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Applied Calculus

Frank C. Wilson

Chandler-Gilbert Community College

Scott Adamson

Chandler-Gilbert Community College

HOUGHTON MIFFLIN HARCOURT PUBLISHING COMPANY

Boston

New York

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Copyright © 2009 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

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Printed in the U.S.A. Library of Congress Control Number: 2008925563

Instructor’s exam copy:

ISBN 13: 978-0-547-00488-4 ISBN 10: 0-547-00488-5

For orders, use student text ISBNs:

ISBN 13: 978-0-618-61104-1 ISBN 10: 0-618-61104-5

Contents

Preface vii Features x
Preface
vii
Features
x

1 Functions and Linear Models

1.1 Functions

1.2 Linear Functions

2

Linear Models

1.3 33

18

Chapter 1 Study Sheet

57

1

Chapter 1 Review Exercises

58

Make It Real Project 1

60

2 Nonlinear Models

61

2.1 Quadratic Function Models

62

2.2 Higher-Order Polynomial Function Models

93

2.3 Exponential Function Models

115

2.4 Logarithmic Function Models

135

2.5 Choosing a Mathematical Model

150

Chapter 2 Study Sheet

166

Chapter 2 Review Exercises Make It Real Project 2 175

168

3 The Derivative

176

3.1 Average Rate of Change

177

3.2 Limits and Instantaneous Rates of Change

188

3.3 Limits and Continuity

3.4 The Derivative as a Slope: Graphical Methods

3.5 The Derivative as a Function: Algebraic Method

3.6 Interpreting the Derivative

205

242

Chapter 3 Study Sheet

249

Chapter 3 Review Exercises Make It Real Project 3 255

251

4 Differentiation Techniques

256

4.1 Basic Derivative Rules

4.2 The Product and Quotient Rules

4.3 The Chain Rule

4.4 Exponential and Logarithmic Rules

4.5 Implicit Differentiation

257

266

275

285

293

217

233

iv

Contents

Chapter 4 Study Sheet

300

Chapter 4 Review Exercises Make It Real Project 4 304

302

5 Derivative Applications

5.1 Maxima and Minima

307

306

5.2 Applications of Maxima and Minima

327

5.3 Concavity and the Second Derivative

352

5.4

Related Rates

Chapter 5 Study Sheet

377

386

Chapter 5 Review Exercises Make It Real Project 5 391

6 The Integral

392

387

6.1 Indefinite Integrals 393

6.2 Integration by Substitution 402

6.3 Using Sums to Approximate Area 411

6.4 The Definite Integral 433

6.5 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus 451 Chapter 6 Study Sheet 463 Chapter 6 Review Exercises 466 Make It Real Project 6 470

7 Advanced Integration Techniques

and Applications

471

7.1 Integration by Parts

472

7.2 Area Between Two Curves

7.3 Improper Integrals

498

481

Chapter 7 Study Sheet

510

Chapter 7 Review Exercises Make It Real Project 7 514

511

8 Multivariable Functions and Partial Derivatives 515

8.1 Multivariable Functions

8.2 Partial Derivatives

8.3 Multivariable Maxima and Minima

8.4 Constrained Maxima and Minima and Applications

516

528

545

Chapter 8 Study Sheet

576

Chapter 8 Review Exercises Make It Real Project 8 581

578

561

Contents

v

9

Trigonometric Functions

582

 

9.1 Trigonometric Functions, Equations, and Graphs

583

9.2 Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions

604

9.3 Integrals of Trigonometric Functions

618

Chapter 9 Study Sheet

630

Chapter 9 Review Exercises Make It Real Project 9 635

632

10

Differential Equations

636

10.1 Slope Fields

637

10.2 Euler’s Method

649

 

10.3 Separable Differential Equations and Applications

662

10.4 Differential Equations: Limited Growth and Logistic Models

673

10.5 First-Order Linear Differential Equations

691

 

Chapter 10 Study Sheet

707

Chapter 10 Review Exercises Make It Real Project 10 715

709

 

11

Sequences and Series

717

11.1 Sequences 718

 

11.2 Series and Convergence

733

11.3 Taylor Polynomials

746

11.4 Taylor Series

763

Chapter 11 Study Sheet

774

Chapter 11 Review Exercises Make It Real Project 11 778

776

 

12

Probability and Calculus

779

12.1 Continuous Probability Models

780

12.2 Uniform and Exponential Distributions

12.3 Expected Value, Variance, and Standard Deviation

12.4 Normal Distributions Chapter 12 Study Sheet

796

820

834

Chapter 12 Review Exercises Make It Real Project 12 840

836

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises Index I1

A1

804

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Preface

Preface To the Student Have you ever asked, “When am I ever going to use this?”

To the Student

Have you ever asked, “When am I ever going to use this?” or “Why should I care?” after learning a new procedure or concept in math? You’re not alone— many students have. This book seeks to answer those questions by teaching math concepts and skills in context and applying them to realistic situations you may

encounter. Whether calculating how long it will take to pay off a car loan, or pre- dicting what tuition will cost over the next few years, examples and exercises are based on interesting and engaging real-life data. Consequently, when you find a solution to a problem, you are learning something about the world around you. To make real-life data analysis even more meaningful, Make It Real projects are in- cluded. These projects help you become skilled in collecting and analyzing data from your own life. The skills learned through these projects will remain with you long after you have left this course. This book is written in a reader-friendly style. Although important terms and concepts are appropriately addressed, the focus is conceptual understanding, not mathematical jargon. If you are pursuing a degree in business, social science, or

a similar field, this book is written specifically for you. We encourage you to read the book to deepen your understanding of the concepts studied in the classroom. The Just In Time algebra reviews and Algebra Flashback exercises are de- signed for those of you whose algebra skills are a bit rusty. These timely reviews will help refresh your memory and allow you to practice the algebra skills you will need to master the calculus concepts.

You may find that your understanding of concepts and your ability to analyze data are enhanced through the use of technology. The graphing calculator (espe- cially the TI–83 Plus or TI–84 Plus) is ideal for investigating graphs and estimat- ing numerical answers. Spreadsheet programs (especially Microsoft’s Excel) are ideal for data analysis. Because learning how to use a calculator or Excel can be

a challenge, Technology Tips are integrated throughout the book. These tips detail

how to graph a function, solve an equation, find the maximum value of a func- tion, and so on. Rather than giving a broad overview of a procedure, the tips take

you through the actual keystrokes and mouse clicks while showing you screen- shots so you can verify you’re doing each step correctly. Our students help us become better teachers. We deeply value their input. Likewise, we’re interested in hearing from you. Let us know how this book works for you and feel free to share any feedback on how to improve this book. Contact us on our personal website: www.makeitreallearning.com. Enjoy!

To the Instructor

Thank you for your interest in this book. We believe you will find its approach refreshing and its content interesting to you and your students. It is written specif- ically for students pursuing degrees in business, social science, or a related field. As you know, many of these students do not enjoy mathematics and are taking this

viii

Preface

course only because it is a requirement. We hope to make a positive impact on these students’ attitudes toward mathematics. Several features are included in the book to make the course content more accessible to students, including:

An informal writing style emphasizes conceptual understanding without becoming bogged down in mathematical jargon.

Examples and exercises throughout the text are based on interesting and engag- ing real-life data. Over 600 real-life applications, featuring over 70 businesses, products, and associations, help to make math real for your students.

Make It Real projects allow students to collect and analyze data relevant to their personal lives.

Detailed Technology Tips teach students how to use a graphing calculator and Excel as tools to analyze real-life data.

Just In Time algebra reviews review important algebra content, refreshing students’ memories.

Algebra Flashback exercises provide students with the opportunity to practice the algebra skills they will need in order to master the calculus concepts.

Show You Know exercises focus on concepts rather than skills. These provide students a chance to reflect on the material and think about what is really going on in each section.

Candid feedback from our colleagues helps us become better teachers. Please feel free to contact us with any recommendations, comments, or other feedback you feel will enhance the effectiveness of this book. You can contact us on our personal website: www.makeitreallearning.com.

Disclaimer

In this book, we have attempted to incorporate real-world data from the financial markets to the medical field. In each case, we have done our best to present the data accurately and interpret the data realistically. However, we do not claim to be experts in financial, medical, and other similar fields. Our interpretations of real- world data and associated conclusions may not adequately consider all relevant factors. Therefore, readers are encouraged to seek professional advice from experts in the appropriate fields before making decisions related to the topics addressed herein. Despite the usefulness of mathematical models as representations of real-world data sets, most mathematical models have a certain level of error. It is common for model results to differ from raw data set values. Consequently, conclusions drawn from a mathematical model may differ (sometimes dramatically) from conclusions drawn by looking at raw data sets. Readers are encouraged to interpret model results with this understanding.

Acknowledgements

This textbook would not have been possible without the contributions of many colleagues. We greatly appreciate all of the people who contributed time and talent to bring this book to fruition. The feedback from the following reviewers was invaluable and helped to shape the final form of the text: Brenda Alberico, College of DuPage; Lewis

Preface

ix

Blake, Duke University; Jack Bookman, Duke University; Jennifer Fowler, Uni- versity of TennesseeKnoxville; R. Baker Kearfott, University of Southwestern Louisiana; Roger Lee, Salt Lake Community College; Philip E. Miller, Indiana University Southeast; Jean Peterson, University of Wisconsin—Oshkosh; Brian Rodas, Santa Monica University; Annie Stith-Willis, Virginia Commonwealth University; Denise Szecsei, Stetson University; Nader Vakil, Western Illinois Uni- versity; and Terry Walters, University of TennesseeChattanooga. Parts of this book were derived from another book in our series, Brief Applied Calculus. We would like to thank the reviews who helped shape that text. They are: Bill Ardis, Collin County Community College; James J. Ball, Indiana State University; Michael L. Berry, West Virginia Wesleyan College; Marcelle Bessman, Jacksonville University; Mike Bosch, Iowa Lakes Community College; Emily Bronstein, Prince George’s Community College; Dean S. Burbank, Gulf Coast Community College; Andra Buxkemper, Bunn College; Roxanne Byrne, University of Colorado—Denver; Scott A. Clary, Florida Institute of Technology; David Collingwood, University of Washington; Mark A. Crawford Jr., Western Michigan University; Khaled Dib, University of Minnesota Duluth; Lance D. Drager, Texas Tech University; Klara Grodzinsky, Georgia Institute of Technol- ogy; Lucy L. Hanks, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Jean B. Harper, State University of N.Y.—College at Fredonia; Kevin M. Jenerette, Coastal Carolina University; Cynthia Kaus, Metropolitan State University; Michael LaValle, Rochester Community and Technical College; Roger D. Lee, Salt Lake Community College; Lia Liu, University of Illinois Chicago; Alan Mabry, University of Texas at El Paso; Quincy Magby, Arizona Western College; Mary M. Marco, Bucks County Community College; Nicholas Martin, Shepherd College; William C. McClure, Orange Coast College; James McGlothin, Lower Columbia College; Victoria Neagoe, Goldey Beacom College; David W. Nelson, Green River Community College; Ralph W. Oberste-Vorth, Marshall University; Armando I. Perez, Laredo Community College; Cyril Petras, Lord Fairfax Community College; Mihaela Poplicher, University of Cincinnati; John E. Porter, Murray State University; David W. Roach, Murray State University; R. A. Rock, Daniel Webster College; Arthur Rosenthal, Salem State College; Kimmo I. Rosenthal, Union College; Sharon Mayhew Saxton, Cascadia Community College; Edwin Shapiro, University of San Francisco; Denise Szecsei, Stetson University; Abolhassan S. Taghavy, Richard J. Daley College; Muhammad Usman, University of Cincinnati; Jorge R. Viramontes Olivas, University of Texas at El Paso; Beverly Vredevelt, Spokane Falls Community College; Michael L. Wright, Cossatot Community College. We thank Peter Galuardi and Molly Taylor, editors at Houghton Mifflin, for their support in the development of the text. Their frank recommendations were invaluable in enhancing the quality of the final product. On a personal note, we could not have written this text without the tireless support of our families. We express deep appreciation to our wives and children for their love, patience, and support as we took on this challenging endeavor.

Dedicated to:

My parents, Blaine and Joyce Wilson, who believed in me when no one else did. FCW

My wife, Kim, who supported, encouraged, and prayed for me. SLA

x

Features

Real Applications! Real Data! Real Learning!

x Features Real Applications! Real Data! Real Learning!
Chapter 3 The Derivative It is impossible to determine how quickly a person is running
Chapter
3 The Derivative
It is impossible to determine how quickly a person is running from a single
photograph, since speed is calculated as a change in distance over a change in
time. Nevertheless, we may estimate a person’s speed at a particular instant in
time by determining the distance traveled over a small interval of time (e.g., one
second). A runner’s speed may be classified as a rate of change in distance.
A key component of calculus is the study of rates of change.
3.1 Average Rate of Change
■ Calculate the average rate of change
of a function over an interval
3.2 Limits and Instantaneous
Rates of Change
■ Estimate the instantaneous rate of
change of a function at a point
■ Use derivative notation and
terminology to describe
instantaneous rates of change
3.3 Limits and Continuity
■ Perform mathematical operations
with limits
■ Determine if a function is continuous
3.4 The Derivative as a Slope:
Graphical Methods
■ Find the equation of the tangent
line of a curve at a given point
■ Numerically approximate
derivatives from a table of data
■ Graphically interpret average and
instantaneous rates of change
■ Use derivative notation and
terminology to describe
instantaneous rates of change
3.5 The Derivative as a Function:
Algebraic Method
■ Use the limit definition of the
derivative to find the derivative of
a
function
Use derivative notation and
terminology to describe
instantaneous rates of change
3.6 Interpreting the Derivative
■ Interpret the meaning of the
derivative in the context of a
176
word problem

Getting Started

Each section opens with Getting Started, real-life applications or mathematical scenarios, which shows the relevance of the section content to a student’s everyday life. Section objectives are also provided.

Chapter Opener

Each chapter opens with a quick introduction to a key concept presented within a real-life context, accompanied by a related photo. Also, a detailed list of objectives provides a clear picture of the concepts and skills that will be developed in the section.

3.1 Average Rate of Change 177 3.1 Average Rate of Change ■ Calculate the average
3.1
Average Rate of Change
177
3.1 Average Rate of Change
Calculate the average rate
of change of a function
over an interval
Colleges and universities periodically raise their tu-
ition rates in order to cover rising staffing and facilities costs. As a result, it is often
difficult for students to know how much money they should save to cover future tu-
ition costs. By calculating the average rate of change in the tuition price over a period
of years, we can estimate projected increases in tuition costs. In this section, we will
demonstrate how to calculate the average rate of change in the value of a function
over a specified interval [a, b]. (The interval notation [a, b] is equivalent to a # x # b.)
THE DIFFERENCE QUOTIENT: AN AVERAGE RATE OF CHANGE
The average rate of change of a function
y
5 f ( x )
over an interval
3 a, b 4
is
f
( b ) 2 f ( a )
b 2 a
This expression is referred to as the difference quotient. For a linear func-
tion, the difference quotient gives the slope of the line.
In calculating the difference quotient, we answer the question, “Over the interval
3 a, b 4 , on average, how much does a one-unit increase in the x value change the
y value of the function?”
EXAMPLE 1
Calculating an Average Rate of Change
The quarterly cost of tuition for full-time resident students at Green River
Community College is shown in Table 3.1.
TABLE 3.1
Years
(since 1994–1995)
Quarterly Tuition Cost
(dollars)
Change in Tuition
Cost from Prior Year
(
t )
3
f ( t ) 4
(dollars)
0
432
1
450
18
2
467
17
3
486
19
4
505
19
5
528
23
6
547
19
7
581
34
Source: Green River Community College.

Features

xi

Real Applications! Real Data! Real Learning!

Features xi Real Applications! Real Data! Real Learning! Technology Tips The understanding of core concepts can

Technology Tips

The understanding of core concepts can be en- hanced through the use of a graphing calculator. Technology Tips, incorporated throughout the text, guide students through new techniques on the calculator such as graphing a function, solving an equation, and finding the value of a function.

All tips show actual calculator keystrokes, often with multiple, sequential screenshots, teaching students how to use graphing calculators as a tool to analyze real-life data.

When the use of graphing technology is advised, a

graphing calculator icon will appear

.
.
Graphing a Sequence 1. In column A, write a list of whole numbers from 1
Graphing a Sequence
1. In column A, write a list of whole numbers
from 1 through the number of terms you wish
to compute.
In cell B2, write the initial term of the
sequence. In this case, u ( 1 ) 5 20.
2. In cell B3, type “0.305B2+20.” This is equivalent
to
stating that u ( n 1 1 ) 5 0.305u ( n ) 1 20.
(Continued)
11.1 Sequences 727 Using Technology to Graph a Sequence The TI–83 Plus calculator works nicely
11.1
Sequences
727
Using Technology to Graph a Sequence
The TI–83 Plus calculator works nicely in creating a graph of a sequence.
A similar Technology Tip for
Microsoft Excel is given at the
end of the section.
Graphing a Sequence
1.
Press
MODE
. Change the mode to
Sequence mode by using the arrows to
highlight SEQ and pressing
ENTER
.
2.
Edit the parameters using the
Y
Editor. The parameter nMin refers to the
minimum term number you choose to
display. The parameter u( n) represents
the formula. The u is accessed by
pressing
2nd
and the number
7
(note
the blue u above the
7
button). The
parameter n is accessed by pressing the
X,T, U,n
key. The parameter u(nMin)
represents the first term of the sequence.
3.
Edit the parameters. The
WINDOW
parameters nMin and nMax refer to the
number terms in the sequence to be
evaluated. PlotStart and PlotStep
determine which term to plot first and
the incremental value of n . The rest of
the parameters are as usual, where x
represents the term number and y
represents the value in the sequence.
4.
Press
GRAPH
.
(Continued)

Excel Technology Tips

Upon entering the working world, many students will use Excel or some other spreadsheet program as their primary tool for generating graphs, ana- lyzing data, and generating models. With that in mind, Technology Tips focusing exclusively on Excel use are included. Many tips show actual keystrokes, often with multiple, sequential screen- shots, teaching students how to use Excel as a tool to analyze real-life data.

xii

Features

Real Applications! Real Data! Real Learning!

xii Features Real Applications! Real Data! Real Learning!
EXAMPLE 6 Analyzing Shuttle Bus Wait Times Shuttle buses arrive at a hotel every 15
EXAMPLE
6
Analyzing Shuttle Bus Wait Times
Shuttle buses arrive at a hotel every 15 minutes to take visitors to Disneyland.
Compute and interpret the expected value for this situation. Then calculate the
variance and standard deviation.
SOLUTION
Since the wait time is a uniform continuous random variable on
the interval
30, 154,
we will use the uniform probability density function
1
1
P(x) 5
to compute the expected value.
15 2 0 5
15
1
E(x) 5 2 (0 1 15)
15
5
2
5
7.5 minutes
On average, a visitor would expect to wait 7.5 minutes for the shuttle bus.
Next we compute the variance.
Var(x) 5 (15 2 0) 2
12
15 2
5
12
225
5
12

Units reminder

Accompanying many examples is a ruler icon reminding students to pay close

examples is a ruler icon reminding students to pay close attention to unit analysis.   3.6

attention to unit analysis.

 

3.6

Interpreting the Derivative

247

million dollars, where x is the net number of CDs shipped in millions. (Net means “after returns.”)

(Source: Modeled from Recording Industry Association of America data.)

19. Deadly Alcohol-Related Brawls

19. Deadly Alcohol-Related Brawls Based on data from 1991 to 2000, the number of homicides resulting

Based

on data from 1991 to 2000, the number of homicides resulting from an alcohol-related

brawl may be modeled by

and

Interpret the meaning of V ( 900 ) 5 12,261.9

V r ( 900 ) 5 17.9

( t ) 5 2 0.3551t

H

3 1 9.867t 2 2 104.7t

1 600.4

.

14. DVDs

. 14. DVDs Based on data from 1998 to 2001, the value of DVD videos shipped

Based on data from 1998 to

2001, the value of DVD videos shipped by recording industry manufacturers may be modeled by V ( x ) 5 2 0.2173x 2 1 25.84x 2 0.02345 million dollars, where x is the net number of DVDs shipped in millions. (Net means “after

deaths, where t is the number of years since 1990.

Source: Modeled from Crime in the United States 2000, Uniform Crime Report, FBI.)

(

Interpret the meaning of

H ( 10 ) 5 185

and

r ( 10 ) 5 2 14 .

H

20. Body Height

20. Body Height The average height of a girl between the ages of 2 and 13

The average height of a

girl between the ages of 2 and 13 years may be modeled by

returns.”) ( Source: Modeled from Recording Industry Association of America data.)

Interpret the meaning of V r ( 7.5 ) 5 22.6 .

V ( 7.5 ) 5 181.6

and

( a ) 5 2 0.0392a 2 1 2.987a 1 29.69

H

 

inches, where a is the age of the girl. ( Source:

Modeled from www.babybag.com data.)

 

Interpret the meaning of

H ( 5 ) 5 43.6

and

15. Summer Olympics

15. Summer Olympics Based on data from 1904 to 1992, the number of women in the

Based on data from

1904

to 1992, the number of women in

the Summer Olympics may be modeled by W ( t ) 5 0.0002344t 4 2 0.03440t 3

r ( 5 ) 5 2.6 .

H

21. Company Revenue

r ( 5 ) 5 2.6 . H 21. Company Revenue Based on data from 1999

Based on data

from 1999 to 2001, the gross revenue

1 1.701t 2 2 19.69t 1 70.80 women, where t is the number of years since 1900.

from sales of Johnson & Johnson and its subsidiaries may be modeled by R ( t ) 5 665t 2 1 1150t 1 27,357 million dollars, where t is the number of years since the end of 1999. ( Source: Modeled

 

(Source: Modeled from www.olympicwomen.co.uk data.)

Interpret the meaning of W r ( 92 ) 5 150 .

W ( 92 ) 5

2662

and

from Johnson & Johnson 2001 Annual Report.)

16. Summer Olympics

16. Summer Olympics Refer to the results ( 96 ) will W W r ( 96

Refer to the results

( 96 ) will

W

W r ( 96 )

will

of Exercise 15. Do you think

be greater than 2662 and

exceed 150? Defend your conclusions.

Interpret the meaning of

R

r ( 2 ) 5

3810 .

22. Company Costs

Interpret the meaning of R r ( 2 ) 5 3810 . 22. Company Costs

R ( 2 ) 5 32,317

and

Based on data from

   

1999

to 2001, the cost of goods sold for

17. U.S. Population

17. U.S. Population Based on data from

Based on data from

Johnson & Johnson and its subsidiaries may be

1790

to 2000, the population of the

modeled by

United States may be modeled by P ( t ) 5 0.006702t 2 2 24.11t 1 21,696 million people, where t is the calendar year.

 

C

( t ) 5 103t 2 1 315t 1 8539

 

million dollars, where t is the number of years since the end of 1999. ( Source: Modeled

(Source: Modeled from U.S. Bureau of the Census data.)

from Johnson & Johnson 2001 Annual Report.)

P ( 2000 ) 5

284

and

Interpret the meaning of

C ( 2 ) 5

9581

and

Interpret the meaning of P r ( 2000 ) 5 2.70 .

18. Homicide Rate

Interpret the meaning of P r ( 2000 ) 5 2.70 . 18. Homicide Rate Based

Based on data from

C

r ( 2 ) 5 727 .

23. Company Profit

C r ( 2 ) 5 727 . 23. Company Profit

Based on data from

1990

to 2000, the homicide rate (deaths

1999

to 2001, the operating profit of

 

per 100,000 people) in the United States may be modeled by H ( t ) 5 0.01129t 3 2 0.2002t 2 1 0.4826t 1 9.390 people, where t is the number of years since 1990.

Frito-Lay North America may be modeled by P ( t ) 5 2 47.5t 2 1 283.5t 1 1679 million dollars, where t is the number of years since the end of 1999. ( Source: Modeled

(Source: Modeled from Crime in the United States 2000, Uniform Crime Report, FBI.)

from PepsiCo 2001 Annual Report.)

Interpret the meaning of

P( 2 ) 5 2056

and

Interpret the meaning of H r ( 10 ) 5 2 0.1.

H( 10 ) 5 5.5

and

P

r ( 2 ) 5 93.5.

Examples

Real-life applications, examples, and data help engage students—even those who have never

enjoyed mathematics. Cited sources—especially

those of interest to business and social science

students—help to “make it real.”

According to the model, 5.395 years after the end of fiscal year 1998, the annual revenue is expected to reach $3 billion. To add meaning to the result, we convert 0.395 years into months.

0.395 years ? 1 2 1 m o n t h s year < 5

0.395 years ? 12 1 months year

0.395 years ? 1 2 1 m o n t h s year

< 5 months

During the one-year period prior to the end of the fifth month of fiscal year 2004,

we anticipate that $3 billion in revenues will be earned. (Note: Since end of fiscal year 2003, t 5 5.395 is in fiscal year 2004.)

t 5 5

is the

Exercises

Over 500 real-life applications featuring over

70 businesses, products, and associations help

to make math real for your students! Using real-

world data from real companies such as Starbucks

and Wal-Mart, and interesting topics such as debit cards and student loans, the exercises bring a

current and immediate motivation for learning mathematical concepts.

A globe icon

includes real-life data.

A globe icon with an M

the exercise includes a model based on real-life

data.

A globe icon with an M the exercise includes a model based on real-life data. indicates

indicates that the exercise

A globe icon with an M the exercise includes a model based on real-life data. indicates

indicates that

Features

xiii

Real Applications! Real Data! Real Learning!

Features xiii Real Applications! Real Data! Real Learning!

Show You Know Conceptual Exercises

Show You Know exercises are focused on a con- ceptual understanding of the objectives in each section. With a focus on critical thinking, these exercises ask students to think abstractly about a problem and explain their results.

Challenge Exercises

The Challenge exercises are more difficult ques- tions situated at the end of an exercise set. The exercises challenge students’ understanding of one or more of the section’s topics.

 

6.3

Using Sums to Approximate Area

431

6.3

Summary

 
 

In this section, you learned how to use left- and right-hand sums to approximate the area between the graph of a function and the horizontal axis. A solid understanding of these concepts will help you grasp the material presented in the next section.

6.3

Algebra Flashback

 
 

1. What is the equation for the area of a rectangle?

4.

The interval

3

3,5 4

is to be divided into four

 

equally sized subintervals. What is the width of

2. Each rectangle in a group of four rectangles has a width of 2 centimeters. The heights of the four rectangles are 1 centimeter, 4 centimeters, 9 cen- timeters, and 16 centimeters, respectively. What is the combined area of the group of rectangles?

 

each subinterval?

 

5.

The interval

3

1,4 4

is to be divided into eight

equally sized subintervals. What is the width of each subinterval?

3. Each rectangle in a group of four rectangles has a width of 0.5 centimeter. The heights of the four rectangles are 3 centimeters, 4 centimeters,

5 centimeters, and 6 centimeters, respectively. What is the combined area of the group of rectangles?

6.

What is the average of the numbers 210 and 140?

7.

Convert cubic feet per second into cubic yards per minute.

8.

Convert miles per hour into feet per second. (Hint: There are 5280 feet in a mile.)

6.3

Exercises

 

In

Exercises 1–5, draw the rectangles used to

 

2

 

9.

h(x)

5

x 1 1

;

3 1, 5 4

 

calculate the left-hand sum estimate of the area between the graph of the function and the horizontal

axis on the specified interval. (In each case, use four rectangles.) Then calculate the left-hand sum.

10.

f

(x) 5 2 2x 1 20

;

3 0, 10 4

 

11.

s(x) 5 ln(x)

; 3 e, e

2

4

1.

f

(x)

5 2

;

3 1, 5 4

 

12. 5 x 2 2 2 x ; 3 2, 4 4

y

 

2.

g(x)

5 2 2x 1 9

;

3 0, 4 4

13. 5 4t 2 2 1; 3 2, 4 4

y

3.

h(x)

5 2

x 1 x

;

3 0, 2 4

 

14. 5 20 2 1000 ; 3 100, 200 4

q

p

 

4.

f

(t) 5

3

t

;

3 1, 3 4

 
 

15.

f

(t) 5 t 1 2 ; 3 3, 11 4

 

5.

v(t) 5 0.5t 1 20

;

3 3, 7 4

t 2 2

In

Exercises 6–15, use the left-hand sum to estimate

In Exercises 16–35, use left- and right-hand sums

the area between the graph of the function and the

(with

n 5 4 ) to estimate the area between the graph of

horizontal axis on the specified interval. For each

the function and the horizontal axis on the specified interval. In each exercise, calculate the left-hand sum,

exercise, calculate the sum with

n 5 2

,

n 5 4

, and

n

5 10 rectangles.

 

the right-hand sum, and the average of the two sums.

6.

s(t)

5 2 3t

2

1 3t

;

3 0, 1 4

The exact area, A, is given so that you can compare

your estimates to the actual area.

7.

s(t) 5 t

3 2 3t 2 1 3t 2 1

;

3 1, 2 4

16.

f

(x)

5 6x 1 1

on

3 2, 4 4

;

A 5 38

 

8.

g(x) 5 2 x

2

1 4

; 3 0, 2 4

 

17.

g(x) 5 x

2 2 2x 1 2

on

3 3, 5 4

; A 5 20 2

3

 

6.4

The Definite Integral

 

433

  47. The left-hand sum and right-hand sum of the
 

47. The left-hand sum and right-hand sum of the

function

f ( x ) 5 2 x

2 1 4 x

on the interval

3 0, 4 4

 
 

are both equal to 10 when four rectangles are

 

41. Explain why it makes sense to use rectangles to approximate the area between the graph of a func- tion and the horizontal axis.

used. Does this mean that the area between the

 

graph of

f ( x ) 5 2 x 2 1 4 x

and the x-axis is equal

42. Graphically speaking, what is the difference be- tween a left-hand sum and a right-hand sum?

to

10? Explain.

 

48. positive function

A

f

is an increasing function.

 
 

(That is,

f ( a ) # f ( b )

whenever

a # b

.) Which

 

43. Why does increasing the number of rectangles used in a Riemann sum increase the accuracy of the area estimate?

sum will best approximate the area between the

graph of

f

and the

x

-axis on the interval

3 a , b 4

: the

left-hand sum, the right-hand sum, or the average

 

44. A classmate claims that averaging the left- and right-hand sums always yields a better estimate

of

the left- and right-hand sums? Explain.

 

49. Calculate the left-hand sum for the function

 
 

for the area. Give an example to show that your classmate is incorrect.

f

( x ) 5 Z 2 2 x 1 2 Z

on the interval

3 0, 2 4

using

 

n

5 1

,

,

n 5 2 n 5 3 n 5 4 n 5 5

,

,

, and

n 5 6

.

 

For which value(s) of

n

does the left-hand sum

45. If a graph gives the velocity of a car (in miles per hour) as a function of the number of hours the car has been moving, what will be the units of the area of the rectangles used to estimate the area between the graph and the horizontal axis? Explain.

best approximate the actual area between the

 

graph of

f

and the

x

-axis on the interval

3 a , b 4

?

50. For a nonnegative function

f

on the interval

3 a , b 4

,

does reducing the width of the rectangles used in

 

a

Riemann sum ever worsen the Riemann sum

 
  estimate of the area between the graph of f and
 

estimate of the area between the graph of

f

and

the

x

-axis on the interval

3 a , b 4

? Explain. (Hint:

46.

Give an example of a positive function

f

on an

Consider the function

f ( x ) 5 Z 2 2 x 1 2 Z

using

 

interval

3 a , b 4

that has the property that the left-

left-hand sums with n 5 2 and n 5 3.)

 

hand sum and right-hand sum approximation of

 

the area between the graph of equal for all values of D x.

f

and the x-axis are

Algebra Flashback Exercises

Algebra Flashback exercises give students an opportunity to refresh the algebra skills they will need to successfully master the objectives of the section.

xiv

Features

Real Applications! Real Data! Real Learning!

xiv Features Real Applications! Real Data! Real Learning! Just In Time Vertical and Horizontal Shifts The
Just In Time Vertical and Horizontal Shifts The graph of any function may be moved
Just
In
Time
Vertical and Horizontal
Shifts
The graph
of any
function may be
moved on the coordinate grid through the use
of vertical
and horizontal shifts.
Vertical shifts are
achieved by changing the value
of the
output
variable by
a
constant
amount.
Horizontal
shifts are
achieved
by
changing the value
of the input variable
by a constant
amount. For the
following
examples,
we
use the
function f ( x ) 5 2 x . In
each
case, k and
c are
assumed to be
nonnegative constants.
Shift
General Form
Example
Vertical,
upward
y
5
f ( x )
1 k
g
( x )
5
2 x 1
4
shifted
up by 4 units
Vertical, downward
y
5
f ( x )
2 g( x )
k
5
2 x 2
4
shifted down by 4 units
Horizontal,
left
x
1
3
y
5
f ( x 1
c
)
g
( x )
5
2
shifted left by 3
units
Horizontal, right
x
2
3
y
5
f ( x 2
c
)
g
( x )
5
2
shifted right
by
3
units

Chapter Study Sheet

A Chapter Study Sheet can be found at the end of

each chapter before the Review Exercises. It acts

as a summary and review of major concepts ad-

dressed in the chapter. Unlike the chapter sum- maries in many competing textbooks, the Chapter Study Sheet poses conceptual questions focused on the “big ideas” of the chapter. This helps students focus on the key concepts of the chapter in addi- tion to critical skills as they prepare for chapter exams.

Just In Time Algebra Review

These reviews cover important algebra material at the point where students need it most.

 

Chapter 10

Study Sheet

707

Chapter 10 Study Sheet
Chapter 10 Study Sheet

After working through this chapter, you should be able to answer the following questions, which are focused on the “big ideas” of the chapter.

1. How is a slope field created? What does each of the short line segments in a slope field represent? (10.1)

dy

2. When creating a slope field for a particular differential equation , how

should the axes be labeled? Why? (10.1)

dx

3. How is a particular differential equation used to approximate solutions using Euler’s Method? (10.2)

4. What role does step size play in the accuracy of the solution when using Euler’s Method to approximate the solutions of a differential equation? (10.2)

5. How is solving a differential equation using separation of variables different from solving a differential equation using Euler’s Method? (10.3)

6. Why is it helpful to separate the variables when solving particular differen- tial equations? (10.3)

7. How does a limited growth differential equation model compare with a lo- gistic growth differential equation model? (10.4)

8. What does the parameter

5 k ( M 2 y ) and

dy

M

represent in the differential equations

5 ky( M 2 y )?

(10.4)

dy

 

dt

dt

 

9. What types of differential equations can be solved using the integrating fac-

tor method? (10.5) 10. How is the integrating factor computed, and how is it helpful when solving certain differential equations? (10.5)

You should also be familiar with the following definitions; procedures, proper- ties, and tests; and formulas that were emphasized in this chapter.

Definitions

 
 

Differential Equation: An equation that contains an unknown function and one or more of its derivatives

First-Order Differential Equation: A differential equation that contains

only first derivatives of the dependent variable

 

Solution of a Differential Equation: A function in numerical, graphical,

or symbolic form that satisfies a differential equation

 

Slope Field: An array of slope marks in the xy plane representing solu-

tions to a differential equation

 

Step Size: The increment used for the independent variable when numer- ically approximating solutions to a differential equation using Euler’s Method

Euler’s Method: A numerical process of computing function values over small intervals

Separable Differential Equation: A first-order differential equation is

 

said to be separable if it may be written as

dy 5 f ( x )

for some functions

dx

g

( y )

f ( x ) and g ( y ).

 

Features

xv

Real Applications! Real Data! Real Learning!

Features xv Real Applications! Real Data! Real Learning!

Review Exercises

These exercises appear at the end of the chapter and help review the problems from each section. The Review Exercises provide an excellent way for students to study for an upcoming exam.

PROJECT 12 What to do 1. Choose a situation that you are interested in researching
PROJECT
12
What to do
1. Choose a situation that you are interested in researching for which proba-
bility density functions may be constructed. Consider the data sets given in
this chapter for ideas and for examples of the types of data sets that will
work best.
2. Once you have identified a data set, construct a probability density func-
tion. Depending on the situation, you may or may not be able to use one of
the special probability density functions.
3. Use your probability density function to find probabilities that are interest-
ing to you. Also find the expected value, variance, and standard deviation.
4. Repeat this process for an additional two or three data sets related to the
topic you are researching.
5. Write a technical report describing the situation, the associated probability
density function, and how it was constructed. Write an explanation of the
expected value, variance, and standard deviation.
Where to
find
data
Data for this project can
be found
at the
following
sites,
as
well as
others:
www.census.gov/statab/www/
www.cancer.org
www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov
www.IQTest.com
www.google.com
www.nba.com
www.mlb.com
www.nfl.com
840
 

Chapter 10

Review Exercises

709

Chapter 10 Review Exercises
Chapter 10 Review Exercises

Section 10.1

In Exercises 1–6, match the given

4.

slope fields with the differential equations A through H. Note that there are six slope fields but eight differen- tial equations, so two equations will not have matches.

y 8 6 4 2 0 x 2468 −2
y
8
6
4
2
0
x
2468
−2
 

A.

dy

dy

y 2

 

dx 5 y

 

B.

dx

5

C.

dy

y

dy

sin y

 

5

D.

5

 
 

dx

x

dx

dy

dy

5.

y 8 6 4 2 0 x 0 2 468
y
8
6
4
2
0
x
0
2
468
 

E.

dx

5

x 2

F.

dx

5 cos y

 

G.

dy

1

dy

2 y 2

 

5

H.

5

   
 

dx

y

dx

1.

y 8 6 4 2 0 x 0 2 468
y
8
6
4
2
0
x
0
2
468
 
 

6.

 
y 8 6 4 2
y
8
6
4
2
 
y
y

2.

 

Make It Real Projects

These end-of-chapter projects ask students to collect and analyze data from their own experi- ences and interests. By providing choices in the selection, students are better able to process these concepts and connect math to their own lives.

xvi

Features

Additional Resources—Get the Most out of Your Textbook!

Supplements for the Instructor

Online Instructor’s Solutions Manual

instructor website, this manual contains the complete, worked-out solutions for all the exercises in the text.

Found on the

HM Testing (Powered by Diploma™) “Testing the

way you want it

needed to create, author, deliver, and customize multiple types of tests—including authoring and editing algorith-

mic questions.

HM Testing offers all the tools

Supplements for the Student

Student Solutions Manual

Scott Adamson, and others, this manual offers step-by- step solutions for all odd-numbered text exercises.

Written by Frank Wilson,

Excel Guide

Excel, as well as step-by-step examples designed to teach students how to use Excel to solve selected types of problems found in this course.

The guide provides an introduction to

Instructional DVDsfound in this course. The guide provides an introduction to provide explanations of key concepts, examples,

provide explanations of key concepts, examples, exercises, and applications in a lecture-based format.

Hosted by Dana Mosely, these text-specific DVDs cover selected sections of the text and

HM MathSPACE ® encompasses the interactive online products and services integrated with Houghton Mifflin textbook programs. Available through text-specific student and instructor websites and via the online course management system, HM MathSPACE includes homework powered by WebAssign ® , a multimedia eBook, videos, and tutorials.

WebAssign ®

ing. Instructors can create assignments from a ready-to-use database of algorithmic questions based on end-of-section

exercises or write and customize their own. With WebAssign, students can access homework, quizzes, and tests any time of day or night.

Developed by teachers for teachers, WebAssign allows instructors to focus on teaching rather than grad-

SMARTHINKING ® Live, online tutoring ® Live, online tutoring

line, text-specific tutoring service. A dynamic Whiteboard and Graphing Calculator function enable students and e-structors to collaborate easily.

SMARTHINKING provides an easy-to-use and effective on-

Visit smarthinking.college.hmco.com for more information.

Online Course Content for Blackboard ® , WebCT ® , and eCollege ®

content online using your institution’s local course management system. Houghton Mifflin offers homework, tutorials,

videos, and other resources formatted for Blackboard, WebCT, eCollege, and other course management systems. Add to an existing online course or create a new one by selecting from a wide range of powerful learning and instructional materials.

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Functions and Linear Models

Mathematical functions are a powerful tool used to model real-world phe- nomena. Whether simple or complex, functions give us a way to forecast ex- pected results. Remarkably, anything that has a constant rate of change may be accurately modeled with a linear function. For example, the cost of filling your car’s gas tank is a linear function of the number of gallons purchased.

is a linear function of the number of gallons purchased. 1.1 Functions ■ Distinguish between functions

1.1 Functions

Distinguish between functions and nonfunctions in tables, graphs, and words

Use function notation

Graph functions using technology

Determine the domain of a function

1.2 Linear Functions

Calculate and interpret the meaning of the slope of a linear function

Interpret the physical and graphical meaning of x- and y-intercepts

Formulate the equation of a line given two points

Recognize the slope-intercept, point-slope, and standard forms of a line

1.3 Linear Models

Use technology to model linear and near-linear data

Use a linear equation to describe the relationship between directly proportional quantities

Recognize and model naturally occurring linear, near-linear, and piecewise linear relationships

2

CHAPTER 1

Functions and Linear Models

1.1 Functions

■ Distinguish between functions and nonfunctions in tables, graphs, and words Our society is a
■ Distinguish between
functions and
nonfunctions in tables,
graphs, and words
Our society is a complex system of relationships
among people, places, and things. Many of these relationships are interconnected. In
mathematics, we often model the relationship between two or more interdependent
■ Use function notation
quantities by using a function. In this section, we will show how to distinguish be-
■ Graph functions using
technology
tween functions and nonfunctions and will practice using function notation. We will
also demonstrate how to use technology to draw a function graph, and discuss how
■ Determine the domain of a
function
to find the domain of a function.

DEFINITION: FUNCTION

A function is a rule that associates each input with exactly one output.

Often the rule is represented in a table of data with the inputs on the left-hand side and the outputs on the right-hand side. For example, the amount of money we pay to fill up our gas tank is a function of the number of gallons pumped (see Table 1.1).

TABLE 1.1 Gallons Pumped Total Fuel Cost 10 $15.99 15 $23.99 20 $31.98
TABLE 1.1
Gallons Pumped
Total Fuel Cost
10
$15.99
15
$23.99
20
$31.98

In this case, the input to the function is gallons pumped and the output of the

function is total fuel cost. Fuel cost is a function of the number of gallons pumped because each input has exactly one output. Similarly, the weekly wage of a service station employee is a function of the number of hours worked. The number of hours worked is the input to the func- tion, and the weekly wage is the output of the function. Since weekly wage is

a function of the number of hours worked, an employee who works 40 hours

expects to be paid the same wage each time she works that amount of time.

EXAMPLE 1
EXAMPLE
1

Determining If a Table of Data Represents a Function

A car dealer tracks the number of blue cars in each of three shipments and records

the data in a table (see Table 1.2). Is the number of blue cars a function of the number of cars in the shipment?

1.1

Functions

3

same input

TABLE 1.2 Number of Cars in the Shipment Number of Blue Cars 22 6 
TABLE 1.2
Number of Cars
in the Shipment
Number of
Blue Cars
22
6
 24
7
 24
5

different outputs

SOLUTION

According to the definition of a function, each input must have

exactly one output. The input value 24 has two different outputs: 5 and 7. Since the input 24 has more than one output, the number of blue cars is not a function of the number of cars in the shipment.

Function Notation

When we encounter functions in real life, they are often expressed in words. To make functions easier to work with, we typically use symbolic notation to repre- sent the relationship between the input and the output. Let’s return to the fuel cost table introduced previously (Table 1.3).

TABLE 1.3 Gallons Pumped Total Fuel Cost 10 $15.99 15 $23.99 20 $31.98
TABLE 1.3
Gallons Pumped
Total Fuel Cost
10
$15.99
15
$23.99
20
$31.98

Observe that the fuel cost is equal to $1.599 times the number of gallons pumped.

represents the

is read “C of g”]. The letter C

is used to represent the name of the rule, and the letter g in the parentheses indi- cates that the rule works with different values of g (see Figure 1.1).

We represent this symbolically as

total fuel cost when g gallons are pumped. [

C(g) 5 1.599g

C(g)

, where

C(g)

g

are pumped. [ C ( g ) 5 1.599 g C ( g ) , where

CC(g)

input value

FIGURE 1.1

function name

output value

We call the output variable of a function the dependent variable because the value of the output variable depends upon the value of the input variable. The input variable is called the independent variable. (One way to remember the meaning of the terms is to observe that both input and independent begin with in.) From the table, we see that

C(10) 5 15.99

C(15) 5 23.99

C(20) 5 31.98

For this function, the independent variable took on the values 10, 15, and 20, and the dependent variable assumed the values 15.99, 23.99, and 31.98.

variable assumed the values 15.99, 23.99, and 31.98. Determining a Linear Model from a Verbal Description

Determining a Linear Model from a Verbal Description

EXAMPLE

2

An electronics store employee earns $8.50 per hour. Write an equation for the employee’s earnings as a function of the hours worked. Then calculate the amount of money the employee earns (in dollars) by working 30 hours.

Since the employee earns $8.50 for each hour worked, the em-

ployee’s total earnings are equal to $8.50 times the total number of hours worked. That is,

E(h) 5 8.50h

where E is the employee’s earnings (in dollars) and h is the number of hours

worked. To calculate the amount of money earned by working 30 hours, we eval-

uate this function at

SOLUTION

h 5 30

.

E(30) 5 8.5(30)

5 255

The employee earns $255 for 30 hours of work.

Function notation is extremely versatile. Suppose we are given the function f (x) 5 x 2 2 2x 1 1 . We may evaluate the function using either numerical val- ues or nonnumerical values. For example,

f (2) 5 (2) 2 2 2(2) 1 1

5

4 2 4 1 1

5

1

f (^) 5 (^) 2 2 2(^) 1 1

f (a 1 2) 5 (a 1 2) 2 2 2(a 1 2) 1 1

5

(a 2 1 4a 1 4) 2 2a 2 4 1 1

5

a 2 1 2a 1 1

In each case, we replaced the value of x in the function

the quantity in the parentheses. Whether the independent variable value was 2,

or a 1 2

f (x) 5 x 2 2 2x 1 1

with

^ ,

, the process was the same.

x 2 2 2 x 1 1 with ^ , , the process was the same.

Evaluating a Function Using Function Notation

EXAMPLE 3 Evaluate the function s(t) 5 t 3 1 4t at t 5 3,
EXAMPLE
3
Evaluate the function
s(t) 5 t 3 1 4t
at
t 5 3, t 5 ^, and t 5 a 2
.
SOLUTION
s(3) 5 (3) 3 1 4(3)
s(^) 5 (^) 3 1 4(^)
5
27 1 12
5
39
s(a 2 ) 5
(a 2 ) 3 1 4(a 2 )
5 a 6 1 4a 2

1.1

Functions

5

Graphs of Functions

Functions are represented visually by plotting points on a Cartesian coordinate system (see Figure 1.2). The horizontal axis shows the value of the independent variable (in this case, x), and the vertical axis shows the value of the dependent variable (in this case, y).

y

4

3

2

1

of the dependent variable (in this case, y ). y 4 3 2 1 (2, 4)
of the dependent variable (in this case, y ). y 4 3 2 1 (2, 4)

(2, 4)

(3, 2)

variable (in this case, y ). y 4 3 2 1 (2, 4) ( − 3,

4

1

2

3

4

this case, y ). y 4 3 2 1 (2, 4) ( − 3, 2) −

x

3 2 1 1

(1, 4)

2

3

4

3 − 2 − 1 − 1 ( − 1, − 4) − 2 − 3
3 − 2 − 1 − 1 ( − 1, − 4) − 2 − 3

(1, 2)

FIGURE 1.3

y 4 3 2 1 x −4 −3 −2 −1 1 234 −1 −2 −3
y
4
3
2
1
x
−4
−3
−2
−1
1
234
−1
−2
−3
−4

FIGURE 1.2

When using the coordinate system, y is typically used in place of the function no-

. This is true even if the function has a name other

than f.

The point of intersection of the horizontal and vertical axes is referred to as

. To graph an ordered pair

units vertically and

, we move to the left. Simi-

, we move down. For example, consider

the table of values with its associated interpretation in Table 1.4 and the graph in

Figure 1.3.

draw a point. If

the origin and is represented by the ordered pair

(a, b)

tation

f (x)

. That is,

y 5 f(x)

(0, 0)

, we move from the origin

a . 0

b . 0

0a 0

units horizontally and

a , 0

0b 0

, we move to the right. If

b , 0

larly, if

, we move up, and if

TABLE 1.4 x y 23 2 21 24 1 22 2 4
TABLE 1.4
x
y
23
2
21
24
1
22
2
4
Horizontal Vertical left 3 up 2 left 1 down 4 right 1 down 2 right
Horizontal
Vertical
left 3
up 2
left 1
down 4
right 1
down 2
right 2
up 4

When we are given the equation of a function, we can generate a table of values and then plot the corresponding points. Once we have drawn a sufficient number

of points to be able to determine the basic shape of the graph, we typically con-

6

CHAPTER 1

Functions and Linear Models

x y 24 228 23 0 22 10 21 8 0 0 1 28 2
x