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# Shallow water effect on ship

resistance
October 1, 2009 1
Ship Hydrodynamics-1
Restricted waterways are the navigational areas with restrictions in depth
and/or width.
Restricted waterways include channels, rivers, small lakes, and man-made
canals (Suez Canal, Panama Canal,. etc), and the restriction can either be
in their depths, widths or both together.
October 1, 2009 2
Ship Design-2
Shallow water has the following effects on ship
performance
i. It causes squat, which is a combination of sinkage and trim.
ii. It increases the total resistance of the ship; it increases the viscous
resistance and increases the wave-making resistance particularly of the
forward part of the ship.
iii. The ship becomes more sluggish to manouevre i.e less steerable.
iv. There will be a drop in speed in shallow water as a result of increased
resistance and reduced propulsion efficiency.
v. There is a greater tendency towards vibration as a result of propeller
induced vibration.
October 1, 2009
Ship Design-2
3
Froude depth number definition
October 1, 2009
Ship Hydrodynamics-1
4
gh
V
Fn
h
=
V
h
October 1, 2009
Ship Hydrodynamics-1
5
Flow cal Supercriti
Fn
h
0 . 1 >
Flow l Subcritica
Fn
h
0 . 1 <
Flow Critical
Fn
h
0 . 1 =
Number Froude Depth
Shallow water effect on ship resistance
Shallow water has two distinct effects on ship resistance.
1- There is an appreciable change in potential flow around the ship due to the
proximity of the bottom, where the flow passing below the ship will speed
up more than in deep water, with the consequence of greater reduction in
pressure and increased speed, and thus increased resistance. This effect is
named the back flow effect and is usually assumed to affect both viscous
and wave-making resistance.
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Ship Design-2
6
This effect leads to squat i.e. sinkage and change in trim. Some
investigations have shown that this effect is negligible for
where A
m
is the maximum sectional area of the immersed hull and h is the
water depth.
October 1, 2009
Ship Design-2
7
18 . 0 / s h A
m
2- The second effect is concerned with the wave system of the ship. The wave
system is modified due to the difference in the relationship between wave
length and wave speed in deep and in shallow water, where the wave of
given length moves more slowly on shallow water than on deep water.
This phenomenon is known as the wave retardation effect. This effect is
negligible for where is Froude depth number .
October 1, 2009
Ship Design-2
8
45 . 0 s
nh
F
nh
F
gh v
In general, shallow water effects become pronounced when
where T is the draft of the ship. At higher ratios, the effect is reduced and
becomes negligible for .
October 1, 2009
Ship Design-2
9
0 . 3 / s T h
10 / > T h
Shallow water effect on ship resistance components
Effect on viscous resistance
The viscous resistance will be affected due to the presence of shallow
water.
1- The flow is speeded up under the ship due to the back flow effect, and
2- The wetted surface area increases because of the squat, which would occur
in shallow water.
For the above reasons the skin friction would be increased.
October 1, 2009
Ship Design-2
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Also there is another effect of shallow water on the form factor.
Experiments on this effect were carried out and the results showed that
the form factor is dependent upon the water depth namely, as the depth
of water is reduced the form factor is increased.
(1+r)
shallow
=(1+r)
deep
+0.644(T/h)
1.72
October 1, 2009
Ship Design-2
11
Effect on wave-making resistance
The wave-making resistance is greatly
affected by shallow water due to the
change which would occur in the wave
pattern.
October 1, 2009
Ship Design-2
12
l Subcritica
Fn
deep h
h
4 . 0 0
28 19
' 0
=
=
= o
Critical
Fn
shallow h
h
o o
99 . 0
90 78

=
= o
cal Supercriti
Fn
shallow h
h
4 . 1
45
0
=
=
= o
l Subcritica
Fn
shallow h
h
4 . 0
28 19
' 0
>
=
> o
2
o
In deep water, the wave pattern consists of transverse and divergent
waves with the Kelvin angle of 19
o
28`.
October 1, 2009
Ship Design-2
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For shallow water, and at a speed less than commonly named
the hydrodynamic barrier, the angle increases with the increase of
and the wave system consists of a double set of waves, transverse and
diverging as in deep water
October 1, 2009
Ship Design-2
14
gh v =
gh v /
when v exceeds , the angle decreases with the increase of
and the wave system consists only of diverging waves, there being no
transverse waves
October 1, 2009
Ship Design-2
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gh gh v /
The shallow water effect on the ships wave resistance is of little practical
importance for F
nh
< 0.7. Above this value, the effect increases rapidly to
reach a very high peak value when the F
nh
approaches unity.
October 1, 2009
Ship Design-2
16
Determination of the ship resistance in shallow water
Schlichting method
Schlichting performed an analysis on the effects of shallow water on ship
resistance. The analysis covered the increase in resistance in shallow
water at subcritical speeds, and was for shallow water of unlimited lateral
extent.
October 1, 2009
Ship Hydrodynamics-1
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h
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
w
w
c
L
h gL
V
t
t
2
tanh
2
2
t 2
2
w
c
gL
V =
At any particular speed in deep water the wave pattern generated by
the ship will have a wave length given by:
In water of depth h the same wave length would be generated at some
lower speed where
and the ratio of the two speeds is

V
w
L
t 2 /
2
w
gL V =

g V L
w
/ 2
2

= t
w
L
I
V
w w I
L h gL V / 2 tanh ) 2 / (
2
t t =
2 / 1
) / 2 (tanh /
w I
L h V V t =

2 / 1 2
) / (tanh /

= V gh V V
I
Typical frictional and total resistance curves for deep water are shown in the
Figure below to a base of speed.
October 1, 2009
Ship Hydrodynamics-1
21
R
V
(deep)
R
Total
(deep)
V
inf
R
W
(deep)

V
At any particular speed in deep water they are and ,
respectively.
At this speed the wave pattern generated by the ship will have a wave
length L
W
given by:
At deep water
October 1, 2009
Ship Hydrodynamics-1
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V
F
R
T
R
t 2
2 W
gL
V =

( ) ( ) ( )
deep Wl deep Vl deep total
R R R
V V
+ =
=

Step (1)
In water of depth h the same wave length L
W
would be generated at some
lower or intermediate speed V
I
, where
Where
October 1, 2009
Ship Hydrodynamics-1
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C V V V
I
c = =

(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
= c

2
1
tanh 1
h
Fn
V C
October 1, 2009
Ship Hydrodynamics-1
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R
V
(deep)
R
Total
(deep)
V
inf
R
W
(deep)
oC

V V
I
Step (2)
Schlichting assumed that the wave making resistance in shallow water at
speed V
I
would be the same as the speed in deep water.
The total resistance at speed V
I
would then be found by adding the wave
making resistance to the appropriate frictional resistance at this
speed, .
Total resistance at water depth h and speed V
I
October 1, 2009
Ship Hydrodynamics-1
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V
w
R
Fh
R
( ) ( ) ( )
I I I
V h w V h V V h total
R R R
, , ,
+ =
October 1, 2009
Ship Hydrodynamics-1
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R
V
(deep)
R
Total
(deep)
V
inf
R
W
(deep)
oC

V V
I
(R
w
)
h
Step (3)
There is further loss in speed Vp because of the increase in potential flow
around the hull due to the restriction of area by the proximity of the
bottom, giving as the final speed
Schlichting found experimentally that
October 1, 2009
Ship Hydrodynamics-1
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p I h
V V V c =
( ) h A f
V
V
x
I
h
=
October 1, 2009
Ship Hydrodynamics-1
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0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00
0.84
0.88
0.92
0.96
1.00
VI/Vinf
(Ax)^0.5/h
I
h
V
V
( ) h A f
V
V
x
I
h
=
h
A
x
October 1, 2009
Ship Hydrodynamics-1
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Point on the R
total
at shallow water (depth h)
h
V
R
V
(deep)
R
Total
(deep)
V
inf
R
W
(deep)
oC

V V
I
oV
p
(R
w
)
h
Step (4)
Repeat the previous procedure to construct R-V curve at water depth h
October 1, 2009
Ship Hydrodynamics-1
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R
total
(h)
R
V
(deep)
R
Total
(deep)
V
inf
R
W
(deep)
oC

V V
I
oV
p
(R
w
)
h
oV
total
h
V