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kynu1u kuury

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Mnkaan Bannn1.
Basncnm peqek1: 1epanea1nueckne acnek1m perpeccnn
Hspa:ensc:ao: N., Korn:o-Ueu:p
Cepns: CoapeMeuuas ncnxo:epanns
Hepeaop c: Hep. c aurn.
Fop: 2002
2
C:paun: 256
ISBN: 5-89353-070-5
Mnkaan Bannn1. "Basncnm peqek1: Tepanea1n-
ueckne acnek1m perpeccnn" / Hayunm pepak-
1op: A. M. Bokoankoa. Hep. c anrn. B. A. Arap-
koa, C. B. Kpaaeu M.: Korn1o-Uen1p, 2002.

Bnepame ony6nnkoaannan a 1968 r. knnra Mn-
kaana Bannn1a Basncnm peqek1: Tepanea1n-
ueckne acnek1m perpeccnn nocnyxnna ocnoao
pnn unpokoHacu1a6no peqopHm ncnxoanann-
1nuecko 1eopnn n 1exnnkn. Knnra Bannn1a
upesamuano aaxna pnn nonnHannn 1aknx uen-
1panLnmx npo6neH ncnxoanann1nuecko 1eo-
pnn, kak npnpopa caHoc1n, nocnepc1ann napy-
uenn a pasan1nn, uennoc1L aHna1nn.
3
Mukasn Banuu1
(Michael Balint)
BA3HCHmH QE4EKT: TEPAHEBTH-
HECKHE ACHEKTm PEFPECCHH
Copepxauue:
Hac1u I. Tpu o6nac1u ncuxuku
Inaaa 1. Tepanea1nueckne npoueccm n nx noka-
nnsaunn
Inaaa 2. Hn1epnpe1aunn n npopa6o1ka
Inaaa 3. [aa ypoann anann1nuecko pa6o1m
Inaaa 4. O6nac1L 6asncnoro peqek1a
Inaaa 5. O6nac1L cosnpannn
4
Inaaa 6. PeskHe
Hac1u II. Hepauvum uapuccusH u nepauv-
uan nm6oau
Inaaa 7. Tpn 1eopnn Opepa
Inaaa 8. HsnauanLnme npo1naopeunn
Inaaa 9. Knnnnueckne pannme o napunccnsHe
Inaaa 10. Lnsoqpennn, snokauec1aennan saan-
cnHoc1L n ppyrne napunccnueckne pacc1poc1aa
Inaaa 11. Hpena1anLnme n pannne noc1na1anL-
nme coc1onnnn
Inaaa 12. Hepanunan nk6oaL
Inaaa 13. Bspocnan nk6oaL
Hac1u III Hponac1u u peakuu auanu1uka
ua uee
Inaaa 14. Perpeccnn n pe6enok a naunen1e
Inaaa 15. Hpo6neHa nsmka a aocnn1annn n a
anann1nuecko cn1yaunn
Inaaa 16. Orpannuennn knaccnuecko 1exnnkn
Inaaa 17. Hepoc1a1kn He1opa nocnepoaa1enLnmx
nn1epnpe1aun
5
Inaaa 18. Hepoc1a1kn 1exnnkn ynpaanennn per-
peccne
Hac1u IV po6pokavec1aeuume u snokavec1-
aeuume qopHm perpeccuu
Inaaa 19. Opep n npepc1aanennn o perpeccnn
Inaaa 20. CnHn1oHa1onornn n pnarnos
Inaaa 21. Ypoane1aopenne n o6Lek1nme o1noue-
nnn
Inaaa 22. [pyrne qopHm 1epanea1nuecko per-
peccnn
Inaaa 23. Pasnornacnn Hexpy OpepoH n Oe-
penun n nx nocnepc1ann
Hac1u V Perpeccupoaaamu naueu1 u ero
auanu1uk
Inaaa 24. Tepanea1nueckan perpeccnn, nepanu-
nan nk6oaL n 6asncnm peqek1
Inaaa 25. Henaansunam anann1nk
Inaaa 26. Hpeoponenne nponac1n
6
Hac1u I. Tpu o6nac1u ncuxuku
Fnaaa 1. Tepanea1uveckue npoeccm u
ux nokanusaun
Hepaan uac1L a1o knnrn a ocnoanoH coc1on1 ns poc1a-
1ouno nesaancnHmx rnaa, nocanuennmx o1penLnmH uac1-
nmH aonpocaH. Xo1n a1o Hoxe1 neckonLko sa1pypnn1L
u1enne, 1eH ne Henee n peunn oc1anoan1Lcn na 1ako
c1pyk1ype, nockonLky xo1en 6m cnauana nponcnn1L neko-
1opme yc1anoanaunecn asrnnpm n Hnennn o1nocn1enLno
anonne poc1oaepnmx knnnnuecknx pannmx n 1onLko no-
1oH npnc1ynn1L k paccHo1pennk nocnepykunx 1eH.
[aaa1e poroaopnHcn nepep 1eH, kak o1npaan1Lcn a ny1L,
u1o ace Hm, n un1a1enn, n aa1op nanneHcn poc1a1ou-
no koHne1en1nmHn n onm1nmHn anann1nkaHn, ne penak-
unHn aneHen1apnmx oun6ok. D1o osnauae1, u1o ace Hm
cnoco6nm paaa1L poc1a1ouno koppek1nme nn1epnpe1aunn
a aecLHa nopxopnun pnn a1oro HoHen1, a 1akxe no Hepe
aosHoxnoc1n npopa6a1maa1L Ha1epnan nepenoca n pe-
anLno xnsnn naunx naunen1oa na renn1anLnoH n
neckonLknx porenn1anLnmx ypoannx.
[oroaopnauncL o6 a1oH, Hm Hornn 6m, naaepnoe, corna-
cn1Lcn c 1eH, u1o nnorpa naunHn vis-a-vis 6maak1 1pyp-
nme naunen1m, ko1opme amsmaak1 y nac coHnennn n sa-
Heua1enLc1ao; Hm ne c1aneH 1akxe o1pnua1L n 1o, u1o,
cornacno cnyxaH, unpkynnpykunH a kaxpoH o1penennn
naue Mexpynapopno accounaunn, paxe caHme onm1-
7
nme n caHme nckycnme anann1nkn cpepn nac nopok c1an-
knaak1cn c neypauaHn.
HoueHy 1ak nponcxopn1, kak Hm HoxeH o6Lncnn1L a1o1
nenpnn1nm qak1? B uenoH npnunnm naunx 1pypnoc1e n
neypau Hory1 6m1L pasnecenm no 1peH py6pnkaH. D1o
Hoxe1 6m1L cansano: (a) c neapekaa1noc1Lk naue 1ex-
nnkn, (6) c oco6ennoc1nHn nnunoc1n naunen1a n ero sa-
6oneaannn n (a) c nec1mkoako Hexpy naunHn apek-
aa1nmHn a ppyrnx o6c1on1enLc1aax 1exnnuecknHn npne-
HaHn n cnHn1oHaHn konkpe1noro cnyuan, npn ppyrnx yc-
noannx noppakunHncn neuennk.
Hepam aonpoc, ko1opm Hne xo1enocL 6m o6cypn1L, say-
un1 1ak: noueHy opnnx naunen1oa neun1L ropaspo 1pyp-
nee, ueH ppyrnx, nnn noueHy a opnnx cnyuanx anann1nk n
ero naunen1 nonyuak1 o1 anannsa 6onLuyk o1pauy, ueH a
ppyrnx? 1o6m paso6pa1Lcn a a1oH aonpoce, cqopHynn-
pyeH ero nnaue: kakoaa npnpopa 1epanea1nuecknx npo-
ueccoa, a kako o6nac1n ncnxnkn onn pasaopaunaak1cn,
u1o nHenno a a1nx npoueccax cnyxn1 nc1ounnkoH 1ex
1pypnoc1e, c ko1opmHn Hm, anann1nkn, c1anknaaeHcn?
HecHo1pn na 1o, u1o a1a npo6neHa sannHae1 nac yxe 6o-
nee uec1npecn1n ne1, ace eue oc1ae1cn 6es o1ae1a oc-
noano aonpoc onpepenennn c1pyk1ypnmx coc1aannkunx
ncnxnueckoro annapa1a n c1enenn nx poc1ynnoc1n pnn
ncnxoanannsa. HcnonLsyn nauy 1epHnnonornk, Hoxno
6mno 6m 1ak cqopHynnpoaa1L a1o1 aonpoc: a kaknx nHen-
no o6nac1nx ncnxnkn npo1ekak1 1epanea1nueckne npo-
ueccm? HecHo1pn na 1o, u1o a1n pae qopHynnpoakn ne
coaceH npen1nunm, onn 1eH ne Henee nHek1 Hnoro o6ue-
ro.
O6uenpnnn1o, u1o 1epannn ponxna okasmaa1L n, no
cy1n, okasmaae1 annnnne na Cynep-Dro. Y nac paxe
ec1L npepc1aanennn o 1oH, u1o nponcxopn1 a a1o uac1n
8
ncnxnkn, Hm snaeH o 1epanea1nuecknx npoueccax, npo1e-
kakunx a a1o o6nac1n, n o nponcxopnunx 1aH nsHene-
nnnx. HanpnHep, naH nsaec1no, u1o Cynep-Dro a ocnoa-
noH coc1on1 ns nn1poek1oa, aaxneunHn nc1ounnkaHn
ko1opmx nannk1cn aos6yxpakune, no nnkorpa ne npnno-
cnune nonnoro ypoane1aopennn cekcyanLnme o6Lek1m
Hnapenuec1aa, pe1c1aa n ny6ep1a1noro nepnopa. Moxno
6mno 6m ckasa1L, u1o Cynep-Dro a nsaec1noH cHmcne
npepc1aanne1 co6o cyHHy ncnxnuecknx upaHoa, oc1aa-
nennmx a1nHn o6Lek1aHn. C ppyro c1oponm, ao aspocno
xnsnn Cynep-Dro Hoxe1 6m1L npeo6pasoaano uepes npn-
o6pe1enne noamx nn1poek1oa y6epn1enLnmH npnHepoH
1akoro nsHenennn nanne1cn ncnxoanann1nueckoe neue-
nne, ao apeHn ko1oporo naunen1 uac1nuno nnn nonnoc1Lk
nn1poeunpye1 ncnxoanann1nka. 3pecL n xo1en 6m npoaec-
1n rpanL Hexpy nn1poekune n ppyrnH npoueccoH, 6onee
aaxnmH pnn o6pasoaannn Cynep-Dro npen1nqnkaune,
ko1opyk Hoxno paccHa1pnaa1L kak cnepykun sa nn1po-
ekune uar. Hnpnanp ne npoc1o a6npae1 a ce6n aos6yx-
pakun n qpyc1pnpykun cekcyanLnm o6Lek1, no c on-
pepenennoro HoHen1a aocnpnnnHae1 ero kak neo1LeHne-
Hyk uac1L caHoro ce6n. ac1o npen1nqnkaunn npepaapn-
e1cn npeannsaune nnn nenocpepc1aenno cansana c ne,
opnako amcokan c1enenL npeannsaunn Hoxe1 nocnyxn1L
cepLesnmH npenn1c1aneH pnn npen1nqnkaunn c nn1poe-
unpoaannmH o6Lek1oH. Bce a1o poc1a1ouno xopouo ns-
aec1no, opnako apnp nn naH u1o-1o nsaec1no o npoueccax,
aepyunx k annynnpoaannk nn1poekunn, npeannsaunn
nnn npen1nqnkaunn.
H1ak, Hm pacnonaraeH neko1opmHn npepc1aanennnHn o
npoueccax, npnaopnunx k o6pasoaannk noamx nn1poek-
1oa n npen1nqnkaun, no naH, kaxe1cn, nnuero nens-
aec1no o 1oH, kak Hoxno ns6aan1Lcn o1 cyuec1aykunx
yxe nn1poekun n npen1nqnkaun. D1o amsmaae1 coxa-
nenne, no1oHy u1o pnn aqqek1nanoc1n nauero He1opa
9
6mno 6m kpane aaxno sna1L, kak noHouL naunen1y ns-
6aan1Lcn o1 neko1opmx uac1e ero Cynep-Dro.
[anee, 6onLunnc1ao ncnxoanann1nkoa cornacnm c 1eH,
u1o anann1nueckan 1epannn ponxna c1peHn1Lcn k 1oHy,
u1o6m Dro c1ano cnnLnee, xo1n naun npepc1aanennn o6
nc1nnno npnpope 1akoro ycnnennn n 1exnnkn, nosao-
nnkune a1oro poc1nuL, po cnx nop oc1ak1cn poaonLno
neonpepenennmHn. Haun snannn o6 a1oH acnek1e 1epa-
nnn Hory1 6m1L cyHHnpoaanm cnepykunH o6pasoH. B
npouecce 1epannn ponxna 6m1L ycnnena 1a uac1L Dro, ko-
1opan naxopn1cn a 6nnxaueH kon1ak1e c Hp, 1o ec1L 1a
uac1L, ko1opan Hoxe1 nacnaxpa1Lcn ypoane1aopenneH
aneuenn, ampepxnaa1L snaun1enLnoe yaennuenne na-
npnxenn, cnoco6na k nponanennk sa6o1m n annHannn,
Hoxe1 npnnnHa1L n nepenocn1L neypoane1aopennme xe-
nannn n nenaanc1L, ko1opan Hoxe1 ncnonnn1L qynkunk
npoaepkn peanLnoc1n kak any1penne, 1ak n aneune
n c1apae1cn yun1maa1L ee 1pe6oaannn. BHec1e c 1eH
ne1 nnkako neo6xopnHoc1n a ykpennennn 1o uac1n Dro,
ko1opan ne Hoxe1 n ne cHee1 ncnm1maa1L ypoaonLc1ane
o1 cnnLnoro uyac1aa ypoane1aopennn aneuennn, ko1opan
ponxna saunua1L ce6n o1 nk6oro yaennuennn aHouno-
nanLnoro nanpnxennn nocpepc1aoH o1pnuannn, 1opHoxe-
nnn, uepes o6pauenne a npo1naononoxnoc1L nnn cospa-
nne peak1nanmx o6pasoaann 1o ec1L 1o uac1n Dro,
ko1opan npncnoca6nnaae1cn k aneune peanLnoc1n n k
1pe6oaannnH Cynep-Dro sa cue1 any1penne peanLnoc1n.
Hao6opo1, poHnnnpoaanne a1o uac1n Dro a xnsnn naun-
en1a ponxno 6m1L ocna6neno a pesynL1a1e 1epannn.
Bonpoc, nannk1cn nn payHn 6onee nnn Henee nesaancn-
HmHn npoueccaHn ykpennenne Dro n panee o6cyxpaauan-
cn 1pancqopHaunn Cynep-Dro nnn a1o paa acnek1a opnoro
npouecca, ne 6mn nn ue1ko cqopHynnpoaan, nn ponxnmH
o6pasoH npopa6o1an. Han6onee uac1o ncnonLsyeHan
qopHyna rnacn1, u1o Dro, cnepyn pnpek1naaH Cynep-Dro,
10
ponxno nrpa1L ponL nocpepnnka Hexpy aneune peanL-
noc1Lk n Hp. Bce eue oc1ae1cn o1kpm1mH aonpoc, o6na-
pae1 nn caH no ce6e a1o1 nocpepnnk cnoco6noc1Lk oka-
smaa1L annnnne na yc1anoanauncn 6ananc n kakne
nHenno 1epanea1nueckne npoueccm Hory1 aospec1aoaa1L
na a1y cnoco6noc1L.
Eue 6onLuan neonpepenennoc1L uapn1 a naunx npep-
c1aanennnx o aosHoxnmx cnoco6ax annnnnn na Hp. Epaa
nn y nac ec1L kakne-nn6o npepc1aanennn o 1oH, aosHoxno
nn 1akoe aoo6ue, a ecnn aosHoxno, 1o kaknH nHenno o6-
pasoH a1oro Hoxno 6mno 6m poc1nuL. Te anann1nkn, ko-
1opme npnsnak1 cyuec1aoaanne nepanunoro aneuennn k
cHep1n, a 1akxe nepanunoro capnsHa, nepanunoro nap-
unccnsHa n pec1pyk1nanoc1n, amnyxpenm cornacn1Lcn c
1eH, u1o Hp Hoxe1 6m1L nopaeprny1o nsHenennnH npn
noHoun naue 1epannn. Eue Opep a pa6o1e Koneunm
n 6eckoneunm ananns (1937) nasaan opnn ns acnek1oa
a1oro aepon1noro npeo6pasoaannn npnpyuenneH aneue-
nn. [nn oco6oro cnyuan nepanunoro capnsHa a1o osna-
uae1, u1o nn1encnanoc1L pec1pyk1nanmx nHnynLcoa
nnorpa nasmaaeHmx pec1pypo ponxna 6m1L cnnxena ao
apeHn n nocpepc1aoH anann1nueckoro neuennn nnn aoc-
nn1ana uepes nsHenennn a caHnx nx nc1okax, 1o ec1L a
Hp, nn6o uepes cnnnnne a1nx nHnynLcoa c 6onLunH konn-
uec1aoH nn6npo. Tak kak 1eope1nueckne nonn1nn cnnn-
nne n paccnoenne ne nHek1 ue1koro onpepenennn, 1o
nou1n neaosHoxno coo1nec1n nx c poc1a1ouno c1enenLk
napexnoc1n nn c Hp, nn c Dro. KpoHe 1oro, ne roaopn yxe
o 1oH, u1o caHn 1epHnnm am6panm neypauno, Hm 1ak n ne
cHornn coc1aan1L kakoro-nn6o npepc1aanennn o 1ex He-
xannsHax n npoueccax, ko1opme onn onpepennk1. Haaep-
noe, epnnc1aennoe, u1o Hoxno specL y1aepxpa1L, 1ak a1o
1o, u1o paccnoenne n qpyc1paunn, no-anpnHoHy, poaonL-
no 1ecno cansanm Hexpy co6o. Opnako oc1ae1cn ne co-
aceH ncnmH, cnpaaepnnao nn 1o xe caHoe n pnn upesam-
11
uano aaxnmx c 1oukn spennn 1exnnkn, pononnnkunx
ppyr ppyra nonn1n cnnnnnn n ypoane1aopennn.
Hpn 1akoH nonoxennn pen ne1 nnuero ypnan1enLnoro a
1oH, u1o nnk1o ne cHor npepnoxn1L napexnme He1opm
aospec1ann na a1n npoueccm. Ecnn ace xe ananns n Ho-
xe1 aospec1aoaa1L na cnnnnne n paccnoenne, 1o c onpe-
penennoc1Lk Hoxno ckasa1L, u1o 1akoe annnnne ocyue-
c1anne1cn npn nepenoce, 1o ec1L, no cyuec1ay, uepes
o6Lek1nme o1nouennn. BHec1e c 1eH ns a1oro cnepye1,
u1o npoueccm, nnnunnpyeHme a anann1nuecko cn1yaunn,
no-anpnHoHy, nannk1cn nac1onLko HounmHn n nn1encna-
nmHn, u1o onn a coc1onnnn poc1nuL rny6nnnmx cnoea
ncnxnkn n nponsaec1n 1aH qynpaHen1anLnme npeo6paso-
aannn. [ec1ane HexannsHoa a1oro npouecca kak a1o
nponcxopn1, kakoam xapak1epnc1nkn n kakoaa nn1encna-
noc1L 1ex o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn, ko1opme, aosHoxno,
cnoco6c1ayk1 peuennk a1o sapaun ne nauno ponxno-
ro o1paxennn a naue nn1epa1ype.
Tak Hm npn6nnxaeHcn k o1ae1y na aonpoc, c ko1oporo na-
uann naun paccyxpennn: o1uero paxe y caHmx onm1nmx
ns nac ec1L 1pypnme naunen1m n cnyuanme neypaun?
HecHo1pn na 1o, u1o Hm pacnonaraeH neko1opmHn 1eope-
1nuecknHn npepc1aanennnHn o npoueccax, npo1ekakunx
a ncnxnke a ycnoannx ncnxoanann1nuecko 1epannn, ace
eue ne napenm oueanpnme, poc1a1ouno napexnme cansn
Hexpy naunHn 1eope1nuecknHn npepc1aanennnHn n 1ex-
nnuecknHn He1opaHn. [pyrnHn cnoaaHn, naun 1eope1n-
ueckne npepc1aanennn o 1epanea1nuecknx npoueccax n nx
nokannsaunn ace eue ne nosaonnk1 naH ue1ko onpepe-
nn1L npnropnoc1L nnn neyHec1noc1L 1ex nnn nnmx 1exnn-
uecknx He1opoa a kako-nn6o konkpe1no cn1yaunn. B
a1oH saknkuae1cn raison d'etre (ocnoaanne qp.) cocyue-
c1aoaannn a ncnxoanannse pasnnunmx ukon, kaxpan ns
ko1opmx nonLsye1cn caonH co6c1aennmH He1opoH, snaun-
1enLno o1nnuakunHcn o1 He1opoa ppyrnx ukon, npn1oH,
12
u1o ace ukonm paspennk1 opnn n 1e xe 6asncnme npen
o1nocn1enLno c1pyk1ypm ncnxnkn. Baxno o1He1n1L, u1o
anann1nkn pasnmx ukon, ace 6es ncknkuennn, nHek1
caon ycnexn, caon 1pypnme cnyuan n caok nspnpnyk po-
nk neypau. Bennka aepon1noc1L 1oro, u1o cnyuan, a ko1o-
pmx apen1m pasnmx ukon po6naak1cn ycnexa nnn 1epnn1
neypauy, aecLHa o1nnuak1cn ppyr o1 ppyra. Bonee 1oro,
pasnnunn a He1opax Hory1 annn1L na 1nn ycnexa nnn ne-
ypaun. HHenno noa1oHy 6ecnpnc1pac1noe, no kpn1nueckoe
nccnepoaanne a a1o o6nac1n Horno 6m anec1n cyuec1-
aennyk ncnoc1L a nauy 1eopnk n npak1nky. K coxane-
nnk, nesaancnHoro nccnepoaannn 1akoro popa ne 6mno
npoaepeno. Hc1opnn nonm1kn c1a1nc1nueckoro nccnepo-
aannn, npepnpnnn1o AHepnkancko ncnxoanann1nuecko
accounaune ouenL pennka1no, paxe upesamuano
pennka1no nonm1kn, o1 ko1opo npnunocL o1kasa1Lcn,
narnnpno npopeHonc1pnpoaana 1o1 ypoaenL 1peaorn n
conpo1nanennn, ko1opm amsmaak1 1akne nccnepoaannn.
Fnaaa 2. Hu1epnpe1aun u npopa6o1ka
Kak n yxe nonm1ancn ponec1n po un1a1enn, 1onnueckn
nopxop, no-anpnHoHy, ne ouenL-1o cnoco6c1aye1 npopan-
xennk a peuennn naunx 1eope1nuecknx 1pypnoc1e, n,
koneuno xe, ne npepnarae1 naH napexnmx kpn1epnea pnn
ouenkn koppek1noc1n konkpe1noro 1epanea1nueckoro ua-
ra, npepnpnnn1oro a pannmx o6c1on1enLc1aax, xo1n a1oro
n Hoxno 6mno 6m oxnpa1L. Mm ne ponxnm sa6maa1L, u1o
nocnepnn nepecHo1p naue 1eopnn ncnxnuecknx c1pyk-
1yp n 1ononornn 6mn npepnpnnn1 OpepoH a nauane
1920-x ropoa, 6onee copoka ne1 nasap. C 1ex nop ne 6mno
npepnoxeno noao paanouenno 1eopnn ncnxnueckoro
annapa1a (anpoueH, Oa6epnoH, Iap1HannoH n Bnnnnko1-
1oH 6mnn cospanm noame konuenunn Dro-ncnxonornn).
Opnako nau 1exnnueckn no1enunan n naue peanLnoe
Hac1epc1ao sa Hnnyaune copok ne1, 6eccnopno, cyuec1-
13
aenno aospocnn. BHec1e c 1eH yaennunnocL n konnuec1ao
naunx 1exnnuecknx npo6neH. H npnaen o6sop noamx 1e-
uenn a HoeH poknape na konrpecce a Ukpnxe (1949),
ocnoanoe copepxanne ko1oporo saknkuanocL a nonm1ke
o6ocnoaannn npen asanHoo6ycnoanennoc1n 1exnnkn n
1eope1nuecknx konuenun Opepa.
Opep a caonx snaHenn1mx Honorpaqnnx H n Ono
(1923) n TopHoxenne, cnHn1oH n c1pax (1926) o1Heua-
e1, u1o on nonoxnn a ocnoay caoero He1opa n 1eopnn
onm1 knnnnuecko pa6o1m kak c o6ceccnanmHn naunen-
1aHn, 1ak n c naunen1aHn, c1papakunHn Henanxonne,
nockonLkyn npnaoxy ero co6c1aennme cnoaa ncnxn-
ueckne npoueccm n konqnnk1m a1nx naunen1oa a snaun-
1enLno c1enenn nn1epnannsoaanm. D1o osnauae1, u1o
ncxopnme konqnnk1m, saun1nme HexannsHm, a 1akxe
npoueccm coanapannn c konqnnk1aHn c1ann pnn a1nx na-
unen1oa n, no cyuec1ay, oc1ak1cn any1pennnHn co-
6m1nnHn. H nao6opo1, y a1nx naunen1oa ka1ekcnc aneu-
nnx co6m1n poaonLno cna6. TaknH o6pasoH, a nepaoH
npn6nnxennn Hoxno npnnn1L, u1o ace aaxnme co6m1nn,
nponcxopnune c 1aknHn naunen1aHn n cansannme c nx
na1onorne nnn 1epanne, nou1n ncknkun1enLno o1no-
cn1cn k nx any1penneHy Hnpy. HHenno 1akoe nonoxenne
aeue n nosaonnno Opepy onnca1L nsHenennn, nponc-
xopnune a npouecce 1epannn, a 6onee nnn Henee npoc1o
qopHe. Torpa npn ycnoann, u1o ncnxoanann1nkn npnpep-
xnaak1cn neko pasyHno anann1nuecko 1exnnkn,
nsHenennn a konc1ennnunnx aneunnx co6m1n n o6Lek-
1oa, xapak1epnme pnn pasnmx anann1nkoa, 6ypy1 nHe1L
nnu1oxno Hanoe snauenne a cnny 1oro, u1o ka1ekcnc
aneunnx co6m1n n o6Lek1oa poaonLno cna6. 3a6maan o
1oH, u1o ace a1o aepno 1onLko a paHkax onpepenennoro
cnyuan n 1onLko a kauec1ae nepaoro npn6nnxennn, neko-
1opme anann1nkn npnunn k npee npaannLno 1exnnkn,
1o ec1L 1exnnkn, ko1opan xopoua pnn acex naunen1oa n
14
pnn acex anann1nkoa nesaancnHo o1 nx nnpnanpyanLnmx
kauec1a. Ecnn n aepno npepc1aannk ce6e nonoxenne ae-
ue, 1o npaannLnan 1exnnka a1o xnHepa ns nounoro
kouHapa, qan1ac1nueckan koHnnnnunn necoaHec1nHmx
qparHen1oa peanLnoc1n.
[nn 1oro u1o6m ampepxnaa1L n coxpann1L nanpnxennn,
ko1opme amsmaae1 nn1epnannsaunn, a kauec1ae neo6xo-
pnHoro ycnoann 1pe6ye1cn poc1a1ouno xopouan c1pyk1ypa
Dro, npn a1oH ono ne ponxno paspyua1Lcn n ne ponxno
npn6era1L k saun1aH (u1o Hoxno 6mno 6m nasaa1L akc-
1epnannsaune) 1nna o1mrpmaannn, npoekunn, saHeua-
1enLc1aa, o1pnuannn, penepconannsaunn. Hsaec1nan ana-
nornn, ncnonLsoaannan OpepoH npnHenn1enLno k naun-
en1aH, ko1opme Hory1 coanapa1L c nn1epnannsaune, na-
nne1cn 1ounmH onpepenenneH 1oro, u1o nponcxopn1 ao
apeHn anann1nueckoro neuennn. BonLuyk uac1L apeHenn
anann1nk, no cyuec1ay, nrpae1 ponL xopouo o1nonnpo-
aannoro sepkana, on npoc1o o1paxae1 1o, u1o coo6uae1
eHy naunen1. Bonee 1oro, kak anpno ns acex onncannmx
OpepoH cnyuaea, Ha1epnan, npepoc1aanneHm anann1n-
ky ao apeHn anann1nuecko pa6o1m 1akoro popa, a oc-
noanoH npepc1aanen a anpe cnoa; o1ckpa cnepye1, u1o n
npn o1paxennn 1akoro Ha1epnana ncnonLsyk1cn nHenno
cnoaa. B a1oH npouecce npopykunn n o1paxennn Ha1e-
pnana o6e c1oponm naunen1 n anann1nk npnHepno
opnnakoao nonnHak1 1o, u1o nHn nponsnocn1cn. Koneuno,
anann1nk c1anknaae1cn n c conpo1nanenneH, ko1opoe no-
po o6napae1 amcoko nn1encnanoc1Lk, opnako acerpa
Hoxno na1n onopy a napexnoH n pasyHnoH Dro, cnoco6-
noH npnnn1L aep6anLnyk npopykunk n nosaonn1L cnoaaH
okasa1L caoe aospec1ane. To ec1L Dro Hoxe1 cnpaan1Lcn
c 1eH, u1o Opep nasmaan npopa6o1ko.
Tak Hm nopxopnH ko a1opoHy o1ae1y na noc1aanennm
nepep naHn aonpoc. Hpnaepennoe specL onncanne anann-
1nuecko 1exnnkn npexpe acero noppasyHeaae1, u1o pnn
15
naunen1a n anann1nka nn1epnpe1aunn nannk1cn nHenno
nn1epnpe1aunnHn, a ne ueH-1o nnmH. Moxe1 cnoxn1Lcn
aneua1nenne, u1o specL y1aepxpae1cn oueanpnoe, no
nosxe, n napekcL, neo6xopnHoc1L 1akoro akuen1npoaa-
nnn c1ane1 ncna.
Hcnxoanann1nueckan ncnxo1epannn paxe a knaccnueckoH
aapnan1e xopouo o1nonnpoaannoro sepkana, no cyue-
c1ay, npepc1aanne1 co6o o6Lek1nme o1nouennn. Bce, u1o
a xope 1epannn npnaopn1 k nsHenennnH a ncnxnke naun-
en1a, nnnunnpye1cn co6m1nnHn a cqepe o1nouenn Hex-
py payHn nepconaHn, Hexpy payHn nkpLHn, a ne any1-
pn opnoro ns nnx. D1o1 qynpaHen1anLnm qak1 Hor o1pn-
ua1Lcn 1onLko po 1ex nop, noka a qokyc annHannn nccne-
poaannn nonapann rnaanmH o6pasoH 1e naunen1m, ko1o-
pme no 6onLue uac1n ncnonLsoaann nn1epnannsaunk, 1o
ec1L naunen1m, o6napakune poc1a1ouno cnnLno c1pyk-
1ypo Dro.
Takne naunen1m Hory1 npnnn1L 1o, u1o nH npepnarae1
anann1nk, n 1o, u1o onn nepexnaak1 a anann1nuecko cn-
1yaunn. Onn 1akxe Hory1 akcnepnHen1npoaa1L co caonH
noamH onm1oH. Hx Dro poc1a1ouno cnnLno pnn 1oro, u1o-
6m cnpaan1Lcn no kpane Hepe na kakoe-1o apeHn
c aosnnkakunHn nanpnxennnHn. Hanpnxennn n pnckoH-
qop1, cansannme c nn1epnpe1aunnHn, Hory1 6m1L nopo
poaonLno cnnLnmHn, no ace xe a1n naunen1m a coc1onnnn
cnpaan1Lcn c nnHn. Ho kpane Hepe, nHenno 1akyk kap-
1nny aocnponsaopn1 ony6nnkoaannme cnyuan ns npak1nkn
Opepa.
H1ak, Hm nopxopnH ko a1opoHy aepon1noHy nc1ounnky
1pypnoc1e n neypau a anannse. Haua 1exnnka cospana
pnn naunen1oa, ko1opme aocnpnnnHak1 nn1epnpe1aunn
anann1nka nHenno kak nn1epnpe1aunn. [oc1a1ouno cnnL-
noe Dro 1aknx naunen1oa nosaonne1 nH npnnn1L nn1ep-
npe1aunn n coaepun1L 1o, u1o Opep nasaan npoueccoH
16
npopa6o1kn. HaH nsaec1no, u1o ne ace naunen1m Hory1
cnpaan1Lcn c a1o sapaue. Kak pas c 1aknHn naunen1aHn
Hm n ncnm1maaeH sa1pypnennn.
Fnaaa 3. Qaa ypoaun auanu1uvecko
pa6o1m
O6muno a ncnxoanann1nuecko nn1epa1ype pnn 1oro, u1o-
6m oxapak1epnsoaa1L a1Hocqepy, caoc1aennyk ypoank,
na ko1opoH nponcxopn1 knaccnueckan 1epanea1nueckan
pa6o1a, ncnonLsyk1 1epHnnm apnnoa ypoaenL n renn-
1anLnm ypoaenL, a onnosnunn k nnH naxopn1cn 1akne
onpepenennn, kak poapnnoa, porenn1anLnm, po-
aep6anLnm ypoaenL. Ho HoeHy Hnennk, a1n 6onee
nospnne 1epHnnm caHn no ce6e yxe necy1 nekyk cHmcno-
ayk narpysky. H xouy npepnoxn1L specL noam ncnm n
opnosnaunm 1epHnn, ko1opm, kak n napekcL, ocao6o-
pn1 nac o1 neko1opmx ckpm1mx annnnn, opnako npexpe
o6pa1nHcn k o6uenpnnn1oHy snauennk amueynoHnny1mx
1epHnnoa.
Dpnnoa koHnnekc 6mn opnnH ns aennuaunx o1kpm1n
Opepa, cnpaaepnnao cun1aauero ero uen1panLnmH koH-
nnekcoH, nexaunH a ocnoae pasan1nn acex acnek1oa
cqepm uenoaeueckoro 6m1nn - spopoaLn n 6onesne, pe-
nnrnn n nckycc1aa, unannnsaunn n sakona n 1. p. Xo1n
apnnoa koHnnekc xapak1epen pnn poaonLno pannero a1a-
na pasan1nn, Opep 6es kone6ann npn6eran k nsmky
aspocnmx nkpe npn onncannn ncnxnueckoro onm1a pe-
6enka, aHoun n uyac1a, aosnnkakunx na a1oH a1ane. (H
naHepenno yxoxy o1 aonpoca onpepenennn rpannu a1oro
pannero aospac1a, 1ak kak ne xouy kaca1Lcn npo6neHm
xpononornn. [nn Honx uene poc1a1ouno ykasa1L na 1o,
u1o a1o ouenL pannn aospac1.) Ha caHoH pene npepno-
noxenne Opepa 6mno nano npoekune, pepsko akc1-
panonnune. Henano, 6es panLneunx o6ocnoaann, on
17
npnnnn ponyuenne kak o cxopc1ae aHoun, uyac1a, c1pa-
c1e, c1paxoa, nnc1nnk1nanmx nHnynLcoa, coc1onnn
ypoane1aopennn n qpyc1paunn y HanenLknx pe1e n y
aspocnmx nkpe, 1ak n o6 npen1nunoc1n asanHnmx o1no-
uenn Hexpy a1nHn aneHen1aHn y pe1e n y aspocnmx.
HHenno na a1nx payx nocmnkax ocnoaano npepc1aanenne
o npaaoHepnoc1n ncnonLsoaannn nsmka aspocnmx nkpe
pnn onncannn pe1cknx nepexnaann.
H noa1opnk, npnnn1ne a1nx nocmnok 6mno poaonLno cHe-
nmH uaroH, no anocnepc1ann kak na6nkpennn sa nop-
HanLnmHn pe1LHn, 1ak n knnnnueckn onm1 anannsa pe-
1e, c1papakunx neaposaHn, nop1aeppnn koppek1noc1L
a1oro uara. Hapnpy c a1nH neo6xopnHo o1He1n1L, u1o na-
konnenne pannmx, nop1aepxpakunx npaannLnoc1L a1oro
npepnonoxennn, naua1oe eue a onncannn anannsa Ma-
nenLkoro Ianca (1909), coanano no apeHenn c nocnepnnH
nepecHo1poH OpepoH 1eope1nuecknx konuenun ncnxn-
ueckoro annapa1a, ko1opm on npepnpnnnn a 20-e ropm.
[nn 1oro u1o6m ns6exa1L aosHoxnoro nepopasyHennn, n
6m xo1en noncnn1L, u1o anann1nk, pa6o1an na apnnoaoH
ypoane, koneuno xe, ne nrnopnpye1 n ne o1aeprae1 pore-
nn1anLnm Ha1epnan. Opnako on ncnonLsye1 nsmk aspoc-
nmx nkpe pnn ero npopa6o1kn, 1o ec1L nopnnHae1 a1o1
Ha1epnan po apnnoaa, nnn aep6anLnoro ypoann. D1o na-
nne1cn ouenL aaxnmH HoHen1oH pnn nauero He1opa, no-
ckonLky specL Hm cpasy xe c1anknaaeHcn c 1ako npo-
6neHo: u1o ponxen npepnpnnn1L anann1nk, ecnn naun-
en1 ne nonnHae1 nnn ne npnnnHae1 porenn1anLnm Ha1e-
pnan, ampaxennm cpepc1aaHn nsmka aspocnmx nkpe?
1o pena1L, korpa ne1 npnHoro ny1n, aepyuero naunen1a
o1 poaep6anLnoro k apnnoay ypoank?
3a apeHn, npouepuee c 20-x ropoa, nau He1op a snaun-
1enLno c1enenn ycoaepuenc1aoaancn. Y nac ec1L ace oc-
noaannn y1aepxpa1L, u1o Hm HoxeH neun1L naunen1oa,
18
ko1opme a npexnne apeHena cun1anncL nensneunHmHn.
HecoHnenno, Hm HoxeH nyuue ropaspo rny6xe n c
6onLue poc1oaepnoc1Lk, ueH naun konnern copok ne1
nasap nonn1L o6munoro naunen1a. B npouecce a1oro
pasan1nn Hm co6pann 6ora1m ypoxa kak knnnnuecknx
na6nkpenn, 1ak n c6naakunx c 1onky npo6neH. Bce onn
nHek1 o1nouenne k 1oHy, u1o nponcxopn1 n na6nkpae1cn
a anann1nuecko cn1yaunn. Ha nepam asrnnp, a1o1 Ha1e-
pnan Hoxe1 6m1L onncan a 1epHnnax apnnoaa konqnnk1a,
cpepc1aaHn nsmka aspocnoro uenoaeka. Opnako pari passu
(napnpy na1.) c yrny6nenneH nauero onm1a n coaepuen-
c1aoaanneH naunx aosHoxnoc1e na6nkpennn Hm cyHenn
pacnosna1L a anann1nuecko cn1yaunn nekne konnnsnn,
ko1opme c1aan1 cepLesnme npo6neHm pnn naunx 1eope-
1nuecknx npepc1aanenn, a 1akxe pnn nauero He1opa.
HanpnHep, Hm ysnann, u1o neko1opme naunen1m ncnm1m-
aak1 orpoHnme sa1pypnennn a npnnn1nn acero, u1o
yaennunaae1 nx any1pennee nanpnxenne. BHec1e c 1eH
naunen1m ppyroro 1nna Hory1 npnnn1L ace, u1o yropno,
1ak kak nx cokpoaennan caHoc1L, no-anpnHoHy, oc1ae1cn
no 6onLuoHy cue1y nesa1pony1o. Haunen1m, ko1opme
npnnapnexa1 k opnoHy ns a1nx payx 1nnoa, cospak1, kak
n 1onLko u1o o1He1nn, cepLesnme 1eope1nueckne n 1exnn-
ueckne 1pypnoc1n, aosHoxno, a cnny 1oro, u1o nx o1no-
uenne k anann1nky cyuec1aenno o1nnuae1cn o1 1oro, ko-
1opoe Hm o6muno oxnpaeH na apnnoaoH ypoane.
Haunen1m, o ko1opmx Hm 1onLko u1o roaopnnn, npepc1aa-
nnk1 co6o nnuL ne6onLuyk am6opky ns ace coaokyn-
noc1n naunen1oa, ko1opmx o6muno nasmaak1 rny6oko
napyuennmHn, nHekunHn rny6nnnoe pacuennenne,
1nxenmHn unsonpaHn, nHekunHn cnnukoH cna6oe
nnn nespenoe Dro, a amcue c1enenn napunccnueckn-
Hn nnn c1papakunHn o1 rny6oko napunccnuecko pa-
nm n 1. p. Hpn a1oH noppasyHeaae1cn, u1o nc1okn nx
pacc1poc1aa nexa1 panLue n rny6xe ypoann apnnoaa
19
konqnnk1a. HcnonLsyn 1epHnnonornk uac1o o6cyxpaeHo
1eope1nuecko npo6neHm, Hm HoxeH ckasa1L: neaaxno,
poc1nrak1 nn onn apnnoaa ypoann a npouecce pasan1nn
yxe 6onLnmHn nn6o 6onee nospnne 1paaHa1nueckne co-
6m1nn o6napyxnaak1 necoc1on1enLnoc1L saun1nmx Hexa-
nnsHoa, npnnapnexaunx a1oHy nepnopy, amnyxpan na-
unen1oa k perpeccnn nnn o1knonennk sa apnnoa ypoaenL.
B a1oH kon1ekc1e, no cy1n, aaxnmH nanne1cn caHo npn-
snanne cyuec1aoaannn payx pasnnuakunxcn ypoane
anann1nuecko pa6o1m.
1o6m noncnn1L, c kaknHn nHenno npo6neHaHn npnxo-
pn1cn c1anknaa1Lcn na a1oH ypoane, n xouy cocna1Lcn na
uac1o un1npyeHm npnHep ns coaepuenno nno o6nac1n.
Ha naunx nccnepoaa1enLcknx ceHnnapax, nocanuennmx
o6ue Hepnunncko npak1nke (Balint M., 1964), apaun
poaonLno uac1o poknapmaann o 1ako 1nnnuno cn1ya-
unn. B 6ecepe c naunen1oH onn poc1a1ouno ue1ko o6Lnc-
nnnn eHy cy1L ero sa6oneaannn, a sa1eH, korpa peanLnme
n1orn nx pasLncnenn conoc1aannnncL c oxnpaeHmHn, na
ypnanenne uac1o okasmaanocL, u1o o6Lncnennn 6mnn no-
nn1nm 1onLko pok1opy. [nn naunen1a onn nnuero ne npo-
ncnnnn uac1o cnoaa pok1opa aoace ne aocnpnnnHanncL
kak pasLncnenne. Bcnkn pas nocne poknapa kakoro-
nn6ypL apaua, a ko1opoH sayuann saaepennn a 1oH, u1o
on npepnaran ue1kne o6Lncnennn, o6muno cnepoaan ao-
npoc: [a, ue1kne, no pnn koro? D1o pacxoxpenne Hex-
py naHepenneH n pesynL1a1oH 6mno amsaano 1eH, u1o op-
nn n 1e xe cnoaa nHek1 coaepuenno pasnoe snauenne
pnn couyac1aykuero, no neaoaneuennoro pok1opa n pnn
ero rny6oko aoaneuennoro naunen1a.
Mm, anann1nkn, uac1o okasmaaeHcn a noxoxe cn1yaunn.
Mm npepnaraeH naunH naunen1aH ncnyk, neHnorocnoa-
nyk, o6ocnoaannyk, caoeapeHennyk nn1epnpe1aunk, ko-
1opan k naueHy ypnanennk, o1uannnk, pasppaxennk
n pasouapoaannk nepepko nn6o ne okasmaae1 annnnnn
20
na naunen1a, nn6o okasmaae1 coaceH ne 1o aospec1ane,
ko1opoe npepnonaranocL. [pyrnHn cnoaaHn, naua nn1ep-
npe1aunn 6maae1 a6conk1no nenonn1no nnn paxe co-
aceH ne aocnpnnnHae1cn kak nn1epnpe1aunn. O6muno
anann1nk a uennx caHoycnokoennn npn6erae1 k nonm1kaH
paunonannsaunn aosnnkakuero a pesynL1a1e pasouapo-
aannn; npn a1oH aosHoxnm 1pn aapnan1a paccyxpenn.
Anann1nk Hoxe1 ocyxpa1L ce6n sa oun6ky, ko1opyk on
ponyc1nn a onpepenennn nan6onee aaxno 1peaorn a
panno cn1yaunn pecka1L, on nouen no oun6ounoHy
ny1n, nn1epnpe1npyn 1o, u1o nHeno a1opoc1enennoe sna-
uenne. Bcnep sa a1o caHokpn1nko o6muno cnepyk1 6e-
syHnme nonm1kn yrapa1L, u1o xe nHenno a qan1asnnx
naunen1a ac1ano nperpapo na ny1n nonnHannn nn1ep-
npe1aunn anann1nka. 3a1eH anann1nk Hoxe1 peannHnpo-
aa1L a ce6e nsaeunyk noneHnky no noaopy o1nocn1enL-
nmx poc1onnc1a nnn nepoc1a1koa nn1epnpe1aun copep-
xannn Ha1epnana, saun1m nnn nepenoca, ko1opan Hoxe1
npoponxa1Lcn 6eckoneuno. H, nakoneu, on Hoxe1 ycno-
kon1L ce6n, yaepnauncL a 1oH, u1o conpo1nanenne naun-
en1a a pannm HoHen1 6mno cnnukoH cnnLnmH n noa1oHy
eHy, anpnHo, no1pe6ye1cn snaun1enLnoe apeHn pnn 1oro,
u1o6m npopa6o1a1L ero. D1a nocnepnnn qopHyna nann-
e1cn caHo aqqek1nano, nockonLky caH Opep a caoe
apeHn npn6eran k ne.
K coxanennk, a1n qopHynm caHoycnokoennn n paccyxpe-
nnn specL neyHec1nm, 1ak kak ace onn npnnapnexa1 apn-
noay ypoank, a a1o snaun1, u1o ao acex aapnan1ax noppa-
syHeaae1cn, u1o naunen1 aocnpnnnHae1 nn1epnpe1aunk
anann1nka nHenno kak nn1epnpe1aunk, a ne kak neu1o
ppyroe. HHenno pnn 1ako cn1yaunn Opep npepnoxnn
1epHnn npopa6o1ka. Oueanpno, u1o npopa6o1ka aos-
Hoxna 1onLko a 1o c1enenn, a kako naunen1 cnoco6en
npnnn1L nn1epnpe1aunk kak nn1epnpe1aunk n nosaonn1L
e okasa1L annnnne na caok ncnxnky. B o1nouennn rny-
21
6oko napyuennmx naunen1oa a1o neoueanpno. Hpouecc
npopa6o1kn neaosHoxen, ecnn pnn naunen1a nn1epnpe1a-
unn anann1nka ne nanne1cn nn1epnpe1aune, 1o ec1L
qpaso, coc1onue ns cnoa, o6napakunx o6uenpnnn1mH
snauenneH. Hpopa6o1ka Hoxe1 nponso1n 1onLko a 1oH
cnyuae, ecnn cnoaa nHek1 npn6nnsn1enLno opnnakoaoe
snauenne kak pnn naunx naunen1oa, 1ak n pnn nac caHnx.
Ha apnnoaoH ypoane 1ako npo6neHm ne cyuec1aye1. Ha-
unen1 n ero anann1nk yaepenno o6uak1cn na opnoH nsm-
ke, opnn n 1e xe cnoaa nHek1 pnn nnx npnHepno opnna-
koaoe snauenne. Koneuno, naunen1 Hoxe1 o1aepra1L
nn1epnpe1aunk, Hoxe1 6m1L pasppaxen, nanyran nnn
sape1 ek, no a a1oH cnyuae ne1 coHnenn a 1oH, u1o a1o
6mna nHenno nn1epnpe1aunn.
Tpe1n o1ae1 na aonpoc, c ko1oporo Hm nauann, saknkua-
e1cn a konc1a1aunn cyuec1aoaannn payx pasnmx ypoane
anann1nuecko pa6o1m, n a 1o xe apeHn on c1aan1 nac
nepep noamHn nn1epecnmHn npo6neHaHn. Hpexpe ueH
nepe1n k paccHo1pennk a1nx npo6neH, paaa1e ornn-
neHcn na npopennm naHn ny1L ns 1oro nynk1a, rpe Hm
ceuac naxopnHcn. Mm nauann c amaopa nnn 1pknsHa,
rnacnuero, u1o paxe nan6onee onm1nme ns nac nopo
nHek1 peno c 1pypnmHn nnn paxe ouenL 1pypnmHn naun-
en1aHn. 3a1eH Hm noc1aannn nepep co6o cnepykune ao-
npocm: u1o npepc1aannk1 co6o 1epanea1nueckne npo-
ueccm, a kaknx o6nac1nx ncnxnkn onn npo1ekak1, u1o
nHenno a a1nx npoueccax nanne1cn npnunno sa1pypne-
nn, n, nakoneu, nocnepnee, no ne Henee aaxnoe ka-
knHn 1exnnuecknHn cpepc1aaHn Hm HoxeH okasmaa1L na
nnx annnnne. [anee Hm paccHo1penn coapeHennme 1eope-
1nueckne ocnoaannn nauero He1opa n npnunn k amaopy,
u1o 1ononornueckn nopxop ne okasancn oco6o aqqek-
1nanmH. [anrancL panLue, Hm nonnnn, u1o ace naun
npepc1aanennn o 1oH, u1o nponcxopn1 a ncnxnke naunen-
1a ao apeHn 1epannn, ocnoaanm na pesynL1a1ax 1ua1enL-
22
noro nccnepoaannn nnnunnpoaannoro caHnH OpepoH
a nauane 20-x ropoa naunen1oa, ko1opme Hory1 npn-
nn1L n nonn1L nn1epnpe1aunn anann1nka kak nn1ep-
npe1aunn n ko1opme cnoco6nm k npopa6o1ke. H, nako-
neu, Hm yanpenn, u1o ec1L no kpane Hepe paa ypoann
anann1nuecko pa6o1m, o1kypa Hoxno cpena1L amaop, u1o
n 1epanea1nueckne npoueccm npo1ekak1 na payx ypoa-
nnx. OpnnH ns acnek1oa pasnnunn Hexpy nnHn nanne1cn
c1enenL, a ko1opo nsmk aspocnmx nkpe Hoxe1 6m1L
npnropen pnn pa6o1m na kaxpoH ns a1nx ypoane.
Oepenun, a uac1noc1n, a caoeH nocnepneH poknape na
Konrpecce (1932) n a nocHep1no ony6nnkoaannmx 3a-
He1kax n qparHen1ax anepame onncan a1o aaxnoe o1nn-
une, kacakueecn ncnonLsoaannn nsmka, ko1opoe Hoxe1
npnaec1n k o6pasoaannk nponac1n Hexpy naunen1oH n
anann1nkoH, a 1akxe npenn1c1aoaa1L nporpeccy a 1epa-
nnn. On nasaan a1o ny1annue nsmka pe6enka [a epnn-
c1aennoH uncne!] n aspocnmx [ao Hnoxec1aennoH unc-
ne!]. C 1ex nop xo1n o6muno 6es ccmnkn na ero noaa-
1opckne pa6o1m pasnmHn nccnepoaa1ennHn 6mno npep-
npnnn1o neckonLko nonm1ok onncannn amueynoHnny1mx
qenoHenoa.
Bmaop, k ko1opoHy Hm npnunn a npepmpyue rnaae, na-
nne1cn nnuL noao qopHynnpoako paano nsaec1noro, a
nHenno 1oro, u1o anann1nueckan pa6o1a nponcxopn1 no
kpane Hepe na payx pasnmx ypoannx: opnn, nasmaae-
Hm apnnoamH ypoaneH, 6onee nsaec1en n Henee npo-
6neHa1nuen, 1orpa kak pnn onncannn ppyroro ncnonLsyk1
1akne 1epHnnm, kak poapnnoa, porenn1anLnm, poaep-
6anLnm ypoaenL.
H npepnarak coxpann1L 1epHnnm apnnoa nepnop,
apnnoa konqnnk1, apnnoa koHnnekc, 1ak kak onn o1-
paxak1 caHme aaxnme xapak1epnc1nkn ypoann, k ko1o-
poHy npnnapnexa1. Cyuec1ayk1 1nnnunme uep1m, ko1o-
23
pme nosaonnk1 pnqqepenunpoaa1L a knnnnke qenoHenm,
o1nocnunecn k a1oHy ypoank, n qenoHenm nnoro ypoann.
Hepaoe o1nnune coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o ace npnnapnexauee k
apnnoaoHy ypoank 6ypL 1o renn1anLnme nnn porenn-
1anLnme nepexnaannn nponcxopn1 a paHkax 1poc1-
aennmx o1nouenn: acerpa kpoHe cy6Lek1a a nnx yuac1-
ayk1 eue kak HnnnHyH paa napannenLnmx o6Lek1a. D1n-
Hn payHn o6Lek1aHn Hory1 6m1L paa nnpnanpa (kak, na-
npnHep, a apnnoao cn1yaunn) nnn nnpnanp n o6Lek1
(u1o xapak1epno pnn o6nac1e ananLnoro n, aecLHa aepo-
n1no, opanLnoro apo1nsHa). B cnyuae ananLnoro apo1nsHa
a1opo o6Lek1 npepc1aanen ncnpaxnennnHn n nx Hnoro-
uncnennmHn pepnaa1aHn, 1orpa kak a kauec1ae aneHen1oa
opanLnoro apo1nsHa, no kpane Hepe na nospnnx c1apn-
nx, noHnHo nc1ounnka nnun nnn kopHnnLua, acerpa am-
c1ynae1 nnua a kauec1ae a1oporo o6Lek1a. O1nouennn,
aosnnkakune specL peuL npe1 o6 ananLno qase n
nospnnx c1apnnx opanLno qasm, necHo1pn na 1o, u1o
pae a1n cqepm no onpepenennk nannk1cn porenn1anLnm-
Hn, 6naropapn caoe c1pyk1ype, xapak1epnsykuecn na-
nnuneH cy6Lek1a n no HenLue Hepe payx napannenLnmx
o6Lek1oa, nepexopn1 a apnnoay o6nac1L n nopnnHak1cn
po apnnoaa ypoann. B1opan aaxnan oco6ennoc1L apnno-
ao o6nac1n coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o e acerpa npncyu kon-
qnnk1. 3a ncknkuenneH neko1opmx cnyuaea, konqnnk1
amsaan aH6naanen1noc1Lk, aosnnkakue ns cnoxnmx
asanHoo1nouenn Hexpy nnpnanpoH n payHn napannenL-
nmHn o6Lek1aHn. HecHo1pn na 1o, u1o konqnnk1 nanne1cn
neo1LeHneHmH caoc1aoH a1o cn1yaunn, on Hoxe1 6m1L
paspeuen, ao acnkoH cnyuae on Hoxe1 6m1L a snaun1enL-
no c1enenn yperynnpoaan. Bepon1no, nyuue acero nsy-
uen 1ako 1nn konqnnk1a, npn ko1opoH aa1opn1e1
aneunn nnn any1pennn npepnncmaae1 nnn sanpeua-
e1 oco6me qopHm ypoane1aopennn. Tako konqnnk1 ne-
ns6exno npnaopn1 k qnkcaunn, ko1opan cansmaae1 onpe-
penennoe konnuec1ao nn6npo a 1ue1no 6opL6e, nannk-
24
uecn nc1ounnkoH nenpekpauakuerocn coc1onnnn na-
npnxennn. B a1oH cnyuae sapaua anann1nueckoro neue-
nnn coc1on1 a Ho6nnnsaunn n ocao6oxpennn a1oro can-
sannoro nn6npo nn6o npn noHoun nn1epnpe1aunn, nn6o
uepes npepoc1aanenne naunen1y aosHoxnoc1n perpeccn-
poaa1L npn nepenoce pnn noncka nyuuero peuennn. Xo1n
npeanLnmx peuenn ne cyuec1aye1, 1ak kak naunen1 ace-
rpa ncnm1maae1 neko1opoe nanpnxenne, ace xe nou1n
acerpa ec1L aosHoxnoc1L na1n 1akoe peuenne, ko1opoe
npnaepe1 k cyuec1aennoHy cnnxennk nn1encnanoc1n na-
npnxennn.
Tpe1Ln aaxnan xapak1epnc1nka a1oro ypoann coc1on1 a
1oH, u1o specL nsmk aspocnmx nanne1cn apekaa1nmH n
napexnmH cpepc1aoH koHHynnkaunn; kak aceH naH xo-
pouo nsaec1no, Dpnn 6mn aspocnmH Hyxunno. Ecnn ko-
rpa-nn6o aosnnkne1 neo6xopnHoc1L a 1oH, u1o6m aaec1n
noam 1epHnn pnn o6osnauennn a1oro ypoann, n npepno-
xnn 6m nasmaa1L ero ypoaneH konaenunonanLnoro, o6-
uenpnnn1oro nsmka, nnn nsmka aspocnmx.
B nayke uac1o cnyuae1cn 1ak, u1o neypaunm am6op 1ep-
Hnna nn6o nanne1cn npnunno nepopasyHennn, nn6o cos-
pae1 npenn1c1ann na ny1n nenpepasn1oro nccnepoaannn
npo6neHm. [nn 1oro u1o6m ns6exa1L 1ako anL1epna1n-
am, payH ypoannH ncnxnkn ponxnm 6m1L npncaoenm ne-
saancnHme ppyr o1 ppyra nanHenoaannn. TepHnn apn-
noa nponcxopn1 o1 opno ns aaxnmx xapak1epnc1nk a1o-
ro ypoann. Honarak, u1o ppyro ypoaenL ponxen o6na-
pa1L caonH co6c1aennmH nHeneH n ne ponxen nasmaa1Lcn
po-uero-1o-1aH-eue. On ne ponxen nasmaa1Lcn po-
apnnoamH, 1ak kak anonne Hoxe1 cocyuec1aoaa1L opno-
apeHenno c apnnoamH ypoaneH, nackonLko o6 a1oH no-
saonne1 cypn1L nau knnnnueckn onm1. Ceuac n xouy
oc1aan1L o1kpm1mH aonpoc, kacakuncn aosHoxnoc1n
qynkunonnpoaannn ncnxnkn 1onLko na opnoH ypoane, ne
amxopn npn a1oH na nno ypoaenL. Baxno o1He1n1L, u1o
25
ppyro ypoaenL, necoHnenno, 6onee npoc1, 6onee npnHn-
1naen, ueH apnnoa ypoaenL. H npepnarak nasmaa1L ero
ypoaneH 6asncnoro peqek1a, n n xouy nopuepkny1L, u1o
on xapak1epnsye1cn nHenno kak peqek1, a ne kak cn1ya-
unn, nosnunn, konqnnk1 nnn koHnnekc. Hosxe n o6Lncnk
noueHy.
Ypoank 6asncnoro peqek1a caoc1aennm cnepykune oc-
noanme oco6ennoc1n: (a) ace, u1o nponcxopn1 na a1oH
ypoane, naxopn1cn ncknkun1enLno a paHkax o1nouenn
Hexpy payHn nepconaHn specL o1cy1c1aye1 1pe1Ln nep-
cona; (6) a1n payc1oponnne o1nouennn o6napak1 oco-
6enno npnpopo, a6conk1no o1nnuno o1 xopouo nsy-
uennmx uenoaeuecknx o1nouenn apnnoaa ypoann; (a)
npnpopa pec1aykuero na a1oH ypoane pnnaHnueckoro
qak1opa o1nnuae1cn o1 npnpopm konqnnk1a n (r) nsmk
aspocnmx nkpe uac1o okasmaae1cn nn6o 6ecnonesnmH
pnn onncannn co6m1n, nponcxopnunx na a1oH ypoane,
nn6o npnaopn1 k neaepnoHy nonnHannk, 1ak kak cnoaa
ne acerpa o6napak1 konaenunonanLnmH, o6uenpnnn1mH
snauenneH.
Xo1n cHmcn ckasannoro o6 oco6ennoc1nx a1oro ypoann
nponcnn1cn 1onLko anocnepc1ann, no xopy panLneuero
nsnoxennn, pasaepny1oro a cnepykunx rnaaax, yxe
specL n Hory koe-u1o ckasa1L o neko1opmx ns nnx. Hpex-
pe acero a1o kacae1cn npnpopm npnHn1nanmx o1nouenn,
ko1opme cknapmaak1cn na a1oH ypoane Hexpy payHn nep-
conaHn. Hpn nepaoH npn6nnxennn onn Hory1 paccHa1pn-
aa1Lcn kak npnHep nepanunmx o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn,
nnn nepanuno nk6an, onncanne ko1opo n yxe npnao-
pnn a neko1opmx pa6o1ax (Balint M., 1932, 1934, 1937,
1959) n noa1opk a rnaae 12 a1o knnrn. k6an 1pe1Ln
c1opona, aHeunaakuancn a a1n o1nouennn, acnkn pas
npepc1ae1 kak 1nxkoe 6peHn nnn amsmaae1 neamnocnHoe
nanpnxenne. 3aHeua1enLnoe o1nnune Hexpy coc1onnnnHn
ypoane1aopennn n qpyc1paunn coc1aanne1 eue opny
26
aaxnyk xapak1epnc1nky a1nx o1nouenn. Ecnn ypoane-
1aopenne npncnoco6nenne, coo1ae1c1ane Hexpy
o6Lek1oH n cy6Lek1oH npnnocn1 c co6o coc1onnne 1n-
xoro, cnokonoro 6narononyunn, ko1opoe Hoxno saHe1n1L
1onLko c 6onLunH 1pypoH, po 1ako c1enenn ono ec1e-
c1aenno n noa1oHy c 1pypoH noppae1cn na6nkpennk, 1o
qpyc1paunn nepoc1a1ok npncnoco6nennn o6Lek1a
amsmaae1 uyHnyk n peskyk peakunk (cH. 1akxe rnaay
16).
Hosxe, a rnaae 4, n aepnycL k o6cyxpennk npnpopm pn-
naHnueckoro qak1opa, ko1opm pec1aye1 na ypoane 6a-
sncnoro peqek1a. Opnako specL n xo1en 6m o1He1n1L nk-
6onm1nyk neonpepenennoc1L nsmka, caoc1aennyk pan-
noHy ypoank. D1o o6Lncnne1cn 1eH, u1o kaxpoe cnoao,
korpa nH nonLsyk1cn aspocnme nkpn, okpyxeno knac1e-
poH accounaun. Ha ypoane 6asncnoro peqek1a npak1n-
ueckn kaxpm aneHen1 a1oro knac1epa Hoxe1 a paano
c1enenn npe1enpoaa1L na npaao anapennn aceH cnoaoH.
O1Heuennan oco6ennoc1L nsmka ne orpannuena paHkaHn
6asncnoro peqek1a, a1o anpno ns 1oro, kak 1pypno, npak-
1nueckn neaosHoxno, na1n 1ounoe snauenne cnoaa, oco-
6enno a naue nayke ncnxonornn. 1o6m nonyun1L-1akn
1ounoe onpepenenne, neo6xopnHo ounc1n1L cnoao o1 acex
nnunnx nnn nexena1enLnmx accounaun. Onm1 nokasm-
aae1, u1o a1o ypae1cn ouenL pepko, 1ak kak nkpn ynopno
cun1ak1 (paxe nac1anaak1), u1o cnoaa o6muno nHek1
ppyrne snauennn, o1nnunme o1 1ex, ko1opme naHepeaancn
anoxn1L a nnx nso6pe1a1enL 1epHnna. (D1a npo6neHa 6y-
pe1 o6cyxpa1Lcn panee a rnaae 20.)
Fnaaa 4. O6nac1u 6asucuoro peqek1a
Hpnnna yHospn1enLno 1o, u1o cyuec1aye1 ypoaenL 6asnc-
noro peqek1a, Hm ponxnm noc1aan1L nepep co6o ao-
npoc: kakne nHenno co6m1nn a anann1nueckoH neuennn
27
cnyxa1 nnpnka1opaHn 1oro, u1o a1o1 ypoaenL poc1nrny1?
BosLHeH a kauec1ae npnHepa pnpoao cnyua. Hpepnono-
xnH, u1o a 1euenne neko1oporo apeHenn neuenne npo1e-
kae1 poaonLno rnapko: naunen1 n anann1nk nonnHak1
ppyr ppyra, paanennn n 1pe6oaannn, okasmaaeHme n
npepLnanneHme ppyr k ppyry, oco6enno k anann1nky, ne
amxopn1 sa paHkn pasyHnoro n, u1o oco6enno cnepye1 o1-
He1n1L, acerpa nonn1nm n o6ocnoaannm. 3a1eH, naunnan
c onpepenennoro HoHen1a, anesanno nnn noc1enenno a1-
Hocqepa anann1nuecko cn1yaunn kopennmH o6pasoH ns-
Henne1cn. Hnorpa a1o nponcxopn1 cnyc1n poaonLno ko-
po1kn npoHexy1ok apeHenn nn6o cpasy xe nocne nauana
anannsa.
Ec1L neckonLko acnek1oa 1oro, u1o n o6osnauy kak papn-
kanLnoe nsHenenne a1Hocqepm. Hpexpe acero a a1oH pn-
py cnepye1 o1He1n1L, u1o naunen1, kak yxe roaopnnocL a
npepmpyue rnaae, nepec1ae1 aocnpnnnHa1L nn1epnpe-
1aunn anann1nka kak nn1epnpe1aunn. On aocnpnnnHae1
nn1epnpe1aunn kak a1aky, nanpaanennyk na nero, kak
kakne-1o npe1ensnn k neHy; no cy1n, a1n nn1epnpe1aunn
nannk1cn pnn nero nncnnyaunnHn, nsHmunennnHn, nnueH
ne o6ocnoaanno rpy6oc1Lk nnn ockop6nenneH, nesacny-
xennmH o6xoxpenneH, necnpaaepnnaoc1Lk nnn, no kpa-
ne Hepe, nonnmH o1cy1c1aneH yaaxennn n 1. p. C ppyro
c1oponm, c 1o xe c1enenLk aepon1noc1n nn1epnpe1aunn
anann1nka Hory1 aocnpnnnHa1Lcn nn6o kak neu1o a amc-
ue c1enenn npnn1noe, npnnocnuee ypoane1aopenne,
aos6yxpakuee, y1euakuee, nn6o kak co6nasnenne; nnn
aoo6ue nrpa1L ponL neonpoaepxnHoro canpe1enLc1aa
yaaxennn, npnansannoc1n n nk6an. O6munme cnoaa, ko-
1opme po cnx nop nHenn o6uenpnnn1oe, aspocnoe sna-
uenne, ncnonLsoaanne ko1opmx ne Horno amsaa1L cepLes-
nmx nocnepc1an, npno6pe1ak1 1enepL orpoHnyk aax-
noc1L n annnnne kak a nosn1nanoH, 1ak n a nera1nanoH
acnek1e. B 1akne HoHen1m kaxpoe cnyuanoe saHeuanne
28
anann1nka, kaxpm ero xec1 nnn panxenne Hory1 nHe1L
pnn naunen1a konoccanLnm cHmcn, onn Hory1 npno6pe-
c1n snauenne, ko1opoe amxopn1 paneko sa paHkn pec1-
an1enLnmx naHepenn anann1nka.
HoHnHo npouero, naunen1y kaknH-1o o6pasoH ypae1cn
n c a1nH 1pypno cHnpn1Lcn sa6pa1Lcn anann1nky nop
koxy. EHy c1anoan1Lcn nsaec1no Hnoroe, ouenL Hnoroe o
caoeH anann1nke. D1o snanne nononnne1cn ne ns aneu-
nnx nc1ounnkoa nnqopHaunn, a c noHouLk kakoro-1o
appyr o1kpmauerocn caepxLec1ec1aennoro 1anan1a: na-
unen1 appyr c1anoan1cn cnoco6en nonnHa1L Ho1nam
anann1nka n nn1epnpe1npoaa1L ero noaepenne. D1o1
caepxLec1ec1aennm 1anan1 nnorpa kaxe1cn cnoco6no-
c1Lk k 1enena1nn nnn ncnoanpennk, a Hoxe1 6m1L, n
pec1an1enLno paanosnauen nH (cH. Balint M., 1955). B
nepexnaannnx anann1nka a1o1 qenoHen npepc1aanen
uyac1aoH, 6yp1o naunen1 naxopn1cn any1pn nero n anpn1
ack ero nopnoro1nyk. To, u1o naunen1 ysnae1 o6 anann-
1nke 1aknH cnoco6oH, acerpa nocn1 a amcue c1enenn
nnunm xapak1ep, acerpa kaknH-1o o6pasoH kacae1cn na-
unen1a n po nsaec1no c1enenn acerpa aepno n nc1nnno.
BHec1e c 1eH a1o snanne nepexopn1 acnkne rpannum n no-
a1oHy ne Hoxe1 6m1L poc1oaepnmH, ao acnkoH cnyuae,
1ak uyac1aye1 a1o anann1nk.
Ecnn a a1oH cnyuae anann1nky ne ypae1cn aknkun1Lcn,
1o ec1L coo1ae1c1aoaa1L oxnpannnHn naunen1a, ko1opme
nonannk1cn npn nepenoce, 1o peakunn rneaa, npoc1n,
npespennn nnn kpn1nkn ne aosnnkak1, kak 1oro Hoxno
6mno 6m oxnpa1L na apnnoaoH ypoane. Moxno na6nkpa1L
1onLko uyac1aa nyc1o1m, no1epnnnoc1n, oHep1aennn,
1ue1noc1n, necepLesnoc1n n 1. n., conpoaoxpakune ana-
1nunoe npnnn1ne acero nponcxopnuero. Ho cy1n, ace
npnnnHae1cn 6es saHe1noro conpo1nanennn, no ace y1pa-
unaae1 cHmcn. [pyro aosHoxno peakune na neypauy
anann1nka a ero nonm1ke aknkun1Lcn Hoxe1 6m1L
29
c1pax npecnepoaannn. Oc1aanH sa cko6kaHn 1o, u1o a 1a-
knx coc1onnnnx a nx o6uenpnnn1o knnnnuecko qop-
He nanne1cn a1opoc1enennmH n necyuec1aennmH. Oak1
coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o naunen1m cun1ak1 naHepenno cospan-
no nk6yk cn1yaunk, ko1opan amsmaae1 y nnx coc1onnne
qpyc1paunn. Onn ne Hory1 ponyc1n1L Hmcnn o 1oH, u1o
npnunno qpyc1paunn nx xenann Hoxe1 6m1L u1o-1o
eue, noHnHo snoro yHmcna, nepo6pmx naHepenn nnn, no
HenLue Hepe, npec1ynno ne6pexnoc1n. HecHo1pn na
1o, u1o apeHn o1 apeHenn a nx o1nouennnx c 1epanea1oH
Hory1 nponcxopn1L kakne-1o nosn1nanme co6m1nn, co-
c1onnnn qpyc1paunn npepc1aannk1 co6o neocnopnHoe
pokasa1enLc1ao sno6noro n apaxpe6noro o1nouennn co
c1oponm nx okpyxennn.
Hn1epecno, u1o ace a1o npnnnHae1cn npoc1o kak qak1,
npnunnnkun 6onL. BonLue acero ypnanne1, kak Hano
rneaa (n aonn k 6opL6e) amsmaae1cn a1o cn1yaune. Ho
eue 6onLuee ypnanenne amsmaae1 1o, u1o nou1n nnkorpa
specL ne nonanne1cn uyac1ao 6esnapexnoc1n. BnpnHo,
o1uannne n 6esnapexnoc1L npnnapnexa1 apnnoay ypoa-
nk. BosHoxno, a1n uyac1aa nannk1cn noc1penpeccnanm-
Hn. Xo1n uyac1aa nyc1o1m n oHep1aennn (cp.: Balint E.,
1963) Hory1 6m1L ouenL nn1encnanmHn, sa nnHn o6muno
c1on1 nckpennnn, cnokonan yc1anoaka npnnnHa1L aeun
1aknHn, kakne onn ec1L na caHoH pene. D1o c1pannoe co-
ue1anne rny6okoro c1papannn, o1cy1c1ann peueao ppau-
nnaoc1n n necrn6aeHoro naHepennn npoponxa1L ananns
penae1 1aknx naunen1oa nonc1nne npnaneka1enLnmHn
aaxnm pnarnoc1nueckn npnsnak 1oro, u1o anann1nue-
ckan pa6o1a poc1nrna ypoann 6asncnoro peqek1a.
Peakunn anann1nka, ko1opan pasn1enLno o1nnuae1cn o1
ero peakunn na conpo1nanenne npn pa6o1e na apnnoaoH
ypoane, 1akxe nanne1cn xapak1epnc1nko a1oro ypoann. H
aepnycL k a1oHy aonpocy a III, IV n V uac1nx knnrn. 3pecL
xe poc1a1ouno 6ype1 o1He1n1L, u1o ace nponcxopnuee sa-
30
1parnaae1 anann1nka ropaspo rny6xe, on o6napyxnaa-
e1, u1o eHy c1anoan1cn poaonLno 1pypno coxpann1L npn-
amunoe o1nouenne couyac1aenno o6Lek1nano naccna-
noc1n. Oak1nueckn on noc1onnno nopaepxen yrpose aHo-
unonanLnoro nnunoro aoaneuennn. Heko1opme anann1nkn
nosaonnk1 ce6e n paxe cosna1enLno npepnoun1ak1 o1-
pa1Lcn na aonk a1oro Hounoro no1oka, u1o anocnepc1ann
npnaopn1 nx k neo6xopnHoc1n anec1n nsHenennn a cao
He1op. [pyrne xe 1ua1enLno n oc1opoxno npnpepxnaa-
k1cn apcenana caonx xopouo npoaepennmx 1exnnuecknx
cpepc1a, nac1ounao ns6eran nk6o aosHoxnoc1n aoane-
uennn. Ec1L n 1akne anann1nkn, ko1opme nepep nnuoH yr-
posm aoaneuennn sannHak1 nosnunk aosHoxno, nr-
pakuyk ponL koHnenca1opnoro peak1nanoro o6pasoaa-
nnn neko necokpyunHo caHoyaepennoc1n, nenpe-
c1anno y6expan ce6n a 1oH, u1o npn noHoun caoe 1ex-
nnkn nn1epnpe1aunn onn Hory1 cnpaan1Lcn c nk6o cn-
1yaune.
[pyryk aaxnyk rpynny qenoHenoa Hoxno 6mno 6m o1ne-
c1n k py6pnke npnsnannn uennoc1n pa6o1m anann1nka n
6naropapnoc1n sa nee. Ha apnnoaoH ypoane, npn ycnoann
u1o kauec1ao pa6o1m anann1nka coo1ae1c1aye1 1pe6oaa-
nnnH c1anpap1oa npoqeccnn, paa uyac1aa npnsnanne n
6naropapnoc1L nannk1cn Horyuec1aennmHn coksnnka-
Hn anannsa, ko1opme okasmaak1 cyuec1aennyk noHouL,
oco6enno a Hpaunme nepnopm 1epannn. Hpn pa6o1e na
ypoane 6asncnoro peqek1a nnk1o ne Hoxe1 sna1L naaep-
nnka, u1o npnpe1 na yH naunen1y. H yx coaceH Hana ae-
pon1noc1L 1oro, u1o naunen1 npnsnae1 n ouenn1 Hac1ep-
c1ao n nonnHanne anann1nka, ko1opme 1o1 nponann a ne-
paaneH nnn o1panennoH npounoH. Opna ns npnunn 1ako
pasn1enLno nepeHenm coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o na a1oH ypoane
naunen1m y6expenm, u1o onn npoc1o ponxnm nonyun1L
1o, a ueH nyxpak1cn. Bckope n aepnycL k paccHo1pennk
a1o aaxno oco6ennoc1n.
31
TaknH o6pasoH, a 1oH cnyuae, ecnn anann1nk npe1 na-
ac1peuy nyxpaH naunen1a, 1o nocnepnn npnnnHae1 a1o
kak caHo co6o pasyHekueecn n aoace ne anpn1 a a1oH
canpe1enLc1aa npoqeccnonanLnoro Hac1epc1aa anann1n-
ka, ncknkun1enLnoro papa nnn nk6esnoc1n c ero c1opo-
nm, noa1oHy co apeHeneH naunen1 6ype1 ampanra1L
ace 6onLue n 6onLue 1pe6oaann. B coapeHenno ncnxo-
anann1nuecko nn1epa1ype a1o1 cnnppoH nasmaak1 xap-
noc1Lk, nnn paxe opanLno xapnoc1Lk. H ne aospaxak
npo1na ncnonLsoaannn a pannoH kon1ekc1e cnoaa xap-
noc1L, no n ka1eropnueckn npo1na ncnonLsoaannn a a1oH
onpepenennn npnnara1enLnoro opanLnan, 1ak kak ono
aaopn1 a sa6nyxpenne. [nn nonnHannn pannoro cnnppo-
Ha rnaanmH nanne1cn ne o1cmnka k opanLnoHy koHnonen-
1y aneuennn, no 1o1 qak1, u1o nc1okn qenoHena nexa1 a
npnHn1nanmx pnapnuecknx o1nouennnx, ko1opme Hory1
6m1L, a Hory1 n ne 6m1L opanLnmHn. Cpepn unpokoro
kpyra nsaec1nmx snokauec1aennmx saancnHoc1e, a ko1o-
pmx xapnoc1L, npoxopnnaoc1L nanne1cn aaxno uep-
1o, 6es coHnennn, 6onLuoe uncno o1nocn1cn k opanL-
nmH. Cpepn nnx npexpe acero cnepye1 nasaa1L kypenne
n ankoronnsH. TeH ne Henee a a1oH pnpy ec1L Hnoxec1ao
n ne opanLnmx saancnHoc1e, 1aknx, kak HopqnnnsH nnn
npnc1pac1ne k nasanLnoHy npneHy kokanna. Moxno 1akxe
o1He1n1L naansunaoe pacuecmaanne koxn, kak a1o 6maa-
e1, nanpnHep, npn ueco1ke.
Ha apnnoaoH ypoane anann1nk epaa nn ncnm1maae1 nc-
kyuenne oc1aan1L caok nosnunk couyac1aenno naccna-
noc1n. Ha ypoane 6asncnoro peqek1a peno o6c1on1 nnaue.
Opnako ecnn anann1nk o1kaxe1cn o1 caoe naccnanoc1n,
1o on Hoxe1 naua1L cockanLsmaa1L no onacno cnnpann
snokauec1aenno saancnHoc1n ns-sa nepoc1a1ka npnsna-
1enLnoc1n nnn amnyxpaeHm xapnoc1Lk. Ecnn xe on oc-
1ae1cn nenokone6nHmH, 1o naunen1 nn6o npekpauae1
ananns kak 6esnapexnoe npepnpnn1ne, nn6o nocne 1ue1-
32
no 6opL6m ac1ae1 nepep neo6xopnHoc1Lk npen1nqnun-
poaa1L ce6n c arpeccopoH, kakoamH on aocnpnnnHae1
anann1nka. Ha opnoH ns Honx ceHnnapoa Hne poaenocL
ycnmua1L onncanne nopo6no cn1yaunn: naunen1 6mn
amnyxpen kak 6m saaec1n a ce6e neckonuaeHyk ponronr-
pakuyk nnac1nnky. B rnaae 17 n aepnycL k a1o aaxno
1exnnuecko npo6neHe.
Bce a1n qenoHenm npnnapnexa1 ncknkun1enLno o6nac1n
o1nouenn Hexpy payHn nepconaHn, onn nannk1cn 6onee
npnHn1nanmHn no cpaanennk c konnnsnnHn o1nouenn
Hexpy 1peHn nepconaHn, ko1opme xapak1epnm pnn apn-
noaa ypoann. Bonee 1oro, a 1akoro popa o1nouennnx He-
xpy payHn nepconaHn ne1 c1pyk1ypm konqnnk1a. HHenno
a a1oH saknkuae1cn opna ns npnunn, noueHy n npepnoxnn
nasmaa1L nx ocnoanmHn, 6asncnmHn. Ho noueHy xe
peqek1? Bo-nepamx, no1oHy, u1o nHenno a1o cnoao nc-
nonLsyk1 Hnorne naunen1m pnn 1oro, u1o6m onnca1L 1a-
koro popa o1nouennn. Opnn naunen1 roaopnn, u1o on
uyac1aye1, 6yp1o a neH ec1L nekoe napyuenne, nsLnn,
peqek1, ko1opm ponxen 6m1L ncnpaanen. D1o neu1o
aocnpnnnHae1cn nHenno kak peqek1 ne koHnnekc, ne
konqnnk1, ne cn1yaunn. Bo-a1opmx, ec1L nn1yn1nanoe
npepuyac1ane 1oro, u1o a1o1 peqek1 6mn amsaan pasny-
ko nnn npene6pexenneH a o1nouennnx naunen1a c ne-
knH nnuoH. H, a-1pe1Lnx, a1o o6nac1n nensHenno cao-
c1aenna 1peaora ouenL amcoko nn1encnanoc1n, o6muno
ampaxaeHan a anpe o1uannno npe1ensnn naunen1a na
1o, u1o a pannm HoHen1 anann1nk ne ponxen qak1n-
ueckn ne nHee1 npaaa npene6pera1L nH.
B neko1opmx 1ounmx naykax 1epHnn peqek1 ncnonLsy-
k1 pnn o6osnauennn coc1onnn, nanoHnnakunx 1e, o ko-
1opmx Hm roaopnH. Tak, nanpnHep, a reonornn n kpnc1an-
norpaqnn a1o cnoao ncnonLsyk1 pnn onpepenennn pesko-
ro napyuennn uenoc1noc1n ace c1pyk1ypm, nsLnna, ko-
1opm npn o6munmx o6c1on1enLc1aax Hoxe1 oc1aaa1Lcn
33
ckpm1mH, no npn aospec1ann nanpnxenn n aneune
cnnm Hoxe1 c1a1L npnunno paspmaa, ynnu1oxakuero
ack c1pyk1ypy 6es oc1a1ka.
O6muno nk6o pnnaHnueckn qak1op, pec1aykun a
ncnxnke, Hm paccHa1pnaaeH nn6o kak 6nonornueckoe
aneuenne, nn6o kak konqnnk1. Opnako cnna, 6epyuan
nauano a o6nac1n 6asncnoro peqek1a, nannncL a amcue
c1enenn ak1nano, ne nHee1 o1nouennn nn k aneuennk,
nn k konqnnk1y. D1o nsLnn, nekoe napyuenne a ncn-
xnueckoH annapa1e, peqnun1, ko1opm ponxen 6m1L aoc-
nonnen. D1o ne ckonnenne uero-1o nepep npenn1c1aneH,
ko1opoe 1pe6ye1 on1nHanLnmx ny1e o1aopa. D1o o1-
cy1c1ane uero-1o a nac1onun HoHen1 nnn, aosHoxno,
nou1n ao ace xnsnn naunen1a. Hnc1nnk1nanan no1pe6-
noc1L Hoxe1 6m1L ypoane1aopena, konqnnk1 Hoxe1 6m1L
paspeuen, 6asncnm xe peqek1 Hoxe1 6m1L, no-
anpnHoHy, npoc1o ncuenen npn ycnoann, u1o 6ypy1 na-
penm nepoc1akune nnrpepnen1m; n paxe a a1oH cnyuae
Hm HoxeH roaopn1L 1onLko o 1oH, u1o pana sa1nnynacL, a
na ee Hec1e o6pasoaancn ne6onLuo 6es6onesnennm
upaH.
Hpnnara1enLnoe 6asncnm a noaoH 1epHnne, ko1opm n
npepnoxnn, osnauae1 ne 1onLko 1o, u1o ono o1nocn1cn k
6onee npnHn1nanmH coc1onnnnH no cpaanennk c 1eHn,
u1o xapak1epnsyk1 apnnoa koHnnekc, no 1akxe n 1o, u1o
nx annnnne npoc1npae1cn ropaspo unpe n, aosHoxno, ox-
aa1maae1 ack ncnxo6nonornueckyk c1pyk1ypy nnpnanpa,
a pasno c1enenn sa1parnaan ero ncnxnky n 1eno. TaknH
o6pasoH, konuenunn 6asncnoro peqek1a nosaonne1 naH
nonn1L ne 1onLko pasnnunme neaposm (aosHoxno, 1akxe
n ncnxosm), napyuennn xapak1epa, ncnxocoHa1nueckne
sa6oneaannn n 1. p. kak pacc1poc1aa, nHekune o6uee
nponcxoxpenne, no n a1o nokasann naun nccnepoaa-
nnn a o6nac1n o6ue Hepnunncko npak1nkn unpokn
pnanason o6munmx knnnnuecknx sa6oneaann (Balint
34
M., 1957; Balint M., Balint E., 1961; Lask, 1966; Greco,
Pittenger, 1966). H xouy ckasa1L, u1o nop annnnneH pas-
noo6pasnmx aHounonanLnmx nepexnaann, ko1opme am-
smaak1cn a 1oH uncne n HepnunncknH neuenneH, knnnn-
ueckoe sa6oneaanne Hoxe1 ncuesny1L, yc1ynna Hec1o
cneunqnueckoHy ncnxonornueckoHy pacc1poc1ay, n
nao6opo1.
C Hoe 1oukn spennn, 6asncnm peqek1, no-anpnHoHy,
o6pasye1cn na pannnx a1anax pasan1nn nnpnanpa, korpa
o6napyxnaae1cn snaun1enLnoe pacxoxpenne Hexpy ero
ncnxo6nonornuecknHn no1pe6noc1nHn, c opno c1oponm,
n 1eH konnuec1aoH annHannn n nk6an, Ha1epnanLno n
ncnxonornuecko sa6o1m, ko1opme poc1ynnm pnn nero na
1o1 HoHen1 c ppyro. Tak aosnnkae1 coc1onnne nexaa1-
kn, peqnun1a, nocnepc1ann n o1cpouennm aqqek1 ko1o-
poro a 6ypyueH Hory1 6m1L o6pa1nHmHn nnuL o1uac1n.
Oak1opm, o6ycnaannaakune a1y cn1yaunk paccornacoaa-
nnn na pannnx a1anax pasan1nn, Hory1 6m1L apoxpennm-
Hn, nanpnHep, ypoaenL ncnxo6nonornuecknx no1pe6no-
c1e pe6enka Hoxe1 6m1L cnnukoH amcoknH (a cnyuae
nexnsnecnoco6nmx pe1e, a 1akxe npn nporpeccnpykueH
nacnepc1aennoH pacc1poc1ae, nopo6no a1akcnn Opap-
pnxa nnn knc1osno nouke); nnn nponcxopn1L ns aneune-
ro okpyxennn, nanpnHep, a cnyuae nenonnoro, nepoc1a-
1ounoro, necnc1eHa1nueckoro yxopa sa pe6enkoH, o1nn-
uakuerocn upesHepno 1peaoro, rnneponeko, rpy6o-
c1Lk, pnrnpnoc1Lk, o6ue nenocnepoaa1enLnoc1Lk, ne-
perynnpnoc1Lk, ns6m1ouno c1nHynnune nnn npoc1o ne-
nonnHanneH n 6espasnnuneH.
Kak anpno ns amueckasannoro, n nopuepknaak aaxnoc1L
o1cy1c1ann coo1ae1c1ann Hexpy pe6enkoH n 1eHn
nkpLHn, ko1opme coc1aannk1 ero okpyxenne. Tak nony-
unnocL, u1o n naun paccyxpennn Hm nauann c noxoxero
pacxoxpennn, ko1opoe na6nkpae1cn Hexpy koppek1-
nmHn npn nnmx o6c1on1enLc1aax 1exnnuecknHn npneHaHn
35
anann1nka n konkpe1nmHn no1pe6noc1nHn naunen1a;
anonne aosHoxno, u1o nHenno specL ckpm1a ocnoanan
npnunna sa1pypnenn n paxe neypau, c ko1opmHn c1an-
knaak1cn anann1nkn a caoe npak1nke. Bonee noppo6no
a1o1 acnek1 6ype1 ocaeuen a uac1n V.
BosapauancL k ocnoano 1eHe, n xouy, u1o6m un1a1enL
nHen a anpy, u1o n y Henn ec1L co6c1aennme npepnou1e-
nnn, ko1opme, no-anpnHoHy, ckasmaak1cn a 1oH, u1o n
ncnonLsyk 1epHnnm 1eopnn o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn, korpa
onncmaak npoueccm, ko1opme a koneunoH cue1e npnaopn1
k qopHnpoaannk 6asncnoro peqek1a. C Hoe 1oukn spe-
nnn, ace a1n npoueccm pasaopaunaak1cn a paHkax po-
aonLno npnHn1nanmx n cneunqnuecknx o6Lek1nmx o1no-
uenn, cyuec1aenno o1nnuakunxcn o1 1ex o6Lek1nmx
o1nouenn, ko1opme o6muno na6nkpak1cn y aspocnmx
nkpe. HecHo1pn na 1o, u1o a a1nx o1nouennnx yuac1ay-
k1 pae nepconm, snauenne nHee1 1onLko opnn nap1nep;
1onLko ero xenannn n no1pe6noc1n npnnnHak1cn a pac-
ue1 n 1onLko onn ponxnm 6m1L ncnonnenm. [pyro xe
nap1nep, necHo1pn na 1o, u1o on npepc1aanne1cn qnry-
po, napenenno a6conk1nmH Horyuec1aoH, nHee1 sna-
uenne nnuL noc1onLky, nockonLky on ro1oa copec1ao-
aa1L ypoane1aopennk nepaoouepepnmx no1pe6noc1e n
xenann nepaoro nap1nepa nn6o peuae1 qpyc1pnpoaa1L
nx. Bne a1oro kon1ekc1a nnunme cknonnoc1n, no1pe6no-
c1n, c1pac1n, xenannn n 1. p. ppyroro nap1nepa npoc1o ne
cyuec1ayk1. B rnaae 12 n npepnarak 6onee pe1anLno o6-
cypn1L 1akne, no cy1n, payxc1oponnne o1nouennn n npo-
aec1n rpannuy Hexpy a1nHn o1nouennnHn n 1eH, u1o n
nasaan nepanuno o6Lek1no nk6oaLk, nnn nepanunmHn
o6Lek1nmHn o1nouennnHn.
Fnaaa 5. O6nac1u cosupauun
36
[o cnx nop n roaopnn o payx ypoannx nnn o6nac1nx, ko-
1opme, aosHoxno, nannk1cn coc1aannkunHn ncnxnkn:
o6nac1n apnnoaa konqnnk1a n o6nac1n 6asncnoro peqek-
1a. Hpexpe ueH nepe1n k kpa1koHy nsnoxennk Honx
npe, kacakunxcn c1poennn uenoaeuecko ncnxnkn, pnn
nonno1m kap1nnm n ponxen xo1n 6m ynoHnny1L 1pe1Lk
o6nac1L.
B 1o apeHn kak o6nac1L apnnoaa konqnnk1a xapak1epnsy-
e1cn asanHopec1aneH Hexpy cy6Lek1oH n HnnnHyH pay-
Hn o6Lek1aHn, o1nnunmHn o1 nero, a o6nac1L 6asncnoro
peqek1a aecLHa cneunqnuecknHn o1nouennnHn, pas-
aopaunaakunHncn ncknkun1enLno Hexpy payHn nepco-
naHn, 1pe1Ln o6nac1L o1nnuae1cn 1eH, u1o a ne o1cy1c1-
aye1 aneunn o6Lek1. 3pecL cy6Lek1 npepoc1aanen caHo-
Hy ce6e n rnaanan ero sa6o1a coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o6m co-
1aopn1L neu1o ane ce6n caHoro. Heu1o, u1o ponxno 6m1L
cospano, Hoxe1 6m1L, xo1n n neo6nsa1enLno, o6Lek1oH. H
npepnarak nasaa1L a1y uac1L ncnxnkn ypoaneH nnn o6na-
c1Lk cosnpannn. Koneuno, xypoxec1aennoe 1aopuec1ao
nanne1cn nan6onee npknH n uac1o ynoHnnaeHmH npnHe-
poH, opnako k a1o rpynne npnnapnexa1 n sann1nn Ha1e-
Ha1nko n qnnocoqne, noc1nxenne, nonnHanne uero-1o
nnn koro-1o; a 1akxe 1akne paa upesamuano aaxnmx
qenoHena, kak pannne qasm qnsnueckoro nnn ncnxnue-
ckoro sa6oneaannn n cnon1annoe amspopoanenne.
O6 a1nx npoueccax nsaec1no ouenL Hano, necHo1pn na
Hnorouncnennme ycnnnn, sa1pauennme na nx nsyuenne.
Oueanpnan npnunna nepoc1a1ounoro snannn a a1o o6-
nac1n saknkuae1cn a 1oH, u1o a ne o1cy1c1ayk1 aneunne
o6Lek1m, cnepoaa1enLno, specL neaosHoxnm o1nouennn
nepenoca. TaH xe, rpe ne1 nepenoca, naun anann1nue-
ckne He1opm okasmaak1cn 6eccnnLnm, noa1oHy a naunx
amaopax Hm orpannuenm na6nkpennnHn sa cy6Lek1oH,
ko1opm yxe noknnyn npepenm a1o o6nac1n.
37
Kak 1onLko na cuene nonanne1cn aneunn o6Lek1, na-
npnHep, sakonuennoe nponsaepenne nckycc1aa, Ha1eHa-
1nueckn nnn qnnocoqckn 1esnc, nnca1 nnn nonnHa-
nne, ko1opoe Hoxe1 6m1L ampaxeno cnoaaHn, kak 1onLko
6onesnL poc1nrae1 1ako c1apnn, korpa nnpnanp Hoxe1
noxanoaa1Lcn koHy-1o na caoe caHouyac1ane, Hm HoxeH
npnc1ynn1L k pa6o1e, npnHennn naun anann1nueckne He-
1opm.
O1cy1c1ane nepenoca o6Lncnne1 naH, noueHy Hm 1onueH-
cn na Hec1e a naunx nonm1kax nonn1L a1n aaxnme ncn-
xnueckne coc1onnnn. B 6onLunnc1ae anann1nuecknx 1eo-
pn onncanne a1nx coc1onnn cnepye1 sa nsmkoamHn
knnue, nnpnanp o6osnauae1cn kak nekn npapopn1enL.
HackonLko Hne nsaec1no, ao acex nsmkax pnn o6osnaue-
nnn 1aknx coc1onnn ncnonLsyk1 ampaxennn, sanHc1ao-
aannme ns o6mpenno peun n osnauakune saua1ne, am-
naunaanne nnopa n poxpenne pe6enka. Cy6Lek1, o6py-
Hmaakun npek, amnaunaae1 ee, ncnm1maae1 popoame
cxaa1kn, pae1 xnsnL ueHy-1o, nn6o nponcxopn1 npexpe-
apeHennoe ns6aanenne o1 nnopa, amknpmu n 1. n. Ho-
anpnHoHy, nHenno no 1o xe caHo npnunne o1cy1c1ann
nepenoca ncnxonornn 6epeHennoc1n n poxpennn pe6enka
oc1ak1cn cpaann1enLno nepaspa6o1annmHn. H a a1oH
cnyuae Hm 1akxe nm1aeHcn 1pancqopHnpoaa1L a payxc1o-
ponnne o1nouennn cn1yaunk, a ko1opo, oueanpno,
npepc1aanena 1onLko opna nepcona, pnn 1oro, u1o6m no-
nyun1L aosHoxnoc1L npnHenn1L naun napexnme cpepc1aa
nccnepoaannn n npnamunme cnoco6m Hmunennn.
3pecL Hm onn1L c1anknaaeHcn c 1pypnoc1nHn, npnunna
ko1opmx kpoe1cn a naueH konaenunonanLnoH nsmke
aspocnmx. HaH nsaec1no, u1o a o6nac1n cosnpannn ne1
o6Lek1oa, no Hm 1akxe snaeH, u1o cy6Lek1 a a1o o6-
nac1n nou1n acerpa nnn kakyk-1o uac1L apeHenn ne
anonne opnnok. Hpo6neHa coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o nau nsmk
ne pacnonarae1 cpepc1aaHn pnn onncannn nnn paxe yka-
38
sannn na neu1o, npncy1c1aykuee a 1o o6nac1n, rpe
ne1 o6Lek1oa, korpa cy6Lek1 ne anonne opnnok. [nn 1oro,
u1o6m nHe1L aosHoxnoc1L kak-1o roaopn1L o6 a1oH, n
npepnarak ncnonLsoaa1L 1epHnn npo1oo6Lek1; nopo-
uno 6m n ampaxenne o6Lek1-aH6pnon; xopouyk cnyx-
6y a kauec1ae 1epHnna Horno 6m cocnyxn1L neHeukoe
ampaxenne Objekt-Anlage. Ecnn n npaannLno nonnn Bno-
na (1962 n 1963), on c1onknyncn c 1o xe 1pypnoc1Lk; a
a1oH oco6oH cnyuae on npepnoxnn ncnonLsoaa1L 1epHnnm
anLqa- n 6a1a-aneHen1m, n anLqa-qynkunn.
Bce ykasmaae1 na 1o, u1o npo1oo6Lek1m, cyuec1ayk-
une a o6nac1n cosnpannn, ponxno 6m1L, nannk1cn na-
c1onLko npnHn1nanmHn, u1o ne Hory1 cun1a1Lcn oprann-
soaannmHn nnn uenoc1nmHn. TonLko nocne 1oro kak
pa6o1a cosnpannn, a npouecce ko1opo nH coo6uae1cn
kakan-1o c1pyk1ypa n uenoc1noc1L, ycneuno saaep-
un1cn, Hory1 nponcxopn1L coo1ae1c1aykune aep6anL-
nme nnn apnnoam nn1epakunn Hexpy aneunnHn o6L-
ek1aHn n a1nHn noamHn o6Lek1aHn. BosHoxno, 6onee
npnHn1nanme nn1epakunn npncyune ypoannH 6asncno-
ro peqek1a n cosnpannn nponcxopn1 acerpa; opnako nx
poaonLno 1pypno na6nkpa1L, eue 1pypnee pa1L nH apek-
aa1noe onncanne (Balint M., 1959, cH. 1akxe rnaam 8 n
11).
Mm snaeH 1onLko, u1o npouecc cosnpannn, npeo6pasyk-
un npo1oo6Lek1 a nonnouennm o6Lek1, nanne1cn ne-
npepckasyeHmH. HaH nensaec1no, noueHy a1o1 npouecc
ycneuno saaepuae1cn a opnnx cnyuanx n sakanunaae1cn
neypaue a ppyrnx, noueHy on 1o pnn1cn ropaHn, 1o npo-
nocn1cn, kak Honnnn. Hc1opnn xypoxec1aennoro n nayu-
noro 1aopuec1aa npepoc1aanne1 naH Hnoro nn1epecnmx
npnHepoa, no onn nannk1cn cnnukoH o6unHn n ne npo-
ncnnk1 a1oro aonpoca. HanpnHep, Hm snaeH, u1o 1eHa
Oayc1a sannHana I1e ack ero xnsnL, on npnc1ynnn k
cospannk Hpaqayc1a, korpa eHy ncnonnnncn paapua1L
39
opnn rop, n pa6o1an nap a1opo uac1Lk po caHo caoe
cHep1n a 1832 ropy. Ono6ep o6muno nncan opny nnn pae
c1pannum a penL eHy nonapo6nnocL ceHL ne1 pnn 1oro,
u1o6m saaepun1L MapaH Boaapn. BepHeep n [xoppxone,
kak n Be1xoaen, a uenoH pa6o1ann ouenL Hepnenno. eo-
nappo nncan [xokonpy a 1euennn nn1napua1n ne1. Mo-
uap1, nanpo1na, ouenL 6mc1po counnnn Hysmky (caHmH
nsaec1nmH npnHepoH nanne1cn nc1opnn counnennn nH
yaep1kpm k [on Xyany), 1o xe caHoe Hoxno ckasa1L o
Iapne n o Baxe. BanLsak nncan ouenL 6mc1po, kak n Cn-
Henon, nponsaopn1enLnoc1L ko1oporo nopo poc1nrana
opnoro poHana sa pae nepenn. BonLuan uac1L nacnepnn
Ban Iora 6mna cospana sa paa ropa. Mm snaeH o 1oH, u1o
cnnLnme konqnnk1m na apnnoaoH ypoane Hory1 yckopn1L
nnn 1opHosn1L 1aopueckn npouecc, no, no-anpnHoHy,
noHnHo konqnnk1oa, o1nocnunxcn k a1o o6nac1n ncnxn-
kn, oco6oe snauenne nHee1 c1pyk1ypa o6nac1n cosnpannn
nnpnanpa.
Bce xe a1oro ouenL Hano, oco6enno ecnn cpaannaa1L c
naunHn snannnHn o 6eccosna1enLnmx npoueccax n Hexa-
nnsHax, nponcxopnunx nop annnnneH konqnnk1oa. H a1o
amsmaae1 ypnanenne, aepL anann1nk o6napae1 ynnkanL-
no aosHoxnoc1Lk na6nkpennn sa cy6Lek1aHn, norpy-
xennmHn a o6nac1L cosnpannn. 3pecL n nHek a anpy
nepaspeunHyk pnn naue 1exnnkn npo6neHy
Honuauero naunen1a. O6muno anann1nk paccHa1pnaae1
Honuanne npoc1o kak cnHn1oH conpo1nanennn kakoHy-1o
6eccosna1enLnoHy Ha1epnany, ko1opm o1nocn1cn nn6o k
npounoHy naunen1a, nn6o k cn1yaunn nepenoca.
Heo6xopnHo po6aan1L, u1o 1akoe nc1onkoaanne nou1n
acerpa nanne1cn koppek1nmH; naunen1 6exn1 o1 uero-1o,
o6muno o1 konqnnk1a. Ho aepno n 1o, u1o on 6exn1 k
ueHy-1o, a nHenno k coc1onnnk, a ko1opoH on Hoxe1
naxopn1Lcn a o1nocn1enLno 6esonacnoc1n n
npepnpnnn1L u1o-nn6o a o1nouennn 1oro, u1o ero
6ecnokon1 nnn Hyuae1. To, u1o on a konue konuoa cospac1
40
konue konuoa cospac1 n sa1eH npepLnan1 naH, npepc1aa-
nne1 co6o caoero popa nponsaepenne ne o6nsa-
1enLno uec1noe, nckpennee, rny6okoe nnn o6napakuee
xypoxec1aennmHn poc1onnc1aaHn, no 1eH ne Henee na-
nnkueecn npopyk1oH ero 1aopuec1aa. [ec1an1enLno, Hm
ne HoxeH 6m1L aHec1e c nnH, korpa coaepuae1cn pa6o1a
cosnpannn, no Hm HoxeH 6m1L c nnH nenocpepc1aenno a
HoHen1m po n cpasy nocne a1oro, n, apo6aaok, Hm HoxeH
na6nkpa1L sa nnH cnapyxn, korpa on coaepuae1 a1y pa-
6o1y. BosHoxno, ecnn Hm cHoxeH o1kasa1Lcn o1 nauero
nopxopa k Honuannk kak k cnHn1oHy conpo1nanennn n
noc1apaeHcn o1nec1ncL k neHy kak k no1enunanLnoHy nc-
1ounnky nnqopHaunn, 1orpa Hm cHoxeH koe-u1o ysna1L
o6 a1o o6nac1n ncnxnkn.
Fnaaa 6. PesmHe
H1ak, Hm pacnonaraeH no HenLue Hepe 1peHn o6nac1nHn
ncnxnkn, kaxpo ns ko1opmx, kak anepame 6mno npepno-
xeno PnkHanoH (Rickman, 1951), npncaoen nekn nopnp-
koam noHep. D1n 1pn o6nac1n Hoxno 6mno 6m nasaa1L
npoc1panc1aaHn, cqepaHn, nonnHn, ypoannHn, paonaHn
nnn nnc1anunnHn, a Hoxe1 6m1L, n kak-1o nnaue. Kaxpoe
ns a1nx cnoa o6napae1 caonH co6c1aennmH knac1epoH ac-
counaun, n n, nanpnHep, ne xo1en 6m okasmaa1L npep-
nou1enne kakoHy-1o opnoHy ns nnx kak nan6onee nopxo-
pnueHy. B nac1onuee apeHn n npepnoun1ak ncnonLso-
aa1L cnoaa o6nac1L nnn ypoaenL, no n ponxen npn-
sna1L, u1o pnn Henn caHoro oc1ae1cn nencnmH, noueHy n
am6pan a1n paa cnoaa.
Cpepn a1nx 1pex o6nac1e o6nac1L nop noHepoH 3, ko1o-
pyk Hoxno nasaa1L o6nac1Lk apnnoaa konqnnk1a, ns-
aec1na nyuue acex. D1o1 koHnnekc cnpaaepnnao cun1ak1
uen1panLnmH, n6o ace, u1o kacae1cn uenoaeka kak a
nnpnanpyanLnmx, 1ak n a konnek1nanmx acnek1ax
41
ponxno npo1n a caoeH pasan1nn uepes a1y o6nac1L, ano-
cnepc1ann naacerpa coxpanna o1neua1ok 1oro peuennn,
ko1opoe nnpnanp nnn unannnsaunn naxopn1 a 6opL6e,
npncyue a1nH konqnnk1aH. O1nnun1enLnmH npnsnakoH
a1o o6nac1n nanne1cn 1o, u1o ao ace konnnsnn, ko1opme
a ne pasaopaunaak1cn, noHnHo cy6Lek1a, aoaneuenm no
kpane Hepe paa napannenLnmx o6Lek1a. [nnaHnueckn
qak1op a1oro ypoann npepc1aanne1 co6o konqnnk1, nc-
1ounnk ko1oporo, kak npaanno, nexn1 a aH6naanen1no-
c1n, o6ycnoanenno cnoxnoc1Lk o1nouenn Hexpy nnpn-
anpoH n payHn ero napannenLnmHn o6Lek1aHn. TonLko o6
a1oH ypoane naH nsaec1no poaonLno Hnoro. [nn a1oro
ec1L pae ocnoanme npnunnm. Opna saknkuae1cn a 1oH,
u1o o1nouennn Hexpy cy6Lek1oH n ero o6Lek1aHn ouenL
noxoxn na o1nouennn Hexpy aspocnmHn nkpLHn, ppyran
xe coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o nsmk aspocnmx npepc1aanne1 co6o
anonne apekaa1noe cpepc1ao pnn onncannn nponcxopn-
unx na a1oH ypoane co6m1n.
B1opan o6nac1L, kak n c1apancn nokasa1L a a1o uac1n
knnrn, kappnnanLno o1nnuae1cn o1 amueynoHnny1o o6-
nac1n. D1o o6nac1L 6asncnoro peqek1a, ko1opo npn-
caoen noHep 2, osnauakun, u1o a ne Hory1 naxopn1Lcn
pae, n 1onLko pae, nepconm. O1nouennn Hexpy nnHn o1-
nnuak1cn o1 o1nouenn Hexpy payHn aspocnmHn nkpL-
Hn; onn nannk1cn 6onee npnHn1nanmHn. HoHnHo a1oro,
o1nnune Hexpy a1nHn payHn o6nac1nHn o6ycnoaneno n
npnpopo pnnaHnuecknx qak1opoa, pec1aykunx na a1nx
ypoannx. [nnaHnueckn qak1op a o6nac1n apnnoaa koH-
nnekca o6napae1 c1pyk1ypo konqnnk1a. C1pyk1ypa xe
qak1opa 6asncnoro peqek1a, xo1n n a amcue c1enenn
pnnaHnunoro, ne nanne1cn c1pyk1ypo konqnnk1a. Kak
6mno ynoHnny1o a rnaae 4, a1o1 qak1op nHee1 cxopc1ao c
nsLnnoH, napyuenneH nnn nepoc1a1koH a ncnxnke, o6pa-
sykunH peqek1, ko1opm ponxen 6m1L ncnpaanen. 3pecL
aosnnkae1 Hnoro 1exnnuecknx npo6neH, ko1opme n npep-
42
narak o6cypn1L a uac1nx III-V. BosHoxno, caHan 6onLuan
1pypnoc1L, aosnnkakuan npn nk6o nonm1ke 1eope1nue-
ckoro onncannn a1nx qenoHenoa, saknkuae1cn a o1nocn-
1enLno nenpnropnoc1n pnn peuennn 1ako sapaun nsmka
aspocnmx, o ueH Hm yxe neckonLko pas ynoHnnann.
H, nakoneu, Hm pacnonaraeH o6nac1Lk cosnpannn, ko1o-
po npncaoen noHep 1. 3pecL ne1 aneunnx o6Lek1oa,
cnepoaa1enLno, specL ne1 o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn n ne1
nepenoca. HHenno noa1oHy naun snannn o npo1ekakunx
specL npoueccax c1onL ckypnm n neonpepenennm. B a1o
o6nac1n naun anann1nueckne He1opm nenpnHennHm, no-
a1oHy Hm amnyxpenm npn6era1L k coHnn1enLnmH amao-
paH n akc1panonnunnH.
Kak pacnonarak1cn a1n o6nac1n a ncnxnke? Y Henn ec1L
1onLko aecLHa npn6nnsn1enLnm o1ae1 na a1o1 ouenL nn-
1epecnm aonpoc. Besycnoano, ace 1pn o6nac1n sa1parn-
aak1 Dro. H ne Hory ckasa1L, poc1nrak1 nn onn Cynep-
Dro nnn ne1, neo6xopnHo npnsna1L, u1o 1akan xe neonpe-
penennoc1L cyuec1aye1 n no o1nouennk k Hp. Bce ne-
paanne poc1nxennn a 1eopnn ncnxnueckoro annapa1a o1-
nocn1cn rnaanmH o6pasoH nnn paxe ncknkun1enLno
k Dro; a1o a paano c1enenn kacae1cn pa6o1 Oap6epna,
Iap1Hanna n Bnnnnko11a, 1ak u1o, a nk6oH cnyuae, n oka-
smaakcL a nennoxo koHnannn.
Hepep 1eH kak saaepun1L a1y uac1L knnrn, n xouy amcka-
sa1L neko1opme npepoc1epexennn. Hepaoe kacae1cn pe-
neaan1noc1n naunx knnnnuecknx na6nkpenn a paHkax
o6ue 1eopnn uenoaeueckoro pasan1nn. O6muno ponyc-
kae1cn, u1o qak1m knnnnueckoro na6nkpennn qenoHe-
noa, nHekunx Hec1o a anann1nuecko cn1yaunn, Hory1
6m1L npnnn1m a kauec1ae penpesen1a1nano am6opkn
ace coaokynnoc1n qenoHenoa, o1nocnunxcn k npoueccy
pasan1nn (Balint M., 1956). Oak1nueckn a1a npen, xo1n n
ne ampaxaeHan a nanoH anpe, sapae1 1on aceH naunH
43
1eope1nuecknH noc1poennnH. H nonarak, u1o ona a6co-
nk1no neaepna. Bo-nepamx, ne ace, u1o nponcxopn1 a
npouecce uenoaeueckoro pasan1nn, noa1opne1cn a anann-
1nuecko cn1yaunn; ao-a1opmx, 1o, u1o pec1an1enLno
noa1opne1cn, ncnm1maae1 cnnLnme nckaxennn co c1oponm
anann1nuecko cn1yaunn, orpannuenno onpepenennmHn
paHkaHn. Eue Opep pekoHenpoaan npoaopn1L anann1n-
ueckoe neuenne a ycnoannx aospepxannn, 1o ec1L qpyc1-
paunn. Xo1n, aosHoxno, panno HakcnHe n ne cnepyk1
1ak xe 6esoroaopouno, kak a1o npepnonarae1 ee cnoaec-
noe ampaxenne, opnako a uenoH aepno, u1o naunen1
ponxen ao apeHn caoero neuennn ncnm1maa1L 6onLue
qpyc1paunn, ueH ypoane1aopennn. Hpexpe acero neo6xo-
pnHo amncnn1L, nHee1 nn Hec1o nopo6nan pncnponopunn
na aceH npo1nxennn npouecca pasan1nn. [o 1ex nop, no-
ka a1o oc1ae1cn nencnmH, 6mno 6m pasyHno cornacn1Lcn c
1eH, u1o a naue npak1nke Hm ac1peuaeHcn c kap1nno, a
snaun1enLno c1enenn nckaxenno, a 1akxe c 1eH, u1o
a1o nckaxenne cospano naunH ncnm1annmH He1opoH, ko-
1opm aaopn1 naunen1a a coc1onnne qpyc1paunn 1eH, u1o
npenn1c1aye1 nnn 1opHosn1 nepexnaanne uyac1aa ypoa-
ne1aopennn. O1aepran annnnne a1oro nckaxennn, ncnxo-
anann1nueckan 1eopnn nens6exno npnxopn1 k npeyaenn-
uennk snauennn qpyc1paunn n aH6naanen1noc1n a ncn-
xnuecko xnsnn nnpnanpa.
Hpn anann1nueckoH neuennn co6m1nn npounoro n na-
c1onuero, npnnapnexaune o6nac1n apnnoaa konqnnk1a,
ace apeHn nopaeprak1cn npopa6o1ke, opnako, kak npaan-
no, a1o onocpepc1aoaano aep6anLno npopykune naun-
en1a. B anann1nuecko cn1yaunn Hm nenocpepc1aenno
na6nkpaeH o1nouennn Hexpy payHn nepconaHn n, cnepo-
aa1enLno, uac1L o6nac1n 6asncnoro peqek1a. Koneuno,
no1oH pnn onncannn nauero onm1a Hm ncnonLsyeH nsmk
aspocnmx, a a1o osnauae1, u1o Hm ponxnm nopnn1L a1o1
onm1 po apnnoaa ypoann, 1o ec1L ypoann o6uenpnnn1oro
44
konaenunonanLnoro nsmka. H nonarak, u1o a1o, no-
anpnHoHy, 1akxe anocn1 caok ponk nckaxenn, n pan-
nm qak1 Hoxe1 o6Lncnn1L, noueHy nocne amxopa no-
cnepne Honorpaqnn Opepa naun 1eopnn n He1op paso-
unncL c1onL kappnnanLno. B a1o uac1n n nonm1ancn na-
aec1n Hoc1 uepes a1y nponac1L n, ncnonLsyn knnnnueckn
onm1, paspa6o1a1L noayk 1eopnk ncnxnueckoro annapa1a
(npexpe acero 1eopnk Dro), a ko1opyk aope1 kak uac1-
nm cnyua knaccnueckan ncnxonornn H Opepa.
Bo-a1opmx, n xouy nopuepkny1L, u1o n oc1aann aonpoc
xpononornn nonnoc1Lk o1kpm1mH, 1ak kak nonarak, u1o
naue snanne ne nosaonne1 na coapeHennoH a1ane peun1L
a1y oc1pyk npo6neHy. Bmno 6m co6nasnn1enLno npnnn1L,
kak n nonarak, noxnyk 1ouky spennn, cornacno ko1opo
nornueckn 6onee npoc1oe o6nsa1enLno nanne1cn xponono-
rnueckn 6onee pannnH. Tako nopxop npnaen 6m nac k
cnepykue xpononornuecko nocnepoaa1enLnoc1n: cna-
uana ypoaenL cosnpannn, sa1eH ypoaenL 6asncnoro pe-
qek1a, saHmkae1 pnp ypoaenL apnnoaa koHnnekca. Kak
Hm snaeH ns aH6pnonornn, uac1o cnyuae1cn 1ak, u1o a
npouecce pasan1nn npexpe cnoxnan c1pyk1ypa noc1enen-
no c1anoan1cn 6onee npoc1o nnn paxe nonnoc1Lk yn-
paspnne1cn na 6onee nospne c1apnn (cH. Balint M., 1959,
rnaaa 7). Hoa1oHy ne ncknkueno, u1o caHmH pannnH Ho-
xe1 6m1L ypoaenL 6asncnoro peqek1a, ypoaenL o1noue-
nn nepanuno nk6an. 3a1eH cnepyk1 ypoaenL apnnoaa
konqnnk1a, ko1opm nonanne1cn a pesynL1a1e pasan1nn
uepes pnqqepenunaunk, a 1akxe ypoaenL cosnpannn, ko-
1opm npepc1aanne1 co6o n1or pasan1nn no ny1n ynpo-
uennn.
Mo nnan coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o6m npnnn1L a1y nocnepnkk
npek a kauec1ae pa6oue rnno1esm, a sa1eH nccnepoaa1L,
pec1an1enLno nn Hm HoxeH, o11anknaancL o1 nee, npo-
panny1Lcn a nonnHannn naunx c6naakunx c 1onky 1eope-
1nuecknx n 1exnnuecknx npo6neH.
45
1o kacae1cn 1eopnn, 1o Hm nHeeH pae c1apme n a snaun-
1enLno c1enenn nepecekakunecn npo6neHm: napunc-
cnsH n perpeccnk. Xo1n a1n npo6neHm nHek1 cansn c o6-
nac1Lk apnnoaa koHnnekca, no cyuec1ay, onn npnnapne-
xa1 o6nac1n 6asncnoro peqek1a. HockonLky a1o1 qak1 ne
Hor 6m1L ouenen ponxnmH o6pasoH, nonanenne napunc-
cnuecknx nnn perpeccnanmx uep1 a cn1yaunn nepenoca a
uenoH cun1anocL ne6naronpnn1nmH npnsnakoH. B uac1nx
II n III naH cnepye1 paccHo1pe1L, nackonLko cnpaaepnnao
a1o o6o6uenne n a kaknx cnyuanx ono okasmaae1cn ne-
aepnmH. Hocne 1oro kak ny1n 6ypy1 pacunuenm, a no-
cnepnnx payx uac1nx a1o knnrn n nnannpyk o6cypn1L
1exnnueckne He1opm.
Hac1u II. Hepauvum uapuccusH u
nepauvuan nm6oau
Fnaaa 7. Tpu 1eopuu 4pepa
To1 qak1, u1o a 1euenne Hnornx ne1 Opep npnpepxnaan-
cn 1pex asanHoncknkuakunx 1ouek spennn o1nocn1enLno
nan6onee npnHn1nanmx o1nouenn nnpnanpa n okpy-
46
xakue cpepm, kaxe1cn aecLHa kypLesnmH, opnako ero
nerko npoaepn1L. CaHan pannnn 1eopnn 6mna cqopHynn-
poaana a pa6o1e Tpn ouepka no 1eopnn cekcyanLnoc1n,
anepame ony6nnkoaanno a 1905 ropy, n oc1aaanacL ne-
nsHenno ao acex nospnnx nspannnx knnrn, xo1n nHenno
a1y pa6o1y n eue Tonkoaanne cnoanpenn Opep oc1a-
ann o1kpm1mHn pnn nocnepykue koppek1npoakn on
nepepa6a1maan nx n anocnn nonpaakn c kaxpmH noamH
nepenspanneH, qnkcnpyn naxopkn, nononnnaune ero 6a-
rax sa 1e ropm, u1o npounn c npepmpyuero nspannn. [o-
aonLno c1panno, u1o a nocnepneH naparpaqe 1pe1Lero n
saknkun1enLnoro ouepka, saronoaok ko1oporo na neHeu-
koH nsmke amrnnpn1 1ak: Die Objektfindung, (naxoxpenne
o6Lek1a) saHeua1enLnan ampasn1enLnan qpasa, nepe-
aop ko1opo na anrnnckn poaonLno neyknkx: The
Finding of an object noHeuen cnepykun naccax
(Standard Edition, VII, p. 222).
Opep nncan: Korpa caHoe nepaoe ypoane1aopenne 6m-
no cansano c npnnn1neH nnun, cekcyanunoe aneuenne
nMeno cekcyanunu oek1 ane coc1aennoro 1ena pe-
enka , a Ha1epnncko rpypn. Hosxe ono nnunnocL ero,
Hoxe1 6m1L, kak pas 1orpa, korpa y pe6enka nonannacL
aosHoxnoc1L nonyun1L oee npec1aanenne o nne , ko-
1opoHy npnnapnexn1 poc1aannkun eHy ypoane1aopenne
opran. Ouknoaenno nonoaoe aneuenne c1anoan1cn 1ora
ay1oapo1nunuM , n 1onLko no npeoponennn na1en1noro
nepnopa cnoaa aocc1anaannaae1cn nepaonauanLnoe o1-
nouenne. He 6es aeckoro ocnoaannn cocanne pe6enkoH
rpypn Ha1epn c1ano npoo6pasoH acnknx nk6oanmx o1no-
uenn. Haxoxpenne o6Lek1a npepc1aanne1 co6o a cyu-
noc1n naxoxpenne sanoao (kypcna Ho. M. B.).
H 6m po6aann paa saHeuannn no noaopy anrnnckoro ne-
peaopa, a ppyrnx o1nouennnx npeaocxopnoro. Hocnepnnn
qpasa no-neHeukn sayun1 npekpacno: Die Objektfindung
ist eigentlich eine Wiederfindung. Anrnnckn aapnan1
47
nanne1cn 6nepno kanLko y6epn1enLnoro n ka1eropnuno-
ro neHeukoro opnrnnana. Cnepykun aapnan1 nepeaopa,
neckonLko aonLnm, xo1n n ne npepc1aanne1cn anonne
koppek1nmH, no-HoeHy, naxopn1cn 6nnxe k nc1nne: Bcn-
koe o1kpm1ne o6Lek1a npepc1aanne1 co6o, a cyunoc1n,
noa1opnoe o1kpm1ne. [pyroe Hoe saHeuanne kacae1cn
ynoHnnannn o 1ouke o1cue1a. B 1ekc1e Opepa a1o nepe-
pano nocpepc1aoH ampaxennn anfanglichste
Sexualbefriedigung, ko1opoe necpaanenno 6onee ampasn-
1enLno, ueH koppek1nm a ppyrnx o1nouennnx nepeaop
na anrnnckn: nepaonauanLnoe cekcyanLnoe ypoane-
1aopenne; aosHoxno, 6onee aepnmH nepeaopoH 6mn 6m
1ako aapnan1: caHoe nepaoe ypoane1aopenne.
Kak yxe 6mno ynoHnny1o, a1o1 o1pmaok oc1ancn 6es ns-
Henenn, opnako a 1915 ropy Opep po6aann npnHeua-
nne, pnn 1oro u1o6m npnaneuL annHanne k caoeHy o1kpm-
1nk pononnn1enLnoro, a nHenno napunccnueckoro cnoco-
6a naxoxpennn o6Lek1a. To, u1o Opep a 1euenne Hnornx
ne1, nocnepoaaaunx nocne nonanennn ncnxoanann1nue-
cko 1eopnn napunccnsHa, ne naHepeaancn o1kasmaa1Lcn
o1 npen nepanunmx o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn a nonLsy nep-
anunoro napunccnsHa, npepc1aanne1cn oueanpnmH.
B kauec1ae pokasa1enLc1aa a1oro y1aepxpennn n npnaepy
paa o1pmaka ns ero pa6o1 a1oro nepnopa. Opnn o1pmaok
asn1 ns ekun no aaepennk a ncnxoananns (ns paa-
pua1L nepao), ko1opme, kak Hm snaeH, a nocnepnn pas
6mnn npoun1anm a 19161917 ropax n 1orpa xe ony6nn-
koaanm anepame. Bo-nepamx, Opep ykasmaan na 1o, u1o
y neko1opmx koHnonen1oa cekcyanLnoro aneuennn, 1aknx,
nanpnHep, kak capnsH, ckonoqnnnn n nk6onm1c1ao, c ca-
Horo nauana ec1L o6Lek1. [pyrne, npoponxae1 on,
6onee nano cansannme c onpepenennmHn aporennmHn so-
naHn, nHek1 o6Lek1 nnuL a nauane, noka onn amnonnnk1
necekcyanLnme qynkunn, n o1kasmaak1cn o1 nero, korpa
ocao6oxpak1cn o1 a1nx qynkun. On ynoHnnae1 specL
48
ncknkun1enLno opanLnm koHnonen1 aneuennn; sa1eH on
y1aepxpae1: OpanLnoe aneuenne c1anoan1cn ay1oapo1n-
uecknH, kakoamHn ananLnm n ppyrne aporennme aneue-
nnn nannk1cn c caHoro nauana. [anLneuee pasan1ne
nHee1, kopo1ko roaopn, pae uenn: ao-nepamx, o1kasa1Lcn
o1 ay1oapo1nsHa, cnoaa saHenn1L o6Lek1 co6c1aennoro
1ena na noc1oponnn, n, ao-a1opmx, o6Lepnnn1L pasnnu-
nme o6Lek1m o1penLnmx aneuenn, saHenna nx opnnH
o6Lek1oH (Standard Edition, XVI, p. 328-329).
[pyro o1pmaok asn1 ns c1a1Ln Opepa o ncnxoanannse a
Handworterbuch der Sexualwissenschaft M. Mapkyse. C1o-
n1 o6pa1n1L annHanne na 1o, u1o a1o o1pmaok ns napa-
rpaqa, ko1opm nasmaae1cn Hpouecc naxoxpennn o6L-
ek1a. B nepayk ouepepL opanLnm koHnonen1 aneue-
nnn naxopn1 ypoane1aopenne, npnkpennauncL k uyac1ay
nacmuennn nnue, a ero o6Lek1oH nanne1cn Ha1epnnckan
rpypL. 3a1eH on o1kpennne1cn, c1anoan1cn nesaancnHmH
n a 1o xe apeHn ay1oapo1nuecknH, 1o ec1L o6pe1ae1 o6L-
ek1 a co6c1aennoH 1ene pe6enka (Standard Edition, XVII,
p. 234). HaH nsaec1no, u1o a1a c1a1Ln 6mna nanncana a
1922 ropy, kak pas nepep caHmH BepnnncknH konrpeccoH,
nocnepnnH, a ko1opoH Opep npnnnHan yuac1ne, npep-
c1aana caon noame npen o c1pyk1ype ncnxnkn, nerune a
ocnoay nanpaanennn, ko1opoe 1enepL nasmaak1 Dro-
ncnxonorne. TeH ne Henee, kak nop1aepxpae1 ynoHnny-
1m amue o1pmaok, on ne o1kasancn o1 npen nepanunmx
o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn.
[ae ppyrne 1eopnn, kacakunecn nan6onee npnHn1nanmx
o1nouenn nnpnanpa co cpepo, anepame 6mnn ony6nn-
koaanm a ero pa6o1e O napunccnsHe a 1914 ropy, xo1n
a ny6nnkaunnx npepuec1aykunx ne1 nonannncL o1penL-
nme qparHen1m nan6onee panne konuenunn. B pa6o1e
1914 ropa 6mnn npnaepenm nonoxennn a1o 6onee pan-
ne 1eopnn a poaonLno ka1eropnuno Hanepe, 6es kaknx-
nn6o panLneunx pasLncnenn. B nepaoH paspene a1o
49
pa6o1m Opep 1ak c1aan1 npo6neHy: kak o1nocn1cn
[napunccnsH], o ko1opoH specL npe1 peuL, k ay1oapo1ns-
Hy, onncannoHy naHn kak [ nekan ] pannnn c1apnn nn6n-
po? On npepnarae1 1akoe peuenne: H naHeuy cnepyk-
uee coaepuenno nens6exnoe npepnonoxenne, u1o epnn-
c1ao nnunoc1n H ne nHee1cn c caHoro nauana y nnpnanpa:
aepL H ponxno pasan1Lcn, 1orpa kak ay1oapo1nueckne
aneuennn nepanunm; cnepoaa1enLno, k ay1oapo1nsHy
ponxno npncoepnnn1Lcn eue koe-u1o, eue kakne-1o no-
ame nepexnaannn, pnn 1oro, u1o6m Hor o6pasoaa1Lcn
[napunccnsH] (Standard Edition, XIV, pp. 76-77. Kypcna
Ho. - M. B.).
KpoHe 1oro, o1 Dpnec1a [xonca Hm ysnaeH (Jones,
Sigmund Freud , II, p. 304), u1o 10 non6pn 1909 ropa na
co6pannn Benckoro ncnxoanann1nueckoro o6Lepnnennn,
anepame, korpa ynoHnnanne Opepa o napunccnsHe
6mno sanpo1okonnpoaano, on aknapmaan a a1o1 1epHnn
nHenno 1o snauenne, ko1opoe 6mno ynoHnny1o amue.
Opep sanann: HapunccnsH 6mn neo6xopnHo npoHexy-
1ouno qaso na o1peske pasan1nn o1 ay1oapo1nsHa k an-
noapo1nsHy. D1o anonne cornacye1cn c o1pmakoH ns
anannsa Lpe6epa (Standard Edition, XII, p. 60-61. Kypcna
Ho. M. B.): Hepaanne nccnepoaannn nanpaannn naue
annHanne na c1apnk a pasan1nn nn6npo, ko1opyk ono
npoxopn1, npopenmaan ny1L o1 ay1oapo1nsHa k o6Lek1no
nk6an. D1o c1apnn 6mno npncaoeno nHn napunccnsH...
B1a npoMexy1ounan qasa Mexy ay1oapo1nsMoM n o-
ek1no nkoauk , aosHoxno, nanne1cn a nopHe nens6ex-
no; no, anpnHo, Hnorne nkpn sapepxnaak1cn neo6muno
ponro na a1o c1apnn, a Hnorne ee uep1m nepenocn1cn
nHn a nospnne c1apnn pasan1nn. Kc1a1n, a a1oH o1pma-
ke, ony6nnkoaannoH a 1911 ropy, Opep a 1pe1n pas
yno1pe6nn 1epHnn napunccnsH a neua1n. B1opo 6mn a
pa6o1e o eonappo, k nepaoHy cnyuak ncnonLsoaannn
a1oro 1epHnna Hm aepneHcn nosxe.
50
H naHepen o6cypn1L specL paa HoHen1a. Bo-nepamx, a
a1nx o1pmakax cyxpenne Opepa nepaycHmcnenno. Han-
6onee npnHn1nano qopHo asanHopec1ann nnpnanpa c
okpyxakue cpepo nanne1cn ay1oapo1nsH. On cHenne1-
cn c1apne napunccnsHa, sa ko1opo cnepye1 pasan1ne
o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn. Oueanpno, a1o1 ny1L pasan1nn ae-
pe1 k 1oHy 1nny am6opa o6Lek1a, ko1opm nosxe a pa6o1e
O napunccnsHe nasaan napunccnuecknH. Tako aapnan1
pasan1nn ponxen paccHa1pnaa1Lcn kak anL1epna1nanm
nnn napannenLnm 1oHy, u1o 6mn onncan panee a
Tpex ouepkax n a ppyrnx ero pa6o1ax, un1npyeHmx
amue, 1oHy, ko1opm naunnae1cn c yc1anoanennn nep-
anunmx o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn n aepe1 k am6opy o6Lek1a,
ko1opm Opep nasaan anann1nuecknH.
Bo-a1opmx, a npnaepennmx o1pmakax Opep y1aepxpae1,
u1o napunccnsH no cyuec1ay n nponcxoxpennk nanne1cn
a1opnunmH qenoHenoH npoHexy1ouno qaso. Eue
pas npoun1npyk: K ay1oapo1nsHy ponxno npncoepn-
nn1Lcn eue koe-u1o, eue kakne-1o noame nepexnaannn
pnn 1oro, u1o6m Hor o6pasoaa1Lcn [napunccnsH]. 3a-
He1L1e, u1o a a1oH y1aepxpennn o1cy1c1aye1 kakoe 6m 1o
nn 6mno onpepenenne. D1o amsmaae1 eue 6onLuee ypna-
nenne, ecnn yuec1L, u1o pannm o1pmaok asn1 ns payx
a6sauea, cnepykunx cpasy xe sa naccaxeH, a ko1opoH
Opep anepame npnaen caoe snaHenn1oe cpaanenne:
Tak Hm nopxopnH k npee o cyuec1aoaannn ncxopnoro
nn6npnnosnoro ka1ekcnca H, uac1L ko1oporo nosxe nepe-
Heuae1cn na o6Lek1m. BHec1e c 1eH ka1ekcnc H, a cyuno-
c1n, coxpanne1cn n o1nocn1cn k o6Lek1nmH ka1ekcncaH,
kak 1eno aHe6m k amnyuennmH ek nceaponopnnH
(Standard Edition, XIV, p. 76). H ponxen 6ypy aepny1Lcn k
o6cyxpennk a1oro npo1naopeunn neckonLko nosxe, nocne
nsnoxennn 1pe1Le 1eopnn Opepa.
HpnHeua1enLno, u1o a pa6o1e O napunccnsHe, a ko1o-
po npepc1aanena a1a 1eopnn, ne copepxn1cn ue1koro
51
onncannn nepanunoro napunccnsHa. Opnako o6uensaec1-
no, u1o nepanunm napunccnsH c1an nopHa1nano 1eopn-
e pnn o6Lncnennn nan6onee npnHn1nanmx o1nouenn
nnpnanpa c aneunnH HnpoH n u1o Opep neopnokpa1no
ccmnancn na nee a caonx 6onee nospnnx pa6o1ax. Bonee
1oro, a1a 1eopnn coaceH ne npe1epnena nsHenenn sa no-
cnepykune paapua1L nn1L ne1 ak1nano pa6o1m Opepa.
[nn pokasa1enLc1aa a1oro nosaonL1e Hne npnaec1n pae
un1a1m. Opna asn1a ns pononnennn, anecennoro nH a
1pe1Le nspanne Tpex ouepkoa, amuepuee a cae1 a
1915 ropy: Hapunc1nueckoe, nnn "H-nn6npo", kaxe1cn
naH 6onLunH pesepayapoH, ns ko1oporo amcmnak1cn
npnansannoc1n k o6Lek1aH n a ko1opm onn cnoaa aos-
apauak1cn; napunccnueckan npnansannoc1L nn6npo k "H"
kaxe1cn coc1onnneH, ocyuec1anennmH a nepaoH pe1c1ae,
1onLko npnkpm1mH 6naropapn nospnnH ero o1poc1kaH, no
a cyunoc1n oc1aaunHcn nensHennmH sa nx cnnno.
[pyro o1pmaok asn1 ns nocnepne nesakonuenno pa6o-
1m Opepa Ouepk ncnxoanannsa, nanncanno a 1938
1939 ropax, ns a1opo rnaam, c nopsaronoakoH Teopnn
aneuenn: Tpypno u1o-nn6o ckasa1L o 1oH, kak aepe1
ce6n nn6npo a Ono n a Caepx-H. Bce, u1o Mu snaeM, o1no-
cn1cn k H, a ko1opoM noMeae1cn enoc1nan uac1u nnn-
o, o1kpu1an oc1yny. Mu nasuaaeM a1o coc1onnne aco-
nk1nuM, nepanunuM napnccnsMoM. Tak npoponxae1cn po
1ex nop, noka H ne naunnae1 ka1ek1npoaa1L nn6npo a
npen o6Lek1oa; 1pancqopHnpoaa1L napunccnueckoe nn-
6npo a o6Lek1noe nn6npo. B 1euenne ace xnsnn H oc1a-
e1cn aennuaunH pesepayapoH, ns ko1oporo nn6npnnos-
nm ka1ekcnc nocmnae1cn o6Lek1aH n a ko1opm on op-
naxpm aosapauae1cn, 1ak aHe6a o6pauae1cn co caon-
Hn nceaponopnnHn. TonLko korpa cy6Lek1 nonnoc1Lk no-
rnouen uyac1aoH nk6an, ocnoanan uac1L nn6npo nepene-
cena na o6Lek1 n o6Lek1, po neko1opo c1enenn, sannHa-
e1 Hec1o H. (Standard Edition, XXIII, p. 150-151. Kypcna
52
Ho. M. B.). Hpnaepennan specL co6c1aennan qopHy-
nnpoaka Opepa c1ana oqnunanLno aepcne a1oro onpe-
penennn, ko1opyk nsyuak1 kanpnpa1m ao acex ncnxoana-
nn1nuecknx nnc1n1y1ax no aceHy cae1y.
Fnaaa 8. Hsuavanuume npo1uaopevun
Tpn 1eopnn nepanuno o6Lek1no nk6an, nepanunoro
ay1oapo1nsHa, n nepanunoro napunccnsHa - nano npo1n-
aopeua1 opna ppyro. Opnako, nackonLko Hne nsaec1no,
Opep nnkorpa ne o6cyxpan pannme npo1naopeunn a ne-
ua1nmx pa6o1ax; nao6opo1, ec1L neua1noe canpe1enLc1ao,
o1nocnueecn k 1923 ropy, u1o on npnpepxnaancn 1pex
1eopn opnoapeHenno. D1o Hoxe1 osnaua1L 1onLko opno:
Opep ne cun1an a1n 1eopnn npo1naopeuaunHn ppyr ppy-
ry nnn asanHoncknkuakunHn.
Hepep 1eH kak npnc1ynn1L k o6cyxpennk a1o cnoxno
npo6neHm, Hm ponxnm nanoHnn1L ce6e, u1o ncnxoananns,
npepanno cnepoaaaun sa OpepoH, ncnonLsoaan 1epHnn
napunccnsH pnn onncannn payx cxoxnx, no paneko ne
1oxpec1aennmx coc1onnn. Opno ns nnx, 1o, ko1opoe
Opep nasaan ocnoanmH nnn a6conk1nmH napunccnsHoH,
nanne1cn rnno1eso, a ne knnnnuecknH na6nkpenneH; Hm
ponyckaeH, u1o cnauana ace nn6npo coxpanne1cn a Dro
nnn a Hp. [pyroe, o6muno nasmaaeHoe npoc1o napunc-
cnsHoH, xo1n npaannLnee 6mno 6m nasaa1L ero a1opnu-
nmH napunccnsHoH, Hoxno na6nkpa1L a knnnnke; a1o1
1epHnn o6osnauae1 coc1onnne, npn ko1opoH neko1opan
nnn paxe ouenL 6onLuan uac1L nn6npo, npexpe ka1ek1n-
poaannan ao aneunne o6Lek1m, o1aopn1cn o1 nnx n ka-
1ek1npye1 Dro onpepenenno ne Hp. D1o pasnnune nann-
e1cn ouenL aaxnmH pnn panLneunx pasHmunenn a no-
cnepykunx rnaaax uac1n II.
53
Opep, paxe ne ynoHnnya o neo6xopnHoc1n paspeuennn
nnn no kpane Hepe npnHnpennn nsnauanLnmx npo1nao-
peun, o ko1opmx 1onLko u1o roaopnnocL, yxe a 1917 ro-
py a ekunnx no aaepennk a ncnxoananns npepnpnnnn
nonm1ky cnn1esa acex 1pex konuenun. B paapua1L uec-
1o nekunn, osarnaanenno Teopnn nn6npo n napunc-
cnsH, on nnue1:
[o cnx nop y Henn 6mno ouenL Hano noaopoa roaopn1L c
aaHn o6 ocnoaannnx nk6oano xnsnn, nackonLko Hm nx
ysnann; n n 1enepL ne Hory a1oro aocnonnn1L. Xouy nnuL
nopuepkny1L, u1o am6op o6Lek1a, uar anepep a pasan1nn
nn6npo, ko1opm penae1cn nocne napunccnuecko c1apnn,
Hoxe1 ocyuec1an1Lcn no payH pasnnunmH 1nnaH. Hnn no
napunccnueckoHy 1nny, korpa na Hec1o co6c1aennoro H
[Dro] cy6Lek1a amc1ynae1 aosHoxno 6onee noxoxn na
nero o6Lek1, nnn no 1nny onopm (Anlehungstypus, u1o na
anrnnckn o6muno nepeaopn1cn kak anann1nueckn
1nn), korpa nnua, c1aaune popornHn 6naropapn ypoane-
1aopennk ppyrnx xnsnennmx no1pe6noc1e, am6npak1cn
n o6Lek1aHn (Standard Edition, XVI, p. 426).
H 6m po6aann eue opny un1a1y ns 1o xe rnaam: TaknH
o6pasoH, ay1oapo1nsH 6mn cekcyanLnmH nponanenneH
napunccnuecko c1apnn pasHeuennn nn6npo (Ibid., p.
416).
Bes coHnennn, Opep pan naH a a1oH cnyuae, oueanpno,
ncuepnmaakuyk 1eopnk: caHo npnHn1nano qaso na-
nne1cn nepanunm napunccnsH, ns ko1oporo, kak nocne-
pykune qasm, pasanaak1cn ace ppyrne qopHm oprannsa-
unn nn6npo. HecHo1pn na npenHyuec1aa npoc1o1m n
npaaponopo6nn, a1a konuenunn ne peuae1 qynpaHen-
1anLnoro npo1naopeunn, ynoHnny1oro amue; 6onee 1oro,
ona cospae1 noame npo6neHm. [nn o6ocnoaannn a1oro
nonoxennn n ponxen npnaec1n un1a1y ns nk6onm1noro
npnHeuannn, ko1opoe Opep po6aann k 1pe1Le rnaae H
54
n Ono, anepame ony6nnkoaannoro a 1923 ropy (a a1oH
xe ropy nonannacL n ero c1a1Ln a anunknonepnn, a ko1o-
po on eue pas ynoHnnae1 o nepanuno npnpope o6Lek1-
no nk6an). Hasaanne nopsaronoaka a1o rnaam H n
Caepx-H, ynoHnny1oe npnHeuanne o1nocn1cn k nepao
uac1n rnaam. 3pecL Opep onncmaae1 nsHenennn a Dro, a
nHenno nn1poekunk n npen1nqnkaunk, ko1opme Hory1
nponcxopn1L nocne 1oro, kak Hp a ne Dro, kak y1aep-
xpanocL a amue un1npoaannoH o1pmake ns Ouepka ncn-
xoanannsa, amnyxpeno o1kasa1Lcn o1 caonx o6Lek1oa
nk6an: Cornacno cHmcny aaepennn a napunccnsH, Hm
1enepL, nocne o1penennn "H" o1 "Ono", ponxnm npnsna1L
"Ono" 6onLunH pesepayapoH nn6npo.
n6npo, npo1ekakuee k "H" ny1eH onncannmx npen1nqn-
kaun, cospae1 ero a1opnunm napunccnsH (Standard
Edition, XIX, p. 30).
[anee, a rnaae 4, Opep anoaL qopHynnpye1 a1y npek, a
eue 6onee, ecnn 1akoe aosHoxno, ka1eropnuno qopHe:
HepaonauanLno ace nn6npo nakannnaae1cn a "Ono", a 1o
apeHn kak "H" 1onLko eue naunnae1 o6pasoamaa1Lcn nnn
eue ne okpenno. Opny uac1L a1oro nn6npo "Ono" nanpaa-
nne1 na apo1nueckne o6Lek1nme narpyskn, nocne uero ok-
penuee "H" c1peHn1cn oanape1L a1nH o6Lek1nmH nn6npo
n naansa1L ce6n "Ono" a kauec1ae o6Lek1a nk6an. TaknH
o6pasoH, napunccnsH H nanne1cn a1opnunmH, o1 o6Lek1oa
o1aneuennmH (Ibid., p. 46).
Oueanpnoe npepnasnauenne a1nx payx o1pmakoa coc1on1
a nponcnennn neonpepenenno cn1yaunn a cae1e noamx
o1kpm1n. D1o po neko1opo c1enenn poc1nrae1cn (kak Hm
ackope yanpnH, 1onLko apeHenno), a aHec1e c 1eH aosnn-
kak1 noame npo6neHm n npo1naopeunn. Mm ysnaeH, u1o
orpoHnmH pesepayapoH nn6npo nanne1cn Hp, a ne Dro,
kak y1aepxpanocL po n nocne a H n Ono; panee Hm ys-
naeH, u1o nn6npnnosnm ka1ekcnc Dro, oco6enno 1ex ero
55
uac1e, ko1opme nsHenenm nn1poekune n npen1nqnka-
une, onpepenenno knaccnqnunpye1cn kak a1opnunm
napunccnsH, na kaknx 6m pannnx a1anax xnsnn a1o nn
nponcxopnno. HecoHnenno, Hoxe1 aosnnkny1L cnepykun
aonpoc: A ec1L nn 1orpa nepanunm napunccnsH a Dro?
Hn1epecno, u1o Opep ne c1aan1 a1oro aonpoca.
H1ak, rpe xe 1orpa nokannsoaan nepanunm napunccnsH
n kakoaa ero ponL? Mory1 nn paa npnaepennmx specL o1-
pmaka 6m1L cornacoaanm c o6uenpnnn1mH aapnan1oH,
kak on npepc1aanen a o1pmake ns Ouepka ncnxoanann-
sa, a coo1ae1c1ann c ko1opmH ace, u1o Hm snaeH o6 a1oH
(nn6npo), cansano c Dro, rpe nepaonauanLno coxpaneno
uenoc1noe poc1ynnoe konnuec1ao nn6npo? Mm nasmaaeH
1akoe coc1onnne a6conk1nmH, nepanunmH napunccns-
HoH.
[xeHc C1peun (James Strachey, 1961) npepnpnnnn no-
nm1ky paspeuennn a1oro npo1naopeunn a pepak1opckoH
npnHeuannn k H n Ono, ko1opoe on osarnaann OrpoH-
nm pesepayap nn6npo. C1paun cun1ae1, u1o Opep,
aosHoxno, ne o1He1na a1oro, aknapmaan paa pasnmx sna-
uennn a ampaxenne orpoHnm pesepayap nn6npo: (a)
xapak1epnc1nky qynkunn, cxopno c nasnauenneH xpann-
nnua n (6) xapak1epnc1nky 6nnsko qynkunn, 1o ec1L
qynkunn nc1ounnka cna6xennn. Oueanpno, nepaoe o1no-
cn1cn k Dro, 1orpa kak a1opoe k Hp. D1o ouenL npaapo-
nopo6nan rnno1esa, ao HnoroH a la Opep n, 6ypyun npn-
nn1o, ona paspeunna 6m a1o npo1naopeune. Opnako
qak1 coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o Opep nnkorpa 1ak ne pyHan, n,
necHo1pn na 1o, u1o Hp specL onpepenne1cn kak nc1ounnk
nepanunoro napunccnsHa, oc1ae1cn nepeuennmH aonpoc,
u1o nHenno ka1ek1npoaano nepanunmH napunccnsHoH.
D1o ne Hoxe1 6m1L Dro na pannnx c1apnnx aoo6ue
npo6neHa1nuno cyuec1aoaanne kakoro-nn6o Dro, ko1opoe
Horno 6m 6m1L ka1ek1npoaano; a1o ne Hoxe1 6m1L n Hp
1akoe npepnonoxenne onn1L npnaeno 6m k ny1annue He-
56
xpy nc1ounnkoH cna6xennn n xpannnnueH, ko1opme
C1peun 1onLko u1o 1ak nckycno paspennn (cH. Hartmann,
1953, p. 433).
Eue opny anL1epna1nay npepnarae1 Iap1Hann, peun1enL-
no y1aepxpan, u1o Opep, kak a1o penann ppyrne, nc-
nonLsoaan 1epHnn "Dro" 6onee ueH a opnoH snauennn n
ne acerpa a 1oH cHmcne, a ko1opoH a1o1 1epHnn 6mn on-
pepenen. Hopo... 1epHnn "Dro" c1anoanncn asanHosaHe-
nneHmH c ampaxenneH "nnunoc1L cy6Lek1a", nnn "ca-
Hoc1L".
Iap1Hann npepnarae1 pasnnua1L paa snauennn 1epHnna
Dro: Opno o1nocn1cn k cnc1eHe Dro kak coc1aano
uac1n nnunoc1n, ero qynkunnH n ka1ekcncy, a ppyroe
snauenne o1nocn1cn k co6c1aenno nnunoc1n cy6Lek1a, ee
ka1ekcncy, a npo1naononoxnoc1L ka1ekcncy nnunoc1n
ppyroro uenoaeka (o6Lek1a). Opnako 1epHnn "napunc-
cnsH" yno1pe6nne1cn pnn o6osnauennn nn6npnnosnoro
ka1ekcnca kak Dro a kauec1ae cnc1eHm, 1ak n co6c1aen-
no nnunoc1n cy6Lek1a.
Ocnoaannn pnn yno1pe6nennn 1epHnna a nocnepneH sna-
uennn kopenn1cn a pacxoxeH Hnennn, u1o a nauane xns-
nn ace nn6npo naxopn1cn a Dro, a sa1eH uac1L nn6npo no-
cmnae1cn aoane, ka1ek1npyn o6Lek1. B a1oH cnyuae ka-
xe1cn coaepuenno ncnmH, u1o Opep nHen a anpy nHenno
1o1 qak1, u1o ka1ekcnc nnunoc1n cy6Lek1a npepuec1aye1
ka1ekcncy o6Lek1a ecnn 1onLko no kaknH-1o nnmH co-
o6paxennnH a pannoH konkpe1noH cnyuae on ne ponyc-
kan, u1o c caHoro poxpennn cyuec1aye1 nekan c1pyk1ypa,
conoc1aanHan c Dro. X. Iap1Hann npnxopn1 k 1akoHy am-
aopy: [a1o] osnauano 6m, u1o pnn onpepenennn napunc-
cnsHa cyuec1aennmH aneHen1oH nanne1cn npo1naonoc-
1aanenne nn6npnnosnoro ka1ekcnca nnunoc1n cy6Lek1a
ka1ekcncy o6Lek1a.
57
Ec1L neckonLko aospaxenn no noaopy a1oro y1aepxpe-
nnn. Bo-nepamx, a neH o6xopn1cn pasnornacnn, a cnop-
nm aonpoc npnnnHae1cn kak ne 1pe6ykun pokasa-
1enLc1a. Osapaunaae1 cnepykuee: naua coapeHennan
1eopnn ncnxnkn, a 1akxe 1eopnn nepanunoro napunccns-
Ha, noxoxe, npnaopn1 nac k nepaspeunHmH npo1naope-
unnH; n ao1 Iap1Hann aHec1o 1oro, u1o6m nccnepoaa1L,
u1o xe nanne1cn oun6ounmH a a1nx payx 1eopnnx nnn, no
kpane Hepe, a opno ns nnx, npepnpnnnHae1 nonm1ky
cnacennn cn1yaunn, ampanran ad hoc eue opny konuen-
unk. Mm ponxnm 6ypeH aepny1Lcn k a1oHy He1oponorn-
ueckoHy xopy neckonLko nosxe. Ceuac xe paaa1e pac-
cHo1pnH copepxanne noao konuenunn nn6npnnos-
nm ka1ekcnc co6c1aenno nepconm. [nn a1oro npexpe
acero nyxno onpepenn1L, u1o 1akoe co6c1aennan nepco-
na. Hpepc1aanne1 nn ona co6o o6uyk cyHHy cosnannn
n npepcosna1enLnoro? Bknkuae1 nn ona a ce6n Dro n Cy-
nep-Dro uennkoH nnn 1onLko 1e uac1n a1nx payx c1pyk-
1yp, ko1opme nannk1cn cosna1enLnmHn, npn a1oH nonno-
c1Lk ncknkuan Hp? Hnn Hp 1akxe ponxno 6m1L aknkue-
no? B a1oH nocnepneH cnyuae Hm ponxnm sapa1L aonpoc,
kak 1akoe Hoxe1 6m1L, aepL cosnanne, aoo6ue roaopn, ne
nHee1 poc1yna a Hp, noa1oHy 1pypno npepc1aan1L ce6e,
u1o6m Hp aocnpnnnHanocL kak caHoc1L. [oaonLno yae-
penno Hoxno y1aepxpa1L, u1o caHoc1L nanne1cn 1aknH xe
1yHannmH nonn1neH, kak xapak1ep, nnunoc1L n 1. p.,
ace a1n cnoaa npepc1aannk1 co6o neonpepenennme,
pacnnmaua1me 1epHnnm, nonesnme, Hoxe1 6m1L, a oc1po
kpn1nuecko cn1yaunn, no nenpneHneHme a kauec1ae ny-
1eaopno nn1n a cnyuae 1eope1nuecknx sa1pypnenn.
Ecnn 6m Hm npnnnnn noayk 1epHnnonornk, npepnoxen-
nyk Iap1HannoH, KpncoH n aenu1enoH, 1o ncuesnn 6m
Hnorne xo1n n ne ace any1pennne npo1naopeunn a
1eopnn nepanunoro napunccnsHa. Opnako cpasy xe aos-
nnkak1 paa aonpoca: ne noaneue1 nn sa co6o a1o1 nepe-
58
cHo1p 1epHnnonornn noamx ocnoxnenn? Cornacnncn 6m
Opep c noao cnc1eHo 1epHnnoa? Ha a1n aonpocm o1ae-
1n1L ne1pypno. Onpepenenne napunccnsHa kak nn6npn-
nosnoro ka1ekcnca caHoc1n amnypnno 6m nac a pononne-
nne k ocnoanmH qopHaH napunccnsHa caHoc1n ampenn1L
cneunanLnme knaccm napunccnsHa Hp, napunccnsHa Dro n
napunccnsHa Cynep-Dro n, aosHoxno, nepanunme n a1o-
pnunme qopHm pnn kaxporo ns nnx. Moxe1 6m1L, a 6y-
pyueH a1a 6onee 1ounan rpapaunn Horna 6m okasa1Lcn
nonesno, o6ecneuna apekaa1noe onpepenenne caHoc1n,
pnqqepenunpoaaa a1o nonn1ne o1 Dro, Hp n Cynep-Dro,
opnako a nac1onuee apeHn n paccHa1pnaak ee ncknkun-
1enLno kak nsnnunee 1eope1nueckoe ocnoxnenne.
Opnako noaan 1epHnnonornn ne paspeuae1 naunx coHne-
nn, ocnoaannmx na knnnnuecknx pannmx, o1nocn1enLno
nepanunoc1n acex a1nx pasnoanpnoc1e napunccnueckoro
ka1ekcnca. Ecnn Hm ne ponyckaeH, u1o neko1opme pene-
aan1nme uac1n Cynep-Dro kak Anlage aosnnkak1 a qnno-
renese, 1o, kak a1o npepc1aaneno y Opepa a H n Ono,
nx ka1ekcnc nenpeHenno nanne1cn a1opnunmH, nponsaop-
nmH o1 ka1ekcncoa o6Lek1oa, ko1opme ponxnm 6m1L nn-
1poeunpoaanm a on1orenese. Ecnn Hm npnnnHaeH npek
Opepa o c1anoanennn Dro uepes nekn npouecc cospe-
aannn, 1o n ka1ekcnc Dro pasanaae1cn npnHepno a coo1-
ae1c1ann c a1nH npoueccoH, 1o ec1L 1ako ka1ekcnc ne
Hoxe1 6m1L nepanunmH. TaknH o6pasoH, a kauec1ae aos-
Hoxnoro nepanunoro coc1onnnn naH oc1ae1cn 1onLko nap-
unccnsH Hp. He ncnm1maan snaun1enLnmx sa1pypnenn,
Hoxno npepc1aan1L ce6e Hp a kauec1ae nc1ounnka nnn
paxe pesepayapa acero nn6npo, kak a1o cpenan
[xeHc C1peun, no 1pypno paccHa1pnaa1L Hp kak ero nc-
xopnm o6Lek1. n6npo acerpa onncmaak1 a 1epHnnax
no1oka, 1euennn; 1pypno npepnonoxn1L, u1o nc1okn n
yc1Le no1oka coanapak1, pasae u1o no1ok oc1aan1 caoe
nauano, ampe1 sa npepenm pycna, a sa1eH cHenn1 na-
59
npaanenne n aepne1cn 1ypa, o1kypa on nauan cao ny1L;
opnako a1o1 o6pas nyuue acero nopxopn1 k 1oHy, u1o Hm
nasmaaeH a1opnunmH napunccnsHoH. C ppyro c1oponm,
ecnn ne1 paspnpkn, 1o nanpnxenne aospac1ae1, n, no-
anpnHoHy, nHenno a1o nHen a anpy Opep, korpa nncan:
Ho, a konue konuoa, naH neo6xopnHo naua1L nk6n1L pnn
1oro, u1o6m ne sa6one1L, n oc1ae1cn 1onLko sa6one1L, ko-
rpa acnepc1ane necoc1on1enLnoc1n caoe nnuaeuLcn
aosHoxnoc1n nk6n1L (Standard Edition, XIV, p. 85).
Hpo6neHa 1onorpaqnueckoro onpepenennn uac1n ncnxn-
ueckoro annapa1a, ko1opan ka1ek1npoaana a1nH rnno1e-
1nuecknH nepanunmH napunccnsHoH a o1nnune o1 nc-
1ounnka acero nn6npo 1ak n ne 6mna peuena OpepoH.
Y1aepxpenne xe Iap1Hanna, Kpnca n aenu1ena, c Ho-
e 1oukn spennn, ne npepnarae1 peuennn a1o npo6neHm,
nonpoc1y nrnopnpyn ee. B caHoH pene, ecnn Hm conoc1a-
anH paa o1pmaka ns H n Ono c payHn ppyrnHn o1pma-
kaHn, nanpnHep, opnnH ns Tpex ouepkoa, a ppyrnH
ns Ouepka ncnxoanannsa, un1npoaaaunHcn amue, 1o
Hm ponxnm 6ypeH npnsna1L, u1o rnno1esa Iap1Hanna,
Kpnca n aenu1ena, no-anpnHoHy, xopouo o6ocnoaa-
na. B a1oH cHmcne aaepenne 1epHnna caHoc1L nanne1cn
nonesnmH noauec1aoH, nockonLky npnanocn1 nopnpok a
oueanpno neakkypa1nyk 1eopnk. Opnako Hm ponxnm
cnpocn1L ce6n, pae1 nn naH a1o u1o-nn6ypL eue? B uac1-
noc1n, HoxeH nn Hm npepckasa1L, ncxopn ns a1o rnno1e-
sm, noame knnnnueckne qak1m? Moxe1 nn a1a rnno1esa
noHouL naH o6Lncnn1L xopouo nsaec1nme knnnnueckne
qenoHenm, ko1opme nnaue oc1ak1cn nenonn1nmHn? O1ae1
na o6a a1n aonpoca 6ype1 o1pnua1enLnmH. Bonee 1oro,
aaepenne 1epHnna caHoc1L paxe ne npepnonarae1 no-
nm1kn paspeuennn aaxnoro npo1naopeunn a aonpoce
xpononornn, o ko1opoH roaopn1cn a rnaae 11.
HecHo1pn na oc1pyk kpn1nky Iap1Hanna, Opepa kak aa-
1opa 1pypno o6annn1L a ne6pexnoc1n; ponxnm 6mnn 6m1L
60
kakne-1o npnunnm pnn 1oro, u1o6m on ynoHnnan o ka1ek-
cnce Dro acerpa, korpa roaopnn o napunccnsHe. 3pecL n
cornacen c Dpyappo BeccoH, ko1opm ampaxae1 cepLes-
nme coHnennn a 1oH, u1o Opep korpa-nn6ypL cornacnncn
6m c rnno1eso Iap1Hanna, Kpnca n aenu1ena. Opep,
n pyHak, nnkorpa ne c1peHnncn k 1oHy, u1o6m nrpa1L
ponL opepxnHoro 1eope1nka, npn a1oH on, 6es coHnennn,
6mn 6esynpeunmH na6nkpa1eneH-knnnnunc1oH; n n ace-
rpa o6napyxnaan, u1o ueH annHa1enLnee nsyuaeuL ero
knnnnueckne onncannn, 1eH 6onLuee aneua1nenne npons-
aopn1 nx nc1nnnoc1L n rny6nna. TaknH o6pasoH, n y1aep-
xpak, u1o nc1okn any1pennnx npo1naopeun 1eopnn nep-
anunoro napunccnsHa nexa1 ne a ne6pexnoH ncnonLso-
aannn 1epHnnoa nnn a o1cy1c1ann cnoco6noc1n ncno an-
pe1L n 1ouno onpepenn1L, no a nexenannn Opepa ncka-
sn1L pannme knnnnuecknx na6nkpenn a yropy cornaco-
aannoc1n 1eopnn. Hpnunna, no ko1opo on, roaopn o nap-
unccnsHe, acerpa nensHenno aosapauancn k nn6npnnos-
noHy ka1ekcncy Dro, saknkuae1cn npoc1o a 1oH, u1o ero
Hoxno na6nkpa1L. Bce xe oc1anLnoe nanne1cn cnekynn-
unnHn, noxnmHn nnn npaaponopo6nmHn, a aoace ne na-
6nkpaeHmHn knnnnuecknHn qak1aHn.
Fnaaa 9. Knuuuveckue pauume o uap-
uccusHe
H npepnarak nocnepoaa1L sa OpepoH, ko1opm a caoe
pa6o1e O napunccnsHe nopuepknaan, u1o ne cnekynn-
1nanme nnn 1eope1nueckne npen o6pasyk1 1y ocnoay, na
ko1opo snxpy1cn ace noc1poennn naue naykn; 1ako
ocnoao nanne1cn ncknkun1enLno na6nkpenne. Hpen xe
a1n coc1aannk1 ne caHm nnxnn qynpaHen1 acero nayu-
noro spannn, a 1onLko aepxyuky, kpmuy ero, n Hory1
6m1L cnn1m n saHenenm ppyrnHn 6es acnkoro apepa pnn
uenoro (Standard Edition, XIV, p. 77). Cnepyn a1oHy co-
ae1y, n xo1en 6m paccHo1pe1L knnnnueckne na6nkpennn,
61
k ko1opmH Opep npn6eran a pa6o1e, ony6nnkoaanno a
1914 ropy, pnn pokasa1enLc1aa cyuec1aoaannn napunc-
cnsHa. C1oponnnkn 1eopnn npexpe acero 6ypy1 y1aep-
xpa1L acnep sa OpepoH, u1o knnnnueckne na6nkpennn
ne Hory1 nn pokasa1L, nn onpoaeprny1L nepanunm nap-
unccnsH, nockonLky a1o 1onLko 1eopnn; sa1eH onn npnae-
py1 knnnnueckne na6nkpennn pnn 1oro, u1o6m 1eopnn
c1ana npneHneHo, kak a1o penan Opep. B a1o rnaae n
xo1en 6m nokasa1L, u1o na6nkpennn, na ko1opmx Opep,
a acnep sa nnH n a1n 1eope1nkn ocnoaann rnno1esy nep-
anunoro napunccnsHa, pokasmaak1 1onLko cyuec1aoaa-
nne a1opnunoro napunccnsHa. Teopnn nepanunoro nap-
unccnsHa Hoxe1 6m1L npnHenena k pesynL1a1aH a1nx na-
6nkpenn, no ne am1ekae1 ns nnx.
B caoe pa6o1e O napunccnsHe Opep nepeuncnnn nn1L
knnnnuecknx qak1oa, na ko1opmx on ocnoaan 1eopnk
napunccnsHa, npn a1oH a apryHen1aunn on ncnonLsoaan
aoceHL knnnnuecknx qenoHenoa. YnoHnnya cnauana o6
nccnepoaannnx unsoqpennn n roHocekcyanLnoc1n, on
npoponxae1: Heko1opme ppyrne ny1n, aepyune k 6onee
6nnskoHy snakoHc1ay c napunccnsHoH... coc1aanne1 nsy-
uenne ncnxonornn 6onLnoro oprannuecko 6onesnLk,
ncnxonornn nnoxonppnn n nponanennn nk6oanoro uyac1-
aa y o6onx nonoa (Ibid., p. 82). Tpn ppyrnx qak1opa, ne
ynoHnny1mx a nepeune, no nasaannmx a apryHen1aunn,
npepc1aannk1 co6o: (1) pasnnunyk kak ncnxo1nue-
ckyk, 1ak n nopHanLnyk saamuennyk ouenky caHoro
ce6n n o6Lek1a, (2) con n (3) oco6ennoc1n noaepennn
Hnapenuea n HanenLknx pe1e. To, u1o a cnyuae oprann-
ueckoro sa6oneaannn nnn nnoxonppnn naH npnxopn1cn
nHe1L peno c a1opnunmH napunccnsHoH, 1o ec1L c nn6npo,
o1aepennmH o1 o6Lek1oa, ne Hoxe1 amsaa1L coHnenn,
opnako u1o xe Hoxno ckasa1L o ppyrnx knnnnuecknx na-
6nkpennnx?
62
H xouy naua1L paccyxpennn c na6nkpenn, kacakunxcn
roHocekcyanLnoc1n n nk6oano xnsnn nonoa. Hocne
ccmnkn na 1eopnk naxoxpennn o6Lek1a ns Tpex ouep-
koa, Opep npoponxae1: Hapnpy c a1nH 1nnoH n a1nH
nc1ounnkoH am6opa o6Lek1a, ko1opm Hoxno nasaa1L
nuyunH onopm 1nnoH, anann1nueckoe nccnepoaanne no-
snakoHnno nac eue c opnnH 1nnoH, ko1oporo Hm aoace ne
oxnpann ac1pe1n1L. Mm naunn oco6enno ncno a1o na-
6nkpae1cn y nkpe, y ko1opmx pasan1ne nn6npo npe1ep-
neno neko1opoe napyuenne, kak, nanpnHep, y nsapauen-
nmx n roHocekcyanLnmx, u1o 6onee nospnn o6Lek1
nk6an ns6npae1cn a1nHn nnuaHn ne no npoo6pasy Ha1e-
pn, a no nx co6c1aennoHy. 3pecL on nHee1 anpy napunc-
cnueckn 1nn am6opa o6Lek1a. On sakanunaae1 naparpaq
1ak: D1o na6nkpenne n nocnyxnno caHmH peuakunH
Ho1naoH, no6ypnaunH nac amc1aan1L nonoxenne, u1o
[napunccnsH] coc1aanne1 onpepenennyk c1apnk pasan1nn
nn6npo (Standard Edition, XIV, p. 87).
O kako qopHe napunccnsHa specL roaopn1 Opep? Opa-
sa, ampenennan Hno kypcnaoH, naaopn1 na HmcnL o a1o-
pnunoH napunccnsHe. C a1nH npepnonoxenneH xopouo
cornacye1cn 1o, u1o Opep, xapak1epnsyn anann1nueckn
1nn, ynoHnnae1 o pasan1nn, ko1opoe Hoxe1 6m1L nasaano
nopHanLnmH, 1orpa kak npn onncannn napunccnueckoro
1nna on amnyxpen ncnonLsoaa1L 1epHnnm, o1nocnunecn k
1nxeno na1onornn. Ecnn npnnn1L nepanunm napunc-
cnsH kak c1apnk nopHanLnoro pasan1nn, 1o npepc1aann-
e1cn poaonLno c1pannmH, u1o nponsaopnmH o1 a1o c1a-
pnn, anpnHo, nanne1cn anopHanLnm 1nn.
[pyroe nop1aepxpenne Hoero 1esnca o 1oH, u1o napunc-
cnueckn 1nn o6Lek1noro am6opa saancn1 o1 a1opnunoro
n ne saancn1 o1 nepanunoro napunccnsHa, Hoxno na1n a
nc1opnueckoH o1pmake, a ko1opoH Opep anepame nc-
nonLsye1 cnoao napunccnsH a neua1no pa6o1e. PeuL
npe1 o npnHeuannn, po6aanennoH k TpeH ouepkaH a
63
1910 ropy: ...Bo acex nccnepoaannmx cnyuanx Hm yc1a-
noannn, u1o nnaep1npoaannme a 6onee nospneH aospac1e
npopenann a pe1c1ae qasy ouenL nn1encnano, no kpa1-
koapeHenno qnkcaunn na xenunne (6onLue uac1Lk na
Ha1epn), no npeoponennk ko1opo onn o1oxpec1annk1
ce6n c Ha1epLk n ns6npak1 ce6n caHnx a cekcyanLnme
o6Lek1m, 1o ec1L, ncxopn ns [napunccnsHa], nuy1 Hyxunn
a knoueckoH aospac1e, noxoxnx na nnx caHnx, ko1opmx
xo1n1 nk6n1L 1ak, kak nk6nna nx Ha1L (Standard Edition,
VII, p. 145). 3pecL onn1L Hm nHeeH poaonLno ka1eropnue-
ckoe y1aepxpenne. Bonee 1oro, ono ocnoaano na knnnn-
uecknx na6nkpennnx, ko1opme nop1aeppn1 nk6o, anann-
snpoaaaun roHocekcyannc1oa. Ono coc1aanne1 caHm
y6epn1enLnm apryHen1 a nonLsy a1opnuno npnpopm
napunccnueckoro 1nna o6Lek1noro am6opa.
KpoHe 1oro, ec1L eue opna rpynna knnnnuecknx na6nk-
penn, ko1opan, xo1n n ne ynoHnnae1cn nano a nepeune,
unpoko ncnonLsoaanacL OpepoH pnn pokasa1enLc1aa
cyuec1aoaannn napunccnsHa. D1y rpynny coc1aannk1 ace
nponanennn nepeannc1nunmx saamuennmx ouenok, naun-
nan o1 ncnxo1nuecknx rpanpnosnmx npeyaennuenn, cne-
pyn k saamuenno ouenke ce6n n caoero o6Lek1a nk6an n
anno1L po npeannsaunn. Oueanpno, u1o a kaxpoH cnyuae
saamuenno ouenkn aneunero o6Lek1a nepam ka1ekcnc
o6pasoaan o6Lek1nmH nn6npo, ko1opm na cnepykueH
a1ane Hoxe1 6m1L ycnnen napunccnuecknH nn6npo; ko-
neuno xe, a1o ne nanne1cn poaopoH prima facie a nonLsy
nepanunoro napunccnsHa. ApryHen1aunn a nonLsy (case
for) a1opnuno npnpopm napunccnsHa npn ncnxo1nuecko
HeranoHannn nanne1cn eue 6onee neocnopnHo. Hopo6-
nmH o6pasoH nerko nokasa1L, u1o o6pasoaanne Dro-
npeana n qak1nueckn nk6an npeannsaunn saancn1 o1
a1opnunoro napunccnsHa. k6o npean 6epe1 caoe naua-
no a nn1epnannsaunn kako-1o nponsaopno o1 aneunero
o6Lek1a, o6muno popn1enLcko qnrypm, n cHopennpoaan
64
no ero o6pasuy. Takan pa6o1a nasmaae1cn nn1poekune;
Hm ne HoxeH ne cornacn1Lcn c 1eH, u1o nn1poeunpoaanm
Hory1 6m1L 1onLko aaxnme aneunne o6Lek1m, 1o ec1L 1e,
ko1opme cnnLno ka1ek1npoaanm nn6npo.
3aamuennan caHoouenka, ko1opan na6nkpae1cn y npnHn-
1nanmx napopoa n pe1e n nanne1cn qenoHenoH, pnpono-
noxennmH c qenoHenoH npeannsaunn, a anann1nuecko
1eopnn o6muno o6osnauae1cn kak aceHoryuec1ao. Hno-
rpa a1o ampaxenne naHepenno cHnruak1, po6aannn 1akne
onpepenennn, kak nnnksopnoe nnn rannkunna1op-
noe, opnako, rpe 6m nn ncnonLsoaancn 1epHnn aceHo-
ryuec1ao, ero snauenne nensHenno opno n 1o xe. CaHo
no ce6e a1o naaopn1 na HmcnL, u1o pannm anonne poc1o-
aepnm knnnnueckn qak1 nanne1cn no caoe npnpope
a1opnunmH nanenneH, nocnepc1aneH qpyc1paunn. Bonee
1oro, ecnn npoxopnune ananns aspocnme nkpn, ne roaopn
yxe o pe1nx, amkasmaak1 1enpenunn aceHoryuec1aa, 1o
ono nensHenno o6napyxnaae1 ce6n kak o1uannnan nonm1-
ka saun1m o1 kpyuennn uyac1aa co6c1aenno aaxnoc1n.
HackonLko Hne nsaec1no, pannme an1pononornn o1nocn-
1enLno npnHn1nanmx napopoa cornacyk1cn c a1o 1ouko
spennn. Bonee 1oro, nockonLky naun npepc1aanennn o
pe1ckoH aceHoryuec1ae ocnoaanm no 6onLue uac1n na
akc1panonnunn na6nkpaeHmx y aspocnmx n c1apunx pe-
1e qak1oa, 1o n nonarak, u1o onn nop1aepxpak1 1onLko
cyuec1aoaanne a1opnunoro napunccnsHa, npnaneuenne
xe nx pnn pokasa1enLc1aa nepanunoro napunccnsHa 1pe-
6ye1 6onee rny6oknx ocnoaann.
CnepykunH knnnnuecknH qenoHenoH, ko1opm Opep
ncnonLsoaan a kauec1ae nop1aepxpennn cyuec1aoaannn
napunccnsHa, nanne1cn con; npnHeua1enLno, u1o con ne
6mn aknkuen a nepeuenL qenoHenoa, npnaepennm am-
ue; Opep ynoHnnyn ero nou1n kak sanospaauyk
HmcnL, npnuepuyk a nocnepnkk ouepepL, a konue o6-
cyxpennn 1eHm pacnpepenennn nn6npo npn oprannuecknx
65
sa6oneaannnx. 3pecL on roaopn1: B o6onx cnyuanx Hm
nHeeH peno ne c ueH ppyrnH, kak c nsHenenneH pacnpe-
penennn nn6npo acnepc1ane nsHenennn H-koHnnekcoa
(Standard Edition, XIV, p. 83). D1o 6esynpeunoe knnnnue-
ckoe onncanne noppasyHeaae1, u1o pannme napunccnue-
ckne coc1onnnn nannk1cn a1opnunmHn no caoe npnpope.
HecoHnenno, c 6nonornuecko n c ncnxonornuecko 1ouek
spennn coc1onnnk cna npncyue Hnoxec1ao aecLHa npn-
Hn1nanmx uep1. Hoa1oHy yxe naunnan c ny6nnkaunn
Tonkoaannn cnoanpenn con amc1ynan a kauec1ae nan-
6onee uac1o ynoHnnaeHoro npnHepa perpeccnn. Takxe
o6muno ykasmaanocL, u1o coc1onnne cna, oco6enno rny-
6okoro cna 6es cnoanpenn, ponxno paccHa1pnaa1Lcn kak
opna ns 6nnxaunx annpokcnHaun k rnno1e1nueckoHy
coc1onnnk nepanunoro napunccnsHa y nopHanLnmx nnpn-
anpoa. B kauec1ae ppyroro npnHepa nepanunoro napunc-
cnsHa npnaopnnocL npena1anLnoe coc1onnne. Opep, Oe-
penun n Hnorne ppyrne o1Heuann, u1o a1n coc1onnnn am-
c1ynak1 kak nan6onee aneua1nnkun apryHen1, no-
ckonLky onn o6napak1 Hnoxec1aoH cxoxnx uep1.
Hnk1o ne ocnapnaae1 perpeccnanyk npnpopy cna, opnako
npn a1oH aosnnkae1 aonpoc: k kako nHenno 1ouke qnk-
caunn cockanLsmaae1 cnnun uenoaek? Moxno ckasa1L,
u1o 1ako 1ouko nanne1cn nepanunm napunccnsH, opna-
ko nanne1cn nn a1o epnnc1aenno aosHoxnmH aapnan1oH?
B kauec1ae o1ae1a n npnaepy ampepxky ns ouenL nn1e-
pecno n naaopnue na pasHmunennn, no, k coxanennk,
o1aeprny1o n nou1n sa6m1o knnrn, ns nepaoro napa-
rpaqa rnaam, osarnaanenno Kon1yc n con: Mm cnnu-
koH uac1o n nac1ounao o6pauanncL k paneko npyue
ananornn Hexpy c1peHnennnHn, ko1opme peannsyk1cn a
kon1yce n a coc1onnnn cna, u1o6m 1enepL nosaonn1L ce6e
o1kasa1Lcn o1 sapaun 6onee 1ua1enLnoro nccnepoaannn
xapak1epnc1nk cxopc1aa n pasnnunn a1nx payx coc1onnn,
c1onL aaxnmx pnn 6nonornuecko apan1aunn. B Hoe pa-
66
6o1e C1apnn pasan1nn uyac1aa peanLnoc1n n nasaan
nepam con noaopoxpennoro okpyxennoro sa6o1nnao
oneko, a 1ennmx o6Ln1nnx Ha1epn nnn nnnn ananoroH
any1pny1po6noro coc1onnnn. Hnauyun pe6enok, nany-
rannm n no1pncennm 1paaHa1nuecknH onm1oH poxpe-
nnn, ackope sa1nxae1, norpyxancL a coc1onnne cna, ko1o-
poe cospae1 y nero aneua1nenne kak na ocnoae peanL-
noc1n, 1ak n na rannkunna1opno, nnnksopno ocnoae
6yp1o 6m uoka 1ako orpoHno cnnm aoace ne 6mno.
Opep y1aepxpan (ekunn no aaepennk a ncnxoana-
nns), n n paspennk ero 1ouky spennn, u1o, c1poro roao-
pn, uenoaeueckne cyuec1aa ne nannk1cn poxpennmHn
anonne; uenoaek ne poxpae1cn a nonnoH cHmcne a1oro
cnoaa, nockonLky nonoanny caoe xnsnn npoaopn1, 1ak
ckasa1L, a y1po6e Ha1epn, o1npaannncL kaxpyk nouL a
noc1enL (Ferenczi, 1924, p. 73).
Oueanpno, u1o n oprasH npn kon1yce, n sacmnanne aos-
Hoxnm 1onLko a coc1onnnn rapHonnn nnn, no HenLue
Hepe, cornacnn Hexpy nnpnanpoH n ero okpyxenneH. Co-
c1onnne 1ako yHnpo1aopennoc1n aosnnkae1 npn ycnoann,
u1o okpyxenne saunuae1 cy6Lek1a o1 nk6o 6ecnokon-
ue c1nHynnunn nsane n npn a1oH caHo ne okasmaae1 ka-
koro-1o nexena1enLnoro aospec1ann, amsmaakuero y
cy6Lek1a aos6yxpenne nnn pnc1pecc. C a1o npee xopo-
uo cornacye1cn 1o1 knnnnueckn qak1, u1o opnnH ns nep-
amx cnHn1oHoa cekcyanLno neypoane1aopennoc1n nann-
e1cn 6ecconnnua. Hcxopn ns a1oro Hm HoxeH cpena1L am-
aop, u1o cnnun uenoaek a coc1onnnn perpeccnn c1pe-
Hn1cn npn6nnsn1Lcn ne k coc1onnnk nepanunoro napunc-
cnsHa, a k nekoeHy npnHn1nanoHy coc1onnnk cornacnn co
caonH okpyxenneH, a ko1opoH ncnonLsyn coapeHennoe
ampaxenne okpyxenne noppepxnaae1 nnpnanpa.
Hs aecLHa o6unpno nn1epa1ypm, nocanuenno cny, n
nosaonk ce6e am6pa1L pa6o1y eue opnoro aa1opa, Mapka
Kanuepa, nockonLky ero na6nkpennn coo1ae1c1ayk1 1eHe
67
naue pnckyccnn. On nnue1: 3acmnanne ne nanne1cn
npoc1o napunccnuecko perpeccne... na caHoH pene
cnnun ne opnnok, on cnn1 c nn1poeunpoaannmH xo-
pounH o6Lek1oH. Hop1aepxpenne a1oHy Hm naxopnH a
noa1opnkunxcn pec1annx n 1pe6oaannnx nkpe, o1xo-
pnunx ko cny, 1aknx, kak 1pe6oaanne pe6enkoH qnsnue-
ckoro npncy1c1ann popn1ene, pnn aspocnoro uenoaeka
a1o 6ype1 1pe6oaanne npncy1c1ann caoero cekcyanLnoro
nap1nepa, pnn neapo1nka saxxennoro cae1a, nrpyuek
nnn pn1yanoa kak npepaapn1enLnmx ycnoan cna
(Kanzer, 1955, p. 261). Kanuep npnaopn1 n ppyrne nn1po-
ek1nanme Hopycm noaepennn aspocnmx nkpe nepep
cnoH: epa, nn1Le, npneH nekapc1a, npnnn1ne aannm; a
1akxe pe1e 1pe6oaanne onekn, y6akknaannn nnn ko-
nm6enLnmx necen. H nonarak, akpan cnoanpennn Bep1pa-
Ha eanna ananornuen nap1nepy no cnoanpennk. Con
nanne1cn qenoHenoH ckopee a1opnunoro, a ne nepanuno-
ro napunccnsHa. Ho kpane Hepe, nocne Hnapenueckoro
aospac1a cnnun cy6Lek1 paspenne1 cao con c nn1poek-
1npoaannmH o6Lek1oH (p. 265) nopaopn1 n1or Kan-
uep.
TaknH o6pasoH, c1onL y6epn1enLnm na nepam asrnnp
apryHen1 a nonLsy nepanunoro napunccnsHa, kaknH nann-
e1cn con, npepc1aanne1cn aecLHa coHnn1enLnmH. [ec1-
an1enLno, nm1ancL sacny1L, cy6Lek1 yxopn1 ns Hnpa o6L-
ek1oa n, cypn no aceHy, oc1ae1cn opnn. Opnako npn ann-
Ha1enLnoH paccHo1pennn yxopa n opnnouec1aa, ko1opme
Hory1 6m1L nonn1m kak napunccnsH, okasmaae1cn, u1o
cnnun cy6Lek1 c1peHn1cn k ns6aanennk o1 nanpnxenn,
aosnnkakunx a ero o6mpennmx o1nouennnx; on aosapa-
uae1cn k 6onee npnHn1nanmH, 6onee ypoane1aopn1enL-
nmH qopHaH o1nouenn c o6Lek1aHn, nn1epecm ko1opmx
coanapak1 c ero co6c1aennmHn. HpnHepaHn 1aknx o6Lek-
1oa nannk1cn ypo6nme kpoaa1n, nopyukn, poHa, koHna-
1m, knnrn, uae1m, nrpyukn n ppyrne nepexopnme o6Lek1m
68
(Winnicott, 1951). Koneuno, onn nannk1cn penpesen1an-
1aHn nnn cnHaonaHn any1pennnx o6Lek1oa, ko1opme, a
caok ouepepL, nannk1cn nponsaopnmHn pannnx kon1ak-
1oa c okpyxenneH poc1a1ounoro kopHnennn, 1ennoro,
Hnrkoro nenenannn, 6esonacno noppepxkn n Ha1epnn-
cknx o6Ln1n, ykaunaannn n y6akknaannn n 1. n. Ha6nk-
pennn, o ko1opmx roaopnnocL amue, nokasmaak1, u1o
cnnun cy6Lek1 perpeccnpye1 nHenno a a1o1 Hnp, a ne a
coc1onnne nepanunoro napunccnsHa, rpe neaosHoxnm o1-
nouennn c aneunnH okpyxenneH.
Fnaaa 10. Uusoqpeuun, snokavec1-
aeuuan saaucuHoc1u u ppyrue uapuc-
cuveckue pacc1poc1aa
Hpepnocnepnnn rpynna knnnnuecknx qak1oa, ko1opyk
Opep ncnonLsoaan pnn o6ocnoaannn aaepennn 1epHnna
napunccnsH, kacae1cn unsoqpennuecko perpeccnn.
Bce cornacnm c 1eH, u1o aneunn Hnp ne npepc1aanne1
nn1epeca pnn 6onLnmx unsoqpenne ao acnkoH cny-
uae, onn nponsaopn1 nHenno 1akoe aneua1nenne. H yxe
o1Heuan, u1o Opep, o6cyxpan pnnaHnky unsoqpennue-
cko perpeccnn, nensHenno naunnan caok apryHen1aunk
c y1aepxpenn, nopo6nmx cnepykueHy: n6npo, ocao-
6opnauncL acnepc1ane necoc1on1enLnoc1n pannoro nnua
a xnsnenno 6opL6e, ne oc1anaannaae1cn na o6Lek1ax
qan1asnn, a aosapauae1cn a H (Standard Edition, XIV, p.
86). K a1o qopHyne Opep npn6eran acnkn pas, o6cyx-
pan npo6neHy unsoqpennn. Cnyc1n neckonLko ne1 nocne
ny6nnkaunn pa6o1m Baepenne a napunccnsH nonannocL
ppyroe y1aepxpenne, ko1opoe poaonLno uac1o ynoHnna-
nocL napnpy c npepmpyunH. B ekunnx no aaepennk a
ncnxoananns Opep roaopn1 o 1oukax qnkcaunn, k ko1o-
pmH perpeccnpyk1 pasnnunme neaposm, sanannn, u1o npn
unsoqpennn c1onL aaxnan qnkcaunn, ko1opan nponara-
e1... ny1L k o6pasoaannk cnHn1oHoa, naxopn1cn rpe-1o a
69
ppyroH Hec1e, aepon1no, na c1apnn npnHn1nanoro nap-
unccnsHa, k ko1opoHy, a caoeH koneunoH n1ore, aosapa-
uae1cn Dementia praecox (Standard Edition, XIV, p.
421). D1o y1aepxpenne nanne1cn 1eope1nuecko qopHy-
no. Bonee 1oro, ono nece1 a ce6e ace npo1naopeunn,
caoc1aennme 1eopnn nepanunoro napunccnsHa. Kakoam
xe knnnnueckne na6nkpennn?
O1nocn1enLno aonpoca, Hory1 nn 6m1L nsneuenm unsoq-
pennkn npn noHoun ncnxoanannsa, Hnennn pacxopn1cn;
opnako poc1nrny1 aceo6un koncencyc no noaopy 1oro,
u1o a1n naunen1m ne 1ak yx nepoc1ynnm pnn nauero He-
1opa. Koneuno, o6munan, 1o ec1L c1anpap1nan, anann1n-
ueckan 1exnnka ponxna 6mna 6m1L a snaun1enLno c1e-
nenn nsHenena pnn 1oro, u1o6m ee Hoxno 6mno npnHe-
nn1L a neuennn a1nx naunen1oa. CqopHynnpoaannm a
1eope1nuecknx ka1eropnnx, a1o1 poaonLno nsaec1nm
knnnnueckn qak1 osnauae1, u1o (a) aneua1nenne, 6yp1o
unsoqpennkn noknnynn aneunn Hnp, aepno nnuL o1-
uac1n; onn noknnynn Hnp nopHanLnmx 1o ec1L 1poc1-
aennmx nnn apnnoamx o1nouenn, no (6) onn cnoco6-
nm k ppyroHy 1nny o1nouenn, papn ko1opmx n ocyuec1-
annk1cn ace nsHenennn 1exnnkn.
Y Henn ne1 aosHoxnoc1n npnaec1n specL noppo6nm o6-
sop o6unpno nn1epa1ypm, ko1opan nocanuena a1oHy ao-
npocy. [oc1a1ouno 6ype1 ykasa1L, u1o 1ako 1nn o1noue-
nn nnn 1exnnkn 1pe6ye1 o1 anann1nka ropaspo
6onLuero, nexenn o1nouennn a paHkax c1anpap1no
anann1nuecko 1exnnkn. HHee1cn a anpy ne 1o, u1o ana-
nn1nk o6nsan neHepnenno n 6esoroaopouno ypoane1ao-
pn1L ace no1pe6noc1n naunen1a; npepnonarae1cn, u1o on
ponxen 6m1L a coc1onnnn nop1aeppn1L, u1o Hoxe1 nonn1L
naunen1a, Hoxe1 pa6o1a1L a rapHonnn c nnH, 6m1L
nac1poennmH na nero.
70
D1o, kc1a1n, aepno ne 1onLko pnn 6onLnmx unsoqpenne,
no n pnn acex perpeccnpoaaaunx naunen1oa. Bce onn, no-
anpnHoHy, upesamuano uyac1an1enLnm k nac1poennk
anann1nka. eH 6onLue naunen1 perpeccnpye1, 1eH uya-
c1an1enLnee on c1anoan1cn, 1o, u1o nopHanLnm nnn nea-
po1nueckn naunen1 o6muno paxe ne saHeuae1, perpec-
cnpoaaauero naunen1a rny6oko sapeaae1 n aonnye1. Yun-
1maan a1o, anann1nk ponxen nac1pon1Lcn na caoero
naunen1a. [o 1ex nop, noka eHy a1o ypae1cn, nHee1cn
aosHoxnoc1L noc1enennoro npoponxennn anann1nuecko
pa6o1m, conoc1aanHo c noc1enennmH poc1oH; opnako
ecnn anann1nk ne cnoco6en noppepxnaa1L cao na-
c1po, 1o naunen1 Hoxe1 o1pearnpoaa1L 1peaoro nnn
o1uannneH, nponannn, nanpnHep, nanme arpeccnanme
cnHn1oHm.
D1a rapHonnn, nnn nac1poennoc1L, ponxna o1nocn1Lcn ko
ace xnsnn perpeccnpoaaauero naunen1a, a ne 1onLko k
ero o1nouennnH c anann1nkoH. [nn anann1nuecko cn-
1yaunn caoc1aenno 1o, u1o rapHonnk Hoxno coxpann1L
1onLko a 1euenne kopo1koro nepnopa; apeHn o1 apeHenn
anann1nk ponxen pnc1anunpoaa1Lcn o1 naunen1a, u1o6m
o6Lek1nano ouenn1L cn1yaunk n, aosHoxno, pa1L xo-
pouo o6ocnoaannyk nn1epnpe1aunk. Takne naunen1m,
kak npaanno, Hory1 yc1anaannaa1L o1nouennn c peanL-
nmHn aneunnHn o6Lek1aHn 1onLko na nenpoponxn1enL-
nm nepnop apeHenn, n a1n nepnopm ne ponxnm npona-
pa1L pnn anann1nuecko pa6o1m. Ecnn aneunee okpyxe-
nne, 1o ec1L noacepneanan xnsnL, npepLnan1 naunen1y
cnnukoH 6onLune 1pe6oaannn, 1o snaun1enLnan uac1L
ero nn6npo, k ko1opoHy coxpannncn poc1yn, 6ype1 o1nn1o,
a oc1aauerocn konnuec1aa nn6npo 6ype1 nepoc1a1ouno
pnn anannsa. Ho1oHy-1o anann1nkn, pa6o1akune c 1akn-
Hn naunen1aHn, n 1pe6yk1 o1 okpyxennn naunen1oa
nopo Hoxe1 6m1L n upesHepno noppepxkn pnn na-
unen1oa, nac1anaan na 1oH, u1o6m okpyxenne naxopnnocL
71
c nnH a cornacnn. Torpa naunen1 Hoxe1 konuen1pnpo-
aa1L oc1aaueecn a ero pacnopnxennn nn6npo na 6onee
onpepenennmx 1epanea1nuecknx o1nouennnx co
caonH anann1nkoH.
Ocosnaa aaxnoc1L a1oro ycnoann, Hm HoxeH nerko no-
nn1L, noueHy 1ak Hnoro onncann neuennn 6onLnmx un-
soqpenne sakanunaak1cn HenanxonnunmHn naccaxaHn
nopo6noro popa: C a1oro HoHen1a nop paanenneH aneu-
nnx o6c1on1enLc1a npnunocL npepaa1L ananns, nnn K
coxanennk, aHeuanncL popc1aennnkn, n neuenne npn-
unocL npekpa1n1L.
Teope1nuecknH acnek1oH neo6xopnHoc1n coc1onnnn rap-
Honnn nanne1cn npen unsoqpenorenno Ha1epn, 1o
ec1L Ha1epn, ko1opan ne Hoxe1 6m1L a rapHonnn co caonH
pe6enkoH. Xnnn, Hyppm n onm1nm knnnnunc1, nnue1 no
a1oHy noaopy: k6oaL a1nx Ha1epe k caonH pe1nH, ko-
1opme sa1eH c1anoan1cn unsoqpennkaHn, upesHepna, no
aHec1e c 1eH n o6ycnoanena. Pe6enok nnkorpa ne Hoxe1
coo1ae1c1aoaa1L a1oHy ycnoank... D1n Ha1epn anpn1
1onLko aneunkk nopHanLnyk o6onouky pe1e n
neuyac1an1enLnm k 1oHy, u1o nponcxopn1 y nnx any1pn
(Hill, 1955, p. 108-109). B knnre C1an1ona n Laapua
(Stanton, Schwarz, 1954) copepxn1cn ouenL nn1epecnoe
knnnnueckoe o6ocnoaanne aaxnoc1n ycnoann
rapHonnueckoro okpyxennn pnn neuennn 6onLnmx
unsoqpenne. Aa1opm y6epn1enLno nokasann, u1o nk6an
pncrapHonnunoc1L a o1nouennnx c nepconanoH, npn-
nnHakunH 1o nnn nnoe yuac1ne a neuennn 1akoro
naunen1a, npnaopn1 k yxypuennk ero coc1onnnn.
O1ckpa cnepye1, u1o o6uensaec1nme qak1m knnnnuecknx
na6nkpenn unsoqpennueckoro yxopa nenLsn ncnonLso-
aa1L a kauec1ae pokasa1enLc1aa nepanunoro napunccnue-
ckoro coc1onnnn. Ha caHoH pene 6onee npaannLnmH 6mno
6m cun1a1L, u1o 6onLnme unsoqpenne a ropaspo 6onL-
72
ue c1enenn cansanm c okpyxenneH n 6onee saancnHm o1
nero, ueH 1ak nasmaaeHme nopHanLnme nkpn nnn
neapo1nkn. Opnako noaepxnoc1nme na6nkpennn sa no-
aepenneH 6onLnoro unsoqpenne ne nosaonnk1 yanpe1L
a1y 1ecnyk cansL n o1uannnyk saancnHoc1L; nao6opo1,
cospae1cn aneua1nenne yxopa n o1cy1c1ane kon1ak1a. B
a1oH o1nouennn unsoqpennueckan perpeccnn Hoxe1 cun-
1a1Lcn nopo6neH Hnapenuecko nnn aH6pnonanLno qa-
sm, rpe Hm o6napyxnaaeH cxoxne uep1m: aneunne npo-
nanennn nesaancnHoc1n napunccnueckoro 1nna, o1cy1c1-
ane ocosnannn aneunero Hnpa, ckopo1eunmx n, no-
anpnHoHy, nesnaun1enLnmx kon1ak1oa c uac1nunmHn o6L-
ek1aHn, ko1opme o6pasyk1 nnuL 1onkn nokpoa, ckpm-
aakun o1uannnyk saancnHoc1L n orpoHnyk no1pe6noc1L
a rapHonnn. Bce a1o 6mno npopeHonc1pnpoaano a co-
apeHennmx nccnepoaannnx, nanpnHep a nccnepoaannn
nocnepc1an panne penpnaaunn Lnnua (Spitz, 1946).
D1a 1eHa 6ype1 eue o6cyxpa1Lcn a cnepykue rnaae, a
1akxe a uac1nx III n V.
O1He1na c1pannme npo1naopeunn a nosnunn 6onLnmx un-
soqpenne a o1nouennn k caoeHy okpyxennk, Hm Hornn
6m po6aan1L, u1o ona npepc1aanne1 co6o nnuL saoc1-
pennyk qopHy nosnunn, ko1opyk Hm uac1o na6nkpaeH y
1ak nasmaaeHmx napunccnuecknx nnunoc1e. Xo1n nx nn-
1epec cocpepo1ouen na co6c1aennoH Dro, nnn, cornacno
Iap1Hanny, caHoc1n, xo1n a nx pacnopnxennn nano ne-
poc1a1ouno nk6an, ko1opyk onn Hornn 6m pa1L ppyrnH
nkpnH, nx nnkak nenLsn nasaa1L yaepennmHn n nesa-
ancnHmHn, 1ak xe kak n c1a6nnLnmHn, xopouo anapek-
unHn co6o nnn caHoc1on1enLnmHn. Kak npaanno, onn
ouenL uyac1an1enLnm k nk6oHy paccornacoaannk Hexpy
caonHn oxnpannnHn n 1eH, kak nx okpyxenne a pec1an-
1enLnoc1n o6pauae1cn c nnHn; nx nerko pann1L n o6n-
pe1L, n a1n o6npm 1epsak1 nx ponroe apeHn. KpoHe 1oro,
apnp nn Hm cHoxeH na6nkpa1L, u1o6m a peanLno xnsnn
73
a1n napunccnueckne nkpn Hornn cyuec1aoaa1L aa1onoH-
no. O6muno onn o6pasyk1 napm co caonHn o1uennennm-
Hn paonnkaHn no 1nny 1aknx nsaec1nmx nap nn1epa1yp-
nmx nepconaxe, kak Oayc1 n Meqnc1oqenL, [on Knxo1 n
Canuo Hanco, [on Xyan n enopenno, n 1. p. Bo acex
a1nx cnyuanx kak 6mno nokasano Hnoro pas a
anann1nuecko nn1epa1ype, naunnan c O11o Panka (Rank,
1924) n sakanunaan Xenen [ou (Deutsch, 1937) 1onLko
neaspaunm n nenapunccnueckn nap1nep, cnoco6nm k
o6Lek1no nk6an, Hoxe1 cnpaan1Lcn c onacnoc1nHn no-
acepneano xnsnn n nanne1cn pec1an1enLno nesaancn-
HmH. Bes ero noHoun n pykoaopc1aa o6an1enLnm n c an-
py nesaancnHm napunccnueckn repo anaunn 6m xan-
koe cyuec1aoaanne. B peanLno xnsnn poc1a1ouno uac1o
a ponn necnHna1nunoro nap1nepa amc1ynae1 peanLnan
Ha1L napunccnueckoro repon.
TaknH o6pasoH, Hm npnxopnH k amaopy, u1o nc1nnno
napunccnueckne Hyxunnm nnn xenunnm a pec1an1enL-
noc1n nannk1cn caoero popa HnnHmHn aennunnaHn. Onn a
kpane c1enenn saancn1 o1 caoero okpyxennn, n nx nap-
unccnsH Hoxe1 6m1L coxpanen 1onLko npn ycnoann, u1o
nx okpyxenne xenae1 nnn noueHy-1o amnyxpeno sa6o-
1n1Lcn o nnx. H a1o a o6ueH-1o aepno kak pnn aennua-
uero pnk1a1opa, 1ak n pnn o6mknoaennoro ka1a1onnka.
Ananns ankoronnkoa, oco6enno sanonmx nLnnnu, pae1
naH xopouyk aosHoxnoc1L pnn na6nkpennn sa pnnaHn-
ko o1nouenn, poaonLno 6mc1po cHennkunxcn a 1ako
nocnepoaa1enLnoc1n: o1 aspocnmx o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn
k napunccnsHy, sa1eH k npnHn1nanmH o1nouennnH n o6-
pa1no. O6muno poaonLno nn1encnanme o6Lek1nme o1no-
uennn a1nx naunen1oa nannk1cn 1eH ne Henee ua1knHn n
nec1a6nnLnmHn. Hoa1oHy a1n nkpn, kak npaanno, nerko
1epnk1 paanoaecne, u1o o6muno amsmaae1cn konqnnk1oH
nn1epecoa Hexpy nnHn n keH-1o ns nx aaxnmx o6Lek1oa
nk6an.
74
D1o1 konqnnk1 nopaanne1 nx nac1onLko, u1o onn oc1po
uyac1ayk1 caok necnoco6noc1L ncnpaan1L cn1yaunk; 1o-
rpa onn uac1nuno o1aopn1 ace caoe o6Lek1noe nn6npo, n
1enepL yxe nnu1o ne nHee1 snauennn, kpoHe nx napunc-
cnsHa. C opno c1oponm, onn uyac1ayk1 ce6n uen1poH
acnkoro annHannn kak ppyxec1aennoro, 1ak n apaxpe6no-
ro, a c ppyro coaepuenno necuac1nmHn n noknny1m-
Hn.
HHenno a 1akoH coc1onnnn o6muno naunnae1cn sano, xo-
1n, koneuno, 6maak1 n ppyrne 1pnrrepm. Opnako nn1ok-
cnkaunn nesaancnHo o1 npnunnm, amsaaaue sano, npn-
nocn1 npexpe acero uyac1ao 6narononyunn a o1nouennnx
Hexpy ankoronnkoH n ero okpyxenneH. Hs caoero onm1a
n snak, u1o c1pac1noe xenanne o6pec1n a1o uyac1ao
rapHonnn npepc1aanne1 co6o nan6onee cnnLnyk n
snaunHyk npnunny ankoronnsHa, kak, a cyunoc1n, n acex
npounx qopH snokauec1aenno saancnHoc1n. C a1oro Ho-
Hen1a ace pasnoanpnoc1n a1opnunoro npouecca copepxa1
yrposy uyac1ay rapHonnn, n pnn 1oro u1o6m ypepxa1L
ero nnn no HenLue Hepe coxpann1L xo1L u1o-1o o1 a1oro
coc1onnnn, ankoronnk a o1uannnn nLe1 ace 6onLue n
6onLue.
CaHan aaxnan xapak1epnc1nka coc1onnnn rapHonnn, a ko-
1opoe norpyxae1cn nn1okcnunpoaannm nLnnnua, coc1on1
a o1cy1c1ann nkpe nn6o o6Lek1oa nk6an nnn nenaanc1n,
a nepayk ouepepL nkpe nn6o o6Lek1oa, npepLnannkunx
kakne-nn6o 1pe6oaannn. Xenannan rapHonnn coxpanne1-
cn nnuL po 1ex nop, noka nLkun uenoaek cnoco6en or-
papn1L ce6n o1 1pe6oaann, npepLnanneHmx k neHy ok-
pyxenneH; Hnorne sanonme nLnnnum nn6o sannpak1cn n
nLk1 opnn, nn6o 6ery1 ns npnamunoro Hnpa o6Lek1oa n
nkpe 1ypa, rpe y nnx ne 6mno kon1ak1oa n rpe onn cao-
6opnm o1 o6nsa1enLc1a, oco6enno xe onn ns6erak1 aepo-
n1noc1n npnkpennennn nn6npo na pnn1enLnm nepnop. (B
o6pasax qnnLHa annnna Ornn 6onLuoro ropopa Hm an-
75
pnH aneua1nnkuee nso6paxenne a1nx payx Hnpoa nop-
HanLnoro Hnpa, co c1a6nnLnmH npnaneuenneH nn6npo n
Hnpa nLnnnu c nenpepmano 6mc1po cHeno ka1ekcn-
coa.) kpn, o6n1akune a a1oH noaoH Hnpe, cospannoH
ankoroneH, 1epnnHm 1onLko po 1ex nop, noka k nnH npo-
nannk1 couyac1ane n ppyxenk6ne; a 1ak kak nLnnnua o1-
uannno nyxpae1cn a coxpanennn caoe rapHonnn c a1nH
HnpoH, 1o Haneuan kpn1nka nnn c1onknoaenne nn1epe-
coa npoaounpyk1 y nero peakunn nacnnnn.
K panno npo6neHe nHee1 o1nouenne n ppyran rpynna
knnnnuecknx na6nkpenn. PeuL npe1 o6 anann1nuecko
a1Hocqepe, ko1opan, no-anpnHoHy, neo6xopnHa pnn ne-
uennn neko1opmx 1pypnmx naunen1oa. TpypnmH naun-
en1 Hoxe1 6m1L ns-sa perpeccnn, 1nxenoro napunccnsHa,
npnpopm sa6oneaannn nnn cknapa xapak1epa; o6muno
pnn onncannn 1aknx naunen1oa a anann1nuecko nn1epa-
1ype ncnonLsyk1 1akne, nanpnHep, xapak1epnc1nkn, kak
rny6oko napyuennm. O npnHn1nanmx o1nouennnx c
okpyxenneH n anepame ysnan kak pas ns pa6o1m c 1aknHn
naunen1aHn. erko Hoxno aospasn1L Hne, u1o qenoHenm,
ac1peuakunecn a npouecce 1epannn, o ko1opmx n specL
roaopk, o6ycnoanenm oco6ennoc1nHn ne c1onLko naunen-
1oa, ckonLko Hoe 1exnnkn. 1o6m nokone6a1L nouay nop
noraHn Honx kpn1nkoa, n nosaonk ce6e npoun1npoaa1L
onncanne Onnnnc Ipnnakp, ko1opan, 6es coHnenn, nc-
nonLsoaana knaccnueckyk 1exnnky (Greenacre, 1953, p.
48). Bo1 ee cnoaa: H ponxna ykasa1L na He1opm, c no-
HouLk ko1opmx, no HoeHy y6expennk, Hoxno cnpaan1L-
cn c kpannH napunccnsHoH n 1peaoro, aosnnkakunHn a
xope anannsa He1opm, neo6xopnHme pnn 1oro, u1o6m
Mor npoponxa1Lcn "npaannLnm" ananns, rnaanm ynop a
ko1opoH c1aan1cn na peuenne npo6neHm napyuennn pas-
an1nn nn6npo. Hs6m1ok napunccnsHa a a1nx cnyuanx
npepc1aanne1 pnn anann1nka oueanpnyk n cnoxnyk npo-
6neHy. Opnako n cknonna nonara1L, u1o a aocnn1annn
76
napunccnsHa Hoxno poc1nuL 1akoro ypoann, u1o naunen1
6ype1 a coc1onnnn nepenocn1L 6onL, cansannyk c anann-
soH, ecnn 1onLko co6nkc1n poc1a1ounyk oc1opoxnoc1L n
ypenn1L ponxnoe annHanne 1o cneno 1peaore, ko1opan
nanne1cn kpaeyronLnmH kaHneH nenpouno c1pyk1ypm
xapak1epa a1oro naunen1a. Ecnn cpaann1L a1o1 o1pmaok
c HonH onncanneH no1pe6noc1e unsoqpennueckoro na-
unen1a, naxopnuerocn a perpeccnanoH coc1onnnn, 1o c1a-
ne1 ncno, u1o Hm roaopnH o6 opnoH n 1oH xe knnnnue-
ckoH onm1e.
Onncmaan naunen1oa, ko1opme npnxopn1 na ananns a co-
c1onnnn nannkn, Ipnnakp roaopn1: Ha pannnx c1apnnx
upesamuano aaxno sapyun1Lcn ocosnannmH co1pypnnue-
c1aoH c nkpLHn, ko1opme ace oc1aaunecn paapua1L 1pn
uaca a cy1kn naxopn1cn a 6nnxneH okpyxennn naunen1a,
6ypL 1o a 6onLnnue nnn poHa; Hnoroe ns poc1nrny1oro ao
apeHn 1epanea1nueckoro uaca Hoxe1 6m1L y1paueno ns-sa
apaxpe6noc1n, upesHepno onekn nnn cnnukoH ak1nano-
ro aHeua1enLc1aa ppyse nnn popc1aennnkoa (Ibid., p.
54-55). PasyHee1cn, n nonnoc1Lk paspennk a1o Hnenne.
HeHnoro panee (Ibid., p. 57-60) Ipnnakp, no-anpnHoHy,
c1aan1 snak paaenc1aa Hexpy aocnn1anneH napunccns-
Ha n ycnnenneH Dro. H ne aospaxak npo1na a1nx qop-
Hynnpoaok, no xouy 1onLko ykasa1L na 1o, u1o anann1nk,
cnepyn nopxopy, ko1opm o1c1anaae1 Ipnnakp, npexpe
acero ponxen nac1pon1Lcn na caoero naunen1a na-
c1onLko, nackonLko a1o aosHoxno, n nnuL nocne a1oro
noc1enenno n oc1opoxno nonm1a1Lcn c1a1L pnn nero nop-
HanLnmH o6Lek1oH, 1eH, k1o npepLnanne1 1pe6oaannn.
Koneuno, nac1poka aoace ne osnauae1, u1o anann1nk
acerpa ponxen aa1oHa1nueckn ypoane1aopn1L aoxpene-
nnn, xenannn n no1pe6noc1n naunen1a, opnako a1o onpe-
penenno osnauae1, u1o anann1nk ponxen nonnoc1Lk o1-
paaa1L ce6e o1ue1 a 1oH, u1o on n ero naunen1 a caonx
77
o1nouennnx ponxnm HakcnHanLno 6nnsko nopo1n k 1oHy
coc1onnnk, ko1opoe n nasmaak rapHonnunmH ckpeue-
nneH. Bonee noppo6no o6 a1oH 6ype1 ckasano a rnaae
12.
3pecL n xo1en 6m anec1n aaxnoe pononnenne. Onncanne
na6nkpaeHoro a knnnnuecknx ycnoannx qenoHena, cpe-
nannoe Ipnnakp, 6es anecennn kaknx-nn6o nsHenenn
Hoxe1 6m1L pacueneno n kak 1epanea1nueckan pekoHen-
paunn, n kak nnnkc1paunn co6m1n, nponcxopnunx a o6-
nac1n 6asncnoro peqek1a, o ko1opo roaopnnocL a uac1n
I. B a1o o6nac1n yc1anaannaak1cn o1nouennn Hexpy
payHn nepconaHn, specL pec1aye1 a6conk1noe 1pe6oaa-
nne k opnoHy ns nap1nepoa (anann1nky) acerpa 6m1L
nac1poennmH na ppyroro (naunen1a), specL o1cy1c1aye1
konqnnk1 n a neko1opoH cHmcne ne nHek1 snauennn
o6munme qopHm nn1epnpe1aun n 1. p. H nonarak, u1o a
nccnepoaannn knnnnuecko kap1nnm napunccnuecknx
pacc1poc1a, nx He1ancnxonornn n npexpe acero nx 1epa-
nnn, na6nkpancn 6m snaun1enLnm nporpecc, ecnn 6m
onn 6mnn paccHo1penm a cae1e 1eopnn 6asncnoro peqek-
1a. Takan nonm1ka 6ype1 npepnpnnn1a a nocnepykunx
uac1nx III n V.
B nepaane pa6o1e B. I. oqqe n [xoseqa Canpnepa
(Joffe, Sandler, 1965) Hapunccnueckne pacc1poc1aa,
npeaocxopno pa6o1e, ecnn ne cun1a1L nonnoro nrnopn-
poaannn ace kpn1nkn konuenunn nepanunoro napunc-
cnsHa, nokasano, nackonLko aaxnmH Hoxe1 okasa1Lcn
a1o1 noam nopxop. Aa1opm rnaanmH o6pasoH c1peHnnncL
nokasa1L, u1o pnn nonnHannn napunccnsHa n cansannmx c
nnH pacc1poc1a neo6xopnHo npnnnHa1L ao annHanne,
noHnHo ypoane1aopennn (no-neHeukn Befriedigung 6yk-
aanLno yHnpenne) aneuenn, 1akxe n o1knonenne o1
npeanLnoro coc1onnnn 6narononyunn... a ero aqqek1na-
noH n npea1opnoH acnek1ax. Takoe npeanLnoe coc1on-
nne 6narononyunn nanne1cn, kak a1o 6ype1 o6cyxpa1Lcn
78
a rnaae 12, okonua1enLno uenLk nepanuno nk6an, a no
cy1n, n acex uenoaeuecknx aneuenn. Hoa1oHy acnkoe ero
cepLesnoe napyuenne a pannnx qasax pasan1nn aepe1 k
o6pasoaannk cneunqnueckoro 6asncnoro peqek1a. Aa1o-
pm 6es kaknx-nn6o pokasa1enLc1a o1oxpec1annk1 npe-
anLnoe coc1onnne 6narononyunn n nepanunm napunc-
cnsH; nH ne ypae1cn pacnosna1L ero o6Lek1nyk npnpopy,
1ak kak onn ynyckak1 ns annHannn pnnaHnueckyk c1pyk-
1ypy a1oro coc1onnnn. B oc1anLnoH, xo1n o6 a1oH n ne ro-
aopn1cn nano, pnckyccnn kacae1cn 1onLko nanenn, npn-
napnexaunx k cqepe a1opnunoro napunccnsHa; noa1oHy
n Hory po6aan1L, u1o cornacen co aceHn amaopaHn a1nx
aa1opoa.
Hopaopn n1orn pasHmunennnH, npepc1aanennmH a a1o
rnaae, Hm o1HeuaeH, u1o 6onLnme unsoqpenne, aonpekn
1eope1nuecknH npornosaH, cnoco6nm pearnpoaa1L na caoe
okpyxenne paxe naxopncL a nan6onee perpeccnanmx co-
c1onnnnx n, 1aknH o6pasoH, onn poc1ynnm pnn anann1n-
uecko 1epannn. Opnako neoponnHan no1pe6noc1L a1nx
naunen1oa a rapHonnunmx o1nouennnx penae1 peak-
unk na okpyxenne 1pypno pasnnunHo n neyc1ounao.
D1o pae1 ocnoaannn nonara1L, u1o nx napunccnueckn
yxop a kauec1ae nocnepc1ann qpyc1paunn nanne1cn a1o-
pnunmH. [pyrne coc1onnnn, akpa1ue paccHo1pennme a
a1o rnaae, na6nkpaeHme y ankoronnkoa n rny6oko na-
pyuennmx nnn napunccnuecknx naunen1oa, npepc1aa-
nnk1 ananornunyk kap1nny. 3pecL nannuec1ayk1 1a xe
caHan nepanunan no1pe6noc1L a rapHonnuecknx o1noue-
nnnx, qpyc1paunn, amsaannan nac1on1enLnmHn 1pe6oaa-
nnnHn nap1nepa aoo6ue n anann1nka a uac1noc1n, n yxop
ao a1opnunm napunccnsH.
Fnaaa 11. Hpeua1anuume u pauuue no-
c1ua1anuume coc1onuun
79
PaccHo1pea knnnnueckne qak1m, ncnonLsoaannme Ope-
poH pnn o6ocnoaannn aaepennn nonn1nn napunccnsH,
Hm npnunn k amaopy, u1o ace onn, sa ncknkuenneH payx,
npepc1aannk1 co6o oueanpnme cnyuan a1opnunoro nap-
unccnsHa. Mm yanpenn, u1o 1onLko pnn o6Lncnennn payx
qenoHenoa perpeccnanmx coc1onnn y 6onLnmx un-
soqpenne n rny6okoro cna 6es cnoanpenn opnoro
npepc1aanennn o a1opnunoH napunccnsHe nepoc1a1ouno.
Bce xe 1ouka qnkcaunn, k ko1opo nanpaanena perpeccnn
a a1nx payx cnyuanx, no-anpnHoHy, ne o6nsa1enLno nann-
e1cn nepanunmH napunccnsHoH, no, ckopee, 1aknHn npn-
Hn1nanmHn o1nouennnHn, a ko1opmx
nepnqqepenunpoaannoe okpyxenne nn1encnano
ka1ek1npoaano.
Yxe a 1914 ropy knnnnunc1 Opep aepno npepanpen a1o
sa1pypnenne, y1aepxpan: HpepnonaraeHm naHn nep-
anunm [napunccnsH] pe6enka, coc1aannkun opny ns
npepnocmnok naue 1eopnn nn6npo, nerue no1aepn1u
ny1eM saknkuennn, ncxon ns pyro 1oukn spennn , ueH
onnpancL na nenocpepc1aennoe na6nkpenne (Standard
Edition, XIV, p. 90. Kypcna Ho. M. B.). Y6epn1enLnan
kap1nna any1pennero coc1onnnn Opepa: 1eope1nk on1n-
Hnc1nuen n npoponxae1 onepnpoaa1L caonHn noc1poe-
nnnHn, 1orpa kak knnnnunc1, Hnrko roaopn, oc1opoxen,
ecnn ne cken1nuen.
Bonee 1oro, a a1oH o1pmake Opep roaopn1 o nepanunoM
napnccnsMe y e1e , 1orpa kak o6uenpnnn1an ncnxo-
anann1nueckan 1eopnn o1cmnae1 nac k nepanunoMy nap-
nccnsMy npena1anunoro coc1onnnn . B ncnxoanann1nue-
cko 1eopnn aoo6ue poaonLno pacnpoc1panena 1enpen-
unn o1nocn1L ace nenonn1noe k npounoHy: ecnn rnno1esa
ne cornacye1cn c pannmHn knnnnuecknx na6nkpenn, 1o
aHec1o 1oro, u1o6m o1kasa1Lcn o1 a1o rnno1esm kak o1
neaepno nnn nopaeprny1L ee nepecHo1py, Hm, cnepyn
a1o 1enpenunn, ccmnaeHcn na eue 6onee pannne qasm
80
pasan1nn, nac1onLko pannne, u1o onn naxopn1cn sa npe-
penaHn aosHoxnoc1e knnnnueckoro na6nkpennn.
1o6m ne ycnoxnn1L, n kopo1ko nsnoxy npen Onnnnc
Ipnnakp, o1nocnunecn k a1o 1eHe. HockonLky ona nann-
e1cn npnsnannmH aa1opn1e1oH a a1o o6nac1n n a caoe
knnre TpaaHa, poc1 n nnunoc1L (Greenacre, 1953) un-
poko ocae1nna a1y 1eHy, Hoe o6pauenne 6ype1 onpaapan-
nmH. Xo1n ne ace npen, o6cyxpaeHme a a1o rnaae, npn-
napnexa1 e, n npnaepy nx, nackonLko a1o aosHoxno, a
ee qopHynnpoake. Papn npoc1o1m nsnoxennn n crpynnn-
pyk o6cyxpaeHme npen a 1pn 6noka: (1) 1e, u1o a 6onL-
ue c1enenn kacak1cn any1pny1po6no xnsnn nnopa; (2)
1e, u1o o1nocn1cn k nsHenennnH, nponcxopnunH npn pox-
pennn pe6enka; (3) 1e, u1o kacak1cn caHo panne qasm
aney1po6no xnsnn.
Ipnnakp poaonLno ka1eropnuno sananne1: C 6nonornue-
cko 1oukn spennn napunccnsH Hoxe1 6m1L onpepenen
kak nn6npnnosnm koHnonen1 poc1a (Ibid., p. 20). 3a-
1eH, acnep sa OpepoH, ona y1aepxpae1: HapunccnsH
aoo6ue caoc1aen xnsnn... na caHoH pene Hm o6napyxn-
aaeH napunccnueckoe nn6npo noackpy, rpe ec1L nckpa
xnsnn nnn 6onee onpepenenno: B y1po6e napunc-
cnsH pepyunpoaan k npoc1eunH aneHen1aH, 6ypyun o1-
uac1n nnn nonnoc1Lk nnuennmH ncnxnueckoro copepxa-
nnn (Ibid., p. 45).
H anxy specL npo6neHy a 1oH, u1o y1aepxpennn Ipnnakp,
a uenoH npaaponopo6nme n nHekune cHmcn, oc1ak1cn
1onLko npepnonoxennnHn, ko1opme ne Hory1 6m1L nn
nop1aepxpenm, nn onpoaeprny1m pannmHn na6nkpennn.
Ona a aHec1e c ne n ouenL Hnorne anann1nkn nona-
rae1, u1o sananennn 1akoro popa nannk1cn ponyc1nHo
akc1panonnune, ocnoaanno na pasnnunmx knnnnuecknx
n 6nonornuecknx na6nkpennnx. Opnako e, 6es coHne-
nnn, cnepoaano 6m cornacn1cn c 1eH, u1o Hm pacnonaraeH
81
1onLko npepnonoxennnHn n 1yHannmHn npenHn, a ne
1aeppmHn qak1aHn no noaopy pacnpepenennn nn6npo ao
any1pny1po6no xnsnn, nn6npnnosnoro koHnonen1a
poc1a nnn napunccnsHa, aceueno nnuennoro ncnxnue-
ckoro copepxannn. H o1pak ce6e o1ue1 a 1oH, u1o ampm-
aa1L o1penLnme qpasm ns kon1ekc1a osnauae1 noc1y-
na1L no o1nouennk k aa1opy poaonLno nekoppek1no, op-
nako n nac1anaak na 1oH, u1o yno1pe6nenne qopHynnpo-
aok 1akoro popa 6es ue1koro ykasannn na 1o, u1o onn ne
npe1enpyk1 na o6Lncnenne knnnnuecknx pannmx, no
npepc1aannk1 co6o 1eope1nueckne cnekynnunn, no o1-
nouennk k un1a1enk nanne1cn neuec1nmH.
B caoe knnre Ipnnakp npnaopn1 npeaocxopnme o6pasm,
ncnonLsyeHme nkpLHn pnn 1oro, u1o6m ampasn1L uyac1aa
nnn aocnoHnnannn, cansannme c poxpenneH, ko1opoe,
nanpnHep, Horno aocnpnnnHa1Lcn kak Hoc1 Hexpy pas-
nmHn qopHaHn 6m1nn, xnasHa, xna1yc, kako-1o
npoaan, ouenL noxoxn na cHep1L n 1. p. (Ibid., p. 20-
21).
Ipnnakp npnxopn1 k amaopy, u1o onm1 poxpennn, aepo-
n1no, aknkuae1 a ce6n ace a1n o6pasm kak ncuepnmaak-
une qak1opm, opnako nan6onee qynpaHen1anLno ero
xapak1epnc1nko, anpnHo, nanne1cn c1peHn1enLnm, no
ycneuno saaepuennm nepexop o1 opnoro Hopyca xnsnn
k ppyroHy. Ona nnue1: H Hory 1onLko npepc1aan1L, ka-
knH o6pasoH nponcxopn1 napyuenne a o6ue oprannsa-
unn napunccnueckoro nn6npo nnopa a npouecce poxpe-
nnn: ono coc1on1 a nekoH nepexope o1 nou1n nonno sa-
ancnHoc1n any1pny1po6no xnsnn k caHoHy nauany nn-
pnanpyaunn nnn, no kpane Hepe, o1 nonno saancnHo-
c1n any1pn y1po6m k kaasnsaancnHoc1n sa npepenaHn 1e-
na Ha1epn (Ibid., p. 45).
Ona noa1opne1 amckasmaanne Opepa o 1oH, u1o onm1
poxpennn, no-anpnHoHy, c1pyk1ypnpye1 na11epn 1peaorn
82
nnpnanpa, n po6aanne1: Ecnn qopHnpoaanne na11epna
1peaorn nanne1cn saun1o o1 onacnoc1n, 1o npn oprann-
saunn napunccnsHa o6pasye1cn nnc1pyHen1 nosn1nano
a1akn, amsmaakun arpeccnanoe aneuenne (Ibid., p.
19).
Bce a1n coo6paxennn Hory1 6m1L ne 6es 1pypa nn-
1epnpe1npoaanm kak naHek na coc1onnne nepanunoro
napunccnsHa, n nHenno a1o1 cHmcn aknapmaae1 a nnx
Ipnnakp. Opnako, no HoeHy Hnennk, onn Hory1 6m1L nn-
1epnpe1npoaanm 6es nckaxennn cy1n kak poaonLno cnnL-
nme apryHen1m a nonLsy rnno1esm o panneH asanHope-
c1ann Hexpy pe6enkoH a y1po6e Ha1epn n ero okpyxenn-
eH. Poxpenne osnauae1 anesannoe npekpauenne ypoane-
1aopnkunx po a1oro HoHen1a o1nouenn c okpyxenneH,
npepc1aannkunH co6o nekn nec1pyk1ypnpoaannm
okean, a ko1opoH noka eue ne1 o6Lek1oa. Mm aepneHcn
k a1nH paccyxpennnH neckonLko nosxe.
BosapauancL k knnre Ipnnakp, n onyckak 6onLunnc1ao
knnnnuecknx na6nkpenn o1nocn1enLno cansn npepno-
naraeHo nnn peanLno Hexpy 1paaHo poxpennn n
cnHn1oHa1nko, nonannkuecn ao aspocno xnsnn, no-
1oHy u1o a1o poaonLno paneko amuno 6m sa paHkn Hoe
1eHm. H aHec1e c 1eH n o1Heuak, u1o ace npnaepennme
Ipnnakp knnnnueckne na6nkpennn, kacakunecn annnnnn
konnnsn noc1na1anLnoro nepnopa, Hory1 6m1L npnnn1m a
kauec1ae apryHen1oa a nonLsy a1opnuno npnpopm nap-
unccnsHa kak cnepc1ann qpyc1paunn, ncxopnue o1
aneune cpepm. [nn pokasa1enLc1aa a1oro n npnaepy
opnn o1pmaok ns ee pa6o1m OopHnpoaanne na11epnoa na
porenn1anLno qase: BepneHcn k aonpocy o6 ycnnennn
nepanunoro napunccnsHa, amsaannoH panne noa1opnk-
uecn ns6m1ouno c1nHynnune Hnapenua: kak 6mno o1-
Heueno, 1akoe ycnnenne noppasyHeaae1 6onee cnnLnyk
npononrnpoaannyk 1enpenunk k npnHn1nano npen1nqn-
kaunn, napyuenne a qopHnpoaannn uyac1aa peanLnoc1n
83
n napnpy c a1nH aospac1anne cnoco6noc1n 1ena pearnpo-
aa1L na c1nHynm n pernc1pnpoaa1L nx (Greenacre,
1952).
Mnapenuec1ao uac1o onncmaak1 kak nepnqqepenunpo-
aannoe coc1onnne, korpa eue o1cy1c1ayk1 rpannum Hex-
py nnpnanpoH n okpyxenneH npneHneHm asrnnp, ko-
1opm 6ype1 o6cyxpa1Lcn panee a rnaae 12. Cornacno
anL1epna1nanoHy nnn nopo6noHy eHy onncannk,
Hnapenuec1ao nanne1cn qaso nepanunoro napunccnsHa n
npnHn1nano npen1nqnkaunn, ko1opan nospnee uac1o
onpepennnacL kak qynkunonanLnm acnek1 nepanunoro
napunccnsHa. H 6m xo1en nopuepkny1L, u1o ec1L nornue-
ckoe npo1naopeune a ponyuennn cocyuec1aoaannn a1nx
payx coc1onnn ecnn 1onLko 1epHnn npen1nqnkaunn
coxpanne1 specL caoe o6munoe snauenne. Kak 6mno o1He-
ueno amue, Opep anonne cosnaaan a1o1 qak1 n o6cyx-
pan a1o a rnaae 3 H n Ono. k6an npen1nqnkaunn a
o6munoH cHmcne osnauae1 nsHenenne Dro nop annnnn-
eH nekoero panee cnnLno ka1ek1npoaannoro aneunero
o6Lek1a nnn aneHen1a okpyxakue cpepm. [axe caHan
npoc1euan npen1nqnkaunn o1nocn1cn k ueHy-1o ane nn-
pnanpa, n pnn 1oro, u1o6m u1o-1o nsHenn1L a Dro a coo1-
ae1c1ann c neknH aneunnH na11epnoH, a1o1 na11epn pon-
xen 6m1L ouenL aaxnmH pnn nnpnanpa. TaknH o6pasoH, n
cun1ak, u1o ne Hoxe1 6m1L kako-1o npoc1eue (nnn
nepanuno) npen1nqnkaunn. Bce npen1nqnkaunn ponxnm
6m1L per definitionem a1opnunmHn no o1nouennk k ka-
1ekcncy kakoro-1o o6Lek1a nnn okpyxakue cpepm. Cne-
poaa1enLno, nepanunm napunccnsH n npoc1euan (nep-
anunan) npen1nqnkaunn ne Hory1 cyuec1aoaa1L opno-
apeHenno ecnn, koneuno, onn aoo6ue cyuec1ayk1 no
o1penLnoc1n.
B kauec1ae ppyroro apryHen1a a noppepxky npen nepanu-
noro napunccnsHa uac1o npnaopn1 1o1 qak1, u1o a caHme
nepame pnn caoe xnsnn Hnapeneu ne cnoco6en ocosna-
84
aa1L okpyxakun Hnp. Cun1ae1cn, u1o Hnapeneu naxo-
pn1cn a coc1onnnn nepanunoro napunccnsHa, 1ak kak pnn
nero npoc1o ne cyuec1aye1 aneunero Hnpa, ko1opm Hor
6m 6m1L ka1ek1npoaan. Hpn a1oH uac1o nrnopnpye1cn 1o,
u1o a1o1 apryHen1 ac1ynae1 a npo1naopeune c na6nkpae-
HmHn qak1aHn. Pe6enok nn6o cnn1, ncnm1maan coc1onnne
ypoane1aopennn n, 1aknH o6pasoH, on o1pesan o1 Hnpa,
nn6o on 6oppc1aye1, no 1orpa Hm amnyxpenm ponyc1n1L
kak, nanpnHep, a1o cpenan B. Xoqqep (Hoffer, 1959),
u1o okpyxenne-Ha1L okasmaae1 noppepxky nepanu-
noHy napunccnsHy pe6enka, noa1oHy y pe6enka o1cy1c1-
ayk1 npepc1aanennn o6 onacnoc1n, 1peaora nnn saun1a,
y nero ace eue ne cqopHnpoaano Dro... (p. 8). TaknH
o6pasoH, neo6xopnHo coxpann1L coc1onnne nepanunoro
napunccnsHa kak akanaanen1 noppepxnaakunx kauec1a
npena1anLno Ha1epn (p. 9).
B a1o xe pa6o1e Xoqqep nopnnHae1 aonpoc o aosHox-
noH annnnnn o6uenpnnn1mx a 1e pnn qopH yxopa sa pe-
6enkoH, a nHenno nenenannn na qopHnpoaanne konuen-
unn Opepa o pannnx coc1onnnnx. Henenkn, cornacno
Xoqqepy, nannk1cn pnn pasanaakuerocn Dro ueH-1o
apope napunccnueckoro nanunpn (p. 10), 1o ec1L Hna-
penum saunuenm o1 aneune c1nHynnunn, cnepc1aneH
uero, aepon1no, nanne1cn saHepnenne qopHnpoaannn nx
o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn. C npekpauenneH nenenannn
nepanunm napunccnsH Hnapenua nopaeprae1cn yrpose,
koneuno, ne na caHoH pene, a a rnasax aneunero na6nk-
pa1enn, ko1opm naunnae1 saHeua1L npnansannoc1L k
o6Lek1aH, sacnonnkuyk nepanunm napunccnsH. [anee
on po6aanne1: Hn1epecno... ne o6LnanneH nn Hm npo-
rpeccoH a nayke ncnxoanannsa 1o, u1o, a cyunoc1n, nann-
e1cn npncnoco6nenneH naunx konuenun k poHnnnpyk-
unH asrnnpaH coapeHennoc1n (a nHenno k cnoco6y yxopa
sa pe1LHn) (Ibid., p. 11).
85
Bce a1n apryHen1m epaa nn nannk1cn ueH-1o 6onLunH,
ueH npe1ensne na 1o, u1o6m cun1a1L cnopnm aonpoc
peuennmH. Bo-nepamx, noc1ynnpye1cn cyuec1aoaanne
coc1onnnn nepanunoro napunccnsHa. [nn 1oro, u1o6m or-
papn1L a1o1 noc1yna1 o1 nocnra1enLc1a, panee noc1ynnpy-
e1cn, u1o (a) pnn saun1m coc1onnnn nepanunoro napunc-
cnsHa okpyxenne-Ha1L ponxna noppepxnaa1L pe6enka;
(6) pe6enok ne ocosnae1 nsHenenn, ko1opme nponcxopn1
a a1oH noppepxnaannn n (a) nk6me na6nkpaeHme o1-
nouennn c okpyxenneH n nk6an na6nkpaeHan peakunn
na nsHenennn a noppepxnaannn (nanpnHep, o1cy1c1ane
nenenannn) ponxnm 6m1L o1aeprny1m kak noxnme, 1ak
kak a npo1nanoH cnyuae ace a1o 1eope1nueckoe noc1poe-
nne pyxne1.
H pyHak, u1o ropaspo npoue 6mno 6m npnnn1L npek o
1oH, u1o cpasy, c nepamx pne xnsnn pe6enka y nero
nHek1cn npnHn1nanme qopHm o1nouenn c aneunnH Hn-
poH, u1o Hnapeneu Hoxe1 ocosnaaa1L nk6me snaunHme
nsHenennn a okpyxennn n pearnpoaa1L na nnx. Opnako
a1o osnauano 6m ecnn ncxopn1L ns apryHen1oa Xoqqe-
pa u1o 1eopnn nepanunoro napunccnsHa am1ekae1
rnaanmH o6pasoH ns na6nkpenn sa pe1LHn, c ko1opmHn
o6pauanncL paanopyuno, 1yro nenenan nx, ncnonnnn py-
1nnnme pnrnpnme Hannnynnunn n 1. p., n ko1opme acnep-
c1ane a1oro na ropaspo 6onee panne c1apnn 6mnn amny-
xpenm pasan1L a1opnunm napunccnsH, rnaanmH o6pasoH
a o1ae1 na napyuenne o1nouenn co caonH okpyxenneH.
Fnaaa 12. Hepauvuan nm6oau
Hpepnonoxenne o nepanunoH napunccnsHe xo1n n
npepnarae1 naH nsnunyk, akkypa1nyk n nocnepoaa1enL-
nyk konuenunk npnaopn1 k nepaspeunHmH npo1nao-
peunnH n neonpepenennoc1nH. B naunx 1eope1nuecknx
amknapkax Hm nerko cHornn nasaa1L nc1ounnk nn6npo, 1o
86
ec1L Hp. Tononornueckoe xe onpepenenne orpoHnoro
pesepayapa nn6npo, a 1akxe 1oukn qnkcaunn nepanuno-
ro napunccnsHa, okasanocL neaosHoxno. Pasnnunme qop-
Hynnpoakn, npnaepennme caHnH OpepoH, nannk1cn npo-
1naopeunamHn n nenocnepoaa1enLnmHn, Iap1Hann, Kpnc
n aenu1en, a 1akxe [xeHc C1paun, ampannya noame
rnno1esm, peunnn neko1opme npo6neHm, no cospann no-
ame. [pyroe nepaspeunHoe npo1naopeune kacae1cn xpo-
nonornn: Opep noouepepno onpepennn c opnnakoao
c1enenLk ka1eropnunoc1n nepanunme o6Lek1nme o1noue-
nnn, nepanunm ay1oapo1nsH n nepanunm napunccnsH
kak caHme pannne, nan6onee npnHn1nanme qopHm o1no-
uenn nnpnanpa c ero okpyxenneH.
B a1o sa1pypnn1enLno cn1yaun n anann1nueckan 1eopnn
cnepye1 no npo1openno popoxke, o1cmnan k 6onee pan-
nnH nepnopaH pasan1nn. Ecnn Opep ynoHnnan o nep-
anunoH napunccnsHe y pe1e, 1o coapeHennme 1eope1n-
kn counn neo6xopnHmH o1nec1n nepanunm napunccnsH k
any1pny1po6no c1apnn. B npepmpyue rnaae n c1apancn
nokasa1L, u1o nnopoH a1o nonm1kn nanne1cn caoero popa
ueHopannan 1eopnn, a ko1opo am Hoxe1e na1n 1onL-
ko 1o, u1o am a nee anoxnnn.
Ha npo1nxennn acex nn1npecn1n ne1, npouepunx nocne
cospannn ncnxoanann1nuecko konuenunn napunccnsHa,
ne 6mno npnaepeno noamx pannmx knnnnuecknx na6nk-
penn, nop1aepxpakunx cyuec1aoaanne nnn npneHne-
Hoc1L nepanunoro napunccnsHa. D1o1 nc1opnueckn qak1
naaopn1 na onpepenennme pasHmunennn. B 1o apeHn kak
nn1epa1ypa, nocanuennan nepanunoHy napunccnsHy,
ckypna n ne o1xopn1 paneko o1 noa1opennn pasnnunmx
y1aepxpenn n npepnonoxenn, cpenannmx OpepoH, nn-
1epa1ypa o a1opnunoH napunccnsHe aecLHa o6unpna n
onnpae1cn na aennkonennme knnnnueckne na6nkpennn.
87
Xopouan 1eopnn ponxna o6napa1L no kpane Hepe cne-
pykunHn 1peHn kauec1aaHn. Bo-nepamx, ona ponxna
6m1L cao6opna o1 any1pennnx npo1naopeun; kak Hm yxe
anpenn, 1eopnn nepanunoro napunccnsHa c caHoro nauana
ne o1aeuae1 a1oHy 1pe6oaannk, a nac1ouname nonm1kn
ncnpaan1L a1o1 nsLnn 1epnn1 neypauy. Bo-a1opmx, ona
ponxna npepc1aann1L co6o ac1e1nueckyk c1pyk1ypy, no-
saonnkuyk nn1erpnpoaa1L pasposnennme na6nkpennn
1ak, u1o6m Hm Hornn nonn1L nx 6onee 1ouno; 1eopnn nep-
anunoro napunccnsHa npe1enpye1 na a1o, no, kak nokasa-
no a npepmpyunx rnaaax, 6esycneuno. H a-1pe1Lnx, 1eo-
pnn ponxna paaa1L aosHoxnoc1L pena1L amaopm, saknk-
uennn nnn rnno1esm, ko1opme sa1eH Hornn 6m 6m1L nop-
1aepxpenm nnn onpoaeprny1m; nackonLko Hne nsaec1no,
ns 1eopnn nepanunoro napunccnsHa cnepyk1 1onLko 1eo-
pe1nueckne cnekynnunn (neko1opme ns nnx o6cyxpanncL
amue). D1n cnekynnunn, o1 ko1opmx nyxno 6mno 6m o1-
kasa1Lcn, nn6o ne noppak1cn aosHoxno aepnqnkaunn,
nn6o okasmaak1cn noxnmHn, kak, nanpnHep, a cnyuae
npepnonoxennn o nepoc1ynnoc1n 6onLnmx unsoqpenne
pnn anann1nueckoro neuennn.
Kakoaa xe anL1epna1naa? Moe npepnoxenne coc1on1 ns
payx uac1e. Bo-nepamx, n naHepen nokasa1L, u1o 1eopnn
nepanunoro napunccnsHa okasanacL any1penne npo1nao-
peunao n nenpopyk1nano. Ona cospae1 6onLue npo-
6neH, ueH noHorae1 peun1L; nn1Lpecn1 c nnunnH ne1 na-
npnxennmx pasHmunenn n kpn1nuecknx na6nkpenn ne
npnaenn k paspeuennk any1pennnx npo1naopeun, cao-
c1aennmx a1o 1eopnn. Hoa1oHy n ne anxy ocnoaann ue-
nnn1Lcn sa nee. Bo-a1opmx, n y1aepxpak, u1o neo6xopn-
Ho npnaneuL knnnnueckn onm1 pa6o1m c naunen1aHn pnn
cospannn noao 1eopnn aHec1o 1eopnn nepanunoro nap-
unccnsHa, ko1opyk 6onee nerko no cpaanennk c nocnep-
ne Hoxno 6mno 6m npoaepn1L nnn onpoaeprny1L npn
noHoun pannmx nenocpepc1aennmx na6nkpenn. Te, k1o
88
snakoH c HonHn pa6o1aHn, porapmaak1cn, u1o n nHek a
anpy 1eopnk nepanunmx o1nouenn c okpyxenneH, nnn
kpa1ko 1eopnk nepanuno nk6an.
1o6m ns6exa1L aosHoxnoro nenonnHannn, n xouy cpasy
oroaopn1Lcn, u1o ns nasaannn Hoe 1eopnn 1eopnn
nepanuno nk6an aoace ne cnepye1, u1o n cun1ak,
6yp1o capnsH nnn nenaanc1L ne nHek1 Hec1a a uenoaeue-
cko xnsnn nn6o 1o, u1o onn nrpak1 aecLHa nesnaun-
1enLnyk ponL. Hpoc1o n y6expen, u1o onn npepc1aannk1
co6o a1opnunme qenoHenm, nannk1cn nocnepc1annHn
nens6exno qpyc1paunn. UenL acex uenoaeuecknx
c1peHnenn coc1on1 a yc1anoanennn nnn a aocc1anoa-
nennn 1o1anLno rapHonnn c okpyxenneH, a o6pe1ennn
nnueH ne napyuaeHo nk6an. Xo1n nenaanc1L n capnsH,
oueanpno, necoaHec1nHm c a1nH c1peHnenneH, anonne
aepon1no, u1o na c1apnnx, ko1opme nenocpepc1aenno
npepaapnk1 aoxpenennyk rapHonnk, arpeccnanoc1L n,
aosHoxno, nacnnne Hory1 ncnonLsoaa1Lcn n paxe poc-
1aann1L ypoaonLc1ane. Hcxopn ns a1nx coo6paxenn, n
nasaan caok 1eopnk 1eopne nepanuno nk6an, a
fortiori fiat denominatio (nyc1L 6ype1 ycnneno onpepene-
nne).
Mne no1pe6oaanncL Hnorne ropm knnnnuecko npak1nkn
pnn 1oro, u1o6m npnpa1L Hoe 1eopnn ee nac1onun anp;
nepame npepaapn1enLnme coo6uennn n cpenan eue a
1932 ropy. 3pecL papn kpa1koc1n nsnoxennn n npnaepy
ee a poaonLno anopek1nuecko qopHe, 6onee noppo6no o
ne roaopn1cn a Hoe knnre Hepanoe aos6yxpenne n
perpeccnn (M. Balint, 1959).
Hcxopn ns 1eopnn nepanunoro napunccnsHa, o1nouennn
noaopoxpennoro c okpyxenneH nnn HnnnHanLnm, nnn nx
coaceH ne1. B 1akoH Hnpe po onpepenennoro apeHenn cy-
uec1aye1 1onLko opnn o6Lek1, a saancnHoc1n o1 o6c1on-
1enLc1a a1o Hoxe1 6m1L caHoc1L, Dro nnn Hp; 1o ec1L ace
89
nn6npo pasHeueno nn6o a ueH-1o opnoH, nn6o opnoape-
Henno ao acex cpasy. Yxe ns 6nonornn naH nsaec1no, u1o
nnop upesamuano cnnLno saancn1 o1 caoero okpyxennn,
ropaspo cnnLne, ueH Hnapeneu nnn aspocnm uenoaek.
Cnepoaa1enLno, pnn 6narononyunn nnopa n ero npaannL-
noro pasan1nn neo6xopnHo a nepayk ouepepL, u1o6m ok-
pyxenne ace apeHn kak Hoxno nonnee o1aeuano na no-
1pe6noc1n aH6pnona. 3naun1enLnoe pacxoxpenne Hexpy
no1pe6noc1Lk n npepnoxenneH Hoxe1 nHe1L 1nxenme no-
cnepc1ann n paxe yrpoxa1L xnsnn.
Hpnnna a1y 6nonornueckyk cn1yaunk kak HopenL pac-
npepenennn nn6npo a xnsnn aH6pnona, 1o ec1L HopenL
ncnxnueckoro coc1onnnn, Hm npnxopnH k y1aepxpennk,
u1o aH6pnon, anpnHo, nn1encnano ka1ek1npye1 okpyxe-
nne n a1o1 ka1ekcnc ropaspo 6onee cnnLnm, ueH ka1ek-
cnc pe1e nnn aspocnmx. Opnako a1o okpyxenne, no-
anpnHoHy, nanne1cn nepnqqepenunpoaannmH: a neH no-
ka o1cy1c1ayk1 o6Lek1m, pa n apnp nn ono o6napae1 ka-
ko-nn6o c1pyk1ypo. 3pecL o1cy1c1ayk1 ue1kne rpannum
Hexpy nnpnanpoH n okpyxenneH; onn nponnsmaak1 ppyr
ppyra, naxopn1cn aHec1e a coc1onnnn rapHonnunoro
ckpeuennn. HpnHepoH a1oro rapHonnunoro ckpeuennn
nanne1cn pm6a, o6n1akuan a aope (opnn ns nan6onee ap-
xanunmx n unpoko pacnpoc1panennmx cnHaonoa). Honm1-
kn onpepenn1L, npnnapnexn1 nn aopa ao p1y n a xa6pax
pm6m Hopk nnn xe pm6e, npepc1aannk1cn npaspnmH sa-
nn1neH; 1o xe caHoe Hoxno ckasa1L n a o1nouennn nno-
pa. Ho npnunne 1oro, u1o nnop n okpyxenne-Ha1L npep-
c1aannk1 co6o nepaspmanoe n cnoxnoe ckpeuenne nno-
pa kak 1akoaoro, okononnopnmx aop n nnauen1m, aonpocm
no rnc1onornn n qnsnonornn na a1y 1eHy a aksaHenaun-
onnmx 6nne1ax Hepnunncknx yue6nmx saaepenn nannk1-
cn cyunH kouHapoH.
Hakoneu, c1on1 acnoHnn1L o 1oH, u1o naue o1nouenne k
okpyxakueHy nac aospyxy c1pon1cn a paHkax 1ouno 1a-
90
koro xe na11epna. Mm pmunH aospyxoH pnn noppepxannn
xnsnepen1enLnoc1n n ne HoxeH 6es nero o6o1ncL; penan
apox, Hm a6npaeH a ce6n kakyk-1o ero uac1L n nonLsyeH-
cn ek no caoeHy ycHo1pennk; sa1eH, ampenna a nero 1e
aeuec1aa, o1 ko1opmx xo1nH ns6aan1Lcn, Hm ampmxaeH
ero, ne ypennn a1oHy npoueccy nnkakoro annHannn. B ca-
HoH pene, aospyx npoc1o ponxen 6m1L a nannunn pnn
naunx nyxp, n noka on ec1L a poc1a1ounoH konnuec1ae n
nopxopnuero kauec1aa, Hm coaceH ne saHeuaeH ero. Ta-
koe okpyxenne npoc1o ponxno 6m1L, n noka ono ec1L
nanpnHep, ecnn y nac poc1a1ouno aospyxa pnn pmxa-
nnn, Hm npnnnHaeH ero cyuec1aoaanne kak caHo co6o
pasyHekueecn, Hm ne aocnpnnnHaeH ero kak o6Lek1, 1o
ec1L kak neu1o o1penLnoe o1 nac; Hm npoc1o ncnonLsyeH
ero. Cn1yaunn Henne1cn kappnnanLnmH o6pasoH, ecnn a
okpyxennn nponcxopn1 nsHenennn (korpa, nanpnHep, ue-
noaek ncnm1maae1 nepoc1a1ok aospyxa); a a1oH cnyuae
okpyxenne, ko1opoe kak 6yp1o 6m 6mno neka1ek1npoaan-
nmH, o6pe1ae1 appyr orpoHnyk aaxnoc1L, a a1o snaun1,
u1o nc1nnnm na1en1nm ka1ekcnc c1anoan1cn nanmH.
B naueH o1nouennn k aospyxy, kak n a npnHepe o1noue-
nn pm6m c aopo, o1cy1c1ayk1 ue1kne rpannum. Honm1-
kn onpepenn1L, nanne1cn nn aospyx, naxopnuncn a na-
unx nerknx nnn ao any1pennoc1nx, naHn nnn ne1, npep-
c1aannk1cn npaspnmH sann1neH; Hm npoc1o xnaeH c aos-
pyxoH a nou1n rapHonnunoH coue1annn. 3naunHoc1L co-
c1onnn, cxoxnx c o1nouennnHn 1akoro 1nna, pnn anann-
1nuecko 1exnnkn 6ype1 o6cyxpa1Lcn a uac1nx III, IV n V.
Cornacno Hoe 1eopnn, nnpnanp poxpae1cn a coc1onnnn
cnnLno npnansannoc1n k okpyxennk, kak 6nonornue-
cko, 1ak n nn6npnnosno. [o poxpennn nHee1 Hec1o
rapHonnunoe ckpeuenne aneune cpepm n caHoc1n
no cy1n, onn nponnkak1 ppyr a ppyra. Kak yxe 6mno o1-
Heueno, a a1oH Hnpe noka eue ne1 o6Lek1oa, ec1L 1onLko
cy6c1anunn n npoc1panc1aa 6es rpannu.
91
Poxpenne npepc1aanne1 co6o 1paaHa1nueckoe co6m1ne,
napyuakuee a1o paanoaecne. Ono papnkanLno nsHenne1
okpyxenne n npnnyxpae1 nop yrposo cHep1n k no-
amH qopHaH apan1aunn. D1o pae1 Hounm 1onuok paspe-
nennk Hexpy nnpnanpoH n okpyxenneH nnn no kpane
Hepe snaun1enLno ero yckopne1. Hs cHeuennn cy6c1anun
n napyuenno rapHonnn 6esrpannunmx npoc1panc1a na-
unnak1 nonann1Lcn o6Lek1m, a 1oH uncne Dro. O6Lek1m
no cpaanennk c 6onee 6naropacnonoxennmHn cy6c1an-
unnHn o6napak1 npounmHn ouep1annnHn n ue1knHn rpa-
nnuaHn, ko1opme o1nmne nyxno npnsnaaa1L n yaaxa1L.
TenepL nn6npo yxe ne nsnnaae1cn ns Hp a okpyxenne ro-
HorennmH no1okoH; a ero no1oke nop annnnneH aosnn-
kakunx o6Lek1oa nonannk1cn cryuennn n paspexennn.
Korpa pasanaakunecn o1nouennn c aneHen1oH okpyxe-
nnn nnn o6Lek1oH coc1aannk1 6onesnennm kon1pac1 c
npexnnH coc1onnneH 6esHn1exno rapHonnn, nannkun-
cn pesynL1a1oH npnnyxpennn k noao qopHe apan1aunn,
nn6npo Hoxe1 6m1L o1aepeno a Dro, u1o pae1 nauano pas-
an1nk nnn yckopne1 ero, a a1oH coc1on1 caoero popa
nonm1ka aosapa1a uyac1aa 1oxpec1aa, caoc1aennan
nepamH c1apnnH. Besycnoano, a1a uac1L nn6npo 6ype1
napunccnuecko, no no o1nouennk k ncxopnoHy ka1ekcn-
cy okpyxennn a1opnuno.
TaknH o6pasoH, aosHoxnm ue1mpe anpa nn6npnnosnoro
ka1ekcnca, na6nkpaeHoro a panneH Hnapenuec1ae: (a)
uac1L ncxopnoro ka1ekcnca okpyxennn nepenocn1cn na
nonannkunecn o6Lek1m; (6) ppyran uac1L ncxopnoro ka-
1ekcnca okpyxennn a kauec1ae a1opnunmx cpepc1a cHnr-
uennn qpyc1paunn o1aopn1cn a Dro a1o napunccnue-
ckn n ay1oapo1nueckn ka1ekcnc n (a) noa1opnm ka1ek-
cnc, ncxopn1 ns a1opnunoro napunccnsHa Dro. KpoHe a1nx
poaonLno xopouo nsyuennmx qopH ka1ekcnca, ec1L eue
ue1aep1m, a pesynL1a1e ko1oporo qopHnpyk1cn oknoqn-
nnueckne n qnno6a1nueckne c1pyk1ypm Hnpa (Balint,
92
1959). Xo1n nepanunm ka1ekcnc oknoqnnnuecko c1pyk-
1ypm Hnpa n coepnnen c nspnpno pone 1peaorn, on, no-
anpnHoHy, oc1ae1cn npouno cansannmH c nonannkunHncn
o6Lek1aHn, ko1opme aocnpnnnHak1cn kak 6esonacnme n
koHqop1nme, 1orpa kak npoc1panc1ao Hexpy nnHn nann-
e1cn nc1ounnkoH yrposm n yxaca. B qnno6a1nueckoH Hn-
pe npoc1panc1aa 6es o6Lek1oa ypepxnaak1 ncxopnm
nepanunm ka1ekcnc, onn aocnpnnnHak1cn kak 6esonac-
nme n 6naropacnonoxennme, 1orpa kak o6Lek1m nonnm
yrposm n aeponoHc1aa.
Tak kak a o1cy1c1ane o6Lek1oa oknoqnn uyac1aye1 ce6n
no1epnnnmH n nopaeprakunHcn onacnoc1n, 1o npn nx no-
nanennn on uennne1cn sa nnx, nn1poeunpye1 nx; no-
anpnHoHy, on am6npae1 ns6m1ounoe ka1ek1npoaanne cao-
nx o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn. [pyro 1nn, qnno6a1, upes-
Hepno ka1ek1npye1 qynkunn Dro, on aecLHa npeycneaae1
na a1oH nonpnue. Tak kak ero o6Lek1m okasmaak1 eHy
nesnaun1enLnyk noHouL nn6o aoace ne okasmaak1 ee, on
ponxen 6m1L a coc1onnnn noppepxa1L ce6n 6es noc1o-
ponne noHoun. HHenno na a1oH ocnoaannn qopHnpyk1-
cn kak apnnoa koHnnekc, 1ak, aosHoxno, n o6nac1L cosn-
pannn (cH. rnaay 5). D1o nocnepnee o6c1on1enLc1ao Ho-
xe1 noaneuL sa co6o perpeccnk k coc1onnnk rapHonn-
ueckoro ckpeuennn, npncyuero 6onee pannnH c1apnnH, a
kauec1ae nepaoro uara yxopa o1 o6Lek1oa, ko1opme oka-
sanncL cnnukoH rpy6mHn n qpyc1pnpykunHn. 3a a1nH
cnepye1 nonm1ka cosnpannn uero-1o nyuuero, 6onee po6-
poro, nonn1noro, kpacnaoro n npexpe acero 6onee nocne-
poaa1enLnoro, c1okoro n rapHonnunoro, no cpaanennk c
peanLnmHn o6Lek1aHn. K coxanennk, ne acerpa a1a no-
nm1ka 6maae1 ycneuno; ropaspo uaue 1o, u1o cospae1-
cn, 6maae1 ne nyuue, no paxe xyxe ropLko peanLnoc1n.
BosHoxno, u1o 6onLunnc1ao o6Lek1oa nannk1cn 6espas-
nnunmHn (nnpnqqepen1nmHn) nnn paxe qpyc1pnpykun-
Hn, no neko1opme ns nnx npnnocn1 ypoane1aopenne; ecnn
93
sa6o1a o pe6enke ne o1nnuae1cn peqnun1oH annHannn n
1enna, 1o ncxopnm nepanunm ka1ekcnc aneHen1oa ok-
pyxennn Hoxe1 6m1L coxpanen. D1n aneHen1m c1anoan1cn
1eH, u1o n nasmaak nepanunmHn o6Lek1aHn, o1nouennn
cy6Lek1a c 1aknHn o6Lek1aHn nnn c nx nponsaopnmHn a
6onee nospnne nepnopm xnsnn acerpa npepc1aannk1 co-
6o neu1o oco6oe, 1ounee, neu1o 6onee npnHn1nanoe, ueH
o1nouenne k ueHy 6m 1o nn 6mno eue a a1oH Hnpe. Hep-
anunmH o6Lek1oH nanne1cn npexpe acero Ha1L cy6Lek1a;
npnHeua1enLno, u1o pnn Hnornx nkpe 1akne o6Lek1m
npepc1aannk1 co6o cnHaonm apxanuno Ha1epn: aopy,
seHnk, aospyx, pexe oronL. H xo1en 6m, sa6eran ane-
pep, amckasa1L npepnonoxenne, u1o na onpepenennmx
qasax ypoane1aopn1enLnoro anann1nueckoro neuennn
anann1nk npnnnHae1 ponxen npnnn1L kauec1aa nep-
anunoro o6Lek1a. H aepnycL k a1o 1eHe a rnaae 13 n a
uac1nx IV n V.
Hpexpe ueH npoponxn1L nsnoxenne, n xouy npnaec1n ne-
ko1opme knnnnueckne n nnnranc1nueckne na6nkpennn T.
[on (T. Doi, 1962). On coo6uae1, u1o a nnonckoH nsmke
ec1L ouenL npoc1oe, noacepneanoe cnoao amaeru , ne-
nepexopnm rnaron, o6osnauakun xena1L nk6an nnn
napen1Lcn na nee, npn a1oH nHee1cn a anpy nepanunan
nk6oaL. Cyuec1an1enLnmH, nponsaopnmH o1 a1oro rnaro-
na, nanne1cn amae , a npnnara1enLnoe amai osnauae1
cnapkn. D1n cnoaa nac1onLko o6ueyno1pe6n1enLnm,
u1o nnonum c 1pypoH Hory1 noaepn1L, u1o a eaponecknx
nsmkax o1cy1c1aye1 cnoao, ananornunoe amaeru . Bonee
1oro, a nnonckoH nsmke ec1L 6ora1an nekcnka, oxaa1m-
aakuan o1nouennn n nac1poennn, aosnnkakune npn
qpyc1paunn nnn neo6xopnHoc1n nopaanennn xenannn
amaeru . Bce a1n konnnsnn nsaec1nm n na 3anape, no Hm
ne HoxeH ampasn1L nx npn noHoun npoc1mx cnoa, pasae
u1o npn6eran k 1aknH cnoxnmH qpasaH, kak nanpnHep:
On Hpauen nnn pye1cn, no1oHy u1o uyac1aye1, u1o eHy
94
ne nosaoneno amkasa1L caoe xenanne amaeru 1aknH cno-
co6oH, kaknH eHy xo1enocL 6m cpena1L a1o; noa1oHy on
sa1ann a ce6e pyueanyk 6onL, nHekuyk, aosHoxno, Ha-
soxnc1ckyk npnpopy n 1. p. [on po6aanne1, u1o, cornac-
no ero nnqopHaunn, a coc1aae kopeckoro nsmka, nsmka
anoa n, aosHoxno, kn1ackoro ec1L ananornunme cnoaa.
TenepL aepneHcn k naue ocnoano 1eHe. He ncknkueno,
u1o noppepxanne npnHn1nanmx o1nouenn ncknkun1enL-
no Hexpy payHn nepconaHn 1pe6ye1 o1 Hnapenua na pan-
nnx c1apnnx noc1na1anLno xnsnn kpanero nanpnxennn
ero pasanaakunxcn cnoco6noc1e. Kak o6cyxpanocL a
rnaae 10, aosHoxno, nHenno specL naxopn1cn 1ouka per-
peccnn npn unsoqpennn. Ha npo1nxennn Hnornx ne1 n
cun1an, u1o ec1L 1onLko opnn 1nn npnHn1nanmx o1noue-
nn Hexpy payHn nepconaHn, 1nn, ko1opm 1enepL n na-
smaak oknoqnnne. B paHkax a1nx o1nouenn a 1ounoH
coo1ae1c1ann c onncanneH o6Lek1 npepc1aanne1cn xns-
nenno neo6xopnHo noppepxko. k6an aosHoxnoc1L
cenapaunn amsmaae1 nn1encnanyk 1peaory, a kauec1ae
saun1no Hepm a 1ako cn1yaunn nan6onee uac1o npn6e-
rak1 k uennnnnk. C ppyro c1oponm, ka1ekcnc o6Lek1a,
o1aneuennm o1 nepanunmx cy6c1anun, nac1onLko ae-
nnk, u1o o1 o6Lek1a naunnak1 oxnpa1L, u1o on ne c1ane1
npnunno 6ecnokoc1aa n osa6ouennoc1n, ne 6ype1 o6na-
pa1L caonHn, o1nnunmHn o1 nnpnanpa nn1epecaHn; o6L-
ek1 npoc1o ponxen 6m1L a nannunn, n a1o npnnnHae1cn
kak caHo co6o pasyHekueecn. Hocnepc1annHn 1akoro
1nna o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn nannk1cn (a) saamuennan
ouenka o6Lek1a, ne o6nsa1enLno cansannan c ns6m1ou-
nmH ka1ek1npoaanneH napunccnuecknH nn6npo, n (6) ne-
ko1opan sapepxka a pasan1nn 1ex naamkoa nnpnanpa, ko-
1opme Hornn 6m cnoco6c1aoaa1L nesaancnHoc1n o1 o6Lek-
1oa.
3a nocnepnne npnHepno nn1napua1L ne1 n npnuen k am-
aopy o cyuec1aoaannn a1oporo 1nna npnHn1nanmx o6L-
95
ek1nmx o1nouenn, 1ounee, o1nouenn c okpyxenneH.
[nn a1oro 1nna n npepnoxnn 1epHnn qnno6a1nsH. B
a1oH cnyuae o6Lek1m npepc1ak1 6espasnnunmHn nnn pa-
xe koaapnmHn n nenapexnmHn, necyunHn yrposy, nx
nyuue ns6era1L. Hoa1oHy nnpnanp amnyxpen pasanaa1L
co6c1aennme naamkn 1o ec1L caoe Dro pnn 1oro, u1o-
6m coxpann1L nnn cnoaa o6pec1n coc1onnne rapHonnn nnn
cao6opy nepeHeuennn a npoc1panc1aax, rpe ne1 o6Lek-
1oa, a 1aknx, kak ropm, nyc1mnn, Hope, aospyx n 1. n., o1-
nocnunxcn k knaccy no1enunanLno nepanunmx o6Lek1oa
nnn, npaannLnee, nepanunmx cy6c1anun. Opnako o6L-
ek1nme o1nouennn cy6Lek1a aHec1e c 1eH Hory1 napy-
un1Lcn.
O6uan uep1a acex npnHn1nanmx qopH o6Lek1nmx o1no-
uenn coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o o6Lek1 a a1nx o1nouennnx npn-
nnHae1cn kak neu1o caHo co6o pasyHekueecn. BosHox-
noc1L cyuec1aoaannn ne1panLnoro o6Lek1a, ko1opm
uepes pa6o1y oanapennn ponxen c1a1L co1pypnnuak-
unH nap1nepoH, paxe ne noppasyHeaae1cn. B a1nx rap-
Honnunmx o1nouennnx Hexpy payHn nepconaHn 1onLko
opna c1opona Hoxe1 nHe1L caon co6c1aennme xenannn,
nn1epecm n sanpocm; 1o, u1o ppyran c1opona, o6Lek1 nnn
noppepxnaakuee npoc1panc1ao, aa1oHa1nueckn 6ype1
o6napa1L 1eHn xe caHmHn xenannnHn, nn1epecaHn n
oxnpannnHn, npnnnHae1cn kak nekan pannoc1L, ne 1pe-
6ykuan npoaepkn. BnpnHo, noa1oHy 1akoe coc1onnne
uac1o nasmaak1 aceHoryuec1aoH. Ho-HoeHy, a1o onpepe-
nenne sayun1 pncconancoH, aepL specL ne1 uyac1aa ana-
c1n n, no cy1n, ne1 nyxpm nn a Horyuec1ae, nn a ycnnnn,
no1oHy u1o ace coc1on1 a rapHonnn.
Peakunn na nk6yk nec1mkoaky nnn pncrapHonnk Hexpy
cy6Lek1oH n o6Lek1oH 6ype1 coc1on1L a pesknx n nn1en-
cnanmx aneunnx nponanennnx, ko1opme naaopn1 na
HmcnL o6 arpeccnano, pec1pyk1nano n a6conk1no pe-
snn1erpnpykue npnpope c1onunx sa nnHn npoueccoa,
96
6yp1o n caHoc1L n aecL Hnp pas6n1m appe6esrn, 6yp1o
nnpnanp sa1onnen unc1mHn a6conk1nmHn arpeccnano-
pec1pyk1nanmHn nHnynLcaHn. Hanpo1na, npn o1cy1c1ann
snaun1enLnmx aneunnx aospec1an, napyuakunx co-
c1onnne rapHonnn, peakunn saknkuae1cn a uyac1ae no-
kon, 1nxoro 6narononyunn, ko1opme aecLHa nenpnHe1nm,
nx 1pypno na6nkpa1L.
D1o o1nnune, ampaxennoe cpepc1aaHn nsmka aspocnoro
uenoaeka, sayuano 6m npn6nnsn1enLno 1ak: Menn ponx-
nm nk6n1L n sa6o1n1cn o6o Hne ace 1e, k1o nHee1 pnn
Henn 6onLuoe snauenne. Hnk1o ne Hoxe1 1pe6oaa1L o1
Henn sa a1o ycnnn nnn kako-1o nna1m. Y nkpe, ko1o-
pme 1ak aaxnm pnn Henn, nn6o aoace ne ponxno 6m1L nn-
1epecoa, xenann n no1pe6noc1e, ko1opme o1nnuanncL
6m o1 Honx co6c1aennmx, nn6o onn ponxnm nHe1L a1opo-
c1enennoe snauenne. Hpn a1oH y Honx 6nnsknx ne Hoxe1
aosnnka1L uyac1aa neropoaannn nnn nanpnxennn, no1oHy
u1o, nopnaxnaancL k HonH xenannnH, onn ponxnm nony-
ua1L ypoaonLc1ane n papoc1L. HHek1 snauenne 1onLko
Hon xenannn, nn1epecm n no1pe6noc1n. Ecnn ace nponc-
xopn1 nHenno 1ak, 1o n uyac1ayk ce6n xopouo, Hne npn-
n1no, n cuac1nna, no n 1onLko. B npo1nanoH xe cnyuae
Henn oxnpae1 kouHap, no 1orpa copporne1cn n aecL
Hnp.
HoHnn o 1oH, u1o npoponxakunecn na a1o qase rapHo-
nnunme o1nouennn Hexpy cy6Lek1oH n o6Lek1oH nnn He-
xpy cy6Lek1oH n npoc1panc1aoH 1ak xe aaxnm, kak n
c1a6nnLnoe cna6xenne aospyxoH, Hm noHeH, o1uero
nHek1 Hec1o a1n peskne, nenc1oame n arpeccnanme
aneunne nponanennn, korpa napyuae1cn rapHonnn Hexpy
cy6Lek1oH n ero nepanunmH o6Lek1oH nnn cy6c1anune.
Hepanunme o1nouennn nac1onLko aaxnm pnn cy6Lek1a,
u1o acnkoe aHeua1enLc1ao co c1oponm, npo1naopeuauee
ero no1pe6noc1nH nnn xenannnH, 6ype1 neamnocnHo pnn
97
nero, n on 6ype1 npoc1o amnyxpen npn6erny1L k o1uann-
nmH HepaH.
KaknH o6pasoH a a1nx o1nouennnx aosnnkae1 nenaanc1L?
Henaanc1L osnauae1 1y xe qnkcaunk 6esycnoano saan-
cnHoc1n o1 nepanuno nk6an, c opnnH o1nnuneH: ee snak
nsHenne1cn na npo1naononoxnm. Kak n o1Heuan a caoe
pa6o1e O nk6an n nenaanc1n (Balint M., 1951), opnnx
1onLko any1pennnx nsHenenn apnp nn 6ype1 poc1a1ouno
pnn 1oro, u1o6m ocao6opn1L nnpnanpa o1 qnkcaunn na
ero nenaanc1n, specL neo6xopnHo copec1ane co c1oponm
okpyxennn. B pepknx cnyuanx kakne-nn6ypL aneunne co-
6m1nn Hory1 cnyuano npnaec1n k nsHenennnH a okpyxe-
nnn nnpnanpa, opnako pnn a1oro neo6xopnHo c1onL pep-
koe c1euenne o6c1on1enLc1a, u1o aepon1noc1L 1akoro aa-
pnan1a a peanLnoc1n ouenL Hana. Epnnc1aenno cn1yaun-
e, a ko1opo o1 aneunero okpyxennn Hoxno oxnpa1L
naHepennoro n nocnepoaa1enLnoro cornacnn c npnpnpun-
amHn 1pe6oaannnHn, nanne1cn anann1nueckan cn1yaunn,
oco6enno a qase noaoro nauana. TonLko a 1oH cnyuae,
ecnn anann1nky ypae1cn npaannLno pearnpoaa1L na npn-
Hn1nanme, nepeannc1nunme xenannn naunen1a, naunen1
nonyuae1 noppepxky a npeoponennn 1nroc1noro nepaaen-
c1aa Hexpy nnH n ero okpyxenneH. Hpn a1oH saancnHoc1L
naunen1a o1 ero nepanunoro o6Lek1a, ko1opan o1mrpmaa-
e1cn na nauanLno qase anann1nueckoro npouecca, Hoxe1
cyuec1aenno ocna6e1L nnn paxe aoace ncuesny1L. Korpa
nepaaenc1ao n saancnHoc1L npeoponenm, neo6xopnHoc1L
a kako-nn6o saun1e npo1na nnx o1napae1. TonLko 1orpa,
no 6onLuoHy cue1y, aosHoxno o1kasa1Lcn o1 nenaanc1n, a
pesynL1a1e uero Hoxe1 6m1L cnnxena nn1encnanoc1L ar-
peccnanmx, pec1pyk1nanmx nHnynLcoa.
Ecnn Hon 1eopnn aepna, 1o Hoxno oxnpa1L, u1o a kaxpoH
cnyuae anann1nuecko 1epannn, a ko1opoH perpeccnn no-
saoneno am1n sa onpepenennme paHkn, Hoxno ac1pe1n1L
ace 1pn anpa o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn nan6onee npnHn-
98
1nanoe rapHonnunoe asanHnoe ckpeuenne, oknoqnnnue-
ckoe uennnnne sa o6Lek1m n qnno6a1nueckoe npepnou1e-
nne 6eso6Lek1nmx npoc1panc1a. Ha caHoH pene n npnuen
k Hoe 1eopnn kpyxnmH ny1eH: n noc1ponn a1y konuen-
unk, asna sa ocnoay na6nkpennn ns caoe anann1nue-
cko npak1nkn, rpe n o6napyxnn a1n 1pn 1nna o1nouenn
ko Hne n k okpyxennk.
Kakoe xe Hec1o a a1o 1eopnn sannHae1 napunccnsH? H
nonarak, u1o acnkn napunccnsH nanne1cn a1opnunmH no
o1nouennk k caHoHy npnHn1nanoHy 1nny o1nouenn, a
nHenno rapHonnunoHy asanHnoHy ckpeuennk. Henocpep-
c1aenno ero npnunno acerpa nannk1cn 1pennn Hexpy
nnpnanpoH n ero okpyxenneH. D1o aepe1 k qpyc1paunn,
acnepc1ane uero nnpnanp npnxopn1 k pnqqepenunaunn
1oro, u1o npexpe 6mno rapHonnunmH ckpeuenneH caHo-
c1n n okpyxakue cpepm, on o1aopn1 uac1n caoero ka-
1ekcnca o1 okpyxennn n nnaec1npye1 nx a pasanaakuee-
cn Dro.
Fnaaa 13. Bspocnan nm6oau
B pa6o1e O napunccnsHe Opep nncan: ... 6m1L nk6n-
HmH coc1aanne1 uenL n pae1 ypoane1aopenne npn [nap-
unccnueckoH] am6ope o6Lek1a (Standard Edition, XIV, p.
98). D1o, koneuno xe, eue opno 6esynpeunoe knnnnue-
ckoe na6nkpenne, opnako, c 1oukn spennn 1eopnn, ono
neckonLko non sequitur. Hapunccnueckn am6op o6Lek1a
osnauae1, u1o a kauec1ae o6Lek1a nk6an cy6Lek1 am6n-
pae1 caHoro ce6n nnn koro-1o, k1o npepc1aanne1 cy6Lek1a
nn6o nanne1cn nponsaopnmH o1 nero. B 1o xe apeHn ns
1eopnn napunccnsHa ne cnepye1 c neo6xopnHoc1Lk, u1o
cy6Lek1 ponxen xena1L 6m1L nk6nHmH ppyrnHn. Hanpo-
1na, nockonLky on o1aen caoe nn6npo o1 aneunero Hnpa
nnn, ampaxancL nnaue, ne ka1ek1npye1 aneunn Hnp,
1onLko on caH nnn nek1o, npepc1aannkun ero, Hoxe1
99
nHe1L snauenne. ornuno 6mno 6m npepnonoxn1L, u1o oc-
1aauancn uac1L ero okpyxennn 6ype1 6onee nnn Henee
6espasnnuno pnn nero. B a1oH coc1on1 eue opno any1-
pennee npo1naopeune, npncyuee 1eopnn nepanunoro
napunccnsHa.
Bcn knnnnueckan nn1epa1ypa, nocanuennan napunccnsHy,
1o ec1L a1opnunoHy napunccnsHy, npepc1aanne1 snako-
Hyk kap1nny npeaocxopnmx, nerko noppakunxcn npoaep-
ke na6nkpenn, c 1pypoH pasHeuakunxcn na npokpyc1o-
aoH noxe nepanunoro napunccnsHa. Annn Pax (Annie
Reich, 1953), nanpnHep, roaopn1, u1o na porenn1anLnoH
ypoane cekcyanLnoro pasan1nn o6Lek1m aronc1nueckn
ncnonLsyk1cn cy6Lek1oH pnn co6c1aennoro ypoane1aope-
nnn; nn1epecm o6Lek1oa eue ne Hory1 6m1L yu1enm; na-
smaaeH nn Hm 1akoe noaepenne qnkcaune na porenn-
1anLnoH ypoane, o6Lek1nmHn o1nouennnHn nnn napunc-
cnuecknH noaepenneH, a1o aonpoc 1epHnnonornn?
Ona po6aanne1: Ha a1nx pannnx ypoannx uaue ac1peua-
k1cn naccnanme yc1anoakn, ueH ak1nanoe c1peHnenne k
o6Lek1y (Tbid., p. 22-24).
H coHneaakcL a 1oH, u1o Hory1 6m1L o6napyxenm nornue-
ckne cansn Hexpy 1aknHn knnnnuecknHn qak1aHn, kak
naccnanoe xenanne 6m1L nk6nHmH, aronc1nueckoe nc-
nonLsoaanne o6Lek1oa, necnoco6noc1L co6nkpennn nx
nn1epecoa, a 1akxe npeo6napanne yc1anoaok naccnanoro
oxnpannn nap ak1nanmH c1peHnenneH k ypoane1aopennk,
n 1eopne nepanunoro napunccnsHa, ko1opan y1aepxpae1,
u1o ace nn6npo ckonuen1pnpoaano nn6o a Dro, nn6o a Hp,
nn6o a caHoc1n.
Mne 1akxe nenonn1no, noueHy c 1oukn spennn naue
1eopnn ne nHee1 snauennn, onncmaaeH nn Hm a1n knnnn-
ueckne qak1m kak qnkcaunk na porenn1anLnoH ypoane,
kak o6Lek1nme o1nouennn nnn kak napunccnsH, n noueHy
ace a1o ponxno caopn1Lcn 1onLko k aonpocy 1epHnnono-
100
rnn. Hapnpy c nocnepnnH y1aepxpenneH n nosaonnn 6m
ce6e noa1opn1L, u1o specL Hm c1anknaaeHcn c ec1ec1aen-
nmH cnepc1aneH npnHenennn ueHopanno 1eopnn, ka-
ko n nanne1cn 1eopnn nepanunoro napunccnsHa. Hepep
1eH kak o1npaan1Lcn a ny1euec1ane, neo6xopnHo onpepe-
nn1Lcn c 1eH, u1o nyxno cnoxn1L a ueHopanm, n ynako-
aa1Lcn a coo1ae1c1ann c a1nH nepeuneH. Ecnn xe ano-
cnepc1ann appyr okaxe1cn, u1o nHee1cn neo6xopnHoc1L a
ueH-1o eue, 1o ne oc1ae1cn nnuero ppyroro, kak npno6pe-
c1n neo6xopnHoe yxe en route.
Hepeuncnennme amue qak1m xopouo cornacyk1cn c 1eo-
pne nepanuno nk6an. Oak1nueckn onn Hory1 6m1L
npepckasanm ek n, 1aknH o6pasoH, a1n qak1m Hoxno
npnnn1L a kauec1ae nop1aepxpakunx pokasa1enLc1a.
Haccnanme yc1anoakn n no1pe6noc1L 6m1L nk6nHmH,
napnpy c aronc1nunmHn qopHaHn nk6an n necnoco6no-
c1Lk yun1maa1L nn1epecm nnn 6narononyune o6Lek1a,
npepc1aannk1 co6o neo1LeHneHyk uac1L o1nouennn k
nepanunoHy o6Lek1y. Kak n yxe o1Heuan, npe1ensnn
cy6Lek1a ao acex 1pex qopHax npnHn1nanmx o1nouenn
rapHonnueckoH asanHnoH ckpeuennn, oknoqnnnn n
qnno6a1nsHe, coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o6m eHy 6mno nosaone-
no o1nocn1Lcn k caonH o6Lek1aH nnn okpyxennk kak k
ueHy-1o caHo co6o pasyHekueHycn. Hepanunme o6Lek1m
npoc1o ne Hory1 nHe1L caon co6c1aennme nn1epecm;
epnnc1aennan nx sa6o1a, uero 6m a1o nH nn c1onno,
ponxna saknkua1Lcn a coxpanennn coc1onnnn rapHonnn.
TaknH o6pasoH, okonua1enLnan uenL acex nn6npnnosnmx
yc1peHnenn coc1on1 a coxpanennn nnn aocc1anoanennn
nsnauanLno rapHonnn. H nosaonk ce6e eue pas npoun-
1npoaa1L Annn Pax, ko1opan 1ak onncmaae1 uyac1ao akc-
1asa, conpoaoxpakuee oprasH: B a1oH coc1onnnn xen-
ckan nnpnanpyanLnoc1L 6yp1o 6m npekpauae1 caoe cyue-
c1aoaanne, xenunna uyac1aye1 ce6n cnnauecn c Hyxun-
no (Ibid., p. 27). Ona cpaannaae1 a1o nnio mystica c
101
1eH, u1o Opep nasaan okeannuecknH uyac1aoH cnnn-
nneH ce6n c HnpoH, c nepanunmH o6Lek1oH, n a1o cansano
c apeHennmH o1kasoH o1 paspennkunx rpannu (Ibid., p.
27). H nosaonk ce6e noa1opn1Lcn, u1o a1o knnnnueckoe
na6nkpenne, nannncL ec1ec1aennmH cnepc1aneH 1eopnn
nepanuno nk6an, 1akxe ponxno 6mno 6m sann1L caoe
Hec1o a ueHopane 1eopnn nepanunoro napunccnsHa.
HHenno a1o unio mystica (Hnc1nueckoe coepnnenne), aoc-
c1anoanenne rapHonnunoro ckpeuennn Hexpy nnpnanpoH
n nan6onee aaxno uac1Lk okpyxennn, o6Lek1oH ero
nk6an, n coc1aanne1 c1peHnenne, paspenneHoe aceH ue-
noaeuec1aoH. 1o6m poc1nuL ero, ne1panLnm nnn paxe
apaxpe6nm o6Lek1 ponxen 6m1L npeo6pasoaan a co-
1pypnnuakuero nap1nepa nocpepc1aoH 1oro, u1o n nasaan
pa6o1o saaoeaannn (Balint M., 1948). Tak o6Lek1 c1ano-
an1cn nap1nepoH, ko1opm na kako-1o Hanm npoHexy-
1ok apeHenn amnyxpen cornacn1Lcn c 1eH, u1o ero npn-
nnHak1 kak neu1o caHo co6o pasyHekueecn, cun1an, u1o
ero nn1epecm nonnoc1Lk coanapak1 c nn1epecaHn nnpn-
anpa. kpn snaun1enLno pasnnuak1cn no caonH naamkaH,
1pe6ykunHcn pnn a1oro saaoeaannn, n, kak cnepc1ane,
ne kaxpm cnoco6en k nepnopnueckoHy poc1nxennk op-
rasHa nnn rapHonnunmx nap1nepcknx o1nouenn. Bce xe
cyuec1aye1 nan6onee pacnpoc1panennm cnoco6 aocc1a-
noanennn nepanunoro rapHonnueckoro ckpeuennn.
B xnsnn aspocnoro uenoaeka ec1L n ppyrne ny1n pnn poc-
1nxennn a1o okonua1enLno uenn, ace onn 1pe6yk1 on-
pepenennmx naamkoa n 1anan1oa. D1o n pennrnosnoe
apoxnoaenne, n aosamuennme HoHen1m 1aopuec1aa xy-
poxnnka, a 1akxe onpepenennme nepnopm perpeccnn y
naunen1oa ao apeHn anann1nueckoro neuennn. HecHo1pn
na 1o, u1o ao acex a1nx coc1onnnnx cospae1cn aneua1ne-
nne napunccnueckoro yxopa, 1ak kak nnpnanp cocpepo-
1ouen na caHoH ce6e, o6uan nx qynpaHen1anLnan uep-
1a coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o nnpnanp a a1n ouenL kpa1kne npo-
102
Hexy1kn apeHenn Hoxe1 ncnm1a1L nepexnaanne nc1nnno-
ro n qak1nueckoro ncuesnoaennn acnko pncrapHonnn,
ouy1n1L na Hrnoaenne coaepuennoe nonnHanne, nonnoe
rapHonnunoe cnnnnne c oc1anLnmH HnpoH.

1. Opep npepnoxnn c opnnakoao c1enenLk ka1eropnu-
noc1n 1pn 1eopnn, o6Lncnnkune nan6onee npnHn1nanme
o1nouennn nnpnanpa n ero okpyxennn. K nnH o1nocn1cn
1eopnn nepanunmx o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn, 1eopnn nep-
anunoro ay1oapo1nsHa n 1eopnn nepanunoro napunccnsHa.
Xo1n a1n 1pn konuenunn naxopn1cn ao asanHnoH npo1n-
aopeunn, Opep nnkorpa ne o6cyxpan pannm qak1 a
caonx ny6nnkaunnx.
2. BHec1o 1oro u1o6m npepnpnnn1L nonm1ky cnn1esa a1nx
konuenun, Opep o1pan npepnou1enne 1eopnn nepanu-
noro napunccnsHa. Ay1oapo1nsH 6mn onpepenen kak xa-
pak1epnc1nka ypoane1aopennn na qase nepanunoro nap-
unccnsHa, 1orpa kak nk6me o6Lek1nme o1nouennn, nesa-
ancnHo o1 1oro, k kakoHy 1nny onn o1nocn1cn, anaknn1n-
ueckoHy nnn napunccnueckoHy, paccHa1pnaanncL kak
a1opnunme. Takoe 1eope1nueckoe noc1poenne copepxn1 a
ce6e neckonLko any1pennnx npo1naopeun, n nn opno ns
nnx ne 6mno npnsnano OpepoH. B nocnepnne ropm a1n
npo1naopeunn 6mnn saHeuenm, na nnx ykasmaann Iap1-
Hann, Kpnc n aenu1en, noHnHo a1oro, onn npepnoxn-
nn noayk 1epHnnonornk, ko1opan xo1n n paspeunna ne-
ko1opme c1apme npo6neHm, no, anpnHo, cospana noame.
3. HepecHo1p apryHen1oa a nonLsy cyuec1aoaannn nep-
anunoro napunccnsHa, ko1opme npnaopnn Opep n cnepoH
sa nnH ppyrne aa1opm-anann1nkn, nokasan, u1o a1n apry-
Hen1m pokasmaak1 1onLko cyuec1aoaanne a1opnunoro
napunccnsHa. Perpeccnanme coc1onnnn npn unsoqpennn
n ao apeHn cna 6es cnoanpenn nannk1cn payHn ncknk-
103
uennnHn, ko1opme ne Hory1 6m1L o6Lncnenm ncxopn
1onLko ns npepc1aanenn o a1opnunoH napunccnsHe; oka-
sanocL, opnako, u1o paxe a a1nx payx cnyuanx perpeccnn
o1nocn1cn a 6onLue c1enenn k npnHn1nanmH qopHaH
o1nouenn, ueH k nepanunoHy napunccnsHy.
4. Tak kak knnnnueckne na6nkpennn ne Hory1 npepoc1a-
an1L poc1a1ouno napexnoro ocnoaannn pnn npnnn1nn 1eo-
pnn nepanunoro napunccnsHa, anann1nueckan 1eopnn
npn6erae1 k npneHy o1necennn a1oro qenoHena k nepno-
py aH6pnonanLno qasm. Tua1enLnoe nccnepoaanne
nHekunxcn pannmx nosaonne1 npepnonoxn1L, u1o 1eopnn
nepanunoro napunccnsHa ne cnepye1 c neo6xopnHoc1Lk
ns pannmx a1nx na6nkpenn, xo1n n cornacye1cn c nnHn.
Hpepnoxena 1eopnn nepanuno nk6an, ko1opan, no-
anpnHoHy, 6onee coo1ae1c1aye1 na6nkpaeHmH qak1aH.
5. D1a 1eopnn nosaonne1 o6Lncnn1L 6onLuee uncno knn-
nnuecknx qak1oa, o1kpmaan ny1L k nx nn1erpaunn, u1o
coc1aanne1 y6epn1enLnm apryHen1 a nonLsy ee napex-
noc1n. K 1aknH knnnnuecknH qak1aH o1nocn1cn: onm1 1e-
pannn 6onLnmx unsoqpenne, ankoronnsHoH, napunc-
cnuecknx naunen1oa, a 1akxe pasnnunme Hopnqnkaunn
1exnnkn, npepnoxennme neckonLknHn aa1opaHn, ko1opme
nosaonnk1 naunen1y yc1anoan1L 1epanea1nueckn aqqek-
1nanme o1nouennn a anann1nuecko cn1yaunn.
6. H, nakoneu, a pannmx nccnepoaannn apo1nuecko xns-
nn uenoaeka Hm nHeeH neko1opoe pononnn1enLnoe nop-
1aepxpenne 1eopnn nepanuno nk6an.
104
Hac1u III. Hponac1u u peakuu aua-
nu1uka ua uee
Fnaaa 14. Perpeccun u pe6euok a na-
ueu1e
O6muno a anann1nuecko cn1yaunn na anann1nka noxn1-
cn rpys koHHynnkaun, ko1opme ne acerpa ocyuec1ann-
k1cn nocpepc1aoH cnoa. Tonepan1noc1L k nopo6nmH
aeuaH nHee1 onpepenennme nocnepc1ann. Han6onee aax-
noe, aepon1no, 1o, u1o nopo6nan nonn1nka o1kpmaae1
paepn pnn o1mrpmaannn, ko1opoe 1oxpec1aenno perpec-
cnn, n6o cnoaa acerpa nannk1cn 6onee speno qopHo
koHHynnkaunn, no cpaanennk c pec1aneH nnn paxe xec-
1oH.
Boo6ue roaopn, npouecc c1anoanennn n pasan1nn kynL1y-
pm cansan c 1enpenune k yHenLuennk qnsnuecko Hac-
cm, 1o ec1L k yHenLuennk ponn Hmueuno aneprnn a am-
paxennn kako-1o npen, aneua1nennn nnn coo6uennn.
eH HenLue sapec1aoaano Hmueuno Haccm a panxe-
nnn, 1eH 6onee ono c1anoan1cn y1onuennmH n nsnunmH.
Mmuum peueaoro annapa1a, no cpaanennk c oc1anLnmHn
105
ckene1nmHn HmuuaHn, o6napak1 nanHenLue Hacco n
nannk1cn caHmHn 1onknHn n nsnunmHn, noa1oHy nx ak-
1naaunn 1pe6ye1, no cpaanennk c pa6o1o ppyrnx Hmuu,
HenLue aneprnn. Opnako npouecc cospeaannn na a1oH ne
oc1anaannaae1cn. Pe6enok nnn nepao6m1nm uenoaek
npexpe acero naunnae1 nspaaa1L kpnkn nnn aosrnacm
aHec1o 1oro, u1o6m coaepua1L kakne-1o pec1ann, 1o ec1L
yun1cn ampaxa1L aHounn c 1o xe nn1encnanoc1Lk, no
npn a1oH o6xopn1Lcn HenLunH o6LeHoH sapec1aoaanno
qnsnuecko Haccm n pacxopoaa1L HenLue Hmueuno
aneprnn; sa1eH on yun1cn ne kpnua1L n aoo6ue HenLue
uyHe1L. Cpepxannoc1L n pncunnnnna npnnocn1 caon nno-
pm: cpepc1aa ampaxennn pyueano xnsnn cosna1enL-
no n npepcosna1enLno c1anoan1cn 6onee y1onuennm-
Hn n pasnoo6pasnmHn. Inno1e1nueckn a1o1 npouecc Ho-
xe1 no1n n arny6L, sa1parnaan o6nac1L 6eccosna1enLno-
ro; n a1o 6mno 6m eue opnnH npnHepoH 1oro, u1o Opep
nasaan aocnn1anneH aneuenn.
Cyunoc1L anann1nuecko cn1yaunn coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o
npoueccm cospeaannn n oanapennn kynL1ypo a kakoH-1o
cHmcne nonyuak1 o6pa1noe nanpaanenne. Haunen1 o6y-
uae1cn o1kpm1o ampaxa1L nopuac c nepao6m1no nn-
1encnanoc1Lk caon Hmcnn n uyac1aa, aHec1o 1oro u1o-
6m Hacknpoaa1L nx nnn nsLncnn1Lcn naHekaHn. Bckope
on nonnHae1, u1o opnnx 1onLko o1pmaounmx qak1nuecknx
onncann nepoc1a1ouno, conpoaoxpakune nx aHounn
1akxe ponxnm 6m1L ampaxenm. Torpa naunen1 naunnae1
aapLnpoaa1L nn1encnanoc1L n amco1y caoero ronoca, nc-
nonLsoaa1L xec1m nnn panxennn; on Hoxe1 nosaonn1L
ce6e okasa1Lcn saxaauennmH caonHn aHounnHn. Tak on
npn6nnxae1cn k o1mrpmaannk npn nepenoce nnn a ana-
nn1nuecko cn1yaunn.
Bce a1o nens6exno o1kpmaae1 ny1L perpeccnano 1en-
penunn, ko1opan yanekae1 sa co6o kak naunen1a, 1ak n
anann1nka. C a1oro HoHen1a pasan1ne co6m1n 6ype1 on-
106
pepenn1Lcn peakune anann1nka. Koneuno, kaxpm ana-
nn1nk 6ype1 c1apa1Lcn nonn1L cHmcn 1oro, u1o naunen1
nm1ae1cn nepepa1L eHy o1mrpmaanneH. BHec1e c 1eH ana-
nn1nk cHoxe1 okasmaa1L annnnne na o1mrpmaanne 1onLko
npn ycnoann, u1o on ponece1 1eH nnn nnmH cnoco6oH po
naunen1a (1o ec1L ampasn1) caoe nonnHanne nponcxopn-
uero. Opnako nnpnanpyanLnme cnoco6m ampaxennn no-
nnHannn nnn, kak n npepnoun1ak a1o nasmaa1L, npnamu-
nme peakunn anann1nka na o1mrpmaanne, noaepenne
nnn noa1openne naunen1a Hory1 6m1L coaepuenno pas-
nmHn. Bce a1n pasnme cnoco6m ampaxennn, ncnonLsye-
Hme noc1onnno nnn apeHn o1 apeHenn, 6ypy1 okasmaa1L
cyuec1aennoe annnnne na a1Hocqepy a ka6nne1e ana-
nn1nka.
PasyHee1cn, nepamH anann1nkoH, onncaaunH a1Hocqepy,
ko1opyk qopHnpoaann ero yc1ouname peakunn, 6mn
Opep; on cpaannn nx c o1paxenneH okpyxakuero Hnpa
xopouo o1nonnpoaannmH sepkanoH. D1o osnauae1, ecnn
nonnHa1L 6ykaanLno, u1o anann1nk ne npnanocn1 nnkako-
ro noc1oponnero Ha1epnana a anann1nueckyk pa6o1y, on
1onLko o1paxae1 6es nckaxennn 1o, u1o ncxopn1 o1 naun-
en1a. Opnako xo1n a1o nnkorpa ne y1aepxpanocL nano
1akoe aosHoxno 1onLko a 1oH cnyuae, ecnn Ha1epnan,
npepoc1aanneHm naunen1oH, coc1on1 nou1n ncknkun-
1enLno ns cnoa, a aknap anann1nka a pasan1ne cn1yaunn
a fortiori (1eH 6onee) coc1on1 1onLko ns cnoa. H naunen1,
n anann1nk ncnonLsyk1 n nonnHak1 cnoaa 1ak, kak a1o
o6muno npnnn1o y aspocnmx nkpe. [ec1an1enLno, cpe-
pn onncann cnyuaea, ony6nnkoaannmx OpepoH, n ne
cHor na1n nn opnoro ynoHnnannn o6 nn1epnpe1aunn ka-
koro-nn6ypL neaep6anLnoro Ha1epnana, npepoc1aanenno-
ro naunen1oH, opnako yxe a Ouepkax o6 nc1epnn
(1895) Opep qnkcnpoaan pannme na6nkpennn neaep-
6anLnmx qenoHenoa. HaHn1yn o 1oH, c kako 6eckoHnpo-
Hnccno akkypa1noc1Lk Opep onncmaan caok knnnnue-
107
ckyk pa6o1y, npepc1aannk1cn oueanpnmHn 1e orpannue-
nnn, ko1opme on nanoxnn na ce6n. 3epkano o1paxae1 o6-
pas, no ne nsHenne1 ero npnpopm; cnepoaa1enLno, cnoaa
Hory1 6m1L o1paxenm npn noHoun cnoa, nepeaop xe ne-
aep6anLnoro Ha1epnana a cnoaecnyk qopHy amxopn1 sa
paHkn qynkunn sepkana a anann1nuecko pa6o1e.
Hoc1enenno Hm nayunnncL nonnHa1L n ncnonLsoaa1L ne
1onLko aep6anLnm Ha1epnan, npepoc1aanneHm naunHn
naunen1aHn, no n 1o, u1o n nasmaak a1Hocqepo, ko-
1opan o1uac1n cospae1cn cnoaaHn, o1uac1n Hanepo na-
unen1a ampaxa1Lcn n o1uac1n aceH 1eH, u1o nasmaak1
o1mrpmaanneH, noaepenneH nnn noa1openneH a
anann1nuecko cn1yaunn. D1a nocnepnnn rpynna qak1o-
poa, kak n 1onLko u1o o1He1nn, acerpa nHee1 acnek1 per-
peccnn.
B knnnnke a1o osnauae1, u1o nanennn, sa ko1opmHn c1on1
perpeccnn, apeHn o1 apeHenn 6ypy1 na6nkpa1Lcn a npo-
uecce anann1nuecko 1epannn kaxporo naunen1a. Opnako
y anann1nkoa cyuec1aye1 ouenL unpokn cnek1p Hnenn
no noaopy uac1o1m, snauennn n aaxnoc1n a1nx qenoHe-
noa. Mnennn pacxopn1cn n o1nocn1enLno 1oro, a kako
c1enenn npnunna nonanennn a1nx qenoHenoa ckpm1a a
caHoH naunen1e, 1o ec1L o6ycnoanena ero nnunoc1Lk,
npnpopo n 1nxec1Lk ero pacc1poc1aa, a a kako nn-
pnanpyanLno 1exnnko anann1nka. Ho HoeHy Hnennk, n
anann1nk, n naunen1 anocn1 cao aknap a nonanenne a1nx
qenoHenoa, n paso6pa1Lcn a 1oH, koHy kakan uac1L
aknapa npnnapnexn1, ne 1ak-1o npoc1o. k6oe o6Lnc-
nenne, a ko1opoH akuen1 c1aan1cn 1onLko na ponn naun-
en1a, Hoxe1 6m1L oun6ounmH c caHoro nauana. Ho paxe
ecnn k1o-1o n saHeuae1 a1y noayuky, ace paano aecLHa
aepon1no, u1o acnkoe 1onkoaanne 6ype1 nopaepxeno
annnnnk nnpnanpyanLnmx npepnou1enn aa1opa, a oco-
6enno ero noacepneanoro onm1a, ko1opm, no kpane
Hepe o1uac1n, o6ycnoanen ero nnpnanpyanLno 1exnnko.
108
Moe onncanne ne nanne1cn ncknkuenneH ns a1oro npaan-
na.
Koneuno, ne aecL Ha1epnan, npepLnanneHm a 1epannn
(kak n a nayuno pnckyccnn) o6enHn c1oponaHn, nopae1-
cn na aep6anLnoH ypoane, xo1n, koneuno, snaunHoc1L ne-
aep6anLnoro Ha1epnana a a1nx cn1yaunnx pasnan. Boo6-
ue roaopn, nHenno naunen1 noc1enenno nop1anknaae1cn
k 1oHy, u1o6m npepc1aann1L cao neaep6anLno Ha1epnan
a 1oH uncne n caon perpeccnanme 1enpenunn npn
noHoun cnoa. Tak y naunen1a nponcxopn1 npeo6pasoaa-
nne noa1opennn a aocnoHnnanne. Anann1nk xe, kak
npaanno, ne ncnm1maae1 nopo6noro paanennn. Ero npo-
qeccnonanLnoe noaepenne, 1o ec1L aneHen1m ero 1exnn-
kn, nac1onLko c1anpap1nsoaano, u1o npepc1aanne1cn eHy
ec1ec1aennmH, pasyHnmH n nayuno o6ocnoaannmH, no-
a1oHy, nHen peno c nopHanLnmHn, rnapko npo1ekak-
unHn cnyuanHn, anann1nk ne 6ype1 anpe1L neo6xopnHo-
c1n a 1pancqopHaunn ero noa1opennn a aocnoHnnanne
ny1eH aep6annsaunn caoero npnamunoro noaepennn a 1e-
panea1nuecko cn1yaunn, u1o Horno 6m cpena1L nocnep-
nee npepHe1oH 1ua1enLnoro nccnepoaannn. Bo Hnornx
o1nouennnx 1akan nonn1nka pasyHna n npak1nuna, oco-
6enno c 1oukn spennn ncnxnuecko akonoHnn. Anann1nk
Hoxe1 n panee ycnokanaa1L ce6n 1eH, u1o a npounoH, ao
apeHn o6yuennn, ero noaepenne nopaeprnocL 1akoro popa
1ua1enLnoHy nsyuennk. HHenno 1aknH ny1eH anann1nkn
npnxopn1 k npee knaccnuecko nnn npaannLno 1ex-
nnkn a saancnHoc1n o1 cn1yaunn.
[aaa1e ypennH neko1opoe apeHn a1oHy npnHepy n nau-
neH c paccHo1pennn npopykunn naunen1a. 1o kacae1cn
perpeccnn, 1o naunen1m ouenL cnnLno o1nnuak1cn ppyr
o1 ppyra a a1oH o1nouennn. B uenoH cpepn nnx Hoxno
ampenn1L paa kpannx 1nna, Hexpy ko1opmHn, koneuno,
pacnonoxeno Hnoxec1ao nepexopnmx. [nn poc1nxennn
ypoane1aopn1enLnmx pesynL1a1oa a 1epannn naunen1oa,
109
o1nocnunxcn k opnoHy ns a1nx kpannx 1nnoa, perpeccnn,
amxopnuan paneko sa npepenm apnnoaa ypoann, ne o6n-
sa1enLna. C naunen1aHn, o1nocnunHncn k ppyroHy 1nny,
epaa nn Hory1 6m1L nonyuenm kakne-1o peanLnme c1a-
6nnLnme pesynL1a1m na ckonLko-nn6ypL snaun1enLnm
cpok; specL Hoxno roaopn1L 1onLko o 1ak nasmaaeHmx
kpa1kocpounmx 1pancqepen1nmx ynyuuennnx. PeanLnme
1epanea1nueckne pesynL1a1m npnxopn1 1onLko nocne ne-
ko1oporo kpa1koro nnn npoponxn1enLnoro nepnopa per-
peccnn, npnpopa xe perpeccnanmx nponanenn a conoc-
1aanennn c xopouo nsyuennmHn qenoHenaHn, npnnapne-
xaunHn apnnoay ypoank, acerpa nanne1cn 6onee npnHn-
1nano.
TenepL paaa1e aepneHcn k peakunnH anann1nka, ko1o-
pme, kak 1onLko u1o roaopnnocL, nannk1cn aaxno co-
c1aannkue ero aknapa a qopHnpoaanne a1Hocqepm.
3pecL xopounH npnHepoH, am6pannmH ns acero Hnoroo6-
pasnn aosHoxnmx aapnan1oa, Horna 6m nocnyxn1L peak-
unn anann1nka na 1pe6oaanne naunen1a yaennun1L apeHn
anann1nueckoro ceanca. O6muno npoponxn1enLnoc1L ce-
anca coc1aanne1 50 Hnny1, n y anann1nka, kak npaanno,
ec1L nn1L-pecn1L cao6opnmx Hnny1 po npneHa cnepykue-
ro naunen1a. Hyxno nn no1n naac1peuy npocL6e naunen-
1a n nosaonn1L eHy nnorpa oc1aaa1Lcn na nn1L-pecn1L
Hnny1 ponLue? Hyxno nn koHnencnpoaa1L nn1n- nnn pe-
cn1nHnny1noe onospanne naunen1a? A6c1parnpyncL o1 1o-
ro, u1o anann1nk Hoxe1 nponan1L rn6koc1L a onpepenen-
nmx npepenax, sapannmx aneunnHn o6c1on1enLc1aaHn
(cnepykun naunen1 yxe Hoxe1 oxnpa1L caoe ouepepn,
c ppyro c1oponm, Hoxe1 c1a1Lcn, u1o cnepykun uac no-
cne a1oro naunen1a y anann1nka cao6open n naunen1 ka-
knH-1o o6pasoH snae1 nnn ne snae1 o6 a1oH, n 1. p.),
cnpocnH, ponxen nn on a npnnunne cornaua1Lcn na yae-
nnuenne apeHenn ceanca, n ecnn pa, 1o kaknHn kpn1e-
110
pnnHn neo6xopnHo pykoaopc1aoaa1Lcn a npnnn1nn coo1-
ae1c1aykuero peuennn?
Cn1yaunn c1anoan1cn eue 6onee sany1anno, ecnn naun-
en1 npocn1 o pononnn1enLnoH ceance ao apeHn amxop-
nmx, nocne okonuannn pa6ouero pnn nnn paxe ao apeHn
o1nycka anann1nka. H nonarak: nesaancnHo o1 1oro, ka-
knH 6ype1 o1ae1 anann1nka, neonpoaepxnHm qak1 co-
c1on1 a 1oH, u1o a cospannn a1Hocqepm anann1nuecko-
ro neuennn npnnnHae1 yuac1ne ne opnn 1onLko naunen1,
no 1akxe n anann1nk. HpnHep naunen1a Annm Opep, ko-
1opoHy 6mno nosaoneno saonn1L caoeHy anann1nky a nk-
6oe apeHn nnn paxe a amxopnme pnn, npepc1aanne1 co-
6o y6epn1enLnoe canpe1enLc1ao 1oro, u1o ne cyuec1aye1
a6conk1no necoaHec1nHoc1n Hexpy npneHaHn knaccn-
uecko 1exnnkn, c opno c1oponm, n npnnn1neH n ypoa-
ne1aopenneH neko1opmx perpeccnanmx 1enpenun (nnn
o1mrpmaannn) c ppyro; nnaue roaopn, nocnepnee ne
nanne1cn neo6pa1nHmH napaHe1poH.
B kauec1ae npnHepoa specL npnaepenm poaonLno oueanp-
nme o1ae1m anann1nka na o1mrpmaanne naunen1a npn
perpeccnn; n am6pan nx ns coo6paxenn npoc1o1m o6cy-
xpennn, nockonLky onn o6napak1 necnoxno c1pyk1ypo.
HecoHnenno, cyuec1aye1 nencuncnnHoe Hnoxec1ao aapn-
an1oa o1ae1a anann1nka na 1onkne qopHm perpeccnn na-
unen1a, opnako nonm1kn nx onncannn c1anknaak1cn c
cepLesnmHn 1pypnoc1nHn. O1ae1oH anann1nka Hory1 6m1L
6espasnnune, ocyxpenne nnn neko1opme epaa saHe1nme
snakn pasppaxennn. On Hoxe1 ponyc1n1L o1mrpmaanne n
cpasy xe acnep sa a1nH npepnoxn1L koppek1nyk n
caoeapeHennyk nn1epnpe1aunk, 6naropapn ko1opo
naunen1 oponee1 neckonLko uaroa a o6yuennn nsmky
anann1nka n 6ype1 cpepxnaa1L panLneuee
o1mrpmaanne. On Hoxe1 o1nec1ncL k o1mrpmaannk
couyac1aenno, kak k npepoxpann1enLnoHy knanany, nn6o
cnokono, kak k ueHy-1o caHo co6o pasyHekueHycn,
cun1an, u1o neo6xopnHoc1L nn1epnpe1aunn nHenno
111
1epnpe1aunn nHenno o1mrpmaannn, 1o ec1L aHeua1enLc1-
aa a nero, ne 6onLue n ne HenLue, ueH neo6xopnHoc1L
nn1epnpe1aunn nk6o ppyro qopHm koHHynnkaunn, na-
npnHep cnoaecno accounaunn. Oueanpno, u1o 1onLko a
a1oH nocnepneH cnyuae o1mrpmaanne n cao6opnme acco-
unaunn a paano c1enenn npnnnHak1cn kak koHHynnka-
unn, appecoaannme 1epanea1y.
Anann1nk 1akxe Hoxe1 npnnn1L no1pe6noc1L naunen1a a
perpeccnn kak nonn1nyk koHHynnkaunk, kak qan1asnk,
ko1opan ao acex nnmx o1nouennnx nanne1cn coaepuenno
nepeannc1nuno; noa1oHy peakunn anann1nka nanan
nnn ckpm1an 6ype1 osnaua1L, u1o nk6oe ypoane1aope-
nne 1aknx no1pe6noc1e 6mno 6m necoaHec1nHo c anann-
1nuecko cn1yaune. Coaepuenno nnoe peno npepc1aann-
no 6m npnsnanne sa no1pe6noc1Lk a perpeccnn npaaa na
cyuec1aoaanne a paHkax anann1nuecko cn1yaunn. Hako-
neu, aosHoxen aapnan1, korpa anann1nk ne 1onLko npn-
nnHae1 neko1opme ns a1nx no1pe6noc1e kak nonnoc1Lk
nHekune 1akoe npaao, no n ypoane1aopne1 nx a 1o c1e-
nenn, a ko1opo ypoane1aopenne coaHec1nHo c anann1n-
uecko cn1yaune. D1o kak pas 1o, u1o nponsouno a cny-
uae naunen1a Annm Opep, ko1opm ynoHnnancn amue.
Koneuno, ace a1n peakunn kaxpan no caoeHy anocn1
cao aknap a cospanne a1Hocqepm neuennn. Heko1o-
pme peakunn unpoko pacnaxnaak1 aopo1a perpeccnn,
ppyrne oc1aannk1 1onLko yskn npoxop, nnme sakpmaak1
e ny1L. TaknH o6pasoH, perpeccnn ao apeHn 1epannn sa-
ancn1 ne 1onLko o1 naunen1a, no n o1 anann1nka. B rna-
aax 16-18 Hm aepneHcn k neko1opmH c1anpap1nmH pe-
akunnH n nx nocnepc1annH n paccHo1pnH nx pe1anLno.
Opnako nepep 1eH kak npnc1ynn1L k a1oHy, n npnaepy
onncanne nens6exnmx nocnepc1an perpeccnn, a ko1opo
ponyckae1cn o1xop k o6nac1nH, nexaunH rny6xe apnnoaa
ypoann.
112
Bmue 6mno nokasano, u1o ace 6es ncknkuennn naunen1m,
ncnm1maan annnnne anann1nuecko cn1yaunn, perpeccn-
pyk1 po onpepenenno o1He1kn, 1o ec1L c1anoan1cn nn-
qan1nnLnmHn n ncnm1maak1 no o1nouennk k anann1nky
nn1encnanme npnHn1nanme aHounn; koneuno, ace a1o
npepc1aanne1 co6o neo1LeHneHyk uac1L 1oro, u1o npn-
nn1o nasmaa1L nepenocoH.
D1n upesamuano nn1encnanme aHounn a o1nouennnx na-
unen1a n anann1nka npnaopn1 k aosnnknoaennk Hexpy
nnHn oco6oro nepaaenc1aa. Anann1nk npepc1ae1 kak Ho-
ryuec1aennan, xnsnenno aaxnan nepcona npn ycnoann,
u1o on cnoco6en nnn xenae1 ypoane1aopn1L nn6o qpyc1-
pnpoaa1L napexpm, xenannn n no1pe6noc1n caoero naun-
en1a. 3a npepenaHn a1o cqepm anann1nk epaa nn cyue-
c1aye1 pnn naunen1a kak peanLnan, o6munan nnunoc1L.
Koneuno, y naunen1a pon1cn pasnoo6pasnme qan1asnn no
noaopy caoero anann1nka, no onn, kak npaanno, a 6onL-
ue c1enenn nHek1 o1nouenne k any1penneHy Hnpy na-
unen1a, ueH k peanLno xnsnn n peanLno nnunoc1n ana-
nn1nka. HecHo1pn na 1o, u1o o6muno naunen1 a cpaane-
nnn c anann1nkoH ouyuae1 ce6n cna6mH n ropaspo Henee
aaxnmH, snauenne nHee1 1onLko on (naunen1), n a1o sna-
uenne npno6pe1ae1 konoccanLnme Hacu1a6m. Bce ponxno
apaua1Lcn 1onLko aokpyr ero xenann, nHnynLcoa n no-
1pe6noc1e, 1onLko ero nn1epecm ace apeHn ponxnm na-
xopn1Lcn a qokyce annHannn.
D1o1 na11epn nanne1cn ocnoanmH. Hcknkuenn ne cyue-
c1aye1, no ero nn1encnanoc1L n npoponxn1enLnoc1L Hory1
6m1L pasnmHn y pasnmx naunen1oa. Heko1opme naunen1m
ne saxopn1 sa onpepenennyk uep1y; 1epanea1nueckne
npoueccm, nnnunnpyeHme a a1oH cnyuae, okasmaak1cn
poc1a1ouno pesynL1a1nanmHn pnn 1oro, u1o6m rapan1npo-
aa1L neo6xopnHyk peoprannsaunk, cnyc1n neko1opoe
apeHn naunen1 cnon1anno oc1aanne1 o6nac1L a1nx npnHn-
1nanmx payxc1oponnnx o1nouenn n ncuenne1cn. B cny-
113
uanx 1epannn ppyrnx naunen1oa aHec1e c npoueccaHn, o
ko1opmx 1onLko u1o roaopnnocL, npo1ekak1 n nnme npo-
ueccm.
B uac1n I n o6pncoaan a o6unx uep1ax aneunne nponane-
nnn 1ex npoueccoa, c ko1opmHn Hoxe1 c1onkny1Lcn ana-
nn1nk. 3pecL n npnaepy 1onLko nan6onee aaxnme na6nk-
pennn. Cnoaa nepec1ak1 6m1L napexnmH o6uenpnnn1mH
cpepc1aoH koHHynnkaunn Hexpy naunen1oH n anann1n-
koH; a uac1noc1n, y naunen1a o6osnauae1cn 1enpenunn
nc1onkoamaa1L cnoaecnme nn1epnpe1aunn anann1nka kak
snakn apaxpe6noro o1nouennn n arpeccnn nn6o kak sna-
kn npnansannoc1n. Haunen1m naunnak1 cnnukoH Hnoro
ysnaaa1L o6 anann1nke; uac1o onn ropaspo 6onLue ocae-
poHnenm o nac1poennnx anann1nka, ueH o caonx; aHec1e
c 1eH nx nn1epec k anannsy ace 6onee n 6onee o1penne1cn
o1 nx co6c1aennmx npo6neH n c1papann, ko1opme n sa-
c1aannn nx nsnauanLno ncka1L noHoun y anann1nka; nx
ace 6onLue n 6onLue sannHae1 yrapmaanne pec1an-
1enLnmx Ho1naoa anann1nka, ckpmaakunxcn sa ero cno-
aaHn, sa 1eH, kak 1o1 ce6n aepe1, nnn sa ero oco6mH na-
c1poenneH. Bce a1o nornouae1 snaun1enLnoe konnuec1ao
nn6npo n, aosHoxno, nHenno noa1oHy a 1aknx cn1yaunnx
y naunen1oa na6nkpae1cn saHe1noe ocna6nenne Ho1naa k
ynyuuennk caoero any1pennero coc1onnnn, y1pa1a xena-
nnn n paxe cnoco6noc1n nsHenn1Lcn. BHec1e c 1eH nx na-
pexpm, cansannme c anann1nkoH, ampac1ak1 po pasHe-
poa, ko1opme amxopn1 sa nk6me peannc1nueckne paHkn,
nponannncL kak a nosn1nanoH acnek1e a cnHna1nn, no-
nnHannn, annHannn, ne6onLunx nopapkax n ppyrnx sna-
kax annHannn, 1ak n a nera1nanoH a npoc1nmx a1akax,
6esxanoc1noH aosHespnn, nepnnoH 6espasnnunn n upes-
Hepno xec1okoc1n. Kpa1ko xapak1epnsyn a1y cn1yaunk a
opno qpase, Hoxno ckasa1L, u1o npounoe nou1n y1pa1n-
no caoe snauenne pnn naunen1a; ace annHanne cocpepo-
1oueno 1onLko na anann1nueckoH nac1onueH.
114
B npnamunmx anann1nuecknx 1epHnnax ace a1o Hoxno
onnca1L kak o6oc1penne neaposa nepenoca, nnn nepenoca
nk6an, ko1opm nonnoc1Lk nopunnne1 ce6e 1epanea1nue-
ckyk cn1yaunk, c1anoancL nac1onLko nn1encnanmH, u1o
nepec1ae1 6m1L poc1ynnmH pnn o6munmx nn1epnpe1aun.
Heko1opme anann1nkn nonarak1, u1o npnunno a1oro na-
nnk1cn napanonnLnme qan1asnn naunen1a, cansannme
co c1paxoH npecnepoaannn, a1oprunecn a nepenoc. Ho
HoeHy Hnennk, ace a1n 1onkoaannn cnnukoH ney6epn-
1enLnm n ne sa1parnaak1 cy1n npo6neHm (Balint., 1958).
Xopouo nsaec1no, u1o nnorpa paxe y nan6onee nckyuen-
nmx n onm1nmx anann1nkoa 6maak1 1pypnoc1n n paxe
apeHennme neypaun c naunen1aHn. Mm ponxnm npnsna1L,
xo1n a1o n nenpnn1no, u1o ns pannoro npaanna ne1 nc-
knkuennn. H y1aepxpak, u1o nopaannkuee 6onLunnc1ao
1pypnoc1e n neypau aosnnkae1 npn neuennn naunen1oa,
peHonc1pnpykunx cnHn1oHm, o ko1opmx 1onLko u1o roao-
pnnocL. D1n naunen1m o6muno xapak1epnsyk1cn, kak
rny6oko napyuennme, rny6oko pacuennennme, un-
sonpnme nnn napanonpnme, c1papakune o1 rny6oko
napunccnuecko panm, nHekune cnnukoH cna6oe nnn
nespenoe Dro n 1. p.; ace a1n xapak1epnc1nkn noppasy-
Heaak1, u1o kopenL npo6neH 1aknx naunen1oa nexn1
panLue n rny6xe apnnoaa koHnnekca, ko1opm o6muno
naxopn1cn a qokyce annHannn npn pa6o1e c 1nnnunmHn
naunen1aHn.
1o6m poc1nuL nyuuero nonnHannn neko1opmx 1pypno-
c1e, c ko1opmHn Hm c1anknaaeHcn a 1epanea1nuecko
pa6o1e c naunen1aHn a1oro 1nna, a uac1n I n npepnoxnn
paccHa1pnaa1L uenoaeueckyk ncnxnky nnn 1onLko 1y
ee uac1L, ko1opan nasmaae1cn Dro coc1onue ns 1pex
uac1e: o6nac1n apnnoaa koHnnekca, o6nac1n 6asncnoro
peqek1a n o6nac1n cosnpannn. Kaxpo o6nac1n caoc1-
aen oco6m 1nn ak1nanoro ncnxnueckoro qak1opa n cne-
115
unqnueckn ypoaenL ncnxnuecknx npoueccoa. H1ak, nop-
aepeH n1orn.
B o6nac1n apnnoaa koHnnekca 1nnnunyk c1pyk1ypy co-
c1aannk1 1pexc1oponnne o1nouennn, a ko1opme aoaneue-
nm cy6Lek1 n paa o6Lek1a; nc1ounnkoH cneunqnueckoro
pnn a1o o6nac1n ak1nanoro qak1opa nanne1cn konqnnk1,
a ypoaenL ncnxnuecknx npoueccoa naxopn1cn a coo1ae1-
c1ann c o6uenpnnn1mH nsmkoH aspocnmx nkpe n Hoxe1
6m1L apekaa1no ampaxen c ero noHouLk.
Hpeaannpykue c1pyk1ypo a o6nac1n 6asncnoro peqek-
1a nannk1cn o1nouennn 1onLko Hexpy payHn nepconaHn,
6onee npnHn1nanme, ueH o1nouennn, yc1anaannaakune-
cn Hexpy aspocnmHn nkpLHn. 3pecL ak1nanm ncnxnue-
ckn qak1op ne npepc1aanne1 co6o konqnnk1; npnpopa
a1oro qak1opa 6ype1 o6cyxpa1Lcn nosxe, a uac1nx IV n V.
Opnako yxe ceuac n Hory o1He1n1L, u1o npn onpepenen-
nmx ycnoannx ak1nanm qak1op, pec1aykun na a1oH
ypoane, Hoxe1 c1a1L nc1ounnkoH o6pasoaannn coc1onnn
snokauec1aenno saancnHoc1n, noa1oHy a naue nn1epa-
1ype pnn ero o6osnauennn o6muno ncnonLsyk1 cnoao
xapnoc1L. YpoaenL ncnxnuecknx npoueccoa n, a uac1-
noc1n, 1o, kak onn nponannk1cn a 1epanea1nuecko cn-
1yaunn, xapak1epnsyk1cn npn noHoun 1aknx 1epHnnoa,
kak poapnnoa, porenn1anLnm, poaep6anLnm n 1.
p. B rnaae 4 n noppo6no o6Lncnnn, noueHy n cun1ak, u1o
ace a1n 1epHnnm aaopn1 a sa6nyxpenne, n noueHy n
npepnoxnn nasmaa1L a1o1 ypoaenL ypoaneH 6asncnoro
peqek1a.
H, nakoneu, y nac ec1L o6nac1L cosnpannn, ko1opan xa-
pak1epnsye1cn o1cy1c1aneH kaknx 6m 1o nn 6mno aneu-
nnx o6Lek1oa. HockonLky nau anann1nueckn He1op oc-
noaan na nepenoce, 1o ec1L npepnonarae1 o6nsa1enLnoe
npncy1c1ane cy6Lek1a n kak HnnnHyH opnoro aneunero
o6Lek1a, 1o Hm ne HoxeH nn nccnepoaa1L ypoaenL ncnxn-
116
uecknx npoueccoa a a1o o6nac1n, nn nsyun1L cneunqn-
ueckn ak1nanm qak1op, 1ak kak ne pacnonaraeH npn-
HmH poc1ynoH a a1y o6nac1L. TeH ne Henee npoueccm,
nponcxopnune a a1o o6nac1n, ouenL aaxnm pnn naue
1exnnkn, kak a1o anpno na npnHepe napnpy c ppyrnHn
cn1yaunnHn npo6neHm Honuauero naunen1a.
H1ak, Hoxno oxnpa1L, u1o Hm c1onkneHcn c 1peHn pas-
nnunmHn 1nnaHn 1epanea1nuecknx npoueccoa, pasaopa-
unaakunxcn a ncnxnke, n anann1nkaH ckopee acero no-
napo6n1cn 1pn pasnmx 6noka 1exnnuecknx npneHoa, kax-
pm ns ko1opmx ponxen 6m1L npncnoco6nen pnn aospe-
c1ann na coo1ae1c1aykuyk o6nac1L ncnxnkn. KpoHe 1oro,
nockonLky anann1nueckan cn1yaunn, no cyuec1ay, npep-
c1aanne1 co6o o1nouennn Hexpy payHn nepconaHn n
Hnorne acnek1m a1nx o1nouenn, 6esycnoano, 6onee
npnHn1nanm, ueH o1nouennn na apnnoaoH ypoane, 1o
Hoxno 6mno 6m oxnpa1L nyuue (no cpaanennk c 1eopn-
e n 1exnnko, nHekunHn o1nouenne k payH ppyrnH o6-
nac1nH) ocnoaa1enLnoc1n n c1enenn npopa6o1kn 1eope1n-
uecknx npepc1aanenn, kacakunxcn o6nac1n 6asncnoro
peqek1a, a 1akxe naunx 1exnnuecknx He1opoa, cnyxaunx
pnn pa6o1m c npo6neHaHn, aosnnkakunHn na pannoH
ypoane.
Ha caHoH pene ace, koneuno xe, nao6opo1. Haua 1eopnn
no 6onLue uac1n npepnasnauena pnn o6Lncnennn ncn-
xnuecknx c1pyk1yp n npoueccoa, npnnapnexaunx apnnoay
ypoank; knaccnueckan anann1nueckan 1exnnka, ko1o-
pan, 6es coHnennn, nan6onee o6ocnoaana a pnpy acex
anann1nuecknx He1opoa, cnyxn1 nou1n ncknkun1enLno
pnn peuennn npo6neH, ak1nanmH qak1opoH pnnaHnue-
cko c1pyk1ypm ko1opmx nanne1cn nekn konqnnk1 nnn
konqnnk1m; a1n npo6neHm 6es snaun1enLnmx sa1pypne-
nn Hory1 6m1L ampaxenm npn noHoun o6uenpnnn1oro
nsmka, 1o ec1L onn npnnapnexa1 apnnoao o6nac1n.
117
[aaa1e paccHo1pnH qenoHen perpeccnn c neckonLko
nnoro pakypca, u1o6m nonn1L, a ueH coc1on1 cy1L o1nnunn
Hexpy 1exnnuecknHn npo6neHaHn, aosnnkakunHn a apn-
noao o6nac1n, n 1eHn, u1o aosnnkak1 a o6nac1n 6asnc-
noro peqek1a. OpnnH ns caHmx nepamx saqnkcnpoaannmx
qak1oa knnnnuecknx na6nkpenn nanne1cn npekpauenne
c1peHnennn naunen1oa k co1pypnnuec1ay na onpepenen-
noH a1ane anann1nueckoro neuennn. D1o Hoxe1 ampa-
xa1Lcn a o1kase o1 nsHenenn, o1 npopanxennn anepep;
a oueanpno a6conk1no necnoco6noc1n npnnn1L kakne-
nn6o ne6naronpnn1nme aneunne o6c1on1enLc1aa nnn ne-
penocn1L aospac1akuee nanpnxenne. B 1oH cnyuae, ecnn
nepnop o1kasa o1 co1pypnnuec1aa 6mc1po nopxopn1 k
konuy, a1o nc1onkoamaae1cn kak npekpauenne conpo1na-
nennn nnn pacuennennn, opnako, ecnn a1o1 nepnop sa-
1nrnaae1cn, a a1oH anpn1 poHnnnpoaanne unsonpno-
napanonnLnmx HexannsHoa. Cornacno ppyroHy aapnan1y
1onkoaannn, a ocnoae a1nx coc1onnn nexn1 nepaspe-
uennoe uyac1ao o6npm, amsaannoe 1eH, u1o naunen1 ne
nonyunn neo6xopnHoro pnn nero konnuec1aa nk6an, co-
uyac1ann n nonnHannn o1 Ha1epn n 1ex nepcon, ko1opme
nosxe ee npepc1aannk1.
Bcerpa noppasyHeaae1cn, u1o a ncnxnke kaxporo naunen-
1a ec1L uac1L, ko1opan o1kasmaae1cn o1 co1pypnnuec1aa.
Opnako aonpoc o kpn1epnn pnn onpepenennn c1enenn co-
1pypnnuec1aa pannoro naunen1a a onpepenennm nepnop
apeHenn a konkpe1no anann1nuecko cn1yaunn ocae-
uancn ouenL Hano. B cnyuanx rny6oko perpeccnn naun-
en1, no-anpnHoHy, ne Hoxe1 nonn1L, uero o1 nero xpy1
(nanpnHep, cornacnn c naunH qynpaHen1anLnmH npaan-
noH); a 1akne HoHen1m npak1nueckn 6ecnonesno nm-
1a1Lcn nanoHnna1L eHy o npo6neHax, ko1opme no6ypnnn
ero ncka1L noHoun y ncnxoanann1nka, nockonLky o1no-
uennn c anann1nkoH, 1o ypoane1aopenne nnn 1a qpyc1-
paunn, ko1opme onn Hory1 npnnec1n, nanne1cn epnnc1-
118
aennmH, u1o ero nn1epecye1. Cospae1cn aneua1nenne,
6yp1o aecL cHmcn anann1nuecko pa6o1m y1pauen. Korpa
c1anoan1cn ncno, u1o 1ako nepenoc, norno1naun nou1n
ace nn6npo naunen1a, nHee1 c1pyk1ypy ncknkun1enLno
payxc1oponnnx o1nouenn, a npo1naononoxnoc1L nop-
HanLnoHy apnnoaoHy nepenocy, ko1opm acerpa 1poc1-
aenen, 1o nepep naHn npepc1ae1 eue opnn pnarnoc1nue-
ckn npnsnak 1oro, u1o naunen1 poc1nr ypoann 6asncnoro
peqek1a.
D1o nopaopn1 nac nenocpepc1aenno k naue rnaano 1e-
He, a nHenno k aonpocy, kak cpena1L 1ak, u1o6m 1a uac1L
nnpnanpa, ko1opan o1kasmaae1cn o1 co1pypnnuec1aa, c1a-
na co1pypnnua1L, 1o ec1L nonyua1L noHouL o1 anann1nka.
To, o ueH n specL roaopk, neckonLko o1nnuae1cn o1 npe-
oponennn conpo1nanenn, 1o ec1L konqnnk1oa apnnoaa
ypoann, a 1akxe o1 npeoponennn pacuennennn. D1o
u1o-1o noxoxe, ckopee, na nooupenne nnn, Hoxe1 6m1L,
paxe cospanne a naunen1e noao ro1oanoc1n k npnnn1nk
peanLnoc1n n xnsnn a ne. Caoero popa yHenLuenne ero
uyac1a o6npm, 6esxnsnennoc1n n 1. p., ko1opme npona-
nnk1cn a ero neapose nepenoca kak ynpnHc1ao, neyknk-
xec1L, rnynoc1L, upesHepnm kpn1nunsH, pasppaxn1enL-
noc1L, xapnoc1L, upesHepnan saancnHoc1L n 1. p.
H1ak, pnn 1oro u1o6m o6Lncnn1L a1n c1onL o1nnunme ppyr
o1 ppyra qak1m knnnnuecknx na6nkpenn, n npepnono-
xnn, u1o cyuec1aye1 neu1o, u1o cnepye1 o6osnaun1L kak
6asncnm peqek1. D1o ne koHnnekc, ne konqnnk1, ne
pacuennenne, a peqek1 6asanLno c1pyk1ypm nnunoc1n,
neu1o noxoxee na nsLnn nnn upaH. Koneuno, 6onLunnc1-
ao naunen1oa ne cnoco6nm ykasa1L, u1o nHenno c1ano nc-
1ounnkoH nx o6npm, 6esxnsnennoc1n, saancnHoc1n, 1o
ec1L pacckasa1L o 1oH nsLnne nnn peqek1e, ko1opm na-
xopn1cn a nnx caHnx. TeH ne Henee neko1opme Hory1 am-
pasn1L a1o, o11anknaancL o1 npo1nanoro, 1o ec1L qan1a-
snpyn o coaepuennoH nap1nepe nnn coaepuenno rapHo-
119
nnn co caonH okpyxenneH, o coaepuennoH 6esHn1exnoH
cuac1Le, a6conk1no ypoane1aopennoc1n caHnH co6o n
caonH HnpoH n 1. p. Opnako uaue acero naunen1 6es kon-
ua 1aeppn1 o 1oH, u1o on ncnm1maae1 pasouapoaanne, u1o
Hnp pnn nero nnuero ne snaun1, noka on anoaL ne c1ane1
o6napa1eneH 1oro, u1o y nero korpa-1o o1nnnn nnn y1annn
o1 nero. B 6onee 1nxenmx cnyuanx naunen1 paxe nac1an-
aae1 na 1oH, u1o xn1L aoo6ue ne c1on1, ecnn ero y1pa1a
ne 6ype1 nonnoc1Lk koHnencnpoaana, npnueH ero noae-
penne nop1aepxpae1 nc1nnnoc1L a1nx sananenn.
B kauec1ae nnnkc1paunn 1ako a1Hocqepm n xouy npn-
aec1n paa cnoanpennn, ko1opme npncnnnncL naunen1ke a
opny nouL. (1) Bo apeHn nporynkn a necy ona anesanno
nopaeprae1cn nanapennk 6onLuo n1num 1enecnoro uae-
1a, ko1opan o6pyunaae1cn na nee caepxy n cnnLno knke1
ee a no6. Haunen1ka ornyuena, ona napae1 na seHnk 6es
cosnannn. CaHoe yxacnoe coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o n1nua 1ak n
ne ornnpmaae1cn; ee coaepuenno ne aonnye1 1o, u1o ona
cpenana. (2) B cnepykueH annsope naunen1ka naxopn1cn
a koHna1e, sanonnenno ee ppysLnHn, onn nrpak1 a nrpm,
a ko1opmx n ona, 6maano, npnnnHana yuac1ne. Hnk1o ne
o6pauae1 na nee annHannn. Yxac coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o ona
naacerpa oc1ae1cn opna, nockonLky ne Hoxe1 o1pena1Lcn
o1 Hmcne o 1oH, u1o n1nua ne ornnnynacL. Cnepye1 po-
6aan1L, u1o y nee 6mno Hnoro cnoanpenn 1akoro popa ao
apeHn onpepenennoro nepnopa neuennn.
Cornacno ppyroHy cuenapnk, naunen1 ace apeHn roaopn1
o 1oH, u1o npexpe ueH on npnc1ynn1 k co1pypnnuec1ay (a
ueH on anpn1 caok o6nsannoc1L), ero coc1onnne ponxno
ynyuun1Lcn nnn paxe c1a1L coaceH xopounH. Bo1 1orpa
on cHoxe1 cpena1L kakne-1o uarn a a1oH nanpaanennn. B
1o xe apeHn on nonnoc1Lk ocosnae1 peannn cn1yaunn, a
nHenno 1o, u1o a1o ynyuuenne neaosHoxno 6es ero co-
1pypnnuec1aa; nonnHanne a1oro 1onLko ycnnnaae1 ero o1-
uannne. D1o1 nopounm kpyr no nckpenneHy y6expe-
120
nnk naunen1a Hoxe1 6m1L pasopaan 1onLko a 1oH cny-
uae, ecnn a neH 6ype1 saHeneno neu1o, u1o nouno no ne-
aepnoHy nanpaanennk, nn6o on o6pe1e1 neu1o, ueH on
yxe korpa-1o o6napan, no c 1ex nop y1pa1nn.
YHyppennme onm1oH naunen1m n anann1nkn Hory1
nasaa1L 1o, u1o 6mno y1paueno nnn ncnopueno, nenncoH
nnn rpypLk, ko1opme o6muno napennk1cn HarnuecknHn
kauec1aaHn a nx pennnkax sayua1 ampaxennn saanc1L
k nenncy, k rpypn, a 1akxe c1pax kac1paunn. Honn1ne
aqannsnca [xonca (Jones, 1927), kak n npen Menann
Knnn (Klein, 1957) o apoxpennmx peanoc1n n saanc1n,
naxopn1cn a a1oH xe pycne. Opnako npn a1oH nou1n ace-
rpa npncy1c1aye1 nenokone6nHoe n neonpoaepxnHoe
y6expenne naunen1a a 1oH, u1o on oc1ane1cn ne6narono-
nyunmH, n nyuue 6m eHy co1n c yHa nnn paxe yHepe1L,
ecnn y1pauennoe ne 6ype1 aocc1anoaneno.
Bce a1n qenoHenm perpeccnn, nHekune Hec1o a anann-
1nuecko cn1yaunn, nponsaopn1 opnosnaunoe aneua1ne-
nne npnHn1nanoro noaepennn, necyuero a ce6e uep1m
pannero pe1c1aa. D1o nanne1cn cnnLnmH apryHen1oH a
noppepxky Hnennn, u1o neaposaH nnn ncnxosaH o6nsa-
1enLno caoc1aennm neko1opme nnqan1nnLnme uep1m n
u1o ncnxo1epanea1 acerpa ponxen nonnHa1L, u1o on 1ak
nnn nnaue nHee1 peno c pe6enkoH a caoeH naunen1e.
Hsaec1no, u1o Hm c1anknaaeHcn c poaonLno cepLesnmHn
1pypnoc1nHn, korpa pe6enok a naueH naunen1e naxo-
pn1cn a aospac1e apnnoaa konqnnk1a. Opnako Hexpy na-
Hn, aspocnmHn nkpLHn, n pe6enkoH a naueH naunen1e
a aospac1e 6asncnoro peqek1a nnqan1oH (infant) a
nc1nnnoH cHmcne a1oro cnoaa, 1o ec1L 1eH, k1o ne Hoxe1
roaopn1L na nsmke aspocnmx nkpe, nponerna npo-
nac1L. D1o1 paspma ropaspo rny6xe n unpe, ueH 1o1, c
ko1opmH Hm c1anknaaeHcn na apnnoaoH ypoane, rpe o6e
c1oponm xo1n 6m ncnonLsyk1 konaenunonanLnm o6ue-
121
npnnn1m nsmk. TeH ne Henee, npoponxenne 1epanea1n-
uecko pa6o1m 1pe6ye1 npeoponennn nponac1n, paspe-
nnkue naunen1a n anann1nka, necHo1pn na ack cnox-
noc1L a1o sapaun. Hyxno o1paaa1L ce6e o1ue1 a 1oH, u1o
naunen1 1o ec1L pe6enok a naunen1e, naxopnuncn
a aospac1e, coo1ae1c1aykueH 6asncnoHy peqek1y, ne a
coc1onnnn npeopone1L a1y nponac1L caHoc1on1enLno.
Baxnm 1exnnueckn aonpoc saknkuae1cn a 1oH, kak
npeopone1L a1y nponac1L. Kakan uac1L a1o pa6o1m
ponxna 6m1L amnonnena anann1nkoH, a kakan oc1aanena
naunen1y?
1o6m ns6exa1L aosHoxnoro nepopasyHennn, n xouy nop-
uepkny1L, u1o panee n 6ypy o6cyxpa1L 1exnnueckne npo-
6neHm, aosnnkakune npn pa6o1e c naunen1aHn, perpec-
cnpoaaaunHn na ypoaenL 6asncnoro peqek1a. BosHoxno,
a1o nanne1cn epnnc1aennmH anpoH 1ak nasmaaeHo rny-
6oko perpeccnn. H nonarak, u1o 6onee annHa1enLnoe
anann1nueckoe nccnepoaanne naunen1oa, ko1opme pec1-
an1enLno 6onLnm unsoqpenne, a o1nnune o1 1ex, k1o
o6napae1 uep1aHn unsonpnoro xapak1epa, Hoxe1 no-
HouL nponcnn1L o1nnun1enLnme oco6ennoc1n unsoqpe-
nnuecko perpeccnn n 1o qopHm perpeccnn, o ko1opo
Hm specL roaopnH.
Koneuno, a1n pae 1exnnueckne npo6neHm npeoponenne
pnc1anunn Hexpy naHn, aspocnmHn, n pe6enkoH a naun-
en1e, a 1akxe cn1yaunn, korpa naunen1 ne Hoxe1 npn-
nn1L peanLnoc1L n co1pypnnua1L a knnnnuecko pa6o1e,
paano nsaec1nm anann1nkaH, n pasnnunme ny1n nx pe-
uennn napenm. Opnako a nn1epa1ype, nocanuenno
a1o 1eHe, ne ypennnocL poc1a1ounoro annHannn 1eH
onacnoc1nH, ko1opme nopc1eperak1 anann1nka, nm1ak-
uerocn naaec1n Hoc1m uepes nponac1L, paspennauyk ero
n perpeccnpoaaauero naunen1a, oco6enno a 1ex cnyuanx,
korpa perpeccnn poc1nrae1 o6nac1n 6asncnoro peqek1a.
Takxe nnuero ne roaopnnocL o 1oH, u1o ace a1n onacnoc1n
122
o6ycnoanenm peakunnHn anann1nka na co6m1nn, nponc-
xopnune a a1o o6nac1n.
H naHepen o6cypn1L a rnaae 15 1o peuakuee annnnne,
ko1opoe okasmaae1 nsmk na anann1nueckyk cn1yaunk, a
rnaam 16-18 nocan1n1L onncannk neko1opmx c1anpap1n-
soaannmx peakun anann1nka na perpeccnpoaaauero
naunen1a n 1eH nocnepc1annH, ko1opme amsmaak1 a1n
peakunn. 3a1eH a uac1nx IV n V nocnepye1 o6cyxpenne
Hoero knnnnueckoro onm1a pa6o1m c perpeccnpoaaaunHn
naunen1aHn, a 1akxe onncanne 1exnnuecknx npneHoa, ko-
1opme n nauen nonesnmH npnHenn1L a a1nx cn1yaunnx.
Fnaaa 15. Hpo6neHa nsmka a aocnu1a-
uuu u a auanu1uvecko cu1yauu
[oaonLno uac1o 1pypnoc1n 1epannn (xo1n a1o ne acerpa n
ne anonne ocosnae1cn) amsaanm 1eH, u1o anann1nk ampa-
xae1 caok peakunk na perpeccnk naunen1a cpepc1aaHn
o6munoro nsmka. B a1oH, koneuno, saknkuae1cn 1onLko
uac1nm acnek1 npo6neHm nsmka a anann1nuecko cn1ya-
unn. Oueanpno, u1o anrnnuannn nnn aHepnkaneu, npoao-
pnun ananns na anrnnckoH nsmke, n ero anrnoroaopn-
un naunen1 6ypy1 nonnHa1L ppyr ppyra. [axe ecnn ana-
nn1nk npnanekae1 pnn pa6o1m c pasnmHn naunen1aHn ne-
ckonLko caoeo6pasnm nekcnkon, oco6me ampaxennn n
knnue, ace xe, no 6onLue uac1n, a1n pnanek1m 6ypy1
nonn1nm pnn o6enx c1opon. Opnako pnn qpanuysa nnn
neHua onn, 6es coHnennn, ne 6ypy1 nonn1nm; cnauana
onn ponxnm 6m1L nepeaepenm.
Koneuno, o1ckpa ne cnepye1, u1o anrnnckn nsmk nnn,
nanpnHep, qpanuysckn n neHeukn nsmkn ueH-1o nyuue
ppyrnx, a1o osnauae1, u1o a1o pasnme nsmkn. Pasnnunn
kopenn1cn a npounoH nnpnanpa: anrnnuannn, qpanuys n
123
neHeu na pannnx a1anax caoero pasan1nn o6yuak1cn nsm-
ky y caonx popn1ene.
B uenoH a pasnmx nsmkax 6onLunnc1ao nanenn o6L-
ek1oa, o1nouenn, aHoun n 1. p. Hory1 6m1L ampaxe-
nm opnnakoao xopouo. H xouy o6pa1n1L annHanne na 1o,
u1o ampaxennk cpepc1aaHn nsmka noppae1cn 6onLunnc1-
ao ns amuenepeuncnennoro, no ne ace. Hocnepnee, a ua-
c1noc1n, kacae1cn 1ex koHHynnkaun, ko1opme necy1 a
ce6e cnnLnm aHounonanLnm sapnp. XopounH npnHepoH
nanne1cn nnpnueckan noasnn nnn 1ekc1m necen sapaua
nepeaopa neko1opmx ns nnx nanne1cn nou1n neamnonnn-
Ho. Kak xopouo nsaec1no, onepm nyuue acero ncnon-
nn1L na nsmke opnrnnana. O6muno, kacancL a1o npo6ne-
Hm, n npepnoun1ak ncnonLsoaa1L nonn1ne knac1epa ac-
counaun, amc1panaakuerocn aokpyr kaxporo cnoaa;
knac1epm accounaun pasnnuak1cn a pasnmx nsmkax n
paxe a pasnmx 1nnax uenoaeuecknx o1nouenn, a ko1o-
pmx ncnonLsye1cn opnn n 1o1 xe nsmk. OueanpnmHn npn-
HepaHn nannk1cn nou1n koncnnpa1nanme nsmkn pasnmx
npoqeccnonanLnmx coo6uec1a; cnenr, ncnonLsyeHm
yuennkaHn opno ukonm, aoennocnyxaunHn opnoro ap-
Heckoro noppaspenennn, saknkuennmHn opno 1kpLHm,
kanpnpa1aHn, npoxopnunHn nopro1oaky a opnoH ncnxo-
anann1nueckoH nnc1n1y1e. Eue opnn y6epn1enLnm npn-
Hep npepc1aannk1 co6o cnoxnoc1n, cansannme c nonc-
kaHn 1ounoro onpepenennn, oco6enno a o6nac1n ncnxono-
rnn. Honck 1ounoro onpepenennn saknkuae1cn a 1oH, u1o-
6m ounc1n1L cnoaa o1 acex nexena1enLnmx accounaun, n
nonnm ycnex a peuennn a1o sapaun poc1nrae1cn ouenL
pepko.
Kak nokasmaae1 onm1, pe6enok, naunen1 nnn kanpnpa1 a
npnnunne Hory1 amyun1L 1o1 nnn nno nsmk. Kako
nHenno nsmk onn amyua1, saancn1 o1 popn1ene, 1epa-
nea1a nnn o6yuakuero anann1nka. D1o ne nanne1cn ao-
npocoH am6opa nnpnanpa; na caHoH pene y nero aoo6ue
124
ne1 nnkakoro am6opa; on npoc1o o6nsan oanape1L nsmkoH
caoero okpyxennn.
3pecL nexn1 kpaeyronLnm kaHenL naue anann1nuecko
1eopnn n npak1nkn naunen1m (n kanpnpa1m) o6nsanm
amyun1L n pec1an1enLno yua1 nsmk caoero anann1nka.
Koneuno, n anann1nk acerpa yun1cn y kaxporo caoero na-
unen1a, opnako a1o o6yuenne, xo1n n aecLHa aaxnoe,
nHee1 caon poaonLno yskne paHkn no cpaanennk c 1eH,
u1o Hoxe1 ysna1L o1 pe6enka aocnn1maakun ero popn-
1enL. O6yuenne Hoxe1 sa1parnaa1L Hnorne acnek1m, op-
nako ecnn popn1enn pe6enka anrnnuane, 1o ero pop-
nmH nsmkoH a konue konuoa c1ane1 anrnnckn n nnko-
rpa, ckaxeH, aenrepckn nnn kn1ackn. D1o osnauae1,
u1o pe6enok cHoxe1 nerko ampasn1L 1onLko 1e uyac1aa,
Hmcnn n nepexnaannn, ko1opme ero popn1enn o6muno
ncnm1maann caHn n pnn ampaxennn ko1opmx anrnnckn
nsmk nopxopn1 nyuue acero. Ho on nnkorpa ne cHoxe1
ckasa1L o 1ex uyac1aax, Hmcnnx n nepexnaannnx, cpepc1-
aa pnn ampaxennn ko1opmx o1cy1c1ayk1 a anrnnckoH
nsmke, 1orpa kak aenrepckne nnn kn1ackne pe1n Hornn
6m c nerkoc1Lk ampasn1L nx na caoeH popnoH nsmke, n
nao6opo1.
D1o1 npoc1o qak1, n nonarak, nopaeprae1cn cnc1eHa1n-
ueckoHy am1ecnennk ns naunx 1eope1nuecknx noc1poe-
nn. O6muno a kauec1ae pokasa1enLc1aa nc1nnnoc1n cao-
nx amaopoa anann1nk npepLnanne1 accounaunn caoero
naunen1a. Pas n naacerpa Hm ponxnm npnsna1L, u1o na-
unen1 npexpe acero xenae1 6m1L nonn1mH, noa1oHy on
amnyxpen roaopn1L na nsmke, ko1opm nonn1en ero ana-
nn1nky n ko1opm npepc1aanne1 co6o opnn ns pnanek1oa
nnpnanpyanLnoro nsmka anann1nka. Bonee 1oro, kaxpm
anann1nk, nopo6no popn1ennH-anrnnuanaH, ko1opme nn-
korpa ne nopaeprak1 coHnennk Hyppoc1L npnHenennn
anrnnckoro nsmka a o6uennn co caonH pe6enkoH, 6ype1
aa1oHa1nueckn ncnonLsoaa1L cao nnpnanpyanLnm nnn
125
rpynnoao nsmk a pa6o1e co caonH naunen1oH, n pnn nero
nnuero ne Hoxe1 6m1L ec1ec1aennee a1oro.
H1ak, kaxpm anann1nk coaepuenc1aye1 anann1nueckn
nsmk, ko1opm npn a1oH coxpanne1 caok 6asoayk c1pyk-
1ypy, c 1eH, u1o6m nsmk c1anoanncn 6onee ampasn-
1enLnmH, 1ounmH n aqqek1nanmH, 6onee ypo6oaapnHmH
n nonn1nmH pnn acex 1ex, k1o oanapeaae1 nH. Co c1oponm
xe acnkn nape1 a1o1 nsmk c1pannmH n amsmaakunH
pasppaxenne. TeH ne Henee Hm acerpa ponxnm noHnn1L,
u1o a1o1 nsmk ne npno6pe1ae1 c1a1yca ynnaepcanLnoro
nsmka (xo1n 6onLunnc1ay 1ex, k1o nonLsye1cn nH, ouenL
6m a1oro xo1enocL) 1onLko no1oHy, u1o neko1opme nkpn
roaopn1 na neH n nonnHak1 ero.
Hpnsnaa nens6exnoc1L a1o cn1yaunn, kakne uarn Hm
Hornn 6m npepnpnnn1L? B kauec1ae o1ae1a, a 1oH, u1o ka-
cae1cn naue 1eopnn, Hoxno 6mno 6m npepnoxn1L nekn
nnan, 1pe6ykun pnn caoero amnonnennn 6onLunx ycn-
nn. Bo-nepamx, pnn kaxporo anann1nueckoro nsmka Hm
ponxnm coc1aan1L cnoaapL n rpaHHa1nky, 1o ec1L na-
c1onLko nonnyk konnekunk cnoa n acex aosHoxnmx can-
se Hexpy nnHn, nackonLko a1o aosHoxno. Cpaanna sa-
1eH cnoaapn n rpaHHa1nkn a1nx nsmkoa, Hm yanpnH, u1o a
kaxpoH nsmke ec1L Hnorouncnennme nenepeaopnHme n
caoc1aennme 1onLko eHy cnoaa, qpasm n rpaHHa1nue-
ckne c1pyk1ypm. Hocne Hm HoxeH conoc1aan1L pasnme
nsmkn, u1o6m onpepenn1L, a kakoH konkpe1noH cnyuae
pannm nsmk npepoc1aanne1 nyuune cpepc1aa ampaxe-
nnn. K nocnepne, nan6onee aaxno uac1n nccnepoaannn,
Hoxno 6ype1 npnc1ynn1L 1onLko no poc1nxennn onpepe-
nennoro ypoann a peuennn payx npepmpyunx sapau.
Opnako, noHnHo acero npouero, kaxpoe cnoao nHee1 cao
co6c1aennm knac1ep accounaun, nopo pasHm1m, no-
po 6onee konuen1pnpoaannm. Y opnnx cnoa on neue1-
kn, o6unpnm n nsHenunam, y ppyrnx nno1nm,
126
nHekun ue1kne yc1ouname rpannum, n ace onn no-
caoeHy nenoa1opnHm. Epaa nn aosHoxno na1n paa a6co-
nk1no npen1nunmx cnoaa a payx pasnmx nsmkax. Cyuec1-
aye1 Hnoxec1ao npnHepoa o1cy1c1ann 1aknx coo1ae1c1-
an. [nn nnnkc1paunn caoe Hmcnn n nosaonk ce6e yno-
Hnny1L neckonLko neyknkxnx 1exnnuecknx 1epHnnoa ns
o6nac1n naue co6c1aenno naykn. Cnoao Besetzung (sa-
nn1ne, okkynaunn) a anrnnckoH nsmke Hoxe1 osnaua1L
okkynaunn, sann1ne, sapnp, ka1ekcnc; neHeukne
cnoaa Lust (papoc1L, ypoaonLc1ane, xenanne) n Unlust
(neoxo1a, o1apauenne) npoc1o nenepeaopnHm; anrnn-
ckoe cnoao ypoaonLc1ane pleasure osnauae1 neu1o
coaepuenno oco6ennoe, 1orpa kak neypoaonLc1ane
unpleasure npepc1aanne1 co6o rpy6m neonornsH; 1o
xe caHoe o1nocn1cn k anrnncknH cnoaaH pleasurable n
unpleasurable; neHeukoe Angst (c1pax) Hoxe1 osnaua1L
c1pax, 1peaora n paxe nannka. Bce a1n anrnn-
ckne cnoaa fear, anxiety, panic nHek1 caon co6c1-
aennme knac1epm accounaun, ao HnoroH o1nnuakunecn
o1 knac1epoa nx neHeuknx paonnkoa. Hao6opo1, anrnn-
ckoe cnoao sentiment (uyac1ao, o1nouenne, nac1poenne,
cen1nHen1anLnoc1L) ne nHee1 kakoro-nn6o akanaanen1a a
neHeukoH nsmke, a anrnnckoe cnoao depressed (nopaa-
nennm, ynmnm, nonnxennm, cnnxennm) onpepenen-
no osnauae1 neu1o coaepuenno nnoe, ueH ero neHeukn
nnnranc1nueckn akanaanen1 deprimiert (nopaanennm,
yppyuennm, naxopnuncn a coc1onnnn penpeccnn). Anr-
nnckne cnoaa skill n thrill ne nHek1 peanLnmx akanaa-
nen1oa nn a opnoH nsaec1noH Hne eaponeckoH nsmke.
Hocnepnee, no ne Henee aaxnoe: y neHuea ne1 mind, a
anrnnuane uyac1ayk1 ce6n nenoako, ecnn ne canuennnk,
a k1o-1o ppyro nanoHnnae1 nH, u1o y nnx ec1L soul. B
anrnnckoH nsmke Hm ncnonLsyeH ampaxenne yHc1aen-
nme pacc1poc1aa ( Diseas of the mind ), neHeukn ak-
anaanen1 ko1oporo Geisteskrankheiten osnauae1 6onesnn
pyxa.
127
Selbstgefuhl n Selbstbewusst, xo1n n nannk1cn poaonLno
npoc1mHn nonn1nnHn a neHeukoH nsmke, ne nHek1 akan-
aanen1a a anrnnckoH ns-sa snaun1enLnoro necoanapennn
knac1epoa accounaun a a1nx payx nsmkax. Selbstbewusst
uenoaek, ko1opm ocosnae1 caon nnunme kauec1aa,
peannc1nuno ouennaae1 caon cnoco6noc1n; nnnranc1nue-
ckn akanaanen1 a anrnnckoH nsmke self-conscious
(nenoakn, sac1enunam) nHee1 coaepuenno npo1naono-
noxnoe snauenne. Cnoao Selbstgefuhl, ko1opoe 6ykaanLno
nepeaopn1cn kak uyac1ao ce6n, 6naropapn annnnnk
caoero knac1epa, okasmaakuero kocHe1nueckn aqqek1
counanLnoro opo6pennn, npno6pe1ae1 cHmcnoame o11enkn
roppoc1L, Hyxec1aennoc1L, poc1onnc1ao, yaepen-
noc1L a ce6e. B nsmke anann1nuecko 1eopnn a1o cnoao
nepeaopn1cn kak self-esteem (caHoouenka), 1aknH o6pa-
soH, cyuec1aenno cHeuak1cn akuen1m a snauennn a1oro
cnoaocoue1annn nop annnnneH knac1epa, conpoaoxpak-
uero cnoao esteem (ouenka) n cnnLno o1nnuakuerocn o1
knac1epa cnoaa Gefuhl, ko1opoe osnauae1 uyac1ao.
H ponxen po6aan1L, u1o ace Hon npnHepm asn1m ns co-
noc1aanennn neHeukoro n anrnnckoro nsmkoa; no, ko-
neuno xe, nopo6nme npo6neHm cyuec1ayk1 n pnn nk6mx
ppyrnx nap nsmkoa 1o xe caHoe o1nocn1cn n k nsmkaH
nk6mx payx anann1nuecknx ukon.
K coxanennk nnn k cuac1Lk, pnn cao6opnmx accounaun
aaxno ne c1onLko cnoao kak 1akoaoe, a, a ropaspo 6onL-
ue c1enenn, aecL knac1ep ero snauenn. XopounH npn-
HepoH a1oro nannk1cn 1exnnueckne 1epHnnm, o ko1opmx
roaopnnocL amue. Opep nnkorpa 6m ne cospan caok
1eopnk Besetzung na anrnnckoH nsmke, 1ak kak a a1oH
nsmke o1cy1c1ayk1 cnoaa, npn noHoun ko1opmx Opep
Hor 6m ampasn1L caon npen. Xopouo nsaec1no, u1o 1ep-
Hnn ka1ekcnc 6mn npepnoxen pnn 1oro, u1o6m sanon-
nn1L npo6en, opnako npepc1aanne1cn aecLHa coHnn1enL-
nmH, u1o korpa-nn6ypL a1o1 1epHnn c1ane1 xnamH cno-
128
aoH. To xe caHoe, no a neckonLko HenLue c1enenn aep-
no pnn cnoa Lust n Unlust. C ppyro c1oponm, naua co-
apeHennan 1eopnn penpeccnn Horna nonan1Lcn 1onLko
na anrnnckoH nsmke, a ko1opoH a1o cnoao nokpmaae1
neonpepenenno unpokyk o6nac1L; cnoaa Besetzung nnn
Abwehr (o6opona, o1nop) sannHak1 ananornunoe nonoxe-
nne a neHeukoH nsmke. HeHeukoe cnoao Depri-miert c ero
ysknH n nou1n xec1knH knac1epoH accounaun c caHoro
nauana o16nno 6m oxo1y ncnonLsoaa1L ero nopo6nmH o6-
pasoH.
Cnepoaa1enLno, a naueH pacnopnxennn ponxnm 6m1L ne
1onLko cnoaapn n rpaHHa1nkn kaxporo anann1nueckoro
nsmka, no 1akxe n co6panne knac1epoa accounaun, co-
ny1c1aykunx kaxpoHy 1epHnny. D1a sapaua, aosHoxno,
6ype1 caHo cnoxno; aepL paxe coo1ae1c1aykuan o6-
nac1L nnnranc1nkn, ceHan1nka, ace eue naxopn1cn na
panne c1apnn caoero pasan1nn, epaa npeoponea a1an
cnc1eHa1nsaunn. H ace xe a1a pa6o1a ponxna 6m1L cpe-
nana.
BokcL, u1o a nac1onuee apeHn ace anann1nueckne nsmkn
ponxnm 6m1L npnsnanm paanosnaunmHn, necHo1pn na 1o,
u1o neko1opme ns nnx, oueanpno, naxopn1cn na 6onee am-
coko c1ynenn pasan1nn, 1orpa kak ppyrne, aosHoxno,
nnkorpa ne npeoponek1 c1apnn sapoxpennn n
nesaaepuennoc1n, na ko1opo onn noka eue naxopn1cn.
Opnako kaxpm ns a1nx nsmkoa ampaxae1 aaxnme
acnek1m anann1nueckoro onm1a, noa1oHy Hm ponxnm
ponycka1L paanosnaunoe cyuec1aoaanne acex nsmkoa,
noka ne nayunHcn yaepenno n napexno nepeaopn1L
copepxanne koHHynnkaunn c opnoro nsmka na nk6o
ppyro.
O6muno na a1oH a1ane nonannk1cn aospaxennn. Onn co-
c1on1 a cnepykueH: Opep npepoc1aann a naue pacno-
pnxenne poc1a1ouno xopoun n aqqek1nanm nsmk, ko-
1opm 6es 1pypa nonnHak1 ace anann1nkn; 1ak paaa1e
129
xe npnHeH ero a kauec1ae a1anona knaccnueckoro nsm-
ka ncnxoanannsa n no1pe6yeH, u1o6m 1enepL kaxpm pe-
qopHa1op coc1aannn pnn caoero nsmka cnoaapL n rpaHHa-
1nky, 1ak u1o6m 6mno nonn1no, o1 kakoro nynk1a n a ka-
koH nanpaanennn ero nsmk pacxopn1cn c nsmkoH Opepa.
D1o npepnoxenne amrnnpn1 poaonLno pasyHnmH, no, 6o-
kcL, ono nenpneHneHo. Kak n nonm1ancn nokasa1L a rna-
aax 1-3, nccnepoaannn Opepa ne amxopnnn sa npepenm
npepnoro koHnnekca, 1orpa kak coapeHennme pnanek1m
c1apak1cn onnca1L noame pannme, npnnapnexaune k o6-
nac1n 6asncnoro peqek1a. Cnepoaa1enLno, pasnme onn-
cannn knnnnuecknx qak1oa npn noHoun cpepc1a coape-
Hennmx anann1nuecknx nsmkoa ne Hory1 6m1L conoc1aa-
nenm c knaccnuecknHn onncannnHn Opepa; y nac ne1
nepaoro (primus), a 1onLko paanme (pares). D1o1
qak1 ponxen 6m1L npnnn1 aceHn c1oponaHn, kaknH 6m
nenpnn1nmH on nn 6mn.
[annan cn1yaunn nHee1 6onLuoe snauenne n pnn naue
npak1nkn. B caHoH pene, Hnoxec1aennoc1L anann1nue-
cknx nsmkoa, ko1opme ne ace n ne acerpa nonnHak1,
Hoxno nrnopnpoaa1L po 1ex nop, noka 1epanea1nueckan
pa6o1a ne amxopn1 sa npepenm apnnoaa ypoann. HecHo1-
pn na 1o, u1o Hm HoxeH c1onkny1Lcn c neko1opmHn npo-
6neHaHn, kak 1onLko u1o 6mno nokasano na npnHepe c
nenepeaopnHmHn cnoaaHn Angst, Besetzung, Lust,
depressed onn, no caoe cy1n, ne nannk1cn 1exnnue-
cknHn. Korpa naua pa6o1a c naunen1aHn npopanrae1cn
panLue n nepecekae1 rpannum o6nac1n o6uenpnnn1oro
nsmka aspocnmx nkpe, ac1ynan a o6nac1L 6asncnoro pe-
qek1a, cpasy xe aosnnkak1 1pypnoc1n. B a1o o6nac1n
neaep6anLnme koHHynnkaunn naunen1a (ne aaxno, nasm-
aaeH nn Hm nx noaepenneH, o1mrpmaanneH nnn
cospanneH a1Hocqepm n 1. p.) 1ak xe aaxnm, kak n ero
aep6anLnme accounaunn. HockonLky ace a1n koHHynn-
kaunn nannk1cn neaep6anLnmHn, 1o nHenno Hm, anann-
130
1nkn, ponxnm amc1yna1L a ponn nn1epnpe1a1opoa 6ec-
cosna1enLnmx nHnynLcoa naunen1a pnn ero cosna1enLno
aspocno caHoc1n. [pyrnHn cnoaaHn, nHenno Hm ponxnm
nepeaec1n npnHn1nanoe noaepenne naunen1a na o6ue-
npnnn1m nsmk aspocnmx, nosaonna eHy 1aknH o6pasoH
nonn1L snauenne a1oro noaepennn. Bonee 1oro, Hm ponx-
nm pec1aoaa1L ne 1onLko kak 1onkoaa1enn, no 1akxe n
kak nnqopHa1opm. [axe na apnnoaoH ypoane naunen1 ne
acerpa ocosnae1 nnn ao acnkoH cnyuae apnp nn nonno-
c1Lk ocosnae1 1o, u1o on penae1 a anann1nuecko cn1ya-
unn, a uac1noc1n, nanne1cn nn ero noaepenne o1mrpmaa-
nneH nnn noa1openneH. Ha ypoane 6asncnoro peqek1a
ocosnanne naunen1a eue 6onee nenapexno n cny1ano.
B a1o cn1yaunn Hm c1anoanHcn noxoxnHn na ny1euec1-
aennnka, ko1opm nonan a nepao6m1noe nneHn, nsmk ko-
1oporo po a1oro ne 6mn nsyuen, o6muan nnkoHy ne ns-
aec1nm n, koneuno xe, nnkeH eue ne 6mno coc1aaneno
6ecnpnc1pac1noe onncanne a1nx o6muaea. O6nsannoc1n
nnqopHa1opa saknkuak1cn a 1oH, u1o6m npnaneuL ann-
Hanne k peneaan1nmH acnek1aH konkpe1noro noaepennn n
npepnoxn1L 1akoe onncanne na nonn1noH nsmke, ko1opoe
packpmaano 6m nx snauenne. Hepep naHn nens6exno
ac1ae1 a1a paonan sapaua nnqopHnpoaannn n 1onko-
aannn, nesaancnHo o1 1oro, xo1nH Hm anec1n aknap a
pasan1ne naykn nnn npoc1o naHepenm okasa1L noHouL
naueHy naunen1y.
Bmnonnenne sapaun nepeaopa snauennn na6nkpaeHmx
nanenn na nsmk aspocnmx nkpe pnn nayunmx nnn pnn
1epanea1nuecknx uene noppasyHeaae1 yuac1ne nekcnkn
n rpaHHa1nkn nsmka aspocnmx, ko1opm cyuec1aye1
1onLko na apnnoaoH ypoane. HackonLko naH nsaec1no, y
6eccosna1enLnoro ne1 caoero cnoaapn a naueH nonnHa-
nnn (a 6eccosna1enLnoH ec1L cnoaa, no onn o6napak1 1e-
Hn xe kauec1aaHn, u1o nk6me ppyrne o6Lek1nme penpe-
sen1aunn), poHnnnpykuan cnHaonnueckan qynkunn, ko-
131
1opyk npno6pe1ak1 cnoaa a nsmke aspocnmx, specL o1-
cy1c1aye1. Cnoaa nannk1cn ueH-1o apope kap1nnok, o6pa-
soa, saykoa, ko1opme Hory1 nerko Henn1L caon snauennn
nnn cnnaa1Lcn ppyr c ppyroH, kak a1o n nponcxopn1 a
cnoanpennnx. Kaxe1cn, u1o a 6eccosna1enLnoH cnoaa o6-
napak1 1o xe neonpepenennoc1Lk, u1o n o6pasm a cno-
anpennnx, a1o kak 6m cepm o6Lek1 na cepoH qone. He-
cHo1pn na 1o, u1o onn nn1encnano ka1ek1npoaanm 6mc1-
po1eunmHn aHounnHn n aqqek1aHn, onn ne ropn1cn pnn
cansnmx, ue1knx onpepenenn, kak, nanpnHep, a cnyuae
aspocnoro nsmka.
Cnepykun aonpoc, ko1opm Hm o6nsanm pnn ce6n npo-
ncnn1L, saknkuae1cn a 1oH, kakne npak1nueckne uarn
ponxnm 6m1L npepnpnnn1m npn pa6o1e c 1aknHn naunen-
1aHn. B uenoH anann1nkn aepy1 ce6n nopo6no Ha1epnH, o
ueH roaopnnocL amue. [nn nnx, anpnHo, aoace ne cyue-
c1aye1 npo6neHm am6opa nsmka; onn ncnonLsyk1 cao
co6c1aennm nsmk, no cy1n akanaanen1nm nx popnoHy
nsmky, ko1opmH onn oanapenn ao apeHn caoero anann1n-
ueckoro pe1c1aa. HoHnHo pone nnqopHa1opoa n nn1ep-
npe1a1opoa, anann1nkn 6epy1 na ce6n n ponL yun1ene,
n, kak cnepc1ane, nx naunen1m nens6exno yua1cn opnoHy
ns Hnorouncnennmx pnanek1oa anann1nueckoro nsmka.
Kak yxe o1HeuanocL, cyuec1aye1 neckonLko 1aknx nsm-
koa, kaxpan ncnxoanann1nueckan ukona paspa6a1maae1
cao co6c1aennm nsmk.
[anee n npnaepy onncanne neko1opmx 1aknx nsmkoa. H
xouy rnaanmH o6pasoH nccnepoaa1L nx aknap a peakunk
anann1nka na perpeccnpoaaauero naunen1a, a 1akxe 1e
paHkn, a ko1opme onn c1aan1 a1y peakunk. Hakoneu, n
nonm1akcL o6pncoaa1L onacnoc1n, npncyune kaxpoHy
1nny peakunn.
132
Fnaaa 16. Orpauuveuun knaccuvecko
1exuuku
Heko1opme anann1nkn ncnonLsyk1 knaccnueckn nsmk,
6epyun nauano a pa6o1ax Opepa, a ocnoae ko1oporo a
nepayk ouepepL nexn1 onm1, npnnapnexaun apnnoay
ypoank; a1o1 onm1 anocnepc1ann 6mn ampaxen na o6ue-
npnnn1oH nsmke aspocnmx nkpe, nopaeprueHcn neko1o-
pmH nsHenennnH. Koneuno xe, a1n anann1nkn ne o1pnua-
k1 porenn1anLnme nepexnaannn, onn ne npene6perak1
a1nHn nepexnaannnHn, no onn roaopn1 o nnx npn noHoun
cpepc1a nsmka aspocnmx, 1o ec1L aosaopn1 nx na apnnoa
ypoaenL.
Hnaue roaopn, penep1yap aosHoxnmx aapnan1oa peakunn
na perpeccnk y 1aknx anann1nkoa orpannuen, a nero ao-
unn 1onLko 1e cnoco6m, napexnoc1L ko1opmx npexpe
acero a1o kacae1cn nn1epnpe1aun npoaepena a pa6o1e
na apnnoaoH ypoane, a paHkax 1poc1aennmx o1nouenn
peanLno xnsnn, pasnoo6pasnmx qopH opanLno, ananL-
no n renn1anLno cekcyanLnoc1n n 1. p.; a1n anann1nkn
ynoaak1 na caok oc1opoxnyk 1exnnky, ko1opan nosaonn-
e1 nH, onnpancL na oc1a1kn nn1epeca, ko1opm coxpannn-
cn y naunen1a, amaec1n ero ns perpeccnn. D1n oc1opox-
nme anann1nkn ynyckak1 ns anpy, u1o onn, cnepyn 1ako
1exnnke, 6ypy1 ypepxnaa1L naunen1a na apnnoaoH ypoa-
ne ace apeHn neuennn nn6o sac1aan1 naunen1a nocne
kpa1koapeHennoro nepnopa perpeccnn na ppyrne ypoann
ncnxnkn 6mc1po aepny1Lcn na npexnn ypoaenL. B paH-
kax a1o 1exnnkn 6onLunnc1ao nanenn, npnnapnexaunx
o6nac1n 6asncnoro peqek1a, Hory1 6m1L nc1onkoaanm kak
nponanennn koHnnekca kac1paunn nnn saanc1n k nenncy.
Takne nn1epnpe1aunn 6ypy1 aepnm po 1ex nop, noka onn
nponnaak1 cae1 na ocnoanme onpepennkune qak1opm
apnnoaa ypoann, no onn Hory1 okasa1Lcn 6ecnonesnmHn c
1epanea1nuecko 1oukn spennn a 1ex cnyuanx, ecnn o1pn-
133
uak1cn qak1opm, npnnapnexaune o6nac1n caHoro 6asnc-
noro peqek1a. [ec1an1enLno, a1n anann1nkn Hory1 po-
6n1Lcn noxaanLnmx pesynL1a1oa, no 1onLko c naunen1a-
Hn, ko1opme npounn 1ua1enLnm o16op.
Ha 20-H MexpynapopnoH ncnxoanann1nueckoH konrpecce
a Hapnxe P. aenu1en npnaen npeaocxopnoe onncanne
ponyc1nHmx aapnaun knaccnuecko ncnxoanann1nue-
cko 1exnnkn (Loewenstein, 1958). onnLnm npnaepxe-
neu 1papnunn knaccnuecko 1exnnkn, on nckycno npo-
peHonc1pnpoaan caoc1aennyk e rn6koc1L n ee aosHox-
noc1n apan1aunn k unpokoHy cnek1py 1epanea1nuecknx
cn1yaun.
Hopo6no 6onLunnc1ay caonx cnopanxnnkoa, on nou1n ne
roaopnn o nepoc1a1kax knaccnuecko 1exnnkn, a 1akxe ne
sa1ponyn 1eHy neuennn naunen1oa, uLe sa6oneaanne a
uenoH nnn uac1nuno nexn1 sa npepenaHn pocnraeHoc1n
a1o 1exnnkn. On c cnHna1ne ynoHnnyn o payx aaxnmx
pa6o1ax, kacakunxcn a1o npo6neHm. Aa1opoH opno ns
nnx nanne1cn Dpyapp Bn6pnnr (Bibring, 1954), ko1opm
npnsnan, u1o no1pe6noc1n neko1opmx naunen1oa pec1an-
1enLno necoaHec1nHm c paHkaHn knaccnuecko 1exnn-
kn; a a1nx cnyuanx no1pe6noc1n naunen1oa Hory1 6m1L
ypoane1aopenm aosHoxno, paxe ycneuno a paHkax
ncnxo1epannn nno HopanLnoc1n, opnako 1akyk 1epannk
yxe nenLsn nasaa1L ncnxoanannsoH, u1o poaonLno cnpa-
aepnnao. [pyran pa6o1a npnnapnexn1 K. Dccnepy
(Eissler, 1953), nokasaaueHy, u1o knaccnueckan 1exnn-
ka (no cy1n xe nk6an ncnxo1epanea1nueckan 1exnnka)
Hoxe1 6m1L oxapak1epnsoaana c noHouLk neko1opo co-
aokynnoc1n napaHe1poa, k uncny ko1opmx o1nocn1cn:
uac1o1a ceancoa, npoponxn1enLnoc1L kaxporo ceanca,
1pe6oaanne k naunen1y, o6osnauennoe OpepoH kak
aospepxanne, qnsnueckne acnek1m 1epanea1nuecko
cn1yaunn, korpa naunen1 naxopn1cn a nonoxennn nexa, a
anann1nk naxopn1cn ane nonn ero spennn, noaepenne
134
anann1nka a uenoH, ko1opoe Opep ynopo6nn xopouo
o1nonnpoaannoHy sepkany, n 1. p. Dccnep aepno yka-
smaae1 na 1o, u1o anann1nk Hoxe1 nsHenn1L, ocosnanno
nnn nenpepnaHepenno, nk6o ns a1nx napaHe1poa, opna-
ko on npepoc1eperae1 nac (n aenu1en cornauae1cn c
nnH), u1o neko1opme nsHenennn Hory1 6m1L neo6pa1nHm-
Hn, 1o ec1L neaosHoxno aepny1Lcn a paHkn knaccnue-
cko ncnxoanann1nuecko cn1yaunn nocne 1oro, kak 6m-
nn ponyuenm neko1opme nsHenennn.
Ecnn n npaannLno nonnn aenu1ena, 1o caok sapauy
on anpn1 a coc1aanennn cnncka nosaonn1enLnmx nnn,
aosHoxno, npoc1o 6esonacnmx nsHenenn, sa npepenm
ko1oporo anann1nky ne pekoHenpoaano amxopn1L. TenepL
n npepnarak noHenn1Lcn qnrypaHn n sapa1L 1ako ao-
npoc: k kaknH nocnepc1annH Hoxe1 npnaec1n 1epanea1n-
ueckan yc1anoaka, ko1opyk o1c1anaak1 aenu1en,
Bn6pnnr, Dccnep n ppyrne? D1o neo6Ln1nan 1eHa, no-
a1oHy n kocnycL 1onLko 1pex ee acnek1oa.
Hepam acnek1, koneuno xe, kacae1cn o16opa, ko1opm
npepc1aanne1 co6o cnepc1ane orpannuenn acnkoro 1e-
panea1nueckoro He1opa. Hs-sa a1nx orpannuenn kakne-
1o naunen1m 6ypy1 o1aeprny1m, 1ak kak pannm He1op ne
npnnece1 nH nonLsm. aenu1en n ero konnern, noc1y-
nak1 Hyppo, nocnepoaa1enLno saHanunaan a1o1 nenpnn1-
nm qak1, yknonnncL, 1aknH o6pasoH, o1 neo6xopnHoc1n
onpepenennn kpn1epnn, ko1opm ponxen neuL a ocnoay
a1o 6onesnenno cenekunn.
CaHo co6o pasyHee1cn, npn o16ope naunen1oa paxe
anann1nkn cnepyk1 ne 1onLko cosna1enLnmH, nano cqop-
HynnpoaannmH npenH n kpn1epnnH, no n neko1opmH cao-
nH 6eccosna1enLnmH yc1anoakaH. Hoa1oHy Hm ne Hnoro
norpeunH npo1na nc1nnm, ecnn ckaxeH, u1o rnaanme ao-
npocm, ampanny1me pnn o6cyxpennn, kacanncL ne c1onL-
ko kypa6enLnoc1n naunen1a, ckonLko ero poc1ynnoc1n
135
anannsy. [pyrnHn cnoaaHn: c1on1 nnn ne c1on1 6pa1Lcn
sa ananns 1oro nnn nnoro naunen1a? Moxno 6mno 6m yka-
sa1L c neko1opo pone sno nponnn, u1o opnn ns aonpo-
coa, aosnnkakunx npn o16ope, saknkuae1cn a cnepyk-
ueH: npnnece1 nn ypoane1aopenne anann1nky ananns
pannoro naunen1a? He y1pyxpan ce6n ponrnHn nonckaHn
ananorn, Hoxno 6mno 6m o1He1n1L, u1o neu1o nopo6noe
nponcxopn1 npn o16ope kanpnpa1oa pnn o6yuennn anann-
sy. Cnpaaepnnaoc1n papn n ponxen po6aan1L, u1o a1o,
no-anpnHoHy, o1nocn1cn k kaxpo nayuno ukone, a ne
1onLko k knaccnuecko ukone ncnxoanannsa.
Bce a1o, koneuno xe, ne osnauae1, u1o npen o16opa no-
pouna no caoe cy1n nanpo1na, no-anpnHoHy, a ne
ec1L cHmcn. H 1onLko xo1en nopuepkny1L, u1o 1exnnka n
kpn1epnn o16opa acerpa asanHosaancnHm n onpepennk1
ppyr ppyra. Hpene6pexenneH a1oro qynpaHen1anLnoro
qak1a Hoxno o6Lncnn1L o1nocn1enLnyk nenpopyk1na-
noc1L perynnpno npoaopnHoro, rnaanmH o6pasoH a AHe-
pnke (1960, 1963), cnHnosnyHa, nocanuennoro npo6neHe
poc1ynnoc1n naunen1oa anannsy BosHoxno, u1o opnnH ns
Ho1naoa npoaepennn a1nx perynnpnmx cnHnosnyHoa na-
nne1cn no1pe6noc1L a onpaapannn conpo1nanennn, ko1o-
poe ncnm1maak1 neko1opme anann1nkn npn peuennn ao-
npoca o npnnn1nn a ananns naunen1oa c npornosaHn pnc-
ka. Heo6xopnHo eue pas o1He1n1L, u1o npn ycnoann
npoaepennn 1ua1enLnoro o16opa pesynL1a1m, ko1opme
poc1nrak1cn c ncnonLsoaanneH knaccnueckoro anann1n-
ueckoro nsmka, nannk1cn npeaocxopnmHn.
C a1o npo6neHo 1ecno cansan aonpoc o1nocn1enLno 1o-
ro, k1o ponxen asn1L na ce6n paspa6o1ky ppyrnx, 1oxe
pnnaHnuecknx, no aHec1e c 1eH o1nnuakunxcn o1 knac-
cnueckoro anannsa anpoa ncnxo1epannn, ko1opme Hornn
6m anocnepc1ann 6m1L ncnonLsoaanm pnn neuennn naun-
en1oa, cun1akunxcn nenopxopnunHn pnn knaccnueckoro
anannsa. Cnepye1 nn npepoc1aan1L nonckn peuennn
136
a1o npo6neHm pnknH anann1nkaH, aknek1nkaH, ncnxn-
a1paH o6uero nanpaanennn nnn, 6m1L Hoxe1, HaraH n
napopnmH uenn1ennH? Xopouo 6m ne sa6maa1L, u1o a
npounoH Hm acerpa 6es kone6ann unn na pacunpenne
rpannu anannsa paneko sa npepenm knaccnuecko 1ex-
nnkn. HHenno 1ak 6mno c pe1cknHn anann1nkaHn, ko1o-
pme c1onnn nepep neo6xopnHoc1Lk paspa6o1kn noamx
He1opoa, coo1ae1c1aykunx noao 1epanea1nuecko cn-
1yaunn. Heko1opme napaHe1pm pe1ckoro anannsa cyuec1-
aenno o1nnuak1cn o1 napaHe1poa knaccnuecknx He1o-
poa. O1He1nH, k npnHepy, cyuec1aennm HoHen1: ao
apeHn 1epannn pe6enka a aospac1e 3-4 ne1 nn opnn ana-
nn1nk ne cHor ns6exa1L cn1yaunn, korpa k neHy o6paua-
nncL c npocL6o okasa1L noHouL a o1npaanennn pe6en-
koH ampenn1enLnmx qynkun, 1orpa kak npn 1epannn
aspocnoro naunen1a 1akoe npoc1o neaosHoxno. Heco-
Hnenno, cornacno 1epHnnonornn Dccnepa, a1o Hoxno
oxapak1epnsoaa1L kak neo6pa1nHoe nsHenenne napaHe1-
poa anann1nuecko cn1yaunn. Opnako a1n qynpaHen1anL-
nme o1nnunn ne c1ann npnunno nauero o1kasa o1 pe1-
ckoro anannsa a nonLsy, ckaxeH, ukonLnmx ncnxonoroa,
Hm asnnn a1y nouy na caon nneun k 6onLuo nonLse
pnn pasan1nn neparornkn, pe1cko ncnxonornn, pe1cko
ncnxna1pnn n npexpe acero caHoro ncnxoanannsa. C 1ex
nop pe1ckn ncnxoananns c1an cneunanLnmH nanpaane-
nneH nccnepoaannn n 1eH ne Henee oc1ancn neo1LeHne-
Ho uac1Lk ncnxoanannsa a uenoH.
Honm1ka o1mcka1L Ho1nam, no6ypnaune ncnxoanann1nue-
ckoe coo6uec1ao sann1L npnHo npo1naononoxnyk nosn-
unk a o1nouennn rpynnoao ncnxo1epannn, Horna 6m
c1a1L copepxanneH nn1pnrykuero nc1opnueckoro n
ncnxonornueckoro nccnepoaannn. CaH Opep, po6aana
a unc1oe sono1o ncnxoanannsa neko1opme npnHecn,
cpenan ero npnropnmH pnn ncnxo1epannn unpoknx Hacc.
Opnako necHo1pn na 1o, u1o nou1n ace nnonepm rpynno-
137
ao ncnxo1epannn 6mnn kaannqnunpoaannmHn ncnxo-
anann1nkaHn, Hm, coo6uec1ao a uenoH, o1kasanncL npn-
nn1L o1ae1c1aennoc1L sa panLneuee pasan1ne a1oro an-
pa ncnxo1epannn, no HoeHy Hnennk, nanecn yuep6 aceH
sann1epecoaannmH nnuaH, no npexpe acero ace naue
nayke. TenepL ppyrne co6npak1 6ora1m ypoxa na a1o
6naropa1no nnae, Hm xe ynyc1nnn, aepon1no, epnnc1-
aennm uanc nonyua1L ns nepamx pyk Ha1epnan knnnn-
uecknx na6nkpenn ncnxopnnaHnkn konnek1naoa.
HosaonL1e Hne 1enepL sapa1L aonpoc, noueHy xe orpoH-
noe uncno anann1nkoa c 6ora1mH n pasnoo6pasnmH onm-
1oH acnep sa aenu1enoH n ero konneraHn cun1ak1,
u1o panxenne sa npepenm o6nac1n, 1ak ncno n y6epn-
1enLno nH ouepuenno, nanne1cn ne6naropasyHnmH n pa-
xe onacnmH? H nonarak, u1o Hon konuenunn pac1 o1ae1
n, no-anpnHoHy, ne opnn na a1o1 aonpoc. Knaccnue-
ckan 1exnnka co aceHn ee ponyc1nHmHn aapnaunnHn
npepnonarae1 1akne o1nouennn Hexpy naunen1oH n ana-
nn1nkoH, ko1opme xapak1epnsyk1cn kak npnnapnexaune
apnnoay ypoank. k6me nsHenennn 6ypy1 6esonacnm po
1ex nop, noka onn nosaonnk1 ypepxnaa1L o1nouennn na
a1oH ypoane. Kaxpm 1exnnueckn uar, amxopnun sa
rpannum 6esonacnmx aapnan1oa aenu1ena, ponyckae1
n paxe npoaounpye1 pasan1ne nnmx 1epanea1nuecknx o1-
nouenn, ko1opme eue ne nopaepranncL 1ua1enLnoHy
nsyuennk, a noa1oHy upeaa1m onpepenennmH pnckoH kak
pnn naunen1a, 1ak n pnn anann1nka.
C ppyro c1oponm, naH 1ouno nsaec1no, u1o pec1an1enL-
no cyuec1ayk1 1akne o1nouennn, ko1opme o1nnuak1cn o1
o1nouenn apnnoaa ypoann; necoHnennmH npepc1aanne1-
cn n 1o, u1o npn onpepenennmx ycnoannx neko1opme ns
a1nx o1nouenn Hory1 6m1L ncnonLsoaanm pnn peuennn
1epanea1nuecknx sapau. 1o6m ns6exa1L ny1annum, n xo-
uy po6aan1L, u1o o1nouennn, na6nkpaeHme n nsyuaeHme
ao apeHn pe1ckoro anannsa, a uenoH ne npnnapnexa1 k
138
1eH, o ko1opmx n roaopk; onn nannk1cn ynpouennmH aa-
pnan1oH 1oro, u1o n nasaan apnnoamHn o1nouennnHn.
Hosxe Hm ponxnm 6ypeH aepny1Lcn k a1oHy y1aepxpe-
nnk.
Ho-anpnHoHy, a1n neapnnoam o1nouennn Hory1 6m1L co-
npnxenm c neko1opmH pnckoH kak pnn naunen1a, 1ak n
pnn anann1nka. HaH ouenL Hano nsaec1no o6 a1nx o1no-
uennnx. H nosaonk ce6e po6aan1L, u1o, o1aeprnya ka-
1apk1nueckn-rnnno1nueckn He1op n o6pa1nauncL k
1exnnke, ns ko1opo anocnepc1ann pasanncn ncnxoana-
nns, Opep nopaepr ce6n pncky kak naH 1enepL ns-
aec1no, poaonLno cepLesnoHy, o npnpope n c1enenn
ko1oporo on nou1n ne nHen npepc1aanennn. Koneuno xe,
on ns6exan 6m Hnornx onacnoc1e, ecnn ne nouen 6m no
a1oHy ny1n; no 6mno 6m a1o HyppmH peuenneH?
H snak, u1o epnnnunm ycnex ne Hoxe1 6m1L onpaapann-
eH pnn noamx pnckoaannmx naunnann. Bonee 1oro, no
sakony aepon1noc1n apnp nn a naunx pnpax o1mue1cn
eue opnn Opep. H ace xe, cnepye1 nn naH o1kasa1Lcn o1
a1o, no-anpnHoHy, pnckoaanno sa1en, npepoc1aana a1o
peno ppyrnH nccnepoaa1ennH? H cun1ak, necHo1pn na
Hnorne anonne o6ocnoaannme npepoc1epexennn, u1o Hm
ne ponxnm 1ak noc1yna1L.
B ueH xe 1orpa coc1on1 naua uenL? Hccnepoaa1L kak
Hoxno 6onLue aapnan1oa neapnnoamx o1nouenn pnn 1o-
ro, u1o6m: na1n qak1opm, ko1opme o6ycnaannaak1 nx
pasan1ne nnn c1nHynnpyk1 ero; onpepenn1L paHkn, ko1o-
pmx ponxen npnpepxnaa1Lcn anann1nk a caoe pa6o1e,
u1o6m npepo1apa1n1L onacnoe nanpaanenne pasan1nn
a1nx o1nouenn, n, nakoneu, nocnepnee, no ne Henee
aaxnoe ncnonLsoaa1L a1n o1nouennn kak cpepc1aa a
1epanea1nuecknx nn1epaenunnx. H cun1ak, u1o Hm, ana-
nn1nkn, nanneHcn epnnc1aenno rpynno nccnepoaa1e-
ne, ko1opme Hory1 cnpaan1Lcn c a1o sapaue 6naropapn
139
naue nopro1oake, n, 6esycnoano, Hm Hnoro no1epneH,
ecnn o1kaxeHcn o1 a1oro.
K1o-1o ckaxe1, u1o ny1euec1ane no aceH a1nH ne o1He-
uennmH na kap1e seHnnH Hoxe1 sakonun1Lcn nnueH nnn
u1o papn naxopkn, ecnn paxe noaese1, ne c1on1 pncko-
aa1L naunH ncnxoanannsoH. H ne 1ako neccnHnc1.
3aHeua1enLnoe caoc1ao sono1a coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o a orne
ono ne 1onLko ne cropae1, no n ounuae1cn. H ne anxy
kaknx-nn6o ocnoaann onaca1Lcn sa ocnoanme coc1aa-
nnkune naue naykn; ne ponxnm nn koe-kakne
nenyxnme ykpauennn, ne 6ypyun unc1mH sono1oH,
crope1L a orne papn 6ypyuero nocnepykunx nokonenn?
Fnaaa 17. Hepoc1a1ku He1opa nocnepo-
aa1enuumx uu1epnpe1au
[pyrne anann1nkn, ncnm1aaune annnnne npe Menann
Knnn, nopounn k a1o npo6neHe c coaepuenno nno
1eope1nuecko nosnunn. Xo1n onn anonne ocosnaaann
snaun1enLnoc1L paspmaa Hexpy pe6enkoH a naunen1e n
aspocnmH, onn cun1ann, u1o cpepc1a o6uenpnnn1oro nsm-
ka 6ype1 poc1a1ouno pnn ero npeoponennn. Hpnsnaaan,
u1o a ncnxonornn aspocnoro n pe6enka cyuec1ayk1 qyn-
paHen1anLnme pasnnunn, onn, 1eH ne Henee, ponyckann,
u1o npn noHoun nsmka aspocnmx nkpe Hoxno pa6o1a1L
paxe c nan6onee npnHn1nanmHn ncnxnuecknHn npouec-
caHn pe6enka, ecnn, koneuno, pasyHno nonLsoaa1Lcn cy-
uec1aykunHn npepc1aanennnHn, a 1akxe cospaaa1L no-
ame. [ae ppyrne nocmnkn a1o ukonm 1akoam: (a) na
pannnx c1apnnx ncnxnueckoro pasan1nn nHnynLcm, nc-
1ounnkoH ko1opmx nanne1cn rnno1e1nueckoe aneuenne k
cHep1n, nrpak1 ropaspo 6onee aaxnyk ponL, ueH ao
aspocno xnsnn; (6) npak1nueckn ace qenoHenm, na6nk-
paeHme y aspocnmx, a 1oH nnn nnoH anpe npepc1aanenm a
caHoH panneH pe1c1ae, aosHoxno, yxe a nepame nepenn
140
xnsnn. Hpepc1aan1enn a1o ukonm y1aepxpak1, u1o ne-
nocpepc1aennme na6nkpennn sa HnapenuaHn nop1aep-
xpak1 aepnoc1L pannmx nonoxenn.
B a1o ukone paspa6o1ana caHan nsoupennan 1eopnn, a
aHec1e c ne cao nsmk n caon co6c1aennan 1exnnka nn-
1epnpe1aun. D1o1 noam nsmk poaonLno cnnLno o1nnua-
e1cn o1 o6munoro nsmka, ko1opm ncnonLsyk1 aspocnme
nkpn. Opnako ne cnepye1 sa6maa1L, u1o cnauana nsmk
Opepa 1oxe ao HnoroH o1nnuancn o1 o6uenpnnn1oro
nsmka, no a nac1onuee apeHn 6onLunnc1ao ero noaoaae-
penn aounn a o6uenpnnn1m nekcnkon nn1ennnren1noro
uenoaeka. To xe caHoe Hoxe1 nponso1n n c a1nH noamH
nsmkoH. Opnako ec1L eue opno aaxnoe pasnnune Hexpy
nsmkoH Opepa n nsmkoH noao ukonm. Hsmk Opepa a
ocnoanoH npepnasnauen pnn onncannn nepexnaann,
npnnapnexaunx apnnoay ypoank, 1orpa kak npepc1aan-
1enn a1o ukonm ocosnanno noc1aannn nepep co6o sa-
pauy cospannn c1anpap1nsnpoaannmx ampaxenn pnn
onncannn 6onee npnHn1nanmx nepexnaann no cpaane-
nnk c 1eHn, ko1opme npnnapnexa1 apnnoay ypoank.
CornauancL c 1eH, u1o perpeccnpoaaaun naunen1 o1ka-
smaae1cn o1 o1nouenn c uenoc1nmH peanLnmH o6Lek1oH
n Hoxe1 noppepxnaa1L o1nouennn 1onLko c uac1nunmHn
o6Lek1aHn, a koHHynnkaunnx c 1aknHn naunen1aHn a1n
anann1nkn, 1eH ne Henee, npn6erak1 k o6munoHy nsmky,
npn a1oH, opnako, ne sapyHmaancL, onepnpyk1 cyuec1an-
1enLnmHn rpypL, Honoko, copepxanne, a 1akxe
ampaxennnHn any1pennoc1n 1ena, uac1nunme o6Lek-
1m n 1. p., yno1pe6nnk1 rnaronm o1c1anaa1L, o1uen-
nn1L, npnnnHa1L, nnkopnopnpoaa1L, npoeunpoaa1L, npe-
cnepoaa1L, nanocn1L yuep6 n 1. p. Kc1a1n, nepaona-
uanLno 1epHnnm rpypL, Honoko, any1pennoc1n 1e-
na n 1. p. onn yno1pe6nnnn kak cnoaa, nHekune o6mu-
noe o6uenpnnn1oe snauenne, no cnyc1n neko1opoe apeHn
a1n cnoaa npe1epnenn c1pannyk 1pancqopHaunk, nx sna-
141
uenne c1ano 6onee unpoknH n a 1o xe apeHn ncuepnm-
aakunH n cun1ak, 1ak nponsouno no1oHy, u1o a1n
cnoaa c1ann ncnonLsoaa1L pnn onncannn qenoHenoa,
npnnapnexaunx o6nac1n 6asncnoro peqek1a.
Hoc1onnno pacunpnn ceHan1nky cnoaa, a1n anann1nkn
npepnarak1 nasaannn, uac1o ypaunme, pnn 1aknx nanenn
n nepexnaann, ko1opme npexpe ne nHenn nHen n no
a1o npnunne ne Hornn 6m1L ampaxenm npn noHoun
cnoa. HanpnHep, ponyc1nH, u1o korpa-1o Hnapeneu xenan
rpypn nnn Honoka, no a 1o1 HoHen1 on ne 6mn snakoH c
1aknHn cnoaaHn, a ero aHounonanLnme nepexnaannn ne
Hornn 6m1L 1eHn, kakne noppasyHeaak1 konaenunonanL-
nme snauennn cnoa rpypL, Honoko nnn yuep6,
npnnapnexaune o6munoHy nsmky aspocnmx nkpe.
O6pauancL 1aknH o6pasoH co cnoaaHn, a1n anann1nkn
cospann ouenL cneunqnueckn, xo1n n neckonLko c1pan-
nm, cyHacuepun nsmk, ko1opm Hnorne nx naunen1m
napennk1 nHenno 1aknHn xapak1epnc1nkaHn. B nx ny6nn-
kaunnx Hm o6napyxnaaeH ynoHnnannn o amckasmaannnx
nx naunen1oa, cHmcn ko1opmx npnHepno 1akoa: Anann-
1nk nm1ancn naansa1L naunen1y 6esyHnme npen; po npn-
xopa k anann1nky y naunen1a nnkorpa ne 6mno 1aknx
6ecnokonunx n cyHacuepunx npe. Hnn nocne rny6o-
ko nn1epnpe1aunn, cpenanno anann1nkoH, naunen1
Hoxe1 o1He1n1L: B n1ore nocne npepnoxenno nn1ep-
npe1aunn anann1nk npepc1aanne1cn cyHacuepunH, a
ananns onacnmH, no1oHy u1o 1enepL, cnepyn pekonc1-
pykunn anann1nka, naunen1y kaxe1cn, u1o anann1nk na-
ansmaae1 eHy caon co6c1aennme 6esyHnme npen, nopo6no
1oHy kak Ha1L naunen1a nacnnLno annaana a nero caoe
nnoxoe Honoko, 1ekyuee ns ee paspyuenno rpypn.
Bne kon1ekc1a a1n onncannn Hory1 nokasa1Lcn npeyaenn-
uennmHn n npnc1pac1nmHn, no apeHn o1 apeHenn onn no-
nannk1cn a ny6nnkaunnx nHenno a 1akoH anpe, a ko1opoH
142
npnaepenm amue. Opnako neo6xopnHo po6aan1L, u1o
onncannan amue nosnunn nanoHnnae1 pe1ckyk nosnunk,
korpa 6ecepa aspocnmx npepc1aanne1cn nH 6esyHno,
1ak kak ona nenonn1na; a 1o xe apeHn nk6yk nac1oun-
ayk nonm1ky nayun1L nx a1oHy nsmky pe1n aocnpnnnHak1
kak naansmaanne npe, o1 ko1opmx nH cnepoaano 6m sa-
un1n1L ce6n.
Ho ecnn anann1nkn nnn aspocnme oc1ak1cn nenpeknon-
nmHn n nonLsyk1cn caonH nsmkoH c nensHennmH noc1o-
nnc1aoH, 1o naunen1m n pe1n a konue konuoa cpak1-
cn, o6yuak1cn 1oHy, ueHy onn ponxnm nayun1Lcn, n yc-
aanaak1 nsmk 1ex, k1o c1apue n onm1nee nx. Takoe asan-
Hopec1ane Hexpy nac1ounamH anann1nkoH n yc1ynak-
unH eHy naunen1oH npnaopn1 k aosnnknoaennk a1Ho-
cqepm, a ko1opo nens6exno cknapmaak1cn onpepenen-
nme konnnsnn. B pesynL1a1e o6yuennn naunen1m oueanp-
nmH o6pasoH c1anoan1cn 6onee spenmHn, 1enepL onn 6o-
nee aqqek1nano Hory1 cnpaan1Lcn c 1eHn cn1yaunnHn,
ko1opme npexpe npepc1aannnn pnn nnx 1pypnoc1L.
Opnako neoponnHan no1pe6noc1L naunen1a 6m1L nonn1mH
amnyxpae1 ero ne 1onLko oanape1L npnamunmH pnn ana-
nn1nka nsmkoH a 1o Hepe, ko1opan nosaonn1 eHy ampa-
sn1L caon accounaunn, no 1akxe n k HonuannaoHy corna-
cnk c 1eH, u1o a anannse Hoxno pa6o1a1L 1onLko c 1eHn
nepexnaannnHn, aep6annsaunn ko1opmx ne amsmaae1
6onLunx 1pypnoc1e, a nx nn1encnanoc1L ne npeamuae1
onpepenennoro kpn1nueckoro ypoann. Bce, u1o naxopn1cn
ane cqepm aep6anLno koHHynnkaunn, nn6o nonyuae1
ne1ounoe n 1yHannoe 1onkoaanne, nn6o aoace ne Hoxe1
6m1L ampaxeno naunen1oH. (To1 qak1, u1o nepexnaannn
amcoko nn1encnanoc1n neaosHoxno ypoane1aopn1enLno
onnca1L npn noHoun cnoa, Hoxe1 6m1L opno ns npnunn
1oro, u1o naun snannn o 1onknx HexannsHax oprasHa ace
eue ouenL ckypnm.)
143
H1ak, u1o xe Hm nHeeH a n1ore: nop1aepxpenne nn nc-
knkun1enLnoc1n pannoro cnoco6a o6yuennn no cpaane-
nnk co aceHn oc1anLnmHn nnn pokasa1enLc1ao ynnaep-
canLnoc1n nsmka aspocnmx, necHo1pn na 1o, u1o nnorpa
a1o1 nsmk kaxe1cn 6esyHnmH? Takan noc1anoaka ao-
npoca noppasyHeaae1 nekn o1ae1. Me1op ne nanne1cn
a6conk1no npaannLnmH, on npoc1o aqqek1naen, pa n
nsmk ne ynnaepcanen, a npepc1aanne1 co6o 1onLko no-
nesnoe a onpepenennmx paHkax cpepc1ao koHHynnkaunn.
Bonee 1oro, cxopc1ao a noaepennn pe1e n naunen1oa ao
apeHn o6yuennn pae1 noaop npepnonara1L, u1o a ocnoaa-
nnn 1akoro o6yuennn nexa1 npoueccm nn1poekunn n
npen1nqnkaunn. Tak nnn nnaue, no npepnonoxenne, u1o
nn1poekunn n npen1nqnkaunn a a1nx payx cnyuanx Hory1
npnnnHa1Lcn kak neu1o caHo co6o pasyHekueecn,
ac1pe1n1 couyac1ane. Ho kpane Hepe nHenno 1akoe
aneua1nenne cknapmaae1cn y c1oponnero na6nkpa1enn,
cpaannaakuero kanpnpa1oa ao apeHn n nocne o6yuennn.
HoHnHo acero npouero, c1pannoe, no epnnoo6pasnoe no-
aepenne nocnepoaa1ene a1o ukonm ycnnnaae1 a1o ane-
ua1nenne, no-anpnHoHy, ace onn 6es ncknkuennn yaepe-
nm a 1oH, u1o nannk1cn o6napa1ennHn ne 1onLko nsmka,
npepc1aannkuero co6o apekaa1noe cpepc1ao pnn onnca-
nnn poapnnoamx nnn paxe poaep6anLnmx qenoHe-
noa, no 1akxe n napexnmx kpn1epnea npnHenennn a1oro
nsmka; 1o ec1L onn snak1 u1o, rpe n kak nn1epnpe1npo-
aa1L. Korpa snakoHnuLcn c poknapaHn, npepc1aanennmHn
na naunx nayunmx konqepenunnx, n c nayunmHn ny6nn-
kaunnHn, 1o aosnnkae1 uyac1ao, 6yp1o a1n nn1epnpe1aunn
ncxopn1 o1 yaepennoro, xopouo ocaepoHnennoro n, aos-
Hoxno, paxe nopaannkuero anann1nka; 1akoe xe uyac1-
ao, no-anpnHoHy, aosnnkae1 n y nx naunen1oa. Ecnn a1o
coo1ae1c1aye1 nc1nnnoHy nonoxennk aeue, 1o Hoxno
npepnonoxn1L, u1o nopo6nan yc1anoaka anann1nka cno-
co6na amsaa1L 1y arpeccnk, saanc1L n nenaanc1L, ko1o-
144
pme o6nnLno npepc1aanenm a Ha1epnane cao6opnmx ac-
counaun nx naunen1oa. C ppyro c1oponm, a1o Horno 6m
o6Lncnn1L n 1o1, no-anpnHoHy, cnnLnm nn1epec, ko1o-
pm a1n anann1nkn nponannk1 k nn1poekunn n npeannsa-
unn. Hn1poekunn n npeannsaunn npepc1aannk1 co6o sa-
un1nme HexannsHm, ko1opme nan6onee uac1o ncnonLsy-
k1cn a 1aknx o1nouennnx, korpa npn1ecnneHm n cna6m
nap1nep ponxen cnpaan1Lcn co caonH Horyuec1aennmH n
nopaannkunH ansaan.
[pyran uep1a, amsmaakuan ypnanenne, coc1on1 a o1no-
cn1enLnoH conpo1nanennn a1nx anann1nkoa npnsnannk
1epanea1nuecko neypaun. HecHo1pn na oueanpnoc1L 1o-
ro, u1o nocnepoaa1enn a1o ukonm c1anknaak1cn npn-
Hepno c 1aknH xe konnuec1aoH 1pypnmx cnyuaea n ne-
ypau, kak n apen1m nk6o ppyro ukonm, a nx ny6nnka-
unnx 6pocae1cn a rnasa o1cy1c1ane kakoro 6m 1o nn 6mno
ynoHnnannn o6 a1oH qak1e. Hanpo1na, ns nx sananenn n
naHekoa cknapmaae1cn aneua1nenne, 6yp1o o1nmne onn
nHek1 knku k nonnHannk poapnnoamx npoueccoa, ko1o-
pmH nanne1cn nx noam nsmk, n ecnn anann1nkn oanape-
k1 nx 1exnnko n nx nsmkoH, 1o snaun1enLnoe uncno
1pypnoc1e n neypau npoc1o ncuesny1 caHn co6o.
Mm cHoxeH npnc1ynn1L k ncuepnmaakueHy nsyuennk
xapak1epno oco6ennoc1n a o1nouennnx Hexpy naunen-
1oH n 1epanea1oH, npncyue a1o ukone, 1onLko nosxe,
a uac1n V. 3pecL xe n o1Heuy, u1o o1nouennn nepaaenc1-
aa Hexpy yaepennmH, xopouo ocaepoHnennmH n, aos-
Hoxno, paxe nopaannkunH anann1nkoH, ncnonLsykunH
cao nsmk n npn6erakunH k caonH nn1epnpe1aunnH c a6-
conk1no nocnepoaa1enLnoc1Lk, n naunen1oH, y ko1opo-
ro ec1L 1onLko opna anL1epna1naa: amyun1L 6esyHnm,
kak eHy kaxe1cn, nsmk caoero anann1nka nn6o o1kasa1Lcn
o1 napexpm na nonyuenne noHoun nannk1cn o1nnun-
1enLnmH npnsnakoH 1oro, u1o anann1nueckan pa6o1a poc-
1nrna o6nac1n 6asncnoro peqek1a. B a1oH He1ope yun1m-
145
aae1cn peanLnoc1L 6asncnoro peqek1a, no ona o1nocn1cn
na cue1, 1ak ckasa1L, co6c1aennoro peqek1a naunen1a,
a1a peanLnoc1L onncmaae1cn a 1epHnnax qan1asnnmx
pec1an naunen1a a o1nouennn ero nn1epnannsoaannmx
o6Lek1oa.
Hn1epnpe1aunn, o ko1opmx 1onLko u1o roaopnnocL, upe-
aa1m 1eH, pnn o6osnauennn uero nyuue acero nopouen
6m 1epHnn nn1ponpeccnn Cynep-Dro, npepnoxennm
Oepenun (Ferenczi, 1932, p. 279). B rnasax naunen1a
anann1nk, cnepykun npepnncannnH a1o 1exnnkn, ne-
nsHenno npepc1ae1 kak koHne1en1nan, anyun1enLnan n
nesm6neHan qnrypa. Bepon1no, acnepc1ane a1oro y naun-
en1a cospae1cn aneua1nenne, u1o ero anann1nk ne 1onLko
ace nonnHae1, no npn noHoun nenorpeunHmx n aepnmx
cpepc1a, naxopnunxcn a ero apcenane, Hoxe1 ampasn1L
a6conk1no ace: nepexnaannn, qan1asnn, aneua1nennn,
aHounn n 1. p. Hpeoponea ouenL cnnLnoe uyac1ao nena-
anc1n n aH6naanen1noc1L nonanenne ko1opmx, no Ho-
eHy Hnennk, a snaun1enLno c1enenn o6ycnoaneno na-
c1ounamH ncnonLsoaanneH a1oro He1opa, naunen1
yun1cn nsmky anann1nka n pari passu nn1poeunpye1 npea-
nnsnpoaannm o6pas anann1nka. B cnyuae ycnexa naun-
en1 Hoxe1 npno6pec1n anonne opnopopnyk xo1n ne a6-
conk1no ncnxnueckyk c1pyk1ypy, necoHnenno, upes-
amuano aqqek1nanyk n ace xe, no-anpnHoHy, naacerpa
oc1akuykcn pnn nero uyxpmH n nckycc1aennmH o6paso-
aanneH.
Ec1L eue opnn nepoc1a1ok, caoc1aennm nk6oHy 1nny
nocnepoaa1enLno nn1epnpe1aunn. Ecnn xano6m, ac1peu-
nme o6annennn n o6nnuennn naunen1a oc1ak1cn neue1-
knHn n ne Hory1 6m1L coo1necenm c ueH-1o konkpe1nmH,
1o nou1n acerpa oc1ae1cn aosHoxnoc1L anannsa caHoro
npouecca ampaxennn nepoaonLc1aa c ueH on co6c1aen-
no cansan nn6o aosHoxnoc1L o1noxn1L ananns po nyu-
unx apeHen; naunen1 caH aepne1cn k 1eH xe caHmH xa-
146
no6aH a 6onee nopxopnuee apeHn. D1o1 anp 1exnnkn, an-
pnHo, amnyxpae1 naunen1a perpeccnpoaa1L po ypoann
6asncnoro peqek1a a cnny 1oro, u1o anann1nk nn6o o1-
knonne1 npe1ensnn n o6annennn naunen1a kak neo6ocno-
aannme, nn6o yHeno paccenaae1 nx, npn6eran k 1onknH n
nponnua1enLnmH nn1epnpe1aunnH.
BpeHn o1 apeHenn a naue nccnepoaa1enLcko pa6o1e c
apauaHn o6ue npak1nkn (1epanea1aHn n xnpypraHn), a c
nepaannx nop 1akxe n c ncnxna1paHn, Hm c1anknaaeHcn c
nokasa1enLnmHn npnHepaHn nopo6nmx nenpepycHo1pen-
nmx no6ounmx aqqek1oa, amsaannmx 1ako yc1anoako
(Balint M., 1957). Kaxe1cn, u1o y 6onLunnc1aa apaue
ec1L neoponnHoe c1peHnenne oprannsoaa1L xano6m
caonx naunen1oa a pnarnos c coo1ae1c1aykunH eHy
nHeneH n panroH, ecnn xe a1o ne Hoxe1 6m1L cpenano
poc1a1ouno 6mc1po, 1o apau n naunen1 1epnk1cn n paxe
ncnm1maak1 cHyuenne; aHec1e c 1eH, ecnn xano6m ne
Hory1 6m1L oprannsoaanm a nonn1noe sa6oneaanne,
1o naunen1 y1aepxpae1, u1o c nnH ace xopouo, a n1ore
aosnnkak1 6eckoneunme 1pennn Hexpy c1papakunH na-
unen1oH n apauoH, pec1aykunH ns nyuunx no6yxpenn,
1ue1no nm1akunHcn o1mcka1L sauenky, ko1opan nosao-
nnna 6m eHy crpynnnpoaa1L xano6m naunen1a a kap1n-
ny nonnouennoro sa6oneaannn. HaxopncL nop annnnneH
coapeHennoro Hepnunnckoro Hmunennn, apaun ne cno-
co6nm ouenn1L aaxnoc1L 1oro qak1a, u1o naunen1 Hoxe1
xanoaa1Lcn (nesaancnHo o1 copepxannn ero xano6), 1ak
xe kak n snaun1enLnoc1L, ynnkanLnoc1L 1epanea1nuecknx
aosHoxnoc1e, sanoxennmx a o1nouennnx Hexpy 1epa-
nea1oH n naunen1oH, ko1opme, co6c1aenno, n pak1 aos-
Hoxnoc1L naunen1y amckasmaa1L caon xano6m.
Mne kaxe1cn, u1o ouenL noxoxee neoponnHoe c1peHnenne
rpynnnpoaa1L anapee1 n 6onLunnc1aoH anann1nkoa.
D1o1 nHnynLc amnyxpae1 nac o1mcknaa1L cHmcn, uero 6m
naH a1o nn c1onno, a xano6ax naunen1oa, u1o6m oc1ano-
147
an1L ampaxenne nx nepoaonLc1aa. Koneuno, Hm o1kasa-
nncL 6onee nnn Henee o1 npen 6onesnn, opnako
Hm no-npexneHy nopunnneHcn nopo6noHy c1peHnennk
crpynnnpoaa1L xano6m n cnHn1oHm naunen1a a kon-
qnnk1 nnn nosnunk, o6napakune 1ounmHn xapak1e-
pnc1nkaHn n panroH, ko1opme 6mnn 6m nac1onLko pan-
nnHn nnn rny6oknHn, cornacno cnc1eHe o1cue1a na-
ue xpononornuecko nepapxnn, nackonLko a1o aosHox-
no. Mm, koneuno xe, ne paeH naunH naunen1aH, kak a1o
penak1 apaun, ycnokon1enLnmx cpepc1a, 1pankannnsa1o-
poa, an1npenpeccan1oa n ppyrnx nekapc1a, no, aosHoxno,
ns-sa a1oro naH eue 1pypnee amnocn1L nx opnoo6pasnme
xano6m. Mm npn6eraeH k naunH nn1epnpe1aunnH pnn 1o-
ro, u1o6m nonyun1L aosHoxnoc1L u1o-1o cpena1L pnn nnx,
npepnoxn1L u1o-1o, u1o Horno 6m oc1anoan1L xano6m, n
ecnn a1o ne pec1aye1, 1o Hm o6annneH nn6o caHnx ce6n
sa nauy neropnyk 1exnnky, nn6o naunen1a sa ero nens-
neunHoe pacc1poc1ao, pec1pyk1nanoc1L, rny6okyk pe-
npeccnk, ero pacuennennoe Dro n 1. p. nnn, nanpnHep,
okpyxenne naunen1a n oco6enno ero popn1ene sa o1-
cy1c1ane nonnHannn c nx c1oponm, sa uepc1aoc1L a aoc-
nn1annn n 1. n. Ho-anpnHoHy, 1o xe uenn cnyxn1 nepaa-
no coc1onaueecn aockpeuenne c1aporo snakoHoro kosna
o1nyuennn npen annnnnn nacnepc1aennoc1n. Tak Ho-
xe1 packpyunaa1Lcn 6eckoneunan cnnpanL: naunen1 xa-
nye1cn, anann1nk nn1epnpe1npye1 ero xano6m ncxopn ns
caonx npepc1aanenn o uenecoo6pasnoc1n pnn pa6o1m na
apnnoaoH nnn poapnnoaoH ypoane. Hpn a1oH ne nponc-
xopn1 peanLnmx nsHenenn, uyac1aa xe annm n neypaun
ycnnnaak1cn kak y anann1nka, 1ak n y naunen1a; a1o
c1nHynnpye1 nonanenne noamx xano6 n noamx 6esyHnmx
nn1epnpe1aun, eue 6onee 1onknx, yHnmx n rny6oknx,
ueH npepmpyune.
Fnaaa 18. Hepoc1a1ku 1exuuku ynpaa-
neuun perpeccue
148
Tpe1Ln rpynna anann1nkoa, o1nkpL ne 1ak xopouo opra-
nnsoaannan, kak pae npepmpyune, paccennnan no aceHy
anann1nueckoHy Hnpy, 1akxe nauana c npo6neHm nponac-
1n, o1pennkue nac, nopHanLnmx aspocnmx, o1 pe6enka a
naunen1e. Onn cun1ann n a1o ao HnoroH coanapae1 c
Hoe 1ouko spennn, u1o caHo cyuec1aoaanne a1o
nponac1n ao HnoroH o6nsano oun6kaH, ko1opme ponyc-
kak1 aspocnme, npexpe acero Ha1L, a yxope sa pe6enkoH
a pannn nepnop pasan1nn. Heaepnan oneka, nepoc1a1ok
coo1ae1c1ann Hexpy Ha1epLk n pe6enkoH Hory1 npn-
aec1n k c1oknH c1pyk1ypnmH nsHenennnH a ncnxnke pe-
6enka. HpnHepoH 1aknx nsHenenn, no Bnnnnko11y,
o6muno nanne1cn caoero popa pacuennenne Dro. B kaue-
c1ae peakunn na nnoxyk oneky aosHoxno, uepes nn-
1poekunk 6espasnnunoro, nopaannkuero nnn neapekaa1-
noro okpyxennn na cuene nonanne1cn noxnoe Dro nnn
caHoc1L, nasnauenne ko1opmx coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o6m coa-
napa1L c 6ecuyac1aennmH HnpoH. D1o noxnoe Dro Hoxe1
6m1L upesamuano aqqek1nanmH n paxe ycneunmH ao
Hnornx o6nac1nx xnsnn, no ono nperpaxpae1 poc1yn k nc-
1nnno nnn nac1onue caHoc1n, ko1opan acnepc1ane a1o-
ro oc1ae1cn nespeno n o1opaanno o1 peanLnoc1n. B n1o-
re uenoaeka na npo1nxennn ace xnsnn npecnepye1 uya-
c1ao 1ue1noc1n, nyc1o1m n necuac1Ln.
Kak n yxe o1Heuan, a a1o ukone rnaanm akuen1 c1aan1-
cn na kauec1ae coo1ae1c1ann Hexpy nnpnanpoH, ko1o-
pm ouyuae1 ce6n cna6mH, n ero okpyxenneH, ko1opoe
npepc1aanne1cn eHy caepxHoryuec1aennmH. O6muno ns-
sa 1oro, u1o nc1nnnoe Dro nanne1cn nespenmH n ne cno-
co6no peua1L npo6neHm peanLno xnsnn, nnpnanpy 1pe-
6yk1cn cpepc1aa kak pnn saun1m o1 konqpon1aunn c 1pe-
6oaannnHn, npepLnanneHmHn HnpoH, 1ak n pnn nocpep-
nnuec1aa Hexpy HnpoH c ero 1pe6oaannnHn n peanLnmHn
aosHoxnoc1nHn nnpnanpa. Hpn acnkoH napyuennn coo1-
ae1c1ann a a1oH cHmcne na nepam nnan a ponn oneky-
149
na amxopn1 aqqek1nano qynkunonnpykuee noxnoe
Dro, nanocnuee yuep6 nc1nnno caHoc1n. Ha a1oH ypoa-
ne poaonLno pennka1nm koHnonen1 anann1nuecko pa-
6o1m, coc1onun a kopHnennn, saun1e, nocpepnnuec1-
ae, npncHo1pe n 1. p., ko1opm o6muno o6osnauae1cn
kak ynpaanenne, no o1nouennk k 6onee nsyuennmH
acnek1aH, 1aknH, kak couyac1aennoe amcnyunaanne, no-
nnHanne n nn1epnpe1aunn, nanne1cn acnoHora1enLnmH
nnn, Hoxe1 6m1L, nrpae1 ponL qynpaHen1a.
Hpepnonarae1cn, u1o a1Hocqepa, a ko1opo nn1epnpe1a-
unn Hory1 poc1nuL nc1nnnoro Dro, c1a1L pnn nero nonn1-
nmHn n poc1ynnmHn, Hoxe1 6m1L cospana 1onLko a 1oH
cnyuae, ecnn naunen1aH 6ype1 nosaoneno perpeccnpo-
aa1L, 1o ec1L o1kasa1Lcn o1 6esonacnoc1n, ko1opyk onn
o6pe1ann 6naropapn oneke co c1oponm noxnoro Dro.
D1o aosHoxno 1onLko a 1oH cnyuae, ecnn anann1nk cHo-
xe1 asn1L na ce6n a1y oneky, 1o ec1L 6ype1 ynpaann1L
perpeccne. Hyxno nopuepkny1L, u1o o6opo1no c1opo-
no Hepann ynpaanennn anann1nka nanne1cn, neco-
Hnenno, perpeccnn naunen1a; nHenno perpeccnpoaaaun
naunen1 1o1, k1o apeHenno o1kasancn o1 saun1m caoe
aspocno, n, aosHoxno, noxno caHoc1n nyxpae1cn a
pykoaopc1ae.
Opnako ns knnnnueckoro onm1a xopouo nsaec1no, u1o
perpeccnpoaaaune naunen1m o6muno ampaxak1 aecLHa
amcokne 1pe6oaannn, ko1opme npnaopn1 k nonanennk co-
c1onnn snokauec1aenno saancnHoc1n; Hm aepneHcn k
a1o 1eHe a rnaaax 20-22. Hoa1oHy ynpaanenne perpec-
cnpoaaaunH naunen1oH acerpa nanne1cn pennka1no n
pnckoaanno sapaue, c ko1opo 6maae1 1pypno cnpa-
an1Lcn.
Opnn ns acnek1oa a1oro Hoxe1 6m1L onncan kak co6nasn
npnnn1nn na ce6n anann1nkoH nop paanenneH nenpekpa-
uakunxcn c1papann naunen1a o1ae1c1aennoc1n sa cos-
150
panne 1aknx ycnoan, a ko1opmx naunen1, a konue kon-
uoa, 6ype1 ns6aanen o1 nsnnunnx c1papann. Xo1n no-
po6noe no6yxpenne anann1nka a amcue c1enenn poc-
1ono noxaanm, onm1 nokasmaae1, u1o na npak1nke a1o
pepko pae1 peanLnme pesynL1a1m.
Ec1L Hnoro npnunn pnn pasouapoaann. Tako o1ae1 ana-
nn1nka na perpeccnk nens6exno anyuae1 naunen1y kak
caHo co6o pasyHekueecn, u1o anna sa ero 6asncnm
peqek1 nexn1 na nnoxoH okpyxennn, u1o ero anann1nk
xoue1 n Hoxe1 c1pyk1ypnpoaa1L okpyxakun Hnp, n a1o
nenpeHenno npnaepe1 k snaun1enLnoHy cHnruennk aq-
qek1a snonaHepennmx n apepnmx annnnn. HockonLky
specL Hm nHeeH peno c nepexnaannnHn, npnnapnexaun-
Hn k o6nac1n 6asncnoro peqek1a, 1o ne nHee1 snauennn,
o6osnauae1 nn anann1nk caok nosnunk o1kpm1o n Hnoro-
cnoano nnn Honuannao nosaonne1 naunen1y nHenno a 1a-
koH cHmcne nn1epnpe1npoaa1L caoe noaepenne a1o ne
noannne1 na qopHnpoaanne y naunen1a yc1anoakn. B
a1oH Hm anpnH uac1nunoe o6Lncnenne 1oro, noueHy, kak
1onLko perpeccnn poc1nrae1 o6nac1n 6asncnoro peqek1a,
c1anoan1cn 1ak 1pypno npepo1apa1n1L nonanenne 1parn-
ueckoro nepopasyHennn, aonc1nny cHeuennn nsmkoa.
C1on1 1onLko nosaonn1L aosnnkny1L a1o a1Hocqepe, kak
naunen1 nens6exno c1ane1 oxnpa1L aosapauennn rapHo-
nnunoro okpyxennn, a ko1opoH on xnn po 1oro, kak eHy
6mna nanecena 1paaHa, nocnyxnauan npnunno ero
6asncnoro peqek1a. B Hnpe, ko1opm n nasaan nepanuno
nk6oaLk (cH. rnaay 12), ne ponxno n ne Hoxe1 6m1L nn-
kakoro konqnnk1a nn1epecoa Hexpy cy6Lek1oH n okpy-
xenneH. Oueanpno, u1o a1o aosHoxno nnuL po 1ex nop,
noka no1pe6noc1n, cansannme c aneuennnHn cy6Lek1a n
ero nepanunoro o6Lek1a, naxopn1 ypoane1aopenne a paH-
kax opnoro n 1oro xe pec1ann, nanpnHep: kopHn1L n
ec1L, o6nnHa1L n naxopn1Lcn a o6Ln1nnx a cn1yaunn o1-
nouenn Ha1epn n ee pe6enka 1o, u1o nponcxopn1, na-
151
nne1cn epnnmH co6m1neH, no cnoaa, ko1opme Hm ncnonL-
syeH pnn onncannn a1oro co6m1nn, pasnme.
C neko1opmHn oroaopkaHn 1o xe caHoe Hoxno ckasa1L n
no noaopy o1nouenn Hexpy naunen1oH n anann1nkoH ao
apeHn neko1opmx upesamuano nn1encnanmx nepnopoa
neuennn: ananns n naxoxpenne a anannse Hory1 npep-
c1aann1L co6o kak 6m rpann epnnoro co6m1nn, oc1aaancL
a paHkax ko1oporo o6e c1oponm, yuac1aykune a 1epanea-
1nuecknx o1nouennnx, po onpepenennoro HoHen1a naxo-
pn1 caoe ypoane1aopenne. Opnako npepc1aanne1cn kpa-
ne coHnn1enLnmH, u1o a1a asanHnoc1L Hoxe1 6m1L pac-
npoc1panena sa onpepenennme rpannum, u1o anann1nk
Hoxe1 qynkunonnpoaa1L nopo6no nepanunoHy o6Lek1y
nnn 6m1L 1akoamH na caHoH pene, nosaonnn caoeHy per-
peccnpoaaaueHy naunen1y anoaL nepexn1L po1paaHa1n-
ueckn onm1 a 1epanea1nuecknx o1nouennnx, noppepxn-
aan a1y a1Hocqepy poc1a1ouno ponro pnn 1oro, u1o6m na-
unen1 o1kpmn noame ny1n pasan1nn, 6naropapn ko1opmH
on cHoxe1 ns6exa1L noa1opennn ncxopno 1paaHm n poc-
1nuL ncuenennn 6asncnoro peqek1a. D1o nerue npepc1a-
an1L, ueH poc1nuL na npak1nke, aosHoxno, no1oHy, u1o
no1pe6noc1n aspocnmx nkpe neaaxno, kak paneko
onn saunn a caoe perpeccnn, o6ycnoanennme aneue-
nnnHn, nannk1cn ace xe 6onee cnoxnmHn, ueH y Hnapen-
ua, n sapaua poc1nxennn 6esoun6ouno npen1nqnkaunn
c a1nHn no1pe6noc1nHn npeaocxopn1 npepenm aosHoxno-
c1e paxe caHoro cencn1nanoro n conepexnaakuero ana-
nn1nka. Ha ypoane xe 6asncnoro peqek1a nk6oe pacco-
rnacoaanne npepc1aanne1cn naunen1y aennko 1parepn-
e, a ko1opo oxnaak1 ace ero ropLkne pasouapoaannn,
coc1aannkune ero 6asncnm peqek1. Mne nocuac1nnan-
nocL nenocpepc1aenno na6nkpa1L pec1an1enLno nonno-
Hacu1a6nm akcnepnHen1, ko1opm, aosHoxno, 6mn nep-
amH akcnepnHen1oH 1akoro popa a nc1opnn ncnxoanann-
sa. On 6mn npoaepen Oepenun, cornacnaunHcn c1a1L 1a-
152
knH anann1nkoH pnn opno caoe naunen1kn, nackonLko
a1o 6ype1 a ero cnnax. On ypennn naunen1ke c1onLko
apeHenn, ckonLko 1a o1 nero 1pe6oaana, ceancm npoaopn-
nncL no neckonLko pas a penL, a a cnyuae neo6xopnHoc1n
n nouLk. Tak kak nepepmam 6mnn nexena1enLnmHn, onn
ac1peuanncL n no amxopnmH, a ao apeHn ero o1nycka e
6mno nosaoneno conpoaoxpa1L caoero anann1nka. Dkcne-
pnHen1 npoponxancn neckonLko ne1. Opnako pesynL1a1
ace eue ne 6mn okonua1enLno poc1nrny1, korpa Oepenun
sa neckonLko nepenL po cHep1n 6mn amnyxpen o1kasa1L-
cn o1 anann1nuecko npak1nkn ns-sa caoe 6onesnn. Co-
c1onnne a1o naunen1kn, 1anan1nnao, no rny6oko napy-
uenno xenunnm, snaun1enLno ynyuunnocL, opnako na
1o apeHn ee nenLsn 6mno cun1a1L amspopoaeaue. H po
cnx nop acnoHnnak, kak Oepenun, korpa Hm o6cyxpann
ero akcnepnHen1m a1o1 ynoHnny1m cnyua 6mn caHmH
rpanpnosnmH akcnepnHen1oH, no o1nkpL ne epnnc1aen-
nmH, npnsnan, u1o a nsaec1noH cHmcne no1epnen ne-
ypauy. Opnako on po6aann, u1o ouenL Hnoroe ysnan n,
aosHoxno, ppyrne cHory1 nsaneuL nonLsy ns ero neypaun,
ecnn npnsnak1, u1o cnoco6, ko1opmH on nm1ancn peun1L
a1y sapauy, nanne1cn neaepnmH.
C 1ex nop n caH akcnepnHen1npoaan a a1oH nanpaanennn
n 6mn canpe1eneH nonm1ok ppyrnx. B uenoH Hne npep-
c1aanne1cn, u1o neko1opme anann1nkn ne Hory1 conpo-
1nann1Lcn a1oHy anpy nckyuennn, oco6enno ecnn ono nc-
xopn1 o1 penLnoro naunen1a. Moxno ykasa1L na neko-
1opme yc1ouname xapak1epnc1nkn anann1nka n ero
penLnoro naunen1a, no npexpe acero nx asanHoo1no-
uenn (Main, 1957), nponannkunxcn ao apeHn n nocne
1akoro akcnepnHen1a; n aepnycL k neko1opmH ns a1nx xa-
pak1epnc1nk neckonLko nosxe a uac1n IV. 3pecL xe n xo-
uy nopuepkny1L, u1o n ne anpen peanLnmx ycnexoa ao
acex cnyuanx, korpa ponyckann aosnnknoaenne a1Hocqe-
pm rpanpnosnoro akcnepnHen1a. Hopo ace sakanunaa-
153
nocL ka1ac1poqo, a nyuueH cnyuae poc1nxenne caopn-
nocL k 1oHy, k ueHy npnuen Oepenun: necHo1pn na cyue-
c1aennoe ynyuuenne coc1onnnn naunen1kn, ee nenLsn
6mno cun1a1L nsneuenno.
Hpen npoaepennn rpanpnosnoro akcnepnHen1a aosnn-
kae1 npnHepno 1ak: anann1nk nonnHae1, u1o ero o6munoe
noaepenne, coc1onuee a couyac1aenno, no naccnano
o6Lek1nanoc1n, pnn neko1opmx naunen1oa nanne1cn nc-
1ounnkoH neponyc1nHo n neamnocnHo qpyc1paunn; on
nonnHae1, u1o nnkaknx nsHenenn ne 6ype1 nponcxopn1L,
ecnn on 6ype1 npoponxa1L o1nocn1Lcn k c1papannk, npn-
unnneHoHy qpyc1paune, npoc1o kak k eue opnoHy cnH-
n1oHy pasanaakuerocn neaposa nepenoca. BosHoxno, k
a1oHy apeHenn ero yxe noceuann koe-kakne coHnennn no
noaopy pasyHnoc1n coxpanennn o6Lek1nano couyac1aen-
no naccnanoc1n nk6o ueno; ao acnkoH cnyuae neoc-
na6eaakune c1papannn n nnuennn ero naunen1a snaua1
pnn nero cnnukoH Hnoro; n ao1 on npnnnHae1 peuenne
nn6o caHoc1on1enLno, nn6o aHec1e co caonH naunen1oH
o6 nsHenennn cyuec1aykunx paHok o1nouenn n ocy-
uec1anne1 neu1o amxopnuee sa npepenm o6muno nac-
cnanoc1n.
CHmcn a1nx pononnn1enLnmx Hep acerpa caopn1cn k
ypoane1aopennk neko1opmx perpeccnanmx nHnynLcoa na-
unen1a, k nosn1nano peakunn na o1mrpmaanne. Kak npa-
anno, a1a nepeHena 6mc1po npnnocn1 neko1opoe ynyuue-
nne. Ecnn peuenne o6 yc1anoanennn noaoro pexnHa 1e-
pannn npnnnHae1cn a konue neuennn naunen1a, ne
nHekuero cnnukoH cnnLnoro 6asncnoro peqek1a, 1o
ynyuuenne npoc1o nsHenn1 yc1anoanaueecn paanoaecne
n neuenne Hoxe1 6m1L ycneuno saaepueno. Hapa-ppyran
ycneunmx akcnepnHen1oa 1akoro popa apoxnoannk1 ana-
nn1nkoa na nonm1kn peannsaunn nopo6no yc1anoakn a
1epannn c penLnmHn, no cepLesno 6onLnmHn naunen-
1aHn, n a1o penae1cn ne a saaepuakue qase neuennn, a
154
c caHoro nauana. Opnako, no cy1n, ne1 pasnnum a 1oH,
npnnnHae1cn nn peuenne ypoane1aopn1L c1onLko no1pe6-
noc1e naunen1a, ckonLko a1o nosaonne1 anac1nunan
konuenunn anann1nuecko cn1yaunn, c caHoro nauana
nn6o k a1oHy peuennk nopxopn1 noc1enenno nop paane-
nneH nonannkuerocn knnnnueckoro Ha1epnana rnaa-
noe 1o, u1o rpanpnosnm akcnepnHen1 nauancn.
Heko1opme anann1nkn nonm1anncL onnca1L 1o, u1o npo-
ncxopn1 a ycnoannx 1akoro akcnepnHen1a c anann1nkoH, c
ero naunen1oH, a 1akxe a nx o1nouennnx. 1enne nopo6-
nmx pa6o1 acerpa ne 1onLko c1nHynnpye1 n aonnye1, no n
amsmaae1 rpyc1L. Hepep aaHn packpmaak1cn neanpannme
nepcnek1nam, aaH nosaoneno nosna1L nensaepannme rny-
6nnm uenoaeuecko ncnxnkn n neaepoHme aosHoxnoc1n
uenoaeuecknx o1nouenn. H ace xe a n1ore u1o-1o npo-
ckanLsmaae1 ckaosL aaun nanLum am sann1pnroaanm,
no aHec1e c 1eH n pasouapoaanm. Cpepn acex onncann
nan6onee o1kpoaennmH n cun1ak 1o, u1o Oepenun pan a
caonx 3aHe1kax n qparHen1ax (1930-1932), caoero po-
pa nayunoH pneannke, ko1opm on aen ao apeHn rpan-
pnosnoro akcnepnHen1a. Tak kak a1n nnunme saHe1kn ne
npepnasnauanncL pnn unpoko ny6nnkn, onn ne 6mnn
anocnepc1ann nepepa6o1anm. Onn noaec1ayk1 o 1oH, kak
acnep sa o6napexnaakunHn pesynL1a1aHn aosnnkak1
neoxnpannme npo6neHm, a nnx npnaopn1cn nponnkno-
aennoe n xnaoe onncanne Hnornx neoxnpannmx qak1o-
poa, okasaaunx cyuec1aennoe annnnne na qopHy 1epa-
nea1nueckoro npouecca, aHec1e c 1eH a1n saHe1kn pak1
naH aosHoxnoc1L na6nkpa1L 1anan1nnaoro 1epanea1a sa
pa6o1o ero anesannoe ypnanenne, ero napexpm, ero
nenocpepc1aennme pennnkn n ero 6opL6y c 1pypnoc1nHn.
BceH, k1o co6npae1cn akcnepnHen1npoaa1L 1aknH o6pa-
soH, nepep 1eH, kak npnc1ynn1L k akcnepnHen1y, n peko-
Henpyk 6eso1nara1enLno nsyun1L a1y pa6o1y.
155
Koneuno, kaxpm nccnepoaa1enL, pa6o1akun a a1o o6-
nac1n, nHee1 co6c1aennme nk6nHme npen, ko1opme, no-
anpnHoHy, okasmaak1 caoe annnnne na 1o, kak on onncm-
aae1 cao onm1, u1o npnaopn1 k eue opnoHy o6pasuy
cHeuennn anann1nuecknx nsmkoa. [o6pocoaec1nm un1a-
1enL, konH n nnkak ne nannkcL, nape1 specL 6naropa1-
nyk nouay; pesynL1a1m conoc1aanennn pasnmx anann1n-
uecknx nsmkoa Hory1 nocnyxn1L qynpaHen1oH a noc1poe-
nnn cpaann1enLno ncnxoanann1nuecko ceHan1nkn. B
neko1opmx onncannnx 1akoro popa npepnpnnn1a nonm1ka
ckpm1L nnn onpaapa1L pasouapoamaakune pesynL1a1m;
ppyrne npnnncmaak1 pesynL1a1 1o nnn nno cnyuano
npnunne n 1. p.. Mne xe 6nnska npen, u1o pesynL1a1 na-
npnHyk saancn1 o1 pasaopaunaakuecn 1epanea1nuecko
cn1yaunn, ko1opan aceueno onpepenne1cn o1nouennnHn
Hexpy payHn nepconaHn, cneunqnuecknHn n npnHn1na-
nmHn, u1o pae1 naH xopouyk aosHoxnoc1L pnn nsyuennn
npoueccoa, npnnapnexaunx o6nac1n 6asncnoro peqek1a.
Kak n o1Heuan, pnn anann1nka naunen1 acerpa nanne1cn
penLno nepcono, 1eH, k1o oc1po nyxpae1cn a noHoun
n sacnyxnaae1 ee n a1o npepc1aanne1 co6o ue1kn
pnarnoc1nueckn npnsnak nosn1nanoro kon1pnepenoca.
Anann1nk, aHec1o 1oro u1o6m onpepenn1L cao nosn1na-
nm kon1pnepenoc, caoe aHounonanLnoe aoaneuenne
kak cnHn1oH sa6oneaannn naunen1a (cp. rnaaa 4), npnnn-
Hae1 ero kak peanLnoc1L n peuae1 pec1aoaa1L a coo1-
ae1c1ann c a1nH. Hoponneko 1akoro peuennn nannk1cn
nekne npepasn1me npepc1aanennn: necnoco6noc1L naun-
en1a amnocn1L qpyc1paunk n orpannuennn, caoc1aen-
nme nopHanLno anann1nuecko cn1yaunn, nn1epnpe-
1npye1cn anann1nkoH kak noa1openne, kak npnsnak cnnL-
no qnkcaunn na kako-1o 1paaHa1nuecko cn1yaunn.
O1ckpa 6epy1 nauano pae 1enpenunn a pa6o1e anann1nka.
Opna coc1on1 a nonm1ke pekonc1pykunn rnno1e1nuecko
1paaHa1nuecko cn1yaunn na ocnoae accouna1nanoro Ha-
156
1epnana naunen1a n cnHn1oHoa ero neaposa nepenoca, 1o
ec1L ero noa1opennn. [pyran a nonm1ke cospannn pnn
naunen1a ny1eH nsHenennn neko1opmx o6pa1nHmx napa-
He1poa 1ako a1Hocqepm, ko1opan ne 6ype1 nrpa1L ponL
c1nHyna, sanyckakuero 6eckoneunoe noa1openne.
Heko1opme anann1nkn, k ko1opmH n o1nouy n ce6n, npep-
noun1ak1 o6cyxpa1L aHec1e c naunen1oH xop caonx pac-
cyxpenn pnn 1oro, u1o6m 6m1L yaepennmHn a ero co-
1pypnnuec1ae. K coxanennk, a1o ne pae1 kaknx-1o oco-
6mx npenHyuec1a. [eno a 1oH, u1o 1akan pnckyccnn ne-
ns6exno npo1ekae1 na nopHanLnoH o6uenpnnn1oH nsmke
aspocnmx nkpe, 1o ec1L na ypoane apnnoaa konqnnk1a,
1orpa kak noa1opennn nponcxopn1 a paHkax payxc1opon-
nnx o1nouenn, npnnapnexaunx o6nac1n 6asncnoro pe-
qek1a. Ha apnnoaoH ypoane naunen1 6naropapen anann-
1nky sa ero ncknkun1enLnme ycnnnn n o6euae1 caoe ace-
uenoe co1pypnnuec1ao; na ypoane xe 6asncnoro peqek1a
on 6eccnnen n oxnpae1 nonnoro ypoane1aopennn caonx
neo1noxnmx no1pe6noc1e, on o1nkpL ne aosropae1cn
6naropapnoc1Lk n 6esyuac1en k nn1epecaH, ko1opme o1-
nnuak1cn o1 ero co6c1aennmx. Ha a1oH ypoane nk6an
qpyc1paunn npnaopn1 k nonanennk nn1encnanmx cnH-
n1oHoa, ko1opme, opnako, neHepnenno ncuesak1, kak
1onLko konkpe1nan no1pe6noc1L 6ype1 ypoane1aopena. K
coxanennk, konkpe1noe ypoane1aopenne, ecnn ono poc-
1ynno 6es 1pypa n npepoc1aanne1cn no nepaoHy 1pe6oaa-
nnk, y1paunaae1 caoe cneunqnueckoe snauenne, n xap-
noc1L naunen1a npnaopn1 k nonanennk cnepykuero
1pe6oaannn, ko1opoe, 1ak xe kak n npepmpyuee, o6y-
cnoaneno, no-anpnHoHy, npounmH onm1oH naunen1a.
Tak caH co6o o6pasye1cn nopounm kpyr. HcnonLsyn
npen K. Dccnepa, Hm HoxeH ckasa1L, u1o nsHenenne ne-
ko1opmx napaHe1poa anann1nuecko cn1yaunn eue Hoxe1
6m1L o6pa1nHmH; no a 1oH cnyuae, ecnn nsHenenne opno-
ro nopkpennne1cn nsHenenneH a1oporo, 1pe1Lero napa-
157
He1pa n 1. p., 1orpa cyHHapnme nsHenennn yxe neo6pa-
1nHm. B caHoH pene, o6e c1oponm 1epanea1nueckoro anL-
nnca aepy1 ce6n pasyHno n onpaapanno, opnako npo6neHa
coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o Hexpy nnHn yc1anaannaak1cn payc1o-
ponnne o1nouennn. HpnHeua1enLno, u1o y o6enx c1opon
npn nepenoce n, kak npnsnak1 neko1opme nckpennne
anann1nkn (Winnicott, 1949), npn kon1pnepenoce nonann-
e1cn uyac1ao cnnLno nenaanc1n. B poknapax na naunx
nayunmx konqepenunnx n a ny6nnkaunnx o1HeuanacL
c1pannan nosnunn anann1nkoa, ko1opan npepc1aanne1 co-
6o opno ns nponanenn aksanL1npoaanno nckpennoc1n,
nannkuecn aaxno coc1aannkue a1nx akcnepnHen1oa,
a nHenno noc1onnnoe ncnoaepoaanne caonx oun6ok,
npoHaxoa, neypau n nepoc1a1koa. HecHo1pn na 1o, u1o a1a
a1Hocqepa nanne1cn nonno npo1naononoxnoc1Lk 1o,
u1o aosnnkae1, korpa pak1cn nn1epnpe1aunn a Hanepe,
xapak1epno pnn a1opo ukonm anannsa, no-anpnHoHy, n
a cnyuae npnHenennn 1exnnkn ynpaanennn y naunen1a
aosnnkak1 c1onL xe cnnLnme uyac1aa nenaanc1n n arpec-
cnn, xo1n, Hoxe1 6m1L, nn1poekunn n npen1nqnkaunn na-
unen1a c npeannsnpoaannmH anann1nkoH pnn a1o 1exnn-
kn caoc1aennm a HenLue c1enenn.
1o kacae1cn nsmka, 1o Hexpy a1nHn ukonaHn cyuec1ay-
e1 npoc1oe o1nnune. B pec1an1enLnoc1n, epaa nn ukony
ynpaanennn Hoxno nasaa1L ukono, no1oHy u1o a npo-
1naononoxnoc1L payH ppyrnH ona ne o1nnuae1cn oprann-
soaannoc1Lk n cnnouennoc1Lk n, kak cnepc1ane, ne cos-
pana cao co6c1aennm nsmk, xo1n ec1L npnsnakn 1oro,
u1o a1o Hoxe1 nponso1n nop annnnneH npe Bnnnnko11a.
Koneuno, nac npexpe acero nn1epecye1 aonpoc 1epanea-
1nuecko aqqek1nanoc1n 1pex 1exnnuecknx nopxopoa,
onncannmx a rnaaax 16-18. O1ae1 na nero npepc1aanne1
co6o caHyk cnoxnyk sapauy kak a o6Lek1nanoH nnane,
1ak n a cy6Lek1nanoH. Bcnkn, k1o nanne1cn nocnepoaa-
1eneH opno ns a1nx ukon, 6ype1 npepasn1mH, anpoueH,
158
kak n nk6o, nopo6nm Hne, aneunn na6nkpa1enL. Bo-
nee 1oro, nn opnn c1oponnn na6nkpa1enL ne nHee1 aos-
Hoxnoc1n ouennaa1L 1epanea1nueckyk pa6o1y ppyroro
uenoaeka, 1ak kak on ne pacnonarae1 qak1aHn. TaknH o6-
pasoH, a kauec1ae ocnoaannn pnn cyxpenn oc1ak1cn
1onLko cy6Lek1nanme aneua1nennn, ko1opme cknapmaa-
k1cn o1uac1n nop annnnneH poknapoa n neua1nmx pa6o1,
o1uac1n nop annnnneH nayunmx pnckyccn n nocnepnee
a nepeune, no ne no snauennk saancn1 o1 ypoann kaa-
nnqnkaunn anann1nkoa, npoxopnunx nopro1oaky a a1nx
ukonax. HecoHnenno, ace 1pn ukonm a a1oH o1nouennn
o6napak1 neocnopnHmHn o1nnunnHn, no ecnn yx n ne o1-
aaxnncn o6cyxpa1L nx ny6nnuno, 1o yx 1eH 6onee ne pe-
uycL na a1o a ny6nnkaunn.
Hoa1oHy n ne c1any nocanua1L cnepykuyk uac1L knnrn
kpn1nueckoHy o6sopy, a o6pauycL k caoeHy co6c1aenno-
Hy knnnnueckoHy onm1y pa6o1m c perpeccne a ycnoannx
uac1no anann1nuecko npak1nkn; a saknkun1enLno xe
uac1n n kocnycL He1opoa, ko1opme n nauen nonesnmHn a
a1nx cn1yaunnx.
159
Hac1u IV. po6pokavec1aeuume u snoka-
vec1aeuume qopHm perpeccuu
Fnaaa 19. 4pep u npepc1aaneuun o
perpeccuu
erko y6epn1Lcn, u1o npen perpeccnn 1ak xe c1apa, kak
caH ncnxoananns, ecnn paxe ne c1apue ero. [nn 1ex, k1o
ne snae1, u1o anepame cnoao perpeccnn anepame 6mno
yno1pe6neno a neua1n a nocnepne, 1eope1nuecko rnaae
Tonkoaannn cnoanpenn (1900), a1o Hoxe1 okasa1Lcn
ckpnpnsoH.
Tak coc1onnocL nepaoe ckpoHnoe nonanenne a1oro 1epHn-
na. Cnoao perpeccnn nonapo6nnocL Opepy pnn 1oro,
u1o6m o6Lncnn1L rannkunna1opnyk npnpopy cnoanpenn,
ko1opan o1nnuae1 nx o1 aocnoHnnann. On cun1an, u1o
npoueccm, npo1ekakune a ncnxnke aspocnoro uenoaeka,
pasanaak1cn a nopHanLnoH, nnn nporpeccnanoH, na-
npaanennn, 1o ec1L naunnak1cn c aocnpnn1nn c1nHyna n
panee pasanaak1cn cnauana a Hmunennn, a sa1eH nepe-
xopn1 a pec1ane, pesynL1a1oH uero nanne1cn cnnxenne
nanpnxennn, amsaannoro c1nHynoH. B 1oH cnyuae, ecnn
pec1ane neaosHoxno nnn neapekaa1no, Hoxe1 nponso1n
160
o6pa1noe, pe1porpeccnanoe, nnn perpeccnanoe, panxe-
nne, ko1opoe a o6munoH 6oppc1aykueH coc1onnnn orpa-
nnueno ak1naaune cnepoa naHn1n. Xapak1epno ncnxo-
nornuecko uep1o cnoanpenn nanne1cn perpeccnn,
npyuan panLue a1nx rpannu, amsmaakuan ak1nansaunk
nepuen1nanmx aneHen1oa nepexnaannn, 1o ec1L pasan1ne
rannkunnaunn.
D1o, kak n yxe ckasan, 6mno nepamH ckpoHnmH ynoHnna-
nneH 1epHnna perpeccnn. 3pecL perpeccnn 6mna npep-
c1aanena kak a1opoc1enennm saun1nm HexannsH, ro-
paspo Henee aaxnm, ueH am1ecnenne. Hop1aepxpenneH
1ako ouenkn nanne1cn 1o, u1o a Tonkoaannn cnoanpe-
nn perpeccnn ynoHnnae1cn 1onLko opnaxpm, 6nnxe k
konuy, n 1o nnuL kak apeHennan Hepa, ponL ko1opo
caopn1cn k koHnencaunn am1ecnennoro nHnynLca nnn xe-
nannn, 1o ec1L ee aknap a pa6o1y cnoanpennn nanne1cn
a1opoc1enennmH. Opnako k a1oHy apeHenn npen perpec-
cnn yxe nHena caoe npounoe n ponxna 6mna nHe1L 6y-
pyuee. 3a6eran anepep, n xo1en 6m o1He1n1L, u1o Anna
Opep (1936) a caoe knaccnqnkaunn saun1nmx Hexa-
nnsHoa o1aena perpeccnn nepaoe Hec1o, 1orpa kak am1ec-
nennk poc1anocL a1opoe.
B nc1opnuecko nepcnek1nae 1pypno onpepenn1L 1ounyk
pa1y nepaoro ynoHnnannn 1epHnna perpeccnn, opnako
aecLHa aepon1no, u1o a1o nponsouno a xope kon1ak1oa
Opepa n Bpkkke nnn ao apeHn coaHec1no pa6o1m
Opepa n Bpeepa. B 1eope1nuecko rnaae Ouepkoa o6
nc1epnn (1895, p. 189) pnn onncannn ncnxonornuecknx
npoueccoa, nHekunx Hec1o ao apeHn rannkunnaun,
Bpeep ncnonLsoaan npnnara1enLnoe rucklaufig (pe1por-
peccnanm), 1ouno a 1akoH xe snauennn, a ko1opoH cnyc-
1n nn1L ne1 Opep yno1pe6nn a1o1 1epHnn a Tonkoaannn
cnoanpenn. C ppyro c1oponm, kak a pa6o1e 3aun1-
nme neponcnxosm (1894), 1ak n a nocHep1no ony6nn-
koaanno pa6o1e Manyckpnn1 "H" (1895) Opep oxa-
161
pak1epnsoaan rannkunnaunn kak cnoco6 saun1m o1 ne-
npneHneHmx npe. Hcxopn ns amueckasannoro, ne Hoxe1
6m1L coHnenn a 1oH, u1o npen perpeccnn kak HexannsHa
saun1m nanne1cn ouenL panne, opnako neaosHoxno on-
pepenn1L 1ounyk pa1y ee nonanennn, kak n 1o, 6mna nn
perpeccnn o1kpm1a OpepoH nnn BpeepoH.
Cansannoe c npepmpyunH 6onee o6uee npepc1aanenne o
perpeccnn kak o aaxnoH qak1ope na1orenesa neaposoa,
ncnxosoa, nepaepcn n 1. p. nonannocL nosxe n nonno-
c1Lk npnnapnexn1 Opepy, xo1n nepame naHekn na nero
copepxa1cn a ony6nnkoaanno a 1877 n 1878 ropax pa6o-
1e Opepa no aH6pnonornn; a 22- nekunn no aaepennk a
ncnxoananns (1916-1917) Opep ncnonLsoaan a1n pan-
nme no aH6pnonornn pnn nnnkc1paunn na1orenno qynk-
unn perpeccnn. Opnako 1epHnna perpeccnn ne 6mno nn
a pannnx ny6nnkaunnx Opepa, nn a anannsax [opm
(1905), Ipapnam (1907) n ManenLkoro Ianca (1909),
npepuec1aykunx nonanennk amueynoHnny1mx pa6o1.
Hepam neonpepenennm naHek na a1o ncnxonornueckoe
nonn1ne Hoxno o6napyxn1L a neckonLknx Hec1ax nepaoro
nspannn Tpex ouepkoa (1905), no 1onLko a 1pe1LeH ns-
pannn (1915) Opep ue1ko onpepenne1 perpeccnk kak
aaxnm na1orennm qak1op. BnpnHo, a1o nponsouno rpe-
1o Hexpy 1909 n 1910 ropaHn, korpa 6mnn ony6nnkoaanm
Hn1L nekun (1909), cnyua Pa11enHanna (1909), pa-
6o1m, nocanuennme eonappo pa Bnnun (1910) n Lpe6e-
py (1911), 1o ec1L korpa Opep 6mn sann1 npo6neHo
napunccnsHa. CansL Hexpy a1nHn payHn npenHn, npee
napunccnsHa n perpeccnn kak qak1opa na1orenesa, Horna
6m coc1aan1L opny ns caHmx nn1epecnmx 1eH pnn nc1opn-
ueckoro nccnepoaannn.
B 1914 ropy a 1pe1LeH nspannn Tonkoaannn cnoanpe-
nn (p. 548) Opep okonua1enLno cqopHynnpoaan 1eo-
pe1nueckne nonoxennn, kacakunecn a1nx payx qynkun
perpeccnn perpeccnn kak HexannsHa saun1m n kak na-
162
1orennoro qak1opa. Hpn a1oH on pasnnuan 1pn acnek1a
perpeccnn: 1onorpaqnueckn, apeHenno n qopHanLnm.
O6pa1noe panxenne ncnxnuecknx npoueccoa, npeo6-
pasoaanne npe a o6pasm (p. 544) nponcxopn1 ne 1onL-
ko a npoc1panc1ae, Hexpy pasnnunmHn c1pyk1ypaHn ncn-
xnueckoro annapa1a, no n ao apeHenn o1 ak1yanLnoro
nepexnaannn k 6onee pannnH. H, nakoneu, aepon1no,
nan6onee aaxno o1nnun1enLno uep1o a1oro qenoHena
nanne1cn 1o1 knnnnueckn qak1, u1o ao apeHn perpeccnn
ncnxnueckne nepexnaannn, anpnHo, pacnapak1cn na
koHnonen1m, ns ko1opmx onn a caoe apeHn o6pasoaanncL,
n a ncnxnueckoH annapa1e cnoaa nonannk1cn 6onee npo-
c1me qopHm nepexnaannn.
D1o pasrpannuenne 1pex qopH, nnn acnek1oa, perpeccnn
kaxe1cn ncnmH, y6epn1enLnmH n okonua1enLnmH. Opnako
Hm nonyuaeH nepaoe npepoc1epexenne o 1oH, u1o ace ne
1ak npoc1o, kak kaxe1cn, o6napyxna, u1o a caoe pa6o1e
Me1ancnxonornueckoe pononnenne k 1eopnn cnoanpe-
nn (1917, p. 227), ony6nnkoaanno rop cnyc1n, Opep
roaopn1 1onLko o payx qopHax perpeccnn: 1ononornue-
cko n apeHenno n coaepuenno ne ynoHnnae1 o qop-
HanLnoH acnek1e, ko1opm a nac1onuee apeHn, neco-
Hnenno, cun1ancn 6m nan6onee aaxnmH.
[onxnm nn Hm o1nec1ncL k a1oHy pacxoxpennk kak k ue-
Hy-1o necyuec1aennoHy nnn cnepyn npnHepy Opepa
npoc1o kak k qak1y sa6maunaoc1n, ko1opm ykasmaae1
na nnunyk an1nna1nk aa1opa k qopHanLnoHy acnek1y
perpeccnn? Bnonne aepon1no, u1o a1a an1nna1nn nrpana
onpepenennyk ponL a 1oH, u1o pnn pasan1nn npen no1pe-
6oaancn c1onL pnn1enLnm nepnop apeHenn. Ho1pe6oaa-
nocL no kpane Hepe nn1L ne1, u1o6m npen perpeccnn
kak HexannsHa saun1m yanpena cae1, n npouno eue o1
pecn1n po nn1napua1n ne1, npexpe ueH 6mno cqopHnpo-
aano npepc1aanenne o perpeccnn kak o qak1ope na1ore-
nesa.
163
KpoHe 1oro, a nocnepykun nepnop (c 1912 no 1920 rop)
Opep apeHn o1 apeHenn o6pauancn n k ppyro qynkunn
perpeccnn perpeccnn kak uac1n nepenoca n oco6enno
perpeccnn na cnyx6e y conpo1nanennn, k npee, ko1o-
pan 1akxe nHee1 caok ponryk npepmc1opnk. O1nouenne
Opepa k a1oHy cnoxnoHy qenoHeny, ampaxennoe a ne-
pecekakunxcn 1epHnnax nepenoca, o1mrpmaannn, naans-
unaoro noa1opennn, Hoxno nasaa1L upesamuano oc1o-
poxnmH.
D1a nosnunn ue1ko o6osnauena yxe a 1exnnuecko rnaae
Ouepkoa o6 nc1epnn (1895, pp. 301-304). Xo1n cnoao
perpeccnn n ne 6mno ncnonLsoaano, Opep xnao onn-
cmaae1 perpeccnanme qopHm nepenoca, xapak1epnsyn nx
kak npenn1c1ane. Bcnkn pas, korpa Opep a a1o1 ne-
pnop o6pauancn k npo6neHaH nepenoca, on ne ynyckan
cnyuan o1He1n1L, u1o perpeccnanme qopHm nepenoca
npepc1aannk1 co6o nan6onee cnnLnm 1nn conpo1nane-
nnn. [ec1an1enLno, nepenoc nanne1cn coksnnkoH ana-
nn1nueckoro neuennn, no 1onLko a ero speno, cpepxan-
no a o1nouennn uenn qopHe, nponannkuecn a uyac1ae
1enno npnansannoc1n. B npo1nanoH cnyuae nepenoc Ho-
xe1 npepc1aann1L co6o caHyk cepLesnyk yrposy pnn
anann1nueckoro neuennn, ecnn anann1nk ne cHoxe1 pnc-
1anunpoaa1Lcn o1 nero npn noHoun caonx nn1epnpe1a-
un: (a) nera1nanoro nepenoca n (6) nosn1nanoro nepe-
noca am1ecnennmx apo1nuecknx nHnynLcoa 6naropapn
aocc1anoanennk o1nouenn c pannnHn nHaro, 1o ec1L c
perpeccnanmHn aneHen1aHn (O pnnaHnke nepenoca,
1912).
B caoe knaccnuecko pa6o1e BocnoHnnanne, noa1ope-
nne n nepepa6o1ka (1914) Opep nonnoc1Lk npnsnan,
u1o neko1opme naunen1m ne Hory1 acnoHnn1L onpepenen-
nme aneHen1m caoero npounoro aHounonanLnoro onm1a,
noa1oHy onn amnyxpenm o1mrpmaa1L nx a o1nouennnx c
anann1nkoH. O1ckpa cnepye1, u1o n nepenoc nyxno pac-
164
cHa1pnaa1L kak noa1openne sa6m1oro npounoro onm1a
naunen1a, k ko1opoHy neaosHoxno nonyun1L poc1yn npn
noHoun nnmx cpepc1a; Opep 1akxe o1Heuan, u1o 1akoHy
noa1opennk o1uac1n cnoco6c1aye1 n caHo anann1nueckoe
neuenne 6naropapn noao 1exnnke cao6opnmx acco-
unaun. TeH ne Henee cnoaa n cnoaa on pae1 oc1opoxnm
coae1, u1o 1onLko nn1epnpe1aunn n 1onLko ona opna
ponxna 6m1L peakune anann1nka na a1n qenoHenm.
3pecL Opep ncnonLsoaan 1epHnn aospepxanne, na-
npnHep, a c1a1Le 3aHe1kn o nk6an npn nepenoce
(1915, p. 165), a neckonLko ne1 cnyc1n a poknape na kon-
rpecce a Bypaneu1e (1918, p. 162) 6onee cnnLnm
1epHnn nnuenne.
Bospepxanne n nnuenne, naansannme anann1nkoH cao-
eHy naunen1y, npepc1aannk1cn poaonLno cypoamHn He-
paHn, no Opep, necoHnenno, cun1an, u1o nHenno onn
neo6xopnHm npn pa6o1e c perpeccnano qopHo nepeno-
ca.
Opnako Opep, pasanaan caon npen, ne oc1anoanncn na
a1oH. CnepykunH uaroH 6mno npnsnanne perpeccnano
qopHm nepenoca kak opnoro ns cnHn1oHoa nn1encnanoro
naansunaoro noa1opennn n akcnancnn a1o npen a o6-
nac1L 6nonornn c nocnepoaaaunH na a1o ocnoae aaepe-
nneH noc1yna1a o cyuec1aoaannn aneuennn k cHep1n, ne-
nsHennan uenL ko1oporo coc1on1 a perpeccnn, 1o ec1L a
aosapa1e ns ak1yanLnoro coc1onnnn a coc1onnne, ko1opoe
npepuec1aoaano eHy, a koneunoH cue1e perpeccnn o1
xnsnn k cHep1n (Ho 1y c1opony npnnunna ypoaonLc1-
ann, 1920).
B a1o cansn aaxno o1He1n1L, u1o a kauec1ae nnnkc1pa-
unn cnnm naansunaoro noa1opennn ncnonLsoaanncL paa
qenoHena: noaepenne pe1e a nrpe n noaepenne naunen-
1a npn nepenoce, oco6enno npn perpeccnanoH nepenoce.
165
3pecL Hm c1anknaaeHcn c pnneHHo: ec1L nn kako-
nn6ypL uanc po6n1Lcn pesynL1a1a, nm1ancL naansa1L na-
unH naunen1aH aospepxanne n nnuenne, ecnn perpeccnn
npn nepenoce nanne1cn nponanenneH naansunaoro noa1o-
pennn, 1o ec1L panxyue cnno perpeccnn nanne1cn ane-
uenne k cHep1n? C ppyro c1oponm, 1ak nn yx aepno 1o,
u1o cnna aneuennn k cHep1n neoponnHa, ecnn ao Hnornx
cnyuanx perpeccnpoaaaunx naunen1oa anann1nueckoe
neuenne npnxopn1 k ycneunoHy saaepuennk? Hnk1o, a
1oH uncne n Opep, nnkorpa ne c1aann 1akne aonpocm.
Y perpeccnn ec1L eue opna qynkunn, ona nanne1cn coks-
nnkoH a anann1nuecko 1epannn. HackonLko Hne nsaec1-
no, Opep 1onLko opnaxpm ynoHnnyn o6 a1o qynkunn,
sa1o ouenL nac1ounao n a nosn1nanoH cHmcne. Epnnc1-
aennoe a1o ynoHnnanne ac1peuae1cn 1onLko a opnoH nac-
caxe a pa6o1e Hc1opnn ncnxoanann1nueckoro panxe-
nnn (1914, p. 10-11). Kak 6mno o1Heueno amue, 1epHnn
perpeccnn nonanncn ne a caHoH onncannn anannsa [o-
pm, a pecn1L ne1 cnyc1n, a nc1opnueckoH ouepke, a ko1o-
poH Opep o1Heuae1 c saHeua1enLno ncnoc1Lk, u1o nk-
6me nonm1kn paspeuennn na1onornuecknx nocnepc1an
nepaane 1paaHm c noHouLk nenocpepc1aennoro nx ana-
nnsa no1epnenn neypauy, n [ope 6mno nosaoneno cne-
poaa1L no ponroHy okonLnoHy ny1n, ko1opm npoxopnn
uepes ee pannee pe1c1ao, npexpe ueH c1ano aosHoxnmH
paspeuenne ee ak1yanLnoro konqnnk1a. Opep saaepua-
e1 onncanne a1oro cnyuan ykasanneH na 1o, nackonLko
6mno 6m nenpaannLno npene6pera1L perpeccne a ana-
nn1nuecko 1exnnke. 3a ncknkuenneH a1oro o1pmaka
Hne nensaec1nm pa6o1m Opepa, rpe 6m on xo1L kak-1o
kacancn npo6neHm ne saun1no nnn na1orenno, a 1epa-
nea1nuecko perpeccnn. KpoHe 1oro, kak pas nepep npn-
aepennmH amue naccaxeH Opep nepaycHmcnenno y1-
aepxpae1, u1o perpeccnn ao apeHn neuennn na6nkpanacL
yxe 1orpa, korpa on n Bpeep npak1nkoaann ka1apk1nue-
166
ckn He1op: Mm o1kpmnn ncnxnueckn npouecc, nannk-
uncn xapak1epno uep1o neaposa, ko1opm n nasaan
"perpeccne". H sa1eH, npoponxan, 1ak ckasa1L, na op-
noH pmxannn, on npnaopn1 a kauec1ae npnHepa ananns
[opm. H1ak, ne1 coHnennn a 1oH, u1o pannme na6nkpennn
perpeccnn kak aaxnoro qak1opa 1epannn nonannncL aHe-
c1e c cospanneH ncnxoanannsa, ecnn ne panLue.
TenepL cn1yaunn c1ana poaonLno sany1anno. B nepamx
cnyuanx npnHenennn ka1apk1nueckoro He1opa perpeccnn,
nponcxopnuan ao apeHn neuennn, 6mna npnsnana aaxno
panxyue cnno 1epannn. Ocnoaannn pnn 1akoro amaopa
Hory1 6m1L napenm n a anannse [opm, n, necoHnenno, a
anannse ppyrnx naunen1oa. Hapnpy c a1nH y nac ec1L po-
kyHen1anLnoe nop1aepxpenne 1oro, u1o 1eope1nueckan
konuenunn perpeccnn nanne1cn opno ns c1apeunx; n
ace xe ona amnyxpena 6mna oxnpa1L caoero nonanennn a
neua1n po 1900 ropa, n nonapo6nnocL eue pecn1L ne1,
u1o6m npnuno aceo6uee npnsnanne perpeccnn kak qak-
1opa na1orenesa. C 1ex nop npen perpeccnn npe1epnena
nopasn1enLnme He1aHopqosm, ko1opme, anpoueH, kaca-
nncL 1onLko ee nera1nanmx acnek1oa: cnauana ona pac-
cHa1pnaanacL kak onacnan qopHa conpo1nanennn, sa1eH
kak cnHn1oH naansunaoro noa1opennn n, nakoneu, kak
nan6onee aaxnm knnnnueckn npnHep aneuennn k cHep-
1n. C ppyro c1oponm, perpeccnn kak coksnnk a 1epannn
6mna ynoHnny1a nnuL opnaxpm, HnHoxopoH, n anocnep-
c1ann, no-anpnHoHy, sa6m1a nnn nonana a 1enL caonx xe
yrpoxakunx acnek1oa. H aepnycL k a1o oueanpno ne-
nocnepoaa1enLnoc1n a rnaaax 22 n 23.
TaknH o6pasoH, pekoHenpaunn Opepa, kak o6paua1Lcn c
perpeccne ao apeHn anann1nueckoro neuennn, 6mna a6-
conk1no nocnepoaa1enLno, aosHoxno, c opnnH apeHen-
nmH ncknkuenneH, n Hoxno paxe nocnopn1L, cnpaaepnn-
ao nn aoo6ue nasmaa1L a1o ncknkuenneH. Ero pekoHen-
paunn 6mna 1akoaa: anann1nk ponxen npnpepxnaa1Lcn
167
o6muno nosnunn couyac1aenno naccnano o6Lek1nano-
c1n nesaancnHo o1 1oro, kak paneko perpeccnpoaan naun-
en1; anann1nk ne ponxen o1aeua1L na xenannn n npocL-
6m naunen1a kaknH-nn6o nnmH o6pasoH, noHnHo nx nn-
1epnpe1aunn. B caoe pa6o1e 3aHe1kn o nk6an npn ne-
penoce (1915, p. 16) Opep paxe y1aepxpan, u1o nexe-
na1enLno amxopn1L sa noc1aanennme paHkn no1oHy, u1o
1e cnyuan, a ko1opmx 1akan nonn1nka 1epnn1 neypauy,
kak npaanno, okasmaak1cn nenopxopnunHn pnn anannsa.
HHenno a1o1 npnnunn nepearnpoaannn cqopHynnpoaan a
cnepykueH y1aepxpennn: euenne ponxno npoxopn1L a
ycnoannx aospepxannn nnn nnuennn.
TenepL aepneHcn k coHnn1enLnoHy ncknkuennk. Bnnxe k
konuy Hepao Hnpoao aonm, cpasy nocne anannsa y
Opepa, Oepenun npnc1ynnn k caonH akcnepnHen1aH c
1exnnko, na nepaoH a1ane a1n akcnepnHen1m nonyun-
nn nasaanne ak1nanan 1exnnka, ko1opme 6mnn non-
noc1Lk noppepxanm OpepoH. Pykoaopnun npnnunn na
a1oH a1ane coc1onn a 1oH, u1o a onpepenennm HoHen1
anann1nk ponxen nonnHa1L, u1o naunen1 nens6exno no-
napae1 a cn1yaunn (nnn paxe naHepenno nx cospae1), a
ko1opmx nponcxopn1 snaun1enLnoe yaennuenne ero any1-
pennero nanpnxennn. HpepnonaranocL, u1o a1o 6ype1
nHe1L paa aepon1nmx ncxopa: npopma a cosnanne nn-
c1nnk1nanmx nHnynLcoa nnn aneuenn, ko1opme po a1oro
6mnn am1ecnenm (npn a1oH 6onesnennm cnHn1oH 1panc-
qopHnpye1cn a npnn1noe ypoane1aopenne), a 1akxe ao-
so6noanenne nccnknyauero 6mno no1oka accounaun. B
caoeH amueynoHnny1oH poknape na konrpecce a Bypa-
neu1e (1918) Opep cnpaaepnnao o1He1nn, u1o ncxopnan
npen, c1nHynnpoaaauan a1n 1exnnueckne nnnoaaunn,
npnnapnexn1 eHy, n ynoHnnyn o payx amaopax ns caoero
onm1a: (a) a onpepenennm nepnop 1epannn naunen1oa,
c1papakunx aropaqo6ne a 1nxeno qopHe, neo6xopnHo
y6epn1L a 1oH, u1o onn ponxnm nopaeprny1L ce6n cn1ya-
168
unn, amsmaakue c1pax, n (6) a neko1opmx cnyuanx, no-
po6nmx cnyuak BonLqcHanna, anann1nk ponxen onpepe-
nn1L penL okonuannn neuennn. On nop1aeppnn pannme
Oepenun, kacakunecn 1oro, u1o 6naropapn nn1epaenunn,
cpenanno npaannLnmH o6pasoH n a nopxopnun HoHen1,
a neuennn nac1ynae1 snaun1enLnm nporpecc.
Honarak, u1o 1enepL c1ano nonn1no, noueHy n nasaan a1y
1exnnueckyk npouepypy coHnn1enLnmH ncknkuenneH ns
ocnoanoro npaanna. C opno c1oponm, ona Hoxe1 cun-
1a1Lcn nornuecknH npoponxenneH npaanna aospepxannn
nnn nnuennn xenannn nnn npocL6m naunen1a ne ypoa-
ne1aopnk1cn, nanpo1na, on ncnm1maae1 yaennuenne na-
npnxennn. C ppyro c1oponm, necoHnenno, a1o osnauae1
neu1o 6onLuee, ueH npoc1o nn1epnpe1aunk a 1o nnn
nno c1enenn perpeccnonnoro nepenoca naunen1a; a1o
osnauae1, u1o anann1nk oc1aanne1 caok nosnunk couya-
c1aenno naccnano o6Lek1nanoc1n, oco6mH o6pasoH
pearnpyn na nponcxopnuee c naunen1oH. KpoHe 1oro, c
1ex nop kak c1ann nsaec1nm pesynL1a1m akcnepnHen1oa
Oepenun, npepc1aanne1cn poaonLno coHnn1enLnmH, u1o
yaennuenne nanpnxennn naunen1a pec1an1enLno Hoxe1
npnaec1n k poc1nxennk xenaeHo uenn a 1epannn, a ne k
ueHy-1o coaepuenno nnoHy.
TeH ne Henee a neko1opmx cnyuanx nsHenennn, poc1nrae-
Hme 1aknH cnoco6oH, o6napak1 poc1a1ounmH nHnynLcoH
n coxpannk1cn po konua anann1nueckoro neuennn. B ppy-
rnx cnyuanx, ko1opmx, k coxanennk, 6onLunnc1ao, a1o1
nHnynLc yracae1, n y naunen1a nponcxopn1 peunpna.
Opep npepanpen 1akyk aosHoxnoc1L, n korpa on na
onm1e y6epnncn a 1oH, u1o ycnex nenapexen n nenpep-
ckasyeH, on o1kasancn o1 a1o npen, n nocne 1918 ropa
ne ynoHnnan o ne a caonx pa6o1ax.
Onm1 Oepenun 6mn ananornuen onm1y Opepa, no on 6mn
nac1onLko no1pncen 1eH, u1o naunen1m amkasmaann c1onL
169
npnHn1nanme no caoe npnpope peakunn na ero nn1ep-
aenunn, u1o peunn, npoponxan anann1nueckyk pa6o1y,
no1n panLue a caoeH nccnepoaannn, akcnepnHen1npyn c
nn1epaenunnHn. Tak on npnuen k o1kpm1nk 1oro, u1o
nnqan1nnLnme na1orennme 1paaHm, peak1nanpoaannme
anann1nuecknH neuenneH, no-anpnHoHy, o6napak1 a
coapeHenno 1pak1oake payxqasno c1pyk1ypo.
Bepon1no, a nepao qase Hnapeneu nnn pe6enok ncnm1m-
aae1 1paaHnpykun peqnun1 nnn ns6m1ok c1nHynnunn co
c1oponm caoero okpyxennn, 1o ec1L co c1oponm caoero
nan6onee aaxnoro aspocnoro o6Lek1a nnn o6Lek1oa; ko-
rpa xe pe6enok ao a1opo qase npepnpnnnHae1 nonm1ky
nonyun1L koHnencaunk, noppepxky nnn paxe npoc1o no-
nnHanne co c1oponm okpyxennn, 1o 1e xe aspocnme
nop annnnneH nx co6c1aennoro cosna1enLnoro nnn 6ec-
cosna1enLnoro uyac1aa annm amnyxpenm o1pnua1L
caoe yuac1ne a npepmpyue qase, peHonc1pnpoaa1L npn
noHoun caoe peun n noaepennn, u1o onn na caHoH pene
ne nHek1 npepc1aanennn, no kakoHy, co6c1aenno, noaopy
nopnn1 aecL a1o1 uyH, nnn, cornacno naue 1epHnnono-
rnn 6ypyun caHmHn couyac1aykunHn n o6Lek1nanmHn,
onn ncno pak1 nonn1L, u1o ne nHek1 k a1oHy nnkakoro
o1nouennn. Oepenun ponxen 6mn a pesynL1a1e na6nkpe-
nnn sa caonHn naunen1aHn npnsna1L, u1o c1pyk1ypno no-
cnepoaa1enLnoc1L co6m1n, a ko1opo anann1nk c nosn-
unn couyac1aenno o1uyxpennoc1n na6nkpae1 sa nponc-
xopnunH, nocne 1oro, kak ero ak1nanan nn1epnpe1aunn
amsaana noa1opnoe nepexnaanne 1paaHa1nuecko cn1ya-
unn, ouenL nanoHnnae1 ncxopnyk 1paaHy. On npnxopn1 k
amaopy, u1o a neko1opmx cnyuanx coc1onnnn, amsaannme
ak1nano nn1epaenune, nopo6nm 1eH, u1o aosnnkak1
npn ncnonLsoaannn knaccnuecko anann1nuecko 1exnn-
kn, ko1opan nop1anknaae1 naunen1a k aocnoHnnannk nnn
noa1opnoHy nepexnaannk ncxopno 1paaHm, a anann1nk
npn a1oH coxpanne1 nosnunk o6Lek1nano couyac1aenno
170
naccnanoc1n (3aHe1kn n qparHen1m 4.11.1932 a
c6opnnke Pa6o1m nocnepnnx ne1, 1955).
Hs a1oro saknkuennn c oueanpnoc1Lk am1ekae1 cnepyk-
un amaop Oepenun. Hcxopn ns 1oro, u1o npnunno nc-
xopno 1paaHm nanne1cn kak ns6m1ok nnn peqnun1 c1n-
Hynnunn co c1oponm okpyxennn, 1ak n cnepykune sa
a1nH nepoc1a1ounoe nonnHanne n 6espasnnune co c1opo-
nm ace 1ex xe nkpe, uenn 1epannn ponxnm coc1on1L:
(a) a 1oH, u1o6m cnoco6c1aoaa1L perpeccnn naunen1a k
ncxopno 1paaHe, (6) a 1oH, u1o6m annHa1enLno ouenn1L
cnoco6noc1n naunen1a amnocn1L aosnnkuee nanpnxenne,
n (a) a noppepxke ponyc1nHoro ypoann nanpnxennn, ny-
1eH nosn1nanoro o1ae1a na perpeccnanme xenannn,
npocL6m nnn no1pe6noc1n naunen1a. Ho6ounmH nanpaa-
nenneH a1oro nccnepoaannn 6mno nn1encnanoe nsyuenne
o1nouenn Hexpy apauoH n naunen1oH, a 1akxe o1kpm-
1ne 1oro, u1o a naun pnn nasmaak1 1exnnko nn1epnpe-
1aun kon1pnepenoca (Ferenczi, 1930, 1931 n 1932).
HHenno specL o1nouennn Hexpy Oepenun n OpepoH
poc1nrnn kpn1nuecko 1oukn. Opep npepanpen, u1o 6es-
ycnoanoe ypoane1aopenne kaxpo no1pe6noc1n perpeccn-
poaaauero naunen1a neaosHoxno, u1o ace nonm1kn 1ako-
ro popa, aepyune k ynyuuennk coc1onnnn naunen1a, or-
pannuenm xenanneH n aosHoxnoc1nHn anann1nka 6m1L a
pacnopnxennn naunen1a n u1o, nakoneu, 6onLunnc1ao
a1nx naunen1oa, nsHennauncL k nyuueHy, nnkorpa ne
c1any1 no-nac1onueHy nesaancnHmHn.
B noneHnke Hexpy OpepoH n Oepenun 1ak n ne 6mno
poc1nrny1o cornacnn. Oepenun yHep, ne saaepuna caonx
nocnepnnx akcnepnHen1oa. [nn nk6oro naunen1a, a oco-
6enno pnn perpeccnpoaaauero naunen1a, cHep1L anann-
1nka acerpa nanne1cn upesamuano 1paaHnpykunH co6m-
1neH. H ne y1aepxpak, u1o pesynL1a1m ero akcnepnHen-
1oa 6mnn 6m 6naronpnn1nmHn, ecnn 6m on npoxnn poc1a-
171
1ouno ponro, no n onpepenenno xouy ckasa1L, u1o npn 1a-
knx o6c1on1enLc1aax nenLsn pa1L npoc1me o1ae1m a qop-
He pa nnn ne1 na aonpocm o uennoc1n ero akcnepn-
Hen1oa, ocnoamaancL na ero nocnepnnx knnnnuecknx na-
6nkpennnx. H aepnycL k a1o 1eHe a rnaae 23.
Fnaaa 20. CuHn1oHa1onorun u puaruos
H1ak, o1 Opepa Hm ysnann, u1o c knnnnuecko 1oukn
spennn perpeccnn Hoxe1 amc1yna1L a ue1mpex acnek1ax:
(a) kak saun1nm HexannsH, (6) kak qak1op na1orenesa,
(a) kak Hounan qopHa conpo1nanennn, (r) kak rnaanm
qak1op a anann1nuecko 1epannn.
B a1o uac1n n cHory nccnepoaa1L 1onLko ne6onLuo cek-
1op cnoxno npo6neHm perpeccnn, ouepuennm qenoHe-
naHn, na6nkpaeHmHn npn anann1nueckoH neuennn. Hpak-
1nueckn sa paHkaHn oc1ane1cn acnek1 perpeccnn kak sa-
un1noro HexannsHa, 1ak kak a Hoe aH6yna1opno npak-
1nke cnyuan cepLesnmx rannkunnaun 6mnn poaonLno
pepkn. Bonee 1oro, a1o npnaepe1 k 1oHy, u1o paccHo1pe-
nne perpeccnn kak na1orennoro qak1opa 6ype1 neckonLko
orpannuennmH n opnoc1oponnnH. Bce a1o amsaano 1eH,
u1o k perpeccnn ao apeHn anannsa o1nocn1cn 1onLko kak k
apeHenno Hepe: xo1n perpeccnk 1epnn1, ne npepnonara-
e1cn, u1o a1o coc1onnne sakpenn1cn n c1ane1 yc1ounamH,
u1o pnn naunen1a a1o okaxe1cn npneHneHmH peuenneH.
TaknH o6pasoH, Hm paccHa1pnaaeH perpeccnk a ee na1o-
rennoH acnek1e, ko1opm apnp nn o6ycnoanen co6m1nnHn
npounoro, no ckopee nanne1cn pnnaHnuecknH npoueccoH
nac1onuero; Hoxno na6nkpa1L, kak ona npnxopn1, oana-
peaae1 cn1yaune, ynpaanne1 ek neko1opoe apeHn n sa-
1eH nepepae1 ee ao anac1L ppyrnx cnn, nanpnHep, peanL-
noc1n, nocne uero ncuesae1. Oueanpno, u1o payHn acnek-
1aHn, ko1opme nan6onee uac1o Hoxe1 na6nkpa1L anann-
172
1nk ao apeHn neuennn, nannk1cn perpeccnn kak qopHa
conpo1nanennn n perpeccnn kak coksnnk a 1epannn.
H naHepen paspenn1L paccHo1penne a1o npo6neHm na
1pn uac1n. Bo-nepamx, cnHn1oHm n pnarnos perpeccnn.
3pecL aonpocm 6ypy1 cqopHynnpoaanm 1ak: u1o xapak1e-
pnsye1 perpeccnk ao apeHn anannsa, 1o ec1L kakoam ee
pnqqepenunanLnme pnarnoc1nueckne kpn1epnn? HHee1
nn perpeccnn epnnc1aennyk qopHy, ecnn xe ne1, 1o ka-
koam a1n pasnnunme qopHm? B1opan rpynna aonpocoa ka-
cae1cn pnnaHnkn perpeccnn. Kakoam ocnoanme co6m1nn,
nponcxopnune a qase perpeccnn, n a ueH coc1on1 cneun-
qnueckoe snauenne kaxporo ns a1nx co6m1n? H, nako-
neu, 1pe1Lk rpynny coc1aan1 aonpocm, cansannme c 1ex-
nnko n 1epanne. 3pecL n nnuL akpa1ue kocnycL aonpo-
coa nocnepne rpynnm, 1ak kak n naHepen o6cypn1L nx
noppo6no a uac1n V. Hpo6neHa saknkuae1cn a onpepene-
nnn npnsnakoa, no ko1opmH Hoxno 6mno 6m cypn1L, 6y-
pe1 nn 1a nnn nnan perpeccnn nHe1L na1orennm nnn 1e-
panea1nueckn aqqek1. Ecnn xe aqqek1 o6ycnoanen
aneunnHn co6m1nnHn nnn kak-1o saancn1 o1 nnx, 1o u1o
Hor 6m npepnpnnn1L anann1nk, u1o6m rapan1npoaa1L 1e-
panea1nueckn aqqek1 perpeccnn n ns6exa1L acnkoro
pncka aosnnknoaennn na1onornuecko perpeccnn?
H npepnarak naua1L c opnoro Hoero pannero knnnnuecko-
ro onm1a a a1o o6nac1n. Hoa1opnkunecn aneHen1m a1oro
onm1a 6mnn cnepykune: nocne koppek1nmx, no-
anpnHoHy, nn1epnpe1aun a anann1nueckoH neuennn na-
c1ynan onpepenennm HoHen1, korpa nponcxopnna ne-
oxnpannan nepeHena, n a nopnpke pa6oue rnno1esm
Hoxno 6mno npepnonoxn1L, u1o a konkpe1no anann1nue-
cko cn1yaunn naunen1 ncnm1maae1 ypoane1aopenne, ko-
1opoHy npncyua nekan npnHn1nanan qopHa, nnn on yua-
c1aye1 a npnHn1nanmx o6Lek1nmx o1nouennnx, npexpe
6maunx pnn nero neaosHoxnmHn, nenpnn1nmHn nnn o1-
1anknaakunHn. Hn1epnpe1aunn, npepnaraeHan anann1n-
173
koH, naxopnunHcn a o6muno nosnunn couyac1aykue
o6Lek1nanoc1n, ne npnaopnna k panLneueHy anpnHoHy
npopanxennk. Ho ecnn anann1nk npnnnHan a1o nsHene-
nne n o1aeuan na nero, 1o a 1epannn cpasy xe cnepoaan
npopma n poc1nrancn snaun1enLnm nporpecc.
D1o o1nnune osnauae1, u1o kak naunen1, 1ak n ero anann-
1nk neckonLko amunn sa paHkn knaccnueckoro anann-
1nueckoro neuennn, no ne o1kasanncL o1 nero.
TenepL nepepeH k konkpe1noHy cnyuak. Bo a1opo no-
noanne 1920-x ropoa n npnc1ynnn k anann1nueckoHy ne-
uennk npnaneka1enLno, xnao n poaonLno
co6nasnn1enLno peayukn a aospac1e okono 30 ne1. Ee
ocnoanan xano6a coc1onna a 1oH, u1o ona ne Hoxe1 uero-
nn6o po6n1Lcn a xnsnn. HeckonLko ne1 nasap ona
ycneuno okonunna ynnaepcn1e1ckn kypc, ko1oporo 6mno
poc1a1ouno pnn nonyuennn c1enenn, no ona ne cHorna
cpa1L nocnepnn aksaHen. HecHo1pn na 1o, u1o ona
nonLsoaanacL ycnexoH y Hyxunn n Hnorne xo1enn
xenn1Lcn na ne nnn saansa1L c ne poHan1nueckne
o1nouennn, ona npoc1o ne Horna nH o1ae1n1L.
Hoc1enenno o6napyxnnacL cansL Hexpy ee
necnoco6noc1Lk saansa1L o1nouennn n nepennunH
c1paxoH nepep neonpepenennoc1Lk, korpa ona ponxna
6mna no1n na kako-1o pnck, 1o ec1L npnnn1L peuenne.
Ona 6mna cnnLno npnansana k caoeHy anac1noHy o1uy,
o1nnuaaueHycn o6ceccnanmHn uep1aHn, epnnc1aennoHy
uenoaeky, na ko1oporo ona, opnako, Horna aceueno
nonoxn1Lcn; onn nonnHann n amcoko uennnn ppyr ppyra,
1orpa kak ee o1nouennn c neHnoro sanyranno Ha1epLk,
ko1opo ona ne poaepnna, 6mnn nano aH6naanen1nmHn.
HaH nonapo6nnocL nou1n paa ropa, npexpe ueH a1n cansn
npno6penn pnn nee kako-1o cHmcn. HpnHepno a a1o ape-
Hn n npepnoxnn nn1epnpe1aunk, u1o pnn nee, anpnHo,
caHmH rnaanmH nanne1cn coxpann1L nonoxenne, npn ko-
174
1opoH ee ronoaa naxopn1cn a 6esonacnoH aep1nkanLnoH
nonoxennn, a ee norn npouno c1on1 na seHne. B o1ae1 ona
saHe1nna, u1o ona nnkorpa, paxe a caHoH panneH pe1c1-
ae, ne penana kyampok uepes ronoay; xo1n nopo o1uann-
no ero nm1anacL amnonnn1L. H cnpocnn: A kak xe ce-
uac? nocne a1oro ona ackounna c kyue1kn n, k ee ae-
nnuaueHy nsyHnennk, 6es 1pypa cpenana npeaocxopnm
kyampok uepes ronoay.
D1o1 cnyua okasancn nac1onunH npopmaoH. Hocne nero
nocnepoaann Hnorouncnennme nsHenennn a ee aHouno-
nanLno, counanLno n npoqeccnonanLno xnsnn, ace
onn npnaenn k poc1nxennk 6onLue cao6opm n rn6koc1n.
KpoHe 1oro, ona po6nnacL paspeuennn cpaaa1L nan6onee
1pypnme amnycknme aksaHenm n npouna nx, ona o6pyun-
nacL n amuna saHyx.
Hocne ee saHyxec1aa, kak 6mno npnnn1o a 1e apeHena a
anann1nuecko npak1nke, neuenne 6mno npepaano, no
uepes paa ropa ona aoso6noanna ananns, ko1opm npo-
ponxancn eue ue1mpnapua1L Hecnuea. Hocne a1oro a 1e-
uenne cnepykunx nou1n 1pnpua1n ne1 ona cHorna aec1n
nopHanLnyk xnsnL, necHo1pn na Hnoxec1ao ka1aknnsHoa
n orpoHnme aneunne 1pypnoc1n, ko1opme amnann na ee
ponk neHeukyk okkynaunk, aony, pycckyk 6nokapy,
pycckyk okkynaunk, koHHynnc1nueckn nepeaopo1, pe-
aonkunk n 1. p. TaknH o6pasoH, a1o1 npopma pan pesynL-
1a1m, ko1opme ampepxann npoaepky apeHeneH.
KaknH koppek1nmH pnarnoc1nuecknH 1epHnnoH Hoxno
6mno 6m oxapak1epnsoaa1L kyampok, c1aaun peuakunH
co6m1neH a a1oH anannse? H npepnoxnn 6m nepaycHmc-
nennoe onpepenenne, pnn npnnn1nn ko1oporo, napekcL,
ne no1pe6ye1cn Hnoro pokasa1enLc1a. Kyampok uepes ro-
noay, ko1opm cpenana Honopan xenunna a aospac1e
okono 1pnpua1n ne1, 6esycnoano, osnauae1 nonanenne
npnHn1nanmx pe1cknx qopH noaepennn nocne 1oro, kak a
175
anann1nuecko cn1yaunn npouno sakpennnncL 6onee spe-
nme, 6onee aspocnme qopHm. BHec1o a1o koppek1no, no
an1neaa1o qpasm a anann1nuecko 1eopnn ncnonLsyk1
ue1mpe a snaun1enLno c1enenn nepekpmaakunxcn 1ep-
Hnna: nepenoc, o1mrpmaanne, noa1openne n perpeccnn. B
npnHenennn k naueHy cnyuak ace a1n 1epHnnm 1onLko
o1uac1n nannk1cn koppek1nmHn.
He1 coHnennn a 1oH, u1o kyampok 6mn nponanenneH o1mr-
pmaannn, no nencno, u1o xe nHenno 6mno o1mrpano.
HecoHnenno, a1o co6m1ne nponsouno npn nepenoce, ecnn
Hm noppasyHeaaeH nop nepenocoH anann1nueckyk cn1ya-
unk a uenoH. Opnako ecnn Hm naHepenm ncnonLsoaa1L
a1o1 1epHnn a yskoH cHmcne, 1o ec1L kak nepenoc o1 nc-
xopnoro o6Lek1a na anann1nka, 1o nencno, npnHennH nn
a1o1 1epHnn a pannoH cnyuae. Takne xe sa1pypnennn
aosnnkak1 c noa1openneH n perpeccne. Hoa1opn1L Hox-
no 1onLko 1o, u1o yxe korpa-1o 6mno cpenano; pa n per-
peccnpoaa1L, no-anpnHoHy, Hoxno 1onLko k 1oHy, u1o
6mno nepexn1o xo1n 6m opnaxpm a npounoH. Ho ns nc1o-
pnn a1oro cnyuan anpno, u1o panLue Hon naunen1ka nn-
korpa ne Horna cpena1L kyampok uepes ronoay. Hoa1oHy
6mno 6m nornuecknH npo1naopeuneH nasmaa1L nepam
kyampok a ee xnsnn noa1openneH nnn perpeccne. He-
cHo1pn na a1o npo1naopeune, n 6ypy ncnonLsoaa1L 1ep-
Hnn perpeccnn pnn 1oro, u1o6m pa1L xo1n 6m npn6nnsn-
1enLnoe onncanne aosnnknoaennk npnHn1nanmx qopH
noaepennn n akcnpeccnn, nonannkunxcn kak peakunn na-
unen1a na anann1nueckoe neuenne yxe nocne 1oro, kak
yc1anoannncL 6onee spenme qopHm.
Kc1a1n, o1cy1c1ane ponxnoro pnqqepenunanLnoro pnar-
nosa, a nHenno ynpounauancn 1papnunn nekoppek1no
o6osnaua1L ace npnHn1nanoe, u1o npopyunpye1 naun-
en1 a anann1nuecko cn1yaunn, ipso facto (a cnny caHoro
qak1a), kak nepenoc n/nnn perpeccnk, nanne1cn npnun-
no Hnorouncnennmx nepopasyHenn n 1pypnoc1e a pas-
176
an1nn nccnepoaann a1o o6nac1n. H nonm1akcL nponc-
nn1L neko1opme pe1ann, xo1n n ne ouenL yaepen a 6esy-
npeunoc1n Honx npepnonoxenn. Iopaspo nerue nono-
xn1L nauano noao pypno npnamuke, ueH nsHenn1L c1a-
pyk.
KpoHe 1oro, ec1L 6onLuoe uncno knnnnuecknx coc1onnn,
ko1opme uac1o npnnnHak1cn sa perpeccnk, 1ak kak nHe-
k1 c ne cxopc1ao ao Hnornx o1nouennnx, xo1n pnnaHn-
ueckne c1pyk1ypm perpeccnn n a1nx coc1onnn qynpaHen-
1anLno o1nnuak1cn ppyr o1 ppyra. BosHoxno, nan6onee
uac1o ac1peuae1cn yxop o1kas o1 kon1ak1a c anann1n-
koH nnn c okpyxenneH. Cneunqnueckyk qopHy a1oro co-
c1onnnn Bnnnnko11 (Winnicott, 1958) onncan kak cnoco6-
noc1L oc1aaa1Lcn opnoHy a npncy1c1ann ppyroro uenoae-
ka. Bneua1nenne yxopa aosnnkae1 a 1oH cnyuae, korpa
nnpnanp nonnoc1Lk norpyxen a co6c1aennyk o6nac1L co-
snpannn. D1n coc1onnnn Hory1 6m1L ckopo1eunmHn, a Ho-
ry1 npoponxa1Lcn poaonLno snaun1enLnm nepnop ape-
Henn; onn Hory1 6m1L kak na1onornuecknHn, 1ak n co-
aepuenno nopHanLnmHn; nakoneu, a nnx Hoxe1 6m1L
npepc1aanena nyc1L ne6onLuan, no aaxnan ponn perpec-
cnn. H ace xe n cun1ak, u1o onn ponxnm 6m1L ue1ko o1-
penenm o1 perpeccnn.
To xe caHoe o1nocn1cn n k ppyroHy, ouenL noxoxeHy
knnnnueckoHy coc1onnnk, ko1opoe Hoxno 6mno 6m na-
saa1L pesnn1erpaune. B a1oH coc1onnnn aosnnkak1 nnn
nonannk1cn sanoao 6onee npnHn1nanme qopHm qynkuno-
nnpoaannn n nepexnaannn acnepc1ane 1oro, u1o amxopn1
ns c1pon c1pyk1ypa 6onee amcokoro nopnpka n cnoxno
oprannsaunn. Ha1onornuecko qopHo a1oro coc1onnnn
nanne1cn npoueccyanLnan unsoqpennn, a o1nocn1enLno
nopHanLno qopHo yracanne renn1anLnoc1n a noxn-
noH aospac1e. B a1nx qopHax, ko1opme Hory1 6m1L npn-
aepenm a kauec1ae nnnkc1paunn perpeccnn kak qak1opa
na1orenesa, nponanne1cn Hnoxec1ao nc1nnno perpec-
177
cnanmx uep1. Opnako paxe necHo1pn na cyuec1aykun
koncencyc o1nocn1enLno perpeccnano npnpopm a1nx co-
c1onnn pesnn1erpaunn, onn ponxnm 6m1L pasrpannuenm
c perpeccne, ko1opyk Hoxno na6nkpa1L ao apeHn ana-
nn1nueckoro neuennn.
TenepL aepneHcn k HoeHy cnyuak. D1o1 annsop o1nocn1cn
npnHepno k 1930 ropy. HcnonLsyn 1eopnk aneuenn n
Dro-ncnxonornkpae konuenunn, ko1opme a 1o apeHn
npeaannpoaann a ncnxoanannse, n Hor 6m ckasa1L, u1o
a HoeH cnyuae n po6nncn 1oro, u1o: (a) npepoc1aana cao-
e naunen1ke aosHoxnoc1L cpena1L kyampok, 1o ec1L cos-
paa amsaaauyk y nee c1pax cn1yaunk, n 1eH caHmH yae-
nnunn ypoaenL ee nanpnxennn; 6naropapn ueHy (6) n no-
Hor e ocyuec1an1L npopma nnc1nnk1a, u1o npnaeno k
ypoane1aopennk nHnynLca (nnn aneuennn), ko1opm po
a1oro HoHen1a 6mn am1ecnen; a 1akxe (a) aHec1e c a1nH
nepexnaanneH nnn 6naropapn eHy Dro naunen1kn c1ano
cnnLnee.
B 1o apeHn a 1eope1nuecknx npepc1aanennnx anann1nkoa
(oco6enno a Bypaneu1e) nponcxopnnn noc1enennme ns-
Henennn: na cHeny poHnnnpoaaaue c1apo 1eopnn nn-
6npo n aneuenn, a 1akxe noao Dro-ncnxonornn npnxo-
pnno nonnHanne aaxnoc1n o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn. Tpypno
o6osnaun1L 1ounyk pa1y a1o nepeHenm. Bnepame o ne
sanann Oepenun a 1pe1Le rnaae C1apnn a pasan1nn
apo1nueckoro uyac1aa peanLnoc1n caoe knnrn Tanac-
ca (1924). [ononnn1enLnm nHnynLc nepeHenaH npnpa-
nn ero pasouapoaanne a pesynL1a1ax akcnepnHen1oa c ak-
1nano 1exnnko, a 1akxe ero nn1encnanoe nccnepoaanne
o1nouenn Hexpy anann1nkoH n naunen1oH, no okonua-
1enLnme ouep1annn a1n nsHenennn npno6penn a payx ero
pa6o1ax Hpo6neHa npekpauennn anannsa n Dnac1nu-
noc1L ncnxoanann1nuecko 1exnnkn.
178
HpnnnHan ao annHanne a1n noame opnen1npm, n 1akxe
qnkcnpoaan nsHenennn a o6Lek1nmx o1nouennnx naun-
en1kn. [ec1an1enLno, pesynL1a1 npopmaa coc1onn a npe-
oponennn am1ecnennn npexpe nekan qynkunn Dro 1op-
HosnnacL n 6mna Dro-pnc1onno ns-sa 1oro, u1o e 6mno
npncaoeno nekoe cnHaonnueckoe snauenne; 1enepL, no-
cne o1penennn ee a1opnunoro apo1nueckoro ka1ekcnca,
ona 6mna amcao6oxpena, nn1erpnpoaana a Dro n c1ana
npnnocn1L ypoaonLc1ane. Opnako 1akxe aepno n 1o, u1o
npopma nponsouen a ncnxoanann1nuecko cn1yaunn, 1o
ec1L a paHkax o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn, n a1o o1kpmno no-
ame ny1n pnn nk6an n nenaanc1n naunen1kn. B a1oH n
saknkuae1cn noaoe o1kpm1ne, nocne uero o1nouennn na-
unen1kn k ee o6Lek1aH nk6an n nenaanc1n c1ann 6onee
cao6opnmHn n 6onee peannc1nunmHn.
HHenno na a1oH 6onee unpokoH ocnoaannn n paspa6o1an
konuenunk noaoro nauana, npnsaannyk oxaa1n1L po-
aonLno snaun1enLnoe konnuec1ao knnnnuecknx qak1oa,
o1nocnunxcn k 1oHy 1nny, o ko1opoH specL roaopnnocL. H
coc1aann nepeuenL 1ex HoHen1oa, ko1opme, kak n nona-
rak, nannk1cn xapak1epnmHn uep1aHn noaoro nauana
(cH. Balint M., 1932, 1934). B a1oH nepeune n anepame
nonm1ancn cyHHnpoaa1L knnnnueckne npnsnakn po6poka-
uec1aenno perpeccnn a anann1nuecko cn1yaunn. B no-
cnepykunx rnaaax n xouy nokasa1L, kak anocnnncL nsHe-
nennn a a1o1 nepeuenL a coo1ae1c1ann c HonH knnnnue-
cknH onm1oH sa nocnepnne 1pnpua1L ne1.
1. Poc1 nanpnxennn, npepuec1aykun ypoane1aopennk
nHnynLca, amsmaae1 nonanenne nan6onee ampasn1enLnmx
n npknx cnHn1oHoa; nocne poc1nxennn ypoane1aopennn
nponcxopn1 neoxnpannan nepeHena: aosnnkae1 uyac1ao
ycnokoennn, yHnpo1aopennn, 6narononyunn, ko1opoe Ho-
xe1 yckonLsny1L o1 na6nkpa1enn, ecnn 1o1 ne 6ype1 poc-
1a1ouno annHa1enLnmH.
179
2. Hn1encnanoc1L ypoane1aopennn, ko1opoe npnnocn1 an-
pm ak1nanoc1n a qase noaoro nauana, nnkorpa ne poc1n-
rae1 ypoann koneunoro ypoaonLc1ann.
3. Bce annsopm noaoro nauana nponcxopn1 a nepenoce, 1o
ec1L a o6Lek1nmx o1nouennnx, n npnaopn1 k nsHenennk
o1nouenn Hexpy naunen1oH n o6Lek1aHn ero nk6an nnn
nenaanc1n, u1o cyuec1aenno cnnxae1 ypoaenL 1peaorn.
4. Hoaoe nauano npnaopn1 1akxe k nsHenennnH xapak1e-
pa. B nac1onuee apeHn 1e xe caHme knnnnueckne qak1m
6mnn 6m nc1onkoaanm kak nsHenennn, nponcxopnune a
Dro.
H, nakoneu, caHoe aaxnoe:
5. Hoaoe nauano: (a) osnauae1 o6pa1noe panxenne k ue-
Hy-1o npnHn1nanoHy, k HoHen1y, ko1opm npepuec1ao-
aan napyuennnH a pasan1nn, u1o Hoxno nasaa1L perpec-
cne, (6) a 1o xe apeHn a1o npepc1aanne1 co6o npo-
rpecc, 1ak kak nanne1cn o1kpm1neH noaoro, nyuuero ny1n.
B Hoe knnre Hepanoe aos6yxpenne n perpeccnn
(Thrills and Regressions, 1959) n o6osnauak a1n paa oc-
noanmx qenoHena opno qpaso: perpeccnn papn npo-
rpecca.
BepneHcn 1enepL k HoeHy cnyuak. CornacnauncL c 1eH,
u1o npopma 6mn aaxnmH qak1opoH, noannnaunH na 6na-
ronpnn1nm 1epanea1nueckn ncxop, Hm nopnnHaeH ao-
npoc o nonnHannn ero pnnaHnkn. Bnaronpnn1nm pesynL-
1a1 Hor 6m1L amsaan (a) 1eH, u1o cosnanne nnn Dro
6mno amnyxpeno cnn1L uac1L am1ecnennn n npnnn1L nn-
c1nnk1nanm nHnynLc kak Dro-cnn1onnm n npnn1nm;
(6) 1eH, u1o nponsouno ycnnenne Dro, rpannum ko1oporo
6mnn pacunpenm sa cue1 Hp; n (a) 1eH, u1o naunen1 no-
nyunn noHouL pnn noaoro nauana nnn, ecnn yropno, pnn
perpeccnn.
180
Koneuno, Hoxno 6mno 6m aospasn1L, u1o peuakunH qak-
1opoH a poc1nxennn nosn1nanoro 1epanea1nueckoro pe-
synL1a1a 6mna anann1nueckan pa6o1a, npepuec1aoaaa-
uan a1oHy annsopy, a 1akxe nocnepoaaauan sa nnH
ponxnan npopa6o1ka; u1o a1o1 nnunpen1, xo1n n npons-
aopnun rny6okoe aneua1nenne, caH no ce6e 6mn nesna-
un1enLnmH, ecnn 1onLko ne cun1a1L 1oro, u1o on npnnec
6eso6npnyk nepepmuky a nanpnxenno pa6o1e naunen1-
kn n ee anann1nka. Tpypno o1ae1n1L na a1n aospaxennn,
ocnoamaancL na 1oH, u1o cnyua 6mn ycneuen. Ycnex Ho-
xe1 6m1L npnnncan nk6oHy qak1opy nnn nk6oHy coue1a-
nnk qak1opoa, noa1oHy 6mno 6m nou1n neaosHoxno nc-
nonLsoaa1L ycnex caH no ce6e a kauec1ae pokasa1enLc1aa
aqqek1nanoc1n kakoro 6m 1o nn 6mno 1exnnueckoro no-
aoaaepennn. Hoa1oHy n npepnarak o1noxn1L na apeHn
okonua1enLnme amaopm n npoponxn1L naue nccnepoaa-
nne.
Fnaaa 21. Ypoane1aopeuue u o61ek1-
ume o1uomeuun
HackonLko n noHnk, a1o 6mno 6onee 30 ne1 nasap a Hae
1933 ropa, npnHepno a 1o apeHn, korpa yHep Oepenun.
Torpa aoso6napana cnepykuan 1ouka spennn: akcnepn-
Hen1m Oepenun nokasann, u1o o1ae1 anann1nka na 1pe6o-
aannn naunen1a, naxopnuerocn a coc1onnnn perpeccnn,
nanne1cn oun6ko n npnaopn1 nnuL k 6eckoneuno uepe-
pe nyc1mx aonnenn, pocaxpakunx n naunen1y, n anann-
1nky; 1ak nnn nnaue a1n akcnepnHen1m 6mnn ocyxpenm
OpepoH. B 1euenne neko1oporo apeHenn n npepnpnnn-
Han nonm1kn aoso6noan1L pnckyccnk, ykasmaan na 1o,
u1o 1akoe orynLnoe ocyxpenne nanne1cn kak necnpaaep-
nnamH, 1ak n neamropnmH (Balint M., 1934, 1935, 1937,
1949, 1951). H nnuL roaopnn o kpn1nueckoH nepecHo1pe
a aoace ne o cnenoH npnnn1nn 1oro, u1o 6mno uen-
noro a npenx, pasan1mx a Bypaneu1e nop pykoaopc1aoH
181
Oepenun. O1ae1a ne nocnepoaano. Hocne a1o neypaun
epnnc1aennoe, u1o Hne oc1aaanocL, a1o npoponxn1L
caok knnnnueckyk pa6o1y n, ocnoamaancL na caoeH onm-
1e, npnc1ynn1L k ouenke npaannLnoc1n a1nx npe. Mne
kaxe1cn, u1o a nocnepnne ropm a rocnopc1aykunx na-
c1poennnx nonannncL neko1opme npnsnakn nepeHen, xo1n
n Hory n oun6a1Lcn. H1ak, n npepnpnnnHak eue opny
nonm1ky.
B cnncke, npnaepennoH a konue rnaam 20, copepxaueH
nepeuenL co6m1n qasm noaoro nauana, n, noxany, oc-
1anoanncn 6m na 1pex HoHen1ax, c1onunx 1oro, u1o6m
ypenn1L nH annHanne, npnnoxn1L ycnnne k nx paspa6o1-
ke n nccnepoaannk. Bo-nepamx, npnHn1nanoe ypoane1ao-
penne, nannkueecn caHmH saHe1nmH ns nnx; ao-a1opmx
neoxnpannme nsHenennn a nn1encnanoc1n anann1nue-
cko a1Hocqepm, saknkuakunecn a 1oH, u1o nac1ounaoe
1pe6oaanne ypoane1aopennn coxpanne1cn po 1ex nop, no-
ka onpepenennan no1pe6noc1L oc1ae1cn neypoane1aopen-
no, n nonnoc1Lk ncuesae1 6es acnkoro cnepa cpasy xe
nocne 1oro, kak ypoane1aopenne poc1nrny1o; n a-1pe1Lnx,
a6conk1noe ycnoane 1oro, u1o ace a1o ponxno nponcxo-
pn1L a anann1nuecko cn1yaunn, 1o ec1L a paHkax o6L-
ek1nmx o1nouenn.
HauneH c acnek1a ypoane1aopennn. He aosnnkae1 coHne-
nnn a 1oH, u1o neu1o ponxno 6m1L ypoane1aopeno, opna-
ko nasaa1L a1o neu1o pepnaa1oH konkpe1noro koHnonen1a
aneuennn Hoxno c 6onLuo na1nxko. Hnorpa a1o poc1n-
rae1cn o1c1ynnenneH o1 npaann, kak, nanpnHep, a cnyuae
Hoe naunen1kn, cpenaaue kyampok uepes ronoay. [py-
ran naunen1ka (1akxe poc1nruan nosn1nanoro pesynL1a1a
neuennn, ko1opm coxpannncn a nocnepykune paapua1L
nn1L ne1 na6nkpennn) a oco6ennm nepnop ee anannsa a
1euenne neko1oporo apeHenn ncnm1maana neoponnHyk
no1pe6noc1L a 1oH, u1o6m pepxa1Lcn sa naneu Hoe pykn.
He coc1aan1 6onLuoro 1pypa o1mcka1L nnn nso6pec1n
182
nnc1nnk1 uennnnnn pnn o6Lncnennn ypoane1aope-
nnn, ko1opoe naunen1ka nonyuana a a1oH cnyuae. Eue
opnn naunen1, na a1o1 pas Hyxunna, 6mn amnyxpen y1n
a o1nyck no 6onesnn na neckonLko nepenL, korpa nac1y-
nnna qasa noaoro nauana. [oaonLno 1pypno 6mno onpe-
penn1L, 6mn nn on pec1an1enLno 6onen nnn ne1 a a1o
apeHn; on ne Hor pa6o1a1L, on npoaopnn ace caoe apeHn
a noc1enn n nyxpancn a 1oH, u1o6m sa nnH yxaxnaann, no
on perynnpno npnxopnn na ceancm ne nponyc1na nn
opnoro. HpnHepno a 1o xe apeHn on o6pauancn ko Hne c
npocL6aHn o pononnn1enLnoH ceance, oco6enno a amxop-
nme pnn, nn6o npocnn Henn, u1o6m n 6ypnn ero no 1ene-
qony. Bmno 6m 1pypno o1mcka1L cneunqnueckn koHno-
nen1 aneuennn, ko1opm 6m coo1ae1c1aoaan a1nH coc1on-
nnnH ypoane1aopennn, opnako ncno, u1o ace 1pn naunen-
1a nyxpanncL a 1oH, u1o6m nx o1nouennn c okpyxenneH,
a nHenno c caHmH aaxnmH pnn nnx a 1o apeHn o6Lek1oH
nx anann1nkoH, 6mnn 6m npoc1mHn n rnapknHn
(gewahrend).
BosapauancL k aonpocy o pnqqepenunanLnoH pnarnose,
ao acex 1pex ynoHnny1mx cnyuanx npnHn1nanme qopHm
noaepennn n nepexnaannn nonannncL nocne 1oro, kak
npouno yc1anoannncL spenme qopHm, n nHenno a1o n
npepnarak nasmaa1L perpeccne. Takan perpeccnn npn-
aopn1 k nonanennk xenann n npocL6, n ao acex 1pex
cnyuanx anann1nk o1ae1nn na nnx nosn1nano, 1o ec1L
ypoane1aopnn nx. H xouy nopuepkny1L, u1o ypoane1aope-
nne ne nopHenne1 nn1epnpe1aunk, a pononnne1 ee. B ne-
ko1opmx cnyuanx nn1epnpe1aunn npepaapnna ypoane1ao-
penne, a a ppyrnx cnepoaana sa nnH, kak 1oro 1pe6o-
aana cn1yaunn.
Bnnxe k 30-H ropaH n nauan nonnHa1L, u1o ypoane1aope-
nne, 1pe6yeHoe n nonyuaeHoe naunen1aHn a qase noaoro
nauana, xo1n n o6pauae1 na ce6n annHanne, no ne nHee1
1akoro yx 6onLuoro snauennn, no-anpnHoHy, ono 6mno
183
1onLko cpepc1aoH poc1nxennn uenn. [ec1an1enLno aax-
nmH nanne1cn 1o, u1o naunen1 nonyuae1 noHouL a ocao-
6oxpennn o1 sany1annmx, pnrnpnmx, rne1yunx qopH o1-
nouenn a 1o apeHn nx nasmaann uep1aHn xapak1epa
co caonHn o6Lek1aHn nk6an n nenaanc1n n npnxopn1 k
6onee npoc1mH n Henee ckoamaakunH ero qopHaH. Ha-
npnHep, a HoeH nepaoH cnyuae anann1nk aocnpnnnHancn
ne kak nooupnkun, aonnykun nnn yrpoxakun
aspocnm o6Lek1, a npncy1c1ann ko1oporo npnnnunan Ho-
nopan nepn paxe Hmcnn ne Horna 6m ponyc1n1L o 1oH,
u1o6m cpena1L kyampok uepes ronoay, a kak 6esonacnm,
napexnm o6Lek1, pnpoH c ko1opmH naunen1 Hoxe1 no-
saonn1L ce6e pe1ckne papoc1n. Kc1a1n, ne nHeno 6m
6onLuoro snauennn, ecnn 6m a1o xe o1nnune 6mno ampa-
xeno npn noHoun cpepc1a nsmka 1pexc1oponnero apnnoaa
konqnnk1a nnn cpepc1aaHn nk6oro ppyroro poapnnoaa
opanLnoro, ananLnoro, qannnueckoro n 1. p. nsmka.
Bonee 1oro, coaepuenno nonn1no, u1o nk6oe ns a1nx am-
paxenn, akuen1npykunx opny ns caepxpe1epHnnaun,
6ype1 aepnmH.
[nn onncannn oco6o a1Hocqepm nepnopa noaoro nauana
n ncnonLsoaan neHeukoe cnoao arglos, ko1opoe, kak n
cnoaa Lust n Besetzung, ne nHee1 akanaanen1a a anrnn-
ckoH nsmke. B cnoaape a kauec1ae nepeaopa npnaopn1cn
cnepykun knac1ep snauenn: npoc1opyunm, neann-
nm, npoc1o, 6esapepnm, 6eso6npnm, nananm, neno-
pospeaakun, no nn opnn ns a1nx aapnan1oa ne nepe-
pae1 1ounoro snauennn cnoaa. Hoa1oHy Hm nyxpanncL a
cnoae, ko1opoe nopouno 6m pnn onncannn 1ako cn1ya-
unn, korpa nnpnanp uyac1aye1, u1o eHy nnu1o ne yrpoxa-
e1 co c1oponm okpyxennn n on ne nanocn1 apepa okpy-
xakunH. Mm Hornn 6m aocnonLsoaa1Lcn naue ncnxo-
anann1nuecko 1epHnnonorne, ko1opan okasana 6m naH
noHouL, npepoc1aana a naue pacnopnxenne 1akne npn-
nara1enLnme, kak poaH6naanen1nm, ponepceky1opnm
184
nnn ponapanonnLnm. Hpo6neHa coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o a1n
1epHnnm cnnukoH cnoxnm pnn onncannn npoc1o, cao-
6opno o1 nopospenn a1Hocqepm poaepnn a1o qasm. B
pec1an1enLnoc1n naunen1 o6pe1ae1 npn nepenoce cno-
co6noc1L o16pocn1L ace saun1nme nanunpn caoero xapak-
1epa n uyac1aye1, u1o xnsnL c1ana npoue n npaapnaee
a1o nac1onuee o1kpm1ne neaepoHoro.
B a1oH coc1on1 o1nnune qasm noaoro nauana o1 1oro
ncknkun1enLno any1pennero ncnxnueckoro npouecca,
nponcxopnuero a nnpnanpe, ko1opm Opep nasaan per-
peccne: perpeccnn, ko1opyk n na6nkpan ao apeHn ana-
nn1nueckoro neuennn a qase noaoro nauana npn-
napnexn1, npn6eran k noao 1epHnnonornn, k o6nac1n
ncnxonornn payx nepcon. Tak kak a 1o apeHn pasan1ne
o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn ne 6mno Hopno 1eHo, Hon na-
xopkn apnp nn 6mnn saHeuenm, xo1n n neopnokpa1no
poknapmaan o nnx (cH. Balint M., naunnan c 1932).
Bo-nepamx, pnn 1oro, u1o6m onnca1L a1n npnHn1nanme
o1nouennn, n npnnnn 1eope1nueckyk npek Oepenun
(1924) npek naccnano o6Lek1no nk6an. On nona-
ran, u1o nc1nnnan uenL apo1nuecko xnsnn coc1on1 a 1oH,
u1o6m 6m1L nk6nHmH, n acnkan ppyran pen1enLnoc1L
npepc1aanne1 co6o nnuL o6xopno, okonLnm ny1L poc-
1nxennn panno uenn. D1a npen 6yp1o 6m 6mna o6euak-
ue n, kasanocL, pec1an1enLno Horna o6Lncnn1L Hnorne
npnHn1nanme o1nouennn k o6Lek1y nk6an ne 1onLko y
Hnapenuea, no n y aspocnmx. Opnako a konue konuoa ona
okasanacL nenpnropno. Hpn annHa1enLnoH nsyuennn
naunen1oa a qase noaoro nauana okasanocL, u1o orpoH-
noe snauenne nHek1 ne 1onLko nepnopm cnokonoro, 1n-
xoro ypoane1aopennn n oxnpannn nk6an co c1oponm ok-
pyxennn, no n ak1nanme nonckn kon1ak1a c nkpLHn.
HpnnnHan ao annHanne a1y nanyk ak1nanoc1L, neo6xopn-
Ho 6mno o1kasa1Lcn o1 1epHnna naccnanan o6Lek1nan
nk6oaL, c 1ex nop n ncnonLsyk 1epHnn npnHn1nanan,
185
nnn nepanunan o6Lek1nan nk6oaL, nnn nepanunme
o6Lek1nme o1nouennn (Balint M., 1937).
Opnako n ponxen npnsna1L, u1o n a1o1 1epHnn 1oxe na-
nne1cn neapekaa1nmH. Ho Hepe 1oro kak pasanaanncL Hon
cnoco6noc1n k na6nkpennk n Ho naamk cnyuannn ynyu-
uancn, pa6o1an co caonHn naunen1aHn, n ysnan o
cyuec1aoaannn ppyro qasm, npepuec1aykue nonane-
nnk nepanunmx o6Lek1oa (cH. rnaay 12, a 1akxe Balint
M., 1957, 1959), a1y qasy Hoxno 6mno 6m nasaa1L qaso
nepnqqepenunpoaannoro okpyxennn, qaso nepanunmx
cy6c1anun nnn poaonLno neyknkxan qpasa qaso
rapHonnunoro ckpeunaannn (Balint M., 1959). Bosapaua-
ncL k 1oHy, u1o 6onee noppo6no yxe o6cyxpanocL a rnaae
12, nyuue nnnkc1paune a1oro coc1onnnn nanne1cn na-
ue o1nouenne k okpyxakueHy nac aospyxy. Tpypno cka-
sa1L, nanne1cn nnn ne1 aospyx, ko1opm naxopn1cn a na-
unx nerknx n naunx any1pennoc1nx, uac1Lk nac caHnx;
pa a1o, co6c1aenno, n ne nHee1 snauennn. Mm apmxaeH
aospyx, 6epeH ns nero ace neo6xopnHoe, a sa1eH, ampe-
nna a nero 1o, o1 uero xo1nH ns6aan1Lcn, ampmxaeH ero,
n nac coaepuenno ne aonnye1, npaan1cn a1o aospyxy nnn
ne1. On ponxen 6m1L a neo6xopnHoH konnuec1ae n ponx-
noro kauec1aa; n noka on ec1L, o1nouennn Hexpy naHn n
aospyxoH ecnn n Hory1 6m1L saHeuenm, 1o 1onLko c 6onL-
unH 1pypoH; no kak 1onLko aosnnkae1 npenn1c1ane, He-
uakuee npn1oky aospyxa, nonannk1cn ampasn1enLnme n
npkne cnHn1oHm, nopo6nme coc1onnnk neypoane1aopen-
noro pe6enka nnn naunen1a, ko1opm, naxopncL a nepao
qase noaoro nauana, 1pe6ye1 ypoane1aopennn.
Bospyx, nopo6no aope nnn Honoky, nanne1cn cy6c1anun-
e, a ne o6Lek1oH. Kak n yxe ynoHnnan, cyuec1aye1 ne-
ckonLko ne 1ak Hnoro cy6c1anun 1akoro popa: k nnH
o1nocn1cn aneHen1m, o ko1opmx ynoHnnann qnnocoqm-
pocokpa1nkn: aopa, seHnn n oronL, a 1akxe Ha1epnanm,
ko1opme ncnonLsyk1cn a pe1cko ncnxo1epannn, nanpn-
186
Hep, necok, aopa nnn nnac1nnnn. Inaanan oco6ennoc1L
a1nx cy6c1anun coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o nx neaosHoxno ynnu-
1oxn1L. Bm Hoxe1e noc1pon1L saHok ns Hokporo necka,
sa1eH paspyun1L ero, no necok oc1ane1cn c aaHn; am Ho-
xe1e sa1kny1L nanLueH kpan, nepekpma aopy, no kak
1onLko am y6epe1e naneu, aopa nonLe1cn anoaL, n 1. p.
B onpepenennme HoHen1m qasm noaoro nauana anann1nk
6epe1 na ce6n Hnorne qynkunn nepanunmx cy6c1anun
nnn nepanunmx o6Lek1oa. On ponxen 6m1L pnpoH, on
ponxen 6m1L ouenL yc1ynunamH; on ne ponxen okasmaa1L
upesHepnoro conpo1nanennn; on, koneuno xe, ponxen
6m1L neynnu1oxnHmH n on ponxen pa1L aosHoxnoc1L
caonH naunen1aH xn1L c nnH a coc1onnnn nekoero rapHo-
nnunoro coue1annn. H o1pak ce6e o1ue1 a 1oH, u1o a1o
sayun1 poaonLno koHnuno, n ro1oa npnnn1L po6pyk nop-
unk kpenknx uy1ok a kauec1ae koHHen1apnn k a1o no-
ao 1exnnke, no a caoe onpaapanne n nosaonk ce6e saHe-
1n1L, u1o nm1ancn ampasn1L npn noHoun cnoa nepexnaa-
nnn, npnnapnexaune nepnopy, ko1opm npo1ekan sapon-
ro po (nnn a c1opone o1) a1ana o1kpm1nn cnoa n, yx ko-
neuno, paxe po aosnnknoaennn o6Lek1oa ns nenapyuen-
no rapHonnn ppyxec1aennmx cy6c1anun.
Ho caoeHy onm1y n snak, u1o perpeccnn a anann1nueckoH
neuenne nepaan qasa noaoro nauana nanpaanena na
yc1anoanenne 1aknx o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn, ko1opme no
caoe c1pyk1ype noxoxn na nepanunme o1nouennn. Ko-
neuno, a1o Hoxe1 6m1L cpenano 1onLko a 1oH cnyuae, ko-
rpa anann1nk nonnHae1, u1o nHenno nponcxopn1 a pan-
nm HoHen1, ocosnae1 neo6xopnHoc1L a1oro, npnnnHae1
xenanne naunen1a kak uac1L 1epanea1nueckoro npouecca
n ne penae1 nonm1ok sa1opHosn1L pasan1ne co6m1n nn
caonH noaepenneH, nn caonHn nn1epnpe1aunnHn.
187
B a1oH coc1on1 nosn1nanan c1opona cn1yaunn. K coxane-
nnk, ec1L 1akxe n nera1nanan c1opona, n o ne nope1
peuL a cnepykue rnaae.
Fnaaa 22. Qpyrue qopHm 1epanea1uve-
cko perpeccuu
Hs-sa 1oro, u1o po cnx nop n roaopnn 1onLko o naunen1ax,
ko1opme ycneuno Hnnoaann a1an perpeccnn a caoe 1e-
pannn, Horno cnoxn1Lcn aneua1nenne, 6yp1o n cun1ak
perpeccnk uen1panLnmH aneHen1oH nenpoc1oro anann1n-
ueckoro neuennn, a nac1ouname npnsmam Opepa k oc-
1opoxnoc1n npn pa6o1e c perpeccnanmHn qopHaHn nepe-
noca ne nHekunHn nop co6o poc1a1ounoro knnnnue-
ckoro ocnoaannn, 1orpa kak ace 1exnnueckne npen, npep-
noxennme Oepenun, 6mnn npaannLnm, n 1onLko ero 6es-
apeHennan cHep1L noHeuana eHy pokasa1L nx aepnoc1L.
1o6m pasaen1L a1o noxnoe aneua1nenne, aepneHcn k
knnnnuecknH na6nkpennnH.
HeckonLko ne1 nasap (Balint M., 1952) n c1onknyncn c
npo6neHo naunen1oa, ko1opme xo1n n 6mnn cnoco6nm k
perpeccnn, no ne Hornn poc1nuL coc1onnnn arglos, cao-
6opnoro o1 nepoaepnn, ko1opoe nanne1cn a6conk1no ne-
o6xopnHmH npepaapn1enLnmH ycnoaneH qasm noaoro
nauana, naunen1oa, uLe neuenne no poc1nxennn uac1nu-
noro pesynL1a1a ponxno 6mno 6m1L npekpaueno. Xo1n n
poaonLno npneHneHme, a1n pesynL1a1m 6mnn ace xe xyxe
1ex, ko1opme cnepoaann nocne poc1nxennn nac1onuero
noaoro nauana. [nn osnakoHnennn c noppo6noc1nHn n
ponxen pekoHenpoaa1L un1a1enk o6pa1n1Lcn k ny6nnka-
unn 1952 ropa.
Cornacno HoeHy onm1y amnocn sa cko6kn cnyuan, korpa
ycnex a 1epannn 6mn nenonnmH ns-sa 1oro, u1o canske
naunen1-anann1nk ne ypanocL poc1nuL qasm noaoro na-
188
uana, naunen1m penn1cn na pae rpynnm. [nn naunen-
1oa, npnnapnexaunx k nepao rpynne, poc1a1ouno opnoro
nn6o aecLHa orpannuennoro uncna nepnopoa perpeccnn
nnn noaoro nauana, nocne uero naunen1 cnon1anno nokn-
pae1 cao npnHn1nanm Hnp, ero coc1onnne ynyuuae1cn,
nopo nac1onLko, u1o Hoxno roaopn1L o6 ncuenennn a
coo1ae1c1ann c npornosaHn Oepenun. Haunen1m, npnnap-
nexaune k ppyro rpynne, kaxe1cn, nnkorpa ne nonyua-
k1 ypoane1aopennn o1 poc1nrny1oro; kak 1onLko 1e nnn
nnme nx npnHn1nanme no1pe6noc1n nnn xenannn naxopn1
ypoane1aopenne, 1y1 xe nonanne1cn noaoe xenanne nnn
npn1nsanne, 1akoe xe neo1c1ynnoe n 6eso1nara1enLnoe;
nnorpa a1o npnaopn1 k nonanennk coc1onnn, noxoxnx
na snokauec1aennyk saancnHoc1L, ko1opme c 1pypoH nop-
pak1cn 1epannn, a nopo kak npepckasmaan Opep
npak1nueckn aoace ne noppak1cn.
Heko1opoe o6Lncnenne a1oHy aaxnoHy pasnnunk n nauen
a 1pe1Le rpynne nanenn, coc1aannkunx cnHn1oHa1ono-
rnk qasm noaoro nauana k nepamH payH o1nocn1cn
npnHn1nanme qopHm ypoane1aopennn n nsHenennn o6L-
ek1nmx o1nouenn. Hanennn, o ko1opmx Hm ceuac roao-
pnH, sa1parnaak1 a1Hocqepy anann1nueckoro neuennn
nnn o6nac1L nepenoca n npepc1aannk1 co6o peskne
ckaukn nanpnxennn. CnHn1oHm kaxy1cn poaonLno 1pn-
ananLnmHn po 1ex nop, noka ananns ne sa1pone1 6onee
rny6okne o6nac1n. Ecnn naunen1 ne nonyuae1 oxnpaeHoro
ypoane1aopennn, 1o ncnm1maaeHoe nH nanpnxenne na-
pac1ae1, u1o aneue1 sa co6o peskyk n rpy6yk Hannqe-
c1aunk cnHn1oHoa, ko1opme coxpannk1cn po 1ex nop, no-
ka naunen1 ne nonyuae1 ypoane1aopennn, 1orpa rpy6an
cnHn1oHa1nka cpasy ncuesae1 n e na cHeny npnxopn1 co-
c1onnne cnokoc1ann n 1nxoro 6narononyunn, aneunne
nponanennn ko1oporo Hoxe1 o6napyxn1L 1onLko caHoe
npnc1anLnoe na6nkpenne. B cepepnne 30-x ropoa n cHor
npopanny1Lcn npnHepno po a1nx rpannu n, koneuno, o1-
189
He1nn oueanpnyk ananornk Hexpy 1eH, u1o Hm na6nkpa-
eH a a1o cn1yaunn n nepeHeno, nponcxopnue a pe-
6enke, korpa na cHeny uyac1ay ronopa npnxopn1 ypoane-
1aopenne.
Opnako ackope n nonnn, u1o a1a ananornn, necHo1pn na
caoe npaaponopo6ne, ace xe orpannuena paHkaHn ncnxo-
nornn opno nepconm. [nn nnnkc1paunn 1oro, u1o n nHek
a anpy, n nosaonk ce6e aepny1Lcn k npepaec1nnky ace
anann1nuecko 1epannn neuennk BpeepoH Annm O.
K 1oHy apeHenn a ee 1epannn yxe neckonLko pas o1ue1-
nnao nponannncL necoHnennme uep1m perpeccnn, opnako
nn Opep, nn Bpeep, no-anpnHoHy, ne ocosnann, u1o
perpeccnn nanne1cn specL ocnoanmH qenoHenoH; ao acn-
koH cnyuae pokyHen1npoaannmx canpe1enLc1a o6pa1noro
ne cyuec1aye1. TonLko naxopncL a rnnno1nueckoH 1pance,
npepc1aannkueH co6o 6onee npnHn1nanoe (1o ec1L per-
peccnanoe) coc1onnne, Anna O. nHena poc1yn k am1ec-
nennmH aocnoHnnannnH, uero ona 6mna nnuena a caoeH
o6munoH coc1onnnn. Hakoneu, ec1L onncanne cuenm,
nponsouepue kak pas nepep npekpauenneH ee neuennn
n c1aaue snaHenn1o, a ko1opo ona npnpae1 caoe
koHna1e anp 1o koHna1m, rpe nexan ee 6onLno o1eu.
Ceuac a1o1 annsop nasaann 6m o1mrpmaanneH.
Ho cpaanennk c o1nouennnHn Hexpy payHn nopHanLnm-
Hn aspocnmHn nkpLHn, o1nouennn Hexpy naunen1ko n
ee 1epanea1oH a a1o1 nepnop c1ann 6onee npnHn1nanmHn.
Y a1nx o1nouenn 6mna opna nopasn1enLnan uep1a: xo1n
1epanea1 npno6pen pnn naunen1kn nepaoc1enennyk aax-
noc1L, ona, no-anpnHoHy, ne uyac1aoaana nnn ne amka-
smaana no o1nouennk k neHy cnnukoH 6onLuoro nn1epe-
ca on npoc1o ponxen 6mn ypoane1aopn1L oxnpannn
naunen1kn a 1ounoc1n 1ak xe a1o 6maae1 a o1nouennnx
c nepanunmH o6Lek1oH. HanpnHep, Bpeep, aecLHa sann-
1m apau, kak caHo co6o pasyHekueecn ponxen 6mn co-
190
aepua1L paa exepneanmx npoponxn1enLnmx ansn1a, n on
6mn amnyxpen npnpepxnaa1Lcn 1akoro nopnpka a 1eue-
nne poaonLno pnn1enLnoro apeHenn.
[pyrnH acnek1oH a1o cn1yaunn 6mnn orpoHnme npenHy-
uec1aa, ko1opme nonyuan 1epanea1. On nHen aosHox-
noc1L na6nkpa1L n noc1nra1L nn1nHnme n rny6ouaune
1anm uenoaeuecko ncnxnkn n ouyua1L orpoHnyk sna-
unHoc1L caoe pa6o1m npn co6nkpennn 1pe6oaann na-
unen1kn. K 1oHy xe Hm ne ponxnm sa6maa1L 1oro, u1o
cnyua Annm O. npnnec Bpeepy o1kpm1ne He1opa neue-
nnn pasroaopoH n aHec1e c 1eH o1kpm1ne nepenoca, u1o
nanne1cn nou1n necoHnennmH qak1oH; n ne1 ee annm a
1oH, u1o on ne ouennn a nonno Hepe a1oro papa.
Takan kap1nna nanne1cn poaonLno o6muno pnn naunen-
1oa, o1nocnunxcn k a1oHy 1nny. [o 1ex nop noka oxnpa-
nnn n 1pe6oaannn naunen1a ypoane1aopnk1cn, 1epanea1y
nosaoneno 6m1L canpe1eneH nan6onee nn1pnrykunx n
o1kpoaennmx co6m1n, a ero npnsna1enLnm n 6naropap-
nm naunen1 pari passu 6ype1 uyac1aoaa1L ce6n nyuue.
D1o opna c1opona Hepann, no ec1L n o6pa1nan. 3a ne-
c6maunHncn nn6o sa nepeannc1nunmHn oxnpannnHn cne-
pye1 neckonuaeHoe c1papanne nnn neckonuaeHan 6panL,
nn6o 1o n ppyroe aHec1e. Honaa a 1akyk cn1yaunk, ana-
nn1nk appyr o6napyxnaae1, u1o eHy ouenL 1pypno conpo-
1nann1Lcn ee anac1n, amaec1n naunen1a n ce6n ns a1oro
sa1pypnn1enLnoro nonoxennn, no eue 1pypnee npekpa-
1n1L o1nouennn. ac1o 1akan cn1yaunn nHee1 1parnue-
ckn nnn reponueckn qnnan.
D1y 1parnueckyk cn1yaunk onpepennk1 neckonLko qak-
1opoa. OpnnH ns nnx nanne1cn npnpopa perpeccnn, ko1o-
pan, a caok ouepepL, onpepenne1cn xapak1epoH naunen-
1a, c1pyk1ypo Dro n sa6oneaanneH; peakunn anann1nka
na caoero perpeccnpykuero nnn perpeccnpoaaauero na-
unen1a nanne1cn ppyrnH qak1opoH, ko1opm o6ycnoanen
191
1exnnko anannsa, 1o ec1L kon1pnepenocoH. Bepon1noc1L
1oro, u1o anann1nk nonape1 a 1akyk cn1yaunk, Hana, ec-
nn on cnepye1 knaccnuecknH pekoHenpaunnH Opepa, op-
nako sa a1o, aosHoxno, npnpe1cn sanna1n1L amcokyk ue-
ny: o1kasa1L a anannse 1eH naunen1aH, ko1opme Hornn
6m nonyun1L noHouL a 1oH cnyuae, ecnn 6m npnHennnacL
6onee rn6kan 1exnnka. eH 6onLue Hm cyxaeH pnanason
naunx aosHoxnmx peakun, 1eH HenLue naH oc1ae1cn
no1enunanLnmx aosHoxnoc1e nsaneuL ypok ns conoc1aa-
nennn naunx neypaunmx n ycneuno saaepuennmx cnyua-
ea, nockonLky ne kaxpan perpeccnn nHee1 1parnueckn
qnnan.
Hs a1o 1exnnkn 1akxe am1ekae1 n orpannuennoc1L na-
ue 1eopnn. B npepmpyunx rnaaax n ykasmaan na 1o, u1o
Opep (a sa nnH n ace anann1nkn) o1nocnncn k perpeccnn
kak k nn1pancnxnueckoHy co6m1nk, qenoHeny, npnnap-
nexaueHy k o6nac1n ncnxonornn opno nepconm. D1o yn-
pouenne onpaapano 1onLko po 1ex nop, noka anann1nk a
caoeH nccnepoaannn perpeccnn orpannunaae1 ce6n cny-
uanHn, korpa peakunn okpyxennn ne npnnnHae1cn a pac-
ue1, nn6o cnepye1 pekoHenpaunnH Opepa. Ecnn a1n paH-
kn ne npno6pe1ak1 xapak1epa a6conk1noro sanpe1a, 1o
perpeccnn npepc1ae1 kak qenoHen, npnnapnexaun o6-
nac1n ncnxonornn payx nepcon, n o6ycnoanena asanHo-
pec1aneH o6Lek1a n cy6Lek1a, 1o ec1L naunen1a n ana-
nn1nka.
BosapauancL k knnnnuecknH na6nkpennnH, Hm anpnH,
u1o pnn opnnx naunen1oa perpeccnn upeaa1a 1aknHn
onacnmHn nnn 1parnuecknHn cn1yaunnHn; pnn ppyrnx xe
cn1yaunn, a uenoH, coaepuenno nnan. B nocnepneH cny-
uae kak n o1Heuan a nauane a1o rnaam naunen1m
npoxopn1 1onLko uepes opnn annsop perpeccnn, ko1opm
npnaopn1 k nc1nnno qase noaoro nauana; anpoueH, nno-
rpa 1aknx nepnopoa 6maae1 neckonLko. Y ppyrnx naunen-
1oa, kak, nanpnHep, a cnyuae Annm O., a1o1 anp nepexn-
192
aannn Hoxe1 pnn1Lcn 6eckoneuno. B a1oH cnyuae packpy-
unaae1cn caoero popa nopounan cnnpanL; kak 1onLko na-
unen1 ypoane1aopne1 kakoe-1o ns caonx npn1nsann,
1y1 xe nonanne1cn noaoe npn1nsanne nnn no1pe6noc1L
n 1pe6ye1 caoero ypoane1aopennn, u1o nens6exno npnao-
pn1 k aosnnknoaennk coc1onnn, nopo6nmx snokauec1-
aenno saancnHoc1n (Balint M., 1934, 1937, 1952). 1o6m
paspenn1L a1n paa knnnnuecknx 1nna, nepam Hoxno 6m-
no 6m nasaa1L po6pokauec1aenno, a ppyro snokaue-
c1aenno qopHo perpeccnn.
Koneuno, Hon ncxopnan rnno1esa coc1onna a 1oH, u1o
snokauec1aennan qopHa perpeccnn caoc1aenna 1eH na-
unen1aH, y ko1opmx cnoxnnacL cepLesnan pncnponopunn
Hexpy cnno nx Dro n cnno nx nnc1nnk1oa; nn6o nn-
c1nnk1m okasmaak1cn cnnukoH cnnLnmHn pnn nopHanL-
noro Dro, nn6o Dro a1nx naunen1oa nac1onLko cna6oe, u1o
ne Hoxe1 cnpaan1Lcn c nopHanLnmH na6opoH nnc1nnk1oa.
Ecnn a1o npepnonoxenne aepno, a n cun1an, u1o a1o
1ak, 1o snokauec1aennan npnpopa perpeccnn 6ype1
nponann1Lcn a upesHepno Hannqec1aunn npknx cnHn1o-
Hoa, kakne Hoxno 6mno 6m oxnpa1L o1 ns6anoaannoro
pe6enka nnn aspocnoro c cnnLno ampaxenno ncnxona1n-
e. Opnako okasanocL, u1o a1o1 npornos aepen nnuL c
neko1opmHn orpannuennnHn, noa1oHy n 6mn amnyxpen
o6pa1n1Lcn k nonckaH ppyrnx pnarnoc1nuecknx kpn1epn-
ea.
Cyuec1aye1 eue opno ocnoanoe o1nnune. B opnoH ns 1n-
noa perpeccnn nnn qase noaoro nauana naunen1, no-
anpnHoHy, c1peHn1cn k poc1nxennk ypoane1aopennn. D1o
xenanne nanne1cn nac1onLko cnnLnmH, u1o ace oc1anLnoe
a anann1nuecko cn1yaunn 1epne1 snauenne. H pyHak,
u1o nHenno pnn a1oro 1nna Opep npepnoxnn 1epHnn
aneuenne-xenanne. Kak npaanno, naunen1 nac1anaan
na ypoane1aopennn, ko1opoe Hoxno 6mno 6m o1nec1n k
porenn1anLnoHy 1nny, aHec1e c 1eH cnna a1oro npn1nsa-
193
nnn amsmaana onpepenennme nopospennn; nosxe, no xo-
py anannsa, aepnoc1L a1nx nopospenn nopo (no ne ace-
rpa) nop1aepxpanacL: sa amcoko nn1encnanoc1Lk ckpm-
aanacL renn1anLno-opranc1nueckan npnpopa nopo6nmx
xenann. K a1oHy aaxnoHy HoHen1y Hm eue aepneHcn a
konue panno rnaam.
KpoHe 1oro, kak n yxe o1Heuan, a1n coc1onnnn perpeccnn
acerpa aosnnkak1 a paHkax anann1nuecko cn1yaunn, 1o
ec1L a paHkax o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn. Cnepoaa1enLno,
oxnpaeHoe nnn 1pe6yeHoe naunen1oH ypoane1aopenne
nnkorpa ne 6maae1 ay1oapo1nuecknH, ono ponxno npn1n
ns okpyxennn, u1o osnauae1: ono ponxno 6m1L nnnunn-
poaano neknH co6m1neH ao aneuneH Hnpe, co6m1neH, a
ko1opoe anann1nk aoaneuen noHnHo caoe aonn. Opnako,
no cy1n, nHenno o1 ero naccnanoro cornacnn nnn ak1na-
noro yuac1nn 1o ec1L o1 ero peuennn saancn1, npo-
nsope1 nnn ne1 a1o aneunee co6m1ne, 6ypy1 nn ypoane-
1aopenm oxnpannn nnn no1pe6noc1n naunen1a nnn onn
6ypy1 qpyc1pnpoaanm. BHec1e c 1eH o1 c1enenn aoaneue-
nnn anann1nka saancn1 n ppyro 1nn perpeccnn qasa
nc1nnnoro noaoro nauana; opnako a a1oH cnyuae oxnpa-
nne nsHenenn ao aneuneH Hnpe ne nrpae1 1ako aaxno
ponn; yuac1ne aneunero Hnpa, 1o ec1L anann1nka, nann-
e1cn cyuec1aennmH, no snaunHoe co6m1ne nponcxopn1 ao
any1penneH Hnpe naunen1a.
B kauec1ae npnHepa a1oro nocnepnero 1nna n nosaonk
ce6e npnaec1n eue opnn cnyua, o ko1opoH yxe ynoHn-
nanocL a ppyro Hoe pa6o1e (Balint M., 1960). Haunen1,
ko1opm k 1oHy apeHenn yxe paa ropa npoxopnn ananns,
c HoHen1a nauana ceanca 6onee nonyuaca xpannn Honua-
nne; anann1nk npnnnHan ero Honuanne n, nm1ancL no-
nn1L, u1o Hoxe1 nponcxopn1L c naunen1oH, xpan n ne
npepnpnnnHan nonm1ok aHeua1enLc1aa; npn a1oH on ne
ncnm1maan pnckoHqop1a nnn neo6xopnHoc1n npepnpnnn-
Ha1L kakoe-1o pec1ane. H ponxen po6aan1L, u1o a a1oH
194
neuennn naysm ne pas aosnnkann n panLue, noa1oHy n
naunen1 n anann1nk nayunnncL c nnHn cnpaann1Lcn. B
konue konuoa, naunen1 npepaan Honuanne, paspmpaa-
uncL; ackope nocne a1oro, ycnokonauncL, on yxe Hor
pasroaapnaa1L. On ckasan, u1o nakoneu-1o eHy ypanocL
yc1anoan1L kon1ak1 c caHnH co6o; c pe1c1aa on nnkorpa
ne oc1aaancn opnn, acerpa naxopnncn k1o-nn6o pnpoH,
ykasmaaaun, u1o eHy pena1L. Heko1opoe apeHn cnyc1n,
na ppyroH ceance, on pacckasan, u1o ao apeHn Honuann-
ao naysm eHy npnxopnnn a ronoay aceaosHoxnme acco-
unaunn, no on o1aepran nx kak pocapnme noHexn.
1o6m ns6exa1L nepopasyHenn, n eue pas sa1pony ao-
npoc ncnonLsoaannn naue 1epHnnonornn a a1o cnox-
no o6nac1n. H nonarak, ace 6ypy1 cornacnm, u1o pannoe
co6m1ne npnnapnexn1 1oHy, u1o Hm nasmaaeH nepenocoH,
n npepc1aanne1 co6o o1mrpmaanne. BHec1e c 1eH apnp
nn y koro-nn6ypL aosnnkny1 coHnennn o1nocn1enLno 1oro,
u1o konnnsnn, o ko1opo npe1 peuL, coc1on1 a nponane-
nnn npnHn1nanmx qopH noaepennn nocne 1oro, kak yc1a-
noannncL 6onee spenme qopHm. H ponyckak, u1o ponL
npnHenenno Hnok 1exnnkn a o6pe1ennn naunen1oH 6o-
nee nonno nn1erpaunn ne anonne oueanpna, xo1n ona n
noHorna eHy ns6aan1Lcn o1 neko1opmx 6apLepoa n paxe
npeopone1L am1ecnenne. Ho Hoxe1 nn a1o1 annsop 6m1L
nasaan perpeccne nnn noa1openneH? 3pecL Ho o1ae1
coanapae1 c 1eH, ko1opm n pan, onncmaan npepmpyun
cnyua c kyampkoH uepes ronoay, a nHenno: cnepyn sako-
naH nornkn ne1, ne Hoxe1. Hoa1opn1L Hoxno 1onLko
1o, u1o yxe cyuec1aoaano no kpane Hepe opnaxpm; n,
aoo6ue roaopn, 1o xe caHoe nc1nnno n a o1nouennn per-
peccnn. BHec1o 1epHnnoa perpeccnn n noa1openne,
anocnunx ny1annuy, n npepnarak nasmaa1L a1o1 annsop
noamH nauanoH, nnn o1kpm1neH nensaepannoro, aepy-
unH k yc1anoanennk nnmx, npnnocnunx 6onee nonnoe
ypoane1aopenne o1nouenn c aaxnmH o6Lek1oH. B a1oH
195
cHmcne pannm annsop n kyampok uepes ronoay ouenL
noxoxn. Pasnnua saknkuae1cn a nanoH o1cy1c1ann a no-
cnepneH annsope kaknx-nn6o pec1an n, cnepoaa1enLno,
nk6oro oueanpnoro ypoane1aopennn aneuenn, ko1opme
Hoxno 6mno 6m na6nkpa1L.
BmpasnH a1o o1nnune nnaue: aneunn Hnp npepoc1aann
naunen1a caHoHy ce6e, oc1aaancL nensHennmH, coxpannn
6esHonane. Haunen1, a caok ouepepL, nonyunn aosHox-
noc1L npn6nnsn1Lcn k caoe any1penne xnsnn, nonn1L,
u1o neko1opme ero npnamunme, aa1oHa1nueckne cnoco6m
aocnpnn1nn aneunero Hnpa n yc1anoanennn o1nouenn c
nnH 6mnn no kpane Hepe, a a1o konkpe1no cn1ya-
unn nenyxnmHn, neo6ocnoaannmHn n 6eccHmcnennm-
Hn. D1o o1kpm1ne npnaeno k noaoHy nauany. BHec1o c1a-
pmx aa1oHa1nuecknx qopH o1nouenn on cHor 1enepL na-
ua1L neu1o noaoe n o1nnunoe o1 nnx, 1o, u1o pae1 aos-
Hoxnoc1L qopHnpoaannn noamx, npnnocnunx 6onLuee
ypoane1aopenne o1nouenn c ero aaxnmH o6Lek1oH.
C ppyro c1oponm, a a1oH cnyuae, no cpaanennk c npe-
pmpyunH (1o ec1L c kyampkoH), 1pe6oaannn k anann1nue-
cko 1exnnke 6mnn neckonLko amue, 1ak kak pec1ann,
ko1opme Hoxno 6mno 6m nonn1L, a no1oH nc1onkoaa1L,
o1cy1c1aoaann. Anann1nk ponxen 6mn porapa1Lcn 6es
onopm na aep6anLnyk koHHynnkaunk o 1oH, uero nHenno
naunen1 oxnpan o1 nero, n noaec1n ce6n a coo1ae1c1ann c
a1nHn oxnpannnHn, 1o ec1L nckpenne, ne npn6eran k no-
Houn cnoa, cnepoaa1L 1o qopHe o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn,
a ko1opo 1o1 nyxpancn. H nosaonk ce6e po6aan1L, u1o
a1o1 cnyua nanne1cn 1nnnunmH n a ppyrnx o1nouennnx.
Ecnn naunen1 nonn1 n ypoane1aopen, 1o on ouenL 6naro-
papen caoeHy anann1nky, uyac1aye1 ce6n nyuue n npe-
poc1aanne1 eHy eue 6onee nn1epecnm Ha1epnan; ecnn
xe naunen1 ne ac1peuae1 nonnHannn n ne ypoane1aopen,
1o ero ynmnoe c1papanne npoponxae1cn, n on Hoxe1
anac1L a o1uannne. KpoHe 1oro, ecnn 6m anann1nk nponn-
196
1epnpe1npoaan Honuanne naunen1a kak cnHn1oH conpo-
1nanennn nnn qparHen1 o1mrpmaannn (u1o, kc1a1n, 6mno
6m aepno nn1epnpe1aune), on ncnm1an 6m co6nasn
nopckasa1L naunen1y, kak 1oHy ce6n aec1n, on acero
nnuL ac1ynnn 6m c naunen1oH a 1anm croaop, kacak-
uncn o1mrpmaannn, ne oc1aana 1eH caHmH ce6e aosHox-
noc1n korpa-nn6ypL nonn1L 1o, u1o on cpenan.
Mexpy payHn na6nkpaeHmHn Hno cnyuanHn po6pokaue-
c1aenno perpeccnn, nnn qasm noaoro nauana, n cnyuaeH
snokauec1aenno perpeccnn Annm O., necHo1pn na 1o, u1o
ao Hnornx o1nouennnx onn nHek1 cxoxne uep1m, ec1L
cyuec1aennme o1nnunn, ko1opme, kak n napekcL, xopouo
nponnnkc1pnpoaanm npepc1aanennmH Ha1epnanoH. [nn
opnoro 1nna perpeccnn xapak1epnm nonckn ypoane1aope-
nnn nnc1nnk1nanmx c1peHnenn, naunen1 nyxpae1cn
ao aneuneH co6m1nn, po6naae1cn, u1o6m o6Lek1 coaep-
unn kakoe-1o pec1ane. Oxnpannn naunen1a, naxopnue-
rocn a coc1onnnn perpeccnn ppyroro 1nna, nanpaanenm ne
na poc1nxenne ypoane1aopennn uepes aneunee pec1ane,
a, ckopee, na nonyuenne o1 aneunero Hnpa Honuannaoro
cornacnn na 1o, u1o6m naunen1 Hor onepe1Lcn na nero
npn peuennn caonx any1pennnx npo6neH, kak ckasan
opnn Ho naunen1, 6m1L a coc1onnnn poc1nuL caHoro ce-
6n. Xo1n yuac1ne aneunero Hnpa, 1o ec1L o6Lek1a, nrpa-
e1 specL aaxnyk ponL, cyunoc1L a1oro yuac1nn coaep-
uenno nnan; ocnoanoe copepxanne a1oro yuac1nn, noHn-
Ho neaHeua1enLc1aa ao any1pennkk xnsnL naunen1a n
ne npnunnennn eHy 6es neo6xopnHoc1n 6ecnokoc1aa
(paa aaxnmx acnek1a), coc1on1 a npnsnannn any1penne
xnsnn n npko nnpnanpyanLnoc1n naunen1a. 1o6m pas-
penn1L a1n paa 1nna, n npepnoxnn 6m nasmaa1L nepam
perpeccne papn ypoane1aopennn, a a1opo per-
peccne papn npnsnannn. H yaepen, u1o a1n qpasm na-
nnk1cn ne1ounmHn n neckonLko neyknkxnHn, no Hne ne
ypanocL nso6pec1n u1o-1o nyuuee.
197
Oueanpna nk6onm1nan napannenL Hexpy a1nHn na6nk-
pennnHn n cepnnHn ppyrnx na6nkpenn, nnn 6onee
npaannLno, naaepnoe, 6mno 6m ckasa1L nn1epqepen-
un c peanLnmHn nepanunmHn cy6c1anunnHn nnn o6Lek-
1aHn (cp. rnaay 12). Ecnn ypoane1aopenne npnnocn1 co-
6m1nn nnn pec1ann ao aneuneH Hnpe, 1o a1o1 Hnp, no-
anpnHoHy, yxe coc1on1 ns uenoc1nmx o6Lek1oa nn6o ns
anonne cqopHnpoaannmx uac1nunmx o6Lek1oa, n a1o os-
nauae1, u1o perpeccnn naunen1a ne Hoxe1 sa1n naHnoro
panLue rpannu napunccnueckoro, qannnueckoro, poapn-
noaa ypoann. B naue nn1epa1ype ec1L Hnoxec1ao saHe-
ua1enLnmx onncann, packpmaakunx caoc1aennyk pnn
a1nx pannnx aospac1nmx nepnopoa c1pac1nyk cyunoc1L
xenann, qan1asn n nnc1nnk1nanoro noaepennn pe1e,
oco6enno pe1e, panee ncnm1aaunx 1paaHa1nueckne
nepexnaannn, ko1opme 6mnn npnunno 1nxenmx neapo-
1nuecknx napyuenn, aosnnkunx nenocpepc1aenno nocne
1paaHa1nueckoro co6m1nn nnn xe cnyc1n neko1opoe ape-
Hn. D1n pe1n, opepxnHme caonHn xenannnHn nnn no-
1pe6noc1nHn, ncnm1maak1 cepLesnme 1pypnoc1n a nx
ypoane1aopennn; y nnx nponanne1cn 1enpenunn npopyun-
poaa1L coc1onnnn, nopo6nme snokauec1aenno saancnHo-
c1n 1akne, kak naansunaan Hac1yp6aunn, onn a amcue
c1enenn cknonnm k cekcyanLnoHy co6nasnennk n, nako-
neu, nocnepnee, no ne Henee aaxnoe: onn npeppacnono-
xenm k nponanennk nc1epnuecknx coc1onnn no 1nny
o1mrpmaannn. Bmue n yxe o1Heuan, u1o nopnnnnoc1L qa-
sm noaoro nauana 1aknx naunen1oa amsmaana y Henn co-
Hnennn a cnny neo1c1ynno c1pac1noc1n nx 1pe6oaann.
H xouy specL po6aan1L, u1o ace a1n naunen1m o1nocn1cn k
1nny, o uep1ax ko1oporo 1onLko u1o roaopnnocL.
[pyro 1nn perpeccnn papn npnsnannn npepnonara-
e1 1akoe okpyxenne, ko1opoe npnsnae1 naunen1a n co-
rnauae1cn okasmaa1L eHy noppepxky n nec1n ero na ce-
6e, nopo6no 1oHy kak seHnn nnn aopa noppepxnaak1 n
198
necy1 na ce6e uenoaeka, aaepnkuero nH acero ce6n ue-
nnkoH. Ho cpaanennk c o6munmHn o6Lek1aHn, oco6enno c
o6munmHn uenoaeuecknHn o6Lek1aHn, o1 nepanunmx o6L-
ek1oa ne oxnpak1 pec1an. Onn npoc1o ponxnm 6m1L a
nannunn a nyxnm HoHen1 n ckpm1o nnn nano no-
saonn1L onepe1Lcn na ce6n, 1ak kak nnaue naunen1 ne
cHoxe1 nsHenn1Lcn: neaosHoxno nnm1L 6es aopm, a 6es
nouam nop noraHn nenLsn np1n. Anann1nk, amnonnnn
ponL nepanuno cy6c1anunn, ponxen 6m1L yc1ynunamH n
ne okasmaa1L conpo1nanennn, on ponxen npnnnHa1L n
noppepxnaa1L naunen1a a 1euenne kakoro-1o apeHenn n
ne paaa1L noaopa pnn aosnnknoaennn cnnukoH 6onLunx
1penn, on ponxen 6m1L a kakoH-1o cHmcne nepaspyun-
HmH, nn a koeH cnyuae ne nac1anaa1L na coxpanennn
ue1knx rpannu, no nosaonn1L coc1on1Lcn caoero popa
ckpeunaannk Hexpy nnH n naunen1oH.
Bce a1o osnauae1, u1o neo6xopnHm cornacne, yuac1ne n
aoaneuenne, no ne o6nsa1enLno pec1ane, neo6xopnHm
1onLko nonnHanne n 1epnnHoc1L; peanLnoe snauenne
nHee1 cospanne n noppepxanne 1aknx ycnoan, a ko1o-
pmx co6m1nn Hory1 pasaopaunaa1Lcn ao any1penneH nna-
ne, 1o ec1L a ncnxnke naunen1a.
ac1o a anann1nuecko cn1yaunn 1akne npnHn1nanme
arglos o1nouennn naxopn1 cnHaonnueckoe ampaxenne a
kakoH-nn6o qnsnueckoH kon1ak1e c anann1nkoH; k nan-
6onee uac1mH qopHaH a1oro kon1ak1a o1nocn1cn pepxa-
nne anann1nka sa pyky, nnn sa opnn ns ero nanLuea, nnn
npnkocnoaenne k ero c1yny, n 1. p. D1o1 kon1ak1 onpepe-
nenno nanne1cn nn6npnnosnmH, nnorpa paxe Hoxe1 6m1L
ouenL cnnLno sapnxennmH n acerpa xnsnenno aaxnmH
pnn nporpecca a neuennn; a1o1 kon1ak1 nosaonne1 naun-
en1y po6naa1Lcn ycnexoa, 6es nero on Hoxe1 uyac1aoaa1L
ce6n o1aepxennmH, no1epnnnmH, nnuennmH aosHoxnoc1n
nsHenn1Lcn, necnoco6nmH k panxennk. Opnako a pec1-
an1enLnoc1n nepexnaanne a cnyuanx perpeccnn papn
199
npnsnannn nnkorpa ne nece1 a ce6e uep1 o1uannnn n
c1pac1n, ko1opme 1ak caoc1aennm nepexnaannk naunen-
1a npn ppyro qopHe perpeccnn perpeccnn papn ypoa-
ne1aopennn nnn 1o, u1o 6maae1 npn 1nxeno nc1epnn.
H cknonnkcL k Hnennk, u1o o1uannnme qopHm uennnnnn,
ko1opme 1ak uac1o ac1peuak1cn a 1epannn a1nx nocnep-
nnx coc1onnn, npoc1o osnauak1 perpeccnk po qasm uac-
1nunmx o6Lek1oa, 1orpa kak nn1encnanan 1peaora, no-
anpnHoHy, 6noknpye1 ny1L k cospannk arglos a1Hocqepm
asanHnoro poaepnn, nannkuecn rnaanmH ycnoaneH pnn
aosnnknoaennn qasm nc1nnnoro noaoro nauana. Ho-
anpnHoHy, o1nouennn c uac1nunmHn o6Lek1aHn cpopnn
no caoeHy renesy n, Hoxe1 6m1L, paxe no caoe npnpope
c1paxy npecnepoaannn; a1n o1nouennn npno6pe1ak1 qop-
Hy o1uannnoro c1pac1noro uennnnnn, nannkuerocn
aHec1e c 1eH n saun1o o1 conpoaoxpakuero nx c1paxa,
u1o naxopn1cn a nopasn1enLnoH kon1pac1e co cnokono
no1pe6noc1Lk a qnsnueckoH kon1ak1e, ko1opan na6nkpa-
e1cn a qase nc1nnnoro noaoro nauana.
Koneuno, a xnsnn nnu1o ne cyuec1aye1 a unc1oH anpe, c
ue1ko ouepuennmHn rpannuaHn. O6muno a 1epannn ana-
nn1nk na6nkpae1 cHeuenne acex a1nx uep1 perpeccnn,
opnako poHnnnpye1, kak npaanno, opna nnn neckonLko
uep1. TeH ne Henee, cornacno HoeHy onm1y, no-anpnHoHy,
neko1opme npnsnakn, necoHnenno, nHek1 onpepenennyk
1enpenunk nonann1Lcn aHec1e, 1ak u1o cospae1cn aneua1-
nenne, u1o cyuec1ayk1 pae o6nac1n accounaun, ko1opme
o6napak1 ne anonne ue1knHn rpannuaHn, paa knnnnue-
cknx cnnppoHa, ko1opme n npepnarak nasmaa1L knac1e-
paHn A n B.
BonLunnc1ao cnyuaea, npnnapnexaunx knac1epy A, nnn
po6pokauec1aenno qopHe perpeccnn, nHek1 cnepykune
knnnnueckne oco6ennoc1n:
200
1) poaepn1enLnme, cao6opnme o1 nopospenn o1nouennn
arglos aosnnkak1 6es 6onLunx sa1pypnenn, onn noxoxn
na nepanunme o1nouennn c nepanunmHn cy6c1anunnHn;
2) perpeccnn npnaopn1 k qase nc1nnnoro noaoro nauana,
a n1ore nponcxopn1 pec1an1enLnoe o1kpm1ne uero-1o
noaoro;
3) uenL perpeccnn, a uac1noc1n, coc1on1 a npnsnannn
any1pennnx npo6neH naunen1a;
4) nn1encnanoc1L 1pe6oaannn, oxnpannn nnn no1pe6no-
c1n ne npeamuae1 cpepnero ypoann;
5) a knnnnuecko cnHn1oHa1nke o1cy1c1ayk1 npnsnakn
1nxeno nc1epnn, a npn perpeccnonnoH nepenoce re-
nn1anLno-opranc1nueckne aneHen1m.
B npo1naononoxnoc1L a1oHy pnn 6onLunnc1aa cnyuaea,
o1nocnunxcn k knac1epy B, snokauec1aenno qopHe per-
peccnn, xapak1epna 1akan kap1nna:
1) nockonLky o1nouennn asanHnoro poaepnn 6anancnpy-
k1 na rpann cpmaa n arglos, poaepn1enLnan a1Hocqepa
ace apeHn napyuae1cn, 1o uac1o aosnnkak1 cnHn1oHm o1-
uannnoro uennnnnn, ko1opme nrpak1 ponL saun1m n ra-
pan1nn o1 cnepykuero aepon1noro cpmaa;
2) snokauec1aennme qopHm perpeccnn, neckonLko ne-
ypaunmx nonm1ok poc1nuL qasm noaoro nauana, noc1onn-
nan yrposa packpyunaannn 6eckoneuno cnnpann npe1en-
sn n 1pe6oaann, a 1akxe aosnnknoaennn coc1onnn,
noxoxnx na snokauec1aennyk saancnHoc1L;
3) uenL perpeccnn coc1on1 a ypoane1aopennn uepes
aneunee pec1ane;
201
4) nopospn1enLno amcokan nn1encnanoc1L 1pe6oaann,
oxnpann nnn no1pe6noc1e;
5) npncy1c1ane a knnnnuecko kap1nne npnsnakoa 1nxe-
no nc1epnn, a 1akxe renn1anLno-oprac1nuecknx aneHen-
1oa kak a nopHanLno, 1ak n a perpeccnano qopHe ne-
penoca.
D1n o6o6uennn ocnoaanm na npoaepennoH knnnnueckoH
onm1e, ace onn nokon1cn na npounoH ocnoaannn, sa nc-
knkuenneH, noxany, opnoro, opnako n napekcL, u1o no-
ame knnnnueckne pannme nop1aeppn1 n ero. Y Henn cno-
xnnocL aneua1nenne, u1o snokauec1aennan perpeccnn,
nnn perpeccnn papn poc1nxennn ypoane1aopennn nocpep-
c1aoH aneunero pec1ann, kak npaanno, caoc1aenna 1eH
naunen1aH, ko1opme c1papak1 poc1a1ouno 1nxenmHn
qopHaHn nc1epnn nnn nc1epnuecknH napyuenneH xapak-
1epa n aHec1e c 1eH yHyppnk1cn nonyua1L snaun1enLnyk
a1opnunyk amropy n o1 caoe 6onesnn, n o1 caoero neue-
nnn. [nn Henn ne coaceH nonn1no, noueHy a1o nponcxo-
pn1 nHenno 1ak, a ne nnaue, no n cun1ak, u1o qak1 nann-
unn a1nx canse a neckonLknx cnyuanx ns Hoe knnnnue-
cko npak1nkn neo6xopnHo saqnkcnpoaa1L. Hosxe, a uac-
1n V, n aepnycL k a1o npo6neHe.
H1ak, nepep 1eH kak panny1Lcn panLue, n xouy kpa1ko
peskHnpoaa1L naun 1eope1nueckne npepc1aanennn o
perpeccnn. Bcnep sa OpepoH Hm nonnHaeH perpeccnk
kak npouecc, ko1opm saknkuae1cn a peaepcnn nopHanL-
noro nporpeccnanoro nanpaanennn pasan1nn co6m1n a
ncnxnueckoH annapa1e. Hpnunno 1ako cHenm Hoxe1
6m1L ace 1o, u1o npenn1c1aye1 nopHanLnoHy pasan1nk;
na apnnoaoH ypoane a1o, kak npaanno, konqnnk1. Dq-
qek1 nnn pesynL1a1 perpeccnn coc1on1 a nonanennn uero-
1o npnHn1nanoro nnn npoc1oro; a neko1opmx, no on-
pepenenno ne ao acex cnyuanx a1o neu1o npnnapnexn1
o6nac1n 6asncnoro peqek1a. Knnnnueckn a1o Hoxe1 npo-
202
nann1Lcn kak (a) oco6an qopHa ypoane1aopennn nnc1nnk-
1a, noxoxan na rannkunnaunn nnn cnoanpennn; (6) oco-
6an qopHa noaepennn, 1akan, kak perpeccnanm nepenoc
na cnyx6e conpo1nanennn; (a) noa1openne, caHmH snaun-
1enLnmH cnyuaeH ko1oporo nanne1cn aoo6ue nepenoc kak
1akoao.
Cornacno asrnnpaH Opepa, perpeccnn Hoxe1 o6napa1L
ue1mpLHn qynkunnHn, nnn ponnHn: (a) HexannsHa saun-
1m, (6) qak1opa na1orenesa; (a) oco6enno qopHm co-
npo1nanennn n, nakoneu, (r) aaxnoro coksnnka a 1epa-
nnn. Hn1epecno, u1o opnn acnek1 ponL perpeccnn a
o6Lek1nmx o1nouennnx Opep, a acnep sa nnH n nou1n
ace 1eope1nkn ncnxoanannsa, onyc1nn. Hpnunna a1oro
npo6ena coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o nccnepoaanne perpeccnn ne
amxopnno sa paHkn ncnxonornn opno nepconm. [aa
aaxnmx ncknkuennn, opnako, npepc1aannk1: (a) perpec-
cnn a cokse c 1epanne, o ueH Opep ynoHnnyn 1onLko
opnaxpm, n (6) perpeccnn kak oco6an qopHa nepenoca na
cnyx6e conpo1nanennn, ko1opyk onncmaann 1onLko a ne-
ra1nanoH acnek1e kak 1pypnonpeoponnHoe npenn1c1ane n
kak cepLesnoe npepoc1epexenne.
B uac1nx III n IV n kak pas n nonm1ancn nokasa1L, u1o
perpeccnn nanne1cn ne 1onLko nn1pancnxnuecknH, no n
nn1epnepconanLnmH qenoHenoH, n a1o1 nn1epnepconanL-
nm acnek1 aanpy ero nonLsm pnn 1epannn nHee1 pe-
uakuee snauenne. 1o6m nonn1L ace snauenne perpec-
cnn n pa6o1a1L c ne a anann1nuecko cn1yaunn, aaxno
nHe1L a anpy, u1o konkpe1nan qopHa, a ko1opo npona-
nne1 ce6n perpeccnn, 1onLko o1uac1n saancn1 o1 naunen-
1a, ero nnunoc1n, ero sa6oneaannn, ona 1akxe saancn1 n
o1 o6Lek1a; noa1oHy perpeccnk nyxno paccHa1pnaa1L kak
uenoc1nm cnHn1oH asanHopec1ann Hexpy naunen1oH n
anann1nkoH. D1o asanHopec1ane nHee1 no kpane Hepe
1pn acnek1a: (a) 1o, kak o6Lek1 ysnae1 perpeccnk, (6) 1o,
kak on npnnnHae1 perpeccnk n (a) kak nHenno o6Lek1 o1-
203
aeuae1 na perpeccnk. Kak Hm anpenn a rnaaax 20-22, o1
o6Lek1a, 1o ec1L o1 anann1nka oxnpae1cn, u1o ero no-
aepenne 6ype1 nopo6no 1oHy, ko1opoe nponannk1 nep-
anunme cy6c1anunn, 1o ec1L u1o on nosaonn1 naunen1y
ac1ynn1L c nnH a nekne nepanunme o1nouennn nnn a o1-
nouennn nepanuno o6Lek1no nk6an. B uac1n V naua
sapaua 6ype1 coc1on1L a nccnepoaannn 1oro, u1o a1o os-
nauae1 a 1epHnnax ncnxoanann1nuecko 1exnnkn.
Fnaaa 23. Pasuornacun Hexpy 4pe-
poH u 4epeuu u ux nocnepc1aun
[aaa1e 1enepL aepneHcn k 1eHe nsaec1no pasHonakn,
nponsouepue Hexpy OpepoH n Oepenun, k 1oHy nynk-
1y, na ko1opoH Hm oc1anoannncL a konue rnaam 19. Bos-
Hoxno, rnaanm nHnynLc a1oHy 1parnueckoHy paspmay
pana 1exnnueckan npo6neHa, ko1opyk pnn anann1nka
npepc1aannn perpeccnpoaaaun naunen1, peHonc1pn-
pykun nn1encnanm nepenoc. Bospec1ane a1oro co6m-
1nn okasanocL nac1onLko 6onesnennmH, u1o nepao peak-
une anann1nueckoro coo6uec1aa na nero 6mno o1pnua-
nne n Honuanne, napyuennoe 1onLko a nocnepnne ropm; c
1ex nop a neua1n c1ann nonann1Lcn neko1opme nncnnya-
unn, kacakunecn o1nouenn Hexpy OpepoH n Oepenun:
Opep xapak1epnsoaancn a nnx kak 6esxanoc1nm pec-
no1, pnk1a1op (Fromm, 1963), a Oepenun kak nopnm n
1pycnnam nn1pnran (Jones, 1957). Koneuno, ace a1n uy-
poanunme ronocnoanme o6annennn coaepuenno ne coo1-
ae1c1ayk1 nc1nne; onn 1onLko canpe1enLc1ayk1 o aenn-
unn xep1a n nnu1oxec1ae nx kneae1nnkoa.
Knnnnueckn onm1, ko1opm o6cyxpae1cn a panno uac-
1n, aosHoxno, nponLe1 cae1 na npnunnm a1nx pasnorna-
cn. H nonarak, u1o a nepame ropm ncnxo1epanea1nue-
cko npak1nkn ace na6nkpennn Opepa 6mnn cansanm co
cnyuanHn snokauec1aennmx qopH perpeccnn, u1o npons-
204
aeno na nero rny6okoe aneua1nenne. Oepenun, nanpo1na,
a neckonLknx cnyuanx, a ko1opmx nponannacL po6pokaue-
c1aennan perpeccnn, po6nncn poaonLno saHe1noro ycne-
xa, aHec1e c 1eH y nero 6mnn n neypaun a cnyuanx co
snokauec1aenno qopHo perpeccnn, opnako, naxopncL
nop aneua1nenneH ycnexa, on, aepoHm caoe npecnoay-
1o aoc1opxennoc1Lk, yknonnncn a c1opony neo6ocno-
aannmx o6o6uenn. Opnako HoxeH nn Hm na1n a nx
ny6nnkaunnx nop1aepxpenne a1nH poaonLno cHenmH
npepnonoxennnH? H sanannk, u1o Hnorne Hec1a a pa6o-
1ax Opepa n a pa6o1ax Oepenun nop1aepxpak1 a1o.
Bnepame Opep nosnakoHnncn co snokauec1aenno qop-
Ho perpeccnn, korpa Bpeep neunn Anny O., k a1oHy
apeHenn Bpeep n Opep yxe c1ann ppysLnHn; Hm snaeH
ns nnceH Opepa k caoe neaec1e, ony6nnkoaannmx
[xoncoH (Jones, 1953), u1o Bpeep o6cyxpan caok o6ec-
nokoennoc1L, amsaannyk cepLesno perpeccne ero na-
unen1kn, co caonH HonopmH ppyroH 1orpa Opepy 6mno
27 ne1, n snaeH, u1o Opep anocnepc1ann c1an poaonL-
no kpn1nuno o1nocn1Lcn k He1opaH Bpeepa. BcnoHnnH
1akxe, u1o nospnee on c1onknyncn c o1kpoaennmHn npo-
nanennnHn cekcyanLnoc1n y naunen1oa, ounyaunxcn o1
rnnno1nueckoro 1panca, o ko1opmx on ynoHnnan a caoeH
xnsneonncannn (1925, p. 27), no, Hoxe1 6m1L, caHoe
aaxnoe, u1o on 6mn aaepen a sa6nyxpenne caonHn nc1e-
pnunmHn naunen1aHn n noaepnn, u1o a panneH pe1c1ae
onn c1ann xep1aaHn cekcyanLnoro co6nasnennn, 1o ec1L
c1papann o1 naccnano cekcyanLno 1paaHm. Haaep-
noe, ne nnunnH 6ype1 nanoHnn1L, u1o a caoe pa6o1e
D1nonornn nc1epnn (1896) Opep nepaycHmcnenno
sanann, u1o 1enepL a ocnoaannn ero 1eopnn nexa1 aoceH-
napua1L nonnoc1Lk npoanannsnpoaannmx cnyuaea; neco-
Hnenno, ace a1o 6mnn cnyuan nc1epnn. Mm 1akxe snaeH,
u1o a1n uapm ypanocL pasaen1L 1onLko npn noHoun caHo-
anannsa. Honn1no, noueHy on nasmaan oxnpannn a1nx
205
naunen1oa c1pac1nmHn xenannnHn; a1o pae1 cepLes-
nme ocnoaannn cun1a1L, u1o k 1oHy apeHenn on yxe ocos-
nan onacnoc1L coc1onnn, cxopnmx co snokauec1aenno
saancnHoc1Lk.
B rnaae 19 n ynoHnnan o 1oH, u1o pasan1ne npen perpec-
cnn sannno poaonLno npoponxn1enLnm nepnop, a 1akxe
o 1oH, u1o Opep c ropaHn a caonx pa6o1ax ace uaue pe-
nan akuen1 na ee nera1nanoH acnek1e, u1o npnaeno ero k
ampa6o1ke ouenL oc1opoxnoro o1nouennn k perpeccnn.
BHec1e c a1nH yuna a 1enL, 1ak ckasa1L, a sa6aenne, n
1epanea1nueckan qynkunn perpeccnn.
Hoa1oHy ne1 nnuero ypnan1enLnoro a 1oH, u1o, korpa
Opep yanpen, u1o Oepenun, k ko1opoHy on uyac1aoaan
1akyk cnnLnyk npnansannoc1L n nn1an 1akoe rny6okoe
yaaxenne, yansae1 a 1o xe caHo 1pncnne, ns ko1opo
on (Opep) cHor am6pa1Lcn 1onLko 6naropapn upesam-
uanmH ycnnnnH, on nm1ancn, no ne cHor noHouL eHy
caonHn npepoc1epexennnHn, kpn1nko n u1o na caHoH
pene ne1nnnuno pnn Opepa sannHan nopo nosnunk
6espasnnunn. On ue1ko n aepno anpen 1e onacnoc1n, ko-
1opmH nopaepran ce6n Oepenun, no ne cHor nn nonn1L,
nn ouenn1L aosHoxnoc1n noaoro n aaxnoro nanpaanennn
pasan1nn kak naue npak1nkn, 1ak n naue 1eopnn.
Oepenun, o uLeH nmnkoH on1nHnsHe n nerko aocnnaHe-
nnkueHcn an1ysnasHe no o1nouennk k nk6o noao
npee n yxe ynoHnnan neckonLko pas (Balint M., 1933,
1948), coaepunn o6munyk caok oun6ky: on nrnopnpoaan
ace npnsnakn, npepaeuakune aosHoxnme neypaun, n ne-
peouennn cao ycnex. Iny6oko no1pncennm pesynL1a1a-
Hn, ko1opme paaana ero noaan 1exnnka, on cun1an, u1o,
ecnn naunen1 xenae1 perynnpno npnxopn1L na ananns, 1o
anann1nk ponxen o1mcka1L 1akyk 1exnnky, ko1opan no-
saonnna 6m noHouL a1oHy naunen1y. Hckpenne cnepyn
a1oHy caoeHy npnnunny, on pec1an1enLno npepnpnnnHan
206
akc1paoppnnapnme uarn pnn 1oro, u1o6m ypoane1aopn1L
no1pe6noc1n naunen1a (cp. c rnaao 18). B npepnoxen-
noH Oepenun nonn1nn npnnunn penakcaunn (1930) on
o1pasnn cyunoc1L caonx noamx akcnepnHen1oa. D1o nonn-
1ne o6pasoaano no ec1ec1aenno accounaunn, nockonLky
o1nnune noao 1exnnuecko npen o1 ak1nano 1exnnkn
coc1onno a 1oH, u1o ona 6es neo6xopnHoc1n ne amsmaana
y naunen1a poc1 nanpnxennn. Oepenun cun1an, u1o nosn-
1nanm o1ae1 na oxnpannn, 1pe6oaannn nnn no1pe6noc1n
naunen1a, nc1nnnoe snauenne ko1opmx on 1enepL nay-
unncn nonnHa1L, Hor 6m anec1n nepeHenm a 6esxnsnen-
nyk cn1yaunk ponrocpounoro anannsa 1ak, u1o nnopo-
1aopnan pa6o1a Horna 6m npnaec1n k ero ckopoHy saaep-
uennk. Opnako a1o osnauano o1kas o1 npnnunna aospep-
xannn.
Henocpepc1aennme pesynL1a1m a1oro noaoro 1exnnuecko-
ro nopxopa 6mnn aneua1nnkunHn. Ero naunen1m, 6onL-
unnc1ao ko1opmx po a1oro 6mnn a anannse y ppyrnx ana-
nn1nkoa 6onee pecn1n ne1, cnoaa aosapauanncL k xnsnn,
nx coc1onnne ynyuuanocL, onn npenopnecnn Oepenun paa
rnaanmx ero o1kpm1nn. Opno ns nnx kacanocL cnnLnoro
annnnnn, ko1opoe okasmaak1 npnamunme, o6munme,
nnn knaccnueckne, yc1anoakn anann1nka na pasan1ne
o1nouenn nepenoca n na xop anann1nueckoro neuennn;
ppyroe xe nHeno o1nouenne k 1exnnuecknH aosHoxno-
c1nH nn1epnpe1aun kon1pnepenoca (Ferenzci, 1932, a
1akxe nocHep1no ony6nnkoaannme sannckn).
D1o aoace ne osnauae1, u1o Oepenun ne ocosnaaan npo-
6neH, ko1opme aosnnkak1 a cansn c ero 1exnnuecknHn
noaoaaepennnHn; nop1aepxpenne a1oHy Hoxno na1n a
ero nocHep1no ony6nnkoaannmx c1a1Lnx n sannckax; op-
nako on 6mn nckpenne y6expen a 1oH, u1o ero pa6o1m
nannncL aaxnmH uaroH a pasan1nn anann1nuecko 1ex-
nnkn. Opnako 1o, u1o Opep ne cHor nonn1L aaxnoc1L
a1nx noamx npe, oc1aaanocL pnn nero nan6onee 6ones-
207
nenno npo6neHo, k ko1opo on ace apeHn aosapauancn.
H yaepen, ocosnanne 1oro, u1o on ne nonn1 OpepoH, na
kakoe-1o apeHn nannocL pnn nero npenn1c1aneH a kon-
ue konuoa, Opep 6mn ero o6yuakunH anann1nkoH a
nonnHannn 1oro, u1o nanoe ynyuuenne, ko1opoe on na-
6nkpan y neko1opmx naunen1oa, coxpannnocL nnuL po
1ex nop, noka on 6mn a coc1onnnn ypoane1aopn1L nx npn-
1nsannn; nonnHanne a1oro qak1a npnuno k neHy nnuL
noc1enenno, npnHepno a konue 1932 nnn a nauane 1933,
korpa ns-sa yxypuennn caoero qnsnueckoro spopoaLn on
6mn amnyxpen oc1aan1L anann1nueckyk npak1nky, u1o
amsaano rny6okoe o1uannne, ropLkoe uyac1ao o6npm n
yxypuenne coc1onnnn y Hnornx ero naunen1oa. HecHo1pn
na a1o1 cnnLneun ypap no caHonk6nk nccnepoaa1enn,
on nonnoc1Lk npnnnn cn1yaunk, poc1a1ouno noppo6no
paso6paauncL a caonx oun6kax, ko1opme on, aosHoxno,
ponyc1nn a nepaaneH npounoH. On roaopnn, u1o naune1 c
caHoro nauana, ecnn 1onLko nonpaan1cn; n on ampasnn
napexpy, u1o pnn cnepykunx nokonenn anann1nkoa ero
akcnepnHen1m nocnyxa1 aaxnmHn opnen1npaHn, a ero
oun6kn npepoc1eperakunHn cnrnanaHn.
BHec1e c 1eH n cun1ak, u1o on apnp nn npopannyncn
panLue pnqqepenunaunn pasnmx 1nnoa perpeccnn, ko1o-
pme 6mnn onncanm a rnaae 22. Mne caHoHy nonapo6nnocL
nou1n nn1napua1L ne1, u1o6m nopo1n k a1oHy pnqqe-
penunanLnoHy pnarnosy, n n xouy o1He1n1L, u1o nepam
nHnynLc a a1oH nanpaanennn n nonyunn 6naropapn pac-
ckasaH nocnepnnx naunen1oa Oepenun, c HnornHn ns ko-
1opmx n ac1peuancn, no oco6enno 1oHy, kak onn roaopnnn
o caonx nepexnaannnx ao apeHn n nocne caoero neuennn
y Oepenun.
H napekcL, u1o 1enepL c1ano ncnee, a ueH coc1onno 1pa-
rnueckoe pasnornacne Hexpy OpepoH n Oepenun, npn-
unnnauee o6onH 1ak Hnoro 6onn n cyuec1aenno sa1opHo-
snauee pasan1ne naue anann1nuecko 1exnnkn. Oepen-
208
un, 1epsaeHm coHnennnHn, ne cHor nsaneuL nonLsy ns
o6ocnoaanno kpn1nkn, ko1opan 6mna ncnonnena nyuunx
naHepenn; on anpen a ne 1onLko o1cy1c1ane nonnHa-
nnn. Opep xe co caoe c1oponm ace eue ncnm1maan
annnnne pasouapoaannn o1 caoe pa6o1m c naunen1aHn a
90-e ropm, on anpen a akcnepnHen1ax Oepenun 1onLko
nnunn apryHen1 a nonLsy caoero oc1opoxnoro o1noue-
nnn k perpeccnn, n nnuero 6onee. Xapak1epm a1nx payx
nkpe, xo1n n ouenL pasnme na nepam asrnnp, a caoe
ocnoae nHenn Hnoro o6uero. Hopo6no 1oHy, kak a1o npo-
ncxopnno a cnyuanx Hnornx 1parnueckn sakonunaunxcn
ppyxecknx o1nouenn nsaec1nmx nkpe, cnauana a1n
o6une uep1m cnoco6c1aoaann HounoHy npn1nxennk, na-
nnncL ocnoao pnn Hnorone1ne 6nnsko n cuac1nnao
ppyx6m, no 1parnueckn qnnan nens6exno npn6nnxancn;
a n1ore kaxpan ns c1opon nponrpana, aknkuan n nac,
ncnxoanann1nkoa.
B Hnpe ncnxoanannsa nc1opnueckoe co6m1ne paspmaa
Hexpy OpepoH n Oepenun c1ano caoero popa 1paaHo.
K1o 6m Hor nopyHa1L, u1o 1ako nenpeasopennm Hac1ep
ncnxoanann1nuecko 1exnnkn, kak Oepenun, aa1op 6onL-
uoro uncna knaccnuecknx ncnxoanann1nuecknx pa6o1,
okaxe1cn po 1ako c1enenn cnenmH, u1o paxe uac1me
npepynpexpennn Opepa ne cHory1 sac1aan1L ero yan-
pe1L caon oun6kn; nnn u1o Opep n Oepenun, paa caHmx
ampakunxcn ncnxoanann1nka, ne cHory1 nonn1L n npa-
annLno ouenn1L knnnnueckne pannme, na6nkpennn n
1eope1nueckne npen ppyr ppyra, a1o no1pncenne 6mno
a amcue c1enenn paspyun1enLnmH n upesamuano 6o-
nesnennmH. HepamHn peakunnHn na nero 6mnn ncnyr n
ns6eranne. Ho HonuannaoHy cornacnk, perpeccnn ao ape-
Hn anann1nueckoro neuennn 6mna npnsnana onacnmH
cnHn1oHoH n ee nonesnm acnek1 kak coksnnka 1epannn
nonnoc1Lk nnn nou1n nonnoc1Lk nopaeprcn am1ecnennk.
209
Oco6enno a1o kacae1cn, 1ak ckasa1L, cnnouennoro knac-
cnueckoro uen1pa ncnxoanannsa.
[nn 6onLunnc1aa anann1nkoa, npnnapnexaunx k a1o
rpynne, nHenn snauenne 1onLko nera1nanme acnek1m,
yHannkune ee snaunHoc1L, o ko1opmx roaopnnocL a rna-
ae 19: onn paccHa1pnaann perpeccnk kak HexannsH sa-
un1m, cnoxnm pnn anannsa, kak aaxnm qak1op na1o-
renesa, a 1akxe kak pasnoanpnoc1L conpo1nanennn, am-
smaakuyk 6onLune 1pypnoc1n. Onn npak1nueckn ynyc-
1nnn ns nonn spennn ponL perpeccnn kak coksnnka a 1e-
pannn. B pesynL1a1e aosnnkakune a anannse qenoHenm,
ko1opme nannk1cn perpeccnonnmHn, no cy1n, pacuennaa-
nncL kak nexena1enLnme cnHn1oHm, npnunna nonanennn
ko1opmx o6ycnoanena 1exnnuecknHn oun6kaHn, nn6o a
nnx anpenn cnHn1oHm nac1onLko rny6okoro napyuennn
naunen1a, u1o 6naronpnn1nm ncxop 1epannn c1aanncn
nop aonpoc. Ho-anpnHoHy, nan6onee uac1o a nopo6nmx
cnyuanx npn6erann k o6pasy pec1an, ko1opm coc1onn
a 1oH, u1o naunen1 amaopnncn ns coc1onnnn perpeccnn
1ak 6mc1po, nackonLko a1o 6mno aosHoxno, nocne uero
1epannn npekpauanacL, poaonLc1ayncL nonoannua1mH, no
npneHneHmH pesynL1a1oH. Bo acnkoH cnyuae, na konqe-
penunn AHepnkancko ncnxoanann1nuecko accounaunn,
coc1onauecn a cepepnne snHm 1957 ropa, ao apeHn o6-
ue pnckyccnn, nocanuenno 1exnnuecknH acnek1aH
perpeccnn a ncnxoanannse, cnoxnnacL nHenno 1akan kap-
1nna. Mexpy npounH, napannenLno c pnckyccne o per-
peccnn una ppyran, nocanuennan 1exnnuecknH acnek1aH
nepenoca. Conoc1aannn cnnckn nx yuac1nnkoa, nerko no-
nn1L, k1o ns anann1nkoa npnnapnexn1 cnnouennoHy
knaccnueckoHy uen1py, a k1o nanne1cn HaprnnanoH.
Aa1opc1ao epnnc1aenno noao n ouenL nnopo1aopno
npen, paspa6o1anno a1o rpynno, npnnapnexn1 Dpnc1y
Kpncy, ko1opm a caoeH nccnepoaannn xypoxec1aennoro
1aopuec1aa npnuen k pasnnuennk payx 1nnoa perpeccnn.
210
B opnoH cnyuae Dro nopaaneno perpeccne, a a ppyroH
perpeccnn npepc1ae1 na cnyx6e y Dro. D1o1 nocnepnn
1nn, cornacno Kpncy, nanne1cn nnuL uac1nmH nponanenn-
eH 6onee o6ue cnoco6noc1n anonne nn1erpnpoaannoro
Dro perynnpoaa1L n kon1ponnpoaa1L neko1opme nepanu-
nme npoueccm. D1a npen anepame 6mna cqopHynnpoaana
a 1935 ropy, no nosxe Kpnc aepnyncn k ne a neckonLknx
caonx ny6nnkaunnx. HecoHnenno, 1akoe onncanne a1nx
1nnoa nHee1 Hnoro o6uero c payHn HonHn knac1epaHn;
snokauec1aennan perpeccnn, nnn perpeccnn papn ypoane-
1aopennn, ouenL 6nnska k perpeccnn, nopaannkue Dro;
1akxe Hoxno o1He1n1L, npnnoxna neko1opoe ycnnne, n
onpepenennoe cxopc1ao Hexpy perpeccne na cnyx6e Dro
n perpeccne papn npnsnannn. InaanmH ocnoaanneH a
naunx pacxoxpennnx ao asrnnpax 6ype1 1o, u1o n nasaan
o1nnuneH a npnc1pac1nnx (Balint M., 1949). Kpnc nn1epe-
cye1cn xypoxec1aennmH 1aopuec1aoH, 1o ec1L cy6nnHaun-
e, ko1opan npnnapnexn1 o6nac1n ncnxonornn opno
nepconm. B xope o6ue pnckyccnn na 1eHy Kpn1epnn
npnropnoc1n k anannsy He1ep Knann ouenL 1ouno oxa-
pak1epnsoaan a1o pasnnune. O1He1na, u1o npn noHoun
npen perpeccnn na cnyx6e Dro Hoxno o6Lncnn1L 1o,
u1o nponcxopn1 a nnpnanpe ao apeHn 1aopuec1aa, no
nenLsn o6Lncnn1L konnnsnn anann1nueckoro neuennn, on
npoponxnn: Hcnxoananns 6ype1 aosHoxen 1onLko a 1oH
cnyuae, ecnn k "perpeccnn na cnyx6e Dro" 6ype1 po6aa-
neno eue opno kauec1ao, a nHenno "perpeccnn a nopun-
nennn o6Lek1a" (Knapp, 1959).
BosHoxno, a1a npen 6mna peaonkunonno n, no-
anpnHoHy, c1ana xep1ao am1ecnennn. Kak 6m 1aH nn
6mno, a ny6nnkaunnx, ko1opme Hne ypanocL o1cnepn1L,
ona ne ac1pe1nna kakoro-nn6o o1knnka. [axe 1ako opn-
rnnanLnm Hmcnn1enL, kak Bep1paH eann, a caoe
qpepoacko nekunn nop nasaanneH Cnoanpennn n nc-
nonLsoaanne perpeccnn (1958) ne Hor nonnoc1Lk am1n
211
sa paHkn orpannuenn, ouepuennmx npenHn Kpnca. Takxe
n 1akne op1opokcanLnme 1epanea1m, kak Innn n BpenHan,
ne cHornn cpena1L a1o (Gill, Brenman, 1959).
[pyrne npnaepxenum a1o rpynnm paxe n ne pnckoaann
saxopn1L 1ak paneko; aHec1o a1oro onn npoponxann Ho-
no1onno, coxpannn npn a1oH ampaxenne nou1ennn, nepe-
xeamaa1L nesm6neHm 1esnc o cansnx Hexpy qnkcaune
n perpeccne, ko1opm Opep cqopHynnpoaan eue a cao-
nx ekunnx no aaepennk a ncnxoananns. 1o6m ne
6m1L ronocnoanmH, n nosaonk ce6e cocna1Lcn na pa6o1m
Onnnnc Ipnnakp Perpeccnn n qnkcaunn (1960), [xe-
ko6a Apnoaa Konqnnk1, perpeccnn n cnHn1oHoo6pasoaa-
nne (1963), a 1akxe Xannm aHnnL-pe Ipoo1 CnHn1o-
Hoo6pasoaanne n qopHnpoaanne xapak1epa (1963).
TaknH o6pasoH, cknapmaanacL o6uan kap1nna sac1on,
amsmaakuan ynmnne. Opnako a nocnepnne ropm nonan-
nocL neckonLko ncnxoanann1nkoa no-anpnHoHy, nx
uncno aecLHa orpannueno ko1opme nn1epecyk1cn npo-
6neHo 1epanea1nuecko perpeccnn. K nx uncny o1nocn1-
cn Anekcanpep (Alexander, 1956), npepnoxnaun pnq-
qepenunpoaa1L paa 1nna perpeccnn: 1y, u1o o1nocn1cn k
1paaHe, n 1y, u1o o1nocn1cn k po1paaHa1nuecko cn1ya-
unn ypoane1aopennn. BecLHa aepon1no, u1o Hoxno na1n
Hnoro ananorn Hexpy payHn 1nnaHn, onncannmHn nH n
Hno. KpoHe 1oro, ec1L nn1epecnoe nccnepoaanne, npoae-
pennoe na am6opke 1nxeno napyuennmx naunen1oa, am-
nonnennoe a ec1no1 opx, nan6onee aaxnme pesynL1a-
1m ko1oporo 6mnn ony6nnkoaanm CnpnsoH (Searles, 1961,
1963). H, nakoneu, Bnnnnko11 a onpone nsyuan perpec-
cnk a paHkax anann1nuecko cn1yaunn a 1euenne Hnornx
ne1; ero pa6o1m, paccennnme no pasnmH nspannnH, 6mnn
co6panm a payx 1oHax (1958 n 1965). Hop ero annnnneH
neckonLko anann1nkoa, cpepn ko1opmx n11n (Little,
1957) n Xan (Khan, 1960, 1962), nponannn nn1epec k
a1o o6nac1n.
212
Tak o6c1on1 pena. Bce a1n anann1nkn (n n a 1oH uncne)
npnnapnexa1 k nepnqepnn, a ne k knaccnueckoHy
cnnouennoHy uen1py. Mm nsaec1nm, nac 1epnn1, aosHox-
no, paxe un1ak1, no, koneuno xe, ne un1npyk1. Xopoue
nnnkc1paune 1akoro nonoxennn nanne1cn knnra Innna n
BpenHana (1959). B a1o knnre npnaepena o6unpnan
6n6nnorpaqnn, a ko1opo ne1 nn opno naue pa6o1m,
xo1n opna ns ocnoanmx 1eH knnrn kacae1cn ncnonLsoaa-
nnn perpeccnn a 1epannn. TeH ne Henee ec1L npnsnakn
1oro, u1o cn1yaunn Henne1cn. C 1ex nop kak a nauane 30-
x ropoa nponsouen 1parnueckn paspma Hexpy OpepoH
n Oepenun, Hnnyno yxe 6onee 1pnpua1n ne1. D1o osnaua-
e1, u1o yxe npnuno noaoe nokonenne anann1nkoa, n
Hoxno napen1Lcn na 1o, u1o onn 6ypy1 cnoco6nm nnn
yxe o1uac1n cnoco6nm k nepecHo1py neko1opmx porHa-
1oa n Hnenn, ko1opme na npo1nxennn Hnornx ne1 co-
c1aannnn 1a6y pnn op1opokcanLnmx anann1nkoa. Hpep-
aec1nnkoH a1oro nanne1cn nepaannn pa6o1a B. oxa (Loch
W. 1963-64), ko1opan nasmaae1cn Perpeccnn.
B 1oH xe ropy Anna Opep ony6nnkoaana pa6o1y Per-
peccnn kak npnnunn ncnxnueckoro pasan1nn (1963), a
ko1opo c1aan1 akuen1 ne na npnamunoH nera1nanoH ac-
nek1e perpeccnn, a na ee nosn1nanmx acnek1ax. Bckope
nocne a1oro coc1onnacL eue opna o6uan pnckyccnn na
ocenne konqepenunn AHepnkancko ncnxoanann1nue-
cko accounaunn a peka6pe 1965 ropa, nocanuennan 1n-
xenmH qopHaH perpeccnn npn anannse. Ho cpaanennk c
1957 ropoH cn1yaunn nsHennnacL kappnnanLnmH o6pa-
soH. Xo1n 6onLunnc1ao yuac1nnkoa a1o pnckyccnn 6mnn
1e xe, na a1o1 pas onn 6mnn ypaanoaeuenm unenaHn
knaccnueckoro uen1pa. A1Hocqepa specL 6mna coaep-
uenno nno, necHo1pn na 1o u1o onpepenenno uyac1aoaa-
nocL nannune npexnnx 1peaor. Bmno npepc1aaneno ne-
ckonLko pe1anLnmx onncann npknx cnyuaea, nokasaa-
unx, u1o a anann1nuecko cn1yaunn 1nxenme perpeccna-
213
nme coc1onnnn Hory1 ne 1onLko ponycka1Lcn, no neko1o-
pme ns nnx ncnonLsoaa1Lcn panee a uennx poc1nxennn
nporpecca a anann1nueckoH neuennn. B a1o saHeua1enL-
no pnckyccnn nou1n ne 6mno saHe1no ampaxennn npep-
paccypkoa nnn npepy6expenn; kaxpm yuac1nnk 6mn
nckpenne sann1epecoaan n c1peHnncn anec1n aknap a
nponcnenne sany1anno npo6neHm.
Opnako neo6xopnHo o1He1n1L cnepykuee. HecHo1pn na
1o, u1o 6mnn poknapunkn (cpepn nnx npepcepa1enL
[xon Opou n Map1nn Kanr), ko1opme neckonLko pas
npepnpnnnHann nonm1kn nanpaan1L pnckyccnk a pycno
o6cyxpennn 1eHm o1ae1c1aennoc1n anann1nka sa noou-
penne nnn paxe sa npoaounpoaanne perpeccnn n 1exnn-
uecknx uaroa, npepnpnnnHaeHmx anann1nkoH a o1ae1 na
nee, onn ne poc1nrnn ycnexa. [nckyccnn apauanacL ao-
kpyr 1eH, orpannuennmx paHkaHn ncnxonornn opno nep-
conm: Dro, 6noknpoaannoe perpeccne, npnpopa Dro na-
unen1a, a anannse ko1oporo Horna aosnnkny1L 1akan cn-
1yaunn, ncnxnueckne cnnm, ko1opme Hory1 npnaec1n k
perpeccnn, nsHenennn, cnoco6c1aykune amxopy ns nee
naunen1a, n 1. p.
Hou1n nonnoc1Lk oc1anncL nesa1pony1mHn aonpocm, can-
sannme co c1pyk1ypo, npnunnaHn n snauenneH pnn 1e-
pannn perpeccnn kak asanHopec1ann Hexpy konkpe1nmH
naunen1oH n konkpe1nmH anann1nkoH, 1o ec1L kak qeno-
Hena, npnnapnexauero o6nac1n ncnxonornn payx nepcon
n oco6enno 1o o6nac1n ncnxnkn, ko1opyk n nasaan o6-
nac1Lk 6asncnoro peqek1a.
214
Hac1u V. Perpeccupoaaamu naueu1 u
ero auanu1uk
Fnaaa 24. Tepanea1uveckan perpeccun,
nepauvuan nm6oau u 6asucum peqek1
Kak 6mno nokasano a npepmpyue uac1n, perpeccnn, na-
6nkpaeHan a anann1nuecko cn1yaunn, Hoxe1 npecnepo-
aa1L HnnnHyH pae uenn: ypoane1aopenne nnc1nnk1a nnn
aneuennn n npnsnanne co c1oponm o6Lek1a. Hnaue roao-
pn, perpeccnn npepc1aanne1 co6o kak nn1pancnxnue-
ckn, 1ak n nn1epnepconanLnm qenoHen. Takxe 6mno
o1Heueno, u1o npn anann1nuecko 1epannn perpeccnon-
nmx coc1onnn 6onee aaxnmHn nannk1cn nn1epnepco-
nanLnme acnek1m perpeccnn.
3pecL Hm nopxopnH k npo6neHe ncuennkue cnnm o1-
nouenn. Hapo npnsna1L, u1o nn1epnpe1aunn n o6Lek1-
nme o1nouennn nannk1cn payHn nan6onee aaxnmHn qak-
1opaHn ncnxoanann1nuecko 1epannn, xo1n, kak npaanno,
a1o ne qopHynnpye1cn a c1onL nanoH anpe. Opnako a o1-
nouennn nocnepnero qak1opa Hm ne HoxeH uyac1aoaa1L
ce6n 1ak xe yaepenno, kak o1nocn1enLno nepaoro, no-
ckonLky anann1nuecko 1eopnn nsaec1no o neH ropaspo
HenLue.
Y nac ec1L cnc1eHa1nueckne snannn o6 nnc1nnk1ax nnn
aneuennnx n nx coo1nouennn, o c1pyk1ype n saun1nmx
HexannsHax ncnxnkn, a 1akxe o ponn konqnnk1a a ncn-
xona1onornn. HHenno na a1nx 1pex c1onnax 1eopnn
aneuenn, npepc1aanennnx o c1pyk1ype ncnxnkn n o na1o-
rennoH aospec1ann konqnnk1a Opep ocnoaan caon
1exnnueckne pekoHenpaunn. Ero He1op npepnasnauancn
215
pnn nepeaopa 6eccosna1enLnoro copepxannn a cosnanne,
cornacno 6onee nospne aepcnn, rpe 6mno Ono, 1aH
ponxno 6m1L H. y1L nn ne epnnc1aennmH cpepc1aoH poc-
1nxennn a1o uenn 6mna nn1epnpe1aunn. Opep o1nocnn-
cn c nanmH nepoaepneH k o6Lek1nmH o1nouennnH n nn-
korpa ne cun1an, u1o onn Hory1 c1a1L npepHe1oH nonno-
uennoro nccnepoaannn, xo1n eue a 1912 n 1915 ropax a
payx c1a1Lnx o nepenoce on nepaycHmcnenno y1aepxpan,
u1o nepenoc, 1o ec1L o6Lek1nme o1nouennn, Hoxe1 o6na-
pa1L snaun1enLnmH ncuennkunH no1enunanoH. B n1ore
ropaspo 6onee aaxnmH 1exnnuecknH cpepc1aoH 6mna
npnsnana nn1epnpe1aunn.
Kak n nm1ancn nokasa1L a uac1n IV, cHeuenne uen1pa 1n-
xec1n na nn1epnpe1aunk a pa6o1e anann1nka, no-
anpnHoHy, nanne1cn upesHepnmH ynpouenneH. D1o1 nop-
xop 6mn aqqek1nanmH po 1ex nop, noka Hm Hornn o16n-
pa1L pnn neuennn naunen1oa, cnoco6nmx 6es snaun1enL-
nmx 1pypnoc1e apan1npoaa1Lcn k anann1nuecknH paH-
kaH, yc1anoanennmH a coo1ae1c1ann c pannnHn pa6o1aHn
Opepa o 1exnnke (1911-1915). [o 1ex nop noka a1n paH-
kn npnsnaaanncL o6nsa1enLnmHn pnn acex, pa6o1a anann-
1nka Horna paccHa1pnaa1Lcn ncknkun1enLno kak npepL-
nanenne nn1epnpe1aun. Opnako ecnn Hm npnsnaeH, u1o
na6op npaann, pekoHenpoaannmx OpepoH, ne nanne1cn
epnnc1aenno aosHoxnmH aapnan1oH, a nanne1cn primus
inter pares (nepamH cpepn paanmx), 1o nepep naHn ac1ae1
noaan sapaua, saknkuakuancn a noncke noamx ycnoan
1epannn, ko1opme Hornn 6m rapan1npoaa1L aqqek1na-
noc1L 1epannn c naunen1aHn, npouepunHn Henee c1porn
o16op. D1a sapaua npno6pe1ae1 oco6oe snauenne, korpa
peuL npe1 o naunen1ax, naxopnunxcn a perpeccnn.
Kak yxe o6cyxpanocL a npepmpyunx rnaaax, cospanne n
noppepxanne peanLnmx o1nouenn, oco6enno c naunen-
1aHn, naxopnunHncn a perpeccnn, a onpepenennme ne-
pnopm neuennn, no cpaanennk c naxoxpenneH aepnmx
216
nn1epnpe1aun, aosHoxno, npepc1aanne1 co6o caHyk
aaxnyk 1epanea1nueckyk sapauy. Bepon1no, neu1o no-
po6noe noppasyHeaan Opep, korpa nncan o 1epanea1n-
ueckoH aqqek1e nepenoca. Opnako, kak yxe o1HeuanocL,
ero nn1epec 6mn cocpepo1ouen rnaanmH o6pasoH na 1ex
nn1pancnxnuecknx npoueccax, ko1opme Hory1 o6napa1L
1epanea1nuecknH aqqek1oH, on ne ypennn cnnukoH Hno-
ro annHannn nn1epnepconanLnmH qenoHenaH n nx aos-
HoxnoHy annnnnk na 1epannk.
Hn1epnpe1aunn nens6exno nannk1cn aep6anLnmHn, xo1n
nx ocnoanoe npepnasnauenne coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o6m no-
HouL naunen1y ncnm1a1L uyac1aa, aHounn n nepexnaa-
nnn, ko1opme on ne Hor ncnm1a1L npexpe; nn1epnpe1aunn
1pe6yk1 nn1ennek1yanLnoro nonnHannn, Hmunennn, osa-
pennn. Bce a1n xapak1epnc1nkn 1ecno cansanm nn6o c
anpenneH, nn6o c c1onnneH, 1o ec1L c qnno6a1nue-
cko pen1enLnoc1Lk, ko1opan ne 1pe6ye1 noc1oponne
noHoun. H nao6opo1, o6Lek1nme o1nouennn acerpa npep-
c1aannk1 co6o asanHopec1ane no HenLue Hepe payx
nepcon; onn nou1n acerpa cospak1cn n noppepxnaak1cn
npn noHoun neaep6anLnmx cpepc1a. Tpypno nopo6pa1L
cnoaa pnn onncannn 1oro, u1o cospae1cn. Mm roaopnH o
noaepennn, knnHa1e, a1Hocqepe n 1. p., opnako ace a1o
neonpepenennme n nencnme cnoaa, noppasyHeaakune
neu1o 6es 1aeppmx rpannu n amsmaakune, 1aknH o6pa-
soH, accounaunn c nepanunmHn cy6c1anunnHn.
HecHo1pn na 1o, u1o Hnorne qopHm o6Lek1nmx o1noue-
nn neaosHoxno npepc1aan1L a ue1knx n nepaycHmcnen-
nmx ampaxennnx, a cnoaecnoe onncanne nx acerpa nann-
e1cn cy6Lek1nanmH, nponsaonLnmH n ne1ounmH, 1eH ne
Henee Hm acerpa ouyuaeH npncy1c1ane a1Hocqepm,
knnHa1a a o1nouennnx. O6muno paxe ne1 neo6xopnHo-
c1n npn6era1L k o6Lncnennk a1oro npn noHoun cnoa, xo-
1n cnoaa caHn no ce6e Hory1 6m1L aaxnmH qak1opoH,
cnoco6c1aykunH cospannk n noppepxannk o6Lek1nmx
217
o1nouenn. Hopo6no 1oHy, kak osapenne Hoxe1 aosnn-
ka1L nocne aepno nn1epnpe1aunn, uyac1ao nonanne1cn
acnep sa yc1anoanenneH coo1ae1c1aykunx o1nouenn;
ecnn osapenne neko1opmH o6pasoH coo1nocn1cn co
spenneH, 1o uyac1ao cansano c 1ak1nnLnmH kon1ak1oH,
1o ec1L nn6o c nepanunmHn o1nouennnHn, nn6o c okno-
qnnne.
BosapauancL 1enepL k naue ocnoano 1eHe perpec-
cnn, o1He1nH, u1o na npo1nxennn ace xnsnn Opepa
a qokyce ero annHannn oc1aaancn kak pas ee nn1pancn-
xnueckn acnek1. BosHoxno, opno ns npnunn a1oro ne-
ckonLko npene6pexn1enLnoro o1nouennn 6mno 1o, u1o
ero 1eopnn aneuenn 6mna npak1nueckn saaepuena
nHenno a 1o apeHn, korpa on nncan pa6o1y o perpeccna-
nmx qopHax nepenoca; 1pe1Le nspanne Tpex ouepkoa no
1eopnn cekcyanLnoc1n amuno a cae1 a 1915 ropy, 1o
ec1L a 1oH xe ropy, u1o n ero c1a1Ln 3aHe1kn o nk6an
npn nepenoce. C ppyro c1oponm, 1eopnn pasan1nn o6L-
ek1nmx o1nouenn a 1o apeHn 6mna eue a caHoH sapo-
pmue.
HHenno 1eopnn aneuenn nocnyxnna pnn Opepa ocnoaa-
nneH 1ex 1epanea1nuecknx pekoHenpaun, cornacno ko-
1opmH anann1nk ne ponxen nosn1nano pearnpoaa1L na
aneuennn-xenannn perpeccnpoaaauero naunen1a n, a
uac1noc1n, ne ponxen nx ypoane1aopn1L. B anann1nue-
cko 1epannn naunen1 ponxen npnpepxnaa1Lcn aospep-
xannn, naxopn1Lcn a coc1onnnn qpyc1paunn nnn nc-
nm1maa1L nnuennn. Bo Hnornx o1nouennnx a1n peko-
Henpaunn aepnm. Ecnn anann1nk sann1 nnuL ypoane1ao-
penneH xenann caoero perpeccnpoaaauero naunen1a, 1o
ero pec1ann ne Hory1 pa1L nnuero, kpoHe npexopnunx
pesynL1a1oa. HockonLky nc1ounnk a1nx xenann ne sa-
1pony1, cnyc1n neko1opoe apeHn nonan1cn noame xena-
nnn, c npexne cnno npe1enpykune na ouepepnyk nop-
unk ypoane1aopennn. B 1oH cnyuae, ecnn anann1nk, na-
218
xopnuncn nop aneua1nenneH 6naxenno yHnpo1aopen-
noc1n, neHepnenno nocnepoaaaue sa npepnpnnn1mHn nH
pec1annHn, ncnm1maae1 nckyuenne akcnepnHen1npoaa1L
n panee ypoane1aopn1L no1pe6noc1n caoero naunen1a,
Hoxe1 packpy1n1Lcn nopounan cnnpanL, u1o nepepko n
nponcxopn1 a ycnoannx perpeccnn.
TaknH o6pasoH, nosn1nanan peakunn na xenannn perpec-
cnpoaaauero naunen1a, coc1onuan a nx ypoane1aopennn,
c 6onLuo aepon1noc1Lk Hoxe1 6m1L npnsnana 1exnnue-
cko oun6ko. C ppyro c1oponm, oco6an qopHa o6Lek1-
nmx o1nouenn 6onee npnHn1nanmx no cpaanennk c
1eHn, u1o yc1anaannaak1cn Hexpy aspocnmHn nkpLHn,
npepnoxennan a kauec1ae o1ae1a na no1pe6noc1n naun-
en1a, Hoxe1 6m1L onpaapanno 1exnnuecko Hepo, ko-
1opan ne nHee1 nnkakoro o1nouennn k npaanny qpyc1-
paunn nnn nnuennn.
Opnako, kak 1onLko Hm npnnnHaeH a1y npek, Hm amxo-
pnH sa paHkn 1eopnn nnc1nnk1oa nnn aneuenn, ko1opan
npnnapnexn1 cqepe ncnxonornn opno nepconm, n ac1y-
naeH a o6nac1L ncnxonornn payx nepcon. Hcxopn ns 1eo-
pnn nnc1nnk1oa, Hm Hornn 6m y1aepxpa1L, u1o xapak1ep
nponanenn n rny6nna perpeccnn saancn1 ncknkun1enLno
o1 naunen1a: nc1opnn ero pe1c1aa, ero xapak1epa, cepL-
esnoc1n sa6oneaannn n 1. p. Cornacno xe noaoHy nopxo-
py, Hm ponxnm paccHa1pnaa1L xapak1epnc1nkn perpeccnn
kak pesynL1a1 asanHopec1ann Hexpy konkpe1nmH naun-
en1oH n konkpe1nmH anann1nkoH. Yun1maan aknap anann-
1nka, 1o ec1L ero 1exnnky, Hm HoxeH ckasa1L, u1o knnnn-
ueckoe nponanenne perpeccnn naunen1a 6ype1 saance1L
o1 peakunn anann1nka na ero perpeccnk, o1 1oro, kak
nHenno on npnnnHae1 ee n kak on na nee o1aeuae1.
Ho-anpnHoHy, caHo aaxno qopHo peakunn anann1nka
nanne1cn ero nn1epnpe1aunn nponcxopnuero: peuakuee
annnnne na neuenne Hoxe1 okasa1L 1o, kak anann1nk nn-
219
1epnpe1npye1 kako-nn6o uac1nm qenoHen kak 1pe-
6oaanne ypoane1aopennn nnn kak no1pe6noc1L a oco6o
qopHe o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn.
HpepnonoxnH, u1o anann1nk ro1oa k 1oHy, u1o6m anpe1L
a perpeccnn no1pe6noc1L naunen1a a oco6o qopHe
o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn; 1orpa aosnnkae1 aonpoc o paHkax,
a ko1opmx anann1nk Hoxe1 pec1aoaa1L, 1o ec1L o 1oH,
kakoro popa o6Lek1nme o1nouennn on Hoxe1 npepnoxn1L
caoeHy perpeccnpoaaaueHy naunen1y nnn npnnn1L o1 ne-
ro. D1o aaxnan 1exnnueckan npo6neHa n, nou1n kak
nk6an ppyran npo6neHa, kacakuancn ncnxoanann1nue-
cko 1exnnkn, ona nHee1 neckonLko acnek1oa.
Hepam acnek1, ko1opm Hoxe1 6m1L nasaan npo6neHo
pnqqepenunanLnoro pnarnosa, npnnapnexn1 norpannu-
no sone Hexpy ncnxonorne opnoro nnpnanpa n ncnxo-
norne payx nepcon. Anann1nk ponxen yHe1L pacnosna1L,
kakan nHenno qopHa o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn 6ype1 apek-
aa1no n okaxe1 1epanea1nueckn aqqek1 na perpeccn-
poaaauero naunen1a a pannm konkpe1nm HoHen1. 1o-
6m am6pa1L on1nHanLnm 1epanea1nueckn xop, anann-
1nk ponxen o6napa1L poc1a1ounmHn snannnHn o6 a1nx
o1nouennnx, noHnHo 1oro, u1o on npnsnae1 nx cyuec1ao-
aanne n 1epanea1nueckyk aqqek1nanoc1L.
3pecL naunnae1cn o6nac1L cnopnmx Hnenn. Heko1opme
anann1nkn 1aeppo y6expenm a 1oH, u1o c a1anonoH ana-
nn1nuecko 1epannn coaHec1nHm 1onLko 1akne qopHm
o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn, ko1opme nosaonnk1 anann1nky
oc1aaa1Lcn a ponn naccnano couyac1aykue o6Lek1na-
noc1n, onncanno OpepoH. Y Henn cnoxnnocL aneua1ne-
nne, u1o onn aocnpnnnHak1 a1o kak nekoe a6conk1noe
ycnoane, n ecnn, ncxopn ns 1ex nnn nnmx coo6paxenn,
o1 nero o1kasmaak1cn, 1o neuenne, c nx 1oukn spennn,
yxe ne Hoxe1 nasmaa1Lcn ncnxoanannsoH. D1n anann1n-
kn, aepon1no, ne anpn1 neo6xopnHoc1n a pnqqepenun-
220
anLnoH pnarnose, a Hoxe1 6m1L, paxe cun1ak1 a1o ne-
aepnmH uaroH, nanocnunH yuep6 1exnnke. B uac1n III, a
uac1noc1n, a rnaaax 14 n 16, n o6cyxpan neko1opme no-
cnepc1ann a1o o6ue nonn1nkn.
1o6m ns6exa1L aosHoxnoro nepopasyHennn, ouenL aax-
no ne sa6maa1L o rny6okoH pasnnunn Hexpy coo6uenneH
naunen1y nn1epnpe1aunn, cornacno ko1opo on acerpa
npepnpnnnHan nonm1kn yc1anoan1L c anann1nkoH, na-
npnHep, renn1anLnme nnn paxe porenn1anLnme o1noue-
nnn, c opno c1oponm, a c ppyro npnnn1neH no1pe6-
noc1n naunen1a a onpepenennmx o1nouennnx na a1o
cneunqnuecko c1apnn, pa6o1o c a1nH qak1oH, paspe-
uenneH naunen1y cospaaa1L n noppepxnaa1L o1nouennn,
a ko1opmx 1o1 nyxpae1cn, a anann1nuecko cn1yaunn.
BHec1e c 1eH a cnyuanx 6onee nospnnx n nyuue nsyuen-
nmx o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn nn1epnpe1aunn, kak npaanno,
o6napak1 poc1a1ounmH no1enunanoH pnn 1oro, u1o6m no-
noxn1L nauano n cnoco6c1aoaa1L 1epanea1nuecko peop-
rannsaunn o1nouenn c peanLnoc1Lk; nnorpa, anpoueH,
aosHoxnm neko1opme annsopm o1mrpmaannn, ko1opme
1akxe Hory1 6m1L npopa6o1anm npn noHoun nn1epnpe1a-
unn. HpenHyuec1aenno a1n cn1yaunn npnnapnexa1 k o6-
nac1n, ko1opyk n nasaan apnnoao, noa1oHy onn Hory1
6m1L apekaa1no ampaxenm npn noHoun cpepc1a konaen-
unonanLnoro nsmka aspocnmx nkpe. Han6onee aaxnmHn
cpepn nnx nannk1cn (a o6pa1noH xpononornueckoH no-
pnpke) qannnuecko-napunccnueckan qopHa a pasnmx ee
aapnan1ax, 1aknx, kak aronc1nueckoe caHoy1aepxpenne,
arpeccnano-kac1pnpykuee noaepenne, nokopnoc1L, Haso-
xnsH n 1. n.; Hnoxec1ao ananLno-capnc1cknx qopH co
aceHn nx caepxkoHnencaunnHn n peak1nanmHn o6pasoaa-
nnnHn n 1. p.
Honno1m papn n ponxen ynoHnny1L a a1oH kon1ekc1e n o
pasnnunmx opanLnmx qopHax o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn,
o6Lepnnennmx a nac1onuee apeHn nop py6pnko opanL-
221
nan saancnHoc1L. Mnorne anann1nkn aknkunnn 6m nx a
a1o1 cnncok kak caHn co6o pasyHekunecn, opnako no-
ckonLky, c Hoe 1oukn spennn, nonn1ne opanLnan saan-
cnHoc1L aaopn1 a sa6nyxpenne, n nosaonk ce6e kpa1ko
nsnoxn1L caon aospaxennn no a1oHy noaopy.
O1nouennn, k ko1opmH nm1ak1cn npnHenn1L 1epHnn
opanLnan saancnHoc1L, ne npepc1aannk1 co6o o1no-
uenn opno panne saancnHoc1n, onn nannk1cn o1-
nouennnHn asanHosaancnHoc1n. Ma1L naxopn1cn nou1n
a 1ako xe c1enenn nn6npnnosno saancnHoc1n o1 caoero
pe6enka, kak n pe6enok o1 nee; onn ne Hory1 ac1ynn1L a
a1n oco6me o1nouennn n nonyua1L a nnx cneunqnueckoe
ypoane1aopenne nesaancnHo ppyr o1 ppyra, xo1n opanL-
nme acnek1m coc1aannk1 aaxnyk uac1L a1oro qenoHena a
uenoH. Hapnpy c opanLnmHn acnek1aHn, ko1opme nannk1-
cn aaxno coc1aannkue a1oro qenoHena, npncy1c1ayk1
n ppyrne qak1opm, n 1pypno 1ouno onpepenn1L, kako ns
nnx nanne1cn nan6onee snaunHmH. KpoHe 1oro, poaonLno
uac1o a neko1opmx coapeHennmx He1opax kopHnennn pe-
6enka npak1nkye1cn o1kas o1 Ha1epnncko rpypn, ko1opan
naxopn1cn a o1nouennnx asanHnoro pononnennn c po1o-
amH annapa1oH Hnapenua, npn a1oH, opnako, asanHno
saancnHoc1n, nannkuecn a a1nx o1nouennnx peuak-
ue, c Hoe 1oukn spennn, kak npaanno, ne nanocn1cn
cyuec1aennoro yuep6a.
Cyuec1aoaanne asanHosaancnHoc1n ponxno nanoHnna1L
naH o 1oH, u1o nk6an nonm1ka onncannn a1nx o1nouenn
a 1epHnnax ncnxonornn opno nepconm nens6exno 6ype1
npnaopn1L k nepopasyHennnH. Bnnnnne qak1opa asanHo-
saancnHoc1n o6pa1no nponopunonanLno ponn co1pypnn-
uec1aa nap1nepa, n a1o a 1o nnn nno c1enenn aepno pnn
acex 1nnoa o1nouenn. Hoyun1enLnmH npnHepoH nannk1-
cn o1nouennn ananLnoro poHnnnpoaannn, 1eopnn ko1o-
pmx, aepon1no, paspa6o1ana a ncnxoanannse nyuue ace-
ro. B a1nx o1nouennnx co1pypnnuec1ao nap1nepa Hnnn-
222
HanLno, noa1oHy onn Hory1 6m1L apekaa1no onncanm a
1epHnnax ncnxonornn opno nepconm. C ppyro c1oponm,
aaxno oco6ennoc1Lk renn1anLno nk6an nanne1cn ne-
o6xopnHoc1L npeapauennn ne1panLnoro no o1nouennk
k naH o6Lek1a, ko1opm Hm nonk6nnn, a co1pypnnuak-
uero nap1nepa. O1nouennn Hexpy nnpnanpoH n ero nn-
pnqqepen1nmH o6Lek1oH Hory1 6m1L poaonLno xopouo
onncanm a 1epHnnax ncnxonornn opno nepconm, 1orpa
kak onncanne o1nouenn Hexpy co1pypnnuakunHn nap1-
nepaHn nyxpae1cn a noao 1epHnnonornn, npnnapnexa-
ue ncnxonornn payx nepcon.
[pyran cepLesnan 1pypnoc1L coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o ace npn-
Hn1nanme o1nouennn npnnapnexa1, kak npaanno, poaep-
6anLnoHy nepnopy pasan1nn. B uac1n I nokasano, u1o qe-
noHenm, o1nocnunecn k a1o o6nac1n, ne 1ak-1o nerko
noppak1cn aep6anLnoHy onncannk. [anee Hm noc1onnno
ponxnm noHnn1L o6 a1nx cnoxnoc1nx, opna ns ko1opmx
o6ycnoanena cnnLno asanHno saancnHoc1Lk payx nn-
pnanpoa, a ppyran cansana c 1eH, u1o npnHn1nanyk npn-
popy yc1anaannaakunxcn o1nouenn cnoxno o6Lncnn1L c
noHouLk o6uenpnnn1mx cnoa nsmka aspocnmx.
Paso6paauncL c a1nH npenn1c1aneH n amsaanno nH ny-
1annue, Hm HoxeH aepny1Lcn k naue rnaano npo6ne-
He: kako 1nn npnHn1nanmx poaep6anLnmx o6Lek1nmx
o1nouenn ponxen nHe1L a anpy anann1nk, ac1ynan a o1-
nouennn, npepnoxennme ero perpeccnpoaaaunH naunen-
1oH, nnn npepnaran naunen1y a1n o1nouennn?
B npepuec1aykunx rnaaax, a uac1noc1n a 4, 12, 15 n 22,
n noppo6no onncan xapak1epnc1nkn 1pex ocnoanmx qopH
o1nouenn, ko1opme n na6nkpan a caoe anann1nuecko
npak1nke. D1o 6mnn: (a) nan6onee npnHn1nanme, nnn
nepanunme o1nouennn, ko1opme n nasaan nepanuno nk-
6oaLk, nekoe rapHonnunoe ckpeuenne Hexpy pasanaak-
unHcn nnpnanpoH n ero nepanunmHn cy6c1anunnHn nnn
223
nepanunmHn o6Lek1aHn; (6) n (a) oknoqnnnn n qnno6a-
1nsH, ko1opme a neko1opoH pope pononnnk1 ppyr ppyra,
a1o1 1nn o1nouenn yxe npepnonarae1 o6napyxenne po-
aonLno c1a6nnLnmx uac1nunmx n/nnn uenoc1nmx o6Lek-
1oa. XnsnL cy6Lek1a, y ko1oporo poHnnnpye1 oknoqnnnn,
nanne1cn 6esonacno 1onLko a nenocpepc1aenno 6nnso-
c1n o1 o6Lek1oa, 1orpa kak npoc1panc1aa Hexpy o6Lek1a-
Hn kaxy1cn eHy onacnmHn. D1o1 qenoHen nsaec1en po-
aonLno paano; a nocnepnee apeHn pnn ero onncannn c1a-
nn yno1pe6nn1L 1epHnn noaepenne, nanpaanennoe na
yc1anoanenne canse, npnnapnexaun o6nac1n a1ono-
rnn (nanp., Bowlby, 1958). H nao6opo1, pnn nnpnanpa c
npeo6napanneH qnno6a1nsHa o6Lek1m npepc1aannk1cn
nenapexnmHn n necyunHn yrposy, on cknonen o6xopn1L-
cn 6es nnx n yc1peHnn1Lcn na nonckn ppyxec1aennmx
npoc1opoa, paspennkunx nenapexnme, npepa1enLckne
o6Lek1m ao apeHenn n a npoc1panc1ae.
Cnepykun aonpoc, pasyHee1cn, coc1on1 a 1oH, kakyk
amropy nsanekae1 naunen1 ns caoe perpeccnn. HoueHy
ona 1ak aaxna pnn nero? H yxe o1Heuan neckonLko pas,
u1o ne ace naunen1m o6nsa1enLno npoxopn1 uepes nepnop
perpeccnn: neko1opme naunen1m Hory1 o6xopn1Lcn 6es
perpeccnn nn6o aoo6ue ne ncnm1maak1 no1pe6noc1n a
ne. Opnako 1pypno cypn1L o xapak1epe pacnpepenennn
nnpnanpoa no napaHe1py no1pe6noc1n a perpeccnn, no-
ckonLky am6opka naunen1oa, npoxopnunx anann1nueckoe
neuenne, ne nanne1cn penpesen1a1nano, 1ak kak a1n nk-
pn o16npanncL a coo1ae1c1ann c npepc1aanennnHn nx
anann1nka o npnropnoc1n naunen1a k anannsy. H ace xe
aneua1nenne, u1o ceropnn no cpaanennk c npounmH yae-
nnunnacL ponn naunen1oa, nyxpakunxcn a nepnope per-
peccnn, aepon1no, o1paxae1 nc1nnnoe nonoxenne aeue;
anonne aosHoxno, u1o a 6ypyueH uncno 1aknx naunen1oa
aospac1e1.
224
O1ae1 na nau aonpoc Hoxe1 6m1L napen a npee 6asncno-
ro peqek1a, a 1akxe a na6nkpennnx, ko1opme npnaenn
Henn k o1kpm1nk qasm noaoro nauana. Xop Honx pac-
cyxpenn 6mn cnepykunH: ace Hm o6napaeH onpepenen-
nmHn uep1aHn xapak1epa nnn, ncnonLsyn coapeHennme
1epHnnm, koHnynLcnanmHn na11epnaHn o6Lek1nmx o1no-
uenn. Heko1opme ns a1nx uep1 aosnnkak1 kak cnepc1ane
naunx konqnnk1oa nnn koHnnekcoa. Ecnn anann1nk cHo-
xe1 noHouL naunen1y paspeun1L a1n konqnnk1m n paso-
6pa1Lcn c koHnnekcaHn npn noHoun nn1epnpe1aun, 1o
koHnynLcnanoc1n a1nx na11epnoa 6ype1 npnpan 1ako
ypoaenL nnac1nunoc1n, ko1opm 6ype1 poc1a1ouen pnn
apan1aunn nnpnanpa a peanLnoH Hnpe. B 1ex xe cnyuanx,
korpa, cornacno HonH npepc1aanennnH, a1n na11epnm
o6ycnoanenm peakune na 6asncnm peqek1, aqqek1na-
noc1L nn1epnpe1aunn 6ype1 neconoc1aanHo nnxe, 1ak kak
a o6nac1n 6asncnoro peqek1a, c1poro roaopn, ne1 nn
konqnnk1a, nn koHnnekca, ko1opme Hornn 6m 6m1L pas-
peuenm, pa n cnoaa a a1o o6nac1n o1nkpL ne npepc1aa-
nnk1 co6o napexnoro cpepc1aa koHHynnkaunn.
Mm ponxnm anennnpoaa1L k nnmH 1epanea1nuecknH qak-
1opaH a 1ex cnyuanx, korpa cnoaa, 1o ec1L accounaunn n
nocnepykune nn1epnpe1aunn, ne amsmaak1 neo6xopn-
Hmx nsHenennn nnn ne Hory1 nx coxpann1L. H cun1ak, u1o
cpepn a1nx qak1opoa nan6onee aaxnmH nanne1cn okasa-
nne naunen1y noHoun a yc1anoanennn, a 1akxe a nop-
pepxannn n coxpanennn a anann1nuecko cn1yaunn 1aknx
npnHn1nanmx o1nouenn, ko1opme cansanm c koHnynL-
cnanmHn na11epnaHn naunen1a, po 1ex nop, noka naunen1
ne nape1 aosHoxnoc1n yc1anoan1L noame qopHm o6L-
ek1nmx o1nouenn, onpo6oaa1L nx n akcnepnHen1npoaa1L
c nnHn. Tak kak nHenno 6asncnm peqek1, noka on ak1n-
aen, onpepenne1 pnanason poc1ynnmx pnn nnpnanpa
qopH o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn, 1o nacyunan sapaua 1epa-
nnn saknkuae1cn a 1oH, u1o6m noracn1L a1y ak1nanoc1L,
225
cospaa ycnoann, a ko1opmx 6asncnm peqek1 Hor 6m sa-
py6ueaa1Lcn. [nn a1oro nyxno nosaonn1L naunen1y per-
peccnpoaa1L k 1o konkpe1no qopHe o6Lek1nmx o1no-
uenn, a ko1opo aosnnkno ncxopnoe coc1onnnn peqnun-
1a, a Hoxe1 6m1L n k 6onee panne c1apnn. Takoam npep-
aapn1enLnme ycnoann, ko1opme o6nsa1enLno ponxnm
6m1L co6nkpenm po 1oro, kak naunen1 6ype1 a coc1onnnn
cnauana ouenL oc1opoxno o1kasa1Lcn o1 caonx koH-
nynLcnanmx na11epnoa. TonLko 1orpa on cHoxe1 naua1L
c unc1oro nnc1a, 1o ec1L saHenn1L npexnne na11epnm
o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn, o1 ko1opmx on o1kasancn, na cos-
pannme nH noame na11epnm. Hoame, 6onee rn6kne na1-
1epnm 6ypy1 a HenLue c1enenn nrpa1L ponL saun1, no-
a1oHy y naunen1a nonan1cn 6onLue aosHoxnoc1e pnn
apan1aunn k peanLnoc1n, 1enepL amsmaakue HenLuee
nanpnxenne n npo1naoc1onnne.
Cnepykun n nocnepnn aonpoc a1o rnaam 6ype1 1aknH:
kak anann1nk Hoxe1 cospa1L ycnoann, cnoco6c1aykune
a1oHy npoueccy? O1ae1y na a1o1 aonpoc nocanuena, a oc-
noanoH, cnepykuan rnaaa, specL xe n xouy o1He1n1L 1pn
nera1nanmx acnek1a, a nHenno ykasa1L na 1o, uero ana-
nn1nk ponxen no aosHoxnoc1n ns6era1L. Ocnoanan uep1a
npeo6napakuero a naue 1exnnke a nac1onuee apeHn
c1nnn coc1on1 a nn1epnpe1npoaannn acero, nackonLko a1o
aosHoxno, kak nepenoca, u1o 1an1 co6nasn c1a1L pnn na-
unx naunen1oa Horyuec1aennmHn n acesnakunHn o6Lek-
1aHn, nop1anknaan nx nnn amnyxpan k perpeccnn a
oknoqnnnueckn Hnp. D1o1 Hnp npepoc1aanne1 6onee ueH
poc1a1ouno aosHoxnoc1e pnn yc1anoanennn o1nouenn
saancnHoc1n, 1orpa kak pnn coaepuennn caHoc1on1enL-
nmx o1kpm1n nx nano nepoc1ae1. H napekcL, ace corna-
cn1cn c 1eH, u1o nocnepnee 1ak xe aaxno pnn 1epannn,
kak n nepaoe. KpoHe 1oro, a1o osnauae1, u1o anann1nk
ponxen ns6era1L pnrnpno qnkcaunn na epnnc1aenno
qopHe o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn, ko1opan okasanacL nones-
226
no a 1epannn ppyrnx naunen1oa nnn na npepmpyunx qa-
sax pannoro neuennn, nanpo1na, on ponxen acerpa 6m1L a
coc1onnnn ro1oanoc1n nepe1n aHec1e co caonH naunen-
1oH o1 oknoqnnnueckoro k qnno6a1nueckoHy npnHn1na-
noHy Hnpy n, Hoxe1 6m1L, paxe panee, sa nx rpannum, k
nepanunmH o1nouennnH. D1o aosHoxno 1onLko a 1oH cny-
uae, ecnn anann1nk cnoco6en npoaec1n pnqqepenunanL-
nyk pnarnoc1nky, o ko1opo ynoHnnanocL amue.
B1opo aaxnm HoHen1 coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o nopo anann-
1nk ponxen npnnoxn1L ace aosHoxnme ycnnnn, u1o6m ne
npeapa1n1Lcn a caHoc1on1enLnm o6Lek1 c ue1knHn rpa-
nnuaHn nnn ne aec1n ce6n nopo6nmH o6pasoH. [pyrnHn
cnoaaHn, on ponxen nosaonn1L caoeHy naunen1y o6pa-
ua1Lcn c co6o kak c neko nepanuno cy6c1anune. D1o
osnauae1, u1o on ponxen 6m1L ro1oa noppepxa1L naunen-
1a, no ne ak1nano, a nopo6no 1oHy, kak aopa noppepxn-
aae1 nnoaua nnn kak seHnn noppepxnaae1 neuexopa, 1o
ec1L 6m1L aHec1e c naunen1oH, nosaonn1L eHy onepe1Lcn
na ce6n n ne okasmaa1L a1oHy cnnukoH cnnLnoro conpo-
1nanennn. Heko1opoe conpo1nanenne, opnako, ne 1onLko
nosaonn1enLno, no n neo6xopnHo. Anann1nk ponxen ace
apeHn annHa1enLno cnepn1L sa 1eH, u1o6m a1o conpo1na-
nenne cospaaano poano c1onLko 1pennn, ckonLko a1oro
1pe6ye1 npopanxenne anepep, no ne 6onee 1oro, nnaue
ny1L Hoxe1 6m1L nperpaxpen nou1n neoponnHmHn npe-
nn1c1annHn ns-sa conpo1nanennn cpepm. Ho npexpe acero
neo6xopnHo naue npncy1c1ane, ono ponxno 6m1L nens-
HennmH, n Hm ponxnm 6m1L nopo6no aope nnn seHne
nepaspyunHm. Heko1opme ns a1nx acnek1oa n o6cyx-
pan a rnaae 22 n anoaL aepnycL k nnH a nocnepykunx
rnaaax.
Hs acero, o ueH 1onLko u1o roaopnnocL, am1ekae1 n no-
cnepnnn Hon pekoHenpaunn, npepnncmaakuan anann1nky
ns6era1L npeapauennn ao aceHoryuyk qnrypy a rna-
sax caoero naunen1a. B a1oH saknkuae1cn opna ns caHmx
227
1pypnmx sapau pannoro nepnopa neuennn. Perpeccnpo-
aaaun naunen1 oxnpae1 o1 caoero anann1nka 6onLue
ocaepoHnennoc1n, 6onLuero Horyuec1aa; kpoHe 1oro, on
oxnpae1 o1 anann1nka nanmx yaepenn nnn ckpm1mx na-
Hekoa na 1o, u1o 1o1 noHoxe1 eHy am1n ns perpeccnn
nnn 6ype1 aHec1e c nnH, noka a1o1 nepnop ne sakonun1cn.
k6oe 1akoe o6euanne nnn paxe Haneuee nponanenne
Honuannaoro cornacnn, amsoae1 cepLesnme 1pypnoc1n,
ko1opme Hory1 nepepac1n a nou1n neoponnHme npenn1c1-
ann a anann1nuecko pa6o1e. Epnnc1aennoe, u1o Hoxe1
cpena1L anann1nk, a1o npnnn1L ponL nc1nnno nepanu-
no cy6c1anunn, ko1opan acerpa cyuec1aye1, ko1opan ne
Hoxe1 6m1L ynnu1oxena, ko1opan eo ipso (1eH caHmH)
npncy1c1aye1 specL, u1o6m noppepxa1L naunen1a. On
uyac1aye1 snaunHoc1L n aec naunen1a, ero ne 6ecnokon1
aonpoc coxpanennn ue1knx rpannu Hexpy co6o n naun-
en1oH n 1. p., n aHec1e c 1eH on ne nanne1cn o6Lek1oH a
nc1nnnoH cHmcne cnoaa, 1o ec1L ne osa6ouen caonH caHo-
c1on1enLnmH cyuec1aoaanneH.
Heko1opme aa1opm nm1anncL onnca1L a1o1 1nn o6Lek1nmx
o1nouenn nnn, 1ounee roaopn, o1nouenn Hexpy naun-
en1oH n okpyxakue cpepo. Anna Opep (a ropm ao-
nm) yno1pe6nnna 1epHnn ypoane1aopnkun no1pe6no-
c1n o6Lek1; Iap1Hann (Hartmann, 1939) cpepneoxn-
paeHan cpepa; a caoe c1a1Le pnn Bpn1anckoro ncnxo-
anann1nueckoro o6uec1aa Bnon (Bion, 1966) npo1naonoc-
1aannn kon1enep n copepxnHoe. Haaepnoe, caHmH
nso6pe1a1enLnmH cospa1eneH nopo6nmx 1epHnnoa nann-
e1cn Bnnnnko11, ko1opm yno1pe6nnn nonn1nn poc1a1ou-
no xopouee okpyxenne (1941), sa1eH cpepa, a ko1o-
po naunen1 Hoxe1 apaua1Lcn nanopo6ne po1opa a Ha-
unnnoH Hacne, a 1949 ropy nopHanLno nk6nuan
Ha1L, a 1956 ropy nepanunan Ha1epnnckan osa6o-
uennoc1L, acnep sa a1nH (1960) noppepxnaakuan
qynkunn Ha1epn, a a 1963 ropy on nosanHc1aoaan ns
228
aHepnkancko nn1epa1ypm 1epHnn copec1aykuan cpe-
pa n ncnonLsoaan ero a sarnaann caoe nocnepne knn-
rn (1967). Maprape1 n11n (M. Little, 1961) nasaana a1o
6asncnmH epnnc1aoH, Xan (M. Khan, 1963) npepnoxnn
1epHnn orpapn1enLnm un1, Lnnu (R. Spitz, 1965)
nocpepnnk aneunero Hnpa, a Manep (M. Mahler, 1952)
npepnouna 1epHnn aney1po6nan Ha1pnua. Bce a1n 1ep-
Hnnm koppek1nm. Kaxpm ns nnx nopuepknaae1 1o1 nnn
nno acnek1 o1nouenn, anL1epna1nanmx o1nouennnH
aceHoryuec1aa, o ko1opmx n ynoHnnan. Koneuno, n oka-
smaak npepnou1enne caonH co6c1aennmH 1epHnnaH no
1o epnnc1aenno npnunne, u1o onn nannk1cn 6onee o6-
unHn n Hory1 aknkua1L a ce6n ppyrne kak o6osnauennn
uac1nmx acnek1oa.
Ecnn Hm npnnnHaeH a1n npen, 1o npo6neHa ypoane1ao-
pn1L nnn ne ypoane1aopn1L npn1nsannn perpeccnpoaaa-
uero naunen1a npepc1ae1 coaepuenno a nnoH cae1e,
1ak u1o aosnnkak1 coHnennn: a ne nm1anncL nn Hm pas-
peun1L napyHannyk npo6neHy, ko1opan npepc1aannnacL
nepaspeunHo 1onLko 6naropapn nekoppek1no qopHy-
nnpoake? Ha caHoH pene npo6neHa saknkuae1cn ne a 1oH,
ypoane1aopn1L nn no1pe6noc1n perpeccnpoaaauero naun-
en1a nnn qpyc1pnpoaa1L ero, a a 1oH, kakoe annnnne
okaxe1 peakunn anann1nka na o1nouennn Hexpy nnH n
naunen1oH n kakne a1o Hoxe1 nHe1L nocnepc1ann pnn
panLneuero xopa neuennn. Ecnn y naunen1a nocne o1-
ae1noro xopa anann1nka nanpnHep, ypoane1aopennn
oxnpann naunen1a aosnnkae1 aneua1nenne, 6yp1o ero
anann1nk nac1onLko nckyuen n nckycen, u1o 6nnsok k
aceaepennk n aceHoryuec1ay, 1o a1o1 xop, no-anpnHoHy,
nanne1cn pnckoaannmH n neuenecoo6pasnmH, on Hoxe1
npnaec1n k yrny6nennk nepaaenc1aa Hexpy naunen1oH n
anann1nkoH, u1o, a caok ouepepL, Hoxe1 noaneuL sa co-
6o uepes o6oc1penne 6asncnoro peqek1a naunen1a aos-
229
nnknoaenne coc1onnn, nanoHnnakunx snokauec1aennyk
saancnHoc1L.
C ppyro c1oponm, ecnn ypoane1aopenne poc1nrae1cn
cnoco6oH, ko1opm ne yaennunaae1 nepaaenc1ao, a npn-
aopn1 k aosnnknoaennk o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn, ko1opme
n nasmaak o1nouennnHn nepanuno nk6an, 1o Hoxno
6mno 6m cepLesno roaopn1L o6 a1oH He1ope kak o6 anL-
1epna1nanoH.
3pecL n npepnarak cpena1L ne6onLuoe o1c1ynnenne n o6-
cypn1L qenoHen, ko1opm n nasmaak oknoqnnnuecknH
yknonoH naue coapeHenno 1exnnkn, a 1akxe ero no-
cnepc1ann. Oknoqnnnueckne qenoHenm, aosnnkakune a
anann1nuecko cn1yaunn, okasann cnnLnoe annnnne na
ncnxoanann1nueckyk npak1nky n 1eopnk, noa1oHy onn
nonann a uen1p annHannn, 1orpa kak ne Henee aaxnme
qnno6a1nueckne n nepanunme o1nouennn 6mnn o11ecne-
nm na nepnqepnk. Tak cospaaanacL 1eopnn, onncmaak-
uan nonck o6Lek1a, uennnnne, npnansannoc1L n aH6n-
aanen1nyk saancnHoc1L. Kak n o1Heuan a knnre Hepanoe
aos6yxpenne n perpeccnn (1959), oco6enno a rnaae 12,
naun coapeHennme He1opm o6nsmaak1 nac nonnHa1L n
nn1epnpe1npoaa1L ace nponcxopnuee a anann1nuecko
cn1yaunn, 1ounee, ace u1o npopyunpye1 naunen1 npexpe
acero kak qenoHen nepenoca. B neko1opoH cHmcne a1o
osnauae1, u1o o1npaano 1ouko npn cospannn npak1nue-
ckn kaxpo nn1epnpe1aunn nannk1cn o1nouennn Hexpy
ouenL snaunHmH n aespecyunH o6Lek1oH, kakoamH npep-
c1ae1 anann1nk, n nepaanmH eHy cy6Lek1oH, ko1opm a
anann1nuecko cn1yaunn, no-anpnHoHy, ne Hoxe1 nn
uyac1aoaa1L, nn pyHa1L, nn nepexnaa1L u1o-nn6o 6es
caoero anann1nka.
erko saHe1n1L, u1o coapeHennan 1exnnka nn1epnpe1aunn
nepenoca cnoco6c1aye1 cospannk kap1nnm Hnpa, rpe
xankne cy6Lek1m npepc1ak1 npep nnuoH Horyuec1aen-
230
nmx, nckyuennmx n aespecyunx o6Lek1oa, napenennmx
nonnoHounnHn nspeka1L cyxpennn o6o aceH nponcxopn-
ueH, nc1nnnoc1L ko1opmx ne nopnexn1 coHnennk; ana-
nn1nk nanne1cn npknH npnHepoH 1akoro popa o6Lek1a.
OuenL nerko npnnn1L 1eopnk opanLno saancnHoc1n,
ecnn 1onLko cornacn1Lcn c 1eH, u1o 1akan kap1nna Hnpa
nanne1cn nc1nnno n penpesen1a1nano HopenLk pannnx
c1apn uenoaeueckoro pasan1nn. 3aancnHoc1L specL oue-
anpna, a npnnara1enLnoe opanLnan c ro1oanoc1Lk 6y-
pe1 po6aaneno nop paanenneH naue 1eopnn aneuenn,
ncxopn ns ko1opo pnn onncannn pannero onm1a n acex
npnHn1nanmx qopH Hoxno na1n 1onLko a1o cnoao.
OpanLnme acnek1m ycnnnaak1cn 6naropapn 1oHy, u1o
ao apeHn neuennn, npoaopnHoro a a1oH c1nne, nou1n ace
1pancakunn Hexpy naunen1oH n anann1nkoH nponcxopn1
npn noHoun cnoa, a anann1nkn, naunen1m n naua 1eopnn
yansmaak1 a1o1 qak1 c 1eH, u1o nn1epnpe1aunn 1o ec1L
cnoaa Hory1 cnHaonnsnpoaa1L Honoko, a anann1nk
rpypL.
Tak o6pasye1cn saHkny1m kpyr: ace nponcxopnuee a
anann1nuecko cn1yaunn nonnHae1cn n nn1epnpe1npye1cn
a nopo6no Hanepe, a naunen1, a caok ouepepL, nayua-
e1cn - kak a1o 6mno onncano a rnaae 15 qopHynnpo-
aa1L n paxe o1uac1n ncnm1maa1L poaep6anLnme nepexn-
aannn, cnepyn npaannaH naansannoro eHy nsmka, u1o
y6expae1 anann1nka a a6conk1no aepnoc1n ero 1eopnn n
ero nn1epnpe1aun. 3pecL Hm anpnH npnHep cn1yaunn,
nepepko ac1peuakuecn npak1nueckn a kaxpo nayke, a
oco6ennoc1n a ncnxoanannse, korpa uac1nme acnek1m nc-
1nnm ncnonLsyk1cn pnn 1oro, u1o6m ckpm1L ack nc1nny.
B naueH npnHepe 1aknHn acnek1aHn nc1nnm nannk1cn
uep1m saancnHoc1n n opanLnme qenoHenm, npncy-
une npnHn1nanmH uenoaeuecknH o1nouennnH. 3naun-
Hoc1L a1nx qenoHenoa necopasHepno npeyaennuena a
naue coapeHenno 1exnnke, 1ak kak ne npnnnHae1cn ao
231
annHanne, u1o uac1nunme nc1nnm paneko ne acerpa no-
saonnk1 cospa1L uenoc1nyk kap1nny.
Opep pae1 naH xopoune npnHepm, nop1aepxpakune a1o
Hnenne. Hsyuan onncannn ero cnyuaea, Hm anpnH, u1o on
ne 1oponnncn nn1epnpe1npoaa1L nepenoc, xo1n n ypennn
eHy ponxnoe annHanne. B pesynL1a1e, xo1n Opep n na-
nnncn pnn naunen1oa aecLHa snaunHmH o6Lek1oH, ero He-
1opm ne aenn k amnyxpennoHy cospannk y naunen1oa
kap1nnm Hnpa, a coo1ae1c1ann c ko1opo (o ueH roaopn-
nocL amue) cyuec1aye1 rne1yuee nepaaenc1ao Hexpy ok-
noqnnnuecknH cy6Lek1oH n ero caHmH aaxnmH o6Lek1oH.
Kak n yxe o1Heuan, a npepHe1nmx ykasa1ennx acex 23
1oHoa c1anpap1noro co6pannn ero counnenn knkueaoe
cnoao saancnHoc1L ac1peuae1cn poaonLno pepko, a co-
ue1anne opanLnan saancnHoc1L n aoace ne ac1peuae1-
cn.
1o6m nponnnkc1pnpoaa1L npo6neHm, o6cyxpaeHme a
a1o rnaae, n nosaonk ce6e ynoHnny1L o6 opnoH annsope
pnn1enLno 1epannn. Hocne neypaunoro ceanca a nn1nn-
uy, ao apeHn ko1oporo naunen1 poaonLno neoxo1no co-
rnacnncn c 1eH, u1o Hexpy nnH n ero anann1nkoH ne Ho-
xe1 6m1L yc1anoanen peanLnm kon1ak1, 1ak kak na npo-
1nxennn acero ceanca naunen1 naxopnncn nop paanenneH
no1pe6noc1n a o6ecuennaannn anann1nka, yxopn ns ka6n-
ne1a, on ncnm1maan cnnLnme sa1pypnennn. Yxe naxopncL
na nopore, on ckasan, u1o uyac1aye1 ce6n yxacno, n no-
npocnn o pononnn1enLno ac1peue a amxopnme pnn, no-
ckonLky eHy neo6xopnHa noHouL, u1o6m cnpaan1Lcn co
caonH coc1onnneH.
Hpo6neHa, koneuno, coc1on1 a 1oH, kak o1ae1n1L na a1o1
sanpoc, ko1opm, 6es coHnennn, npepc1aanne1 co6o
npocL6y o6 ypoane1aopennn. [onxen po6aan1L, u1o ape-
Hn o1 apeHenn a1o1 naunen1 po6naancn npoaepennn po-
nonnn1enLnmx ceancoa a amxopnme pnn; on acerpa ncnm-
232
1maan rny6okoe ypoane1aopenne ao apeHn a1nx ceancoa,
n, u1o xapak1epno, cyuec1aennoe ocna6nenne nanpnxe-
nnn, 1eH ne Henee ouenL pepko Hoxno 6mno aec1n peanL-
nyk anann1nueckyk pa6o1y ao apeHn pononnn1enLnmx
ac1peu.
[onyc1nH, u1o a1o1 sanpoc 6mn 6m nc1onkoaan kak eue
opno npn1nsanne n ncxopn ns a1oro coo6paxennn o1-
aeprny1. Ecnn 6m naunen1 npnnnn a1y nn1epnpe1aunk, on
nouyac1aoaan 6m ce6n eue 6onee necuac1nmH, nockonLky
on nanpacno ncnm1maan po6po1y n 1epnenne anann1nka,
ero c1papannn ycyry6nnncL 6m. Ecnn 6m naunen1 ne co-
rnacnncn c nn1epnpe1aune n peunn, u1o anann1nk sno
n xec1okn uenoaek, 1o a1o yaennunno 6m nanpnxenne a
1epannn. CoHnn1enLno 1akxe n 1o, u1o cn1yaunn nsHenn-
nacL 6m k nyuueHy, ecnn 6m anann1nk nc1onkoaan ee kak
conpo1nanenne nnn nepenoc neko1opo arpeccnanoc1n n
nenaanc1n ns pe1c1aa.
C ppyro c1oponm, ecnn 6m anann1nk nouen naac1peuy
npocL6e naunen1a o pononnn1enLnoH ceance nesaancnHo
o1 1oro, nc1onkoaan 6m on a1y cn1yaunk kak noa1openne
pannnx qpyc1paun, amsaannmx xapnoc1Lk n saanc1Lk,
nnn kak noa1openne qpyc1paun, npnaopnunx k saanc1n
n xapnoc1n, 1o on naansan 6m caoeHy naunen1y oknoqn-
nnueckne o1nouennn, npeapa1nauncL ao aceHoryun
o6Lek1.
B pannoH cnyuae n a npexpe acero noc1apancn nonn1L n
npnnn1L c1papannn naunen1a, pa1L eHy nouyac1aoaa1L,
u1o n aHec1e c nnH, n sa1eH coo6unn eHy, u1o pononnn-
1enLnm ceanc, o ko1opoH on npocn1, apnp nn cHor 6m
pa1L eHy 1o, uero on oxnpae1 n a ueH nyxpae1cn a na-
c1onun HoHen1; kpoHe 1oro, Hoe cornacne Horno 6m
npnaec1n k 1oHy, u1o on nouyac1aoaan 6m ce6n HanenL-
knH n cna6mH, 1orpa kak n, ero anann1nk, npepc1an 6m
nepep nnH 6onLunH n Horyuec1aennmH. Ho a1nH npnun-
233
naH n ne nouen naac1peuy npocL6e naunen1a. On yuen
paspocapoaannm.
Hpn am6ope caoero o1ae1a n npecnepoaan pae uenn. C
opno c1oponm, n c1apancn ns6exa1L pasan1nn nexena-
1enLnmx o1nouenn, korpa, nanpnHep, c1poran nnn no-
paannkuan nepcona, napenennan aa1opn1e1oH n nyuue
snakuan, u1o npaannLno, nopaanne1 nnn qpyc1pnpye1
ppyryk nepcony, nn6o korpa cna6an c1opona nyxpae1cn a
noppepxke, a anann1nk nrpae1 ponL aennkopyuno n Hn-
noceppno anac1no qnrypm cnoaoH, 1aknx o1noue-
nn, ko1opme aepy1 k ycnnennk nepaaenc1aa Hexpy
cy6Lek1oH n ero Horyuec1aennmH o6Lek1oH. C ppyro
c1oponm, n c1apancn yc1anoan1L o1nouennn, a ko1opmx
nn opnn ns nac ne 6mn 6m napenen aceHoryuec1aoH, ka-
xpm npnsnaaan 6m caon orpannuennn n napenncn na
aosHoxnoc1L nnopo1aopnoro co1pypnnuec1aa Hexpy pay-
Hn nkpLHn, ne nHekunHn qynpaHen1anLnmx o1nnun a
snaunHoc1n, annnnnn n cnne.
3pecL n ponxen o1He1n1L, u1o a1o1 naunen1 ouenL pepko
saonnn Hne, ne 6onee pasa a rop, npnueH a cnyuae kpa-
ne neo6xopnHoc1n. B a1o1 pas on nosaonnn Hne a 1o1 xe
aeuep, a pean1oH uacy. On c 1pypoH Hor roaopn1L a 1ene-
qonnyk 1py6ky, poaonLno ponro xopnn aokpyr pa okono,
no a konue konuoa cHor amroaopn1L, u1o ponxen 6mn no-
saonn1L Hne... u1o6m coo6un1L, u1o on 6nnsok k 1oHy,
u1o6m paspmpa1Lcn... opno a1o... on nnuero ne xoue1 o1
Henn, ne xoue1 pononnn1enLnoro ceanca... no on ponxen
6mn nosaonn1L Hne, u1o6m coo6un1L o caonx uyac1aax.
Hs a1oro npnHepa anpno, kak peakunn anann1nka annne1
na xop 1epanea1nuecknx o1nouenn, ko1opme naunnak1-
cn c npe1ensnn na ypoane1aopenne aneuennn xena-
nnn, 1o ec1L c snokauec1aenno qopHm perpeccnn, n
npnaopn1 k po6pokauec1aenno qopHe, 1o ec1L k perpec-
cnn papn npnsnannn. Hpn a1oH anann1nk ns6eran paxe
234
anpnHoc1n aceaepennn n aceHoryuec1aa; nanpo1na, on
amkasan ro1oanoc1L k npnnn1nk ponn nepanunoro o6Lek-
1a, rnaano sapaue ko1oporo nanne1cn npnsnanne naun-
en1a n conpnuac1noc1L.
Henocpepc1aennmH pesynL1a1oH Hoero noaepennn a a1oH
cnyuae 6mno snaun1enLnoe cnnxenne nanpnxennn y na-
unen1a, on o1nocn1enLno xopouo npoaen a1n amxopnme n
neko1opoe apeHn cnyc1n c1an cnoco6en k kon1ak1y n co-
1pypnnuec1ay. H 6m paxe ckasan, u1o a1o co6m1ne nnn-
unnpoaano nnn ycnnnno nosn1nanme nsHenennn a
a1Hocqepe anann1nuecko cn1yaunn, ko1opme nocnyxnnn
ocnoaanneH pnn cyuec1aennoro nporpecca.
Fnaaa 25. Heuaansvuam auanu1uk
B rnaae 22 Hm o6cyxpann pae qopHm perpeccnn, no ne
oc1anaannaanncL na anannse 1exnnuecknx Hep, ko1opme
Hoxe1 npepnpnnn1L anann1nk, u1o6m ns6exa1L pncka
snokauec1aenno perpeccnn n o6ecneun1L pasan1ne ee
po6pokauec1aenno qopHm. B npepmpyunx rnaaax Hm
nonyunnn o6uee npepc1aanenne o 1oH, kak a1o Hoxe1
6m1L cpenano. eH 6onLue noaepenne n 1exnnka anann-
1nka pak1 noaop k 1oHy, u1o6m naunen1 aocnpnnnHan ero
kak aceaepyuyk n aceHoryuyk qnrypy, 1eH 6onLue
onacnoc1L aosnnknoaennn snokauec1aenno qopHm per-
peccnn. C ppyro c1oponm, uancm nonanennn po6pokaue-
c1aenno qopHm perpeccnn 1eH amue, ueH 6onLuero yc-
nexa poc1nrae1 anann1nk a caonx nonm1kax crnapn1L ne-
paaenc1ao, a 1akxe oc1aaa1Lcn a rnasax caoero naunen1a
npoc1mH n nenaansunamH.
Mm nopounn k opno ns caHmx aaxnmx npo6neH a coape-
Henno ncnxoanann1nuecko 1exnnke. B kako c1enenn,
korpa, a kakoH coo1nouennn n a kako nocnepoaa1enLno-
c1n ponxnm 6m1L ncnonLsoaanm paa cpepc1aa 1epannn
235
nn1epnpe1aunn n o6Lek1nme o1nouennn? D1a npo6neHa
cyuec1aye1 acerpa, no oco6enno oc1po ona ac1ae1 npn
neuennn perpeccnpoaaaunx naunen1oa, a 1o1 HoHen1, ko-
rpa pa6o1a poc1nrae1 o6nac1n 6asncnoro peqek1a. Ho-
ckonLky, kak Hm snaeH, cnoaa nHek1 ouenL yskne n ne-
onpepenennme paHkn npnHenennn a a1o o6nac1n, 1o, an-
pnHo, cnepye1 npnsna1L, u1o o6Lek1nme o1nouennn na-
nnk1cn 6onee aaxnmH n 6onee napexnmH cpepc1aoH a
a1n nepnopm 1epannn, 1orpa kak nn1epnpe1aunn anoaL
npno6pe1ak1 caok snaunHoc1L a coc1onnnnx, ko1opme
aosnnkak1 nocne amxopa naunen1a ns perpeccnn.
OuenL aaxno nonn1L, kakyk 1exnnky Hoxe1 ncnonLsoaa1L
anann1nk pnn cospannn nHenno 1ex o6Lek1nmx o1noue-
nn, ko1opme, no ero Hnennk, 6onLue acero nopxopn1
pnn konkpe1noro naunen1a, 1o ec1L papy1 nan6onLun
1epanea1nueckn aqqek1. HepamH anann1nkoH, aecLHa
cnc1eHa1nueckn akcnepnHen1npoaaaunH a a1o o6nac1n,
6mn Oepenun. Ero ak1nanan 1exnnka n npnnunn pe-
nakcaunn npepc1aannnn co6o npepnaHepennme nonm1-
kn cospannn 1aknx o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn, ko1opme, no
ero Hnennk, nyuue nopxopnnn pnn nyxp neko1opmx na-
unen1oa, ueH a1Hocqepa anann1nueckoro ceanca, sapan-
noro paHkaHn knaccnuecknx pekoHenpaun Opepa.
OuenL ckopo Oepenun npnuen k amaopy, u1o epnnc1aen-
nmH pesynL1a1oH acex ero ycnnn 6mno yaennuenne sa-
ancnHoc1n naunen1oa, on npeapauancn pnn nnx ao ace
6onee snaunHyk qnrypy; a 1o xe apeHn pnn nero oc1aaa-
nocL nenonn1nmH, noueHy co6m1nn pasanaanncL nHenno
1ak, a ne nnaue. Ceuac Hm HoxeH ckasa1L, u1o ero 1ex-
nnka ne crnaxnaana, a, nanpo1na, ycnnnaana nepaaenc1-
ao Hexpy nnH n ero naunen1aHn, ko1opme pec1an1enLno
aocnpnnnHann anann1nka kak aceaepyuyk n caHyk sna-
unHyk pnn nnx nepcony.
B caoe npak1nke n poaonLno pano nonnn, u1o co6nkpe-
nne paHok knaccnuecko 1exnnkn na pene osnauae1 c1po-
236
rn o16op naunen1oa. Mo an1ysnasH noanuka aocnpo1n-
anncn a1oHy, n, naxopncL nop annnnneH Oepenun, n c1an
akcnepnHen1npoaa1L c neaep6anLnmHn koHHynnkaunnHn.
Haunnan c 1932 ropa n ny6nnkoaan pesynL1a1m Honx akc-
nepnHen1oa a c1a1Lnx, Hnorne ns ko1opmx 6mnn nepens-
panm a Hepanuno nk6an... (1952). Koneuno, sa npo-
uepune ropm Hon He1opm n Ho o6pas Hmunennn npe-
1epnenn snaun1enLnme nsHenennn, n 1enepL Hon npen
onn1L poc1nrnn 1o c1apnn, na ko1opo n Hory oprann-
soaa1L nx, 1o ec1L ampasn1L a poc1a1ouno onpepenenno
qopHe, poc1ynno pnn o6cyxpennn n kpn1nkn. Hpn a1oH n
nonnoc1Lk o1pak ce6e o1ue1 a 1oH, u1o onn panekn o1 sa-
aepuennoc1n.
Hocnepnne neckonLko ne1, c1apancL npeopone1L 1pypno-
c1n, o ko1opmx 1onLko u1o ynoHnnanocL, n akcnepnHen1n-
poaan c 1exnnko, nosaonnkue naunen1y ao1n a 1akoro
popa payc1oponnne o1nouennn, rpe koHHynnkaunn ne Ho-
ry1 ocyuec1ann1Lcn npn noHoun cnoa n paxe ne nyxpa-
k1cn a nnx, rpe cnoaa saHennk1cn nopo 1eH, u1o 1enepL
o6muno nasmaak1 o1mrpmaanneH a anann1nuecko cn-
1yaunn. Cneuy po6aan1L, u1o ace a1n neaep6anLnme koH-
Hynnkaunn, o1mrpmaanne, koneuno, nopnexa1 npopa6o1-
ke, no ne npexpe, ueH naunen1 oc1aan1 ypoaenL 6asncno-
ro peqek1a n anoaL nepepe1 na ypoaenL apnnoaa kon-
qnnk1a.
H nosaonk ce6e akpa1ue nsnoxn1L specL neko1opme co-
o6paxennn, ko1opme nopaenn Henn k a1nH akcnepnHen-
1aH. K caoe pocape n o1uannnk, ao Hnornx cnyuanx n
o6napyxnaan, u1o cnoaa nepec1aaann 6m1L napexnmH
cpepc1aoH koHHynnkaunn, korpa anann1nueckan pa6o1a
poc1nrana o6nac1n, nexaue nnxe apnnoaa ypoann. Ana-
nn1nk Hoxe1 npnnoxn1L ace caon ycnnnn k 1oHy, u1o6m
ero nn1epnpe1aunn 6mnn ncnmHn n nepaycHmcnennmHn,
opnako naunen1 kaknH-1o o6pasoH acerpa yHyppne1cn
aocnpnnnHa1L nx kak neu1o coaepuenno o1nnunoe o1 1o-
237
ro, ueH naHepeaancn nx cpena1L anann1nk. Honm1kn
pasLncnn1L, apryHen1npoaa1L, y1ounenne nnn koppekunn
aapnan1oa nn1epnpe1aun ne npnnocn1 xenannoro nnopa.
Anann1nk amnyxpen cHnpn1Lcn c yppyuakunH qak1oH,
u1o a a1nx o6nac1nx ero cnoaa aHec1o 1oro, u1o6m nponc-
nn1L cn1yaunk, npnaopn1 k eue 6onLue ny1annue nsm-
koa, ncnonLsyeHmx nH n naunen1oH, 1ak kak neaepno nc-
1onkoamaak1cn nocnepnnH. Ho cy1n, cnoaa c1anoan1cn
nenapexnmHn, a nx aqqek1 nenpepckasyeHmH.
D1o knnnnueckoe na6nkpenne ouenL aaxno pnn Honx pac-
cyxpenn, noa1oHy n ocaeuy ero c neckonLko nno
c1oponm. Cnoaa a 1akne nepnopm nepec1ak1 6m1L cpepc1-
aoH pnn nepepaun cao6opnmx accounaun; onn Hory1
c1a1L 6esxnsnennmHn, ckyunmHn n c1epeo1nnnmHn; onn
nponsaopn1 aneua1nenne c1apmx sanrpannmx rpaHHoqon-
nmx nnac1nnok, na ko1opmx nrna 6eckoneuno ckonLsn1 no
opno n 1o xe popoxke. Kc1a1n, uac1o 1o xe caHoe o1-
nocn1cn n k nn1epnpe1aunnH anann1nka; a 1akne nepnopm
kaxe1cn, u1o n a nnx 1oxe 6eckoneuno nponrpmaae1cn
opna n 1a xe qpasa. Ha a1oH a1ane anann1nk, k caoeHy
o1uannnk n yxacy, nonnHae1: npoponxa1L nn1epnpe1n-
poaa1L aep6anLnme koHHynnkaunn naunen1a ne1 nn Ha-
neuero cHmcna. Ha apnnoaoH ypoane n paxe na neko-
1opmx 1ak nasmaaeHmx po-apnnoamx ypoannx aepnan
nn1epnpe1aunn cnnHae1 conpo1nanenne nnn yc1panne1
pacuennenne, nepeaopn am1ecnennm konqnnk1 a cqepy
cosnannn, u1o cnoco6c1aye1 aoso6noanennk no1oka
cao6opnmx accounaun naunen1a.
Ha ypoane 6asncnoro peqek1a 1ako aqqek1 coaceH ne
o6nsa1enen. Hn1epnpe1aunn Hory1 aocnpnnnHa1Lcn kak
npenn1c1ane nnn xec1okoc1L, nesakonnoe 1pe6oaanne
nnn sanpe1nm ypap, kak ampaxenne apaxpe6noc1n nnn
npnsnak npnansannoc1n nn6o Hory1 aocnpnnnHa1Lcn kak
neu1o nnuennoe xnsnn, no cy1n Hep1aoe, u1o aoace ne
okaxe1 nnkakoro annnnnn.
238
Cnepykuee coo6paxenne ocnoaano na o1kpm1nn oknoqn-
nnuecknx npepnou1enn a naue 1exnnke, o ko1opmx yxe
roaopnnocL a npepmpyue rnaae (cH. 1akxe pa6o1y 1959
ropa, rnaay XII). B nac1onuee apeHn anann1nkn c ypo-
aonLc1aneH nn1epnpe1npyk1 a 1epHnnax nepenoca, 1o
ec1L o6Lek1nmx o1nouenn ace, u1o nponcxopn1 a anann-
1nuecko cn1yaunn. D1a 1exnnka, a kakoH-1o cHmcne pa-
syHnan n aqqek1nanan, osnauae1, u1o Hm nenpec1anno
npepnaraeH naunH naunen1aH ce6n a kauec1ae o6Lek1oa,
sa ko1opme Hoxno yuenn1Lcn. Bce, u1o o1nnuae1cn o1 ue-
nnnnnn, Hm nc1onkoamaaeH kak conpo1nanenne, arpec-
cnanoc1L, napunccnsH, o6npunaoc1L, napanonpnyk 1peao-
ry, c1pax kac1paunn n 1. p. D1o cospae1 a amcue c1enenn
aH6naanen1nyk n nanpnxennyk a1Hocqepy: naunen1
c1apae1cn nso acex cnn, aepoHm caonH c1peHnenneH k
nesaancnHoc1n, no kaxpm ero uar na a1oH ny1n okasm-
aae1cn sa6noknpoaannmH nn1epnpe1aunnHn oknoqnnn-
ueckoro nepenoca.
B ocnoay 1pe1Lero nynk1a Honx paccyxpenn nerno nc-
cnepoaanne npo6neHm Honuauero naunen1a. Monua-
nne, kak a1o ace 6onLue n 6onLue npnsnae1cn, Hoxe1
o6napa1L Hnoxec1aoH snauenn, kaxpoe ns ko1opmx 1pe-
6ye1 coo1ae1c1aykuero 1exnnueckoro nopxopa. Monuanne
Hoxe1 6m1L 6esaopno n yxacakue nyc1mne, apax-
pe6no xnsnn n poc1y, a 1akoH cnyuae naunen1 pon-
xen noknny1L a1y nyc1mnk kak Hoxno ckopee; ono Hoxe1
6m1L ppyxenk6nmH aonnykunH npoc1panc1aoH, npnrna-
uakunH naunen1a npepnpnnn1L saxaa1maakuee ny1eue-
c1ane a nensaepannme o6nac1n qan1asnn, a a1oH cny-
uae oknoqnnnueckne nn1epnpe1aunn Hory1 okasa1Lcn co-
aepuenno neyHec1nmHn; Honuanne 1akxe Hoxe1 osnaua1L
nonm1ky aocc1anoanennn rapHonnunmx o1nouenn nep-
anuno nk6an, ko1opoe cyuec1aoaano Hexpy nnpnanpoH
n ero okpyxenneH po 1oro, kak aosnnknn o6Lek1m, a
a1oH cnyuae nk6oe aHeua1enLc1ao a anpe nn1epnpe1aunn
239
nnn a nk6o ppyro qopHe c1poro npo1naonokasano, no-
ckonLky npepLnanneHme naunen1y 1pe6oaannn Hory1 pas-
pyun1L a1y rapHonnk.
Hocnepnee paccyxpenne cansano c HonHn npenHn o1nocn-
1enLno o6nac1n cosnpannn, 1o o6nac1n ncnxnkn, rpe o1-
cy1c1ayk1 aneunne c1pyk1ypnpoaannme o6Lek1m. k6oe
a1opxenne 1akoro o6Lek1a uepes npnanekakune annHa-
nne nn1epnpe1aunn nens6exno paspyuae1 pnn naunen1a
aosHoxnoc1L cospa1L u1o-nn6o ane ce6n caHoro.
B rnaae 5 roaopnnocL o 1oH, u1o o6Lek1m a a1o o6nac1n
naxopn1cn eue a nec1pyk1ypnpoaannoH coc1onnnn n npo-
uecc cosnpannn, aepyun k nx oprannsaunn, 1pe6ye1
npexpe acero apeHenn. D1o apeHn Hoxe1 6m1L kpa1knH
nnn npoponxn1enLnmH; no kaknH 6m ono nn 6mno, a a1o1
nepnop ne ponxno nponcxopn1L aHeua1enLc1aa nsane.
Hou1n naaepnnka 1o xe caHoe Hoxno o1nec1n k 1aopuec1-
ay naunx naunen1oa a cqepe 6eccosna1enLnoro. Moxe1
6m1L, nHenno noa1oHy pnn naunen1a, perpeccnpoaaauero
k a1o o6nac1n, nn1epnpe1aunn anann1nka nannk1cn ne-
npneHneHmHn. BsanHopec1ane Hexpy 1yHannmH, nano-
HnnakunH cnoanpenne, ace eue neoprannsoaannmH co-
pepxanneH o6nac1n cosnpannn n nn1epnpe1aunnHn, ko1o-
pme, no cy1n, npepc1aannk1 co6o uenoc1nme, oprann-
soaannme Hmcnn nnn o6Lek1m, Hoxe1 npnaec1n nn6o k
coc1onnnk onyc1ouennoc1n, nn6o k neec1ec1aenno
npexpeapeHenno konconnpaunn copepxannn o6nac1n
cosnpannn.
BneunnH nponanenneH acex a1nx c1onL o1nnuakunxcn
ppyr o1 ppyra coc1onnn Hoxe1 6m1L Honuanne naunen1a,
ko1opm oueanpnmH o6pasoH o1c1pannncn o1 nopHanLno
anann1nuecko pa6o1m n aHec1o 1oro, u1o6m accounnpo-
aa1L, o1mrpmaae1 nnn, Hoxe1 6m1L, paxe noa1opne1
neu1o, aHec1o 1oro, u1o6m acnoHnna1L. H nocnepnee, no
ne Henee snaunHoe: o 1akoH naunen1e Hoxno ckasa1L,
240
u1o on perpeccnpoaan k nekoeHy npnHn1nanoHy noaepe-
nnk aHec1o 1oro, u1o6m nporpeccnpoaa1L k npnnn1nk
nauero ocnoanoro npaanna. Bce a1n xapak1epnc1nkn
yxop, o1mrpmaanne, noa1openne aHec1o aocnoHnnann,
perpeccnn koppek1nme, no ne ncuepnmaakune, n no-
a1oHy Hory1 npnaec1n k oun6ounmH 1exnnuecknH uaraH.
Hoa1oHy n cun1ak, u1o npn pa6o1e c naunen1aHn, perpec-
cnpoaaaunHn po ypoann 6asncnoro peqek1a nnn cosnpa-
nnn, nan6onee yHec1nmH 1exnnuecknH uaroH 6ype1 ape-
Hennoe npnnn1ne nx perpeccnn n o1kas o1 aHeua1enLc1aa
npn noHoun nn1epnpe1aun. D1o1 nepnop Hoxe1 pnn1Lcn
n neckonLko Hnny1, n neckonLko ceancoa. Kak n neckonL-
ko pas o1Heuan, cnoaa a 1akne nepnopm noueHy-1o nepe-
c1ak1 6m1L napexnmHn cpepc1aoH koHHynnkaunn; onn ne
nannk1cn cnoco6oH ampaxennn cao6opnmx accounaun,
c1anoan1cn 6esxnsnennmHn, ckyunmHn n c1epeo1nnnmHn,
a nx snauenne, no-anpnHoHy, o1nnuae1cn o1 caoc1aenno-
ro nH copepxannn. 3apaua anann1nka saknkuae1cn a 1oH,
u1o6m nonn1L, u1o c1on1 sa cnoaaHn naunen1a, opnako
cnoco6, ko1opmH Hoxno 6mno 6m nepepa1L a1o nonnHa-
nne perpeccnpoaaaueHy naunen1y, o1nkpL ne oueanpen.
H npepnarak 6es npepasn1oc1n asrnnny1L na 1o1 qak1,
u1o cnoaa y1pa1nnn caok napexnoc1L, n nckpenne na
apeHn o1kasa1Lcn o1 nk6mx nonm1ok nop1onkny1L naun-
en1a k aosapauennk na aep6anLnm ypoaenL. D1o osna-
uae1, u1o ycnnnn no oprannsaunn Ha1epnana naunen1a
ponxnm 6m1L oc1aanenm: 1ako Ha1epnan npoc1o ne ro-
pn1cn pnn a1oro, yHec1nee nosaonn1L a1oHy Ha1epnany
oc1aaa1Lcn nekorepen1nmH, 6eccHmcnennmH, neoprannso-
aannmH po 1ex nop, noka naunen1, aosapa1nauncL na
apnnoa ypoaenL, k ncnonLsoaannk o6uenpnnn1oro nsmka,
ne o6pe1e1 cnoco6noc1L npepnoxn1L anann1nky knku k
ero nonnHannk.
Hnaue roaopn, anann1nk ponxen npnnn1L perpeccnk. To
ec1L on ponxen cospa1L 1akoe okpyxenne, 1ako knnHa1,
241
a ko1opoH perpeccnn cHorna 6m c1a1L o6unH nepexnaa-
nneH pnn anann1nka n naunen1a. D1o 1ak aaxno n no1oHy,
u1o a nopo6nmx coc1onnnnx nk6oe aneunee paanenne 1eH
nnn nnmH cnoco6oH ycnnnaae1 y naunen1a n 6es 1oro
poc1a1ouno ampaxennyk 1enpenunk cospaaa1L o1noue-
nnn nepaaenc1aa Hexpy nnH n ero o6Lek1aHn, sakpennnn,
1aknH o6pasoH, cknonnoc1L k perpeccnn.
H xo1en 6m npnaec1n pnn nnnkc1paunn npnHep ns anann-
sa, onncannoro a rnaae 21, ko1opm na 1o1 HoHen1 ape-
Henn npoponxancn yxe 6onee payx ne1. Haunen1 coxpa-
nnn Honuanne a 1euenne 6onee 1pnpua1n Hnny1 nocne na-
uana ceanca; anann1nk npnnnHan a1o Honuanne n npep-
c1aannn ce6e, u1o Hoxe1 nponcxopn1L c naunen1oH, on
Honua xpan, ne penan kaknx-nn6o nonm1ok aHeua1enLc1-
aa. Hpn a1oH on paxe ne ouyuan pnckoHqop1a nnn neo6-
xopnHoc1n u1o-nn6o cpena1L. B a1o 1epannn n panLue
neckonLko pas aosnnkann naysm, noa1oHy n naunen1 n
anann1nk kak-1o nayunnncL cnpaann1Lcn c 1aknHn cn1ya-
unnHn. B konue konuoa Honuanne 6mno npepaano pmpa-
nnnHn naunen1a, ackope, ycnokonauncL, on yxe cHor
pasroaapnaa1L. On ckasan anann1nky, u1o nakoneu-1o eHy
ypanocL yc1anoan1L kon1ak1 c caHnH co6o; c pe1c1aa on
nnkorpa ne oc1aaancn opnn, acerpa pnpoH c nnH 6mn k1o-
1o, ykasmaakun eHy, u1o pena1L. Heko1opoe apeHn
cnyc1n, na ppyroH ceance, on pacckasan, u1o ao apeHn
a1o naysm eHy npnxopnnn a ronoay aceaosHoxnme acco-
unaunn, opnako on o1aepran nx kak pocapnme noHexn,
o1anekakune ero o1 rnaanoro.
Koneuno, Honuanne nerko Hoxe1 6m1L nc1onkoaano kak
conpo1nanenne, yxop, npnsnak c1paxa npecnepoaannn,
necnoco6noc1n cnpaan1Lcn c penpeccnanmHn 1peaoraHn,
cnHn1oH naansunaoro noa1opennn n 1. p. KpoHe 1oro, po-
aonLno xopouo snan caoero naunen1a, anann1nk Hoxe1
nonn1L nnn npepyrapa1L nonanenne a ero accounaunnx
1o nnn nno 1eHm, a 1akxe n 1o, noueHy naunen1 cun1a-
242
e1 konkpe1nyk npek neyHec1no n o1aeprae1 ee. Bce a1n
nn1epnpe1aunn Hory1 6m1L coaepuenno koppek1nmHn,
opnako onn paspyuak1 Honuanne. Haunen1 ne cHor 6m
ac1pe1n1Lcn c caHnH co6o, ao acnkoH cnyuae a a1o1
pas. Bcnkan nn1epnpe1aunn, paxe koppek1nan, okasana
6m eue opno nenpepycHo1pennoe no6ounoe pec1ane:
necoHnenno, ona ycnnnna 6m cnnLnm na11epn naansun-
aoro noa1opennn naunen1a, onn1L pnpoH ec1L k1o-1o,
ykasmaakun, u1o eHy uyac1aoaa1L, pyHa1L n u1o pena1L.
Hyxno o1He1n1L, u1o ace a1o nponcxopnno ncknkun1enL-
no a paHkax o1nouenn Hexpy payHn nepconaHn; c1pyk-
1ypa aosnnkakue a 1aknx cnyuanx pnnaHnuecko npo-
6neHm ne nanne1cn c1pyk1ypo konqnnk1a, pnn ko1oporo
nyxno na1n peuenne. D1a cn1yaunn npepLnanne1 k
naamkaH anann1nka 6onee amcokne 1pe6oaannn, ueH,
ckaxeH, nonnHanne aep6anLnmx accounaun. Anann1nk,
napn aepnm o1ae1 na Honuanne naunen1a, ns6exan
pncka nonanennn oxnpann, aepyunx k o6pasoaannk
snokauec1aenno saancnHoc1n; on ns6exan onacnoc1n
npepc1a1L nepep naunen1oH a ponn aceHoryue qnry-
pm, nac1onLko Hyppo n annn1enLno, u1o a coc1onnnn
un1a1L neamckasannme Hmcnn naunen1a n apekaa1no pea-
rnpoaa1L na nnx; n nakoneu, a a1o cn1yaunn nenLsn 6m-
no nonoxn1Lcn na cnoaa, ko1opme nop1onknynn 6m naun-
en1a k npexpeapeHennoHy nepexopy a apnnoay o6nac1L,
u1o npnaeno 6m k cospannk pononnn1enLnmx npenn1c1-
an pnn 1epanea1nuecko pa6o1m aHec1o 1oro, u1o6m yc1-
pann1L neko1opme ns nnx. Koneuno, ace a1n npnsnakn xa-
pak1epnm pnn pa6o1m a o6nac1n 6asncnoro peqek1a.
HHen peno c naunen1oH, perpeccnpoaaaunH na a1o1 ypo-
aenL, c 1oukn spennn 1exnnkn neo6xopnHo npnnn1L
o1mrpmaanne a 1epanea1nuecko cn1yaunn kak apek-
aa1nm cnoco6 koHHynnkaunn, ne npepnpnnnHan npn
a1oH nocneunmx nonm1ok ero oprannsaunn nocpepc1-
aoH nn1epnpe1aun. He yc1any noa1opn1L, u1o a1o aoace
243
ne osnauae1, u1o anann1nk 1epne1 caoe snauenne nnn u1o
ero ponL orpannuena nosnune couyac1aykue naccnano-
c1n; nanpo1na, npncy1c1ane anann1nka npno6pe1ae1 or-
poHnoe snauenne, opnako rnaanan sapaua coc1on1 ne a
1oH, u1o ero npncy1c1ane acerpa ponxno ouyua1Lcn, a a
1oH, u1o6m on acerpa naxopnncn na aepno pnc1anunn
a1a pnc1anunn ne ponxna 6m1L nac1onLko 6onLuo, u1o-
6m naunen1 uyac1aoaan ce6n no1epnnnmH n 6pouennmH,
no ona ne ponxna 6m1L n ouenL HanenLko, u1o6m ne am-
saa1L y naunen1a uyac1aa c1ecnennn n necao6opm, no
cy1n, pnc1anunn ponxna coo1ae1c1aoaa1L ak1yanLno no-
1pe6noc1n naunen1a; aoo6ue roaopn, anann1nk o6nsan
sna1L, kakoam no1pe6noc1n ero naunen1a, noueHy onn
nHenno 1akne, a ne nnme, noueHy onn qnyk1ynpyk1 n ns-
Hennk1cn.
Hop nnmH yrnoH spennn 1exnnueckan npo6neHa npepc1ae1
kak nonck cnoco6a npepnoxn1L naunen1y neu1o, u1o
Horno 6m amc1ynn1L a kauec1ae nepanunoro o6Lek1a nnn
6m1L ero apekaa1no saHeno, nnaue roaopn: 1o, na u1o
naunen1 cHoxe1 npoeunpoaa1L caok nepanunyk nk6oaL.
[onxno nn a1o neu1o 6m1L (a) caHnH anann1nkoH (1eH
anann1nkoH, ko1opm 6epe1cn sa neuenne perpeccnn),
nnn (6) 1epanea1nuecko cn1yaune? Kako ns a1nx payx
aapnan1oa 6onee nopxopn1 pnn poc1nxennn coc1onnnn
rapHonnn c naunen1oH, coc1onnnn, a ko1opoH oc1ae1cn
nnuL caHm HnnnHanLnm konqnnk1 nn1epecoa Hexpy
naunen1oH n epnnc1aennmH poc1ynnmH eHy a nac1onuee
apeHn o6Lek1oH? B uenoH, c 1oukn spennn 6esonacnoc1n,
nyuun aapnan1 6mn 6m, koneuno xe, ecnn 6m pnn naun-
en1a 1ako saHeno c1ana 1epanea1nueckan cn1yaunn,
yxe xo1n 6m no1oHy, u1o a a1oH cnyuae pnn anann1nka
cnnxae1cn pnck npeapa1n1Lcn a caHm aaxnm, aceae-
pyun n aceHoryun o6Lek1.
244
Koneuno, npepnoxenne naunen1y nepanunoro o6Lek1a
ne paanouenno npepoc1aanennk eHy nepanuno nk6an;
opnako n Ha1epn 1akxe ne pak1 ee. Onn npoc1o aepy1 ce-
6n, kak nac1onune nepanunme o6Lek1m, 1o ec1L npepna-
rak1 ce6n a kauec1ae nepanunmx o6Lek1oa, a ko1opmx
pasHeuae1cn ka1ekcnc nepanuno nk6an. Pasnnune Hex-
py 1eH, u1o6m paaa1L nepanunyk nk6oaL n npepna-
ra1L ce6n pnn ka1ekcnca nepanuno nk6oaLk, nHee1
qynpaHen1anLnoe snauenne pnn naue 1exnnkn, npnueH
ne 1onLko a cnyuae perpeccnn naunen1oa, no n ao Hnornx
ppyrnx sa1pypnn1enLnmx cn1yaunnx a neuennn.
Onncmaan a1y ponL a neckonLko nnoH pakypce, 1o ec1L
ncnonLsyn nnme cnoaa, Hoxno ckasa1L, u1o anann1nk
ponxen qynkunonnpoaa1L a nepnopm perpeccnn kak ue-
noaek, npepoc1aannkun apeHn n cpepy. D1o ne osnaua-
e1, u1o on o6nsan aocnonnn1L nnuennn naunen1a, ko1o-
pme 1o1 ncnm1an korpa-1o paanmH-paano, n npepoc1aa-
nn1L eHy 6onLue sa6o1m, nk6an n npnansannoc1n, ueH
paaann naunen1y a caHoH nauane xnsnn ero popn1enn
(ecnn paxe on nonm1ae1cn cpena1L a1o, 1o, koneuno xe,
no1epnn1 neypauy). 1o anann1nk pec1an1enLno ponxen
npepoc1aan1L n, no aosHoxnoc1n, 1onLko ao apeHn
nnanoamx ceancoa, 1ak a1o poc1a1ounoe konnuec1ao
apeHenn, cao6opnoro o1 aneunnx co6nasnoa, c1nHynoa n
1pe6oaann, a 1oH uncne n 1ex, u1o ncxopn1 o1 nero caHo-
ro. UenL pa6o1m saknkuae1cn a 1oH, u1o6m pa1L naunen1y
aosHoxnoc1L na1n caHoro ce6n, npnnn1L ce6n, nonapn1L
c co6o, ace apeHn noHnn o 1oH, u1o any1pn y nero ec1L
upaH, 6asncnm peqek1, ko1opm nenLsn amanannsnpo-
aa1L ns ero xnsnn. KpoHe 1oro, nyxno nosaonn1L naun-
en1y o6pec1n ero co6c1aennm ny1L a Hnp o6Lek1oa, a ne
nac1aann1L ero na nc1nnnm ny1L npn noHoun rny6o-
ko n koppek1no nn1epnpe1aunn. Ecnn a1o ypae1cn, 1o
naunen1 nepec1ae1 uyac1aoaa1L, 6yp1o o6Lek1m nokyua-
k1cn na ero npaaa nnn nopaannk1 ero. TonLko a a1nx
245
rpannuax anann1nk ponxen cospaaa1L nyuuee nnn 6onee
nonnHakuee okpyxenne n ne amxopn1L sa a1n paHkn, a
nHenno ne npepoc1aann1L naunen1y 6onLue sa6o1m, nk6-
an, annHannn, ypoane1aopennn nnn saun1m. Cnepye1
nopuepkny1L, u1o a1n coo6paxennn Hornn 6m nocnyxn1L
kpn1epneH npnnn1nn peuennn a aonpoce: np1n nn na-
ac1peuy naunen1y n ypoane1aopn1L nn ero konkpe1noe
xenanne nnn no1pe6noc1L nn6o, npnsnaa nx, oc1a-
an1L neypoane1aopennmHn?
B 1akne nepnopm ne1 neo6xopnHoc1n a c1poroH cnepoaa-
nnn pykoaopnueHy npnnunny ns6erannn nk6oro aHeua-
1enLc1aa; oco6enno annHa1enLnoro o1nouennn 1pe6yk1
nn1epnpe1aunn, 1ak kak ouenL uac1o onn aocnpnnnHak1-
cn kak neponyc1nHoe 1pe6oaanne, nanapkn, kpn1nka, co-
6nasnenne nnn npnnyxpenne; k nn1epnpe1aunnH c1on1
npn6era1L 1onLko a 1oH cnyuae, ecnn anann1nk yaepen,
u1o naunen1 nyxpae1cn a nnx, n nnuL a 1akne HoHen1m,
korpa ne pa1L nn1epnpe1aunk osnauano 6m npepLnan1L
neo6ocnoaannoe 1pe6oaanne nnn okasa1L paanenne. O1-
ckpa Hoxe1 6m1L nyuue nonn1 qenoHen, ko1opm n na-
saan onacnoc1nHn oknoqnnnuecknx nn1epnpe1aun: xo1n
naunen1 nyxpae1cn a okpyxennn, a Hnpe o6Lek1oa, opna-
ko o6Lek1m n npexpe acero anann1nk ne ponxnm
npepc1a1L kak 1pe6ykune, aHeunaakunecn, a1oprak-
unecn, nockonLky a1o nens6exno npnaepe1 k ycnnennk
npexnero nopaannkuero nepaaenc1aa Hexpy cy6Lek1oH n
o6Lek1oH.
HapekcL, u1o a1o knnnnueckoe onncanne noHoxe1 un1a-
1enk nonn1L, noueHy cyuec1aye1 c1onLko xe 1epHnnoa
pnn o6osnauennn nopo6nmx konnnsn, ckonLko cyuec1ay-
e1 anann1nkoa. Heko1opme ns nnx 6mnn nepeuncnenm a
konue rnaam 24. Bce a1n 1epHnnm o6napak1 cnepykunHn
o6unHn uep1aHn: a nnx copepxn1cn naHek na 1o, u1o a
okpyxennn ne ponxno 6m1L nopaannkunx nnn 1pe6yk-
unx o6Lek1oa; u1o okpyxenne ponxno 6m1L cnokonmH,
246
HnpnmH, 6esonacnmH n nenaansunamH; ono ponxno npn-
cy1c1aoaa1L n ono ponxno 6m1L 6narocknonno no o1no-
uennk k cy6Lek1y. Cy6Lek1 xe npn a1oH o1nkpL ne o6n-
san saHeua1L okpyxenne, npnsnaaa1L ero nnn sa6o1n1Lcn
o neH. Hoa1opk eue pas, u1o a1n o6une uep1m coanapak1
c xapak1epnc1nkaHn 1oro, u1o n nasaan nepanunmH o6L-
ek1oH, nnn nepanuno cy6c1anune.
Bes coHnennn, cospanne 1akoro popa o6Lek1a nnn okpy-
xennn nanne1cn aaxno uac1Lk c1onue nepep 1epanea-
1oH sapaun. Oueanpno, u1o a1o 1onLko uac1L, a ne acn sa-
paua. HoHnHo 1oro, u1o anann1nk ponxen 6m1L o6Lek1oH,
ko1opm nonnHae1 no1pe6noc1n n aHec1e c 1eH Hoxe1
coo6un1L o caoeH nonnHannn naunen1y, on ponxen c1a1L
o6Lek1oH, ko1opm npnsnae1 no1pe6noc1n n, Hoxe1
6m1L, paxe ypoane1aopne1 no1pe6noc1n.
Fnaaa 26. Hpeoponeuue nponac1u
B rnaae 14 n roaopnn o rny6oko nponac1n, ko1opan pas-
penne1 pe6enka a naunen1e n aspocnoro anann1nka, a
1akxe y1aepxpan, u1o naunen1, perpeccnpoaaaun po
ypoann 6asncnoro peqek1a, kak npaanno, ne Hoxe1 npe-
opone1L a1y nponac1L caHoc1on1enLno. KpoHe 1oro, n no-
c1aann aonpoc: kakan uac1L a1o sapaun ponxna 6m1L
amnonnena anann1nkoH, a kakan oc1aanena pnn naunen-
1a. O1ae1 na nepam aonpoc kak npeopone1L nponac1L
nanne1cn poaonLno c1anpap1nmH: neo6xopnHo nonn1L,
uero nHenno naunen1 xoue1 o1 anann1nka. B sapauy ana-
nn1nka, c Hoe 1oukn spennn, axopn1 ne c1onLko coo6ue-
nne naunen1y o6 a1oH nonnHannn nocpepc1aoH nn1epnpe-
1aunn nopo a a1oH ne1 nnkako neo6xopnHoc1n,
ckonLko cospanne a1Hocqepm, a ko1opo nyxpae1cn na-
unen1. Hocnepnee aneue1 sa co6o o1kas o1 ynopnmx no-
nm1ok sac1aan1L naunen1a 6eso1nara1enLno o1kasa1Lcn o1
neaep6anLnmx cnoco6oa akcnpeccnn a nonLsy aep6anLno-
247
ro apnnoaa cnoco6a, nponanennn 1epnennn n yaaxennn k
o1mrpmaannk naunen1a a npouecce anannsa. B npepm-
pyue rnaae n nonm1ancn nopm1oxn1L, u1o, na Ho
asrnnp, ponxen pena1L anann1nk. Ecnn Hon npen okaxy1-
cn aepnmHn, c nx noHouLk Hoxno 6ype1 o6Lncnn1L Hno-
rne 1pypnoc1n, nens6exno aosnnkakune a 1ex cnyuanx,
korpa anann1nk, co6nasnennm c1papannnHn caoero na-
unen1a, nm1ae1cn npepnpnnn1L u1o-1o 6onLuee.
B uac1noc1n, nHen peno c 1aknHn coc1onnnnHn, anann1nk
ponxen noHnn1L, u1o eHy a uenoH cnepye1 ns6era1L npe-
oponennn saun1 pacuennennn npn noHoun nsoupennmx
n npaannLnmx nn1epnpe1aun, 1ak kak pnn ero
perpeccnpoaaaunx naunen1oa a1n nn1epnpe1aunn Hory1
npepc1a1L canpe1enLc1aoH coHnenn no noaopy
onpaapannoc1n n o6ocnoaannoc1n nx xano6, o6annenn n
o6np. Hanpo1na, anann1nky cnepye1 nckpenne npnnn1L
ace a1n xano6m, o6annennn n o6npm kak peanLnme n
o6ocnoaannme n npepoc1aan1L caoeHy naunen1y
poc1a1ouno apeHenn pnn 1oro, u1o6m 1o1 nepeuen o1
npoc1noro neropoaannn k coxanennk. He1 neo6xopnHoc1n
a 1oH, u1o6m yckopn1L a1o1 npouecc npn noHoun
nn1epnpe1aun, nyc1L paxe onn 6ypy1 aepnmHn,
nockonLky nn1epnpe1aunn Hory1 6m1L aocnpnnn1m kak
necaoeapeHennoe aHeua1enLc1ao, kak nonm1ka
o6ecuennaannn xano6. B 1akoH cnyuae nn1epnpe1aunn
1onLko saHepnn1 1epanea1nueckn npouecc aHec1o 1oro,
u1o6m yckopn1L ero.
Bonee 1oro, pnn neko1opmx naunen1oa xnsnL y1pa1nna 6m
acnkyk uennoc1L, ecnn 6m onn nnunnncL caonx o6np nnn
caoe nenaanc1n nnn ecnn 6m onn ne nonyunnn nonno
koHnencaunn sa ace caon o6npm n cansannyk c nnHn ne-
naanc1L. Takne naunen1m a nk6o nn1epnpe1aunn, ko1o-
pan nponnaae1 cae1 na npnunnm o6npm, 6ypy1 anpe1L no-
nm1ky anann1nka o6ecuenn1L a1y o6npy. k6an nopo6nan
nonm1ka 6ype1 aocnpnnn1a kak yrposa paspyuennn ocnoa
248
cyuec1aoaannn; onn peanLno uyac1ayk1, u1o y nnx o1nn-
Hak1 1o, papn uero c1onno xn1L.
To xe caHoe a uenoH o1nocn1cn n k 1ak nasmaaeHmH
c1paxaH npecnepoaannn, ananns ko1opmx ne Hoxe1 npn-
nec1n nnkako nonLsm, ecnn naunen1y ne pann nouyac1-
aoaa1L, u1o anann1nk connpapen c nnH n 6esoroaopouno
npnnnHae1 o6ocnoaannoc1L ero xano6, u1o on pae1 poc1a-
1ounoe apeHn (a neko1opmx cnyuanx a1o1 nepnop 6maae1
ouenL ponrnH), u1o6m na cHeny nenc1oao arpeccnn
cHornn npn1n neuanL n coxanenne no noaopy ncxopno
1paaHm nnn neypaun n acex 1ex y1pa1, ko1opme 6mnn c
a1nH cansanm.
Ecnn anann1nk cnoco6en nckpenne n 6esoroaopouno nc-
nonnn1L ace a1n 1pe6oaannn, a anann1nuecko cn1yaunn
aosnnkae1 aosHoxnoc1L noamx o1nouenn, ko1opme no-
saonn1 naunen1y nepexn1L coxanenne nnn neuanL no no-
aopy ncxopnoro nsLnna n y1pa1m, npnaepunx k o6paso-
aannk peqek1a nnn upaHa a ero ncnxnuecko c1pyk1ype.
D1a neuanL kopennmH o6pasoH o1nnuae1cn o1 neuann,
cansanno c peanLno no1epe nk6nHoro uenoaeka, a
1akxe o1 xapak1epno uep1m Henanxonnn: neuann, am-
saanno yuep6oH nnn paspyuenneH, nanecennmH any1-
penneHy o6Lek1y. H nHek a anpy uyac1aa coxanennn nnn
neuann, cansannme c nenpenoxnmH qak1oH cyuec1aoaa-
nnn a ncnxnke kaxporo uenoaeka napyuennn nnn nsLnna,
6pocakuero 1enL na ack xnsnL uenoaeka, nera1nanme
nocnepc1ann ko1oporo nnkorpa ne Hory1 6m1L npeopone-
nm nonnoc1Lk. Ha Hec1e ncuenenno 1paaHm naacerpa
oc1ae1cn upaH; neko1opme ee nocnepc1ann 6ypy1 anpnm
acerpa.
Heko1opmH naunen1aH neo6xopnH snaun1enLnm o1pesok
apeHenn pnn saaepuennn npouecca neuann, ko1opm nyu-
ue npepoc1aan1L ec1ec1aennoHy 1euennk. Xo1n a1o1 npo-
uecc nenLsn yckopn1L, caHoe rnaanoe saknkuae1cn a 1oH,
249
1oH, u1o anann1nk npncy1c1aye1 npn neH kak canpe1enL:
1ak kak a1o1 npouecc npo1ekae1 a o6nac1n 6asncnoro pe-
qek1a, npeopone1L a1y neuanL caHoHy neaosHoxno; a1o
Hoxno cpena1L 1onLko a paHkax o1nouenn Hexpy payHn
nepconaHn, ko1opme cknapmaak1cn, nanpnHep, a anann-
1nuecko cn1yaunn. Ecnn anann1nk cHoxe1 npepoc1aan1L
c1onLko apeHenn pnn pasan1nn a1oro npouecca, ckonLko
neo6xopnHo, ne yckopnn ero nckycc1aenno, a 1akxe nop-
pepxn1 neo6xopnHyk a a1oH cnyuae a1Hocqepy npnHn-
1nanmx o1nouenn, nponannn 1epnenne n npepnaran ne
a1oprakunecn nn1epnpe1aunn, 1o Hanepa co1pypnnuec1aa
naunen1a no cpaanennk c 1eH, u1o 6mno panLue, ne-
ckonLko nsHenn1cn, cospaaan aneua1nenne, u1o y nero
nonanne1cn xenanne n cnoco6noc1n k nepeouenke caoe
nosnunn a o1nouennnx co caonH o6Lek1oH vis-a-vis, a
1akxe k nepecHo1py aosHoxnoc1n npnnn1L okpyxakun
ero Hnp, uac1o 1ako nenpnaneka1enLnm n paanopyu-
nm.
DneHen1m 1epanea1nuecko yc1anoakn, o ko1opo specL
roaopnnocL a o6unx uep1ax ne o1nnuak1cn, no cyuec1ay,
o1 aneHen1oa yc1anoakn, ko1opyk npnnnHae1 anann1nk
npn pa6o1e c naunen1aHn na apnnoaoH ypoane, paxe 1e-
Hm, ko1opme npopa6a1maak1cn, o6muno opnn n 1e xe;
opnako ace xe cyuec1aye1 opno o1nnune, n ono kacae1cn
rnaanmH o6pasoH a1Hocqepm, nac1poennn. D1o o1nnune
sa1parnaae1 n naunen1a, n anann1nka. O1nnune coc1on1 a
1oH, u1o anann1nk ne c1peHn1cn k neHepnennoHy n non-
noHy nonnHannk, k 1oHy, u1o6m oprannsoamaa1L n
nsHenn1L ace nexena1enLnoe c noHouLk caonx koppek1-
nmx nn1epnpe1aun; ckopee, on 6onee 1epnnH k c1papa-
nnnH naunen1a n cnoco6en c nnHn Hnpn1Lcn 1o ec1L on
Hoxe1 npnsnaaa1L nx cy6Lek1nanyk snaunHoc1L aHec1o
1oro, u1o6m y1aepxpa1L caoe 1epanea1nueckoe aceHory-
uec1ao, cypopoxno nm1ancL npoanannsnpoaa1L nx.
Anann1nk ns6erae1 n ppyroro nckyuennn: on ne nm1ae1cn
250
ynpaann1L xnsnLk perpeccnpoaaauero naunen1a, npo-
nannn nonnoe couyac1ane, orpaxpa1L ero o1 neamnocn-
Hmx 1pe6oaann okpyxennn ppyro pasnoanpnoc1n
peakunn aceHoryuec1aa. On ne c1peHn1cn 1akxe cospa1L
y caoero naunen1a koppek1npykuee aHounonanLnoe ne-
pexnaanne, nopo6no 1oHy, kak knnnnunc1 c1an 6m ne-
un1L coc1onnne nepoc1a1ounoc1n, 1pe1Ln qopHa peak-
unn aceHoryuec1aa. Hanpo1na, ecnn anann1nk ouyuae1
Haneuyk cknonnoc1L o1pearnpoaa1L na perpeccnk cao-
ero naunen1a kako-nn6o peakune, 1o on Hoxe1 noc1a-
an1L 1ounm pnarnos, u1o pa6o1a poc1nrna o6nac1n 6a-
sncnoro peqek1a. H xouy nopuepkny1L caHmH nac1on1enL-
nmH o6pasoH, u1o nk6an nopo6nan cknonnoc1L anann1nka
ponxna 6m1L pacuenena kak cnHn1oH pacc1poc1aa naun-
en1a, n e nn a koeH cnyuae nenLsn noppaaa1Lcn. Bnpo-
ueH, a1o nerue ckasa1L, ueH cpena1L.
Eue neckonLko saHeuann no noaopy ypoane1aopennn
no1pe6noc1e nnn xenann naunen1a. B knaccnuecko
1exnnke a1n no1pe6noc1n aocnpnnnHak1cn kak xenannn,
ko1opme ponxnm 6m1L nonn1m, a ne kak, aosHoxno, o6oc-
noaannme no1pe6noc1n, na ko1opme neo6xopnHo kak-1o
pearnpoaa1L. B paHkax neko1opmx coapeHennmx 1exnnue-
cknx nopxopoa anann1nky pekoHenpye1cn ne 1onLko no-
nnHa1L onpepenennme no1pe6noc1n naunen1a, no n o6n-
sa1enLno yun1maa1L aosHoxnoc1L ypoane1aopennn a1nx
no1pe6noc1e, nosaonnn naunen1y, nanpnHep, neko1opoe
o1mrpmaanne.
3pecL Hm onn1L c1anknaaeHcn c npo6neHaHn. Anann1nk
ponxen onpepenn1L, korpa nHenno a1o ypoane1aopenne
yHec1no, kakan ero qopHa Hoxe1 6m1L posaonena n kak
nHenno ponxno ocyuec1an1Lcn ypoane1aopenne.
PaccHo1pnH knnnnueckn npnHep. Opna Hon naunen1ka
pacckasana, u1o a pe1c1ae 6mna cknonna k acnmukaH
pasppaxennn. D1o 6mnn ouenL 6onesnennme nepexnaa-
251
nnn kak pnn nee, 1ak n pnn ace ee ceHLn. Opnako ackope
ee Ha1L nauna cnoco6 cnpaann1Lcn c a1nHn npnnapkaHn.
Ona 6pana pouL na pykn n kpenko o6nnHana ee, kpenko,
no ne npnunnnn e 6onn. Haunen1ka pacckasmaana, u1o
a1o couyac1aennoe orpannuenne npnnocnno e uyac1ao
cnokoc1ann n 6esonacnoc1n; poc1a1ouno 6mno neckonL-
knx Hnny1, u1o6m ycnokon1Lcn. B a1oH cnyuae Hm HoxeH
nc1onkoaa1L acnmukn rneaa kak neko1opoe 1pe6oaanne, a
Ha1epnnckn nopxop k coanapannk c nnHn kak kon-
kpe1nyk peakunk.
[aaa1e npepc1aanH, u1o neu1o nopo6noe nponcxopn1 n a
anannse. [onxen nn anann1nk pena1L c1onLko, ckonLko
penana Ha1L? H ecnn pa, 1o kaknHn cpepc1aaHn? [onxen
nn on noppepxa1L caoero naunen1a nn1epnpe1aune, ka-
knH-nn6o cnHaonnuecknH pec1aneH nnn paxe qnsnue-
ckn? B kakoH cnyuae k pe6enky a naunen1e nyxno o1-
nocn1Lcn kak k pe6enky, a a kakoH kak k aspocnoHy?
Hpexpe ueH koro-nn6o oxaa1n1 pasppaxenne no noaopy
aosHoxnmx cnekynnun, nosaonL1e Hne nanoHnn1L, u1o
yxe caHn paHkn anann1nuecko cn1yaunn a neko1opoH
cHmcne npepc1aannk1 co6o kpenkne o6Ln1nn pnn na-
unen1a. B caHoH pene, naunen1a npocn1 neuL na kyue1ky
n ne ac1aaa1L c nee ace a1o ne Hoxe1 aocnpnnnHa1Lcn
nnaue, kak cpepxnaanne. BosapauancL k o6cyxpennk
naue npo6neHm, n 6m onpepennn knaccnueckne paHkn
anann1nueckoro ceanca kak orpannuenne uepes cnHaonn-
ueckoe pec1ane co c1oponm anann1nka. H xo1en 6m po-
6aan1L, u1o a1o cnHaonnueckoe pec1ane cospae1 oco6me
o1nouennn Hexpy anann1nkoH n naunen1oH, ko1opme, a
neko1opoH cHmcne, npnnocn1 asanHnoe ypoane1aopenne
o6enH c1oponaH.
Bonee 1oro, knaccnueckan npouepypa nanne1cn y6epn-
1enLnmH npnHepoH cnHaonnueckoro pec1ann, npepuec1-
aykuero nn1epnpe1aunn: npocn naunx naunen1oa neuL,
Hm 1eH caHmH cnHaonnueckn orpannunaaeH nx eue po 1o-
252
ro, kak aosnnkae1 neo6xopnHoc1L a nn1epnpe1aunn nnn
pec1ann. D1o1 npnHep 1akxe peHonc1pnpye1 opnn ns ac-
nek1oa ypoane1aopennn anann1nkoH no1pe6noc1n naunen-
1a a anann1nuecko cn1yaunn. Kak nsaec1no, ec1L paa 1n-
na ypoane1aopennn. K nepaoHy o1nocn1cn 1akoe ypoane-
1aopenne, poc1nxenne ko1oporo nece1 a ce6e panLne-
uyk c1nHynnunk, a pesynL1a1e ns6m1ounoe aos6yxpenne
napac1ae1. HpnHepoH 1akoro popa ypoane1aopennn Hoxe1
nocnyxn1L poc1nxenne npepaapn1enLnoro ypoaonLc1ann
pasnnunmHn cnoco6aHn npn cekcyanLno 6nnsoc1n. [py-
ro 1nn ypoane1aopennn o6napae1 ycnokanaakunH n
yHnpo1aopnkunH pec1aneH. D1o ypoane1aopenne poc1n-
rae1cn uepes yc1panenne pasppaxakunx nnn aos6yx-
pakunx c1nHynoa ns cosnannn naunen1a, ono noHorae1
npn6nnsn1Lcn k coc1onnnk 1nxoro n cnokonoro 6narono-
nyunn, ko1opoe nanne1cn nyuunH ocnoaanneH pnn poc1n-
xennn asanHononnHannn Hexpy nnpnanpoH n ero okpy-
xenneH.
Ecnn o1 a1oro npnHepa nepe1n k o6o6uennnH, 1o Hm no-
popeH k ppyroHy o1ae1y na opnn ns paccHa1pnaaeHmx
aonpocoa. C anann1nuecko cn1yaune coaHec1nH 1o1 1nn
ypoane1aopennn, ko1opm ne amsmaae1 poc1a aos6yxpe-
nnn y naunen1a, a, nanpo1na, cnnxae1 upesHepnoe na-
npnxenne, u1o cnoco6c1aye1 poc1nxennk nyuuero nonn-
Hannn Hexpy naunen1oH n anann1nkoH. Ecnn pe1anLno
paccHo1pe1L paHkn anann1nueckoro ceanca, 1o Hoxno
yanpe1L, u1o a neH ckpmaae1cn poaonLno 6onLuoe uncno
nc1ounnkoa, npnnocnunx 1akoro popa ypoane1aopenne.
HanpnHep, 1nxan n yHnpo1aopnkuan a1Hocqepa anann-
1nueckoro ka6nne1a, ypo6nan kyue1ka, cnokonoe okpy-
xenne, anann1nk, ko1opm ne npepmaae1 naunen1a 6es
neo6xopnHoc1n, npepoc1aannn eHy aosHoxnoc1L amroao-
pn1L ace, u1o y nero na pyue n 1. p. B uenoH a1o1 1nn
ypoane1aopennn Hoxno nasaa1L sa6o1o nnn paxe ncnxo-
nornuecknH kopHnenneH.
253
HecoHnenno, ace a1n qak1opm naunnak1 pec1aoaa1L c
caHoro nauana anannsa. Heko1opme anann1nkn 1aeppo
y6expenm a 1oH, u1o orpannuennn, saqnkcnpoaannme a
1exnnuecknx pekoHenpaunnx Opepa, ponxnm oc1a1Lcn
nesm6neHmHn naaekn, a acnkoe 1exnnueckoe o1c1ynnenne
o1 nnx ne ponxno nasmaa1Lcn ncnxoanannsoH. C Hoe
1oukn spennn, a1n anann1nkn cnnukoH pnrnpnm. H pon-
xen eue pas noa1opn1L, u1o a onpepenennmx cnyuanx, a
oco6ennoc1n npn pa6o1e c perpeccnpoaaaunHn naunen-
1aHn, anann1nk Hoxe1 no1n panLue a ypoane1aopennn
neko1opmx 1pe6oaann, u1o6m coxpann1L 1epanea1nue-
ckne o1nouennn.
Opnako neo6xopnHo co6nkpa1L neko1opme ycnoann. Bo-
nepamx, pec1ann anann1nka ne ponxnm noaneuL sa co-
6o pncka npeapauennn ero ao aceaepyun n aceHory-
un o6Lek1. Bo-a1opmx, on ponxen 6m1L yaepen a 1oH,
u1o ypoane1aopenne npnaepe1 ne k poc1y aos6yxpennn
naunen1a, a k coc1onnnk cnokonoro 1nxoro 6naronony-
unn, k 6esonacnoHy asanHononnHannk Hexpy naunen-
1oH n anann1nkoH. Eue opno ycnoane coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o
anann1nk ponxen nHe1L npepc1aanenne o cnoco6ax, ko1o-
pme nosaonn1 eHy ns6exa1L pasan1nn snokauec1aennmx
qopH perpeccnn.
eH 6onLue anann1nk yaepen a 1oH, u1o rnaanan uenL
perpeccnn coc1on1 a nonyuennn ypoane1aopennn npn no-
Houn aneunero o6Lek1a, 1eH oc1opoxnee on ponxen
6m1L. eH 6onee orpannuenm aosHoxnoc1n naunen1a a
Hnpe o6Lek1oa, 1eH 6onLue 6ype1 onacnoc1L aosnnkno-
aennn coc1onnn, noxoxnx na snokauec1aennyk saancn-
Hoc1L.
H nHen aosHoxnoc1L y6epn1Lcn, u1o a1o1 kpn1epn nann-
e1cn poaonLno aaxnmH. Ho-anpnHoHy, on nosaonne1 npo-
rnosnpoaa1L 6ypyuee n ocaeua1L npounyk ncnxona1ono-
rnk naunen1a. Ecnn ao aneuneH Hnpe ne1 sacnyxnaak-
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unx poaepnn xopounx o6Lek1oa, 1o ouenL aennka aepo-
n1noc1L nonanennn aecLHa nn1encnanoro, rannkunna1op-
noro nepenoca (Little, 1938, 1961), npn a1oH aosHoxnoc1L
ero koHnencaunn ueH-1o, npnnapnexaunH aneuneHy Hn-
py, u1o o6napae1 1ako xe snaunHoc1Lk n nn1encnano-
c1Lk, poaonLno npnspauna. C ppyro c1oponm, o1cy1c1ane
xopounx o6Lek1oa 1akxe osnauae1, u1o aosHoxnoc1n na-
unen1a coaepua1L pa6o1y saaoeaannn, ko1opan neo6-
xopnHa pnn npeapauennn nnpnqqepen1noro o6Lek1a a
co1pypnnuakuero nap1nepa, orpannuenm (Balint M.,
1947). D1o ykasmaae1 na poaonLno cepLesnm 6asncnm
peqek1 a c1pyk1ype ero ncnxnkn n a ero xapak1epe.
Opnako npn nannunn xopounx aneunnx o6Lek1oa nnn
paxe nap1nepoa anann1nk Hoxe1 no1n na neko1opm
pnck, kak a1o 6mno c Hoe naunen1ko, cpenaaue kyam-
pok. C ppyro c1oponm, ecnn naunen1 ne naxopn1 ao
aneuneH Hnpe nopxopnunx pnn ce6n nap1nepoa, 1o nyu-
ue cnepoaa1L coae1y Opepa n oc1epera1Lcn npn1nsann
naunen1a.
Ecnn xe a knnnnuecko kap1nne npeo6napak1 cnHn1oHm
ppyroro 1nna perpeccnn perpeccnn, nanpaanenno na
npnsnanne, nepcnek1nam specL, n nonarak, poaonLno
xopoune. Anann1nk a a1oH cnyuae ponxen 6m1L ro1oa k
1oHy, u1o korpa-nn6ypL nac1ynn1 nepnop ncnm1ann, a
nepayk ouepepL, pnn ero nckpennoc1n. D1n naunen1m co-
aepuenno ne amnocn1, korpa anann1nk ne roaopn1 nH
npaapm, ace npaapm n nnuero, kpoHe npaapm. Onn, kak
npaanno, upesHepno uyac1an1enLnm n Hory1 uyac1aoaa1L
6onL n pearnpoaa1L yxopoH na nk6oe nponanenne nenc-
kpennoc1n, paxe ecnn ono ne amxopn1 sa o6uenpnnn1me
paHkn xopounx Hanep.
Ecnn anann1nky ypae1cn ns6exa1L ace a1n saHanuname
noayukn, 1o naunen1, o1uac1n a o1ae1 na aospocuyk 1ep-
nnHoc1L anann1nka, peHonc1pnpye1 npexpe ckpm1oe, sa-
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Hacknpoaannoe c1peHnenne paso6pa1Lcn c 1eH, u1o npo-
ncxopn1, nponnkny1L nonyuna, 1ak ckasa1L, opo6penne,
a cyunoc1L npo6neH, u1o6m o6pec1n nonnHanne nnn
npoc1o snanne.
Tak naunen1 noc1enenno aosapauae1cn ns perpeccnn. D1o
aosapauenne Hoxe1 6m1L ne okonua1enLnmH, aosHoxnm
peunpnam, opnako a1o acerpa nanne1cn uaroH anepep na
ponroH ny1n. B cyunoc1n, 1o, o ueH n roaopnn a a1o uac-
1n, ne nanne1cn nn ace nc1opne, nn ee konuoH. CHmcn,
opnako, saknkuae1cn a yc1anoanennn noamx o1nouenn
Hexpy naunen1oH n neko1opmHn aneHen1aHn ero Hnpa,
npexpe o1penennmHn nponac1Lk, ampocue ns ero 6a-
sncnoro peqek1a, u1o, no cy1n nanne1cn uaroH na ny1n k
nyuue nn1erpaunn Dro naunen1a.
Eue pas noa1opk: 1o, u1o n cxa1o nsnoxnn a a1o uac1n
knnrn, ne ncuepnmaae1 ace 1eHm. H paxe Hor 6m nepe-
uncnn1L nepoc1akune rnaam. Bo-nepamx, n nnuero ne
ckasan o qynkunnx noa1opennn, o1mrpmaannn a anann1n-
uecko 1epannn, 1o ec1L ne onpepennn, korpa, nackonLko
n npn kaknx ycnoannx noa1openne Hoxe1 c1a1L 1epanea-
1nuecknH qak1opoH. [pyran rnaaa Horna 6m kaca1Lcn ny-
1e nsHenennn any1pennero Hnpa, no1enunanLno o1kpm-
1mx pnn naunen1a, onpepennkunx a ocnoanoH ero o1no-
uennn c aneunnHn o6Lek1aHn. Cnepykuan rnaaa, can-
sannan c npepmpyue, 6mna 6m nocanuena poc1ynnmH
pnn nac 1exnnuecknH cpepc1aaH, c noHouLk ko1opmx
anann1nk Hor 6m cnoco6c1aoaa1L naunen1y a poc1nxennn
a1nx nepeHen. H, nakoneu, a opno ns rnaa 6mna 6m sa-
1pony1a ouenL aaxnan 1eHa qynkunn nn1epnpe1aun.
3pecL n roaopk o knaccnuecknx nn1epnpe1aunnx, npepna-
raeHmx a npoHexy1kax Hexpy nocnepoaa1enLnmHn ne-
pnopaHn perpeccnn. H cun1ak, u1o 1exnnueckan npo6neHa
specL saknkuae1cn a 1oH, kak Hoxno po6n1Lcn opnoape-
Hennoro peuennn payx aaxnmx sapau npn noHoun nn-
1epnpe1aun. Opna ns a1nx sapau coc1on1 a cospannn n
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coxpanennn a1Hocqepm, a ko1opo Hory1 nponcxopn1L
onpepenennme co6m1nn, aaxnme pnn 1epannn; a1opan xe
saknkuae1cn a 1oH, u1o6m naunen1 cHor ouenn1L n cao
co6c1aennm aknap a cospanne a1o a1Hocqepm, n aknap
anann1nka nx asanHopec1ann n annnnnn na okonua-
1enLnm pesynL1a1. H napekcL, Hne ypanocL y6epn1L un-
1a1enn, u1o kakan 6m a1Hocqepa nn cospaaanacL a anann-
1nuecko cn1yaunn, ona ponyckae1 opnn nn1epnpe1aunn n
ncknkuae1 ppyrne. C ppyro c1oponm, onpepenennme nn-
1epnpe1aunn aepy1 k cospannk onpepenenno a1Hocqe-
pm, 1orpa kak o1kas o1 nnx 6ype1 cnoco6c1aoaa1L cospa-
nnk coaepuenno nno a1Hocqepm.