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Chapter 10 Operational Assets: Acquisition and Disposition

Use the following to answer questions 38-42: 38-42. Listed below are ten terms followed by a list of phrases that describe or characterize five of the terms. Match each phrase with the correct term placing the letter designating the best term in the space provided by the phrase. Terms: a. Copyright b. Depletion c. Depreciation d. Donated assets e. Effective interest f. Goodwill g. Intangible assets h. Lump-sum purchase i. Patents j. Software development costs Phrases: 38. _____ Market rate times outstanding debt. 39. _____ Revenue recorded upon receipt from unrelated parties. 40. _____ Exclusive right to benefit from a creative work. 41. _____ Capitalized between points of technological feasibility and start of production. 42. _____ Price allocated in proportion to relative market values. Answer: 38-E; 39-D; 40-A; 41-J; 42-H

Chapter 10 Operational Assets: Acquisition and Disposition


45. Goodwill is: A) Amortized over the greater of its estimated life or forty years. B) Only recorded by the seller of a business. C) The excess of the fair market value of a business over the fair market value of all net identifiable assets. D) Not subject to amortization for purposes of income taxes. Answer: C Learning Objective: 1 Level of Learning: 1

46. Assets acquired in a lump-sum purchase are valued based on: A) Their assessed valuation. B) Their relative fair market values. C) The present value of their future cash flows. D) Their cost plus the difference between their cost and fair market values. Answer: B Learning Objective: 2 Level of Learning: 1

47. Assets acquired under multi-year deferred payment contracts are: A) Valued at their fair value on the date of the final payment. B) Valued at the present value of the payments required by the contract. C) Valued at the sum of the payments required by the contract. D) None of the above. Answer: B Learning Objective: 3 Level of Learning: 1

Multiple Choice Questions 43. Operational assets are: A) Created by the normal operation of the business and include accounts receivable. B) All assets except cash and cash equivalents. C) Current and long-term assets used in the production of either goods or services. D) Long-term revenue-producing assets. Answer: D Learning Objective: 1 Level of Learning: 1

48. Assets acquired by the issuance of equity securities are valued based on: A) Their fair market values. B) The fair market value of the equity securities. C) Whichever of A. or B. above is more reasonably determinable. D) Whichever of A. or B. above is smaller. Answer: C Learning Objective: 4 Level of Learning: 1

44. The acquisition costs of tangible operational assets do not include: A) The ordinary and necessary costs to bring the asset to its desired condition and location for use. B) The net invoice price. C) Legal fees, delivery charges, installation, and any applicable sales tax. D) Maintenance costs during the first 30 days of use. Answer: D Learning Objective: 1 Level of Learning: 1

49. The basic principle used to value the asset acquired in a nonmonetary exchange is to value it at: A) Fair value of the asset(s) given up. B) The book value of the asset given plus any cash or other monetary consideration received. C) Fair value or book value, whichever is smaller. D) Book value of the asset given. Answer: A Learning Objective: 6 Level of Learning: 1

50. In nonmonetary exchanges, the asset received is not valued based on the fair value of the asset given up when: A) When the fair value of the asset given is not determinable. B) When there is an exchange of similar assets with no cash received and a gain is indicated. C) When the exchange lacks commercial substance. D) All of the above are correct. Answer: C Learning Objective: 6 Level of Learning: 2

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51. Interest is not capitalized for: A) Assets that are constructed as discrete projects. B) Assets constructed for sale or lease. C) Inventories routinely and repetitively produced in large quantities. D) Interest is capitalized for all of these items. Answer: C Learning Objective: 7 Level of Learning: 2

Chapter 10 Operational Assets: Acquisition and Disposition


57. The exclusive right to display a symbol of product identification is a: A) Patent. B) Copyright. C) Trademark. D) Franchise. Answer: C Learning Objective: 1 Level of Learning: 1

52. Average accumulated expenditures: A) Is an approximation of the average debt a firm would have outstanding if it financed all construction through debt. B) May be computed as a simple average if all construction expenditures are made at the end of the period. C) Are irrelevant if the company's total outstanding debt is less than total costs of construction. D) All of the above are true statements. Answer: A Learning Objective: 7 Level of Learning: 2

58. The capitalized cost of equipment excludes: A) Maintenance. B) Sales tax. C) Shipping. D) Installation. Answer: A Learning Objective: 1 59. Donated assets are recorded at: A) Zero (memo entry only). B) The donor's book value. C) The donee's stated value. D) Market value. Answer: D Learning Objective: 4 Level of Learning: 2 Level of Learning: 1

53. Research and development (R&D) costs: A) Are always expensed in the period incurred. B) May be expensed or capitalized, at the option of the reporting entity. C) Must be capitalized and amortized. D) Generally pertain to activities that occur prior to the start of production. Answer: D Learning Objective: 8 Level of Learning: 2

54. Productive assets that are physically consumed in operations are: A) Equipment. B) Land. C) Land improvements. D) Natural resources. Answer: D Learning Objective: 1 Level of Learning: 1

60. Until recently, the accounting treatment of nonmonetary asset exchanges depended on A) Whether the assets exchanged were similar or dissimilar. B) Whether a gain or loss was indicated in the exchange. C) Whether cash was given or received. D) All of the above factors. Answer: D Learning Objective: 6 Level of Learning: 2

55. An exclusive 20-year right to manufacture a product or use a product is a: A) Patent. B) Copyright. C) Trademark. D) Franchise. Answer: A Learning Objective: 1 Level of Learning: 1

61. If a company incurs disposition obligations as a result of acquiring an asset,: A) the company recognizes the obligation at fair value when the asset is acquired. B) the company recognizes the obligation at fair value when the asset is disposed. C) the company records the difference between the fair value of the asset and the obligation when the asset is acquired. D) None of the above. Answer: A Learning Objective: 1 Level of Learning: 2

56. The exclusive right to benefit from a creative work, such as a film, is a: A) Patent. B) Copyright. C) Trademark. D) Franchise. Answer: B Learning Objective: 1 Level of Learning: 1

62. In a nonmonetary exchange of equipment, a gain is recognized if: A) The fair value of the equipment received exceeds the book value of the equipment surrendered. B) The fair value of the equipment received exceeds the fair value of the equipment surrendered. C) The fair value of the equipment surrendered exceeds the book value of the equipment surrendered. D) None of the above is correct. Answer: A Learning Objective: 6 Level of Learning: 2

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63. In accounting for oil and gas exploration costs, companies: A) May not use the full-cost method. B) May use the successful efforts method. C) May use the slippery slope method. D) All of the above are correct. Answer: B Learning Objective: 1 Level of Learning: 2

Chapter 10 Operational Assets: Acquisition and Disposition


69. Software development costs are capitalized if they are incurred: A) Prior to point at which technological feasibility has been established. B) After commercial production has begun. C) After technological feasibility has been established but prior to the product availability date. D) None of the above is correct. Answer: C Learning Objective: 8 Level of Learning: 1

64. The fixed-asset turnover ratio provides: A) The rate of decline in asset lives. B) The rate of replacement of fixed assets. C) The amount of sales generated per dollar of fixed assets. D) The decline in book value of fixed assets compared to capital expenditures. Answer: C Learning Objective: 5 Level of Learning: 2

70. Amortization of capitalized computer software costs is: A) Either the percentage-of-revenue method or the straight-line method at the company's option. B) The greater of the percentage-of-revenue method or the straight-line method. C) The lesser of the percentage-of-revenue method or the straight-line method. D) Based on neither the percentage-of-revenue nor the straight-line method. Answer: B Learning Objective: 8 Level of Learning: 2

65. The cost of self-constructed fixed assets should: A) Include indirect costs allocated just as they are for production. B) Include only incremental indirect costs. C) Include only specifically identifiable indirect costs. D) Not include indirect costs. Answer: A Learning Objective: 7 Level of Learning: 2

66. Interest may be capitalized: A) On routinely manufactured goods as well as self-constructed assets. B) On self-constructed assets from the date an entity formally adopts a plan to build a discrete project. C) Whether or not there is specific borrowing for the construction. D) Whether or not there are actual interest costs. Answer: C Learning Objective: 7 Level of Learning: 1

71. When selling operational assets for cash: A) The seller recognizes a gain or loss for the difference between the cash received and the fair value of the asset sold. B) The seller recognizes a gain or loss for the difference between the cash received and the book value of the asset sold. C) The seller recognizes losses, but not gains. D) None of the above. Answer: B Learning Objective: 1 Level of Learning: 2

67. Research and development costs for projects other than software development should be: A) Expensed in the period incurred. B) Expensed in the period they are determined to be unsuccessful. C) Deferred pending determination of success. D) Expensed if unsuccessful, capitalized if successful. Answer: A Learning Objective: 8 Level of Learning: 1

72. Interest is eligible to be capitalized as part of an asset's cost, rather than being expensed immediately when: A) The interest is incurred during the construction period of the asset. B) The asset is a discrete construction project for sale or lease. C) The asset is self-constructed, rather than acquired. D) All of the above are correct. Answer: D Learning Objective: 7 Level of Learning: 1

68. Research and development expense for a given period includes: A) The full cost of a newly acquired operational asset that has an alternative future use. B) Depreciation on a research and development facility. C) Research and development conducted on a contract basis for another entity. D) Patent filing and legal costs. Answer: B Learning Objective: 8 Level of Learning: 2

73. In computing capitalized interest, average accumulated expenditures A) Are the simple arithmetic mean of all construction expenditures. B) Are determined by time-weighting individual expenditures made during the asset construction period. C) Are multiplied by the company's most recent financing rates. D) All of the above are correct. Answer: B Learning Objective: 7 Level of Learning: 1

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74. Asset retirement obligations: A) Increase the balance in the related asset account. B) Is measured at fair value in the balance sheet. C) Are liabilities associated with disposition of an operational asset. D) All of the above are correct. Answer: D Learning Objective: 1 Level of Learning: 1

Chapter 10 Operational Assets: Acquisition and Disposition


78. The asset retirement obligation (rounded) that should be recognized by MMC one year after completion of the extraction activities is: A) $0 B) $14.7 million C) $15.7 million D) $19.3 million Answer: C Learning Objective: 1 Level of Learning: 3 Rationale: $14.7 million x 1.07 = $15.7 million (rounded). Use the following to answer questions 79-81: On June 1, 2005, the Crocus Company began construction of a new manufacturing plant. The plant was completed on October 31, 2006. Expenditures on the project were as follows (in $ millions): July 1, 2005 October 1, 2005 February 1, 2006 April 1, 2006 September 1, 2006 October 1, 2006 54 22 30 21 20 6

75. Asset retirement obligations are recognized: A) When the related asset is retired or sold. B) In the period they are incurred. C) Gradually over the useful life of the related asset. D) When the related asset is acquired. Answer: B Learning Objective: 1 Level of Learning: 1

76. Which of the following does not pertain to accounting for asset retirement obligations? A) They accrete (increase over time) at the company's cost of capital. B) They must be recognized, according to SFAS 143. C) Statement of Financial Accounting Concepts No. 7 is used to adjust cash flow obligations for uncertainty. D) All of the above pertain to accounting for asset retirement obligations. Answer: A Learning Objective: 1 Level of Learning: 2 Rationale: Actually, the obligations accrete at the credit-adjusted risk free rate. Use the following to answer questions 77-78: Montana Mining Co. (MMC) paid $200 million for the right to explore and extract rare metals from land owned by the state of Montana. To obtain the rights, MMC agreed to restore the land to a suitable condition for other uses after its exploration and extraction activities. MMC incurred exploration and development costs of $60 million on the project. MMC has a credit-adjusted risk free interest rate is 7%. It estimates the possible cash flows for restoring the land, three years after completion of its extraction activities, as follows: Cash Outflow $10 million $30 million Probability 60% 40%

On July 1, 2005, Crocus obtained a $60 million construction loan with a 6% interest rate. The loan was outstanding through the end of October, 2006. The company's other interest-bearing debt was a long-term note for $100 million with an interest rate of 8%. This note was outstanding during all of 2005 and 2006. The company's fiscal year-end is December 31. 79. What is the amount of interest that Crocus should capitalize in 2005, using the specific interest method? A) $1.90 million B) $1.95 million C) $2.96 million D) None of the above is correct. Answer: B Learning Objective: 7 Level of Learning: 3 Rationale: Average expenditures for 2005: ($54 million x 6/6) + $22 million x 3/6) = $65 million. The interest is $65 million x .06 x 6/12 = $1.95 million. 80. In computing the capitalized interest for 2006, Crocus' average accumulated expenditures total: A) $46.30 million B) $103.54 million C) $122.30 million D) $124.25 million Answer: D Learning Objective: 7 Level of Learning: 3 Rationale: The correct answer is: [from 2005 ($77.95 million x 10/10) + ($30 million x 9/10) + ($21 million x 7/10) + ($20 million x 2/10) + ($6 million x 1/10) = $124.25 million.

77. The asset retirement obligation (rounded) that should be recognized by MMC upon completion of the extraction activities is: A) $8.2 million B) $14.7 million C) $18 million D) $30 million Answer: B Learning Objective: 1 Level of Learning: 3 Rationale: The present value of the expected cash flows, that is, 0.81630 x [(.60 x $10 million) + (.40 x $30 million)], which is $14,693,400 or $14.7 million (rounded).

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81. What is the amount of interest that Crocus should capitalize in 2006, using the specific interest method (rounded to the nearest thousand dollars)? A) $7,248,000 (rounded) B) $7,283,000 (rounded) C) $8,740,000 (rounded) D) None of the above is correct. Answer: B Learning Objective: 7 Level of Learning: 3 Rationale: Of the average accumulated expenditures ($124.25 million from question 80), $60 million was financed at 6% for 10 months in 2006, and the remainder of $64.25 million was financed at 8% for that period. The total interest cost was $7,283,000 (rounded). 82. Grab Manufacturing Co. purchased a ten-ton draw press at a cost of $180,000 with terms of 5/15 n/45. Payment was made within the discount period. Shipping costs were $4,600, which included $200 for insurance in transit. Installation costs totaled $12,000, which included $4,000 for taking out a section of a wall and rebuilding it because the press was too large for the doorway. The capitalized cost of the ten-ton draw press is: A) $171,000. B) $183,600. C) $187,600. D) $185,760. Answer: C Learning Objective: 1 Rationale: Purchase price ($180,000 x 95%) Shipping Costs Installation costs Total cost of equipment Level of Learning: 3 $171,000 4,600 12,000 $187,600

Chapter 10 Operational Assets: Acquisition and Disposition


84. Vijay Inc. purchased a 3-acre tract of land for a building site for $320,000. On the land was a building with an appraised value of $120,000. The company demolished the old building at a cost of $12,000, but was able to sell scrap from the building for $1,500. The cost of title insurance was $900 and attorney fees for reviewing the contract was $500. Property taxes paid were $3,000, of which $250 covered the period subsequent to the purchase date. The capitalized cost of the land is: A) $336,400. B) $336,150. C) $334,650. D) $201,150. Answer: C Learning Objective: 1 Rationale: Purchase price Demolition costs Scrap sold Title insurance Legal fees Property taxes ($3,000 ! 250) Total cost of land Level of Learning: 3 $320,000 12,000 (1,500 ) 900 500 2,750 $334,650

85. Juliana Corporation purchased all of the outstanding stock of Caldwell Inc., paying $2,700,000 cash. Juliana assumed all of the liabilities. Book values and fair values of acquired assets and liabilities were: Book value $420,000 1,600,000 500,000 Fair Value $450,000 2,250,000 600,000

Current assets (net) Property, plant, & equip. (net) Liabilities Juliana would record goodwill of: A) $1,180,000. B) $600,000. C) $880,000. D) $100,000.

83. Holiday Laboratories purchased a high speed industrial centrifuge at a cost of $420,000. Shipping costs totaled $15,000. Foundation work to house the centrifuge cost $8,000. An additional water line had to be run to the equipment at a cost of $3,000. Labor and testing costs totaled $6,000. Materials used up in testing cost $3,000. The capitalized cost is: A) $455,000. B) $446,000. C) $437,000. D) $435,000. Answer: A Learning Objective: 1 Rationale: Purchase price Shipping Costs Foundation work Water line Labor and testing Materials used in testing Total cost of equipment Level of Learning: 3 $420,000 15,000 8,000 3,000 6,000 3,000 $455,000

Answer: B Learning Objective: 1 Level of Learning: 3 Rationale: Purchase price Less: Fair value of net assets Assets ($450,000 + 2,250,000) $2,700,000 Less: Liabilities assumed (600,000 ) Goodwill

$2,700,000

(2,100,000 ) $ 600,000

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86. Lake Incorporated purchased all of the outstanding stock of Huron Company paying $950,000 cash. Lake assumed all of the liabilities. Book values and fair values of acquired assets and liabilities were: Book Value Fair Value $130,000 $125,000 600,000 750,000 150,000 175,000

Chapter 10 Operational Assets: Acquisition and Disposition


88. Bloomington Inc. exchanged land for equipment and $3,000 in cash. The book value and the fair value of the land were $104,000 and $90,000, respectively. Which of the following choices would be correct? Bloomington would record equipment at and record a gain/(loss) of: A) $ 87,000; $ 3,000 B) $104,000; $ (5,000) C) $ 87,000; $(14,000) D) None of the above is correct. Answer: C Learning Objective: 6 Rationale: Equipment (FV of land - $3,000) Cash Loss ($104,000 ! 90,000) Land (book value) Level of Learning: 3 87,000 3,000 14,000 104,000

Current assets (net) Property, plant, equip. (net) Liabilities Lake would record goodwill of: A) $ 0. B) $ 75,000. C) $445,000. D) $250,000

Answer: D Learning Objective: 1 Rationale: Purchase price Less: Fair value of net assets Assets ($125,000 + 750,000) Less: Liabilities assumed Goodwill

Level of Learning: 3 $950,000 $875,000 175,000

89. P. Chang & Co. exchanged land and $9,000 cash for equipment. The book value and the fair value of the land were $106,000 and $90,000, respectively. Which of the following choices would be correct? Chang would record equipment at and record a gain/(loss) of: A) $ 99,000; $(16,000) B) $ 90,000; $(25,000) C) $108,000; $ 16,000 D) $106,000; $( 9,000) Answer: A Learning Objective: 6 Rationale: Equipment (FV of land + $9,000) Loss ($106,000 ! 90,000) Cash Land (book value) Level of Learning: 3 99,000 16,000 9,000 106,000

(700,000 ) $ 250,000

87. Alamos Co. exchanged land and $18,000 cash for equipment. The book value and the fair value of the land were $82,000 and $90,000, respectively. Which of the following choices would be correct? Alamos would record equipment at and record a gain/(loss) of: A) $ 82,000; $ 8,000 B) $108,000; $ 8,000 C) $ 82,000; $(8,000) D) $108,000; $(8,000) Answer: B Learning Objective: 6 Level of Learning: 3 Rationale: Equipment (FV of land + $18,000) 108,000 Cash 18,000 Land (book value) 82,000 Gain ($90,000 ! 82,000) 8,000

90. Horton Stores exchanged land for equipment and received $5,000 in cash. The book value and the fair value of the land were $100,000 and $90,000, respectively. Which of the following choices would be correct? Horton would record equipment at and record a gain/(loss) of: A) $90,000; $ 5,000 B) $85,000; $(10,000) C) $95,000; $ 0 D) $90,000; $(10,000) Answer: B Learning Objective: 6 Rationale: Equipment (FV of land ! $5,000) Cash Loss ($100,000 ! 90,000) Land (book value) Level of Learning: 3 85,000 5,000 10,000 100,000

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Use the following to answer questions 91-92: Below are data relative to an exchange of similar assets by Grand Forks Corp. Old Equipment Book Value Fair Value $50,000 $60,000 $40,000 $35,000 Cash Paid $15,000 $ 8,000

Chapter 10 Operational Assets: Acquisition and Disposition


93. In Case A, Pensacola would record the new equipment at: A) $68,000. B) $63,750. C) $67,250. D) $80,000. Answer: A Learning Objective: 6 Level of Learning: 3 Rationale: Equipment- new ($80,000 ! 12,000) 68,000 Cash 12,000 Equipment-old (book value) 75,000 Gain 5,000 94. In Case B, Pensacola would record a gain/(loss) of: A) $ 4,000. B) $ (4,000). C) $ (10,000). D) None of the above is correct. Answer: B Learning Objective: 6 Level of Learning: 3 Rationale: Equipment ! new ($56,000 ! 10,000) 46,000 Cash 10,000 Loss 4,000 Equipment-old (book value) 60,000 Use the following to answer questions 95-98: On January 1, 2006, Kendall Inc. began construction of an automated cattle feeder system. The system was finished and ready for use on September 30, 2007. Expenditures on the project were as follows: January 1, 2006 September 1, 2006 December 31, 2006 March 31, 2007 September 30, 2007 $200,000 $300,000 $300,000 $300,000 $200,000

Case A Case B

91. In Case A, Grand Forks would record the new equipment at: A) $65,000. B) $75,000. C) $50,000. D) $60,000. Answer: B Learning Objective: 6 Level of Learning: 3 Rationale: Equipment ($60,000 + 15,000) 75,000 Cash 15,000 Equipment-old (book value) 50,000 Gain 10,000 92. In Case B, Grand Forks would record a gain/(loss) of: A) $ 5,000 B) $ 3,000 C) $(5,000) D) $(3,000) Answer: C Learning Objective: 6 Rationale: Equipment ($35,000 + 8,000) Loss ($40,000 ! 35,000) Cash Equipment-old (book value) Level of Learning: 3 43,000 5,000 8,000 40,000

Use the following to answer questions 93-94: Below are listed data relative to an exchange of equipment by Pensacola Inc. Old Equipment Cash Book Value Fair Value Received $75,000 $80,000 $12,000 $60,000 $56,000 $10,000

Kendall borrowed $750,000 on a construction loan at 12% interest on January 1, 2006. These loans were outstanding throughout the construction period. The company had $4,500,000 in 9% bonds outstanding in 2006 and 2007.

Case A Case B

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95. Average accumulated expenditures for 2006 was: A) $300,000. B) $350,000. C) $500,000. D) $400,000. Answer: A Learning Objective: 7 Rationale: January 1, 2006 $200,000 September 1, 2006 300,000 December 31, 2006 300,000 $800,000 Level of Learning: 3 x 12/12 x 4/12 x 0/12 = = = $200,000 100,000 0 $300,000

Chapter 10 Operational Assets: Acquisition and Disposition


Use the following to answer questions 99-102: On January 1, 2006, Dreamworld Co. began construction of a new warehouse. The building was finished and ready for use on September 30, 2007. Expenditures on the project were as follows: January 1, 2006 September 1, 2006 December 31, 2006 March 31, 2007 September 30, 2007 $300,000 $450,000 $450,000 $450,000 $300,000

Dreamworld had $5,000,000 in 12% bonds outstanding through both years. 99. Dreamworld's average accumulated expenditures for 2006 was: A) $300,000. B) $450,000. C) $525,000. D) $600,000. Answer: B Learning Objective: 7 Level of Learning: 3 Rationale: January 1, 2006 $300,000 x 12/12 = $300,000 September 1, 2006 450,000 x 4/12 = 150,000 December 31, 2006 450,000 x 0/12 = 0 $1,200,000 $450,000

96. Interest capitalized for 2006 was: A) $48,000. B) $42,000. C) $60,000. D) $36,000. Answer: D Learning Objective: 7 Level of Learning: 3 Rationale: $300,000 (determined above) x 12% = $36,000 97. Average accumulated expenditures for 2007 by the end of the construction period was: A) $1,300,000. B) $1,236,000. C) $1,200,000. D) $1,036,000. Answer: D Learning Objective: 7 Level of Learning: 3 Rationale: Accumulated expenditures at 12/31/06 (determined above) $ 836,000 March 31, 2007 300,000 September 30, 2007 200,000 $1,336,000

100. Dreamworld's capitalized interest in 2006 was: A) $72,000. B) $63,000. C) $54,000. D) $36,000. Answer: C Learning Objective: 7 Level of Learning: 3 Rationale: $450,000 (determined above) x 12% = $54,000 101. The average accumulated expenditures for 2007 by the end of the construction period was: A) $1,950,000. B) $1,554,000. C) $1,254,000. D) $975,000. Answer: B Learning Objective: 7 Level of Learning: 3 Rationale: Accumulated expenditures at 12/31/06 (determined above) $ 1,254,000 March 31, 2007 450,000 September 30, 2007 300,000 $2,004,000

x 9/9 x 6/9 x 0/9

= = =

$836,000 200,000 0 $1,036,000

98. Interest capitalized for 2007 was: A) $104,625. B) $86,805 C) $97,875. D) $67,500. Answer: B Learning Objective: 7 Level of Learning: 3 Rationale: Total $1,036,000 (determined above) Specific borrowing 750,000 x 12% x 9/12 Excess 286,000 x 9% x 9/12 Capitalized interest

= = =

$67,500 19,305 $86,805

x 9/9 x 6/9 x 0/9

= = =

$1,254,000 300,000 0 $1,554,000

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102. What was the final cost of Dreamworld's warehouse? A) $2,154,480. B) $2,143,860. C) $1,950,000. D) $1,254,000. Answer: B Learning Objective: 7 Level of Learning: 3 Rationale: Accumulated expenditures at 9/31/07 before 2207 interest(determined above) $ 2,004,000 2007 interest capitalized $1,554,000 x 12% x 9/12 139,860 Total capitalized cost $2,143,860

Chapter 10 Operational Assets: Acquisition and Disposition


105. Liddy Corp. began constructing a new warehouse for its operations during the current year. In the year Liddy incurred interest of $30,000 on a working capital loan, and interest on a construction loan for the warehouse of $60,000. Interest computed on the average accumulated expenditures for the warehouse construction was $50,000. What amount of interest should Liddy expense for the year? A) $ 30,000. B) $ 40,000. C) $ 90,000. D) $140,000. Answer: B Learning Objective: 7 Level of Learning: 3 Rationale: Total interest cost incurred ($30,000 + 60,000) $90,000 Interest capitalized (50,000 ) Interest expense $40,000

103. On July 1, 2006, Larkin Co. purchased a $400,000 tract of land that is intended to be the site of a new office complex. Larkin incurred additional costs and realized salvage proceeds during 2006 as follows: Demolition of existing building on site Legal and other fees to close escrow Proceeds from sale of demolition scrap $75,000 12,000 10,000

What would be the balance in the land account as of December 31, 2006? A) $400,000. B) $475,000. C) $477,000. D) $487,000. Answer: C Learning Objective: 1 Rationale: Purchase price $400,000 Demolition costs 75,000 Legal fees 12,000 Sale of scrap (10,000 ) Total cost of land $477,000 Level of Learning: 3

106. During 2006, the Longhorn Oil Company incurred $5,000,000 in exploration costs for each of 20 oil wells drilled in 2006 in west Texas. Of the 20 wells drilled, 14 were dry holes. Longhorn uses the successful efforts method of accounting. Assuming that none of the oil found is depleted in 2006, what oil exploration expense would Longhorn charge for this activity in its 2006 income statement? A) $ 0 B) $30 million C) $70 million D) $100 million Answer: C Learning Objective: 1 Level of Learning: 3 Rationale: Expense the dry holes -- $100 million x (14/20) = $70 million 107. During 2006, Prospect Oil Corporation incurred $4,000,000 in exploration costs for each of 15 oil wells drilled in 2006. Of the 15 wells drilled, 10 were dry holes. Prospect uses the successful efforts method of accounting. Assuming that Prospect depletes 30% of the oil discovered in 2006, what amount of these exploration costs would remain on its 12/31/06 balance sheet? A) $6 million B) $14 million C) $20 million D) $42 million Answer: B Learning Objective: 1 Level of Learning: 3 Rationale: Capitalize the wells that are not dry holes: 5 x $4 million = $20 million. Of this, 30% is depleted in 2006 and the rest remains on the balance sheet. Therefore, 70% of $20 million remains = $14 million.

104. In the current year Tool Corp. purchased Patent X for $42,000 and Patent Y for $38,000. Additional acquisition costs for X and Y were $7,000 and $5,000, respectively. Tool also paid litigation costs for patent infringement on X and Y of $40,000 and $30,000, respectively. The X litigation was unsuccessful. The Y litigation was successful. What amount should Tool capitalize for patents? A) $ 73,000. B) $162,000. C) $ 43,000. D) $ 92,000. Answer: A Learning Objective: 8 Level of Learning: 3 Rationale: Since the defense of Patent X was unsuccessful, the patent will not provide future benefits for the company. Only the costs associated with Patent Y should be capitalized: $38,000 + 5,000 + 30,000 = $73,000
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Problems 108. On July 1, 2006, Jekel & Hyde Inc. purchased land and incurred other costs relative to the construction of a new warehouse. A summary of economic activities is listed below: Purchase price Title insurance Legal fees to purchase land Cost of razing old building on lot Proceeds from sale of salvageable materials Property taxes, January 1, 2006 - June 30, 2006 Cost of grading and filling building site Cost of building construction Interest on construction loan Cost of constructing driveway Cost of parking lot and fencing $185,000 $1,500 $1,000 8,500 (1,200) 3,000 9,000 620,000 12,000 8,000 12,000

Chapter 10 Operational Assets: Acquisition and Disposition


109. Mad Hatter Enterprises purchased new equipment for $365,000, FOB shipping point. Other costs connected with the purchase were as follows: State sales tax Freight costs Insurance while in transit Insurance after equipment placed in service Installation costs Testing, including $300 of spoilage Required: Determine the capitalized cost of the equipment. Answer: Purchase price Sales tax Freight Insurance-shipping Installation Testing Total cost of equipment 29,200 5,600 800 1,200 2,000 700

Required: Indicate the accounts that would be affected by the above transactions and the resulting balance in each account. Apply the interest on the construction loan to the cost of the building only. Answer: Land: Purchase price Title insurance Legal fees Cost of razing old building Proceeds from sale of salvaged materials Property tax prior to 6/30 Cost of grading and filling building site Total Building: Cost of building construction Interest on construction loan Total Land improvements: Driveway Parking lot and fencing Total

$365,000 29,200 5,600 800 2,000 700 $403,300

Learning Objective: 1 $185,000 1,500 1,000 $8,500 (1,200) 7,300 3,000 9,000 $206,800

Level of Learning: 3

110. During the current year, Brewer Company purchased all of the outstanding common stock of Miller Inc. paying $12,000,000 cash. The book values and fair values of Miller's assets and liabilities acquired are listed below: Book Value Fair Value $1,800,000 $ 1,625,000 2,700,000 4,000,000 9,000,000 11,625,000 3,000,000 3,000,000 4,500,000 4,125,000

$620,000 12,000 $632,000

Accounts receivable Inventories Property, plant, and equipment Accounts payable Bonds payable

Required: Prepare the journal entry to record the acquisition by Brewer Company. Answer: Accounts receivable Inventory Property, plant, and equipment Goodwill Accounts payable Bonds payable Cash Learning Objective: 1 Level of Learning: 3

$ 8,000 12,000 $20,000

1,625,000 4,000,000 11,625,000 1,875,000 3,000,000 4,125,000 12,000,000

Learning Objective: 1

Level of Learning: 3

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111. On August 15, 2006, Willis Inc. purchased all of the outstanding common stock of Bork Inc. paying $7,400,000 cash. The book values and fair values of Willis' assets and liabilities are listed below: Book Value $1,080,000 1,620,000 5,400,000 1,800,000 2,700,000 Fair Value $ 975,000 2,400,000 6,975,000 1,800,000 2,475,000

Chapter 10 Operational Assets: Acquisition and Disposition


113. Eli Company purchased assets of Whitney Inc. at auction for $1,560,000. An independent appraisal of the market value of the assets acquired is listed below: Land Building Equipment Inventories $171,600 514,800 600,600 429,000

Accounts receivable Inventories Property, plant, and equipment Accounts payable Bonds payable

Required: Prepare the journal entry to record the purchase of the assets. Answer: Appraised Values $171,600 514,800 600,600 429,000 $1,716,000 156,000 468,000 546,000 390,000 Percent 10% 30 35 25 100% Allocated Costs $156,000 468,000 546,000 390,000 $1,560,000

Required: Prepare the journal entry to record the acquisition by Willis Inc. Answer: Accounts receivable Inventory Property, plant, and equipment Goodwill Accounts payable Bonds payable Cash Learning Objective: 1 Level of Learning: 3

975,000 2,400,000 6,975,000 1,325,000 1,800,000 2,475,000 7,400,000

Land Building Equipment Inventory Land Building Equipment Inventory Cash Learning Objective: 2 Level of Learning: 3

1,560,000

112. Watson Company purchased assets of Holmes Ltd. at auction for $1,300,000. An independent appraisal of the market value of the assets acquired is listed below:

Land Building Equipment Inventories

$214,500 357,500 572,000 286,000

114. Beacon Inc. received a gift of land and building in the Twin Pines Park as an inducement to relocate. The land and buildings have fair market values of $45,000 and $455,000. Required: Prepare journal entries to record the above transactions. Answer: Land Buildings Revenue-donation of assets Percent 15% 25 40 20 100% Allocated Costs $ 195,000 325,000 520,000 260,000 $1,300,000 Learning Objective: 4 Level of Learning: 3

Required: Prepare the journal entry to record the purchase of the assets. Answer: Appraised Values $ 214,500 357,500 572,000 286,000 $1,430,000 195,000 325,000 520,000 260,000 1,300,000 Level of Learning: 3
399 400

45,000 455,000 500,000

Land Building Equipment Inventory

Land Building Equipment Inventory Cash Learning Objective: 2

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115. Cool Globe Inc. entered into two transactions, as follows: (a.) They purchased equipment paying $20,000 down and signed a noninterest-bearing note requiring the balance to be paid in four annual installments of $20,000 on the anniversary date of the contract. Based on Bright Light's 12% borrowing rate for such transactions, the implicit interest cost is $19,253. (b.) They purchased a tract of land in exchange for $10,000 cash down payment and a noninterest-bearing note requiring five $10,000 annual payments, with the first annual payment in one year. The fair market value of the land is $46,000. Required: Prepare the journal entries for these transactions. Answer: (a.) Equipment Discount on notes payable Notes payable Cash (b.) Land Discount on notes payable Cash Notes payable Level of Learning: 3

Chapter 10 Operational Assets: Acquisition and Disposition


118. Peanut Corporation exchanged land for a front-end loader and cash of $6,500. The land had a book value of $45,000 and a market value of $34,000. Required: Prepare the journal entry to record the exchange. Answer: Equipment Loss Cash Land Learning Objective: 6 Level of Learning: 3

40,500 11,000 6,500 45,000

80,747 19,253 80,000 20,000 46,000 14,000 10,000 50,000

119. Ford Inc. exchanged land and $7,500 cash for material handling equipment. The land had a book value of $75,000 and a market value of $105,000. Required: Prepare the journal entry to record the exchange. Answer: Equipment Gain Cash Land Learning Objective: 6 Level of Learning: 3

112,500 30,000 7,500 75,000

Learning Objective: 3

116. Wendell Corporation exchanged an old truck and $25,500 cash for a new truck. The old truck had a book value of $6,000 and a market value of $7,700. Required: Prepare the journal entry to record the exchange. Answer: Truck (new) Gain Cash Truck (old), net Learning Objective: 6 Level of Learning: 3

120. Walker Corporation exchanged land and $4,500 cash for material handling equipment. The land had a book value of $45,000 and a market value of $58,000. Required: Prepare the journal entry to record the exchange. 1,700 25,500 6,000 Answer: Equipment Gain Cash Land Learning Objective: 6 Level of Learning: 3

33,200

62,500 13,000 4,500 45,000

117. Kerry, Inc. exchanged land for a front-end loader and cash of $8,000. The land had a book value of $55,000 and a market value of $60,000. Required: Prepare the journal entry to record the exchange. Answer: Equipment Gain Cash Land Learning Objective: 6 Level of Learning: 3
401 402

68,000 5,000 8,000 55,000

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Chapter 10 Operational Assets: Acquisition and Disposition


121. Cheney Company sold a 20-ton mechanical draw press for $60,000. The old draw press cost $77,000 and had a net book value of $55,000. Required: Prepare the journal entry to record the disposition. Answer: Cash Accumulated depreciation Equipment Gain on disposal of equipment Learning Objective: 6 Level of Learning: 3

Chapter 10 Operational Assets: Acquisition and Disposition


124. Agasse Industries took out a $1,500,000, 8% construction loan on January 1, 2006, to build a new production facility. Construction started on April 1. Agasse made payments to the general contractor of $400,000 on June 30, $900,000 on August 31, and $500,000 on December 31. Required: Compute the amount of interest that Agasse would capitalize in 2006.

60,000 22,000 77,000 5,000

Answer: 6/30 8/31 Average accumulated expenditures for 2006 Interest capitalized in 2006 = $500,000 x 8% = Expenditures $400,000 x 6/12= $200,000 900,000 x 4/12= 300,000 $500,000 $40,000

122. McLean Mfg. Company sold a three-speed lathe for $24,000 cash. The lathe cost $66,200 and had a net book value of $23,200. Learning Objective: 6 Required: Prepare the journal entry to record the sale. Answer: Cash Accumulated depreciation Equipment Gain Learning Objective: 6 Level of Learning: 3 Level of Learning: 3

24,000 43,000 66,200 800

125. Montgomery Industries spent $600,000 in 2005 on a construction project to build a library. Montgomery also capitalized $30,000 of interest on the project in 2005. Montgomery financed 100% of the construction with a 10% construction loan. The project was completed on September 30, 2006. Additional expenditures in 2006 were as follows: Feb. 28 Apr. 30 Jul. 1 Sept. 30 90,000 180,000 36,000 64,000

123. Champion Industries exchanged a dust-scrubbing piece of equipment for another version of the same type of equipment and received $12,000 cash. The old dust scrubber cost $76,200 and had a net book value of $54,500. The new dust scrubber had a fair market value of $58,500. Required: Prepare the journal entry to record the exchange. Answer: Equipment - new Cash Accumulated depreciation Equipment - old Gain

Required: Determine the completed cost of the library. Show well labeled supporting computations. Answer: Expenditures Accumulated expenditures 12/31/2005 2/28/2006 4/30/2006 7/1/2006 9/30/2006 Average accumulated expenditures for 2006 Interest capitalized in 2006 ($812,000 x 10% x 9/12) Completed cost of the library $630,000 x 9/9 90,000 180,000 36,000 64,000 x 7/9 x 5/9 x 3/9 x 0/9 = = = = = $ 630,000 70,000 100,000 12,000 0 $812,000

58,500 12,000 21,700 76,200 16,000

60,900 $1,060,900

Learning Objective: 6

Level of Learning: 3 Learning Objective: 6 Level of Learning: 3

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126. During the current year, Peterson Data Corporation purchased all of the outstanding common stock of Junior Jackson Inc. (JJI), paying $36 million in cash. Peterson recorded the assets acquired as follows: Accounts receivable Inventory Property, plant, and equipment Goodwill $2,500,000 9,000,000 25,500,000 6,000,000

Chapter 10 Operational Assets: Acquisition and Disposition


Use the following to answer questions 128-129: In its 2004 annual report to shareholders, Boston Beer Co. disclosed the following footnote: E. Property, Plant and Equipment Property, plant and equipment for the years ended December 25, 2004 and December 27, 2003 consisted of the following (in thousands): 2004 Kegs Plant and machinery Office equipment and furniture Leasehold improvements Land Building $ 25,427 20,359 6,791 3,861 350 1,420 $ 58,208 40,996 _______ $ 17,212 2003 $ 23,404 19,185 5,937 3,604 350 1,420 $ 53,900 36,841 _______ $ 17,059

The book value of JJI's assets and owners' equity before the acquisition were $22 million and $18 million, respectively. Required: Compute the fair value of JJI's liabilities that Peterson incurred in the acquisition. Answer: Fair value of assets ! Fair value of liabilities = Cash paid Therefore, Fair value of liabilities = Fair value of assets ! Cash paid = $43 million ! 36 million = $7 million. Learning Objective: 7 Level of Learning: 3 Less accumulated depreciation

127. During the current year, Compton Crate Corporation purchased all of the outstanding common stock of Little Lacy Ltd. (LLL), paying $60 million in cash. Compton recorded the assets acquired as follows: Accounts receivable Inventory Property, plant, and equipment Goodwill $5,500,000 18,000,000 45,500,000 22,000,000

The Company recorded depreciation expense related to these assets of $4.4 million and $4.7 million for the years ended December 25, 2004 and December 27, 2003, respectively. Also, Boston Beer reported the following information in the annual report (in thousands): Years ended 12/25/04 12/27/03 Cash flows for investing activities: Purchases of property, plant and equipment (PPE) Proceeds on disposal of fixed assets (PPE) Required:

The book value of LLL's assets and owners' equity before the acquisition were $50 million and $30 million, respectively. Required: Compute the fair value of LLL's liabilities that Compton incurred in the acquisition. Answer: Fair value of assets ! Fair value of liabilities = Cash paid Therefore, Fair value of liabilities = Fair value of assets ! Cash paid = $91 million ! 60 million = $31 million. Learning Objective: 7 Level of Learning: 3

(4,559 ) 4

(1,729 ) 32

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128. Use a T- account to show the balances and changes during 2004 in Boston Beer's: Property, Plant and Equipment account and its Accumulated depreciation"Property, Plant & equipment account. Answer: Beg. Balance Purchases End. Balance Property Plant & Equipment 53,900 4,559 Disposals 251 58,208 Level of Learning: 3 Acc.Deprec.-Acc. Deprec. On disposals Property Plant & Equipment 36,841 Beg. Balance 4,400 Depreciation Exp. 245 40,996 End. Balance

Chapter 10 Operational Assets: Acquisition and Disposition


Also, Plank Breweries reported the following information in its annual report (in $ thousands): Years Ended December 31, 2004 2003 1,279 808 15 157

Acquisition of fixed assets Proceeds from sale of fixed assets

Required: 130. Use a T- account to show the balances and changes during 2004 in Plank Breweries: Fixed assets account and Accumulated depreciation"fixed assets account (in $ thousands). Answer:

Learning Objective: 1

129. Show the journal entry to record Boston Beer's disposal of the PPE during 2004. Answer: Cash Acc. Deprec. Loss on disposal PPE Learning Objective: 1 Level of Learning: 3 Beg. Balance Purchases 251 End. Balance Learning Objective: 1 Fixed assets 28,750 1,279 Disposals 29,775 Level of Learning: 3 Acc.Deprec.-254 Acc. Deprec. on disposals Fixed assets 7,625 2,121 191 9,555 Beg. Balance Depreciation Exp. End. Balance

4 245 2

Use the following to answer questions 130-131: In its 2004 annual report to shareholders, Plank Breweries disclosed the following footnote: 4. Fixed Assets

131. Show the journal entry to record Plank's disposal of the fixed assets during 2004. Answer: Cash Acc. Deprec. Loss on disposal Fixed assets Learning Objective: 1 Level of Learning: 3

15 191 47 253

Fixed assets consist of the following (in $ thousands): December 31, 2004 2003 $ 14,465 $ 14,246 918 13,808 584 772 13,563 165 4 28,750 (7,625 ) __________ $ 21,125

Brewery and retail equipment Furniture and fixtures Leasehold improvements Construction in progress Assets held for sale Less accumulated depreciation

29,775 (9,555 ) __________ $ 20,220

Total depreciation expense was approximately $2.121 million and $2.179 million for the years ended December 31, 2004 and 2003, respectively.

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132. In its 2004 annual report to shareholders, Custard Cup Inc. disclosed the following footnote: Note 4 Property, Plant and Equipment Property, plant and equipment (PPE) at December 31, 2004, and December 31, 2003, consisted of the following: 2001 (In millions) Machinery and equipment Buildings and improvements Office furniture and fixtures Less: Accumulated depreciation and amortization Land Construction in progress $244 90 6 _______ 340 183 _______ 157 15 24 $196 2000

Chapter 10 Operational Assets: Acquisition and Disposition


134. How are assets valued when they are acquired by issuing stock? Answer: Record the asset at FMV of the asset or the security, whichever is more clearly evident. Learning Objective: 2 Level of Learning: 2

135. Why are software development costs treated differently than other types of R&D? $237 89 6 _______ 332 165 _______ 167 15 6 $188 Answer: The problem with attempting to capitalize R&D in most situations is the determination of a future benefit. With software development, a point of technological feasibility can be determined and a reasonable future benefit estimated. Learning Objective: 8 Level of Learning: 2

136. Explain the appropriate accounting method used to account for lump sum purchases of a group of operational assets? Answer: Such purchases require that the lump sum price be allocated among the assets acquired so that each may be accounted for individually in subsequent periods. To do so, the relative values of the assets acquired form a pro rated allocation of the lump sum cost. The rationale is that there is an implicit discount for the lump sum purchase that is divided among the individual items as a proportion of their own values. Learning Objective: 3 Level of Learning: 2

Depreciation expense for property, plant and equipment was $26 million in 2004. Required: Compute the Accumulated depreciation on PPE disposed of by Custard Cup during 2004. Answer: Acc.Deprec.-Acc. Deprec. On disposals

137. What disclosures are required relative to interest costs incurred during the year? Answer: Disclose the total amount of interest costs incurred and the amount of interest capitalized. Interest expense is reported in the income statement. Learning Objective: 7 Level of Learning: 2

Property Plant & Equipment (in millions) 165 Beg. Balance 26 Depreciation Exp. 8 183 End. Balance Level of Learning: 3

138. When is interest capitalized? Briefly describe how the amount to be capitalized is computed. Answer: Interest is capitalized during the construction period for self-constructed assets and for assets constructed as discrete projects for sale or lease, but not for items that are routinely manufactured. The amount of interest capitalized is equal to the average accumulated expenditures multiplied by the appropriate interest rates, not to exceed the actual interest cost incurred. Learning Objective: 7 Level of Learning: 2

Learning Objective: 1

Essay Instructions: The following answers point out the key phrases that should appear in students' answers. They are not intended to be examples of complete student responses. It might be helpful to provide detailed instructions to students on how brief or in-depth you want their answers to be. 133. How are donated assets recorded? Answer: Debit the asset account for FMV based on available market price data or appraisal. Credit a revenue from donation account. Learning Objective: 4 Level of Learning: 2
409 410

139. Briefly explain how R & D is reported in financial statements. Answer: Most R & D costs are expensed in the periods incurred, and GAAP requires that total R&D expense incurred must be disclosed in a note or as a separate line item. R&D performed for others would be recorded as inventory and eventually would be included in cost of goods sold. Learning Objective: 8 Level of Learning: 2

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Spiceland/Sepe/Tomassini, Intermediate Accounting, Fourth Edition

Chapter 10 Operational Assets: Acquisition and Disposition


140. Kellogg Company and its subsidiaries are engaged in the manufacture and marketing of readyto-eat cereal and convenience foods. In its annual report to shareholders, Kellogg disclosed the following: DISPOSITIONS Last year, the Company sold certain assets and liabilities of the Lender's Bagels business to Aurora Foods Inc. for $275 million in cash. As a result of this transaction, the Company recorded a pretax charge of $178.9 million ($119.3 million after tax or $.29 per share). This charge included approximately $57 million for disposal of other assets associated with the Lender's business, which were not purchased by Aurora. Disposal of these other assets was completed during the current year. The original reserve of $57 million exceeded actual losses from asset sales and related disposal costs by approximately $9 million. This amount was recorded as a credit to other income (expense), net during the current year. Required: Explain how the Kellogg transactions described could be interpreted as an example of earnings management. Answer: The disposal of assets required Kellogg to anticipate (and create an allowance for) a loss on the disposition. Last year, Kellogg's recorded loss was greater than ultimately required. As a result, they reversed the loss by increasing income in the current year. This is an example of a cookie jar reserve, much like that described for allowances for uncollectible accounts in Chapter 7. Learning Objective: 1 Level of Learning: 3

Chapter 10 Operational Assets: Acquisition and Disposition


142. Peoplesoft recorded capitalized software amortization, included in Cost of license fees in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations, of $36.8 million in 2003, $14.4 million in 2002 and $6.5 million in 2001. Peoplesoft accounts for the development cost of software intended for sale in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 86, Accounting for Costs of Computer Software to be Sold, Leased, or Otherwise Marketed, (SFAS 86). SFAS 86 requires product development costs to be charged to expense as incurred until technological feasibility is attained. Technological feasibility is attained when the Company s software has completed system testing and has been determined viable for its intended use. The time between the attainment of technological feasibility and completion of software development has been short with immaterial amounts of development costs incurred during this period. Accordingly, the Company did not capitalize material amounts of development costs in 2003 or 2002, other than product development costs acquired through business combinations or purchased from third parties. The Company capitalizes software acquired through technology purchases and business combinations if the related software under development has reached technological feasibility or if there are alternative future uses for the software. Required: Describe how software companies like Peoplesoft treat software development costs differently from the typical GAAP treatment of research and development costs in other industries. Why is this the case? Answer: SFAS 86 calls for software developers to capitalize costs associated with developing products after technological feasibility is established. This is an exception to the general rule in GAAP that research and development expenditures be expensed when incurred. This is due in part to the political clout of the software industry and to the unique nature of the software business in which the product's future earnings potential passes the critical juncture of technological feasibility. Learning Objective: 8 Level of Learning: 3

141. Why would an oil company argue to use the full-cost method of accounting for oil and gas exploration costs? Answer: Under the full-cost method, oil and gas exploration costs are capitalized, whether or not the specific well explored is successful in finding reserves. The basis for this is that the exploration program is the unit of investment, a portfolio of exploration efforts, and the success of the program, not individual wells is the relevant basis for developing assets (reserves). The full-cost method tends to be favored by smaller companies, whose smaller numbers of explorations naturally give it less diversification that a large company can generate by its exploration program. These companies argue that they are disadvantaged in the capital market by having to use the same accounting as the larger, more diversified companies. Learning Objective: 1 Level of Learning: 3

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