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2003

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2. m = a + b , d | m d | a , d | b .
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,

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d =1
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0 = b ( q q1 ) + r r1 )
.
: , b Z, b 0 ,
q , r Z , a = b q + r , 0 r < | b | .
. b, = 110, 53, 156;
b = 12.
110 = 12 9 + 2 , 0 2 < 12 ;
.
53 = 12 ( 5) + 7 , 0 7 < 12 ;

156 = 12 13 + 0 , 0 < 12 .
10


1.1. :
n

1) b | a , b | a n N;
2

2) a + b ab , a + b ;
2

3) a a + b , b a + b .
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1) ab + cd a + c , ad + bc a + c ;
2)* ab + cd a c , ad + bc a c ;
2

3) a + ab + b

a + b , a + b

( a + b) .
1.3. , :
n

1) 2 7 + 1 3;

+ 3n+ 2 + 3n 11;
2 n+ 2 3n + 5n 4 25;
2 n+5 34 n + 53n+1 37;
2 5n+3 + 5 n 3n+ 2 17;
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1)* n + 14 n + 2 ;

2) n + 4n 3 n + 2 ;

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: 1) 8 , 5 , 4 , 3 , 1 , 0 , 1 , 4 ;
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n3 + an + b n 2 + 1 .

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1) 12327 45; 2) 88943 ( 13);
3) ( 35627) 110.
1.21.* :
1) 5n + 2 5; 2) 5n 2 5; 3) 5n + 3 ;
2

4) 6n + 5 3; 5) n + 1 n 1 ?
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b 74. r b.
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1.25. 100 , 50,
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r1 r2 ;
3) ab r1 r2
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r1 r2 : r1 r2 = cq + r , 0 r < | c | .

ab = (cq1 + r1 )(cq 2 + r2 ) = c (cq1q 2 + q1r2 + q 2 r1 + q ) + r .


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5

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2

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2

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1.47. , , 30, 30.
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ab + 1 3, b 3 3.
15

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xn + 2 = xn2+1 + x n2 , n > 0 . x2003 7?


16

1.63. {xn } x1 = 1 , x2 = 2

x n +1 = x n x n 1 + 1 , n > 2 . ,
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1.73. , n n 252 .
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1.74. , n 36n 10n


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b, , .. f ( a ) = f (b) .

17

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1.76. ,
a , a + 1, ... , a + (n 1) .
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, 2 1 .

18

2.
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1 n.
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19

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1 2 r 1 = a1 p1 a2 p2 a r 1 pr 1 pr .
1 2 r 1
: = p1 p2 pr .
. ,
:
1 2 k = q1 q2 q s .
q1 . ,
q1 . 4 (. 1)
q1 . 1 .

1 = q1 , 1 1 1 .
1 = q1 , , 2 k = q2 q s .
,
2 = q2 3 k = q3 q s ,
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20

.
, s +1 k = 1 ,
s +1 , , k . ,

n N, n > 1 , = p1 p 2 p r
.

p1 , p2 ,, p r

. p1 , p 2 ,, p k ,

1 , 2 ,, k , .

n = p11 p2 2 pk k .

, n > 1 , .
4

. 261360 = 2 3 5 11 .

n = p11 p22 pkk

. :

d = p11 p2 2 pk k , 0 i i , i = 1, 2 , , k .
, d | n , 1 (. 1)
d .
p1 , p2 , , pk d
, , .
d

d = p11 p22 pkk .

d = p11 p2 2 pk k ,

0 i i , i = 1, 2 , , k , .

21

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, 6
.

3 ( ( . ..)).
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22

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1 100.
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15 ,

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18 ,

19 ,

20 ,

21 ,

22 ,

23 ,

24 ,

25 ,

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27,

28 ,

29 ,

30 ,

31 ,

32 ,

33 ,

34 ,

35 ,

36 ,

37,

38 ,

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42 ,

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44 ,

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47,

48 ,

49 ,

50 ,

51 ,

52 ,

53 ,

54 ,

55 ,

56 ,

57,

58 ,

59 ,

60 ,

61 ,

62 ,

63 ,

64 ,

65 ,

66 ,

67,

68 ,

69 ,

70 ,

71 ,

72 ,

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77,

78 ,

79 ,

80 ,

81 ,

82 ,

83 ,

84 ,

85 ,

86 ,

87,

88 ,

89 ,

90 ,

91 ,

92 ,

93 ,

94 ,

95 ,

96 ,

97,

98 ,

99 , 100 .

11 = 121, 121 > 100 , 2, 3,

5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71,
73, 79, 83, 89, 97 .

23


2.1. , :
1)* 353;
2)* 767;
3)* 1999;
4) 2003.
: 1) 353 ; 2) 767 ;
3) 1999 ; 4) 2003 .
2.2.* , b ( a < b) , :
1) = 2320 , b = 2350 ;
2) a = 40322 , b = 40330 ;
3) a = 3628802 , b = 3628810 ?
:
1) 2333, 2339, 2341, 2347;
2) ;
3) .
2.3.* , ,
2 , 3 , ... , , .
2.4.* , , + 1 .
2.5. , , , , 2

p .
2.6. n 7 n + 10 ?
: .
2

2.7. n + n + 1 ?
: 1 .
2.8. , . ?
: 2, 3, 19.
4

2.9.* , a 1 , a = 2 .
n

2.10.* , 2 + 1 , m = 2 n 0 .
m

24

2.11.* , p + 2 p + 4
.
: 3.
2.12.* 6 ,
3?
: 1 5.
2.13. , 2 p + 1 5 ,

4 p + 1 .
2.14.* , p, p + 10, p + 14 .
p?
: 3.
2.15.* , p 8 + 1 . p?
2

: 3.
2.16.* , p, 2p + 1, 4p + 1 .
p?
: 3.
2.17. , 2 p + 1 .
: 3.
2

2.18. , n n + 3 n > 1 .
2.19.* , 4 p + 1
2

6 p 2 + 1 .
: 5.
2.20. , 30 , 1.
2.21.* , (n 1)! , n = 4 ,

.
2.22.* n > 2 . , ,
, .

25

2.23.* , n > 2 , n!
.
2.24.* , , 2 1
.
2.25.* , , , 1 12.
2.26.* , k N
k .
2.27.* , ab ,
, b .
2.28.* , , . ,
?
2.29.* , , 13 + 1 .
: 2 211.
2.30.* , 2
, ..
( 2k + 1) + ( 2k + 3) + ( 2k + 5) + ... + ( 2k + 2n 1) ,
.

2.31.* , ,

1 i p 1 . ,
?

2.32.* , 2 , < p 2n .
4
2.33.* , + 4 ( N, > 1) .
2.34.* p n - . ,
p n 2n .

26

2.35.* p n - . ,
pn 2

2 n 1

2.36.* . ,

x 3 + py 3 + p 2 z 3 = 0

x = y = z =0.
2.37.* , , 3 2.
2.38.* , 4k 1 .
2.39.* 1 1000 ! , 2,

3, 5 7. ?
1 1 1 1 8
.
: 1 1 1 1 =
2 3 5 7 35

2.40.* , 1 ()
a
a
b , b. ( b a b .)
2.41.* b c . 1 ,
b, c?
a
:
b + bc .

24

17

2.42. , 3 + 3 + 1 ,
, 6000 (
, ).
16

+ 311 + 2 38 + 36 + 33 + 1) .
2.43. ( p ; q ; r ) ,
: 6535 (3
q

p + q

=r.
: (2 ; 3 ; 17) , (3 ; 2 ; 17) .

27

3.
,
.
. b ,
(
a b (mod m) ).
. 0 (mod m) .
. 10 4 (mod 7) .
,

(.. , ):

K 0 , K1 , , K m1 .
, - ,
, .
,
.
. 4 :
K 0 = {... , 4n , ... , 8 , 4 , 0 , 4 , 8 , ... , 4n , ...} ,

K1 = {... , 4n + 1, ... , 7 , 3 , 1, 5 , 9 , ... , 4n + 1, ...},


K 2 = {... , 4n + 2 , ... , 6 , 2 , 2 , 6 , 10 , ... , 4n + 2 , ...},
K 3 = {... , 4n + 3 , ... , 5 , 1, 3 , 7 , 11, ... , 4n + 3 , ...}.

{8 , 11, 2 , 23}

4.
4 { 0 , 1, 2 , 3} .
4
{0 , 1, 2 , 1}, {0 , 1, 2 , 1} .

28

4. a , b Z. a b (mod m)
, m | (a b) .
.
a b (mod m) , a = mq1 + r ,
b = mq2 + r .
,
a b = m (q1 q2 ) .
,
m | ( a b)
m | (a b) , a b = m . b = mq + r ,
a = m (q + ) + r . , a b (mod m)
. , ,
a Z,
Z
x = a + mq .
.
1.
2.
3.

: a (mod m ) .
. ; .
: a b (mod m ) , b a (mod m ) .
. ; .
: a b (mod m ) b c (mod m ) ,

a c (mod m ) .
. ; .
4.

a1 b1 (mod m ) , a 2 b2 (mod m ) ,

a1 + a 2 b1 + b2 (mod m ) .
. 4 a1 b1 = m1 , a 2 b2 = m 2 .
,
a1 b1 + a 2 b2 = m ( 1 + x2 ) ,

( a1 + a 2 ) (b1 + b2 ) = m ( 1 + x 2 ) . ,
, a1 + a 2 b1 + b2 (mod m )

29

5.

a + b (mod m ) , a b (mod m ) .

4
a + b = mx ,

a (b c ) = mx . , ,

a b (mod m )
6.

a b (mod m ) , a + mk b (mod m ) , k Z.

a b = m , ,
( a + mk ) b = m ( + k ) .
, , a + mk b (mod m )
.

a b + mk = m ( + k ) ,

7.

a1 b1 (mod m ) , a 2 b2 (mod m ) ,

a1 a 2 b1 b2 (mod m ) .
. 4 a1 = b1 + m1 , a 2 = b2 + m 2 .
, a1a 2 = b1b2 + m (b1 2 + b2 x1 + mx1 x 2 ) ,
a1a 2 b1b2 = mk . , ,
a1 a 2 b1 b2 (mod m )
8.

a b (mod m ) , a b (mod m ) , n N0.


. .

9.

a b (mod m ) , ak bk (mod m ) .

4
a b = m ,
,
ak bk = m ( k ) . , ,
ak bk (mod m )

10. a b (mod m ) , ak bk (mod mk ) , k N.

4
a b = m ,
,
ak bk = ( mk ) x . , ,

ak bk (mod mk )

30

a b (mod m )
a ' b' (mod m' ) .

11.

= ka ' ,

b = kb' ,

m = km ' ,

. a b = m , k ( a ' b' ) = k ( m' x ) ,


, a ' b' = m' x , a ' b' (mod m' )
12. a b (mod m ) m = du , a b (mod d ) .
. a b = m , a b = d (u ) .
, a b (mod d )
13. au av (mod m ) ( a , m ) = 1 , u v (mod m ) .
.

4
au av = m ,

a (u v ) = m . (. 1, 3)

m | (u v ) (
u v (mod m )
.
:

( a , m ) = 1 ).

k 0 x n + k1 x n1 + ... + k n1 x + k n .
a b (mod m ) , ,
= x = b ,
, ..
k0 n + k1 n1 + ... + k n1 + k n k0b n + k1b n1 + ... + k n1b + k n (modm) .
a b (mod m ) .

5.

a b (mod m ) ,

( a , m ) = 1 , .
.

31

(a , m) = 1 ,

, 2 , 3 , , (..
ia / ja (mod m ) ). , ia ja (mod m) ,
13 i j (mod m) , ,
1 i m , 1 j m , i = j .
, , 2 , 3 , ,
.
,
, 2 , 3 , , ,
b. , a b (mod m ) .
ar b (mod m ) , ,
r (.. x = r + my ),
a b (mod m) .
,
a (r + my ) = ar + m (ay ) ,
ar + m (ay ) ar (mod m) , ar + m (ay ) b (mod m) .
, a b (mod m) ,
(a , m) = 1 , , r

32


3.1.* :
1)* 14
3) 9

256

947

2)* 6

17;

592

11;

1043

13;

4) 15
23.
: 1) 1; 2) 3; 3) 3; 4) 14.

3.2.* , :
1) 11 1 100; 2) 2222
3.3. :
10

(
3) (5
5) (11

1) 2003

2003

30036
399

+1

2003

139 654

+ 13

2003

+ 55552222 7.

(
4) (29
6) (13

13;

2) 2

9;

14;

5555

2003

3700

175

2003

+4

17

17;
11;

10000

+2
16.
: 1) 7; 2) 3; 3) 1; 4) 3; 5) 10; 6) 1.

3.4.* :
2004

;
1) 2
20012004
2) 1998
.
: 1) 16; 2) 8.
3.5. , :
1)* 12n + 5; 2) 7n + 3 .
3.6.* , a + b 7, b 7.
3.7.* , a, b, c,
2

a 2 + b 2 + c 2 + 1 8.
2
2
2
3.8.* , a + b + c 9,
2
2
2
2
2
2
a b , a c , b c 9.
3.9.* ,
, 5 9.
3.10.* , 8n + 7
.
3.11. ,
.

33

3.12.* ,
.
3.13.* ,
.
3.14.* :
1) 2 + 1 0 (mod 7) ;

2) 2 3 0 (mod 7) ;

3) 2 + 3 0 (mod 6) ;

4) 1 (mod 13) ;

5) 1 (mod 11) ;

6) 2 (mod 31) ;

7) 2 x + 3 x + 1 0 (mod 5) ;

8) 2 x + 4 x + 2 0 (mod 8) .

: 1) 3 (mod 7) ;2) 5 (mod 7) ; 3) ;


4) 5 (mod 13) , 8 (mod 13) ; 5) ;
6) 8 (mod 31) , 23 (mod 31) ;
7) 2 (mod 5) , 4 (mod 5) ;
8) 1 (mod 8) , 3 (mod 8) , 5 (mod 8) , 7 (mod 8) .
3.15. :
2

1) 4 + 3 x 5 (mod11) ;
3

2) 3 + 5 x 1 (mod 7) ;

3) + 4 x 1 (mod 9) ;

4) 7 4 x 2 (mod 6) .

: 1) x 5 (mod11) , x 8 (mod11) ;
2) x 1 (mod 7) , x 2 (mod 7) ;
3) x 7 (mod 9) ; 4) x 2 (mod 6) .
3.16. :

3 (mod 5) ,
x 1 (mod 8) ;

1)*

2 (mod15) ,
x 3 (mod 8) ;

2)*

3 + 4 0 (mod14) ,
2 x + 1 3 (mod 5) ;

3)*

4 + 1 0 (mod 7) , 3 + 2 0 (mod 7) , 4 + 3 0 (mod11) ,


5)
6)
x 3 (mod 8) ;
x 5 (mod 6) ;
x 2 (mod 5) .

4)

34

: 1) 33 (mod 40) ; 2) 107 (mod 120) ;


3) 36 (mod 70) ; 4) 19 (mod 56) ;
5) 11 (mod 42) ; 6) 2 (mod 55) .
3.17.* n. , , , n.
3.18.* , 100001, ,
11.
3.19.* , 111...11

217?
3.20.* ,

ab ( a b ) ( 4a b ) 15.
3.21 (1- ).* ,
2


0 .

) ( 58 + 4 + 34 + 2 ) 3804 -

3.22 ( ).* , k + k + 2
6n + 3 .
2

3.23.* , k + k + 1 :
2) 6 1 .
1) 5, 11 17;
3.24.* , 1 + 2 + +
2, 4, 7, 9.
2

3.25.* 9:
9, ,
9.
3.26.* 11:
11, ,
, , , , 11.

35

3.27.* 7. , ,
7.
:
1) ( 1) ! 1 (mod p ) , .
2)

, , ( 1) ! 1 (mod p ) .

3.28.* .
3.29.* 98! 1904! + 1 2003.
3.30.* , 97 ! 1905! 1 2003.

: 0.

3.31.* .
2

2 x + 4 , 3 x + 8 , x + 5 x .
3 2002?
: .

36

4.

.
. a1 , 2 , , an Z
d Z, .
,
.
, :


: d = ( 1 , 2 , , n ) ,
a1 , 2 , , a n d.

d = (1 , 2 , , n ) ,

d = (1 , 2 , , n , 0) .
,

d = (1 , 2 , , n , 0) ,

d = (1 , 2 , , n )

( ,
, ).

0
a1 , 2 , , an , a1 = a2 = ... = a n = 0 (

).
, .

d = ( 1 , 2 , , n ) , ( d )
a1 , 2 , , a n .
, ,
.

( 1 , 2 , , n ) = 1 , a1 , 2 , , a n
.

. a , b Z, a 0 ,

b 0 ,
37

c1 , c2 , c3 , , cn1 , cn
.
1 = , 2 = b . b | a , 1 = , 2 = b . b = ( a , b) .
b /| a , 3 c1 c2 , 4
2 3 ..
, :
c1 = c2 q2 + c3 ,

c2 = c3 q3 + c4 ,
c3 = c4 q4 + c5 ,

cn2 = cn1qn1 + cn ,
cn1 = cn qn .
: | c2 | > c3 > c4 > ,
. , .
n , , .
n1 n .
c1 , c2 , c3 , , cn1 , cn b. .
. (78) 24.
. :
78 = 24( 4) + 18,
24 =181 + 6,
18 = 63.

, (78), 24, 18, 6 .

38

6. c1 , c2 , c3 , , cn1 , cn
( 3) , b ( a 0 , b 0) ,

n = (a , b) .

..

. c1 , c2 , c3 , , cn1 , cn , .
, :
cn1 = cn qn
,

| cn1 ;

cn2 = cn1qn1 + cn , | cn2 ;


cn3 = cn2 qn2 + cn1 , | cn3 . . , | c2 ,
| c1 , 1 = , 2 = b . ,
a b.
a b. , | . ,
, . c1 = c2 q2 + c3 , 3 = 1 2 q2 ,
( | 1 | 2 ), | 3 . c2 = c3 q3 + c4 ,
4 = 2 3 q3 , (

| 3

| 2 ), | 4 . .
, c n2 = c n1q n1 + c n , = c 2 1 q n1 , ( | c2 ,

| cn1 ), | cn . , = (a , b)
. (42598 , 2014) .
. .
:
39

_ 42598 2014
4028 21
_ 2318
2014
_ 2014 304
1824 6
_ 304 190
190 1
_ 190 114
114 1
_ 114 76
76 1
_ 76 38
76 2
0

: 38 = ( 42598 , 2014) .

: 38.

. a1 , 2 , , an Z
.
. . = 1 :
a1 = (1 ) . = 2
.
> 2 . , d ' = ( a1 , a 2 , , a n1 ) ,

d = (d ' , an ) , d = (a1 , a2 , , an1 , an ) .


, 1: d | d ' d ' | a1 ,
d '| a2 , , d '| a1 , ( d | a ) d
a1 , a2 , , an1 , an .
a1 , 2 , , an , , a1 , 2 , , an1 ,
d ' .
d ' an , x | d
.
:
1) ;
2)
;
3)
.
40

. (91476 , 3960 , 3360) .


. (91476 , 3960) :
_ 91476 3960
7920 23
_ 12276
11880
_ 3960 396
3960 10
0

, (91476 , 3960) = 396 .


(396 , 3360) :
_ 3360 396
3168 8
_ 396 192
384 2
_ 192 12
12 16
_ 72
72
0

, (396 , 3360) = 12 .
: (91476 , 3960 , 3360) = 12 .

7. d = (a , b) .
u , v Z , d = au + bv .
. , b (,
b | a ), d = (a , b) = b . , d = a 0 + b 1 : = 0 , v = 1 .
b .
c1 , c2 , , cn1 , cn

(c1 = a , c2 = b) , n > 2 :
c1 = c2 q2 + c3 ,
c2 = c3 q3 + c4 ,

cn3 = cn2 qn2 + cn1 ,


41

cn2 = cn1qn1 + cn ,
cn1 = cn qn .
: c n = 2 c n1q n1 . ,

cn1 = 3

cn2 qn2 :

cn = 2 (cn3 2 qn2 ) qn1 = cn3 (qn1 ) + cn2 (1 + qn1qn2 ) .


, ,
cn2 = 4 cn3 qn3 :

cn = cn3 ( qn1 ) + (4 3 q n3 ) (1 + qn1qn2 ) ,


cn = cn4 (1 + qn1qn2 ) + n3 (qn1 qn3 qn1qn2 qn3 ) .
, c1 = a ,
c2 = b . : d = au + bv
d = ( a , b)
d = a u + bv , a = 174 , b = 26 .

. :
174 = ( 26)(6) + 18,
26 = 18(2) + 10,
18 = 101 + 8,
10 = 81 + 2,
8 = 24.

(174 , 26) = 2 .

d = au + bv , :
2 = 10 81 = 10 (18 101) = 18 + 102 = 18 + 2( 26 18( 2)) =
= ( 26)2 + 183 = ( 26)2 + 3(174 ( 26)( 6)) = 1743 + ( 26)20.

: (174 , 26) = 2 ; 2 = 1743 + ( 26)20.

d = (a1 , a2 , , an ) .
1 , 2 , , Z , d = a1u1 + a 2 u 2 + + an u n .

42

. .
= 1 : d = a1 1 .

n = 2 .
n > 2 n 1
a1 , a2 , , an1 .

d = (a1 , a2 , , an ) ,

d = (d ' , an ) ,
d ' = (a1 , a2 , , an1 ) .
d ' = a1u1 + a2 u 2 + + an1u n1 , d = d ' v + an u n .
d = a1 (u1 v) + a2 (u 2 v) + + an1 (u n1v) + an u n
. d = ( a1 , a 2 , a3 )

d = a1u1 + a 2 u 2 + a3u3 , a1 = 10 , a 2 = 12 , a3 = 15 .
. (10 , 12) 10 12:
12 = 101 + 2,

10 = 25;

2 = 12 10.

( 2 , 15) 2 15:
15 = 27 + 1;

1 = 15 27.

:
1 = 15 (12 10)7 = 107 + 12( 7) + 151.

: (10 , 12 , 15) = 1 ; 1 = 107 + 12( 7) + 151.


. ,
. , : 10, 12, 15 , .
. a1 , a2 , , an Z

1 = a1u1 + a2 u 2 + + an u n
1 , 2 , , Z.

,
, x | 1 , .. x = 1 .
7.
. a N a + 4 , 2a + 5 , 3a + 10
, .. 1 = ( a + 4) ( 1) + ( 2a + 5) (1) + (3a + 10) 1 .
43


4.1. :
1) 645 381;
2) 846 246;
3) 15283 10013;
5) 4005 2581 .
4) 6188 4709 ;
: 1) 3; 2) 6; 3) 527; 4) 17; 5) 89.
4.2.* d = ( a , b)

d = au + bv , :
1) a = 321 , b = 843 ;
2) a = 852 , b = 822 ;
3) a = 23521 , b = 75217 ;
4) a = 867 , b = 391 ;
5) a = 945 , b = 307 .
4.3.* :
1)

21120
;
30720

2)

9061
;
10127

3)

377
;
261

4)

4853
.
5697

4.4.* , :
1) ( a , b) = ( a , a + b) ;
2) ( a , b) = ( a , a b) .
4.5.* , b , a + b a b .
4.6.* , b ,
( a + b , a b) 1, 2.
b, ( a + b , a b) = 2 .
4.7.* , b ,

(a + b , a 2 ab + b 2 ) 1, 3.

b,

2
2
(a + b , a ab + b ) = 3 .
4.8.* ,

( a , b) = (5a + 3b , 13a + 8b) .


4.9. , n + 3 3n + 8
.
44

4.10. b . ,
, an + 2003 b.
4.11. , (a , b) = 1 a1 , b1
b , (a1 , b1 ) = 1 .
4.12.* , b ,
( a , b) = ( , b) .
4.13. , ( ac , bc ) = c ( a , b) .
4.14. , , b

(a + bc , a + b (c 1)) = ( , b) .
4.15.* , b ,
(11a + 2b , 18a + 5b) 1, 19.
4.16. .
2
2
2) ( m + n , m + n ) ?
1) (5m + n , 7 m + 3n) ;
: 1)1, 2, 4 8; 2) 1 2.
4.17. :
2

1) 5n + 2 n 3 ;
2

3) 4n 1 5n + 1 ;

2)* 3n 5 4n 1 ;
2

4) 8n 7 3n 1 .
: 1) 1 47; 2) 1, 7, 11 77;
3) 1, 3, 7 21; 4) 1, 5, 11 55.

4.18.* , N
.
4.19.* ,

( + 1)
2 + 1 2

(a , b) = (c , d ) = 1

a c
+ . , b = d .
b d
4.20.* 4.19, , n > 1

1
1 1
+ + ... + .
2 3
n

45

4.21.* , a b . ,

2a + b
.
5a + 3b

4.22.* , N:
1)

2 2 1
;
2 + 1

2)

n2 + n 1
.
n 2 + 2n

4.23. , :
1)

2n 2 1
;
n +1

2)

n2 n +1
;
n2 +1

3)

14n + 3
.
21n + 4

4.24.* :
1) ;
2) .
: 1) 1; 2) 2.
4.25. :

n 2 + 2n + 4
;
1)
n2 + n + 3

n 3 n 2 3n
2)
;
n2 n + 3

3)

22n + 3
?
26n + 4

: 1) n = 3k + 2 , k Z; 2) n = 3k , n = 3k + 1 , k Z;
3) n = 5k + 1 , k Z.
4.26. ,

5n + 6
.
8n + 7

: 13.

2n + 1
?
n2 1
: n = 3k , n = 3k + 2 , k Z.

4.27.

4.28.* b, b ,
+ b = 432 ( , b) = 36 .
: a = 36 , b = 396 a = 180 , b = 252 .
46

4.29. b, b ,
b = 864 ( , b) = 6 .
: a = 6 , b = 144 a = 18 , b = 48 .
4.30. b ,
(a , b) .

a b = 64 .

: 1.
4.31. , . ,

a + 1 a 2 n + 1 .
n
m
4.32.* ( 2 1, 2 1) .
d

: 2 1 , d = (n , m) .
4.33.

xn+1 =

xn2

{x n }

x1 = 3 ,

2 . , -

.
4.34.* .
. , . , . , .
?
: ( a , b) .
4.35. , , .
2

4.36. , ( ( , 4)) = .
: = 1 , = 16 .

47

5.
. ,
a1 , 2 , , an Z, .
,
.

:

h = (a1 , 2 , , a n ) .
. 0
a1 , 2 , , an , 0.
, ,
a1 , 2 , , an (
)
, 0.
. , h = ( 1 , 2 , , n ) ,

(h)
a1 , 2 , , an . ,
,
.

8. d = (a , b) , d 0 ,
a b
.
h = (a , b) =
d
. h a b,
b
a
h = b .
.. h = a
d
d

48

a b, .. = ,

= bv ( u , v Z). a u = bv d,
b
a
b
a
b
u = v .

.
u , ..
d
d
d
d
d
b
b
ab
u = t , t Z. : = = a t =
t .
d
d
d
b
,
, , h |
d
.

a1 , 2 , , an

.
. .
= 1 : a1 = ( 1 ) .

= 2
8.
> 2 . , h' = ( a1 , a2 , , an1 ) ,

h = (h' , an ) ,

h = (a1 , a2 , , an1 , an ) .
, a1 | h' , a2 | h' , , a 1 | h' h' | h , h
a1 , a2 , , an1 , an .
a1 , 2 , , an , ,
a1 , 2 , , an1 , h' .
h' an , h | x

.
:
1) ;
2)
;
3)
.
49

. ( 462 , 252 , 91) .


.

( 462 , 252) ,

( 462 , 252) :
462 = 2521 + 210,
252 = 2101 + 42,
210 = 425.

, ( 462 , 252) = 42 , ,

462 252
= 2772 .
42
( 2772 , 91) :
( 462 , 252) =

2772 = 9130 + 42,


91 = 422 + 7,
42 = 76.

, ( 2772 , 91) = 7 , ,

2772 91
= 36036 .
7
, ( 462 , 252 , 91) = 36036 .
: ( 462 , 252 , 91) = 36036 .
( 2772 , 91) =

50


5.1. :
1) 645 381;
2) 846 246;
3) 5338 11618.
: 1) 81915; 2) 34686; 3) 197506.
5.2.*

111
1237

.
21120
30720
:

5.3.*

1776
13607

.
337920 337920

7
187

.
192 1620
:

3937
.
25920

5.4.* ,
2, 3, 4, 5, 6 , 1.
: 61.
5.5. 1
1000 ?
: 999 1000.
5.6. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 7
1, 2, 3, 4, 5 6. :
1) ;
2) .
: 1) 419 ; 2) 420n 1 ( N ).

51

5.7. 4, 5 6 3, 4 5, 7 . :
3) ;
4) .
: 1) 119 ; 2) 420n + 119 ( N0).
5.8. n + 3 .
: n( n + 3) , 3;

1
n(n + 3) , 3.
3
5.9.*
, + 1 , + 2 ( N )?
5.10.
, + 1, + 2 , n + 3 ( N )?
: 0.5n( n + 1)(n + 2)(n + 3) , 3;

1
n(n + 1)(n + 2)(n + 3) , 3.
6
5.11. , ?
: 97, 99 100.
5.12. . 4 , 6, 9.
.
?
: 36 .
5.13. ,
.

52

, 33 ?
: 11.
5.14. . 80 , 60 . 601 ,
. ?
: 1 440 .
5.15. .
75 , 65 . 18 , 10
. .
: 331,5 .
5.16.* ,
1 , 2 , ... , 2 1 , 2

+ 1 , + 2 , ... , 2 .
5.17.* b, , ( , b) = 6 , ( , b) = 90 .
: 18 30 30 18.
5.18. b, b ,
( , b) = 840 ( , b) = 15 .
: a = 15 , b = 840 a = 105 , b = 120 .
5.19. , , 66,
360.
: 90 24.

53

6.

.
,
.
.
: = 2 5 13 , b = 3 7 , c = 5 17 .
.
5

= 2 5 30 51 7 0 133 17 0 ,
b = 2 0 32 50 7 4 130 17 0 ,
c = 2 0 30 53 7 0 130 17 2 .
9. :

= p1k1 p2k 2 ... psk s , n = p1l1 p2l 2 ... psl s ,


1 , 2 , , s ,

k i li . ,
, , k i li
i = 1 , 2 , ... , s .
. = , N,
1 , 2 , , s .

,

= p1t1 p2t 2 ... pst s , ti 0 .

p1k1 p2k 2 ... psk s = p1l1 + t1 p2l 2 + t 2 ... psl s + t s

k i = li + t i , , k i li

i = 1 , 2 , ... , s .
54

ki li i = 1 , 2 , ... , s ,

= p1k1 l1 p2k 2 l 2 ... psk s l s ,

, =

1.
:
= p1k1 p2k 2 ... psk s .

:
p1l1 p2l 2 ... psl s ,
0 li k i i = 1 , 2 , ... , s .
.

82280 = 2 5 11 17
170 = 2 5 17 . 82280 170

2 2 112 = 484 .
, 9,
.
.
2. m1 , m2 , , mr
:
1 = p1k11 p2k12 ... psk1s ,
2 = p1k 21 p2k 22 ... psk 2 s ,
...
r = p1k r1 p2k r 2 ... psk rs ,
1 , 2 , , s ,
. :
55

1)

2)

( 1 , 2 , , r ) = p1u1 p2u 2 ... psu s ,

ui = min { k1i , k 2i , ... , k ri } i = 1 , 2 , ... , s .

(1 , 2 , , r ) = p1v1 p2v 2 ... psv s

vi = max { k1i , k 2i , ... , k ri } i = 1 , 2 , ... , s .

, m1 , m2 , , mr

i = 1 , 2 , ... , s

k1i , k 2i , , k ri , ..
m1 , m2 , , mr .
.

(91476 , 3960 , 3360) ,

.
. :
91476
45738
22869
7623
2541
847
121
11
1

2
2
3
3
3
7
11
11

3960
1980
990
495
165
55
11
1

2
2
2
3
3
5
11

3360
1680
840
420
210
105
35
7
1

2
2
2
2
2
3
5
7

91476 = 2 2 33 7 112 , 3960 = 2 3 32 5 11 , 3360 = 2 5 3 5 7 .


,

(91476 , 3960 , 3360) = 2 2 31 50 7 0 110 = 12 . : 12.


. ( 462 , 252 , 91) ,
.
. :
462
231
77
11
1

2
3
7
11

252
126
63
21
7
1

2
2
3
3
7

56

91 7
13 13
1

462 = 2 3 7 11 , 252 = 2 2 32 7 , 91 = 7 13 .
,

( 462 , 252 , 91) = 2 2 32 71 111 131 = 36036 .


: 36036.

m1 , m2 , , mr (r 2)
m1 m2 mr
(m1 , m2 , , mr ) (1 , 2 , ... , r ) ,

(m1 , m2 , , mr ) (1 , 2 , ... , r ) 1 2 ... r .


, m1 , m2 , , mr :

1 = p1k11 p2k12 ... psk1s ,


2 = p1k 21 p2k 22 ... psk 2 s

...
r = p1k r1 p2k r 2 ... psk rs ,
1 , 2 , , s ,
.
,
.
, r = 2 , .. :
(m1 , m2 ) (1 , 2 ) = 1 2 .
, r > 2 .
,
(2 , 3 , 6) (2 , 3 , 6) = 1 6 = 6 < 2 3 6 = 36 .
,

(m1 , m2 ) (1 , 2 ) = 1 2
, , .
57

. (n)
, (n) .
, (n) =

1 , ( n ) = d .
d |n

d |n

10. :

n = p11 p2 2 ... pk k .
k

i =1

i =1

(n) = ( i + 1) , (n) =

pii +1 1
.
pi 1

p1 1 p 2 2 ... p k k , i i

i = 1, 2 , ... , k . (1 , 2 , ... , k ) . i
i + 1 0 i ,

(1 + 1) ( 2 + 1) ... ( k + 1) .
, (n) .
pii +1 1
,
pi 1
pi :
i
pii +1 1
= 1 + pi + ... + pii = pii .
pi 1
i = 0

, ,
k

i =1

k
pii +1 1 1 1 2 2
= p1 p2 ... pkk = p11 p22 ... p kk .
pi 1
k =0
1 , 2 , ... , k
2 =0
1 =0

58

, .. (n)
. 180.
2

. 180 = 2 3 5 .
,
(180) = (2 + 1) (2 + 1) (1 + 1) = 18 ,

2 3 1 33 1 5 2 1
(180) =

= 546 .
2 1 3 1 5 1
l m
. 2 3 , ,
403.
. , l m
l m
0. l = 0 , 2 3
3m , ,
3m+1 1 = 2 403 . 3m+1 = 807 ,
3m+1 = 3 269 . ,
.. 269 . m = 0 ,
2 l 3m 2l 2 l +1 1 = 403 , .
l m
, l > 0 , m > 0 2 3 .

(2l +1 1) (3m+1 1) = 2 403 ,

(2 l +1 1) (3m+1 1) = 2 13 31 (, , 2, 13 31
l +1

m +1

). 2 1 > 1 3
1 > 1 ,
2 13 31
. 2
2

l +1

1 = 13 2

l +1

l +1

1 = 13 31

m+1
1 = 31 3 1 = 26 . l = 4
4
2
m = 2 , , 2 3 = 144 .
4
2
: 2 3 = 144 .

l, 2

l +1

59


.
. f ( n) , b
f (a b) = f (a) f (b) .
. , ( n) ( n) .
. b
a = p1k1 p2k 2 ... psk s , b = q1l1 q2l 2 ... qrl r ,
pi
q j . ab

ab = p1k1 p2k 2 ... psk s q1l1 q2l 2 ... qrl r

10 :

(ab) = (k1 + 1) ... (k s + 1) (l1 + 1) ...(l r + 1) = (a ) (b) ,


(ab) =

p1k1 +1 1
p ks +1 1 q1l1 +1 1
q lr +1 1
= (a) (b) .
... s

... r
p1 1
p s 1 q1 1
qr 1


.
. , ( a ) = 2a , .
, ,
(.. ) .

. : 6, 28, 496
8128. ,
.

60

11 ( (17071783)).
,
a = 2 k 1 (2 k 1) k 2 ,
k

2 1 .
. a = 2

k 1

(2 k 1) ,

k 2 2 k 1 . 2 k 1 2 k 1
k 1
k
( !), ( a ) = ( 2 ) ( 2 1) .
( 2
k

k 1

) = 2 k 1 ,
k

2 1 , ( 2 1) = 1 + (2 1) = 2 . k

, ( a ) = (2 1) 2 = 2a , ..

, , .. ( a ) = 2a . ,

2 n | a . a = 2 n b b. ,
, n 1 , ,
k = n + 1 , a = 2 k 1 b ,
k 2 . b , (2 k 1 , b) = 1 , ,

(x) ,

(a) = (2 k 1 ) (b) .
( 2

k 1

) = 2 1,

( a ) = 2 a = 2 k b

2 k b = (2 k 1) (b) . , , , 2 k b k

2 1 , , .. 2 b 2 1 , b
k

2 1 .
k

b = ( 2 1) c . b k

2 b = ( 2 1) (b) ,
k

(b) = 2 c , (b) = ( 2 1) c + c = b + c .

61

, c = 1 . , c > 1 , , c < b , b, 1
b,
(b) b + c + 1 ,
(b) = b + c .
k

, , b = 2 1 (b) = 2 . ,
b . ,
d, b, d 1
b,

(b) b + d + 1 = 2 k + d > 2 k = (b) , .


, a = 2

k 1

(2 k 1) , k 2 2 k 1

,
11 , ,
2000 , .
, , . ,
.
, , ,
k

2 1 , .
k

, 2 1 , k. , k
k = mn , m > 1 n > 1 ,

2 k 1 = (2 m ) n 1 = (2 m 1) (2 m( n1) + 2 m( n2) + ... + 2 m + 1)


k

, 2 1 . k

. k = 2 , 3 , 5 , 7 2 1
( , ),
k

k = 11 2 1 .
k

2 1 (1588-1648) , 62

(16011665)
. 31

2 1 , .

. .
.
k

2 + 1 . , , k 2. ,
k , , .. t k = (2m + 1) t ,

2 k + 1 = (2 t ) 2 m+1 + 1 = (2 t + 1) (2 t ( 2 m ) 2 t ( 2 m1) + 2 t ( 2 m2) ... + 2 2t 2 t + 1)


t

2 + 1 2 + 1 . t

1 t < k 1 < 2 + 1 < 2 + 1 ,


k

, 2 + 1 . ,
, ..
2n
2 + 1 , n 0 , .
n = 0 , 1, 2 , 3 , 4

3 , 5 , 17 , 257 , 65537 . , ,
n = 5 . ,
.

63


6.1.*
, :
3) = 1858560 .
1) = 1000000 ; 2) = 28350 ;
6.2.* , :
1) a = 92 772 757 ;
2) a = 82 798 848 ;
3) a = 64 984 829 ;
4) a = 97 363 981 ;

5) a = 29 520 491 .

6.3.* d
h b, :
1) = 72 , b = 135 ;
2) a = 2 3 13 101 , b = 3 13 101 113 ;
5

3) a = 7 11 19 29 , b = 2 7 11 13 23 .
6.4. , ,
( , bc) = c (a , b) .
3

6.5.* b, ab + ba
.
: ( 2 ; 9) , (3 ; 8) , ( 4 ; 7) , (5 ; 6) ,

(6 ; 5) , (7 ; 4) , (8 ; 3) , (9 ; 2) .
3

6.6.* x y = 91 .
: (6 ; 5) , ( 5 ; 6) , ( 4 ; 3) , (3; 4) .
6.7. ,
225, 225.
: 9 25.
6.8. 600. ?
: 10.
6.9.

xy = 720 ,

( x , y ) = 4 .
64

: (180 ; 4) , ( 4 ; 180) , (36 ; 20) , ( 20 ; 36) .



(a , b) = 15 , (a , b) = 420 .

6.10.

b,

ab

: 15 420; 60 105.
6.11. , 60,
72.
: 24 36.
6.12. ,
5 7 , 140.
: 20 28.
6.13. , 40, 20.
: 2 20 4 10.
6.14.* ,
60, 288.
: 96 36.
6.15. , 24, 360.
: 24 360 72 120.
6.16. , 54, 324.
: 54 324 108 162.
6.17. ,
21 25 14 15 .
: 42 5 .
6.18. ,
35 66 , 28 165 25 231 .
: 700 33 .
6.19. ,
154 195 , 385 156 231 130 .
: 77 780 .
65

6.20. , 108,
12.
: 3 36 9 12.
6.21. 100!?
: 24 .
6.22.* , !

n n n
p + 2 + 3 + ...
p p
( [ ] ).
6.23. 97!.
: 97 ! = 2

94

346 522 714 118 137 175 195 234 293

313 37 2 412 432 47 2 53 59 61 67 71 73 79 83 89 97


n
n
6.25. , a b , b.
6.26.* , b , ( a , b) = 1 .
n

, ab = c , y,

a = xn , b = yn .
m

6.27. b . , a = b ,
( m , n) = 1 , ,

a = cn , b = cm .
6.28. , a, b, c :
1) (a , b , c ) ( ab , ac , bc) = abc ;
2) (ab , ac , bc) ( a , b , c ) = abc .
6.29.* , b ,
, b , ab .
6.30. :
1) (5600) , (5600) ;
2) (15 435) , (15 435) ;
66

3) (1 000 000) , (1 000 000) ; 4) (3 697 001) , (3 697 001) .


: 1) (5600) = 36 ; (5600) = 15 624
2) (15 435) = 24 , (15 435) = 31 200 ;
3) (1 000 000) = 49 , (1 000 000) = 2 480 437 ;
4) (3 697 001) = 24 , (3 697 001) = 4 952 160 .
6.31.* ?
: .
6.32.* n = qp , q p . ,
(n) = 48 .
: 33; 35.
6.33. , , 3 5
( n) = 6 .
: 45 75.
2 2

6.34. , , n = p q , q , (n) = 403 .


: 225.
6.35. , n = p

( n ) < 2 n .
6.36.

( n )
1
(n)
= , ..

n
n
d |n d

, .
6.37.* ,

(n)

n

67

7.
.
P ( x , y , ...) = 0 , P ( x , y , ...)
,
, .
, .
, .
7.1.
( ):

a1 1 + a2 2 + + an n = b ,
ai , b Z ( i = 1 , 2 , , n ) i 0 .

v1 , v2 , , vn Z,

a1v1 + a2 v2 + + an vn = b .
. , .. .


.

12. a1 1 + a2 2 + + an n = b
d | b ,
,
d = (a1 , a2 , , a n ) .

68

. , .. v1 , v2 , , vn Z,

a1v1 + a2 v2 + + an vn = b ,
ai d b d.
b = d c ( c Z). d = (a1 , a2 , , a n ) ,
d = a1u1 + a2u 2 + + an u n 1 , 2 , , n Z
(. 4, 7).

b = d c = a1 (u1c) + a2 (u 2 c) + + an (u n c) .
vi = ui c ( i = 1 , 2 , , n ) , a1 1 + a2 2 + + an n = b
. Z,
, d = ( a1 , a2 , , a n ) ,
.
. 147 x 25 y = 14 .
. 147 25 , ,
Z. :
147 = (25)(5) + 22,
25 = 22(2) + 19,
22 = 191 + 3,
19 = 36 + 1.
1 = 19 36 = 19 6(22 19) = 719 622 =
= 7( 25 22( 2)) 622 = 7( 25) + 822 =
= 7( 25) + 8(147 + 5( 25)) = 8147 + 47( 25).

, 1 = 1478 + ( 25)47. ,

14 = 147112 25658.
: (112 ; 658)
147 x 25 y = 14 .

69

.
.
. 7 x + 5 y = 3 .
. 7 5 , , Z. : (1 ; 2) .
: (1 ; 2) .

13. a1 1 + a2 2 + + an n = b ( 2)
Z, Z.
. v1 , v2 , , vn Z , t Z
v1 + a2 t , v2 a1t , v3 , , vn ,
a1 (v1 + 2t ) + a2 (v2 a1t ) + a3v3 + + an vn =
= a1v1 + a2 v2 + a3v3 + + an vn = b
. a1 1 + a2 2 + + an n = b
Z, b d = ( a1 , a2 , , a n ) .

ai
b
( i = 1 , 2 , , n ) b' = . d
d
d,
ai ' =

a1 ' 1 + a2 ' 2 + + an ' n = b' ,


.
1 ' , a2 ' , , an ' .

,
.

70

, 12, Z, ..
d ' = 1 d ' | b' .

14. ax + by = c Z
( u 0 ; v0 )

,
d = ( a , b) . Z ( u ; v ) ,
b

u = u0 d t ,
t Z.

v = v + a t ,
0

d
. ,
ax + by = c :

b
a

a u 0 t + b v0 + t = a u 0 + b v 0 = c .
d
d

, (!!)
ax + by = c . , ( u ; v ) , .. au + bv = c . a u0 + bv0 = c .
d,

a
b
(u0 u ) + (v0 v) = 0 .
d
d
a
b
a
b
(u0 u ) = (v v0 ) .

d
d
d
d
a
b
,
(v v0 ) ,
(u0 u ) (. 1, 3).
d
d
a
a
a
(v v0 ) v v0 = t , t Z, .. v = v0 + t . d
d
d

71

a
b
(u0 u ) = (v v0 ) , d
d
a
b a
b
a
(u0 u ) = t . , u0 u = t ,

d
d
d d
d
b
u = u 0 t
d
v

. 147 x 25 y = 14 .
. ( u 0 ; v0 ) = (112 ; 658)
. ,
:

x = 112 + 25t ,
t Z.

y = 658 + 147t ,
. 112 = 25 4 + 12 658 = 147 4 + 70 ,
147 x 25 y = 14 :

x = 12 + 25t ,
t Z.

y = 70 + 147t ,
7.2.

.

: (6 . ..)
(16101685).

2

. + = z , x , y , z Z, .
72

( ; ; z ) ,
, .
.
, .
.
( ; ; z ) , .. 2

+ = z . x, y, z 0,

( a ; 0 ; a) , ( a ; 0 ; a)
(0 ; a ; a) , (0 ; a ; a) , a Z. ,
, , z 0 . x, y, z

+ = z ,
, , , z > 0 , ..
.
d x, y, z. 2

+ = z

d ,

12 + 12 = z12 , x = x1d , y = y1d , z = z1d x1 , y1 , z1


. , ( ; ; z ) , ,
,
( ; ; z ) .
2

, , , , z N, + = z

( , , z ) = 1 .
( ' ) 2 + ( ' ) 2 = 1 .
y'
1 x'
=
.
1 + x'
y'

x
y
= x' ,
= y' .
z
z
( y ' ) 2 = (1 x' ) (1 + x' ) ,

73

t =

u
u
, u , v Z.
.
v
v

y ' = t (1 + x' ) ,
t x' y ' = t ,

1 x' = t y ' ;
x' + t y ' = 1.

x' y ' :

1 t 2
,
x' =
1+ t 2

y ' = 2t .

1+ t 2

x y
u

x ' y ' ,
t, :
z
z
v
x v2 u2
,
= 2
z u + v2

y = 2u v .
z u 2 + v 2

x (u 2 + v 2 ) = z (v 2 u 2 ) , y (u 2 + v 2 ) = z 2uv .
u

, (u , v ) = 1 . ,
v
x, y, z .
2
2
2
+ = z , x, y, z
, .. ( x , y ) = ( y , z ) = ( x , z ) = 1 . , , , x z ,
y 2 = z 2 x 2 p , , y p . x , y , z p ,
( , , z ) 1 . .
74

.
1- : v . ,

u 2 + v 2 2v . , u 2 + v 2 , 2uv p ,
,

p 2 ( u 2 + v 2 -

)., u p v p . u p , v

p , ,
v p , (u , v) 1 . v p -

.
2

y (u 2 + v 2 ) = z 2uv

(u + v , 2uv) = 1 , y 2uv . , y = 2uv r 2

r Z. z = (u + v ) r . ( y , z ) = 1 ,

r = 1.

y = 2uv ,

z = u2 + v2 .

z (v 2 u 2 )
= v 2 u 2 . x = v 2 u 2 ,
2
2
u +v
y = 2uv , z = u 2 + v 2 , v
v >u.
2
2
2- : v . u + v 2,
u2 + v2
. :
4. ,
2
u2 + v2
v2 u2
u2 + v2
x
= z
, y
= z uv .
2
2
2
u2 + v2
,
uv . ,
2
u2 + v2

, uv p , u p (
2
v p ), v p ( u p ).
(u , v) 1 , . ,
x=

75

v2 u2
u2 + v2
, y = uv , z =
. v ,
2
2
u+v
v u
u+v
v u
Z
Z. m =
, n=
.
2
2
2
2
v2 u2
v +u v u
x=
= 2

= 2mn ,
2
2
2

x=

u +v v u
2
2
y = uv =
=m n ,

2 2
2

z=

u2 + v2 u + v v u
2
2
=
=m +n .
+
2
2 2

, :

x = v 2 u 2 ,

y = 2uv ,

2
2
z = u + v ,

x = 2mn ,

2
2
y = m n ,

2
2
z = m + n ,

, , , v .
: ( ; ; z ) ( N ).
. :
1) v = 2 , u = 1 : (3 ; 4 ; 5) ;
2)
3)
4)
5)

v = 3 , u = 2 : (5 ; 12 ; 13) ;
v = 4 , u = 3 : (7 ; 24 ; 25) ;
v = 10 , u = 7 : (51 ; 140 ; 149) ;
m = 7 , n = 3 : (42 ; 40 ; 58) .

:
x , y , z ,
76

xn + yn = z n ,
, 2?
(16011665), , ,
:

xn + yn = z n
> 2 .

(3 . ..) :
, -
.
, , , .

, (
) . .
,
. -
4 000 000 , 1994
.
.
23 1993 , (),
, , .
.
1993 , ,
,
. . 1995

77

, , .

2

. x Ay = 1 , A N, A u , .
.
, 0
y 0 . ,

( x0 ; y0 ) = (1; 0) . , , ( x ; y )
( x1 ; y1 ) , x > x1 ,
y > y1 .
. () ( x0 ; y 0 ) ,

0 0 y0 0 ( 0 > 0 y 0 > 0) .
( x1 ; y1 )

x 2 Ay 2 = 1 .
. , ..
.
.

)(

x12 Ay12 = 1 x1 y1 A x1 + y1 A = 1 ,

( x12

(x y

) ( x + y A ) = 1 ,
A ) (( x + Ay ) + 2 x y A ) = 1 .

1
1 A
2
Ay1 ) 2 x1 y1

2
1

78

2
1

1 1

(x

)(

x12 + Ay12 = 2 ,

2 x1 y1 = y 2 ,

y 2 A x2 + y 2 A = 1 . ,
, ( x2 ; y 2 )
2

x 2 Ay 2 = 1 . ,

(x y
1

)(

A x1 + y1 A = 1 ( ( x3 ; y3 ) -

), .. .
, ( x1 ; y1 ) x Ay = 1 x n + y n
2

A = x1 + y1 A

, ( x ; y )

15. .
.
,

1 , 2 , , , ( 1 , 2 , , , )

x 2 Ay 2 = 1 ,

xn + y n A = x1 + y1 A

, N ( x1 ; y1 )

, .
2

( ; v ) x Ay = 1 ,
< xn+1 , y v < y n+1 . , < < xn+1 ,

y < v < y n+1 , .


, xn + y n

A < u + v A < xn+1 + y n+1 A .

xn + y n
, xn y n

A (, -

A ),

1 < ( xn y n A ) (u + v A ) < x1 + y1 A
1 < (ux n Avy n ) + (vxn uy n ) A < x1 + y1

79

A.

, (ux n Avy n ; vxn uy n )


2

x Ay = 1 ( !).

uxn Avy n > 0 ,


,

>
0
;
vx
uy
n
n

, ( x1 ; y1 )
.
2

, uxn Avy n = 1 + Av 1 + Ay n Avy n (

u 2 Av 2 = 1 ,

xn2 Ay n2 = 1

u = 1 + Av 2 ,

xn = 1 + Ay n2 ), 1 + Av 2 > Av 2 , 1 + Ay n2 > Ay n2 .
uxn Avyn > 0 .
,

x2 1
u 2 1
xn u n
,
A
A
2
2
2
2
.. u Av = 1 , xn Ay n = 1
vxn uy n =

v=

u 2 1
, yn =
A

xn2 1
.
A

x2 1
u 2 1
xn u n
> 0 , ,
A
A
2
2
2
2
(u 1) xn > u ( xn 1) .

xn < u , .
, vxn uy n > 0 . .
, u = xn , v = y n

80


7.1.* :
1) 3 + 6 = 22 ; 2) 6 + 9 = 2 ; 3) 5 + 9 = 2 ;
4) 7 + 11 = 13 ; 5) 3 4 = 29 ; 6) 11 + 12 = 58 ;
7) 153 34 = 51 .
7.2. 11 + 8 = 104 .
: (8; 2).
7.3.* b, 200 + 3b = 2003 .
: (10 ; 1) , (7 ; 201) , ( 4 ; 401) , (1; 601) .
7.4.* , 20 2 3 .
: (10 ; 0) , (7 ; 2) , ( 4 ; 4) , (1 ; 6) .
7.5.* 5000 . 5,
6 7 , .
11 , .
?
: 2101 4411 .
7.6. 291 12 15 .
, ? ?
: 5 , 20 (3 12 , 17 15 ).
7.7.* :

3 + 3 + 5 z = 1 ,
3 + 2 z = 1 ,
2 + 3 + 5 z = 8 ,
2)
3)
4 x + 5 y 2 z = 4 ; 4 x + 5 y 2 z = 4 ; 5 x 6 y + 8 z = 9 .

1)

= 85 31t ,
: 1) = 72 + 26t ,

z = 8 + 3t ,

81

= t ,
t Z; 2) = 2 + 2t , t Z;
z = 3 + 7t ,

3) .

1 (mod b1 ) ,
x a 2 (mod b2 ) ;

7.8.* ,

, (b1 , b2 ) = 1 . ?
7.9 ( ).* , 1 (mod b1 ) ,

: x a 2 (mod b2 ) , , bi

..........................
(mod bn ) ;
(i = 1 , 2 , ... , n ) .
7.10. :

x 2 (mod 7) ,
x 3 (mod10) ,
2)*
x 5 (mod 9) ;
x 2 (mod13) ;
5 x 3 (mod 7) ,
3x 5 (mod13) ,
3)
4)
x 4 (mod11) ;
x 2 (mod 5) .
: 1) x 23 (mod 63) ; 2) x 93 (mod 130) ;
3) x 37 (mod 77) ; 4) x 32 (mod 65) .
7.11.* f (x ) , f (1) = 1 , f (5) = 2 ?
1)*

: .
7.12. :
1)* sin x + sin 5 x = 2 ; 2)* sin 7 x + cos 2 x = 2 ;

5x
5
x = 1 ; 4) sin 2 x cos = 1 ;
6
3
4x
= 1 .
5) cos 2 x cos
5
: 1) = 2 + 2t , t Z; 2) = 2 + 2t , t Z;
3) = 3 + 12l , l Z; 4) ;
5) = 2,5 + 5l , l Z.

3)* cos 6 x sin

82

7.13.* , 7 1 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
: 301.
7.14.* ,
2 1, 3 2, 4 3, 5 4 6
5.
: 59.
7.15.*
2 = 1 .
2

: (3 ; 2) , (17 ; 12) , (99 ; 70) .


7.16.* x Ay = 1 .
2

x n +1 = x n x1 + Ay n y1 ,
y n +1 = x n y1 + y n x1 .

7.17.* ,

2 2 2 = 1.
: (3 ; 2) , (17 ; 12) , (99 ; 70) .
7.18.* ,
:
1) 3 = 1 ;
2

2) 8 = 1 .

: 1) ( 2 ; 1) , (7 ; 4) , ( 26 ; 15) ; 2) (3 ; 1) , (17 ; 6) , (99 ; 35) .


7.19.* , = 1
2

x0

:
( ; ) ( ' ; ' ) = ( x x ' + A y y ' ; x y ' + y x ' ) .
?

83

8.

:
1. .
2.
- .
3. .
4. .
5. .
.
8.1.
1.

2 x 2 y 2 + y 2 6 x 2 12 = 0 .
2 2
2
2
. 2 x y + y 6 x 12 = 0
y ( 2 x + 1) 3 ( 2 x + 1) = 9
2

( 2 x + 1) ( y 3) = 9 .
2

2 x + 1 > 0 , y 3 > 0 . :
2

2 x 2 + 1 = 1 ,
x = 0 ,
1.
2
.
2
y = 12 .
y 3 = 9;
2 x 2 + 1 = 3 ,
x = 1 ,
2.
2
.
2
y = 6.
y 3 = 3;
x = 2 ,

2 x 2 + 1 = 9 ,
y = 2 ;
3.

2
x = 2 ,
y 3 = 1;

y = 2 .
: ( 2 ; 2) ; ( 2 ; 2) .

84

2.

10 8 + 5 = 63 .
. 10 + 5 = 5 ( 2 + 1)
8 = 4 ( 2 + 1) 4 .
(5 4) ( 2 + 1) = 59 .
59 , :
5 4 = 1 ,
5 4 = 59 ,
1.
2.
2 + 1 = 59 .
2 + 1 = 1 .
5 4 = 1 ,
5 4 = 59 ,
3.
4.
2 + 1 = 59 .
2 + 1 = 1 .
: (1 ; 29) , ( 11 ; 1) .
3.

2 + + = 83 .
. , :
83
1
167
167
= +
2 = 1 +
.
=
2 + 1
2 2 ( 2 + 1)
2 + 1
, 2 + 1 167.
:
2. 2 + 1 = 167 ;
1. 2 + 1 = 167 ;
3. 2 + 1 = 1 ;
4. 2 + 1 = 1 .
: (83 ; 0) , ( 84 ; 1) , (0 ; 83) , ( 1 ; 84) .

8.1. :
1) = 91 ; 2) 6 = .
2

: 1) (46; 45), (46; 45), ( 46; 45), ( 46; 45), (10; 3),
(10; 3), ( 10; 3), ( 10; 3); 2) .

85

8.2. ,
:
1) 57;
2) 68;
3) 69;
4) 52;
5) 65.
: 1) (11; 8), (29; 28); 2) (18; 16);
3) (35; 34), (13; 10); 4) (14; 12);
5) (33; 32), (9; 4).
8.3. , :
1) 3 6 = 2 + 4 ;
2

2) 3 9 = 3 + 8 ;
2

3) 5 20 = 4 16 + 16 .
2

:
1) (0; 4), ( 1; 3), (1; 4);
2) (3; 10), (0; 8), ( 1; 5), (1; 7);
3) (1; 20), (4; 17), (0; 4).
8.4.
:

1) 2 6 = 9 3 + 6 ;
2

2) 6 = 2 12 + 4 ;
3) 2 + 4 = 5 + 10 + 21 .
2

: 1) ; 2) (3; 22), (6; 37), (1; 2), (4; 26); 3) (3; 15).
8.5. :
1) + 3 5 = 3 ;
2) + 3 = 6 .
: 1) (3; 6), (2; 3), (4; 15);
2) (4; 2), ( 2; 4), (2; 0), (0; 6).
8.6. :
1) 2 + 5 12 = 28 ;
2

2) 3 + 2 = 3 .
2

: 1) (8; 5); 2) (5; 2), ( 1; 2), ( 5; 2), (1; 2).


86

8.7. 2 = + 2 .
2

: (2; 2).
8.8. = + 2 + 13 .
2

: (4; 1), (4; 3), ( 4; 3), ( 4; 1).


8.9. :
1) 4 5 = 1996 ; 2) 4 5 = 1999 .
2

: 1) (832; 166); 2) (1666; 333).


8.10. , = 1993
.
3

8.11. + = 1999 .
: .
3

8.2.

4.
.

6 2 + 2 2 + 7 + 2 + 7 + 3 = 0 .
6 2 + 2 2 + 7 + 2 + 7 + 3 = 0
2

(6 y + 2) x + 7 ( y + 1) x + ( 2 y + 3) = 0 .

(, 6 y + 2 = 0
), :

1
2 3
1 = , 2 =
.
2
3 + 1

1 ,
2 . : 2 3 = (3 + 1) .

87

7
2
(3 + 1) = (3 + 1) .
3
3
, (3 + 1) (3 + 2) = 7 .
, Z, :
3 + 2 = 1 ,
3 + 2 = 1 ,
1.
2.
3 + 1 = 7 .
3 + 1 = 7 .
3 + 2 = 7 ,
3 + 2 = 7 ,
3.
4.
3 + 1 = 1 .
3 + 1 = 1 .
: (3 ; 0) , (1 ; 2) .

8.12. :
1) 5 + 5 + 8 + 2 2 + 2 = 0 ;
2

2) + + + 2 2 + 4 = 0 ;
2

3) 3( + + ) = + 8 .
2

: 1) (1; 1); 2) (2; 2); 3) (1; 1), (0; 0).


8.13. :
1) + + = ;
2

1
1
1
+
+ 2 = 1 ;
2


6
3
4
3) + + 1 = .
: 1) ( 1; 1), (1; 1), (0; 0); 2) ;
3) (0; 1), (0; 1), ( 1; 1), ( 1; 1).

2)

8.14. :
1) 20 + 28 = 107 ;
4

2) 2 + 6 = 13 .
4

88

: 1) (4; 3), ( 4; 3), ( 4; 3), (4; 3),


(2; 3), ( 2; 3), ( 2; 3), (2; 3);
2) (2; 1), ( 2; 1), (2; 1), ( 2; 1).
8.15.

( + ) 2 3 = 150 .
: (3; 10).
8.16.

2 + 4 2 + 4 3 4 600 = 0 .

: t 2 601; 301

t (t 1) 2
t (t + 1)
, t 601; 301
, t Z.
2
2

8.3.
2

5. , x + y = 9999
.
. 9999 ,
(,
), . , x = 2k ,

y = 2n 1 , , x 2 = 4k 2 , y 2 = 4n 2 4n + 1 = 4m + 1 .
, 4
2
2
x + y 9999 (..
4).

2 0 (mod 4) ,
y 2 1 (mod 4) ,
,
2
2
x + y 1 (mod 4) ; 9999 = 4 2499 + 3 3 (mod 4) .
2
2
x + y
9999 4,
x 2 + y 2 = 9999 .
6. , 15 x 7 y = 9
.
2

89

. 7 y = 15 x 9 .
2

7 y 2 9 (mod 15) ,

..

7 y 2 6 (mod 15) .
15:

0 1

10

11

12

13

14

y2

0 1

10

10

7 y2

0 7

13

10

12

13

13

12

10

13

, 7 y

6 15.

, 15 x 7 y = 9
.
2

7 ( 90). ,

7 1 = 12 (2 y + 1) 2
.
. , 0 .
, ,

7 1 0 (mod12) .
: = 2k = 2k + 1 , k = 0 , 1 , 2 , ... .
7

2k

= 49 k 1k = 1 (mod12) ,

7 2 k +1 = 7 49 k 7 (mod12) . ,

7 1 0 (mod 12) . ,
, = 2k , k = 0 , 1 , 2 , ... .

2k

1 = 12 ( 4 y 2 + 4 y + 1) , 49 k 1 = 48 y ( y + 1) + 12 .

90

49 = 48 y ( y + 1) + 13 , .. 49 13 (mod 48) .
k

49 k 1k = 1 (mod 48) , .. k = 0 , 1 , 2 , ... ,


49 k 13 (mod 48) . ,
.

8.17. 2 1 = .

: (1; 1), (1; 1), (0; 0).


8.18. , 6 = + 2
.

8.19. :
1) + = 4 z 1 ;
2

2) + + z = 8t 1 .
: 1) ; 2) .
2

8.20. + 21 + 5 = 0 .
: .
3

8.21.

1! + 2! + 3! + ... + ! = 2 .
: (1; 1), (1; 1), (3; 3), (3; 3).
5

8.22. , = 1993
.
8.23. , :

2 3 = 7 ,
2 + 5 = 11,
2)
z 2 2 y 2 = 1;
z 2 2 y 2 = 1;

1)

91

8.4.
2

8. , 3 x y = 5

.
. ,
:
1) 3x y = 1 ;
2

2) 3x y = 5 .

3x 2 y 2 = 1
y 2 2 (mod 3) .

1)

y 2 = 3 2 1 , .. :

y
y

y 2 / 2 (mod 3) . ,

3x 2 y 2 = 1 .
2
2
2
2
2) 3x y = 5 3 = 5 + y , .. :
3x 2 y 2 (mod 5) .
0
0

y
y2

1
1

2
4

3
4

4
1

3 2

,
x y 0 (mod 5) , x = 5k ,

y = 5n . , 3x 2 = 3 25k 2 , y 2 = 25n 2 . ,
2
2
2
2
: 3 25k = 5 + 25 , .. 3 5k = 1 + 5n .

92


5, , .

2

, , z 0 . 3 x y = 5 3 x = 5 + y .
z = 0 , ,

z 1 . , 3x 2 y 2 (mod 5) .
x y 0 (mod 5) . = 51 ,
y = 5y1 , , 3 25 x12 = 5 z + 25 y12 , 3 x12 = 5 z 2 + y12 .
5 .
2
2
2
2
3x y = 1 3x y = 5 ,
.
.
9. 2 x 5 y = z .
2

. 2 x 5 y = z
2

2 x = 5 y + z . ,
2

2 x z (mod 5) .
2

5:

2 2

z 0 (mod 5) .
, = 51 , z = 5z1 ,

2 25 x12 5 y 2 = 25z12 . 5,
2
2
2
10 x1 y = 5z1 ,
, y 0 (mod 5) , ..

93

y = 5y1 .

10 x12 y 2 = 5z12

5,

10 x12 25 y12 = 5z12 .


2 x12 5 y12 = z12 , , .

.
-, , , z 5. -,

x1 , y1 , z1 , ..

x y z
, , , ,
5 5 5

5. , , ,

2 x 2 5 y 2 = z 2 , 5,
5, , 5.

2x 5y = z
(0; 0; 0).

: (0; 0; 0).

8.24. 4 2 z = 0 .
3

: (0; 0; 0).
8.25. ,
.

8 4 + 4 4 + 2 z 4 = t 4

8.26. , :
1) + + z = 2 xyz ; 2) + + z + = 2 xyz ;
.
2

8.27. 3 9 z = 0 .
3

: (0; 0; 0).

94

8.5.
10.

1 1 1
+ = .
2

. y x .

x = 1, 2 , 3 , ... . :
1) x = 1 :

1+

1 1
1
= , .. 1 + > 1
y 2
y

1 1 1
1 1 1
+ = , .. + >
2 y 2
2 y 2
;
1 1
1 1 1
= , y = 6 ; ,
+ = ,
3) x = 3 :
y 6
3 y 2
(3; 6) ;
1 1 1
1 1
+ = ,
= , y = 4 ; ,
4) x = 4 :
y 4
4 y 2
(4 ; 4) ;
10
1 1 1 1 3
+ = , = , y = N.
5) x = 5 :
5 y 2 y 10
3
x 6 . y x , , y 6 .
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
, , , + < . , x 6
x y 3 2
x 6 y 6
y x .
1 1 1
+ =
,

2
, , y x ,
2) x = 2 :

95

(6 ; 3) . , , x 6

y 6 .
: (4; 4), (6; 3), (3; 6).
11.

x 2 + 13 y 2 6 xy = 100 .
2

. x + 13 y 6 xy = 100 ( x 3 y ) + 4 y = 100 .

( x 3 y ) 2 0 , 4 y 2 100 , | 2 y | 10 . ,
4 y 2 0 | x 3 y | 10 .
12 :

x 3 y = 0 ,
2 y = 10 ;

1.

x = 15 ,
y = 5.

x 3 y = 10 ,
x = 10 ,

2 y = 0 ;
y = 0.
x 3 y = 6 ,
x = 18 ,
5.

2 y = 8 ;
y = 4.
3.

x 3 y = 6 ,
2 y = 8 ;

x 3 y = 8,
2 y = 6 ;

x 3 y = 8,
2 y = 6 ;

7.
9.
11.

x = 6 ,
y = 4 .
x = 17 ,
y = 3.
x = 1,
y = 3.

x 3 y = 0 ,
2 y = 10 ;

2.

x = 15 ,
y = 5.

x 3 y = 10 ,
x = 10 ,

2 y = 0 ;
y = 0.
x 3 y = 6 ,
x = 6 ,
6.

2 y = 8 ;
y = 4.
4.

x 3 y = 6 ,
x = 18 ,

2 y = 8 ;
y = 4 .
x 3 y = 8 ,
x = 1,
10.

2 y = 6 ;
y = 3.

8.

x 3 y = 8 ,
x = 17 ,

2 y = 6 ;
y = 3.

12.

: ( 15 ; 5) ; (10 ; 0) ; ( 18 ; 4) ;

( 6 ; 4) ; ( 17 ; 3) ; ( 1; 3) .
12. ( x ; y ; z ) ,

3( x 3) 2 + 6 y 2 + 2 z 2 + 3 y 2 z 2 = 33 .
96

. ( x0 ; y 0 ; z 0 ) ,
,

3( x0 3) 2 + 6 y 02 + 2 z 02 + 3 y 02 z 02 = 33 .
,

3( x0 3) 2 33 ,

..

( x0 3) 11 . ( x0 3)

x0 3 , ( x0 3) 2 0, 1, 4, 9.
2

2 2

3( x0 3) + 6 y 0 + 2 z 0 + 3 y 0 z 0 = 33

3( x0 3) 2 + ( z 02 + 2) (3 y 02 + 2) = 37 .

( x0 3) 2 = 0 , ( z 02 + 2) (3 y 02 + 2) = 37 .

z 02 + 2 3 y02 + 2 , 1, 37 ,
2

. , ( x0 3) 0 .
2

( x0 3) = 1 , ( z 0 + 2) (3 y 0 + 2) = 34 .

z 02 + 2 2 3 y02 + 2 2 z 02 + 2 , 3 y02 + 2 ,

z 02 + 2 = 2 ,
z 02 + 2 = 17 ,

2
3 y0 + 2 = 17 ,
3 y02 + 2 = 2 .

. ,

( x0 3) 2 1 .

( x0 3) 2 = 4 ,

z 02 + 2 = 5 ,

3 y02 + 2 = 5.

( z 02 + 2) (3 y02 + 2) = 25 ,

,
2

. , ( x0 3) 4 .

( x0 3) 2 = 9 , ..

x0 = 6

x0 = 0 ,

( z 02 + 2) (3 y 02 + 2) = 10 . z 02 + 2 2 3 y02 + 2 2
97

z 02

+2,

3 y02

z 02 + 2 = 5 ,
+ 2 ,

3 y 02 + 2 = 2 ,

z 02 + 2 = 2 ,
,
2
3 y0 + 2 = 5.
,
( y 0 ; z 0 ) : (1; 0) (1; 0) .
, ( x0 ; y 0 ; z 0 ) ,
, : (6 ; 1; 0) , (6 ; 1; 0) ,

(0 ; 1; 0) (0 ; 1; 0) . ,
.
: (6 ; 1; 0) , (6 ; 1; 0) , (0 ; 1; 0) , (0 ; 1; 0) .

8.28. :
1)

1 1 1
+ = ;
3

1 1 1
+ + =1.
z
: 1) (6; 6), (12; 4), (4; 12);
2) (3; 3; 3), (2; 4; 4), (4; 4; 2), (4; 2; 4), (2; 3; 6),
(2; 6; 3), (3; 2; 6), (3; 6; 2), (6; 3; 2), (6; 2; 3).
2)

8.29. ( x ; y ; z ) ,
:
2

1) 5 x + y + 3 z 2 yz = 30 ;
2

2) 4 x + 3 y + 5 z 24 y 1 = 0 ;
2

3) 2 x + y + 7 z + 2 x y 42 z + 33 = 0 .
: 1) (1; 5 ; 0) , (1; 5 ; 0) , (1; 5 ; 0) , (1; 5 ; 0) ;
2) (1; 4 ; 3) , (1; 4 ; 3) , (1; 4 ; 3) , (1; 4 ; 3) ;
3) (1; 0 ; 1) , (1; 0 ; 1) , (1; 0 ; 5) , (1; 0 ; 5) .
98

8.6.
8.30. :
1) xy = x + y ;
2) xy +1 = x + y .
: 1) ( 2 ; 2) , (0 ; 0) ; 2) (c ; 1) , (1; d ) , c , d Z.
8.31. :
2

1) 15 x 11xy + 2 y = 7 ; 2) 12 x 17 xy + 6 y = 3 ;
2

3) x 3 xy + 2 y = 3 .
: 1) (13 ; 32) , ( 5 ; 16) , (13 ; 32) , (5 ; 16) ;
2) (3 ; 5) , ( 3 ; 5) , (7 ; 9) , ( 7 ; 9) ;
3) (5 ; 2) , ( 5 ; 2) , ( 1; 2) , (1; 2) .
8.32. :
2

1) x 4 xy = 4 y ;

2) x + 23 = y ; 3) x = 3 y + 2 .

: 1) (0 ; 0) ; 2) (11; 12) , (11; 12) , (11; 12) , (11; 12) ;


3) .
8.33. :
x

1) 2 3 = 1 ;

2x

2) 3 2 = 1 ;
3) 3 2 = 1 .
: 1) ( 2 ; 1) ; 2) (1; 1) , ( 2 ; 3) ; 3) (1; 3) .
8.34. :
2

1) 2 xy = x + 2 y ; 2) x xy 2 x + 3 y = 10 .
: 1) ( 2 ; 2) ; 2) (2 ; 10) , (10 ; 10) .
8.35. :
2

1) x = 2( xy y y ) ;
2

2) x ( x + 1) = y ;

3) 2 x + xy y 7 x 4 y = 1 ;

4) x = y + 2 y + 13 .

: 1) (0 ; 0) , ( 2 ; 2) , (0 ; 1) , (2 ; 1) ;
2) (0 ; 0) , (1; 0) ; 3) ;
4) ( 4 ; 1) , (4 ; 3) , (4 ; 1) , ( 4 ; 3) .
8.36. :
1)

x 0,2 + y 0,2 = 5 ; 2)

99

x + y = 3.

: 1) (1; 2) , ( 2 ; 1) ; 2) (9 ; 0) , (0 ; 9) , (1; 4) , ( 4 ; 1) .
8.37. :
2

1) 6 x + 5 y = 74 ;

2) 19 x + 28 y = 729 .

: 1) (3; 2) , (3 ; 2) , (3 ; 2) , (3 ; 2) ; 2) .
8.38. q,

4 p2 = q2 9 .
: p = 2 , q = 5 .
8.39. :
3

1) 2 x + xy 7 = 0 ;

2) 19 x 84 y = 1984 .

: 1) (1; 5) , (7 ; 97) , (1; 9) , ( 7 ; 99) ; 2) .


8.40. :
x

1) 2 + 1 = y ;
2

2) 3 = 1 + x ;

4) y x = 21 ; 5) x + 7 = y ;
x

3) x 91 = y ;
2

6) y = x + 1

7) 3 2 + 1 = y ;

8) 9 = 4 y + 1 .

: 1) (3 ; 3) ; 2) (0 ; 0) ; 3) (6 ; 5) , (5 ; 6) , ( 4 ; 3) , (3; 4) ;
4) (5 ; 2) , (5 ; 2) , ( 5 ; 2) , (5 ; 2) , (11; 10) , (11; 10) ,

(11; 10) , (11; 10) ; 5) (1; 2) , (1; 2) ; 6) (1; 0) ;


7) (3; 5) , (3; 5) , ( 4 ; 7) , (4 ; 7) , (0 ; 2) , (0 ; 2) ;

8) k ;

9k 1
, k = 0 , 1, 2 , ... .
4

8.41. , :
2

1) x y = 1982 ;
x

2) x = 3 y + 17 ; 3) y = 5 x + 6 ;

4) 2 1 = y , x > 1 ; 5) x 9 y = 23 ; 6) 9 x = y 2 ;
2

7) x 5 y = 3 .
8.42. :
2

1) 2 xy + 4 z = zx + 4 y z ;
2

2) xz + 4 y = yx + z y ;

3) 3 xy + 9 z = 9 zx + zy ;

4) x + y + z = xyz ;
100

5) 3 xy + 3 yz + 3 xz = 5 xyz + 3 .
: 1) (2 ; 1; 1) , (1; 1; 2) ; 2) ( 2 ; 2 ; 1) , (1; 2 ; 2) , (2 ; 1; 2) ;
3) (1; 1; 3) , (1; 3; 1) ;
4) (1; 2 ; 3) , (1; 3 ; 2) , ( 2 ; 1; 3) , ( 2 ; 3 ; 1) , (3 ; 1; 2) , (3 ; 2 ; 1) ;
5) (1; 2 ; 3) , (1; 3 ; 2) , ( 2 ; 1; 3) , ( 2 ; 3 ; 1) , (3 ; 1; 2) , (3 ; 2 ; 1) .
8.43. :
2

1) x + y + z = 2 xyz ;

2) x 2 y + 8 z = 3 .

: 1) (0 ; 0 ; 0) ; 2) .
8.44.

x + x + x + ... + x = y .


2003

: (0 ; 0) .
8.45. ,

k 2 + l = m 2 ,

k + l 2 = n 2 .
: .
8.46. ( x ; y )
2

x = 4 y + 20025 ?
: 30.

101

9.
(17071783)
() , , ,
.. ,
1, 2, , .
.
1) , 20
1, 2, , 20, : 1, 3, 7, 9, 11, 13, 17, 19.
(20) = 8 .
2)

, ,
. ( ) = 1 .

8.
k :
( k ) = p k 1 ( p 1) .
. ,

k , . ,
.
k
1
k 1 , . : , 2 , 3 , ... , k 1 p .
, ,
k
k
k
k 1
= p k 1 ( p 1)
. ( ) = p
,
Z .
Kr (r = 0, 1, 2, , m 1) -
, , -

102

r, .. ,
= q + r (q Z).
r = u m q , r. ,
r .
:
1) Kr .
2) Kr .
( )

, . . ,
( ) , .
( ) 9 .

9. a , b N ( , b) = 1 ,

(a b) = (a) (b) .
. , , > 1 b > 1 , (1) = 1 .

1 , 2 , 3 , ... , a b u = x b + r ,
x = 0 , 1, 2 , ... , a 1 ; r = 1, 2 , ... , b ,
. 1, 2 , 3 , ... , ab :
r
x
0
1
2

a1

1
b+1
2b + 1

(a 1) b + 1

2
b+2
2b + 2

(a 1) b + 2

3
b+3
2b + 3

(a 1) b + 3

b
2b
3b

ab

103

( -
u = xb + r

).

( r = 1 , 2 , ... , b ) b.
r ( -
u = xb + r

).

( x = 0 , 1, 2 , ... , a 1) .
, , u = x b + r
(b) , b, r ( )
, .
, 1, 2 , 3 , ... , ab ( b)
(a) (b) , , b,
.. (. 1, 4) ab.
, ( a ) (b) = ( a b)
. , b
. , = 2 , b = 4 : ( 2) = 1 ,

(4) = 2 , (2) (4) = 2 , (2 4) = (8) = 4 . ,


(a) (b) (a b) , ( , b) 1 .
16. > 1

n = p1k1 p2k 2 ... psk s

(n) = p1k1 1 p2k2 1 ... p sks 1 ( p1 1) ( p2 1) ... ( p s 1) .


.
:

104

) ( ) ( )

( )

p1k1 p2k 2 ... psk s = p1k1 p2k 2 ... psk s =


= p1k1 1 ( p1 1) p2k2 1 ( p2 1) ... psks 1 ( p s 1)

. ,
120 .
.

(120) = (23 31 51 ) = 2 2 30 50 (2 1) (3 1) (5 1) = 32 .
: 32.
, .

10. k
:

p k = (1) + ( p) + ( p 2 ) + ... + ( p k ) .
k

. ( ) = p

k 1

( p 1) -

, :

(1) + ( p) + ( p 2 ) + ... + ( p k ) =
= 1 + ( 1) + ( 1) + 2 ( 1) + ... + k 1 ( p 1) =

= (1 1) + ( p p) + ( p 2 p 2 ) + ... + ( p k 1 p k 1 ) + p k = p k
(17771855).
17. > 1

= ( d ) ,
n d

d .
. :
n = p1k1 p2k 2 ... psk s .

105

p1l1 p2l 2 ... psl s , 0 li ki (i = 1, 2 , ... , s) .


, :

n = p1k1 p2k2 ... p sks = ((1) + ( 1 ) + ( 12 ) + ... + ( p1k1 ))

((1) + ( 2 ) + ( 22 ) + ... + ( p2k 2 )) ...

((1) + ( s ) + ( s2 ) + ... + ( psk s )) =

(( p1l ) ( p2l ) ... ( psl ) ) = ( p1l p2l ... psl ) =


1

0li ki

= ( d )

0li ki

n d

.
.
18 (). ( , ) = 1 ( Z ),

( ) 1 (mod ) .
. r1 , r2 , , rc , c = ( n) ,
1, 2 , 3 , , ( 1) , . r
ri . a r = q n + r0 , 0 r0 < n . r0 , r . , ..

( , ) = 1 (r , ) = 1 . , (r0 , ) = 1
r0 r1 , r2 , , rc . ,
i, 1 i ,

ari ra ( i ) (mod n ) ,
a (i ) 1, 2 , 3 , , .
a ( j ) = a (i ) , ar j ari (mod n) , ..

n a (r j ri ) . ( , ) = 1 , n (r j ri ) . -

106

..

1 | r j ri | < n .

(1) , (2) , ... , () 1 , 2 , ,

r1 r2 rc = ra (1) ra ( 2) ... ra (c ) .

i,

1 i ,

ari ra ( i ) (mod n ) .
r1 r2 rc r1 r2 ... rc (mod n) .
( r1 r2 ... rc , ) = 1 ,

1 (mod ) , .. ( ) 1 (mod )
( ). /| a ,

1 1 (mod p ) .
. ( ) = 1 , , ,

1 1 (mod p )

107


9.1.* : 1) (1764) ; 2) ( 2000) ; 3) ( 261360) .
: 1) 504; 2) 800; 3) 63360.
9.2. , :

1) (6 ) = 72 ;

2) (12 ) = 6912 ;

3) (15 ) = 1800 .

: 1) 3; 2) 4; 3) 3.
9.3. , :
1) ( ) = 108 = 3 7 ;

2) ( ) = 440 = 2 11 ;

3) ( ) = 936 = 3 13 .

: 1) 189; 2) 968; 3) 1521.


9.4.* :
1) 605 , 5;
2) 1680
, 24.
: 1) 110; 2) 24.
9.5.* , 2 , , 0,5 ( ) .
9.6.* , = 2 ( ) .
k

: n = 2 ( k N ).
9.7.* ( ),
: ,

Z (mod p) .
100

9.8. : 1)* 100


50

3) 3
150

6) 35

83

17;

425;

4)* 21
100

7) 3

+4

100

24;
7;

108

101; 2)* 2
5)* 120

8)* 3 5

75

30

422

+ 47

13;

385;

100

132.

: 1) 1; 2) 12; 3) 9; 4) 21; 5) 155; 6) 375; 7) 1; 8) 7.


7

9.9.* , 42.
9.10.* , 5,

12 1 5.
9.11.* , p ,

b b p ,
a b p.
9.12. , :

+ 6 7, 7;
10
2)
+ 10 11, 11.
9.13.* , b
12
12
65, a b 65.
9.14. , b , :
5
5
5
5
1)* 2a + b 2a b 11;
3
3
3
3
2) 2a + b 2a b 7;
3
3
3
3
3) 2a + b 2a b 13.
9.15. , :

1)* 2 9 7; 2) 2 1 5.
: 1) = 3k + 1 ; 2) = 4k .
9.16.* q , 1
q 1 . , , pq,
q 1 1 (mod pq) .
9.17.* , q ,

p
q
q + p a ( p + q) a (mod p q) .
9.18.* p q . ,
q 1
+ q p 1 1 (mod pq) .
p
1)*

109

1



. . , ,
( ) ,
.
1. 2 = 1 .
2

. 2 = 1 (). (!!) . . :
( 0 ; 0 ) = (1 ; 0) .
2

, ( 0 ; 0 ) ,
2 = 1 ,
( ).
, = 1
2

2 = 1 . , = 1
,
( 0 ; 0 ) = (1 ; 0) .
2

( 0 ; 0 ) k, : 0 = k ( x x0 ) .

y = k ( x 1) .
y = k ( x 1) 2 = 1 , :

110

2 2k 2 ( x 1) 2 = 1 , ( 1) ( x + 1) 2k 2 ( x 1) 2 = 0 .
( x 1)
(.. = 1 ), 2k 2 + 1
2k
2k 2 + 1
2
=
.

.
1 , y = 2
=

y
k
2
2k 1
2k 1
2k 1
k (!!) , ( (1 ; 0) ) .

2k 2 + 1
= 2
,

: (1 ; 0) ,
2k 1

y = 2k ,

2k 2 1

k Q.

2. + 3 = 1 .
2

. + 3 = 1 (). (!!) . -
.
: ( 0 ; 0 ) = (1 ; 0) .
2

, ( 0 ; 0 ) ,
+ 3 = 1 , .
2

, = 1
+ 3 = 1 . , = 1
,
( 0 ; 0 ) = (1 ; 0) .
2

( 0 ; 0 ) k, y = k ( x 1) .

y = k ( x 1) 2 + 3 2 = 1 , :
2 + 3k 2 ( x 1) 2 = 1 , ( 1) ( x + 1) + 3k 2 ( x 1) 2 = 0 .

111

( x 1)
(.. = 1 ), -

3k 2 1
.
3k 2 + 1
3k 2 1
2k
y = k 2
.
1 , y = 2
3k + 1
3k + 1
k (!!) , ( (1 ; 0) ) -

3k 2 1
,
= 2

: (1 ; 0) ,

3k + 1

y = 2k ,

3k 2 + 1

112

k Q.

2


.
. ,
10- 11-
.
1

1.

1
, 6.
, 6.

2.

: 6

192

22

17.

2003

13.

3.

4.

: + 5 + 7 1 (mod 11) .

5.

1.

2
,
9.

x 1 (mod 3) ,
x 3 (mod 5) .

644

3.

: 11 19.
2 2003
: 3
7.

4.

: 2 + 5 + 1 1 (mod 7) .

5.

2.

x 2 (mod 4) ,
x 1 (mod 7) .
113

1.

3
, , 7.
254

3.

: 15 17.
3 2003
8.
: 5

4.

: 3 2 1 0 (mod 9) .

5.

2.

1.

x 2 (mod 5) ,
x 1 (mod 7) .

4
, 4,
, .
316

3.

19.
: 12
2003
5
: 3
8.

4.

: 5 4 + 2 3 (mod 7) .

5.

2.

1.

x 1 (mod 5) ,
x 4 (mod 9) .

5
, 7 .
7 . 7 . 2003 ?
142

3.

7.
3 2003
6.
: 2

4.

: + 9 + 10 1 (mod 13) .

5.

2.

: 9
2

x 3 (mod 11) ,
x 2 (mod 9) .
114

2
1.
2.

1
6 17 = 11 .

2 14 2 = 1 .
3.

6 2 + 4 2 5 8 + + 3 = 0 .
2
2
4. + 2 = 3 .
1.
2.

2
12 + 7 = 1 .

2 18 2 = 1 .
3.

4 2 12 2 + 3 + 11 2 = 0 .
2
2
4. = 2 + .
1.
2.

3
4 11 = 3 .

2 10 2 = 1 .
3.

6 2 3 2 5 2 + + 1 = 0 .
2
2
4. + + = 4 .
1.
2.

4
19 + 5 = 4 .

2 11 2 = 1 .
3.

3 2 + 9 2 5 + 6 2 + 1 = 0 .
2
2
4. 2 = + .
115

1.
2.

5
11 + 20 = 7 .

2 7 2 = 1.
3.

2 2 2 2 5 5 3 2 = 0 .
2
2
4. + = 1 .
,
1
1
1. .

1 , 2 , ... ,

1 + 2 + ... + 6. , 13 + 23 + ... + 3
6. 6
:

0
1
2
3
4
5
0
1
2
3
4
5

3
, (mod 6) .
13 + 23 + ... + 3 x1 + x 2 + ... + x n 0 (mod 6) .

192

2. : 6

3. : 2
4. .

1 (mod 17) .

2003

9 (mod 13) .

2 + 5 + 7 1 (mod 11) 2 + 5 + 6 0 (mod 11)


( + 2) ( + 3) 0 (mod 11) .
11 , ( + 2) ( + 3)
11,
11. :
116

+ 2 0 (mod 11) ,
8 (mod 11) ,
x + 3 0 (mod 11) ; x 9 (mod 11) .

: x 8 (mod 11) , x 9 (mod 11) .


5. .

1 (mod 3) ,
5 5 (mod 15) ,
5 5 (mod 15) ,

x 3 (mod 5) ;
3x 9 (mod 15) ;
6 x 18 (mod 15) .
, x 8 (mod 15) .
: x 8 (mod 15) .
2
1. . ,
3 0, 1, 2.
,

3, 3k .

(3k ) 3 = 9 (3k 3 ) 0 (mod 9) .


, 3 1, 3k + 1 .
(3k + 1) = 9 (3k + 3k + k ) + 1 1 (mod 9) .
3

, 3 2, 3k + 2 .
(3k + 2) = 9 (3k + 6k + 4k ) + 8 8 (mod 9) .
, 9 : 0 + 1 + 8 = 9 0 (mod 9) .
.
3

644

2. : 11
3. :

32

7 (mod 19) .

2003

2 (mod 7) .

4. : x 3 (mod 7) , x 5 (mod 7) .
5. : x 22 (mod 28) .

3
1. . 7 :
117

0 1 4 2 2 4 1
2
, : 0, 1, 2, 4.
, , . ,
7.
, 7.
2. : 15
3. :

254

53

2003

13 (mod 17) .

5 (mod 8) .

4. : x 1 (mod 9) .
5. : x 22 (mod 35) .
4
1. . ,
4. x = 2k , k .
k1 , k 2 , ... , k n k (
, 1). k1 , k 2 , ... , k n
.
. , 2k1 , 2k 2 , ... , 2k n . ,
.
2. : 12
3. :

316

35

2003

7 (mod 19) .

3 (mod 8) .

4. : x 1 (mod 7) , x 4 (mod 7) .
5. : x 4 (mod 45) .
5
1. . ,
( ) 6.
x = 6k + 1 , k = 0 , 1 , 2 , ... , x 1 (mod 6) .

118

6 2003: 2003 = 6 333 + 5 ,


2003 5 (mod 6) . , x / 2003 (mod 6) , ,

2003 .
142

2. : 9

2 (mod 7) .

2003

3
2 (mod 6) .
3. : 2
4. : .
5. : x 52 (mod 99) .

2
1

x = 1 + 17t ,
t Z.
y = 1 + 6t ,

1. :

2. .

+1 = 15 + 56 ,
( 1 ; 1 ) = (15 ; 4) . :
+1 = 4 + 15 .
: (15 ; 4) , ( 449 ; 120) , (13455 ; 3596) .
3. . , 1
y+3
2
.
: D = ( y 4) , x1 = , x 2 =
2
3y + 2
x1 ,
x2 . : (3 y + 2) x = y + 3 , (3 y + 2) (3x 1) = 7 . :

3 1 = 1 ,
3 1 = 1 , 3 1 = 7 ,
3 1 = 7 ,
2)
3)
4)
3 + 2 = 7 ; 3 + 2 = 7 ; 3 + 2 = 1 ; 3 + 2 = 1 .
: (0 ; 3) , ( 2 ; 1) .
1)

4. .

:
( 0 ; 0 ) = (1 ; 1) . = 1 , -

+ 2 = 3 , 2

119

: ( 1 ; 1 ) = (1 ; 1) .
.

2 + 2 2 = 3 ( 0 ; 0 ) = (1 ; 1) = k ( x 1) + 1 . , :
2k 2 4k 1
2k 2 2k + 1
.

.
=
=
y
2k 2 + 1
2k 2 + 1
: (1 ;

2 k 2 4k 1
,
=

1) ,

2k 2 + 1

2
y = 2 k 2k + 1 ,

2k 2 + 1

k Q.

x = 3 7 t ,
t Z.
y = 5 + 12t ,

1. :

2. .

+1 = 17 + 72 ,
( 1 ; 1 ) = (17 ; 4) . :
+1 = 4 + 17 .
: (17 ; 4) , (577 ; 136) , (19601 ; 4620) .
3. . , 1
y+2
2
.
: D = 25 ( y + 1) , x1 = , x 2 =
4
y 3
x1 ,
x2 . : (3 y ) x = y + 2 , (3 y ) ( x + 1) = 5 .
:

+ 1 = 1,
+ 1 = 1 ,
+ 1 = 5,
+ 1 = 5 ,
2)
3)
4)
3 = 5 ;
3 = 5 ;
3 = 1 ;
3 = 1 .
: (0 ; 2) , (2 ; 8) , ( 4 ; 2) , (6 ; 4) .
1)

120

4. .

:
( 0 ; 0 ) = (0 ; 0) . = 0 ,

= 2 + , . 2

= 2 +
2

( 0 ; 0 ) = (0 ; 0) = k x .
, : =

k
1
. y =
.
2
1 2k
1 2k 2

=
,
: (0 ; 0) , 1 2k 2 k Q.

k
y =
,
1 2k 2

x = 2 + 11t ,
t Z.
y = 1 + 4t ,

1. :

2. .

+1 = 19 + 60 ,
( 1 ; 1 ) = (19 ; 6) . :
+1 = 6 + 19 .
: (19 ; 6) , (721 ; 228) , ( 27379 ; 8658) .
3. . , 1
y +1
2
.
: D = ( y + 4) , x1 = , x 2 =
3
2y 1
x1 ,
x2 . : ( 2 y 1) x = y + 1 , ( 2 y 1) ( 2 x 1) = 3 . :

2 1 = 1,
2 1 = 1 , 2 1 = 3 ,
2 1 = 3 ,
2)
3)
4)
2 1 = 3 ; 2 1 = 3 ; 2 1 = 1 ;
2 1 = 1 .
: (0 ; 1) , ( 2 ; 1) , (1 ; 2) , (1 ; 0) .
1)

121

4. .

:
( 0 ; 0 ) = ( 2 ; 0) . = 2 ,

+ + = 4 , 2

: ( 1 ; 1 ) = ( 2 ; 2) .
.

2 + + 2 = 4
( 0 ; 0 ) = ( 2 ; 0) = k ( x 2) . ,
2k 2 2
2k 2 4 k
. y = 2
.
: = 2
k + k +1
k + k +1

: ( 2 ; 0) , ( 2 ;

2k 2 2
= 2

2) , k + k + 1 ,

2
y = 2k 4 k ,

k2 + k +1

k Q.

x = 1 5t ,
t Z.
y = 3 + 19t ,

1. :

2. .

+1 = 10 + 33 ,
( 1 ; 1 ) = (10 ; 3) . :
+1 = 3 + 10 .
: (10 ; 3) , (199 ; 60) , (3970 ; 1197) .
3. . , 1
2y 1
2
. x1
: D = 49 y , x1 = , x 2 =
3
y+3
, x 2 .
: ( y + 3) x = 2 y 1 , ( y + 3) ( x 2) = 7 .
:

122

2 = 1,
2 = 1 , 2 = 7 ,
2 = 7 ,
2)
3)
4)
+ 3 = 7 ; + 3 = 7 ;
+ 3 = 1 ; + 3 = 1 .
: (3 ; 10) , (1 ; 4) , (9 ; 4) , ( 5 ; 2) .
1)

4. .

:
( 0 ; 0 ) = (0 ; 0) . = 0 ,

2 = + , . 2

2 = +
2

( 0 ; 0 ) = (0 ; 0) = k x .
, : =

k
1
. y =
.
2
2k
2k2
1

=
,
: (0 ; 0) , 2 k 2 k Q.

y = k ,
2 k2

x = 3 20t ,
t Z.
y = 2 + 11t ,

1. :

2. .

+1 = 8 + 21 ,
( 1 ; 1 ) = (8 ; 3) . :
+1 = 3 + 8 .
: (8 ; 3) , (127 ; 48) , ( 2024 ; 765) .
3. . , 1
3y + 2
2
.
: D = (7 y + 3) , x1 = , x 2 =
2
y 1
x1 ,
x2 . : ( y 1) x = 3 y + 2 , ( y 1) ( x 3) = 5 .
:
123

3 = 1,
3 = 1 ,
3 = 5,
3 = 5 ,
2)
3)
4)
1 = 5;
1 = 5 ;
1 = 1;
1 = 1 .
: ( 4 ; 6) , ( 2 ; 4) , (8 ; 2) , (2 ; 0) .
1)

4. .

:
( 0 ; 0 ) = (1 ; 0) . = 1 ,

+ = 1 , 2

: ( 1 ; 1 ) = (1 ; 1) . . + = 1 ( 0 ; 0 ) = (1 ; 0)
2

= k ( x 1) . -

, :
k 1
k 2 2k
. y = 2
.
= 2
k k +1
k k +1

k 2 1
,
= 2

: (1 ; 0) , (1 ; 1) , k k + 1

2
y = k 2k ,
2

k k +1

124

k Q.

3


1.1. , , 15,
5 .
, 1 . ?
. , , N .
:

= N ,

2 ( x 5) ( y 1) = N ,
x > 15 .

:
= 2 2 + 10 10 , ( 2) = 10 ( 1) .
, 3 . , .. 1 2 , 2

10. :
1) 2 = 10 , = 12 ;
2) 2 = 5 , = 7 ;
3) 2 = 2 , = 4 ; 4) 2 = 1 , = 3 .
, = 3 . = 20 N = 60 .
: 60 .
1.2. ,
, 3, 1 . , 1 . ?
: 12 .

125

2. ,
, , 1008. .
. ab = 10a + b .
(10a + b) (10b + a ) = 1008
100ab + 10 ( a + b ) + ab = 1008 .
2

, ab
1008. ab < 10 ( 100ab + ab
1008). , , b 1, 8 2, 4.
18 81 1008,
24 42 = 1008 .
: 24 42.
3. 95 . , , , 1.5 .
?
. , -

95
,
1.5
38
y 9 . : + 2 = 19 , 2 + <
,
3
y 9 . 8 49 < y 9 . , = 9 . = 1 .
: 1 9 .

. 5 + 10 = 95 , 10 + 5 <

4.1. . 108 53 , 20
13 , 11 5 .
353, 180. , 16.
: 2; 3; 7.
126

4.2. .
114 62 , 20 28 , 21
5 . 537, 337. , 11.
: 2; 6; 9.
4.3. , . 3 15 , 30 63 , 29
87 . 244, 669.
, ,
13.
: 3; 3; 5.
4.4. . 17 105 , 12 90 ,
3 15 . 136
870 .
, 15?
: 2; 5; 14.
4.5. . 85 119 -,
20 31 -, 30 38 -. 480 659 -.
,
13?
: 4; 1; 4.
5.1. 75 . , 127

. , 48%
. ?
. .
, = 2 , 2 75 .
, ,
2 3 , 2 3 72 . 0.48( 2 3) = ,
. :
12( 2 3) = 25 . 12( 2 3) 25, 12

25 , , 2 3 25.
2 3 , 2 3 = 25 . ,
= 28 .
: 28 .
5.2. 70 . , 52% . ,
.
?
: 25 .
5.3. 55 .
, 3 : 2. ,
4 , ,
4 : 3. ?
: 25 .
5.4. , 48% .
. , ,
50% .
, , 30 100 ?
: 75 .
5.5. 20 ,
65% . , 5 , , 60%.
?
: 40 .

128

+ 3 > 24 ,

6.1. y x < 6 ,

ay > x 2 ;

?
. , , .
G , .
: ,
G .

1 2
.
8 9

: ;

+ < 6,

6.2. 2 y x > 15 ,
x > ay 2 ;

1
8 ; 0 .
+ 3 > 18 ,

6.3. y + x < 5 ,

ay < x + 2 ;

1
1
3 ; 4 .

129

> 3,

6.4. x + 4 y > 22 ,
ay > x + 1;

1
5 ; 0 .
2 + < 5 ,

6.5. x y > 5 ,
ax < y + 3;

1
4 ; 0 .

7. ,
3 0 1.
: 11 555 550.
8. 5. , (, ).
9. , 45,
53 x1 y ( ).
: 53010, 53910, 53415.
10.1. 17, ,
, 13. , .
. , ,
. = 10 + . -

130

. 99 999 = 13 7692 + 3 , 99 996 13.


999 96 ( ) 17,
999 969 17 12,
999 960 3. , = 99 996 -

= 99 996 13 = 99 983 .
= 999 839 , = 58 814 17 + 1 .
, = 999 838 . , .

.
: 999 838 .
10.2. 13, ,
, 11.
, .
: 9 999 977 .
10.3. 11, ,
, 17. , .
: 100 133 .
10.4. 13, ,
, 19.
, .
: 9 999 951 .
10.5. 13, ,
, 17. , .
: 100 139 .
11.1.
, , . , 12 44 444 444 .
, .
131

. = 99 999 999 . = 99 999 999 3, ,


12. :
= 99 999 998 . = 99 999 989
. , .
.
,
44 444 444 .
, , .
, . , : = 14 444 445 . ,
.
4,
, 44 444 444 .
, ,
, 5.
, = 44 444 451 3.
: = 14 444 446 . = 44 444 461
.
: 99 999 998 ; 14 444 446 .
11.2.
, ,
. , 24 222 222 222 . , .
: 999 999 998 ; 100 000 003 .

132

11.3.
, , . , 36 77 777 777 .
, .
: 99 999 998 ; 17 777 779 .
11.4.
, , . , 18 222 222 222 . , .
: 999 999 998 ; 122 222 224 .
11.5.
, ,
. ,
30 44 444 444 444 .
, .
: 99 999 999 998 ; 10 000 000 015 .
12.1.
4

6 2 5 < 10 2 2 + 3 9 .

.
.
: 4; 5.
12.2.
4

7 2 2 + 4 < 6 2 9 + 18 .
: 0.

12.3.
6

4 2 + 4 3 < 8 15 2 2 .

: 2; 1.
12.4.

133

10

2 2 11 + 5 < 6 3 2 2 .
: 0.

12.5.
6

2 + 7 + 10 < 4 9 3 2 2 .
: 2; 1; 0.

13.1. ,
, y = log 3 x , x = 2 , x = 900 , y = 0
( ), ( x ; y ) .
: 5213.
13.2. ,
, y = 2 , = 2 , = 1030 , = 1

( ), ( x ; y ) .
: 8263.
13.3. ,
, y = log 2 x , x = 1.5 , x = 1000 ,

y = 0 ( ), ( x ; y ) -

.
: 8986.
13.4. ,
, y = 4 , y = 2 , y = 16400 , x = 0
x

( ), ( x ; y ) .
: 109362.
13.5. ,
, y = lg x , x = 15 , x = 1 000 003 ,

y = 0 ( ), ( x ; y ) .
: 5888898.
14.1.
. 134

3 , 287 ,
. 41 .
, 26 ?
: 342 76 % ; 271 73 % ; 171 73 %.
14.2. 31 .
, 445 ,
. 89 .
, 26 ?
: 480%; 420%; 320%.
14.3.
. ,
1067 ,
. 97 . , 26 ?
2
% ; 136 114 % ; 36 114 %.
: 218 11
14.4. 29 . ,
497 ,
. 71 . , 26 ?
: 342 76 % ; 271 73 % ; 171 73 %.
15.1. ,
14. ,
18, . , ,
135

, .
?
. , . :
+ > 14 ,

2 x < y + 18 ,
x > 2 y .

28
2 x 18 < y < 2 , .. 2 x 18 < 2 ,
< x < 12 .

3
x
x
14 x < y < ,
14 x < ,

2
2
,
10 11.

2 x 18 < y < ,
= 10
2

14 x < y < x .

2 < y < 5 ,
, 4 < y < 5 .

.
= 11

2 x 18 < y < ,

x
14 x < y < .

4 < y < 5.5 ,


,
3 < y < 5.5 .
= 5 .
: 11 , 5 .
:

15.2.
, , .
, 136

24,
, 27.
?
: 9 , 8 .
15.3. . 30. ,
27, . ,
, ,
.
?
: 19 , 10 .
15.4.
. , .
2 ,
32, 2 , 28.
?
: 11 , 9 .
16.1. ,

2 2 + + 2 = 8 ,

2
2
( + 1) + ( 2) = 1.
.

( + 1) + ( 2) = 1 .

( 2) 0 ,

2
2
( + 1) = 1 ( 2) 1 , | x + 1 | 1 .
, :
1 = 2 , 2 = 1 , 3 = 0 .
2

2 2 = 0,

1 = 2

2 = 0,

2 = 1
137

= 2.

2 = 6,

2
( 2 ) = 1 ,

= 2 ,
= 3,

= 3.

= 3,
= 1,

2 = 8,

3 = 0

2
( 2 ) = 0 .

.
,
(2 ; 2) (1 ; 3) .
: (2 ; 2) , (1 ; 3) .
16.2. ,

2 + 2 = 4 ,

2
2
( 2) + ( 1) = 1.
: ( 2 ; 0) , ( 2 ; 2) .
16.3. ,

3 2 + + 2 = 9 ,

2
2
( 1) + ( + 3) = 1.
: (1; 4), (0; 3).
16.4. ,

2 + 8 + 17 2 = 2 ,

2
2
( + 4) + ( 1) = 1.
: ( 3; 1), ( 5; 1).
16.5. ,

138

2 + + 2 2 = 8 ,

2
2
( + 3) + ( 2) = 1.
: ( 3; 1), ( 2; 2).
17.1.

+ 5 + = 0 , , .
4
. k + 5 + = 0 , ..
k 4 + 5k + a = 0 ,
4
m + 5m + a = 0 .
4

k 4 m 4 + 5 ( k m ) = 0 ,
( k m ) (( k 2 + m 2 ) ( k + m ) + 5) = 0 .
k m 0 ,
( k 2 + m 2 ) ( k + m ) = 5 .
2
2
k + m k + m ,
2
2
(5). k + m > 0 , :
k 2 + m 2 = 5 ,
k 2 + m 2 = 1 ,
1)
2)
k + m = 1 ;
k + m = 5 .
:
m1 = 1 , k1 = 2 m2 = 2 , k 2 = 1 .
.
,

4 + 5 + = 0 = 2 = 1 .
= 6 , 4
4
( 2) + 5 ( 2) + = 0 1 + 5 1 + = 0 , .
17.2.

: 2; 1.

4 + 41 + = 0 , , .
139

17.3.

: 5; 4.

4 + 13 + = 0 , , .
: 3; 2.
17.4.

5 + = 0 , , .
: 1; 2.
4

17.5.

41 + = 0 , , .
: 4; 5.
4

17.6.

13 + = 0 , , .
: 2; 3.
4

18.1. 26 30,
. .
. + 26 = b , 30 = , b . , b > c . , :
2

56 = b 2 c 2 , 56 = (b c ) (b + c ) .
, 0 < b c < b + c , :
b c = 1 ,
b c = 2 ,
b c = 4 ,
b c = 7 ,
1)
2)
3)
4)
b + c = 56 ; b + c = 28 ; b + c = 14 ; b + c = 8 .
.
b = 15 , c = 13 , a = 199 .
b = 9 , c = 5 , a = 55 .
: 55; 199.
18.2. 24 11,
. .
: 12; 300.
18.3. 11 5,
. .
140

: 14.
18.4. 29 16,
. .
: 20; 52; 500.
18.5. 19 17,
. .
: 81.
19.1. ,
:

m 2 + n 2 < 16m 22n 171 ,

2
2
30m n > 252 + 14n + m .
. , :

( m 2 16 + 64) + ( n 2 + 22 + 121) < 14 ,

2
2
( 30m + 225) + ( n + 14n + 49) < 22 ;
( m 8) 2 + ( n + 11) 2 < 14 ,

2
2
( 15) + ( n + 7) < 22 .
( m 8) 2 < 14 ,

2
( 15) < 22 .
:

| m 8 | 3 ,
5 m 11 ,

m = 11 .

| 15 | 4 ;
11 19 ;
m = 11 ,
:
( + 11) 2 < 5 ,
| + 11 | 2 ,
13 m 9 ,


= 9 .

2
|

+
7
|

2
;

5
;
(
+
7
)
<
6
;

: m = 11 , = 9 .

141

19.2. ,
:

m 2 + n 2 < 2m 14n 36 ,
2
2
m + 6 + n + 73 < 16m + 22 .

: m = 4 , = 5 .
19.3. ,
:

2 + 2 < 16m 8n 66 ,

2
2
203 + m < 30m n .

: = 11 , = 2 .
19.4. ,
:

2 + 2 + 14n + 35 < 0 ,
2
2
m + 6n + n < 14m 36 .

: = 3 , = 5 .
19.5. ,
:

2 + 2 < 12m 18n 103 ,


2
2
m + 10n + n < 26m 172 .

: = 9 , = 7 .
19.6. ,
:

2 + 2 < 10m 16n 75 ,


2
2
m + 8n + n < 24m 138 .

: = 8 , = 6 .

20. .
20 , , 23 , 142

. ,
21 ,
500 . ?
. , . :
20 < x ,

23 ( y 1) x ,
x + 21 y = 500 .

y<

20 < 500 21 y .

500
= 12 418 . , 12 .
41

23 ( 1) 500 21 y .
, : 12 .

523
= 11 39
. , 44
44

: = 12 .
: 12 .
21. ,
24 . ,
,
, 2 , 26
. , , ,
,
?
. .
: 24 > ( n 2) ( n + 24) . ,

6 < n < 8 . , 2
, , 24 = , 1 7. , = 6 .
, , 144.
143

: 144 .
22.1. 96.8% 97.2%. ?
. , N
.

100
100n
. ,
N
3.2
2.8

, .
, N , . = 1 : 31.2 N 35.7 .
: 32 .
22.2. , , 91.3% 91.5%.
?
: 23 .
22.3. ,
. 7 31 , 5 21
. ?
: 13.
22.4. ,
, ,
6 13 , 7 16 , . ?
: 9.
22.5. , 4 33 , 5 42
.
?
: 25.

144


( )
,
2 1
< < .
15 7
2n
. > 7m m >
. m 1 ,
15
> 7m 7 . , 8 .
2n 2 8

> 1 , , m 2 .
, m >
15 15
> 7m 7 2 = 14 , 15 .
2n 2 15

= 2 , , m 3 .
, m >
15
15
> 7m 7 3 = 21 , 22 .
2n 2 22
m>

> 2.
15
15
m = 3 , n = 22 .
3
:
.
22

23.

24.1. .
. ,
7, 58 .
11,
, . ,
52 , .
. , b, d. , , :

145

a + b + c 3 ,
7a + c = d 58 ,

a + b + 5c = d + 11 ,

a + 2b + c = d 52 .

4 b = 63 , b = 4c 63 . ,
, 4c + b 6a = 69 . b,
: 4c 3a = 66 , 4c = 3 ( 22 + a ) . , ..
4 3 , , 3.
c = 3t , t N. a = 4t 22 , b = 12t 63 , c = 3t
d = 31t 96 .
31t 96
4t 22 + 12t 63 + 3t
, 26t 159 ,
3
159
t
, t 6 .
26
63
, 12t 63 > 0 . , t >
, t > 5 .
12
, t = 6 d = 31 6 96 = 90 .
: 90.
24.2.
. . , .
, , 23 . ,
32 . ,
, ?
: 64 .
24.3. , .
4 ,

146

. 4 , 57 . , 4
, 41 .
, ,
, ?
: 84 .
24.4. . , , , ,
, 6
, . ,
59 . , ,
, , ?
: 94 .
24.5.
.
, . , ,
29 .
,
, .
,
6 , ?
: 60 .
25.1.

= 2 2 24 + 69

9
, N.
(3 22) 2 + 3

= 2 2 24 + 69

9
(3 22) 2 + 3

: = 2 24 + 69 =
2

147

9
.
(3 22) 2 + 3

9
1 = 2 2 24 + 69 2 =

(3 22) 2 + 3
= . , 8 . 1 ,
, . 2
8 . , 6 .

9

(3 22) 2 + 3
6 8 , = 6 ,
= 7 , = 8 . 6 = 3 199 , 7 = 3 14 , 8 = 3 75 , = 2 2 24 + 69

,
.
: 6 =

66
.
19

25.2.

= 2 2 + 20 48 +

25
, N.
(5 31) 2 + 10
: 5 =

117
.
46

25.3.

= 2 8 + 15

9
, N.
(3 16) 2 + 6
: 4 =

25.4.

148

31
.
22

= 2 + 14 45 +

4
, N.
( 2 17) 2 + 2
: 7 =

48
.
11

25.5.

= 2 2 20 + 47

9
, N.
(3 19) 2 + 3
: 5 =

66
.
19

26.1. , , 510
, 990, . 25200 , -
160 200 .
?
: 18 , 16.
26.2. 6 , 30 . 8700
, 4500, .
. , , , 3350
500 .
: 34 .
27. + ,

7 m 5
< < .
23 n 16
16 n 23
n
. :
< <
, .. 3 15 <
< 3 27 .
5 m 7
m
7 m
n
k
1 k 2
= 3 + . < < . , < < 5 .
2 k
m
m
5 m 7

149

m
= 4 , .. m = 4 , k = 1 ( k k

+ ).

: 17.
28. ,
.
?
. .
1. .
1 .
: = 4 + 6 (1 ) , n = 6 2 x . 0 < x < 1 ,
4 < 6 2 x < 6 .
: 5 .
29.
. 8
, .
?
. , . + 2 ,

( + 2) ( + 1)
.
2

( + 2) ( + 1)
= 8 + . ( + 3 2 ) = 14 .
2
2 , :
= 1,
= 2 ,
2)
1)
+ 3 2 = 14 .
+ 3 2 = 7 .
= 7 ,
= 14 ,
3)
4)
+ 3 2 = 2 .
+ 3 2 = 1 .
< 0 , .
150

: 7 14 .
30.
. , , , ,
5 .
, , ,
, .
, , ?
. ,
, . = + 5 ,

1.5 = ' 2 , y ' . :


1.5 ( + 5) = ' 2 . x ( 2 y ' 3 y ) = 19 . 19
x > 1 , x = 19 .
: 19 .
31. 500 300 . 150
.
.
, ?
. 150 . t1 =

500

300
. ,
t1 < t 2 ,
150 x
500
300
. , > 93 43 . <
x
150 x
= 94 , 95 , ... , 150 t 2
t2 =

151

x = 94 . < 93 43 ,
500
300
300
500
>
.

.
x
150 x
150 94
93
: 94 .

32.1. 5% , 11 19 %, 7 17 % , , 12% . ,
,

180%. .
. , , z,
.
k%,
x

k
k

1 +
A , 1 +
A.
100
100
:
x

5 1
1
12
280

A , ..
A=
1 + 1 + 1 +
1 +
100
100 9 14 100
x

14
21 10 15 28
= .
5
20 9 14 25
, :

(3 7 5

2 2 ) ( 2 5 32 ) ( 3 5 2 1 7 1 ) ( 2 2 7 52 ) = 2 7 51 .
:
1

2 + z + 2u = 1 ,
x 2 y + z = 0 ,

x + y + z 2u = 1 ,
x z + u = 1.

, x + y + z + u .

152

: 12 .
32.2.
.
. 4%, 12.5%,
100 7 % 50 3 %. 64%. .
: 8 .
32.3.
.
. 4%, 10%, 50 3 % 65%. 93%.
.
: 7 .
33.1.

1 1 1
,
,

17 15 13

. ?
. ,

1
1
1
= 1 ,
= ,
=
17
15
13

1 < m < n .
. : = 1 + ( 1) d , n = 1 + ( n 1) d ,
d .

1
1
1
1

= ( 1) d ,

= (n m) d .
15 17
13 15
13 ( n m ) = 17 ( m 1) , .. 13n 30m = 17 .

153

= 1 + 30t ,
t N.

m = 1 + 13t ,
1
1

= (n m) d ,
13 15
:

2
.
13 15 17 t
, d t = 1 .
d=

33.2.

2
.
13 15 17

1 1 1
,
,

23 21 19

. ?
:

2
.
19 21 23

34.1. a, b, c , 3. , .
34.2. , ,
?
9

: , , b1 = 2 , q = 3 2 .
34.3. a, b, c ,
a 1 . , .

154

35.1. . , : 1)
; 2) .
35.2. , , , ( 3, 4, 5).
35.3. ,
.
35.4. , 10,
. .
: 12 24.
35.5. , , ,
15.
: 3, 5, 7; 4, 5, 6; 5, 5, 5.
35.6. . ,
?
: 4 4; 6 3; 3 6.
36.1.

x (a + 5) x + 5a + 1

( x + b)( x + c) b .

: a = 3 ; 7 .
36.2. , 3

3 x + m x + n x + 12 = 0 1+ 3 .
: m = 12 , n = 6 .
3

36.3. , P ( x ) = ax + bx + cx + d
, P (0) P (1) .

155

36.4. ,
: 1)

2 + 3 ; 2)

5+ 3.
4

: 1) x 10 x + 1 ; 2) x 16 x + 4 .
37. ( m ; n) ,
:
1) log m ( n 7) + log n (6m 17) = 1 ;
2) log m1 ( n 8) + log n (8m 39) = 1 ;
3) log m ( n 7) + log n (5m 17) = 1 .
: 1) (3; 10) ; 2) (5 ; 12) , (6 ; 9) ; 3) ( 4 ; 9) , (5 ; 8) .
38.1. 2000 .
15, 27 45 . 21, 40 60 . ,
?
. ,
z . 21x + 40 y + 60 z = 2000 . , , ,

z 15 x + 27 y + 45 z ( ) .
, , ..
.
15 21 ,

27 40 , 45 60 .
, , .
. 420
20 , 7 .
300 315. ,
, , z x < 20 .
, x 20 , .
, , .. , , z ,

156

x 20 , . , 120
. 81 90. ,
y < 3.

21x + 40 y + 60 z = 2000
21x = 2000 40 y 60 z . , 21 10. , 0, 10, 0, 1, 2. , x = 0 , y = 2 , z = 32 .
: 0 , 2 ,
32 .
38.2. 100 . . , 20 , 4
. , 35 , 6 . ,
50 , 9 .

, , ?
: 1 , 16 ,
0 .
38.3.
4, 6 9 .
8 , 14 , 20
. ,
, 100 ?
: 1 , 16 ,
0 .
39. .
, 9.
40. , 11 ... 1 81.

81

157

41. M = 1313 ... 13 63?

2 n

: n = 9k , k Z.
42. M = 1717 ... 17 33?

2 n

: n = 33k , k Z.
43. , ,

n n 2 n3
.
+
+
3 2
6
44.1. q
x 3 + 2qx + 1 = 0 ?
: 1; 0.
2
44.2. x + ax + 6 = 0
?
: 5 , 7 .
2
2
44.3. ax + 3 x + 2a 3 = 0
?
: a = 0 , a = 0,5 a = 1,5 .
4

45. , n + 2n + 2n + 2n + 1 .
46. , n( n + 1)(n + 2)(n + 3) + 1
.
47. , .
48. ,
.
49. , a, b, c a + b = c . ,
4

a + b + c .
50. , , ( n > 1)
, .

158

51.

M = 11 ... 1 22 ... 2 ?



2 n

: .

1
52. , a +
.
a
1
n
, a + n a
.
53.

3n + 2
n 1

?
: 4; 0; 2; 6.
4

54. n + 2n n 2n 120?
: n = 5k + 2 , k = 0 , 1, 2 , ... .
55. ,

8 2 n1 1 7.
2

56. , n + 3n + 5 121.
2002

2002

+7
.
57. a = 3
11.
: 8; 3.
58. , 0, 1, 3 , 4 , 2
.
. . a

0 + 1 + 3 + 4 2 + 2 3 = 18 . , a # 3 , , a # 3 .
a

5, a #/ 5 . -

. :

159

24 6 = 5763 > 500 3 = 125 000 000 > 108 .


6

, 24 8 . :

12 6 = 144 3 < 150 3 = 3 375 000 .


6

, 12 8 . 12 24
3. 15, 18 21. a #/ 5 , a 15 .

18

21.

18 6 = 34 012 224 ,

216 = 86 251 221 . , a = 18 .


: a = 18 .
59. .
330 , 75 . , ?
. . 75a = 330b , b . 15, : 5a = 22b .
(5 , 22) = 1 , a # 22 . , 22.
: 22.
60. , ,
1200 6 . , , , 500 , 30 /, ,
50 , 40 /.
, . , , , /.
: 120 /, 80 /.
61. 40 . 8 , 7 , 25 .
,
4 3
?
: 10 .

160

4

.
, .
,
, .
.
: , , , .
.
, 2,
. , ,
.

.

. (IVIII .. ..) . (276194 .. ..) , . , ( ).
.
(17071783).
1

1
1
n s = 1 p s , s > 1 ,
n =1
p

.
, , .
.
XIX 161

.. (18211894).
(x) , , ,
,
, ,
b x 2

x
x
< ( x) < b
.
ln x
ln x

XIX . (18651963) .. (18661962)


, ,

( x )

= 1.
lim
x+ x ln x
1837 .. - (18051859) ,
,
, .

. .
(III . ..) . , .
, , , , , .

1937 .. (18911983) ,
,
. , . (16901764), . .. .
.
, ,
.
.
162

, ,
, 4, . .
,
, 2 (11 13, 41 43 ..). -. , .
, ( ), , , .
,
, .
, . (16011665), . , . (17361813),
. (17521833), . (17771855), .. -,
. (18261866), . (18221901), . (18621943).
, .. : ..
(18371908), .. (18471878), .. (18681908),
.. (18561922).
.
.. , .. (19151972), .. (1894
1959), .. (19061968).

163

1.
2.

3.

4.
5.

6.

7.

.
: .
.
: ;
; ; .
. :
;
; ; ; .
. :
; ; .
. : (
);
.
. :

.

1 (1 ).
.
: ;
; ;
( (n) (n) ); ,
.

164

2
2

2
1

8.

: , ; .

9.

.
: ;
.

10. . :
; - ; ;
; .

2 (1 ).
11. . : -

; ;
.

12. .
13. .
14. .
:

1
1

165

3
32

,
1.2. 2) . A = ( ad + bc ) ( ab + cd ) . :
( ad + bc ) ( ab + cd ) = d ( a c ) b ( a c ) = ( a c ) ( d b) .


ab + cd

ac

ad + bc = A + ( ab + cd ) , ad + bc a c .

1.4. . abc . :

abc cba = 100a + 10b + c (100c + 10b + a ) = 99a 99c = 9 (11a 11c) .
1.5. . aaa .

aaa = 100a + 10a + a = 111a = 37 (3a ) .


1.6. . abb . (a + 2b)
7. abb = 100a + 11b = 7 (14a + b) + 2 ( a + 2b) .
1.7. . abc def .

abcdef = 1000 abc + def = 999 abc + abc + def =


= 37 27 abc + ( abc + def ) .
( abc + def ) 37, ,

abcdef 37.
1.8. . abc 37.
= 10 abc bca .

A = 1000 a + 100 b + 10 c 100 b 10 c a = 999 a = 37 (27 a ) .


37, bca = 10 abc A

37. = 10 bca cab .

B = 1000 b + 100 c + 10 a 100 c 10 a b = 999 b = 37 (27 b) .

B 37, cab = 10 bca B


37.
1.9. . abc def .
166

abcdef = 1000 abc + def = 1001 abc abc + def =


= 7 143 abc abc + def .
abc = 7 m + r , def = 7 n + r , ,

abcdef = 7 143 abc + 7 n + r 7 m r =


= 7 (143 abc + n m ) .
2 + 1 = ( 2 1) + 2 = ( + 1) ( 1) + 2 , -

1.11. .
2

, + 1 + 1 ,

(a + 1) 2 . | a + 1 | 2 . + 1 0 , | a + 1 | = 1 ,
| a + 1 | = 2 .

3 , 2 , 0 , 1 . , .
3
2
1.12. 1) . n + 14 = (n + 2) ( n 2n + 4) + 6
3

, n + 14 n + 2 , 6
n + 2 .
, n = 8 , 5 , 4 , 3 , 1 , 0 , 1 , 4 .
1.15. . ( d , n d ) .

d (n d ) = n , n .
1.16. . ( d , n d ) .
n
, d =
d.
d
1.17. . : ad bc = c ( a b) a (c d ) .
a (c d ) = c ( a b) ( ad bc ) .
, c d .
1.18. . : 4 (10 + b) = 13 3a + ( a + 4b) . ,
a + 4b 13, 4 (10a + b) 13. 4 13 , 10a + b 13.

167

, 10a + b 13, , , a + 4b 13.


1.20. : 1) 12327 = 45 273 + 42 ;
2) 88943 = ( 13) ( 6841) + 10 ;
3) 35627 = 110 ( 324) + 13 .
1.21. :

1) 2;

2) 3;

| n | = 2 ; 3, | n | > 3 ;

3) 0, | n | = 1 , | n | = 3 ; 1,
4) 2.

1.21. 5) . n + 1 = ( n 1) (n + 1) + 2 ,

2, | n 1 | > 2 , .. n 1, 0 , 1, 2 , 3 . n = 1, 3 ,
0, n = 0 , 2 , 1. n = 1 ,
, .. n 1 = 0 .
1.22. . 1270 = b 74 + r , 0 r < b .
1270 1270
;
b
, , 74
75
, 17. : b = 17 , r = 12 .
1.28. . a = bq + r , 0 r < b . a > b,
q 1 a b + r > 2r . r < 0.5a.
1.30. . .
2
2 3 2. 2 3
1. 23 3 2. ,
n
2 3 2 1
. n = 1 . ,
n +1
. 2
= 2 2 n . ,
n
2 3 2.
n +1
2
3 2 2 = 4 3, .. 1.
n
, 2 3 1.
n +1
2
3 2 1 = 2 .
168

1.34. . 3
0, 1 2. ,
2

a .
2

0 , 1 2 3, .. 0, 1 1 . ,
3 0 1.
5 7.
1.35. . b 3, ,
2

, a b 3 1. a b
3.
.
. b 3 (1 2, b 3 ) ,
2

a b

. ,
2

0, .. a b 3.
. , .
1.44. . 9.
2

1.50. . , x + y

4 0, 1 2. ,
4n + 3 .
1.54. .

m = 2 x + 1,
n = 2y +1.

m 2 = 4 x ( x + 1) + 1 , n 2 = 4 y ( y + 1) + 1 . x ( x + 1)
y ( y + 1) (
m 2 = 8l + 1 , n 2 = 8k + 1 .
m 2 n 2 = 8l + 1 8k 1 = 8 (l k ) . ,

),

m 2 n 2 8.

1.57. . n = 2k 1 ,

n 3 n = n (n 1) (n + 1) = (2k 1)(2k 2) 2k = 4k (k 1) (2k 1) .

169

k ( k 1) 2, 8. , k ( k 1) ( 2k 1) 3. , 3 k 1, k, 2k 1, ,
0.
k1
0
1
2
k
1
2
0
2k 1
1
0
2
, k k 1, k, 2k 1 3. , k (k 1) (2k 1) 3.
3

8 3 , 24.

5 = ( 4 1) = ( 1)( + 1)( 2 + 1) .
( 1) ( + 1) 2 3. 2 3 -

1.58. .

, 6. ,
5. ,
5, :

2
4
4 1
( 4 1)

0
0
0
1
0

1
1
1
0
0

2
4
1
0
0

2
4
1
0
0

1
1
1
0
0

, 5
5

0. 6 5 ,
30.
1.61. . .
1) n = 2k ,

3 2 n + 2 + 8n 9 = 9 (3 n 1) (3 n + 1) + 8n =
= 9 (32 k 1) (32 k + 1) + 16k =

170

= 9 (3 k 1) (3 k + 1) (9 k + 1) + 16k ;
2) n = 2k 1 ,
3 2 n + 2 + 8n 9 = 3 4 k + 8 (2k 1) 9 = (3 4 k 1) + 16 (k 1) =
= (3 k 1) (3 k + 1) (9 k + 1) + 16 (k 1) .
k

9 + 1 ; 3 1 3 + 1 ,
, 4. , k

(3 1) (3 + 1) (9 + 1) 16, ,

32 n+ 2 + 8n 9 16.
1.62. .

xn+ 2 =

xn2+1

x n2

7, xn+1 , xn 7.

x1 = x2 = 1 , xn 7 .
1.75. . ,
.
1.77. . 1, 2, 2, , 2 ,
.

353 < 361 = 19 , 353 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17.


2.1. 2) . 767 < 28 ,
767 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23. : 767 = 13 59 .
2.1. 3) . 1999 < 45 ,
1999 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43.
2.1. 1) .

2350 < 50 ,
2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47.
2.2. 2) . 40324, 40326, 40328 2;
40323 40329 3; 40325 5; 40327
7.
2.2. 1) .

171

2.2. 3) . 3628804, 3628806, 3628808 2;


3628803 3628809 3; 3628805 5;
3628807 7.
:
1) 2333, 2339, 2341, 2347;
2) ;
3) .
2.3. . ,
2 , 3 , ... , . ,
p < a . p n , ..
2 , 3 , ... ,
. , p > n . , , ,
2 , 3 , ... , , . ,
.
2.4. . = + 2 ,

+ 1 = 2 + 2 + 1 = ( + 1) 2 .
2
( + 1) .
2.9. .

a n b n = (a b)(a n1 + a n2 b + ... + ab n2 + b n1 ) ;
a n + b n = (a + b)(a n1 a n2b + ... ab n2 + b n1 ) , ,
.
2.10.

a n b n = (a b)(a n1 + a n2 b + ... + ab n2 + b n1 ) ;
a n + b n = (a + b)(a n1 a n2b + ... ab n2 + b n1 ) , ,
.
2.11. . , 3. , . ,
3 , , 3 1 2.
3 p + 2 , p + 4 . p 3
.
172

2.12. . p > 3 , N . 6
:
1) p = 6k , ;

p = 6k + 2 = 2 (3k + 1) , ;
3) p = 6k + 3 = 3 ( 2k + 1) , ;
4) p = 6k + 4 = 2 (3k + 2) , ;
5) p = 6k + 1 ,
(, p = 7 );
6) p = 6k + 5 ,
(, p = 29 ).
2.14. . p 2 , .. p + 10 = 12 .
p = 3, p + 10 = 13 ; p + 14 = 17 . , p = 3 .
p > 3. p
6k + 1 6k + 5 (. 2.12). p = 6k + 1
p + 14 = 6k + 15 = 3 ( 2k + 5) , p = 6k + 5
p + 10 = 6k + 15 = 3 ( 2k + 5) . , p
3.
2
2.15. . p 2 , .. 8 p + 1 = 33 .
2
p = 3, 8 p + 1 = 73 . , p = 3
2)

.
p > 3. p
6k + 1 6k + 5 (. 2.12). p = 6k + 1

8 p 2 + 1 = 8 (36k 2 + 12k + 1) + 1 = 3 (96k 2 + 32k + 3)


, p = 6k + 5
8 p 2 + 1 = 8 (36k 2 + 60k + 25) + 1 = 3 (96k 2 + 160k + 67)
.
, p 3.
2.16. . p 2 , .. 4 p + 1 = 9 .
173

p = 3, 2 p + 1 = 7 ; 4 p + 1 = 13
. , p = 3 .
p > 3. p
6k + 1 6k + 5 (. 2.12). p = 6k + 1

2 p + 1 = 3 ( 4k + 1) , p = 6k + 5
4 p + 1 = 3 (8k + 7) .
, p 3.
2.19. . , 5.
2.21. . . :
) n = kl , k l ; ) n = k .
2.22. . p1 , ... , p k , 2

, N = p1 p 2 ... p k 1 . N < n , N
pi , .
2.23. . p1 , ... , p k , , N = p1 p 2 ... p k 1 . N < n! , .
2.24. . n = p q , 1 < p q ,

2 1 = 2 pq 1 = ( 2 p ) q 1 .
2p = x
(,
x > 2 ),

2 1 = 1 .
q 1 = ( 1) ( q 1 + x q 2 + ... + x + 1) .

, 2 1 .
2.25. . , > 3 . , ,
p 2 = 12k + 1 2 1 = 12k
( p 1) ( p + 1) = 3 2 2 k .
, 3.
1, + 1 3.

174

, . 1
+ 1 . .
2.26. . ( k + 1)! + n , 2 n k + 1 .
k , . , .. n
.
2.27. . , (.
2, 7), (. 1, 3) b .
2.28. . (a + b) ab p, p
a ( a + b) a b = a ; , p
2

a. p ( a + b) a = b .
, p , . ,
a = 2, b = 6, p = 4. a + b = 8, 8 = 2p; ab = 12, 12 = 3p. a, b p.
13 + 1 = 3 .

2.29. .

13 = ( 1) ( 2 + + 1) .

2
( 1) ( + + 1) 13 ,
2
, ( 1) < ( + + 1) , :
1 = 1 ,
= 2 ,
1) 2

13 = 7 .
+ + 1 = 13 ;
.
2)

1 = 13 ,
= 14 ,

2
= 211.
+ + 1 = ;

, .. 211
(!).
3)

1 = ,
:
2
+ + 1 = 13 ;
= 4 ,

= 5 .
175

= 3 ,
.

= 2.
2
2.30. . 1 + 3 + 5 + ... + ( 2 1) = ,

( 2k + 1) + ( 2k + 3) + ( 2k + 5) + ... + ( 2k + 2n 1) =

= (1 + 3 + 5 + ... + (2k + 1) + (2k + 3) + (2k + 5) + ... + ( 2k + 2n 1))

(1 + 3 + 5 + ... + ( 2k 1)) = ( k + n ) 2 k 2 = n ( 2k + n ) .
2.31. . i =

!
(i + 1) (i + 2) ( p 1) p
=
N,
i !( p i )!
2 3 ( p i)

.. .
, ( p , k ) = 1 ,

k { 2 , 3 , , p i | 1 i p 1}.
(i + 1) (i + 2) ( p 1)

i
2 3 ( p i ) . , C p = p q ,

(i + 1) (i + 2) ( p 1)
, .. ( ).
2 3 ( p i)
, .
2
, 4 = 6 4.
q=

2.32. .

2 =

( 2 ) !
( 2 ) ! ( + 1) ( + 2) ( 2 1) 2
=
=
.
! ( 2 ) ! ! !
2 3

2 , .. . < p 2n ,

2, 3, , . , 2 : 2 = q ( q N). .

2.33. . . = 2k , .
= 2k + 1 , k N,
176

4 + 4 = ( 2k + 1) 4 + 4 = 16k 4 + 32k 3 + 24k 2 + 8k + 1 + 4 =


= 4 ( 4k 4 + 8k 3 + 6k 2 + 2k + 1) + 1 =
= 4 ( 4k 2 ( k 2 + 2k + 1) + ( k 2 + 2k + 1) + k 2 ) + 1 =
= 4 ( k + 1) 2 ( 4k 2 + 1) + 4k 2 + 1 = ( 4k 2 + 1) ( 4 ( k + 1) 2 + 1) .
.
.

4 + 4 = 4 + 4 2 + 4 4 2 =
= ( 2 + 2) 2 (2) 2 = ( 2 + 2 + 2) ( 2 2 + 2) .
, , . .
2.34. . .
2.35. . 3 () ,
p n +1 p1 ... p n + 1 .

pn 2 2

n 1

2.36. . ( x ; y ; z ) . ,
. , x = px1 , y = py1 ,

z = pz1 , , ( x1 ; y1 ; z1 ) . , , x, y z
.
2.37. . , 3 + 2
. 1 , 2 , ... , s .
A = 3 1 2 ... s + 2

1 , 2 , ... , s 3. ,
: A = q1 q2 ... qr ,
3 , 1 , 2 , ... , s . ,
3k + 1 . 3k + 1 ,
3 + 2 . , , 3 + 2 .
177

2.38. . , . :
1 = 3 , 2 = 7 ,

3 = 11 , , r .
N = 4 p1 p2 p r 1 .
, . 4 + 1 ,
4 1 .
, 4 + 1
. ,
( 4l + 1) ( 4m + 1) = 4 ( 4lm + l + m ) + 1 = 4n + 1 .
, , N 4 1 , ,
N 4 1 . .
N 1 , 2 , , r , 1 , 2 , , r . , 1 , 2 , , r

4k 1 . .

2.39. . 2, ..

, 2, 1

1

2

.
3.
2, 2. , , 3

1

6
. , 3.
, 2 3,
1 1
1 1 . 2 3
2,

178

1
5

5 ..
2.40. . a = b q + r . , b,

a
q ( b , 2b , 3b , ... , q b ). , , q = .
b
a
2.41. . , b,
b ; ,
a
c,
. ,
a
, bc; .
b

( 3) 256 = 3256 = 8164


( 4) 64 = 4 64 = 16 32 ( 1) 32 = 1 (mod 17 ) .
592
3.1. 2) . 6
= 36 296 3 296 = 8174 4 74 =
= 16 37 5 37 = 5 536 = 5 2518 5 318 =
= 5 9 9 = 45 814 1 4 4 = 256 3 (mod 11) .
3.1. 1) . 14

256

3.2. 1) .

1110 = 1215 215 = 21 214 = 21 4412 21 412 = 21 1681


21 81 = 1701 1 (mod 100 ) ,

1110 1 1 1 = 0 (mod 100) , .. 1110 1 100.


3.2. 2) .

22225555 35555 = 2431111 ( 2)1111 = 21111 (mod 7) ;


55552222 4 2222 = 161111 21111 (mod 7) .
2222 5555 + 55552222 21111 + 21111 = 0 (mod 7) .
179

3.4. 1) . 100. 2:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
02
04
08
16
32
64
28
56
12
24
48
12
96

13
92

14
84

15
68

16
36

17
72

: 2 2
2

18
44

19
88

20
76

21
52

22
04

22

(mod 100) . ,

20, :
2004
20100 + 4
4
2
=2
2 16 (mod 100) .
3.4. 2) . 10:

19982001

2004

82001

2004

(mod 10) .

8:
1
2
3
4
5
8
4
2
6
8
: 8 8 (mod 10) . , 1

4,

82001 8(4500+1) = 84 +1 = 8 84 = 8 4 2 8 6 8 (mod10) ,

.. 6 6 N.

3.5. 1) .
,

12n + 5 = m 2 .
2
5 m (mod 12) . 12 m:
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 10 11
m
2004

2004

m2

, 5 12.
3.6. . 7 x :
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
x
2
0
1
4
2
2
4
1
x

180

, a + b
7 :
2

0 + 0 = 0, 0 + 1 = 1, 0 + 4 = 4, 0 + 2 = 2, 1 + 4 = 5,
1 + 2 = 3, 1 + 1 = 2, 4 + 4 1, 4 + 2 = 6, 2 + 2 = 4.
2
2
, a + b 0 (mod 7) , a b 0 (mod 7) .
3.7. . 8 x :
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
x
0

x2

, x, x
8 0, 1, 4. r1 , r2 , r3 2

, 8 a , b , c

a + b + c + 1 r1 + r2 + r3 + 1 (mod 8) . 2

r1 , r2 , r3 0, 1, 4.
, r1 + r2 + r3 + 1 8 , r1 , r2 , r3 4.
1)

:
r1 , r2 , r3 1, 4;

r1 + r2 + r3 + 1 = 10 / 0 (mod 8) ;
2) r1 , r2 , r3 0, 4;
r1 + r2 + r3 + 1 = 9 / 0 (mod 8) ;
3) r1 = r2 = r3 = 4 ; r1 + r2 + r3 + 1 = 13
/ 0 (mod 8) .
, a, b, c,
2
a + b 2 + c 2 + 1 8.
3.8. . 9 x :
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
x
x2

181

, x, x
9 0, 1, 4, 7. r1 , r2 , r3 2

, 9 a , b , c
. 0 a + b + c + 1 r1 + r2 + r3
2

(mod 9 ) .

r1 , r2 , r3 0,

1, 4, 7. , r1 + r2 + r3
9 :
1) r1 = r2 = r3 = 0 ;
2) r1 , r2 , r3 1, 4;
3) r1 , r2 , r3 7, 1;
4) r1 , r2 , r3 4, 7.
r1 , r2 , r3 ,
2

- a , b , c
9. , a b , a c ,
2

b 2 c 2 9.

3.9. . 5 0 (mod 9 ) , a 5 (mod 9) . , a = x , x 5 (mod 9) . 4

9 :
0
1
2

0
1
7
0
4
4
0
7
1

, 9
5. , 5 9, .
3.10. . , x + y + z = 8n + 7 . 2

, x + y + z 7 (mod 8) .
2

8
:
182

k
k

0
0

1
1

2
4
2

, , y , z

3
1
2

4
0

5
1

6
4

7
1

8: 0, 1, 4.
7.
3.12. . ,

( 2) 2 + ( 1) 2 + 2 + ( + 1) 2 + ( + 2) 2 = 2 .
2
2
2
2
2
5 + 10 = , 5( + 2) = , .. 0 (mod 5) .
5:
0
1
2
3
4

0 (mod 5) , .. =5k.

5( + 2) = 25k , + 2 = 5k 2 . , 2 = 5k 2 2 ,
2
2
.. 2 (mod 5) , 3 (mod 5) .
5 , 3. ,
2

.
3.13. . , , ..

( 2m 2) 2 k1 + ( 2m ) 2 k2 + ( 2m + 2) 2 k3 = n 2 p .
3.
3: 0, 1, 2.
2m 2 0 (mod 3) , 2m 2 (mod 3) ,

(2m 2) 2 k1 0 (mod 3) ,
( 2m ) 2 k2 2 2 k2 = 4 k2 1 (mod 3) ,
( 2m + 2) 2 k3 1 (mod 3) .

2m + 2 1 (mod 3) . ,

( 2m 2) 2 k1 + ( 2m ) 2 k2 + ( 2m + 2) 2 k3 0 + 1 + 1 = 2 (mod 3) ,
n

2p

3 0,
1.
,

183

(2m 2) 2 k1 + (2m) 2 k2 + (2m + 2) 2 k3 = n 2 p

3, .
3.14. 1) . . 2 + 1 0 (mod 7) ,

2 1 (mod 7) , .. 2 6 (mod 7) . 3 (mod 7) .


. 7:
0
1
2
3
4
5
6

0
2
4
6
1
3
5
2
1
3
5
0
2
4
6
2+1
, 3 (mod 7)
.
3.14. 2) . 2 3 0 (mod 7) , 2 3 (mod 7 ) ,
.. 2 10 (mod 7 ) . 5 (mod 7) .
3.14. 3) . 6:
0
1
2
3
4
5

0
2
4
0
2
4
2
3
5
1
3
5
1
2+3
, 2 + 3 0 (mod 6)
.
3.14. 4) . 1 (mod 13) , 12 (mod 13) .
2

13:
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

12

10

10

10

11

12

12

, 5 (mod 13) , 8 (mod 13) .


3.14. 5) . 1 (mod 11) , 10 (mod 11) .
2

11:
0
1
2
3
4
5
6

0
1
4
9
5
3
3
2

7
5

8
9

9
4

10
1

, 1 (mod 11) .
2

184

3.14. 6) . 2 (mod 31) , 64 (mod 31) ,


2

8 (mod 31) , 8 (mod 31) .


3.14. 7) . 5:
0
1
2
3
4

2
0
1
4
4
1

0
3
1
4
2
3
2
0
2
3
3
2
2
2
1
1
0
3
0
2 + 3 + 1
, 2 (mod 5) , 4 (mod 5)
.
3.14. 8) . 2 x + 4 x + 2 0 (mod 8)
2

2( x 2 + 2 x + 1) 0 (mod 2 4) .
2
( + 1) 0 (mod 4) . ,
+ 1 0 (mod 2) . ,
1 (mod 2) . : 1 (mod 8) ,
3 (mod 8) , 5 (mod 8) , 7 (mod 8) .
3 (mod 5) ,
8 24 (mod 40) ,
3.16. 1) .

5 x 5 (mod 40) .
x 1 (mod 8) ;
, :
3 19 (mod 40) 3 21 (mod 40) .
, .. (3, 40) = 1,
7 (mod 40) 33 (mod 40) .

2 (mod 15) ,
8 16 (mod 120) ,

x 3 (mod 8) ;
15 x 45 (mod 120) ;
8 16 (mod 120) ,

7 x 29 (mod 120) .
, 13 (mod 120 ) , 107 (mod 120 ) .

3.16. 2) .

185

3 + 4 0 (mod 14) ,
3 10 (mod 14) ,

2 x + 1 3 (mod 5) ;
x 1 (mod 5) ;
15 120 (mod 70) ,

14 x 14 (mod 70) .
, 106 (mod 70) 36 (mod 70) .
3.17. . 1 , 11 , ... , 11...1 .
3.16. 3) .

:
1) ;
2) 1 , 11 , ... , 11...1 .
n

. 1 , 11 , ... , 11...1 , n

.
.
3.18. . 100...001 , 2k . 2k

11 .
(mod 11) ,

100 1
9090...091, k 9 (k 1) 0.
3.19. . 1, 11, 111, ... , 111...11 .
218

- 217. 217 217 (.. 0, 1, 2, , 216), 218, ,


217. , ,

111...11 111...11 (mod 217) .


k

( k + l )

186

217.
,

111...11000...00 = 10 k 111...11 .
l

217. 10

217 ,
111...11 217. ,
l

, 111...11 217.

. , , , 217 , 217.
3.20. . , ab ( a b ) 3.
2

ab ( a 2 b 2 ) = ab ( a b) ( a + b) .
:
1)
2)

b 0 (mod 3) , ab ( a 2 b 2 ) 3;
b 1 (mod 3) ,
ab ( a b) ( a + b) a ( a 1) ( a + 1) (mod 3) ,
a ( a 1) ( a + 1) 3, , ab ( a b )
2

3;
3)

b 2 (mod 3) ,
ab (a b) (a + b) a (a 2) (a + 2)
2a ( a + 1) ( a + 2) (mod 3) ,

a ( a + 1) ( a + 2) 3, , ab ( a b )
2

3.
, ab ( a b ) 3.
2

, ab ( a b ) ( 4a b ) 5.
2

ab ( a 2 b 2 ) ( 4a 2 b 2 ) = ab ( a b) ( a + b) ( 2a b) ( 2a + b) .
:

187

b 0 (mod 5) , ab ( a 2 b 2 ) ( 4a 2 b 2 ) 0 (mod 5) ;
b 1 (mod 5) ,

1)
2)

ab (a 2 b 2 ) (4a 2 b 2 ) a ( a 1) (a + 1) ( 2a 1) (2a + 1)
a ( a 1) ( a + 1) ( 2a + 4) ( 2a 4)
3)

4 ( a 2) ( a 1) a ( a + 1) ( a + 2) 0 (mod 5) ;
b 2 (mod 5) ,

4)

ab (a 2 b 2 ) (4a 2 b 2 ) 2a (a 2) ( a + 2) (2a 2) (2a + 2)


8 ( a 2) ( a 1) a ( a + 1) ( a + 2) 0 (mod 5) ;
b 2 (mod 5) , ( ): ab ( a b ) ( 4a b ) 0 (mod 5) ;
2

b 1 (mod 5) , ( 2):

5)

ab ( a 2 b 2 ) ( 4a 2 b 2 ) 0 (mod 5) .
2
2
2
2
, ab ( a b ) ( 4a b ) 5.

3 5 ,
2
2
2
2
ab ( a b ) ( 4a b ) 15.
3.21. . , 3804 = 3 4 317 ,

) ( 5

8 +4

4 +2

+3

) 3, 4 317 .

3. = ( 1) ( + 1) ,
3

3 , ,
3.
4. 4:
8 +4
5
18 + 4 = 1 (mod 4) ,
34 a + 2 ( 1) 4 a + 2 = 14 a + 2 = 1 (mod 4) .
8a +4

, 5

+ 34 a + 2 2 (mod 4) . , , -

3 ,
( 1) ( + 1) , -

) ( 5

8 +4

4 +2

+3

) 4.
188

317. 317:

58 + 4 = 6252 +1 ( 9) 2 +1 (mod 317) , 34 a + 2 = 9 2 a +1 (mod 317) .


8a +4
, 5
+ 34 a + 2 9 2 +1 ( 1 + 1) = 0 (mod 317) .
3.22. . , k + k + 2 = (6 + 3) .
2

k 2 + k + 2 = 3q . 3q
6:
q
3q

0
0

1
3

2
0

3
3

4
0

5
3

, : k + k + 2 0 (mod 6)
2

k + k + 2 3 (mod 6) .
k
0
1
2
0
3
0
k2
2
2
4
2
k +k +2
2

3
3
2

4
0
4

5
3
2

, k + k + 2
/ 0 (mod 6) , k + k + 2 / 3 (mod 6)
. .
2

3.23. 1) .
5, 11 17:
k
k2

k 2 + k +1

0
0
1

1
1
3

2
4
2

3
4
3

, k + k + 1
/ 0 (mod 5) .
k
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

4
1
1

k
k2 + k +1

,
k
0
2
0
k
2
1
k + k +1

10

10

10

k + k + 1 / 0 (mod 11) .
2

1
1
3

2
4
7

189

3
9
13

4
16
4

5
8
14

6
2
9

7
15
6

k2 + k +1

8
13
5

9
13
6

10
15
9

11
2
14

12
8
4

13
16
13

14
9
7

15
4
3

16
1
1

, k + k + 1
/ 0 (mod 17) .
2

3.23. 2) . ,

k >0.

k + k , , b = k + k + 1 .
2

k = 3i b = 9i 2 + 3i + 1 , k = 3i 1
b = 9i 2 6i + 1 + 3i 1 + 1 = 9i 2 + 3i 6i + 1 .
b 6 1, ..
2
9i + 3i 3. , b = 6 j + 1 .
k = 3i + 1
b = 9i 2 + 6i + 1 + 3i + 1 + 1 = 9i 2 + 9i + 3 = 3 (3 (i 2 + i ) + 1) .
2
i + i , b = 3 ( 6 j + 1) .
, k b
b = ( 6 j + 1) , = 1 = 3 .
2
, b = k + k + 1
, 6 1 , q = 6i 1
. b = eqr , r = 6 j 1 ,
= 1 = 3 , q r .
..

qk,
q k +1
2
2
qr ( k + 1) > k + k + 1 qr , .

b1 = ( k q) 2 + ( k q) + 1 = b q ( 2k q + 1) .
q , , b. .
( + 1)
.
2
, 10:
3.24. . 1 + 2 + + =

190


+1
( + 1)

0
1
0

1
2
2

2
3
6

3
4
2

4
5
0

5
6
0

6
7
2

7
8
6

8
9
2

9
0
0

( + 1) ,
:

( + 1)
0 (mod 5) . ,
2
( + 1)
0 5.

2
( + 1)
1 (mod 5) .,
2) ( + 1) 2 (mod 10)
2
( + 1)

1 6.
2
( + 1)
3 (mod 5) . ,
3) ( + 1) 6 (mod 10)
2
( + 1)
3 8.

2
, 1 + 2 + +
: 0, 1, 3, 5, 6, 8. .
3.25. . . 1 2 ... 9,
1) ( + 1) 0 (mod 10)

, 1 + 2 + ... + 9.
,

10 1 (mod 9) , 10 2 1 (mod 9) , , 10 1 1 (mod 9) .

1 2 ... 1 = 1 10 1 + 2 10 2 + ... + 1 101 + 100


1 + 2 + ... + 1 + (mod 9) . .
. 1 + 2 + ... +
1 2 ... 9, , 1 2 ... 9. ,
191

1 + 2 + ... + 1 +
1 10

+ 2 10

+ ... + 1 101 + 10 0 = 1 2 ... 1 (mod 9) .

1 ... 1
11, , ( 1 + 3 + ...) ( 2 + 4 + ...)
11 ( 1 ... 1 ).
3.26. . .

10 1 (mod 11) , 10 2 1 (mod 11) , 10 3 1 (mod 11) , ,

10 1 ( 1) 1 (mod 11) .

... 4 3 2 1 = 1 10 0 + 2 101 + 3 10 2 + 4 10 3 + ... + 10 1

1 2 + 3 4 + ... + ( 1) 1 =

= (1 + 3 + ...) ( 2 + 4 + ...) (mod11) . .


. ( 1 + 3 + ...) ( 2 + 4 + ...) 11, ,

1 ... 1

11.
, ( 1 + 3 + ...) ( 2 + 4 + ...)

( 1 10 0 + 3 10 2 + ...) + ( 2 101 + 4 10 3 + ...) =

= 1 10 0 + 2 101 + 3 10 2 + 4 10 3 + ... + 10 1 =
= 1 ... 1 (mod 11) . .
3.27. . : abcdef
:

7 . , bcdefa 7 .

abcdef = a 10 5 + b 10 4 + c 10 3 + d 10 2 + e 10 + f

a 35 + b 34 + c 33 + d 32 + e 3 + f (mod 7)
5a + 4b + 6c + 2d + 3e + f 0 (mod 7) .
192

bcdefa . :

bcdef = b 10 5 + c 10 4 + d 10 3 + e 10 2 + f 10 + a

b 35 + c 34 + d 33 + e 32 + f 3 + a (mod 7)
5b + 4c + 6d + 2e + 3 f + a (mod 7) .
5b + 4c + 6d + 2e + 3 f + a =
= (5a + 4b + 6c + 2d + 3e + f ) 4a + b 2c + 4d e + 2 f
4a + b 2c + 4d e + 2 f 3a + b + 5c + 4d + 6e + 2 f =
= 5a 2a + 4b 3b + 6c c + 2d + 2d + 3e + 3e + f + f =
= (5a + 4b + 6c + 2d + 3e + f ) 2a 3b c + 2d + 3e + f
2a 3b c + 2d + 3e + f
5a + 4b + 6c + 2d + 3e + f 0 (mod 7) .
3.28. . 1) , .
p = a b , 1 < a < p , 1 < b < p .
a b b ( 1) ! ,

( 1) ! 0 (mod p ) .
( 1) ! 1 (mod p ) .
2
= b , p = a , a 2 .
= 2 : = 4 , ( 1) ! 2 (mod p ) . ( 1) ! 1 (mod p ) .
> 2 : > 2a , .. p 1 2a . ,
2 ( 1) ! , ( 1) !
2 2 = . , ( 1) ! 0 (mod p ) ,
( 1) ! 1 (mod p ) .
2) . , 2, 3, , ( 2)
,
. , ,
b, : b 1 (mod p ) , , b
2, 3, , ( 2). , .. ( , ) = 1 ,
193

1 = + , , < p (, ?!). = + 1 , 1 (mod p ) . b = x .


, 1 2 3 ... ( 2) ( 1) p 1 1 (mod p ) ,
1 (mod p )

( 1) .
3.29. . 2003 .

98! 1904 ! = 1 2 ... 1904 1 2 ... 98


1 2 ... 1904 ( 2002) ( 2001) ... (1905) =

= (1) 98 2002! 1 (mod 2003) .


, 98! 1904 ! + 1 0 (mod 2003) .
3.30. . 2003 .
97 ! 1905 ! = 1 2 ... 1905 1 2 ... 97
1 2 ... 1905 ( 2002 ) (2001) ... ( 1906 ) =

= (1) 97 2002! = (2002!) 1 (mod 2003) .


, 97 ! 1905 ! 1 0 (mod 2003) .
3.31. . , . x = 3 , , x 3 (mod 7) . ,
3 7. , x 3 (mod 7) , 2 x + 4 2 3 + 4 3 (mod 7) ,

3x + 8 3 3 + 8 3 (mod 7) x 2 + 5 x 32 + 5 3 3 (mod 7) .
2002
/ 3 (mod 7) , 2002 .

194

4.2. :

1) d = 3 , 3 = 321 ( 21) + 843 8 ;


2) d = 6 , 6 = 852 55 + 822 ( 57) ;
3) d = 1 , 1 = 23521 ( 7192) + 75217 2249 ;
4) d = 17 , 17 = 867 (9) + 391 20 ;
5) d = 1 , 1 = 945 64 + 307 ( 197) .

11
, .. ( 21120 , 30720) = 1920 ;
16
17
2)
, .. (9061 , 10127) = 533 ;
19
13
3)
, .. (377 , 261) = 29 ;
9
23
4)
, .. ( 4853 , 5697) = 211 .
27
4.4. 1) . ( a , a + b) :
a + b = a 1 + b .
4.3. :

1)

b, ( a , b) . ,

( a , b) = ( a , a + b) .
4.4. 2) . : a b = a 1 b .
( a , b) = ( a , b) .
4.5. . a + b a b

d, | d | > 1 . d ( a + b) = a 2 + ab
b ( a + b) = b 2 + ab . , d a 2 b 2 .
4.6. . d = ( a + b , a b) . d
a + b a b , .. d | ( 2a ) d | ( 2b) . d , .. 2, d | a d | b , d = 1 . d , .. d = 2d 1 , d 1 | a d1 | b . d 1 = 1
d = 2.
195

b , , = 9 , b = 5 ,
( a + b , a b) = 2 .
4.7. . a ab + b = ( a + b) 3ab ,
2

(a + b , ab) = 1 (. 4.5).
4.8. . :

13a + 8b = (5a + 3b) 2 + (3a + 2b) ,


5a + 3b = (3a + 2b) 1 + ( 2a + b) ,
3a + 2b = ( 2a + b) 1 + ( a + b) ,
2a + b = ( a + b) 1 + a ,
a + b = a 1 + b .
4.12. . ( , b) = d , ( a , b) = d1 .
u, v, x, y, u c + v b = d ,
x a c + y b = d 1 . , ( a , b) = 1 , .. q, + qb = 1 .
b d, x a c + y b = d 1 ,
d 1 d. ,
d = u c + v b = u c ( p a + q b) + v b = a c ( u p ) + b ( u c q + v ) ,
, d d 1 . , d 1 = d .
4.15. . :

18a + 5b = (11a + 2b) 1 + (7a + 3b) ,


11a + 2b = (7a + 3b) 1 + ( 4a b) ,
7a + 3b = ( 4a b) 1 + (3a + 4b) ,
4a b = (3a + 4b) 1 + ( a 5b) ,
3a + 4b = ( a 5b) 3 + 19b .
, (11a + 2b , 18a + 5b) = ( a 5b , 19b) .
, .. b , 5b b

(,

a 5b = b ( 5) + a ).
( a 5b , 19b) = ( 5b , 19) (. 4.12).
196

, 5b 19, d = 19 , ,
d = 1.
4.17. 2) . 4.

(12n 2 20 , 4n 1) = (12n 2 20 3n (4n 1) , 4n 1) =


= (3n 20, 4n 1) = (n + 19, 4n 1) = (n + 19, 77) .
2

, ( 4 (3n 5) , 4n 1) 1, 7, 11
77. 4 ,

(3n 2 5 , 4n 1) 1, 7, 11 77.
( + 1)
4.18. . =
= 2 + 1 ,
2
,

2 8 = 1.

d = ( A , B ) , d,
d = 1 .
a c
4.19. .
+ = m . ad + bc = mbd b d
, b | d d | b .
4.20. . ,
a 1
1
1 1
2 m n . , 2 m1 + + ... + + ,
n
b 2
2 3
b , 4.19.
4.21. . , ( a , b) = 1 .
2a + b
,
, ..
5a + 3b
d = ( 2a + b , 5a + 3b) , d 1 . d

2 (5a + 3b) 5 ( 2a + b) = b

3 ( 2a + b) (5a + 3b) = a . a b .

197

4.22. 1) .

d = ( 2 1 , 2 + 1) , d 1 . d 2
2
= ( 2 + 1) 2 ( 2 1) 2 ( 2 + 1) ,
= 4 2 + 4 + 1 4 2 + 2 4 2 = 1 .
, d = 1 . .
2

4.22. 2) . ,

d = ( 2 + 1 , 2 + 2 ) , d 1 .
d

= (( 2 + 2 ) ( 2 + 1)) 2 ( 2 + 2 ) ,
= 1 . , d = 1 . .
4.24. 1) . 2k 1 2k + 1 ; d
. d
( 2k + 1) ( 2k 1) = 2 .

( 2 , 2k 1) = 1 ,
( 2 , 2k + 1) = 1 . , d = 1 .
4.24. 2) . 2k 2k + 2 ; d
. , d 2 . d
( 2k + 2) 2k = 2 . , d = 2 .
4.28. . a = 36a1 , b = 36b1 . a1 + b1 = 12
12
.
4.32. . n = mq + r .

a n b n = (a b) (a n 1 + a n 2 b + ... + ab n 2 + b n1 )
2

mq

1 2 m 1 . 2 mq 1 = (2 m 1) x .
2 n 1 = (2 m 1) 2 r x + (2 r 1) .
n

, (2 1, 2 1) = ( 2 1, 2 1) .
, .
4.34. . b a b . r b, b
r ..

198

30720 = 21120 1 + 9600 ,


21120 = 9600 2 + 1920 , 9600 = 1920 5 . ,
( 21120 , 30720) = 1920 , ( 21120 , 30720) = 337920 .
, 337920 = 21120 16 , 337920 = 30720 11 .
5.3. .
1620 = 192 8 + 84 ,
192 = 84 2 + 24 ,
84 = 24 3 + 12 , 24 = 12 2 . ,
(192 , 1620) = 12 , (192 , 1620) = 25920 .
7
187 7 135 + 187 16 3937
3937
+
=
=

.
192 1620
25920
25920
25920
5.2. .

(!).
5.4. . ( 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6) = 60 , ,
1 60. , , 60 1
61.
5.9. . + 1 ,
( , + 1) = ( + 1) .
( ( + 1) , + 2) . + 1 + 2
, ( ( + 1) , + 2) = ( , + 2) (.
4). , ( , + 2) = 1 ,
, ( , + 2) = 2 (. 4). ,
( + 1) ( + 2) , ,

( , + 1 , + 2) = ( + 1) ( + 2)
, .

5.16. . : = 21 = 21 + 1 .
= 21 , ,

1 , 2 , ... , 1 , 1 + 1 , ... , 21 , 21 + 1 , 2 ( 1 + 1) , ... , 41 ,


,

( 1 + 1 , 1 + 2 , ... , 2 ) = ( + 1 , + 2 , ... , 2 ) .

199

(, 1 + 1 , 1 + 2 , ... , 21 21 + 2 , 21 + 4 , ... , 41 ,

+ 1 , + 2 , ... , 2 ).
= 21 + 1 , ,
1 , 2 , ... , 1 , 1 + 1 , ... , 21 + 1 , 2 ( 1 + 1) , ... , 2 ( 21 + 1) ,

( 1 + 1 , 1 + 2 , ... , 2 ) = ( + 1 , + 2 , ... , 2 ) .
(, 1 + 1 , 1 + 2 , ... , 21 + 1
21 + 2 , 21 + 4 , ... , 41 + 2 ,
+ 1 , + 2 , ... , 2 ).
1 : 1 = 22
1 = 22 + 1 . ( ) ,

( 2 + 1 , 2 + 2 , ... , 2 ) = ( + 1 , + 2 , ... , 2 ) .
.
> n1 > n2 > n3 > ... .
i :

( i +1 + 1 , i + 2 + 2 , ... , 2 ) = ( + 1 , + 2 , ... , 2 ) .
i = 1
( 2 , ... , 2 ) = ( + 1 , + 2 , ... , 2 ) ,
, 1 , 2 , ... , 2 1 , 2 + 1 , + 2 , ... , 2 .
5.17. .
a b = ( , b) ( , b) ,

a b = 6 90 = 540 . a = 6m , b = 6n , 36 m n = 540 ,
m n = 15 . :
1) m = 1 , n = 15 ;
2) m = 3 , n = 5 .
, ..
. 18 30.
200

6.1. : 1) = 2 5 ; 2) = 2 3 5 7 ; 3) = 2 3 5 11 .
6.2. 1) . 92 772 757.
= 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19 ... , 92 772 757 .
92 772 757 7:
92 772 757 = 7 13 253 251.

13 253 251. , 7, , 2, 3 5 . , 13 253 251 = 11 1 204 841.
, :
1 204 841 = 11 109 531, 109 531 = 17 6 443, 6 443 = 17 379.

379

.
,
6

10

92 772 757 = 7 112 17 2 379 .


2

6.2. : 1) 92 772 757 = 7 11 17 379 ;


8

2) 82 798 848 = 2 3 11 ; 3) 64 984 829 = 7 13 17 353 ;


3

4) 97 363 981 = 11 13 17 331 ; 5) 29 520 491 = 7 11 13 383 .


6.3. 1) . = 72 = 2 3 , b = 135 = 3 5 .
3

, 72 = 2 3 5 , 135 = 2 3 5 .
3

d = 2 3 5 = 9 , h = 2 3 5 = 1080 .
0

6.3. : 1) d = 3 = 9 , h = 2 3 5 = 1080 ;
2

2) d = 3 13 101 , h = 2 3 13 101 113 ;


5

3) d = 7 11 , h = 2 7 11 13 19 23 29 .
1

6.5. . ab + ba = 10a + b + 10b + a = 11 ( a + b) .

ab + ba , a + b = 11 x 2 ,
x N. ab + ba 198 ( ab + ba = 198
= b = 9 ). 112 x 2 198 ;
x = 1 . , a + b = 11 , ( a ; b ) ,
, : ( 2 ; 9) , ( 3 ; 8) , ( 4 ; 7) , (5 ; 6) , ( 6 ; 5) ,
(7 ; 4) , (8 ; 3) , (9 ; 2) .
201

6.6. : ( x y ) ( x + xy + y ) = 7 13 .
6.14. . 288, 60.
6.22. . , !,
S1 + S 2 + ... , S k , -

n
Sk = k .
p

6.26. . c = p1 1 p2 2 ... pk k
. ( a , b) = 1 , pi , b, . , p1 , , ps , p s +1 , , pk b.
k

p . ,

a = p11 p22 ... p s s , b = p s+s +11 p s+s +22 ... pkk .

p11 p22 ... pss ps+s +11 ps+s +22 ... pkk = p1n1 p2n 2 ... pkn k .
, i = n i
j = n j .
x = p11 p2 2 ... ps s , y = ps+s +11 ps+s +22 ... pk k .
6.29. . 1 , 2 , ... , , b b1 , b2 , ... , bn . ab a1b1 , a1b2 , ... , a1bn , a 2 b1 , a 2 b2 , ... , a 2 bn , ... , a m bn . ab, , . (, 1 , 2 , ... , , b1 , b2 , ... , bn , ..
b 1.)
6.31. .

A = p1k1 p2k 2 ... psk s

, -

.
202

N = (k1 + 1) (k 2 + 1) ... (k s + 1) . N
, k1 , k 2 , ... , k s .
.
6.32. . ( n ) = (1 + p ) (1 + q ) = 48 . , p = 3 , q = 11 p = 5 , q = 7 . , n = 33

n = 35 .
6.37. .

n = N! . 1, 2 , ... , N ( n )
1
1

1 + + ... + . ,
2
n
N
1
1
N.
1 + + ... +
2
N

7.1. 1) . ( 3 , 6) = 3 22 3,
.
7.1. 2) . ( 6 , 9) = 3 2 3, .
9 = 5 1 + 4 , 5 = 4 1 + 1 .
7.1. 3) .

1 = 5 4 = 5 (9 5) = 2 5 1 9 ,
5 2 + 9 ( 1) = 1 ,

5 4 + 9 ( 2) = 2 . : ( 0 ; 0 ) = (4 ; 2) .

x = 4 9t ,
t Z.

y = 2 + 5t ,
7.1. 4) . 11 = 7 1 + 4 , 7 = 4 1 + 3 , 4 = 3 1 + 1 .
1 = 4 3 = 4 (7 4) = 2 4 7 = 2 (11 7) 7 = 2 11 3 7 ,

203

7 ( 3) + 11 2 = 1 , 7 ( 39) + 11 26 = 13 . x = 39 11t ,
: ( 0 ; 0 ) = ( 39 ; 26) . :
y = 26 + 7t ,
t Z.
7.1. 5) .

x = 29 + 4t ,
( 0 ; 0 ) = (29 ; 29) . :
t Z.
y = 29 + 3t ,
7.1. 6) .

x = 2 12t ,
( 0 ; 0 ) = (2 ; 3) . :
t Z.
y = 3 + 11t ,
7.1. 7) 9 2 = 3 . : ( 0 ; 0 ) = (1; 3) . :
x = 1 + 2t ,
t Z.

y = 3 + 9t ,
7.3. . ( 200 , 3) = 1 , . : ( 0 ; b0 ) = (10 ; 1) .
a = 10 3t ,
t Z. , b = 1 + 200t ,
b,
200 + 3b = 2003 , :
10
t < 3 ,
10

3
t
>
0
,

1 + 200t > 0 ;
t > 1 .

200
t Z, t: t1 = 0 , t 2 = 1 , t 3 = 2 t 4 = 3 . t1 = 0

(1 ; b1 ) = (10 ; 1) .

204

t2 = 1

(2 ; b2 ) = (7 ; 201) .

t3 = 2

(3 ; b3 ) = (4 ; 401) .

t4 = 3

(4 ; b4 ) = (1; 601) .
7.4. . 2 ,
3 .
2 + 3 = 20 , 0 , 0 . ( 0 ; 0 ) = ( 20 ; 20) .
x = 20 3t ,
20 3t 0 ,
:
t Z.
y = 20 + 2t ,
20 + 2t 0 .
, 10 t 7 , .. t = 10 , 9 , 8 , 7 ,
, t.
t = 10 : ( ; ) = (10 ; 0) ; t = 9 : ( ; ) = ( 7 ; 2) ;

t = 8 : ( ; ) = ( 4 ; 4) ; t = 7 : ( ; ) = (1 ; 6) .
7.5. . .
(5 , 6 , 7) = 1 , (5 , 6 , 7) = 210 ,
= 210k + 1 ,
5, 6 7 . , = 11 .
11 = 210k + 1 ,

11 210k = 1 . ( 0 ; k 0 ) = ( 19 ; 1) ,
= 19 + 210t ,
:
t Z. ,
k = 1 + 11t ,
> 0 k > 0 . :
19 + 210t > 0 ,
, t N.

1 + 11t > 0 .

t = 1 : m = 191 , x = 11 191 = 2101 < 5000 .

t = 2 : m = 401 , x = 11 401 = 4411 < 5000 .

205

t, t 3 , , ..
x > 5000 .
7.7. 1) . ( 4),
3 . 3 y 26 z = 8 , . :

( 0 ; z 0 ) = (72 ; 8) . :

= 72 + 26t ,
t Z.
z = 8 + 3t ,
, :
x + 2 y 7 z = 3 , x + 144 + 52t 56 21t

= 3 , x = 85 31t .
7.7. 2) . ( 4),
3 . 7 y 2 z = 8 , . : ( 0 ; z 0 ) = ( 2 ; 3) . :
= 2 + 2t ,
t Z.

z = 3 + 7t ,
, : x + 3 y z = 3 , x + 6 + 6t 3 7t = 3 , x = t .
7.7. 3) . 2
. 9 + 18z = 25 , .
7.8. .

1 (mod b1 ) ,
b1

x a 2 (mod b2 ) ;

b2 ; , .
x = b1 n + a1 ,
1 (mod b1 ) ,

,
x a 2 (mod b2 ) ;
x = b2 k + a 2 .
b1 n + a1 = b2 k + a 2 , b1 n b2 k = a 2 a1 .
(b1 , b2 ) = 1 , b1 n b2 k = a2 a1

206

. ,

n = n0 + b2 t ,
0 k 0 ,
t Z.
k = k 0 + b1t ,
x = b1n0 + b1b2 t + a1 ,
x b1n0 + a1 (mod b1b2 ) ,


x = b2 k 0 + b1b2 t + a 2 ;
x b2 k 0 + a 2 (mod b1b2 ) .
0 k 0

b1 n b2 k = a2 a1 ,

b1 n0 + a1 = b2 k 0 + a 2 . , .
. , -

x 1 (mod 20) ,
, x 5 (mod 6) .
, : 59 (mod 60 ) . 20 6 :

.
7.9. . .
= 2 .
, > 2 , n 1
x r (mod b1 b2 ... bn 1 ) .
bn b1 , b2 , ... , bn 1 ,
(. 1, 4) bn b1 b2 ... bn 1 .

r (mod b1 b2 ... bn 1 ) ,

x a n (mod bn ) ;

. .
7.10. 1) . 7 9 , -

x 2 (mod 7) ,
x = 7 + 2 ,

x 5 (mod 9) ;
x = 9k + 5 .
: 7n + 2 = 9k + 5 7n 9k = 3 .
. :

207

: ( 0 ; k 0 ) = (3 ; 2) . -

n = 3 + 9t ,

k = 2 + 7t ,
x 23 (mod 63) .

t Z.

x = 23 + 63t ,

7.10. 2) . 10 13 , -

x 3 (mod 10) ,
x = 10 + 3 ,

x 2 (mod 13) ;
x = 13k + 2 .

. :
:

10n + 3 = 13k + 2
13k 10 = 1 .
: ( k 0 ; n0 ) = ( 3 ; 4) .
k = 3 + 10t ,
:
t Z. x = 37 + 130t ,
n = 4 + 13t ,
x 93 (mod 130) .
7.11. . 1 . ,

f ( x ) = a n x n + a n 1 x n 1 + ... + a1 x + a 0
a n , a n 1 , ... , a1 , a 0 Z .

f (1) = 1 , f (5) = 2 :
a n + a n 1 + ... + a1 + a0 = 1 ,
n
n 1
5 a n + 5 a n 1 + ... + 5 a1 + a0 = 2 .
,
(5 1) a n + (5
n

n 1

1) a n 1 + ... + (5 1) a1 = 1 , -

.
k
k
5 ( k = 1 , 2 , ... , n ) , 5 1

( k = 1 , 2 , ... , n ) . d , d 1 .
d, . , , -

208

f ( x )
.
2 . f ( x )
f ( a + b ) f ( a ) (mod b ) .
= 1 , b = 4 .
7.12. 1) . :

x = + 2n ,

sin x = 1,

2

n , k Z.

sin 5 x = 1;
x = + 2 k ,
10 5
:

+ 2 =
+ k k 4n = 1 .
2
10 5
: ( k 0 ; n0 ) = (1; 0) .

k = 1 + 4t ,

t Z. = + 2t , t Z.
2
n = t ,

7.12. 2) . :

x = + n ,
sin 7 x = 1,

14 7

n , k Z.

cos 2 x = 1;
x = + k ,

2
:

+ = + k 2n 7 k = 4 .
14 7
2
: ( n0 ; k 0 ) = (2 ; 0) .

n = 2 + 7t ,

t Z. = + 2t , t Z.
2
k = 2t ,

209

7.12. 3) . cos 6 x sin

5
41x
31x
x = 1 sin
sin
= 2 . 6
6
6

3 12
41x

sin
= 1,
x=
+ n ,

6
41 41

n , k Z.

3
12

31
x
sin
x = + k ,
= 1;

31 31
6
:

3 12
3 12
+ =
+ k 41k 31n = 18 .
41 41
31 31
: ( k 0 ; n0 ) = ( 54 ; 72) . -

k = 54 + 31t ,
t Z.
k = 72 + 41t ,
= 21 + 12 t , t Z, = 3 + 12 l , l Z.
7.13. . 1 . h = ( 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6) ; h = 60 .
, x = 60k + 1 , x = 7 n . 7n 60k = 1 .
( 7 , 60 ) = 1 , . ( n0 ; k 0 ) = ( 43 ; 5) . :

n = 43 + 60t ,
t Z. ,
k = 5 + 7t ,
43
n > 0 . 40 + 60t > 0 , , t > . 60
, t 0 , t Z. , t, , ,
.
t = 0 : n = 43 , x = 301 .
:

210

2 . ( 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6) = 60 , -

0 (mod 7) ,
60 0 (mod 420) ,

x 1 (mod 60) ;
7 x 7 (mod 420) ;
4 56 (mod 420) ,
4 56 (mod 420) ,


7 x 7 (mod 420) ;
3x 63 (mod 420) .
119 (mod 420 ) , 301 (mod 420 ) . ,
x = 301 + 420t . ,
x = 301 .
7.14. . 1 . , x = 6k + 5 .
, x = 6k + 5 2 1, 3 2. , = 5 + 4 . : 6k + 5 = 5n + 4 5n 6k = 1 .
(5 , 6) = 1 , . ( n0 ; k 0 ) = ( 1 ; 1) .
:

n = 1 + 6t ,
t Z. = 1 + 30t , t Z.
k = 1 + 5t ,
, = 4 + 3 .
: 4 + 3 = 30t 1 15t 2m = 2 .
(15 , 2 ) = 1 , . (t 0 ; m0 ) = (0 ; 1) . :

t = 2 l ,
l Z. = 1 + 60l , l Z.
k = 1 + 15l ,
, x = 59 .
:

2 . :

211

1 (mod 2) ,
x 2 (mod 3) ,

x 3 (mod 4) ,
x 4 (mod 5) ,

x 5 (mod 6) .

, 5 (mod 6) . x 3 (mod 4) ,
x 4 (mod 5) ,
x 5 (mod 6) .

, :

3 (mod 4) ,
x 4 (mod 5) .

, :

5 15 (mod 20) ,
, 4 x 16 (mod 20) .
, 1 (mod 20) . , :
5 (mod 6) ,
10 50 (mod 60) ,

x 1 (mod 20) ;
3x 3 (mod 60) ;
7 53 (mod 60) ,
4 56 (mod 60) ,


3x 3 (mod 60) ;
3x 3 (mod 60) .

, , 59 (mod 60 ) . , x = 59 + 60l , l Z. , x = 59 .
7.15. . :
( x1 ; y1 ) = (3 ; 2) . 15 ( x2 ; y 2 ) , ( x3 ; y3 )

xn + y n 2 = x1 + y1 2

(
) = 17 + 12 2 , .. ( x ; y ) = (17 ; 12) ;
2 = ( 3 + 2 2 ) = 27 + 54 2 + 72 + 16 2 = 99 + 70 2 ,
2

x2 + y 2 2 = 3 + 2 2

x3 + y3
.. ( x3 ; y 3 ) = (99 ; 70) .

212

7.16. . 15 ,

x 2 Ay 2 = 1

xn + y n A = x1 + y1 A

( x1 ; y1 ) -

xn +1 + y n +1 A = ( + ) ( 1 + 1 ) .

, :

xn +1 = xn x1 + Ay n y1 ,

y n +1 = xn y1 + y n x1 .

( x1 ; y1 ) = (3 ; 2) ,
= 3x n + 4 y n ,

7.17. . 2 = 1
2

xn +1

y n +1 = 2 xn + 3 y n .

x = 3x1 + 4 y1 ,
x 2 = 17 ,
=1 2

y 2 = 2 x1 + 3 y1 ;
y 2 = 12 .
x3 = 3x 2 + 4 y 2 ,
x3 = 99 ,

= 2
y3 = 2 x2 + 3 y 2 ;
y 3 = 70 .

( x1 ; y1 ) = (2 ; 1) , xn +1 = 2 xn + 3 y n ,

y n +1 = xn + 2 y n .
2
2
7.18. 2) . 8 = 1 ( x1 ; y1 ) = (3 ; 1) , xn +1 = 3xn + 8 y n ,

y n +1 = xn + 3 y n .
7.18. 1) . 3 = 1
2

7.19. . , .. ( ; ) ( ' ; ' ) = 1 ( !).


, , .
.
2

213

( ; ) (( ' ; ' ) ( " ; " )) = ( ; ) ( x ' x" + A y ' y" ; x ' y" + y ' x" ) =
= ( x ( x' x" + A y' y" ) + A y ( x' y" + y' x" ) ; x ( x' y" + y' x" ) + y ( x' x" + A y' y" )) =
= ( x x ' x " + A y ' y " + A y x ' y " + y ' x " ; x x ' y " + y ' x" + y x ' x" + A y ' y " ) .
(( ; ) ( ' ; ' )) ( " ; " ) = ( x x ' + A y y ' ; x y ' + y x ' ) ( " ; " ) =
= (( x x ' + A y y ' ) x" + A ( x y ' + y x ' ) y " ; ( x x ' + A y y ' ) y " + ( x y ' + y x ' ) x" ) =

= ( x x ' x " + A y ' y " + A y x ' y " + y ' x " ; x x ' y " + y ' x" + y x ' x" + A y ' y " ) .
.
( 1 ; 2 ) .
( ; ) ( 1 ; 2 )

= ( x ; y) ,

= ( x 1 + 2 ; 2 + y1 ) .
= 1 + 2 ,


= 2 + 1 .
(1 1 ) = 2 ,

(1 1 ) = 2 .
, 1 = 1 , 2 = 0 . , ( 1 ; 2 ) = (1 ; 0) .
( ; ) (

( ; ) ) ( ; ) ( ; ) = ( 1 ; 2 ) .

( x x + A y y ; x y + y x ) = (1 ; 0) .
( ; ) ( 1 ; 2 )

+ = 1,
,

+ = 0.
, .
( 2 2 ) = , = . = . ,

( ; ) : ( ; ) = ( ; ) .
, = 1
2

x 0 :
( ; ) ( ' ; ' ) = ( x x' + A y y ' ; x y ' + y x' ) .
214

,
(Z ; +). , :

(1; 0) 0 ,

( 1 ; 1 ) 1 ,
( ; ) 1 ,
1
1
............................
( ; ) ,
( ; ) ,


............................

( x1 ; y1 )
x Ay 2 = 1 , ( x2 ; y 2 ) , ( x 3 ; y 3 ) ..

9.1. 1) . (1764) = (2 3 7 ) =

= 21 (2 1) 31 (3 1) 71 (7 1) = 504 .
4

9.1. 2) . ( 2000) = ( 2 5 ) = 2 ( 2 1) 5 (5 1) = 800 .


4

9.1. 3) . ( 261360) = (2 3 5 11 ) =

= 23 (2 1) 32 (3 1) 50 (5 1) 111 (11 1) = 63360 .


9.4. 1) . 605 = 5 121 ,
, 605 , 5, 5,
, 121 .
9.4. 2) . 24
( N ), 24 1680 . : (1680 , 24 ) = 24 .
1680 = 24 70 , : (70 , ) = 1 .

215

70 . , , , (70) = ( 2 5 7) = 1 4 6 = 24 .
9.5. . ,
, ,
. 1 2
, 1 2 , ,

, 1 , 2 , ... , ,
. , ()

+ ( ) ( ), , .
, .
9.6. . > 1 . :

n = p1k1 p2k 2 ... psk s .

p1k1 p2k2 ... psks =


= 2 p1k1 1 p2k2 1 ... psks 1 ( p1 1) ( p2 1) ... ( ps 1)
, ,

p1 p2 ... p s = 2 ( p1 1) ( p2 1) ... ( p s 1) .
p1 p2 ... p s , (, 1 ) 2.
s > 1
p2 p3 ... ps = ( p2 1) ( p3 1) ... ( ps 1) ,
, .. . , s = 1 .
k
n = 2 ( k N ).

216

9.7. . , ( ). 0 (mod p ) , ,

(mod p) .
( , ) = 1 ,
1 , 2 , 3 , , ( 1)
.
, i a j a (mod p ) ,
i , j = 1 , 2 , , p 1 , , ( , ) = 1 , i j (mod p ) ,
.. i = j.
,
1 , 1 , 2 , 3 , , ( 1)
.
1 , 2 , 3 , , ( 1)
1 , 2 , 3 , , ( 1) .
,

( 1)! 1 ( 1)! (mod p)


( 1)!

( 1)! 0 (mod p)

( 1)! (

1) 0 (mod p) .

( 1)!
/ 0 (mod p) , ,

1 1 0 (mod p) 1 1 (mod p ) .

(mod p)
9.8. 1) . 101 (!), ,
100
, 100 1 (mod 101) .
12
9.8. 2) . 2 1 (mod 13) ,
24
2 1 (mod 13) . ,
2 30 = 2 24 2 6 2 6 = 64 1 12 (mod 13) .
83
9.8. 4) . r 21 24.
83
r 21 (mod 24) ,

217

3. r 3,
r = 3r1 . 3, r1 7 21

82

(mod 8) . 21 8 4
(8) = 4 , 21 1 (mod 8) ,
82
2
2
7 21 ( 1) 21 ( 1) 5 7 (mod 8) .
9.8. 5) . : (120 , 385) = 5 .
422
422
120
385. 120
(mod 385) x = 5y

Z.

422
120 5 y (mod 385) , ,
24 120 421 y (mod 77) .
120 77 ,
(77) = (7 11) = (7) (11) = 6 10 = 60 .
60
, , 120 1 (mod 77) .
421
421 = 60 7 + 1 , 120 120 43 (mod 77) , 421
, 24 120 24 43 31 (mod 77) .
422
120
155 (mod 385) .
9.8. 8) . 132
.
9.9. .

7 = ( 3 1) ( 3 + 1) =

= ( 1) ( + 1) ( 2 + + 1) ( 2 + 1) .
( 1) ( + 1) 2 3. 2 3 7

, 6.
7

, 7. , 7

, (mod 7) . n 0 (mod 7) , ..

7 7. 6 7 , 7 42.

218

9.10. . 1 (mod 5) .
9.11. .
4

b = ( ) + ( b) .
9.12. 1) . 7,
6
6n
1 (mod 7) 1 (mod 7) . 6
6
, + 2 (mod 7) ,
.
9.13. .
5 13.
9.14. 1) . b ,
11 . 11, , . b 11,

b10 11 10
10
5
5
5
5
. , 4a b = ( 2 + b )( 2a b ) .

9.15. 1) . 2 9 7 ,
2 9 (mod 7) ,

2 2 (mod 7) .
2 6 1 (mod 7) . ,
n = 6q + r ,
0 r < 6 ,

6 q
r
r
2 = ( 2 ) 2 2 (mod 7) , ,
2 2 (mod 7) ,
r
2 2 (mod 7) . ,
, 0 r < 6 ,
1 4. , , = 6q + 1 = 6q + 4 .
= 3 ( 2q) + 1 , = 3 ( 2q + 1) + 1 ,
= 3k + 1 .
, 4a

219

10

9.16. . q 1 = ( p 1) k k.
pq. p q, , ,

q 1

1 (mod p )

1 (mod q) . k-
q 1

1 (mod p) . , q 1 1
p q, q 1
1 (mod p q) .
. ,
,

9.17. .

(mod p) , q a (mod q) . q ,
q q (mod p q) p q p (mod p q ) .
, .
9.18. . , , :

p q 1 1 (mod q ) , q p 1 1 (mod p ) ,
( p q 1 1) q , (q p 1 1) p . ( p q 1 1)(q p 1 1) pq , ..
p q 1q p 1 ( p q 1 + q p 1 ) + 1
(p

q 1

+q

p 1

) 1 pq.

220

pq,


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

., . . . .: , 1987.
.., .., ..
( ).
.: (), 1999.
.., .. . .:
( ), 1998.
.., .. //
. 7 8//. .: , 2- , 1974, . 5 69.
.., .. . .: , 1972.
.. . .: , 1960.
.. . .: , 1972.
.. ( ). .: , 1980.
. . .: , 1999 2000.
.., .., .. . .: - , 2- , 1995.
.. (
). .: . 1983.
. . .: , 1965.
., . ? .: , 2-
, 1967.
.., .. . .: ,
1, 1974.
. . .:
, 2001, 21 22.
.. . . : - , 2001.
. ( ). .:
, 1980.
.., .., ..
. .: , 1980.
.. . , 1998, 2, . 135 138.
.., ..
. . .: , 2002.
. . .: .., 1953.
.. . .: 1991.

221

. . .
. . .
.

-
().
103498, , ().
222

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