; )
. S(z; )
.
, Re S(z; ) = 0 z
:
1 |z|2
+z
=
= 0,
Re
z
| z|2

z, T,

z 6= .
2

, , L1 (T)
h(D).
()
P ( ; 1 + 2 ) = P ( ; 1 ) + P ( ; 2 ),

P ( ; ) = P ( ; ).

()
P (z; ) 0,

0.

() P (z; 1) 1
inf P (z; ) sup .
. . ,
D. P (z; 1) 1
u(z) 1. ,
P (z; ) .
2

116

VI .

2 (). , T
0 T.
lim P (z; ) = (0 ).

z0

. > 0 . T c 0 ,

|() (0 )| <
2
.
T \
(

1 () =
(

2 () =

() (0 ) ,
0
;
0
,
() (0 ) .

P (z; ) (0 ) = P (z; 1 ) + P (z; 2 ).


, P (z; 2 )
(. 1). ,
> 0,

|P (z; 2 )| <
2
|z 0 | < . , ,

|P (z; 1 )| sup |() (0 )| .

2
, z D, |z
0 | <
|P (z; ) (0 )| |P (z; 1 )| + |P (z; 2 )| < .
2
, (
)
.
,
.

4.

117

4.

,
. ,
.
. , D
u ,
z0 D r > 0, Or (z0 ) D
1
u(z0 ) =
2

Z2
0

u(z0 + ei ) d =

1 Z
u(z0 + ) |d|
2 T

(1)

(0, r).
1. D u, D ,
D , .
. , u z0
D ( ). r > 0, (0, r) (1).
T u(z0 + ) u(z0 )
( u(z0 + ) u(z0 )), (1)
u u(z0 + ) = u(z0 ) (0, r) T. , A D, u
( ) . , B = D \ A u
. D , A
B . A 6= . ,
B = A = D. u(z) u(z0 ),
u.
2
2. D u, D
, .

118

VI .

. z0 D r > 0, , Or (z0 ) D.

1 Z 1 |z|2
V (z) = P (z; ur ) =
u(z0 + r) |d|.
2 T | z|2
, V D D. , V () = u(z0 + r)
T.

v(z) = V

z z0
,
r

Or (z0 ), Or (z0 ) u
Or (z0 ). , u(z) v(z)
Or (z0 ) , Or (z0 )
. , uv
Or (z0 ) , ,
. u(z) v(z) = 0 z Or (z0 ) u(z)
v(z) Or (z0 ).
2

, D . z0 D
,
z0 . ,
.
5.

, .

5.

119

1. u Or (z0 )
Or (z0 ) . z Or (z0 )
r |z z0 |
r + |z z0 |
u(z0 ) u(z)
u(z0 ).
r + |z z0 |
r |z z0 |

(1)

. v() = u(z0 + r).


,
1 Z 1 ||2
v() =
v() |d|.
2 T | |2
,

1 ||
1 ||2
1 + ||

,
1 + ||
| |2
1 ||

v(),
1 || 1 Z
1 + || 1 Z
v() |d| v()
v() |d|.
1 + || 2 T
1 || 2 T
:
1 ||
1 + ||
v(0) v()
v(0).
1 + ||
1 ||
= (zz0 ) / r ,

v(0) = u(z0 ),

z z0
= u(z).
v
r
2

. ,
.
2 ().
D un un (z) un+1 (z)
z D n = 1, 2, . . . .
:
(i) un (z) D n ;

120

VI .

(ii) {un } D
n D u.
. z0 D. D r > 0, Or (z0 ) D.
n p un+p un , (1)
r|zz0 |
r+|zz0 | (un+p (z0 )

un (z0 )) un+p (z) un (z)

r+|zz0 |
r|zz0 | (un+p (z0 )

un (z0 ))

z Or (z0 ). Or/2 (z0 )


1
(un+p (z0 ) un (z0 )) un+p (z) un (z) 3(un+p (z0 ) un (z0 )).
(2)
3
(2) , un (z0 )
n , un (z) Or/2 (z0 ) n . (2) , {un (z0 )} ,
{un (z)} Or/2 (z0 )
u(z). , u(z) Or/2 (z0 ).
, D : D1 , un (z) n , D2 , un (z)
u(z) . D .
, D2 = D u(z)
. z0 D r > 0, , Or (z0 )
D un (z) u(z) Or (z0 ) n .
D
u(z0 + r) = n
lim un (z0 + r) =
1 Z 1 ||2
1 Z 1 ||2
= n
lim
un (z0 + r) |d| =
u(z0 + r) |d|.
2 T | |2
2 T | |2
,
u(z0 + r) D . ,
u(z) Or (z0 ).
2



1. , . .: ,
19.
2. .., . .: , 19.
3. .., , . 12. .:
, 196.
4. .., . .: , 19.
5. .., . .: , 19.
6. Ahlfors L.V., Complex analysis, New York: McGrawHill, 1966,

121


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .

6
6
10
15
22
26

II
1.
2.
3.
4.


. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . .

31
31
37
41
49

.
. .
. .
. .
. .

III . . . . . . . . .
1. . . . . .
2. . . . . . . . . . .
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.

53
53
58
61
67
70

IV
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. . . . . . . . . . .
2.
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75
75
77
79
83
87

122

123

V
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
. . . . . . . . . . . 100
. 103

VI
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

. . . . . . . . . . . . 108
. . . . . 108
. . . . . 112
. . . 114
117
. . . . . . . . . . . . 118

. 121

..
..

N 020406 12.02.97
30.10.98. 60 84/16.
N 1. . . . . 7,2
. . . 7,8 100 . 116. 25.

400062, , . 2- , 30.

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