Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 56

25100

()

.
Soils. Classification

2010
1


1. ........................................................................................................ 3
2. ...................................................................................................... 3
3. .................................................................................................. 4
4. ............................................................................................................. 4
5. ................................................................................................................. 4
5.1. .................................................................................. 4
5.2. .............................................................................. 5
5.3. .................................................................................... 5
5.4. , ..................................... 5
6. ................................................................ 6
() ............................................... 100
.1. .................................................................................... 100
.2 , .......................................... 13
() ( )..... 18
. 1 ................................................................................... 18
.2 ................................................................................ 20
.3 ...................................................................................... 28
()
........................................................................ 32
() ...... 33
() ,
....................................................................... 35
()
25100, ISO 14668, ASTM D 2487 ........................................................................................... 37
.1 ............................................................................................................. 37
.2 , ................ 40
.3 48
() ................................................ 54

1.
25100-95
ISO 14688-2:2004 ASTM D 248785.

,
.
,
, ,

.

,
,
.
,
.

2.

:
1065072 .
23161 78 .

1130683 .
518084 .
1253679 .
()
2374079 .

2414380 .

2558490 .
3

12248-96 .

ISO 14688-2:2004 Geotechnical investigation and testing -- Identification and classification of


soil
ISO/TS 17892 Geotechnical investigation and testing Laboratory testing of soil
ASTM D 2487-85 Standard Test Method for Classification of Soils in Engineering purposes
ASTM D 4318-95 Standard Test Method for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of
Soil

3.
, ,
, , .

4.
4.1
:

() ;
() ;
() ;
, ,
.
4.2
,
.
4.3 ,
,
-
.

5.

, (.1) , ,
, (.2).
5.1
()
( ),
, : .
4


,
, .

: Rc 5 , Rc < 5
.

, , () () ,
. 1.
, , .
5.2
() , / , .

() , - -


() () . 1.

, , .
5.3
()
( ),
.

;
-
- ;
.

() (), . 1.

, , .
5.4 ,
, ,
, .
,
5

() ,
,
.
( ) :
- ( ); ( ) .
,
, () (), . 2.
, ,
.

6.
, ISO
14688-2:2004, ASTM D 2487-95, .
,
( ).

1 - ,

()
3

*
5
, , .
, , , , .
, , .
, , , ,
.
, .
, .
, .
, , , .
, , , , , ,
, , , ,
, -
.
.
, .
, .
, , .
, .
, ,
.

,
,


.

, , , .
, , .
, , .
, , .
, .
, .
, .
, , , .

7

,
,

,
,
,

,
,
,

,
,
, ,
-
o,
-,

()

-
*:


()

,
,


.

,
,

2 - ,

(
)

()

,
, ,
-
,
, ,
-

,
,




.

:
, ,

, ,
, .

()

,
,
(), -

,
,
(), -


, .
,
, , .


:
, , ,
,
, ,
, , ,
.





: ,
, ,
, , ,
.


()

.1.
( -
) ,
/ ,
.
- , -
, , () .
.
,
, (Ip1%).
- (
, ) ,
.
, , ,

- .
-
, 0.5
, (
), .
, / , , ,
, - / .
,
.
- ,
10 50% ( ) .
-
. ( .) .
-
,
,
10

,
.
,
,
-
,

.
,
2 50 %.
, 90% .
, 50%
.
, ,
, .
, .

.

,
sw 0,04 (
).
, (
) .
, .
- , 5 50 % ( )
.
,
.

() ,
0,05-2 50 % Ip < 1%.
, ,
- .


, (
, ).
11

, /
5
.
.
,



()
sl 0,01.

.


.
, .
,
.
,
/ 5
.
,
, , ,
.
, ,
,
.
- ,
.
, ,
( , ) -
.

, (,
, -, ..) .

12

()
,

.
() , 50 % ( )
.
,
(
).

.2 ,
Sr, . . :

W s
e w

W , . ;
, ..;
s , /3;
w , 1 /3.
wrt, . .
:
K wrt

K K
K
1

1 2
2 ;
0 , .
fr, . .
:

fr

q
q

q1 2
( 2 ) ;
q0 (
).
13

, .. :
e

s , /3;
d , /3.
sop, . . :

K sop

R
R

R
;
R - .
mvf, -1 ,
.
K, %
.
ii, . .,
:

i
i

W W
.
W 0,1W
tot

tot

j
.
sw, . .


.
s, . .
, ,
( )
.
Ir, . .
.

14

d, /3
() ;
:

, /3; W , . .
( ) dt, /3
, 105;
dt > d, dt = d.
RQD, %
10 .
IL, .. ()
. :

IL

W WP
IP

W , %;
WP , %;
IP , %.
n, % :

s d
100
s

s , /3;
d , /3.
R, ,
,
.
U, ,
(, ,
).
Sr, . .,
:

15

11,W W
,
ic

e
f

Wic , ,
(-), . ., :
Wic=Wm-Ww;
Ww ,
, . .;
s , /3;
f ;
w , 1, /3.
Cu, ..,
:

d
d

60

10

d60, d10 , ,
60 10% ( ) .
ID, .. :

emax e
emax e min

ID

, ..;
emin - , ..;
emax - , ..
fh,
%, :

fh

0, f

h0

100,

h0,f , ;
h0 , .
, qsr, / -
,
1:5
.
16

itot, . ., :

tot

i i i ic

W W
,
1 W
tot

tot

:
iic - ( ), . .;
Wtot , . .;
i , 0,9 /3;
s , /3;
f , /3;
Wm , ,
..;
Ww , . .

Ip, % :
IP = WL WP ,
WL , %;
Wp , %.
St, ..
(u)
(u:r)
(max) (min) :
St

Cu
Cu ; r

S t

max
min

17


()
( )
. 1
.1.1 Rc
.1.1.
.1.1

Rc,

> 120

"

120
50
15

"

50
15
5

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"
"

<1

.1.2 ()
.1.2.
.1.2

d, /3

2,50
< 2,10

>2,50

"

2,10
1,20

.
"

<1,20

.1.3 .1.3.
.1.3




, %

<3
3
>10

"

10
30
>30

.
"

18

.1.4 wr
.1.4.
.1.4


wr, . .

0 < Kwr 0,5


0,5 < Kwr 0,75
0,75 < Kwr < 1

.1.5
.1.5.

Ksop

.1.5

Ksop, . .

0,75
< 0,75

.1.6
.1.6.
.1.6

qsr, /
< 0,001
> 0,001 0,01 .
> 0,01 " 1
"
> 1
" 10
"
> 10
" 100
"
>100

.1.7 .1.7*.
.1.7

, /

510-5

>
0,005
>

0,50
>

5
>

50

* .

"
"
"
"

< 510-5
0,005
0,50
5
50
100
>100

.
"
"
"
"

.1.8
( .1).
19

.2
.2.1 .2.1.
.2.1

> 800

400- 800

200- 400

100- 200

60- 100

40- 60

20-40

10-20

4-10

2-4

1-2

0,5-1

0,25-0,5

0,10-0,25

0,05-0,10

0,01-0,05

0,002-0,01

()

()

()

< 0,002

.2.2
.2.2.
.2.2

d, ,

:
(
)
(
)
(
)

>200

>50

>40

>50

>2

>50

20

>2
>0,50
>0,25
>0,10
>0,10

>25
>50
>50
75
<75


40 % 30 % -

.
2 .
50 %,
, 30 50 % .
.2.3 u,
.2.3.
.2.3

Cu

.2.4 Sr
.2.4.
.2.4

Sr, . .

o
>
>

0
0,50
0,80

0,50
0,80
1,00

.2.5 .2.5
.2.5

,


< 0,55

0,55 0,70 . 0,60 0,75 . 0,60 0,80 .

< 0,60

> 0,70

< 0,60

> 0,75

> 0,80
21

.2.6 ID .2.6.
.2.6

ID, . .

o
0

>
0,33
>

0,66
:

0,33
0,66
1,00

"
"

.
"
"

ID,
, , .. ID>1 ID <0, .

.2.7 wrt
.2.7.
.2.7

wrt, . .
o
>
"

0
0,50
0,75

"
"

0,50
0,75
1,00

.
"
"

.2.8 fr
.2.8.
.2.8

fr, . .
<
o
>
"

0,10
0,10
0,20
0,30

"
"

>

0,20
0,30
0,40
0,40

.
"
"

.2.9 Ip .2.9.
.2.9

Ip, %
o
>

1
7

"

>

7
17
17

.
"

, ,
, .

22

.2.10 Ip
.2.10.
.2.10

:


:




:


(20,05 ), %

Ip

o
"

>
"
"
"
"
"

1
1

7
7
12
12

"

17
17

"

"
"
"
"
"

>

7
7

12
12
17
17

"

27
27
27

"

50
< 50

"

40
40
40
< 40

"
"
"

40
< 40

"

.2.11 .2.11.
.2.11
> 2 ,

%
, ,
(), ()

, ,
(), ()

15

25

>

25

"

50

"

.2.12 IL
.2.12.
.2.12

IL

<

0
0

>1

23

<

>

0
0
0,25
0,50
0,75

>
>

"
"
"

>

0,25
0,50
0,75
1,00
1,00

.
"
"
"

.2.13 h
.2.13.
.2.13


, h,
<0,15

0,15 0,35 .

> 0,35 1,0 .

> 1,0 1,3 .

> 1,3 " 1,5

"

> 1,5 4,0 .

> 4,0

.2.14 sw
.2.14.
.2.14


sw, . .
<

>

0,04
0,04
0,08

"

>

0,08 .
"
0,012
0,12

24

.2.15
.2.15.
.2.15

sl


sl, . .

<

>
>

0,01
0,01
0,03
0,07

0,03
0,07
0,12
0,12

"
"

>

.
"
"

.2.16 fn
.2.16*.
.2.16

fn,
%
<

1,0
1,0
3,5
7,0

>
>

3,5
7,0
10,0
10,0

"
"

>

.
"
"

*
.2.17 u
.2.17.
.2.17








u,

>
>
>
>
>
>

10
10
20
40
75
150
300

"
"
"
"
"

20 .
"
40
"
75
"
150
"
300
"
500

25

.2.18 .2.18.
.2.18
,

..

~1
>1 2 .
> 2 " 4 .
> 4 " 8 .
> 8 "16 .
> 16 " 32 .
> 32 " 64 .
> 64

.2.19 .2.19.
.2.19
, ..

>
>
>
>

0,40 0,50 .
"
0,25 " 0,40
"
0,10 " 0,25
"
0,05 " 0,10

0,030,10

.2.20 Ir .2.20.
.2.20

Ir, ..

> 0,05 0,10 .


> 0,10 " 0,30 "
> 0,30 " 0,50 "

.2.21 Dd .2.21.
.2.21

Dd, %
< 20
20 - 45
> 45
26

: ;
.
.2.22
.2.22.
.2.22

Ir


Ir, ..

0,10 - 0,30
>0,30 - 0,50
> 0,50

.2.23 Dsal
.2.23.
.2.23
Dsal, %

<5
5 10 .

<5

<3

5 10 .

o 3 7 .

> 10 " 20 "

> 10 " 20 "

> 20 " 35 "

> 20 " 30

>35

>30

> 7 " 10 "


"

> 10 " 15 "


>15

27

.3
.3.1. ,
.3.1.1-.3.1.3.
.3.1.1


ii, . .

< 0,01
0,01 0,05 .
> 0,05

.3.1.2


ii, . .

>
>
>

< 0,03
0,03 0,20 .
0,20 " 0,40 "
0,40 " 0,60 "
0,60 " 0,90 "

.3.1.3

,
itot, ..

< 0,40
0,40 0,60 .
> 0,60

.3.2. .3.2.
.3.2

()

, T,
T0
0 > T Tbf

T<0

T < Tbf

* - 5%

28

.3.3. -
.3.3.

.3.3

-1
(mvf 0,01 )
(mvf > 0,01 -1)
t < h :
h < t < bf
h = 0,0
--

h-

h-

h = - 0,1

h = - 0,3

h < t < bf

h = - 0,6

h = - 1,0

h = - 1,5

Ir 0,1

h < -3,0

-3 < t < bf

0,1< Ir 0,2

h < -4,0

-4 < t < bf

(
)

0,2 Ir 0,3

h < -5,0

-5 < t < bf

Ir >0,3

t < bf

Ir >0,5

t < bf

: Th ; t
.
.3.4. Dsal, %,
.3.4.
.3.4

NaCI, MgCI2,
CaSO4
CaCI2, MgSO4


Dsal ,% ,
0,10
0,15
0,20
0,25

29

.3.5. Dsal, %, (NaCI, Na2SO4


90 %) .3.5.
.3.5
, Dsal,
%

< 0,05

<0,15

<0,20

o 0,05 0,15 .

0,15 0,35 .

0,20 0,40 .

> 0,15 " 0,30

"

> 0,35 " 0,60 "

0,30

> 0,40 " 0,80

0,60

"

0,80

.3.6. (NaCI, Na2SO4 90


%) .3.6.
.3.6
, %
, 0

-1 -3

-3 -8

-1 -3

-3 -8

-1 -3

0,05

0,15

0,20

0,30

0,20

>0,05

> 0,15

>0,20

>0,30

>0,20

0,15 .
> 0,15

0,5 . 0,60 .
> 0,50

>0,60

-3 -8

0,80 . 1,0 .
>0,80

>1,0

0,50

>0,50
1,5 .
>1,5

30

.3.7.
.3.7.
.3.7

, , ,

, , ,

, , , ,

, , , ,
,

, , , ,

31


()

30%

5%

5%

32


()

.1
.1.
.1

< 1,5

>1,5 - 5

>5 - 10

>10 - 30

> 30

RQD, %
> 90

KT, %
< 0,1

,
3

< 0,5

> 1,5

>75 - 90

<0,1 - 0,5

>0,5-1

0,5-1,5

>50 - 75

<0,5 - 2,0

>1-5

0,3-0,5

>25 - 50

<2,0 - 5,0

>5-10

0,1-0,3

0 - 25

>5

> 10

< 0,1

-
j,
. -
j, .
.2 .2.
.2

,
> 20 000

10 000 - 20 000

5 000 - 10 000

2 000- 5 000

< 2 000

.3
.1.7 .1.

33

.4
:
, ;
, 1
;
, 1
;
1 5 ,
;
5 ,
.
.5 :
( ,
);
( ,
, );
( ,
);
( ,
).

34


()

Very coarse soils ( ) ,


63 .
Coarse-grained soils ( ) , 50%
0,063 ISO 14688 (0,075
ASTM D 2487).
Fine-grained soils ( ) , 50%
0,063 ISO 14688 (0,075 ASTM D
2487).
Liquid limit ( ), LL ASTM, WL ISO
ASTM D 4318 , ISO/TS 17892
.
Liquid limit oven dried ( ), LLO
t = 105 .
Liquid limit non dried ( ), LLN
.
Plastic limit ( ), PL ASTM, WP ISO
.
Plasticity index ( ) PI ASTM, IP ISO
:
PI = LL PL;
IP = WL WP.
Liquidity index ( ) IL ISO :

IL

W WP
IP

W .
Consistency index ( ) IC ISO
:

35

Ic

WL W
IP

Plasticity Chart ( ) PI LL,



, (. .3.1).
Uniformity coefficient ( ), Cu
:

Cu

d 60
,
d10

d60, d10 ,
60 10% ( ) (. .2.1).
CU .
Coefficient of curvature ( ), Cc
(. .2.1). :
2

d
C 30 d 60
d10

d60, d30, d10 , 60, 30 10% ( ) .


Well graded soil ( ), W ,
Cu
C c.
Poorly graded soil ( ), P ,
Cu
CC.
Flow chart ( ) -,
.

36


()

25100, ISO 14668, ASTM D 2487
.1
.1.1
, 25100, ISO 14688 ASTM D 2487.
.1.2

ISO 14688 ASTM D 2487

,
(. .2.1).
.1.3
25100, ISO 14688 ASTM D 2487 . .1.1.
.1.4 ISO 14688
ASTM D 2487
(. . .3.1),
( 0,063 0,075 ).
.1.5
25100, ISO 14688 ASTM D 2487
, ,
.
.1.6 -
(
) (
t = 105 ).
.1.7.
, 25100, ISO 14688 ASTM D 2487,
.1.1.
37

.1.8

.

,

800

400

300

200

100

76,2

Large
boulders

63

60

40

20

19

10

Boulders

ASTM
ISO

630

4,75

Gravel

Cobbles

Boulders

6,3

coarse

Cobbles

Coarse gravel

fine
Medium gravel

Fine gravel

4,75

0,63

0,5

0,425

0,25

0,2

0,1

0,075

0,063

0,05

0,02

0,063

0,005

0,002

ASTM
ISO

Sand
Coarse

Medium

Silt

Fine

Sand
Coarse

Medium

Clay
Silt

Fine

Coarse

Medium

Fine

Clay

. .1.1. ,
25100, ISO 14688 ASTM D 2487

38

.1.1.
, 25100, ISO 14688 ASTM D 2487

, Plasticity Chart
(. . .3.1)


ASTM
D 2487
(ISO 14688)

Liquid limit LL (WL), %

< 32

(
IP)

25100

()
ASTM
D 2487 (ISO 14688)

22 45 3650 50 53 45 76

(IP < 7)

(IP = 712)

silty clay
(CLML)

> 65

(IP

= 1217)
(IP = 1727) (IP > 27)

lean clay
(CL)

fat clay
(CH)

, Plasticity Chart
(. . .3.1)


ASTM
D 2487
(ISO 14688)

(
IP)


25100

()
ASTM
D 2487 (ISO 14688)

Liquid limit LL (WL), %

< 41

()
(IP < 7)

silt
(ML)

41 50

50 67

()
(IP = 717)

> 67

()
(IP > 17)

elastic silt
(MH)
39

.2 ,

.2.1 ,
,
, ,
(. .1.1).

100

, %

75

60
50

30
25

10

D4.75

5,0

2,0

1,0

D0.425

0,5

D0.075

0,25

0,05

0,01

0,005

< 0,005

0,1

10

. .1.1

.2.2 ,
ASTM D 2487
: 300, 76.2, 19, 4.75, 0.425 0.075 ;
ISO 14688 630, 200, 63, 20, 6.3, 0.63, 0.2 0.063 . ,
, 25100
800, 400, 200, 100, 60, 40, 20, 10, 4, 0.5, 0.25, 0.1,
0.05 .
d60, d30 d10.
.2.3 ,
ISO 14688 ASTM D 2487
.
40

.2.4

. .3.
.2.5 ,
ASTM D 2487 - (Flow
Charts), .
.2.6 ISO 14688
.
. ( )
,
.
.
.
. : sandy medium
gravel (saMGr), fine gravelly, coarse sandy silt (fgrcsaSi).
.2.7
, 25100, ISO 14668 ASTM D 2487
.2.1 .2.2.
.2.8

25100, ISO 14668 ASTM D 2487 .2.3 .2.4.

41

.2.1 -
, 25100 ISO 14668

25100

ISO 14688

()

Boulders; sandy boulders, silty


boulders, clayey boulders

Bo, saBo, siBo,


clBo

()

Sandy boulders, silty sandy boulders,


clayey sandy boulders

saBo, sisaBo,
clsaBo

()
(,
)

Silty boulders, clayey boulders, sandy


silty boulders, sandy clayey boulders

siBo, clBo,
sasiBo, saclBo

()

Cobbles, sandy cobbles, silty cobbles,


clayey cobbles;
Coarse gravel, sandy coarse gravel,
silty coarse gravel, clayey coarse gravel

Co, saCo, siCo,


clCo;
CGr, saCGr,
siCGr, clCGr

()

Sandy cobbles, silty sandy cobbles,


clayey sandy cobbles;
Sandy coarse gravel, silty sandy coarse
gravel, clayey sandy coarse gravel

saCo, sisaCo,
clsaCo;
saCGr, sisaCGr,
clsaCGr

()
(,
)

Silty cobbles, clayey cobbles, sandy


silty cobbles, sandy clayey cobbles;
Silty coarse gravel, clayey coarse
gravel, sandy silty coarse gravel, sandy
clayey coarse gravel

siCo, clCo,
sasiCo, saclCo;
siCGr, clCGr,
sasiCGr, saclCGr

()

Gravel, sandy gravel, silty gravel, clayey


gravel

Gr, saGr, siGr,


clGr

()

Sandy gravel, silty sandy gravel, clayey


sandy gravel

saGr, sisaGr,
clsaGr

()

(, )

Silty gravel, clayey gravel, sandy silty


gravel, sandy clayey gravel

siGr, clGr,
sasiGr, saclGr
42

.2.2.
, 25100 ASTM D 2487 *

25100

ASTM D 2487

()

Boulders (cobbles);
boulders (cobbles) with sand
Boulders (cobbles) with silt;
boulders (cobbles) with silt and sand
Boulders (cobbles) with clay;
boulders (cobbles) with clay and sand
Silty boulders (cobbles), silty boulders
(cobbles) with sand
Clayey boulders (cobbles), clayey boulders
(cobbles) with sand

()

()
(,
)

()

Boulders (cobbles) with silt;


boulders (cobbles) with silt and sand
Boulders (cobbles) with clay;
boulders (cobbles) with clay and sand
Silty boulders (cobbles), silty boulders
(cobbles) with sand
Clayey boulders (cobbles), clayey boulders
(cobbles) with sand
Silty boulders (cobbles), silty boulders
(cobbles) with sand
Clayey boulders (cobbles), clayey boulders
(cobbles) with sand
Cobbles (coarse gravel);
cobbles (coarse gravel) with sand
Cobbles (coarse gravel) with silt;
cobbles (coarse gravel) with silt and sand
Cobbles (coarse gravel) with clay;
cobbles (coarse gravel) with clay and sand
Silty cobbles (coarse gravel), silty cobbles
(coarse gravel) with sand
Clayey cobbles (coarse gravel), clayey
boulders (cobbles) with sand

G
G GM
G GC
GM
GC

G GM
G GC
GM
GC

GM
GC

G
G GM
G GC
GM
GC

43

.2.2

()

()
(,
)

()

()

Cobbles (coarse gravel) with silt;


cobbles (coarse gravel) with silt and sand
Cobbles (coarse gravel) with clay;
cobbles (coarse gravel) with clay and sand
Silty cobbles (coarse gravel), silty cobbles
(coarse gravel) with sand
Clayey cobbles (coarse gravel), clayey
cobbles (coarse gravel) with sand
Silty boulders (cobbles), silty cobbles
(coarse gravel) with sand
Clayey boulders (cobbles), clayey cobbles
(coarse gravel) with sand
Coarse (medium) gravel (coarse sand);
coarse (medium) gravel (coarse sand) with
sand
Coarse (medium) gravel (coarse sand) with
silt;
coarse (medium) gravel (coarse sand) with
silt and sand
Coarse (medium) gravel (coarse sand) with
clay;
coarse (medium) gravel (coarse sand) with
clay and sand
Silty coarse (medium) gravel (coarse sand),
silty coarse (medium) gravel (coarse sand)
with sand
Clayey coarse (medium) gravel (coarse
sand), clayey coarse (medium) gravel
(coarse sand) with sand
Coarse (medium) gravel (coarse sand) with
silt;
coarse (medium) gravel (coarse sand) with
silt and sand
Coarse (medium) gravel (coarse sand) with
clay;
coarse (medium) gravel (coarse sand) with
clay and sand
Silty coarse (medium) gravel (coarse sand),
silty coarse (medium) gravel (coarse sand)
with sand
Clayey coarse (medium) gravel (coarse
sand), clayey coarse (medium) gravel
(coarse sand) with sand

G GM
G GC
GM
GC

GM
GC
G

G GM

G GC

GM

GC

G GM

G GC

GM

GC
44

()

(, )

Silty coarse (medium) gravel (coarse sand),


silty coarse (medium) gravel (coarse sand)
with sand
Clayey coarse (medium) gravel (coarse
sand), clayey coarse (medium) gravel
(coarse sand) with sand

GM

GC

* Cu Cc ()
well graded (W) poorly graded (P).
.2.3. ,
25100 ISO 14668

25100

ISO 14688

Gravel; bouldery, cobble, sandy,


silty, clayey gravel

Gr, boGr, coCg, saGr, siGr,


clGr

Coarse (medium) sand;


bouldery, cobble, gravely, silty,
clayey coarse (medium) sand

CSa(MSa), boCSa(MSa),
coCSa(MSa), grCSa(MSa),
siCSa(MSa), clCSa(MSa)

Medium sand;
bouldery, cobble, gravely, silty,
clayey medium sand

MSa, boMSa, coMSa, grMSa,


siMSa, clMSa

Medium (fine) sand;


bouldery, cobble, gravely, silty,
clayey medium (fine) sand

MSa(FSa), boMSa(FSa),
coMSa(FSa), grMSa(FSa),
siMSa(FSa), clMSa(FSa)

Fine sand;
bouldery, cobble, gravely, silty,
clayey fine sand;
coarse silt

FSa, boFSa, coFSa, grFSa,


siFSa, clFSa, CSi

45

.2.4. ,
25100 ASTM D 2487.

25100

ASTM D 2487

Gravel, gravel with sand

Gravel with silt, gravel with silt and sand

G GM

Gravel with clay, gravel with clay and sand

G GC

Silty gravel, silty gravel with sand

GM

Clayey gravel, clayey gravel with sand

GC

Sand, sand with gravel

Sand with silt, sand with silt and gravel

S SM

Sand with clay, sand with clay and gravel

S SC

Silty sand, silty sand with gravel

MS

Clayey sand, clayey sand with gravel

CS

Medium sand, medium sand with gravel

Medium sand with silt, medium sand with silt and gravel

S SM

Medium sand with clay, medium sand with clay and


gravel

S SC

Silty medium sand, silty medium sand with gravel

MS

Clayey medium sand, clayey medium sand with gravel

CS

46

Medium (fine) sand, medium (fine) sand with gravel

Medium (fine) sand with silt, medium (fine) sand with silt
and gravel
Medium (fine) sand with clay, medium (fine) sand with
clay and gravel
Silty medium (fine) sand, silty medium (fine) sand with
gravel
Clayey medium (fine) sand, clayey medium (fine) sand
with gravel

S
S SM
S SC
MS
CS

Fine sand, fine sand with gravel

Fine sand with silt, fine sand with silt and gravel

S SM

Fine sand with clay, fine sand with clay and gravel

S SC

Silty fine sand, silty fine sand with gravel

MS

Clayey fine sand, clayey fine sand with gravel

CS

Fine sand, fine sand with gravel

Fine sand with silt, fine sand with silt and gravel

S SM

Fine sand with clay, fine sand with clay and gravel

S SC

Silty fine sand, silty fine sand with gravel

MS

Clayey fine sand, clayey fine sand with gravel

CS

Silt

ML

* Cu Cc ()
well graded (W) poorly graded (P).

47

.3
.3.1
.
WL LL .
,
.
WP PL .
.3.2 ,
, WL LL
:
LL = 1,48 WL 8,3;
(.3.1)
WL = (LL + 8,3) / 1,48.
(.3.2)
.3.3 WL LL PI, IP, IL, IC
.
.3.4 -
(fine graded soils) ISO 14688 ASTM D 2487
(Plasticity Chart) (. .3.1).
, ,
, .
PI, %

60

50

CH or OH
40

30

CL or OL
20

MH or OH
10

CL-ML

ML or OL

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

LL, %

. .3.1. (Plasticity Chart).


:
CH fat clay, CL lean clay, ML silt, MH elastic silt, CL-ML silty clay,
OH organic clay with high plasticity, OL organic clay with low plasticity.
: PI = 0,73 (LL 20)
48

.3.5
, .
< 5 % (inorganic soil)
, CH, CL, MH ML. 5
% - (organic soil) , OH OL.
> 50 %
( 2 ) (
). > 50 %
(Pt), 50 % -
.

LLO/LLN.

LLO/LLN 0,75,

(organic soil), > 0,75 (inorganic soil).


.3.6
. .2.
.3.7
(inorganic soil)
ASTM D 2487 - (Flow
Chart), .
.3.8 , , 25100 ASTM D
2487 (ISO 14668) .3.1 .3.2.

49

.3.1.
, ASTM D 2487 (ISO 14668) 25100

ASTM D 2487

Fat clay

CH

(ISO 14688)

25100

PI, %

LL, %

> 45

> 65

28 45

45 76

19 28

50 53

Lean clay

CL

19 28

36 50

11 19

22 45

7 11

< 32

Silty clay

Elastic silt

CL ML

47

< 30

> 32

> 67

14 32

50 67

MH

Silt

14 32

41 50

< 14

< 41

ML

50

.3.2. , ASTM D 2487 (ISO


14668) 25100

Organic clay
with high
plasticity

ASTM D 2487

ISO 14688

25100

PI, %

LL, %

> 47

> 68

29 47

44 98

19 29

50 62

OH

13 - 19

50 51

19 29

36 50

Organic clay
with low
plasticity

Peat

OL

Pt

13 19

25 50

< 13

< 41

51

.3.9

- IL
25100 IC ISO 14668 .3.3.
.3.3.
-

25100

ISO 14688

IL

(
consistency
index IC)

<0

very stiff

01

very soft stiff

>1

very soft

<0

very stiff

0 0,25

stiff

0,25 0,5

firm stiff

0,5 0,75

soft firm

0,75 1

very soft firm

>1

very soft soft

<0

very stiff

0 0,25

stiff

0,25 0,5

firm stiff

0,5 0,75

firm

0,75 1

soft firm

>1

very soft soft

52

.3.10 ISO
.3.4.
.3.4.

ISO

ISO

ISO

R, g/l

Cp, ..

R = Cp/(1-Cp)

Cp=R/(1+R)

M,

M=1.25E

E=0.80M

53


()

(.)

(.)

Soil density

Dry soil density

Solid particles density

Water density

Void ratio

emax

Maximum index void


-
ratio

emin

Minimum index void

ID

Density index

Water content

Sr

Degree of saturation

wL

Liquid limit

wP

Plastic limit

Ip

Plasticity index

IL

Liquidity index

Particle diameter

Cu

Uniformity coefficient

Coefficient of permeability

Temperature

Modulus of deformation

Rc

Tensile
strength
compression

Mj

Modulus of jointing

RQD

Rock Quality Designation

mvf

Coefficient of volume compressibility

ratio

in

uniaxial

54

(.)

(.)

Ice density

Frozen soil density

Srf

Degree of soil pores filling with ice


and unfrozen water

wtot

Total water content

wic

Water content at the expense of icecement

ww

Water content at the expense of not


frozen water

wm

Water content of frozen soil located


between ice prolayers

itot

Total volume content of ice

ii

Volume content of ice at the expense


of ice prolayers

iic

Volume content of ice at the expense


of ice-cement

Tbf

Ground freezing point

fh

Frost heave rate

Th

Hard frozen soil point

Dsal

Soil salinity degree

Frozen soil

mvf

Coefficient of volume compressibility

ef

Index void ratio of frozen sand

Srf

Degree of ground pores filling with ice


and unfrozen water

Wtot

Total water content

Wic

Water content at the expense of icecement


55

(.)

(.)

Ww

Water content at the expense of not


frozen water

Wm

Water content of frozen soil located


between ice prolayers

itot

Total volume content of ice

ii

Volume content of ice at the expense


of ice prolayers

iic

Volume content of ice at the expense


of ice-cement

Tbf

Ground freezing point

fh

Frost heave rate

Th

Hard frozen soil point

Dsal

Salinity degree of frozen soil

56

Похожие интересы