Applied Calculus
Frank C. Wilson
ChandlerGilbert Community College
Scott Adamson
ChandlerGilbert Community College
HOUGHTON MIFFLIN HARCOURT PUBLISHING COMPANY
Boston
New York
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Copyright © 2009 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system without the prior written permission of Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company unless such copying is expressly permitted by federal copyright law. Address inquiries to College Permissions, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, 222 Berkeley Street, Boston, MA 021163764.
Printed in the U.S.A. Library of Congress Control Number: 2008925563
Instructor’s exam copy:
ISBN 13: 9780547004884 ISBN 10: 0547004885
For orders, use student text ISBNs:
ISBN 13: 9780618611041 ISBN 10: 0618611045
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 – CRK – 12 11 10 09 08
Contents
1 Functions and Linear Models
1.1 Functions
1.2 Linear Functions
2
Linear Models
1.3 33
18
Chapter 1 Study Sheet
57
1
Chapter 1 Review Exercises 
58 

Make It Real Project 1 
60 

2 Nonlinear Models 
61 

2.1 Quadratic Function Models 
62 
2.2 HigherOrder Polynomial Function Models 
93 

2.3 Exponential Function Models 
115 

2.4 Logarithmic Function Models 
135 

2.5 Choosing a Mathematical Model 
150 

Chapter 2 Study Sheet 
166 

Chapter 2 Review Exercises Make It Real Project 2 175 
168 

3 The Derivative 
176 

3.1 Average Rate of Change 
177 

3.2 Limits and Instantaneous Rates of Change 
188 
3.3 Limits and Continuity
3.4 The Derivative as a Slope: Graphical Methods
3.5 The Derivative as a Function: Algebraic Method
3.6 Interpreting the Derivative
205
242
Chapter 3 Study Sheet
249
Chapter 3 Review Exercises Make It Real Project 3 255
251
4 Differentiation Techniques
256
4.1 Basic Derivative Rules
4.2 The Product and Quotient Rules
4.3 The Chain Rule
4.4 Exponential and Logarithmic Rules
4.5 Implicit Differentiation
257
266
275
285
293
217
233
iii
iv
Contents
Chapter 4 Study Sheet
300
Chapter 4 Review Exercises Make It Real Project 4 304
302
5 Derivative Applications
5.1 Maxima and Minima
307
306
5.2 Applications of Maxima and Minima 
327 
5.3 Concavity and the Second Derivative 
352 
5.4
Related Rates
Chapter 5 Study Sheet
377
386
Chapter 5 Review Exercises Make It Real Project 5 391
6 The Integral
392
387
6.1 Indefinite Integrals 393
6.2 Integration by Substitution 402
6.3 Using Sums to Approximate Area 411
6.4 The Definite Integral 433
6.5 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus 451 Chapter 6 Study Sheet 463 Chapter 6 Review Exercises 466 Make It Real Project 6 470
7 Advanced Integration Techniques
and Applications 
471 
7.1 Integration by Parts 
472 
7.2 Area Between Two Curves
7.3 Improper Integrals
498
481
Chapter 7 Study Sheet
510
Chapter 7 Review Exercises Make It Real Project 7 514
511
8 Multivariable Functions and Partial Derivatives 515
8.1 Multivariable Functions
8.2 Partial Derivatives
8.3 Multivariable Maxima and Minima
8.4 Constrained Maxima and Minima and Applications
516
528
545
Chapter 8 Study Sheet
576
Chapter 8 Review Exercises Make It Real Project 8 581
578
561
Contents
v
9 
Trigonometric Functions 582 

9.1 Trigonometric Functions, Equations, and Graphs 
583 

9.2 Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions 
604 

9.3 Integrals of Trigonometric Functions 
618 

Chapter 9 Study Sheet 
630 

Chapter 9 Review Exercises Make It Real Project 9 635 
632 

10 
Differential Equations 
636 

10.1 Slope Fields 
637 

10.2 Euler’s Method 649 

10.3 Separable Differential Equations and Applications 
662 

10.4 Differential Equations: Limited Growth and Logistic Models 673 

10.5 FirstOrder Linear Differential Equations 691 

Chapter 10 Study Sheet 
707 

Chapter 10 Review Exercises Make It Real Project 10 715 709 

11 
Sequences and Series 
717 

11.1 Sequences 718 

11.2 Series and Convergence 
733 

11.3 Taylor Polynomials 746 

11.4 Taylor Series 
763 

Chapter 11 Study Sheet 
774 

Chapter 11 Review Exercises Make It Real Project 11 778 776 

12 
Probability and Calculus 779 

12.1 Continuous Probability Models 780 
12.2 Uniform and Exponential Distributions
12.3 Expected Value, Variance, and Standard Deviation
12.4 Normal Distributions Chapter 12 Study Sheet
796
820
834
Chapter 12 Review Exercises Make It Real Project 12 840
836
Answers to OddNumbered Exercises Index I1
A1
804
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Preface
To the Student
Have you ever asked, “When am I ever going to use this?” or “Why should I care?” after learning a new procedure or concept in math? You’re not alone— many students have. This book seeks to answer those questions by teaching math concepts and skills in context and applying them to realistic situations you may
encounter. Whether calculating how long it will take to pay off a car loan, or pre dicting what tuition will cost over the next few years, examples and exercises are based on interesting and engaging reallife data. Consequently, when you find a solution to a problem, you are learning something about the world around you. To make reallife data analysis even more meaningful, Make It Real projects are in cluded. These projects help you become skilled in collecting and analyzing data from your own life. The skills learned through these projects will remain with you long after you have left this course. This book is written in a readerfriendly style. Although important terms and concepts are appropriately addressed, the focus is conceptual understanding, not mathematical jargon. If you are pursuing a degree in business, social science, or
a similar field, this book is written specifically for you. We encourage you to read the book to deepen your understanding of the concepts studied in the classroom. The Just In Time algebra reviews and Algebra Flashback exercises are de signed for those of you whose algebra skills are a bit rusty. These timely reviews will help refresh your memory and allow you to practice the algebra skills you will need to master the calculus concepts.
You may find that your understanding of concepts and your ability to analyze data are enhanced through the use of technology. The graphing calculator (espe cially the TI–83 Plus or TI–84 Plus) is ideal for investigating graphs and estimat ing numerical answers. Spreadsheet programs (especially Microsoft’s Excel) are ideal for data analysis. Because learning how to use a calculator or Excel can be
a challenge, Technology Tips are integrated throughout the book. These tips detail
how to graph a function, solve an equation, find the maximum value of a func tion, and so on. Rather than giving a broad overview of a procedure, the tips take
you through the actual keystrokes and mouse clicks while showing you screen shots so you can verify you’re doing each step correctly. Our students help us become better teachers. We deeply value their input. Likewise, we’re interested in hearing from you. Let us know how this book works for you and feel free to share any feedback on how to improve this book. Contact us on our personal website: www.makeitreallearning.com. Enjoy!
To the Instructor
Thank you for your interest in this book. We believe you will find its approach refreshing and its content interesting to you and your students. It is written specif ically for students pursuing degrees in business, social science, or a related field. As you know, many of these students do not enjoy mathematics and are taking this
vii
viii
Preface
course only because it is a requirement. We hope to make a positive impact on these students’ attitudes toward mathematics. Several features are included in the book to make the course content more accessible to students, including:
■ An informal writing style emphasizes conceptual understanding without becoming bogged down in mathematical jargon.
■ Examples and exercises throughout the text are based on interesting and engag ing reallife data. Over 600 reallife applications, featuring over 70 businesses, products, and associations, help to make math real for your students.
■ Make It Real projects allow students to collect and analyze data relevant to their personal lives.
■ Detailed Technology Tips teach students how to use a graphing calculator and Excel as tools to analyze reallife data.
■ Just In Time algebra reviews review important algebra content, refreshing students’ memories.
■ Algebra Flashback exercises provide students with the opportunity to practice the algebra skills they will need in order to master the calculus concepts.
■ Show You Know exercises focus on concepts rather than skills. These provide students a chance to reflect on the material and think about what is really going on in each section.
Candid feedback from our colleagues helps us become better teachers. Please feel free to contact us with any recommendations, comments, or other feedback you feel will enhance the effectiveness of this book. You can contact us on our personal website: www.makeitreallearning.com.
Disclaimer
In this book, we have attempted to incorporate realworld data from the financial markets to the medical field. In each case, we have done our best to present the data accurately and interpret the data realistically. However, we do not claim to be experts in financial, medical, and other similar fields. Our interpretations of real world data and associated conclusions may not adequately consider all relevant factors. Therefore, readers are encouraged to seek professional advice from experts in the appropriate fields before making decisions related to the topics addressed herein. Despite the usefulness of mathematical models as representations of realworld data sets, most mathematical models have a certain level of error. It is common for model results to differ from raw data set values. Consequently, conclusions drawn from a mathematical model may differ (sometimes dramatically) from conclusions drawn by looking at raw data sets. Readers are encouraged to interpret model results with this understanding.
Acknowledgements
This textbook would not have been possible without the contributions of many colleagues. We greatly appreciate all of the people who contributed time and talent to bring this book to fruition. The feedback from the following reviewers was invaluable and helped to shape the final form of the text: Brenda Alberico, College of DuPage; Lewis
Preface
ix
Blake, Duke University; Jack Bookman, Duke University; Jennifer Fowler, Uni versity of Tennessee—Knoxville; R. Baker Kearfott, University of Southwestern Louisiana; Roger Lee, Salt Lake Community College; Philip E. Miller, Indiana University Southeast; Jean Peterson, University of Wisconsin—Oshkosh; Brian Rodas, Santa Monica University; Annie StithWillis, Virginia Commonwealth University; Denise Szecsei, Stetson University; Nader Vakil, Western Illinois Uni versity; and Terry Walters, University of Tennessee—Chattanooga. Parts of this book were derived from another book in our series, Brief Applied Calculus. We would like to thank the reviews who helped shape that text. They are: Bill Ardis, Collin County Community College; James J. Ball, Indiana State University; Michael L. Berry, West Virginia Wesleyan College; Marcelle Bessman, Jacksonville University; Mike Bosch, Iowa Lakes Community College; Emily Bronstein, Prince George’s Community College; Dean S. Burbank, Gulf Coast Community College; Andra Buxkemper, Bunn College; Roxanne Byrne, University of Colorado—Denver; Scott A. Clary, Florida Institute of Technology; David Collingwood, University of Washington; Mark A. Crawford Jr., Western Michigan University; Khaled Dib, University of Minnesota Duluth; Lance D. Drager, Texas Tech University; Klara Grodzinsky, Georgia Institute of Technol ogy; Lucy L. Hanks, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Jean B. Harper, State University of N.Y.—College at Fredonia; Kevin M. Jenerette, Coastal Carolina University; Cynthia Kaus, Metropolitan State University; Michael LaValle, Rochester Community and Technical College; Roger D. Lee, Salt Lake Community College; Lia Liu, University of Illinois Chicago; Alan Mabry, University of Texas at El Paso; Quincy Magby, Arizona Western College; Mary M. Marco, Bucks County Community College; Nicholas Martin, Shepherd College; William C. McClure, Orange Coast College; James McGlothin, Lower Columbia College; Victoria Neagoe, Goldey Beacom College; David W. Nelson, Green River Community College; Ralph W. ObersteVorth, Marshall University; Armando I. Perez, Laredo Community College; Cyril Petras, Lord Fairfax Community College; Mihaela Poplicher, University of Cincinnati; John E. Porter, Murray State University; David W. Roach, Murray State University; R. A. Rock, Daniel Webster College; Arthur Rosenthal, Salem State College; Kimmo I. Rosenthal, Union College; Sharon Mayhew Saxton, Cascadia Community College; Edwin Shapiro, University of San Francisco; Denise Szecsei, Stetson University; Abolhassan S. Taghavy, Richard J. Daley College; Muhammad Usman, University of Cincinnati; Jorge R. Viramontes Olivas, University of Texas at El Paso; Beverly Vredevelt, Spokane Falls Community College; Michael L. Wright, Cossatot Community College. We thank Peter Galuardi and Molly Taylor, editors at Houghton Mifflin, for their support in the development of the text. Their frank recommendations were invaluable in enhancing the quality of the final product. On a personal note, we could not have written this text without the tireless support of our families. We express deep appreciation to our wives and children for their love, patience, and support as we took on this challenging endeavor.
Dedicated to:
My parents, Blaine and Joyce Wilson, who believed in me when no one else did. FCW
My wife, Kim, who supported, encouraged, and prayed for me. SLA
x
Features
Real Applications! Real Data! Real Learning!
Getting Started
Each section opens with Getting Started, reallife applications or mathematical scenarios, which shows the relevance of the section content to a student’s everyday life. Section objectives are also provided.
Chapter Opener
Each chapter opens with a quick introduction to a key concept presented within a reallife context, accompanied by a related photo. Also, a detailed list of objectives provides a clear picture of the concepts and skills that will be developed in the section.
Features
xi
Real Applications! Real Data! Real Learning!
Technology Tips
The understanding of core concepts can be en hanced through the use of a graphing calculator. Technology Tips, incorporated throughout the text, guide students through new techniques on the calculator such as graphing a function, solving an equation, and finding the value of a function.
All tips show actual calculator keystrokes, often with multiple, sequential screenshots, teaching students how to use graphing calculators as a tool to analyze reallife data.
When the use of graphing technology is advised, a
graphing calculator icon will appear
Excel Technology Tips
Upon entering the working world, many students will use Excel or some other spreadsheet program as their primary tool for generating graphs, ana lyzing data, and generating models. With that in mind, Technology Tips focusing exclusively on Excel use are included. Many tips show actual keystrokes, often with multiple, sequential screen shots, teaching students how to use Excel as a tool to analyze reallife data.
xii
Features
Real Applications! Real Data! Real Learning!
Units reminder
Accompanying many examples is a ruler icon reminding students to pay close
attention to unit analysis.
3.6 Interpreting the Derivative 
247 

million dollars, where x is the net number of CDs shipped in millions. (Net means “after returns.”) (Source: Modeled from Recording Industry Association of America data.) 
19. Deadly AlcoholRelated Brawls Based on data from 1991 to 2000, the number of homicides resulting from an alcoholrelated brawl may be modeled by 

and Interpret the meaning of V ( 900 ) 5 12,261.9 V r ( 900 ) 5 17.9 
( t ) 5 2 0.3551t H ^{3} 1 9.867t ^{2} 2 104.7t 1 600.4 

. 14. DVDs Based on data from 1998 to 2001, the value of DVD videos shipped by recording industry manufacturers may be modeled by V ( x ) 5 2 0.2173x ^{2} 1 25.84x 2 0.02345 million dollars, where x is the net number of DVDs shipped in millions. (Net means “after 
deaths, where t is the number of years since 1990. Source: Modeled from Crime in the United States 2000, Uniform Crime Report, FBI.) ( 

Interpret the meaning of 

r ( 10 ) 5 2 14 . H 

20. Body Height The average height of a girl between the ages of 2 and 13 years may be modeled by 

returns.”) ( Source: Modeled from Recording Industry Association of America data.) Interpret the meaning of V r ( 7.5 ) 5 22.6 . V ( 7.5 ) 5 181.6 and 
( a ) 5 2 0.0392a ^{2} 1 2.987a 1 29.69 H 

inches, where a is the age of the girl. _{(} _{S}_{o}_{u}_{r}_{c}_{e}_{:} Modeled from www.babybag.com data.) 

Interpret the meaning of 
H ( 5 ) 5 43.6 and 

15. Summer Olympics Based on data from 1904 to 1992, the number of women in the Summer Olympics may be modeled by W ( t ) 5 0.0002344t ^{4} 2 0.03440t ^{3} 
r ( 5 ) 5 2.6 . H 21. Company Revenue Based on data from 1999 to 2001, the gross revenue 

1 1.701t ^{2} 2 19.69t 1 70.80 women, where t is the number of years since 1900. 
from sales of Johnson & Johnson and its subsidiaries may be modeled by R ( t ) 5 665t ^{2} 1 1150t 1 27,357 million dollars, where t is the number of years since the end of 1999. _{(} _{S}_{o}_{u}_{r}_{c}_{e}_{:} _{M}_{o}_{d}_{e}_{l}_{e}_{d} 

(Source: Modeled from www.olympicwomen.co.uk data.) 

Interpret the meaning of W r ( 92 ) 5 150 . W ( 92 ) 5 2662 
and 

from Johnson & Johnson 2001 Annual Report.) 

16. Summer Olympics Refer to the results ( 96 ) will W W r ( 96 ) will of Exercise 15. Do you think be greater than 2662 and exceed 150? Defend your conclusions. 
Interpret the meaning of R r ( 2 ) 5 3810 . 22. Company Costs 
R ( 2 ) 5 32,317 and Based on data from 

1999 to 2001, the cost of goods sold for 

17. U.S. Population Based on data from 
Johnson & Johnson and its subsidiaries may be 

1790 
to 2000, the population of the 
modeled by 

United States may be modeled by P ( t ) 5 0.006702t ^{2} 2 24.11t 1 21,696 million people, where t is the calendar year. 
C ( t ) 5 103t ^{2} 1 315t 1 8539 

million dollars, where t is the number of years since the end of 1999. ( Source: Modeled 

(Source: Modeled from U.S. Bureau of the Census data.) 
from Johnson & Johnson 2001 Annual Report.) 

P ( 2000 ) 5 284 
and 
Interpret the meaning of 
C ( 2 ) 5 9581 and 

Interpret the meaning of P r ( 2000 ) 5 2.70 . 18. Homicide Rate Based on data from 
C r ( 2 ) 5 727 . 23. Company Profit 
Based on data from 

1990 
to 2000, the homicide rate (deaths 
1999 to 2001, the operating profit of 

per 100,000 people) in the United States may be modeled by H ( t ) 5 0.01129t ^{3} 2 0.2002t ^{2} 1 0.4826t 1 9.390 people, where t is the number of years since 1990. 
FritoLay North America may be modeled by P ( t ) 5 2 47.5t ^{2} 1 283.5t 1 1679 million dollars, where t is the number of years since the end of 1999. ( Source: Modeled 

(Source: Modeled from Crime in the United States 2000, Uniform Crime Report, FBI.) 
from PepsiCo 2001 Annual Report.) 

Interpret the meaning of 
P( 2 ) 5 2056 and 

Interpret the meaning of H r ( 10 ) 5 2 0.1. H( 10 ) 5 5.5 
and 
P r ( 2 ) 5 93.5. 
Examples
Reallife applications, examples, and data help engage students—even those who have never
enjoyed mathematics. Cited sources—especially
those of interest to business and social science
students—help to “make it real.”
According to the model, 5.395 years after the end of fiscal year 1998, the annual revenue is expected to reach $3 billion. To add meaning to the result, we convert 0.395 years into months. 


0.395 years ? ^{1}^{2} 1 ^{m}^{o}^{n}^{t}^{h}^{s} year 
< 5 months 

During the oneyear period prior to the end of the fifth month of fiscal year 2004, 

we anticipate that $3 billion in revenues will be earned. (Note: Since end of fiscal year 2003, t 5 5.395 is in fiscal year 2004.) 
t 5 5 
is the 
Exercises
Over 500 reallife applications featuring over
70 businesses, products, and associations help
to make math real for your students! Using real
world data from real companies such as Starbucks
and WalMart, and interesting topics such as debit cards and student loans, the exercises bring a
current and immediate motivation for learning mathematical concepts.
A globe icon
includes reallife data.
A globe icon with an M
the exercise includes a model based on reallife
data.
indicates that the exercise
indicates that
Features
xiii
Real Applications! Real Data! Real Learning!
Show You Know Conceptual Exercises
Show You Know exercises are focused on a con ceptual understanding of the objectives in each section. With a focus on critical thinking, these exercises ask students to think abstractly about a problem and explain their results.
Challenge Exercises
The Challenge exercises are more difficult ques tions situated at the end of an exercise set. The exercises challenge students’ understanding of one or more of the section’s topics.
6.3 Using Sums to Approximate Area 
431 

6.3 
Summary 

In this section, you learned how to use left and righthand sums to approximate the area between the graph of a function and the horizontal axis. A solid understanding of these concepts will help you grasp the material presented in the next section. 

6.3 
Algebra Flashback 

1. What is the equation for the area of a rectangle? 
4. 
The interval 3 3,5 4 is to be divided into four 

equally sized subintervals. What is the width of 

2. Each rectangle in a group of four rectangles has a width of 2 centimeters. The heights of the four rectangles are 1 centimeter, 4 centimeters, 9 cen timeters, and 16 centimeters, respectively. What is the combined area of the group of rectangles? 
each subinterval? 

5. 
The interval 3 1,4 4 is to be divided into eight 

equally sized subintervals. What is the width of each subinterval? 

3. Each rectangle in a group of four rectangles has a width of 0.5 centimeter. The heights of the four rectangles are 3 centimeters, 4 centimeters, 5 centimeters, and 6 centimeters, respectively. What is the combined area of the group of rectangles? 
6. 
What is the average of the numbers 210 and 140? 

7. 
Convert cubic feet per second into cubic yards per minute. 

8. 
Convert miles per hour into feet per second. (Hint: There are 5280 feet in a mile.) 

6.3 
Exercises 

In 
Exercises 1–5, draw the rectangles used to 
2 

9. 
h(x) 
5 _{x} 1 1 
; 3 1, 5 4 

calculate the lefthand sum estimate of the area between the graph of the function and the horizontal axis on the specified interval. (In each case, use four rectangles.) Then calculate the lefthand sum. 
10. 
f (x) 5 2 2x 1 20 
; 
3 0, 10 4 

11. 
s(x) 5 ln(x) ; 3 e, e 2 
4 

1. f 
(x) 
5 2 
; 
3 1, 5 4 
12. 5 x ^{2} 2 2 ^{x} ; 3 2, 4 4 y 

2. g(x) 
5 2 2x 1 9 
; 
3 0, 4 4 
13. 5 4t ^{2} 2 1; 3 2, 4 4 y 

3. h(x) 
5 2 
^{x} 1 x 
; 3 0, 2 4 
14. 5 20 2 ^{1}^{0}^{0}^{0} ; 3 100, 200 4 q p 

4. f 
(t) 5 3 t 
; 
3 1, 3 4 

15. 
f (t) 5 ^{t} ^{1} ^{2} ; 3 3, 11 4 

5. v(t) 5 0.5t 1 20 
; 
3 3, 7 4 
t 2 2 

In 
Exercises 6–15, use the lefthand sum to estimate 
In Exercises 16–35, use left and righthand sums 

the area between the graph of the function and the 
(with n 5 4 ) to estimate the area between the graph of 

horizontal axis on the specified interval. For each 
the function and the horizontal axis on the specified interval. In each exercise, calculate the lefthand sum, 

exercise, calculate the sum with 
n 5 2 
, 
n 5 4 
, and 

n 
5 10 rectangles. 
the righthand sum, and the average of the two sums. 

6. s(t) 5 2 3t ^{2} 1 3t 
; 
3 0, 1 4 
The exact area, A, is given so that you can compare your estimates to the actual area. 

7. s(t) 5 t ^{3} 2 3t ^{2} 1 3t 2 1 ; 
3 1, 2 4 
16. 
f (x) 
5 6x 1 1 on 
3 2, 4 4 
; A 5 38 

8. g(x) 5 2 x ^{2} 1 4 
; 3 0, 2 4 
17. 
g(x) 5 x ^{2} 2 2x 1 2 
on 
3 3, 5 4 
; A 5 20 ^{2} 3 
6.4 
The Definite Integral 
433 


47. The lefthand sum and righthand sum of the 

function 
f ( x ) 5 2 x 
^{2} 1 4 x 
on the interval 3 0, 4 4 

are both equal to 10 when four rectangles are 

41. Explain why it makes sense to use rectangles to approximate the area between the graph of a func tion and the horizontal axis. 
used. Does this mean that the area between the 

graph of 
f ( x ) 5 2 x ^{2} 1 4 x 
and the xaxis is equal 

42. Graphically speaking, what is the difference be tween a lefthand sum and a righthand sum? 
to 10? Explain. 

48. positive function A f is an increasing function. 

(That is, 
f ( a ) # f ( b ) 
whenever a # b .) Which 

43. Why does increasing the number of rectangles used in a Riemann sum increase the accuracy of the area estimate? 
sum will best approximate the area between the 

graph of 
f 
and the x axis on the interval 
3 a , b 4 
: the 

lefthand sum, the righthand sum, or the average 

44. A classmate claims that averaging the left and righthand sums always yields a better estimate 
of the left and righthand sums? Explain. 

49. Calculate the lefthand sum for the function 

for the area. Give an example to show that your classmate is incorrect. 
f ( x ) 5 Z 2 2 x 1 2 Z 
on the interval 3 0, 2 4 
using 

n 5 1 
, , n 5 2 n 5 3 n 5 4 n 5 5 , , , and 
n 5 6 
. 

For which value(s) of 
n does the lefthand sum 

45. If a graph gives the velocity of a car (in miles per hour) as a function of the number of hours the car has been moving, what will be the units of the area of the rectangles used to estimate the area between the graph and the horizontal axis? Explain. 
best approximate the actual area between the 

graph of 
f 
and the x axis on the interval 
3 a , b 4 
? 

50. For a nonnegative function f 
on the interval 3 a , b 4 
, 

does reducing the width of the rectangles used in 

a Riemann sum ever worsen the Riemann sum 


estimate of the area between the graph of 
f and 

the x axis on the interval 3 a , b 4 ? Explain. (Hint: 

46. 
Give an example of a positive function 
f 
on an 
Consider the function f ( x ) 5 Z 2 2 x 1 2 Z 
using 

interval 3 a , b 4 that has the property that the left 
lefthand sums with n 5 2 and n 5 3.) 

hand sum and righthand sum approximation of 

the area between the graph of equal for all values of D x. 
f and the xaxis are 
Algebra Flashback Exercises
Algebra Flashback exercises give students an opportunity to refresh the algebra skills they will need to successfully master the objectives of the section.
xiv
Features
Real Applications! Real Data! Real Learning!
Chapter Study Sheet
A Chapter Study Sheet can be found at the end of
each chapter before the Review Exercises. It acts
as a summary and review of major concepts ad
dressed in the chapter. Unlike the chapter sum maries in many competing textbooks, the Chapter Study Sheet poses conceptual questions focused on the “big ideas” of the chapter. This helps students focus on the key concepts of the chapter in addi tion to critical skills as they prepare for chapter exams.
Just In Time Algebra Review
These reviews cover important algebra material at the point where students need it most.
Chapter 10 
Study Sheet 
707 

Chapter 10 Study Sheet


After working through this chapter, you should be able to answer the following questions, which are focused on the “big ideas” of the chapter. 

1. How is a slope field created? What does each of the short line segments in a slope field represent? (10.1) 

dy 2. When creating a slope field for a particular differential equation ^{,} how should the axes be labeled? Why? (10.1) dx 

3. How is a particular differential equation used to approximate solutions using Euler’s Method? (10.2) 

4. What role does step size play in the accuracy of the solution when using Euler’s Method to approximate the solutions of a differential equation? (10.2) 

5. How is solving a differential equation using separation of variables different from solving a differential equation using Euler’s Method? (10.3) 

6. Why is it helpful to separate the variables when solving particular differen tial equations? (10.3) 

7. How does a limited growth differential equation model compare with a lo gistic growth differential equation model? (10.4) 

8. What does the parameter 5 k ( M 2 y ) and dy M represent in the differential equations 5 ky( M 2 y )? (10.4) dy 

dt 
dt 

9. What types of differential equations can be solved using the integrating fac 

tor method? (10.5) 10. How is the integrating factor computed, and how is it helpful when solving certain differential equations? (10.5) 

You should also be familiar with the following definitions; procedures, proper ties, and tests; and formulas that were emphasized in this chapter. 

Definitions 

■ Differential Equation: An equation that contains an unknown function and one or more of its derivatives 

■ FirstOrder Differential Equation: A differential equation that contains 

only first derivatives of the dependent variable 

■ Solution of a Differential Equation: A function in numerical, graphical, 

or symbolic form that satisfies a differential equation 

■ Slope Field: An array of slope marks in the xy plane representing solu 

tions to a differential equation 

■ Step Size: The increment used for the independent variable when numer ically approximating solutions to a differential equation using Euler’s Method 

■ Euler’s Method: A numerical process of computing function values over small intervals 

■ Separable Differential Equation: A firstorder differential equation is 

said to be separable if it may be written as 
dy 5 f ( x ) 
for some functions 

dx 
g 
( y ) 

f ( x ) and g ( y ). 
Features
xv
Real Applications! Real Data! Real Learning!
Review Exercises
These exercises appear at the end of the chapter and help review the problems from each section. The Review Exercises provide an excellent way for students to study for an upcoming exam.
Chapter 10 
Review Exercises 
709 

Chapter 10 Review Exercises


Section 10.1 In Exercises 1–6, match the given 
4. 

slope fields with the differential equations A through H. Note that there are six slope fields but eight differen tial equations, so two equations will not have matches. 
y
8
6
4
2
0
x
2468
−2


A. 
dy 
dy 
y ^{2} 

dx ^{5} ^{y} 
B. 
dx 
5 

C. 
dy 
^{y} 
dy 
sin y 

5 
D. 
5 

dx 
x 
dx 

dy 
dy 
5.
y
8
6
4
2
0
x
0
2
468


E. 
dx 
5 
x ^{2} 
F. 
_{d}_{x} 
5 cos y 

G. 
dy 
^{1} 
dy 
2 y ^{2} 

5 
H. 
5 

dx 
y 
dx 

1. 
y
8
6
4
2
0
x
0
2
468


6. 

y
8
6
4
2


y


2. 
Make It Real Projects
These endofchapter projects ask students to collect and analyze data from their own experi ences and interests. By providing choices in the selection, students are better able to process these concepts and connect math to their own lives.
xvi
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Written by Frank Wilson,
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Functions and Linear Models
Mathematical functions are a powerful tool used to model realworld phe nomena. Whether simple or complex, functions give us a way to forecast ex pected results. Remarkably, anything that has a constant rate of change may be accurately modeled with a linear function. For example, the cost of filling your car’s gas tank is a linear function of the number of gallons purchased.
1.1 Functions
■ Distinguish between functions and nonfunctions in tables, graphs, and words
■ Use function notation
■ Graph functions using technology
■ Determine the domain of a function
1.2 Linear Functions
■ Calculate and interpret the meaning of the slope of a linear function
■ Interpret the physical and graphical meaning of x and yintercepts
■ Formulate the equation of a line given two points
■ Recognize the slopeintercept, pointslope, and standard forms of a line
1.3 Linear Models
■ Use technology to model linear and nearlinear data
■ Use a linear equation to describe the relationship between directly proportional quantities
■ Recognize and model naturally occurring linear, nearlinear, and piecewise linear relationships
2
CHAPTER 1
Functions and Linear Models
1.1 Functions
DEFINITION: FUNCTION
A function is a rule that associates each input with exactly one output.
Often the rule is represented in a table of data with the inputs on the lefthand side and the outputs on the righthand side. For example, the amount of money we pay to fill up our gas tank is a function of the number of gallons pumped (see Table 1.1).
In this case, the input to the function is gallons pumped and the output of the
function is total fuel cost. Fuel cost is a function of the number of gallons pumped because each input has exactly one output. Similarly, the weekly wage of a service station employee is a function of the number of hours worked. The number of hours worked is the input to the func tion, and the weekly wage is the output of the function. Since weekly wage is
a function of the number of hours worked, an employee who works 40 hours
expects to be paid the same wage each time she works that amount of time.
Determining If a Table of Data Represents a Function
A car dealer tracks the number of blue cars in each of three shipments and records
the data in a table (see Table 1.2). Is the number of blue cars a function of the number of cars in the shipment?
1.1
Functions
3
same input
different outputs
SOLUTION
According to the definition of a function, each input must have
exactly one output. The input value 24 has two different outputs: 5 and 7. Since the input 24 has more than one output, the number of blue cars is not a function of the number of cars in the shipment.
Function Notation
When we encounter functions in real life, they are often expressed in words. To make functions easier to work with, we typically use symbolic notation to repre sent the relationship between the input and the output. Let’s return to the fuel cost table introduced previously (Table 1.3).
Observe that the fuel cost is equal to $1.599 times the number of gallons pumped.
represents the
is read “C of g”]. The letter C
is used to represent the name of the rule, and the letter g in the parentheses indi cates that the rule works with different values of g (see Figure 1.1).
We represent this symbolically as
total fuel cost when g gallons are pumped. [
C(g) 5 1.599g
C(g)
, where
C(g)
g
CC(g)
input value
FIGURE 1.1
function name
output value
We call the output variable of a function the dependent variable because the value of the output variable depends upon the value of the input variable. The input variable is called the independent variable. (One way to remember the meaning of the terms is to observe that both input and independent begin with in.) From the table, we see that
C(10) 5 15.99
C(15) 5 23.99
C(20) 5 31.98
For this function, the independent variable took on the values 10, 15, and 20, and the dependent variable assumed the values 15.99, 23.99, and 31.98.
Determining a Linear Model from a Verbal Description
EXAMPLE
2
An electronics store employee earns $8.50 per hour. Write an equation for the employee’s earnings as a function of the hours worked. Then calculate the amount of money the employee earns (in dollars) by working 30 hours.
Since the employee earns $8.50 for each hour worked, the em
ployee’s total earnings are equal to $8.50 times the total number of hours worked. That is,
E(h) 5 8.50h
where E is the employee’s earnings (in dollars) and h is the number of hours
worked. To calculate the amount of money earned by working 30 hours, we eval
uate this function at
SOLUTION
h 5 30
.
E(30) 5 8.5(30)
5 255
The employee earns $255 for 30 hours of work.
Function notation is extremely versatile. Suppose we are given the function f (x) 5 x ^{2} 2 2x 1 1 . We may evaluate the function using either numerical val ues or nonnumerical values. For example,
f (2) 5 (2) ^{2} 2 2(2) 1 1
5 
4 2 4 1 1 
5 
1 
_{f} _{(}_{^}_{)} _{5} _{(}_{^}_{)} ^{2} _{2} _{2}_{(}_{^}_{)} _{1} _{1}
f (a 1 2) 5 (a 1 2) ^{2} 2 2(a 1 2) 1 1
5 
(a ^{2} 1 4a 1 4) 2 2a 2 4 1 1 
5 
a ^{2} 1 2a 1 1 
In each case, we replaced the value of x in the function
the quantity in the parentheses. Whether the independent variable value was 2,
or a 1 2
f (x) 5 x ^{2} 2 2x 1 1
with
^ ,
, the process was the same.
Evaluating a Function Using Function Notation
1.1
Functions
5
Graphs of Functions
Functions are represented visually by plotting points on a Cartesian coordinate system (see Figure 1.2). The horizontal axis shows the value of the independent variable (in this case, x), and the vertical axis shows the value of the dependent variable (in this case, y).
y
4
3
2
1
(2, 4)
(−3, 2)
−4
1
2
3
4
x
−3 −2 −1 _{−}_{1}
(−1, − 4)
−2
−3
−4
(1, −2)
FIGURE 1.3
FIGURE 1.2
When using the coordinate system, y is typically used in place of the function no
. This is true even if the function has a name other
than f.
The point of intersection of the horizontal and vertical axes is referred to as
. To graph an ordered pair
units vertically and
, we move to the left. Simi
, we move down. For example, consider
the table of values with its associated interpretation in Table 1.4 and the graph in
Figure 1.3.
draw a point. If
the origin and is represented by the ordered pair
(a, b)
tation
f (x)
. That is,
y 5 f(x)
(0, 0)
, we move from the origin
a . 0
b . 0
0a 0
units horizontally and
a , 0
0b 0
, we move to the right. If
b , 0
larly, if
, we move up, and if
When we are given the equation of a function, we can generate a table of values and then plot the corresponding points. Once we have drawn a sufficient number
of points to be able to determine the basic shape of the graph, we typically con
nect the points with a smooth curve. For example, the function the table of values and graph shown in Figure 1.4.
y 5 x ^{3} 2 9x
has
6
CHAPTER 1
Functions and Linear Models
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