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2002


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15
1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

2
2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 . . . . . . . .
2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 c . . .
2.6 , .

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33
33
39
47
56
63
69

3
77
3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
4
4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 ,
4.5 . . . . . . . .
4.6 . . . . . . .

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91
91
96
99
106
111
116

5
5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

123
123
128
131

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II MAPLE V

135

6
139
6.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145


.
.
, ,
-
. ,
, , , , ,
.

, , . . , ,
.. [19].
[5].
. 1 , .
( ), : , . "
. -[10] .
-[2], , -, , -, , ,
.
.. [14] .
1 , .
, ,
.

,
, , ,
. .. [17]
.., .. [15].
, , , . .
, , .
, ,
, .

.
.
Maple
V,
, , , .
,

:
www.academiaxxi.ru/solverTM.html.
" .
Maple V .,
,
AcademiaXXI. .
,
,
,
, .
- ,
50 , .
LATEX .
.

-
.
., -
:
www.academiaxxi.ru/solverTM.html.

"
:
111250 , . , . 17, (), .
E-mail: Kirsanov@termech.mpei.ac.ru.
KirsanovMN@mpei.ru.

11

, .
:
, .. ,
( 1),
( 2,3) ( 4).
( 5) . ,

.
,
, (, )
(, ) .
.
.

. ,
F~ x Fx =
F cos ,
, .
, , .
~ O F~ O
M

~ O (F~ ) = ~r0 F~ ,
M

(1)

~r0 -
O. MO (F~ ) = r0 F sin ,
~r0 F~ .
. h O
; h = r0 sin .
, . ( z). z
MO
MOz . . -

12
O (. 1) , MOz (F ) = Fx y0 + Fy x0 . : MOz (F ) = F h, h O.
y

6
1 F~
Fy q


Fx
y0

~r0
q

-x
O x0
. 1

1~

q F

-x

. 2

3 F~



1


F~n

q
@
h
. 3

.

, . . 2
F~ O .
,
.
, , , (1) , .
F~n
, ,
(. 3). ,
. , , .
, , .., .
.
.
. ,
,
. , .
.

6 
6
!
.
Maple V 6.1,

13
6.2. .
Maple V.
, , :

eq1:=Xa*2.5+Ya*3.1=20:
eq2:=-Xa*1.5+Ya*10=-12.5:
solve({eq1,eq2},{Xa,Ya});
, , . -,
, . -, ,
. -,
, . , ..
, , AcademiaXXI, www.academiaxxi.ru.

14





.
(6.1).

1.1
. -

. .

, . .
, . .
, , , ,
.
1. , . .
2.
.
15

16

1.

3.
.
4. , ,
. ,
.
.
5. , .
.
1. 1 , . , . 4 ( ..), .
.
,
, ,
.
,
. ( 2.1).

Bc
A

. 4

F b

b
aa

Eb

Db

Ab

- P~

. 5

bB
bC

2.
.
.
3. ,
.
1 - , ,
. .

17

1.1.

4.
Maple V ( 1, c. 139).
. -
E, D, C A P = 100 (. 5). :
6 DF A = 135 , 6 ABD = 60 , 6 DCB = 60 , 6 BDC = 30 , 6 DF E = 30 .
.

, (). .
A, B, F
. .
1. A,
AB AF . ,
(. 6).
2. .
y AB.
P

Xi = SAF cos 15 P sin 30 = 0,

Yi = SAF sin 15 + SAB + P cos 30 = 0.

Xi i x, Yi i
y.
3. . SAF = 51.76 , SAB = 73.21 .
4. F . (. 8).
y
SAF
A

P
30

SAF

15

. 6

30
SF E

45

SAB
y

SF D

. 7

SAF = 51.76 .
:

18

1.

Xi = SF E sin 30 + SAF cos 45 = 0,

Yi = SF E cos 30 SF D + SAF sin 45 = 0.

SF E = 73.21 , SF D = 26.79 .
B , BC BD (. 7):
P
Xi = SDB + SAB sin 30 = 0,
P
Yi = SBC SAB cos 30 = 0.
, : SDB = SAB sin 30 = 73.21 0.5 =
= 36.6 , SBC = SAB cos 30 = 73.21 0.866 = 63.4 .
5. . .
y
F b

SAB

60

30
B
E

SDB

60
SBC
y

. 8

Ab

-P

D
30

SDB

bB

60
SF D

SBC

SF E

. 9

.
, , ,
, .. (. 9).
, , .
, .

(2.1 3.2). , , , x y
, :
P
Xi = SF E cos 60 SDB cos 30 + SBC cos 60 + P = 0,
P
Yi = SF E sin 60 SF D SDB sin 30 SBC sin 60 = 0.

19

1.1.
. .
:
SAF

SAB

SF E

SF D

SDB

SBC

51.76

73.21

73.21

26.79

36.60

63.40

. - P .
( ).
1.

~
P

Bb

D b

2.
Bb

?
b A bC

A b -P
~

bC

Db

A b -P
~

3.
Bb

~
P

4.
?
bA

bE

Bb

D b

P = 2 ,
6 ACB=45 , 6 ABC=45 ,
6 BDC=60 , 6 BCD=30 ,
6 CDE=30 , 6 CED=45 .

bE
bC

bE

bE

P = 1 ,
6 ACB=30 , 6 ABC=30 ,
6 BDC=45 , 6 BCD=45 ,
6 CDE=60 , 6 CED=30 .

P = 3 ,
6 ACB=45 , 6 ABC=30 ,
6 BDC=120 , 6 BCD=30 ,
6 CDE=30 , 6 CED=90 .

bC

P = 4 ,
6 ABD=45 , 6 ADB=45 ,
6 BDC=60 , 6 BCD=30 ,
6 CDE=30 , 6 CED=120 .

20

1.
5.

~
P
?
Ab

Bb
D

6.

~
P
Bb

?
bA
D

7.
Bb

~
P
?
Ab

8.
~
P
?
Ab

9.

~
P

?
bA

Ab

10. ~
P

bD
Bb

bC
bC

P = 6 ,
6 ACB=30 , 6 ABC=45 ,
6 BDC=90 , 6 BCD=60 ,
6 CDE=60 , 6 CED=60 .

bE

bE

bC

bD

Bb

bD

bC

Bb

bE
bC

bE

P = 7 ,
6 ABD=30 , 6 ADB=30 ,
6 BDC=60 , 6 BCD=30 ,
6 CDE=45 , 6 CED=45 .

P = 8 ,
6 ABD=45 , 6 ADB=45 ,
6 BDC=45 , 6 BCD=45 ,
6 CDE=45 , 6 CED=60 .

bE

bC
bE

P = 5 ,
6 ABD=60 , 6 ADB=90 ,
6 BDC=30 , 6 BCD=120 ,
6 CDE=30 , 6 CED=60 .

P = 9 ,
6 ABD=90 , 6 ADB=45 ,
6 BDC=45 , 6 BCD=45 ,
6 CDE=45 , 6 CED=60 .

P = 10 ,
6 ABD=90 , 6 ADB=60 ,
6 BDC=30 , 6 BCD=90 ,
6 CDE=60 , 6 CED=90 .

21

1.1.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

SAB
1.115
1.414
2.196
2.828
8.660
5.379
5.715
5.657
9.000
17.321

SAC
0.816
1.414
1.553

4.392

SAD

2.828
10.000

2.092
5.657
12.728
20.000

SBC
0.966
1.000
3.804
2.000
15.000
10.392
2.858
4.000
9.000
20.000

SBD
0.558
1.000
2.196
2.000
17.321
7.608
4.950
4.000
0.000
10.000

SCD
0.472
0.732
5.660
3.464
7.500
7.856
2.475
3.586
8.069
34.641

SCE
0.106
1.932
3.928
2.000
12.990
5.321
1.429
2.928
6.588
40.000

,
1. ?

. .
2.
( ) .
-, . 1. -, ,
.
-, ,
.

1. , ,
.
2. . . !
3.
. , .. -
.
4. , 0
, SAB A SAB
B.
( ) ~ 0 = S
~AB ,
: S
AB
,
,
.

22

1.

1.2
.
- , . . .
. .
, . .
- .

1. .
2. .
.
3. ,
. - .
.2 . - . A E . B, C
D Q.

B b
A b

bC

?
~

?
~

bD

?
~

. 10

bE

= 60 .
(. 10). .

2.39 .. .

23

1.2.

, , ,
.
.
( ) .
(1.1).
1. . C (.11):
X
Xi = SBC cos + SCD cos = 0,
(1.1)
X
Yi = Q SBC sin SCD sin = 0.
(1.2)
, B
D . B (.12).
y
y
-
C

SBC

SBC

SCD
Q

SAB

. 11
. 12
y AB, x
AB. ,
x :
X
Xi = SBC sin( ) + Q cos = 0,
(1.3)
X
Yi = SBC cos( ) SAB Q sin = 0.
(1.4)
2. (14). (1) , SCD = SBC .

. (2) (4)
Q = 2SBC sin ,

(1.5)

SAB = SBC cos( ) Q sin .

(1.6)

SBC (5) (3):


Q sin( )/(2 sin ) + Q cos = 0.

24

1.

Q 6= 0, Q :
sin( ) + 2 cos sin = 0,

3 tg = tg = 3, tg = 0.577, = 30 . (5)
SBC = Q/(2 sin ) = Q. BC . (6)

SAB = SBC cos(60 30 ) Q sin 60 = Q 3.


SBC = SCD , SAB = SDE .
:
tg

0.577

/6

SAB

Q 3

SBC

SCD

SDE

Q 3

3. . .
bC

6
B b

?
Q

SAB

bD

E -x
SDE

. 13
, , , ..
(. 13). x
, SAB = SDE .
:

X
3
Yi = 3Q SAB cos 30 SDE cos 30 = 3Q + 2Q 3
= 0.
2
.
. - , . . .

25

1.2.

P .
( ) 1, 2, 3 ( ).
b

1.

 c

~
Q

2.

30

3 b

P = 90 , Q = 30 .

4.

60

P~
2

c 3

P = 80 , Q = 160 .

5.

c?

?
cP

45

P = 45 , Q = 20 .

~
?
Q

60

6.

P = 40 , Q = 50 .

c 3b
6
~
Q

~
Q
?

P = 70 , Q = 240 .

3.

45

c 3
6
~
Q

~
Q
?
c

30

2
1

c3 P~

P = 50 , Q = 60 .

26

1.
b

7.
c

30

1
2

c


45

P = 30 , Q = 40 .

10.

2
45

 c

~
P

~
Q

P = 90 , Q = 110 .

c3

30

~
Q

9.

8.

45

60

~
Q
?

3
30

~
Q
?

P = 100 , Q = 270 .

P = 20 , Q = 10 .

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

tg

0.589
2.000
0.577
0.962
1.250
0.623
1.078
1.732
1.741
1.732

0.533
1.107
0.524
0.766
0.896
0.557
0.823
1.047
1.049
1.047

S1

S2

S3

137.852
67.082
277.128
103.923
32.016
57.735
65.885
20.000
271.017
17.321

140.000
42.426
160.000
72.111
28.284
58.900
80.692
34.641
190.919
10.000

121.244
30.000
138.564
51.962
20.000
31.132
77.836
17.321
190.919
17.321

, ,
. c. 21.

27

1.3.

1.3
.
, , , , .
, .

, , , (
), ,
.
1. , .
.
2. ,
. .
, ,
, . ,
.
3.
, ,
.
4. .
.3 . AB
,
F = 5 (. 14), CD,
A.
, .
b

AC = 2 , CB = 1
Ab

. 14

2.29 .. .

45

B
~
?
F

28

1.

1. , . .
AB : F~ ,
~
~ D CD.
RA A R
~
RD . CD, C D (
). CD .
A .
~D R
~ A O (. 15). , AO
F~ , R
~ A . R
~D
R
~
RA , . 15 ,
.
O
C1

Ab

~
?
F

. 15
2. C . ,
, , , ,
~D R
~ A , .
F~ , R
~A
R

 

)


RA
RD

~
F

~D
R

~
F

?
. 16

. 17


~D
R

F~
?


)R

~A

. 18

, F~ (. 16).
F~ , ~D R
~ A.
R
3.
F~ , -

29

1.3.

, .
,
.
, (. 17
, . 18 ).
.
(. 19).
4.
. . ( ) F
. .
O


 ~
)
RA

~D
R
a
C

r D
B
~
?
F

. 19
, . . 15 . . ,
: ,
(, ..), . , , CC1 . 1 O, (. 15,
17). .
CC1 O:

OB = CB = 1 , OC = 2CB = 2 = 1.414 .
4AOB 4ACC1
AC1 /AO = AC/AB = CC1 /OB.

: AO = AB 2 + OB 2 = 10, AC1 = 2 10/3,


C1 O = 10/3 = 1.054 , CC1 = (2/3) OB = 0.667 .
4CC1 O ,
F/CC1 = RA /C1 O = RD /CO.

30

1.

:
RA = F C1 O/CC1 = 7.901 , RD = F CO/CC1 = 10.607 .
.
, G
P , B (
) ,
A. , ( ).
.
1.

2.

C ~
B -P
Ab

30

P~
C B b

bA

4.
bD

30

Bb

bD

bA
~
CP

6.

~
?
P

bD

45

P =40 , AB=AD, AC=BC

5.
C

~
P
C -

P = 30 , AB=BC

Ab

Bb

P = 20 , AB=BD=CB

P = 10 , AC = 60

3.

Ab

40

C
~
P

B
30

P = 25 , 3AC = 4CB

Ab

bB

60

P = 35 , AB=BC=CA

31

1.3.
b

7.
D

8.

bB

60

G = 45 , 2AB = BC

6
P~

A b

Bb

30

P =10 , BD=3AD=3DC.

9.

10.
~
CP
A b

30

~
C P

bB

B b

30

P = 90

30

60

bA

P = 70

1
2
3
4
5

RA
9.600
28.284
69.282
28.284
16.496

RB
6.210
20.000
45.826
28.284
13.521

6
7
8
9
10

RA
34.999
90.000
4.226
103.923
46.667

RB
60.621
55.769
8.695
187.350
61.734


1. , (.15), (, ), (. 17,
18) (, ).
AO, CO BO .
2. . .
3. .
, , ,
A .

32

1.


,
,
.

. Maple V c. 13.

2.1
. . . ,
.

1. , . . .
33

34

2.

( ),
, . .
2. , Gk = lk , lk ,
( , ).
3. , ,
.
.
4. x y.

( ).
5. ,
- , .
.
A H. P = 20 , Q = 10 M = 100 . : = 60 ,
= 60 , = 50 , AB = 2 , BC = 4 , CD = 6 , DH = 4 , KC = 2
(. 20). = 4 /,
.
Hb

- P~
D

~
Q

K )


M
6

. 20

bA

1. . (. 21).
A. A RA
XA YA . H , (..
).

35

2.1.

2. (
) , Gk = lk ,
lk , k = 1, ..., 4 AB, BC, CD DH,
.
y

 RH

-P

Q sin

6
K -

? D

5.196

GDH

Q cos

GDC

3.464
C


M
6
?

GBC

3.464

6A
A -XA

GAB
2

. 21
3. A, :
X
MA = MA (RH ) + MA (P ) + MA (Q) + MA (Gk ) + M = 0.
(1)
MA (RH )
MA (RH ) = RH h = RH ((HD + CB) sin cos +

+ (HD cos + DC + CB cos + AB) sin ),

h RH .
P Q MA (Gk ) :
MA (P ) = P (N D + CB) sin = 103.923 ,

MA (Q) = Q cos CB sin Q sin (KC + CB cos + AB) =


= 69.282 ,
MA (Gk ) = GDH ((N D + CB) cos + DC + AB)+
+ GDC (DC/2 + CB cos + AB)+

+ GCB (CB/2 cos + AB) + GAB AB/2.

36

2.

GAB = 2 4 = 8 , GBC = 4 4 = 16 ,
GDC = 6 4 = 24 , GDH = 4 4 = 16 ,

MA (Gk ) = 400 .
(1)
13.856RH 103.923 69.282 + 400 + 100 = 0.

RH =

326.795
= 23.584 .
13.856

4. XA YA :
P
Xi = XA + Q cos + RH cos = 0,

XA = 36.792 ,
P
Yi = YA GAB GBC GDC GDH + Q sin + RH sin = 0,
YA = 34.915 .

. , .
P
MA (Q)

MA (P )

69.282 103.923

MA (Gk )
400

XA

YA

RH

13.856 36.792 34.915 23.584

5. . ,
, , , , K. , , Q
( ),
P
MK = RH 3.464 cos RH 6 sin P 1.732 + M + GDH 5+
+ GDC 1 GBC 3 GAB 5 + YA 6 + XA 3.464 = 0.

. A H. P , Q M .
, .

37

2.1.
1.

C
~
P

Ab

M

6

bH
b

2.
~
P

Ab

@
~@
Q
R

M

6

bH
b

3.
C

4.

@
~@
Q
R

P~

Hb
b

@
~@
R
Q

M

6

bA

B
K

C
P~

bH
b

bA

5.
B
~
P
N
C

6.
B

~
P

D
M

6

@
~@
R
Q

N
C

b
bH

= 3 /, P = 8 ,
Q = 13 , M = 70 ,
= 60 , = 45 , = 60 ,
HB = 3 , BC = 6 ,
CD = 10 , DA = 6 ,
CK = 2 , CN = 3 .
= 1 /, P = 6 ,
Q = 14 , M = 30 ,
= 60 , = 45 , = 30 ,
AB = 4 , BC = 7 ,
CD = 13 , DH = 4 ,
CK = 2 , CN = 3 .

bA
M

6

= 3 /, P = 8 ,
Q = 16 , M = 70 ,
= 60 , = 45 , = 60 ,
HB = 6 , BC = 6 ,
CD = 11 , DA = 4 ,
CK = 2 , CN = 3 .

M

6

~
Q

~
Q

= 2 /, P = 6 ,
Q = 12 , M = 50 ,
= 60 , = 30 , = 45 ,
AB = 4 , BC = 4 ,
CD = 10 , DH = 6 ,
CK = 2 , CN = 2 .

= 2 /, P = 7 ,
Q = 15 , M = 50 ,
= 60 , = 45 , = 45 ,
AB = 5 , BC = 4 ,
CD = 14 , DH = 6 ,
CK = 2 , CN = 2 .

bA
bH
b

= 1 /, P = 5 ,
Q = 11 , M = 30 ,
= 60 , = 30 , = 30 ,
AB = 5 , BC = 6 ,
CD = 8 , DH = 6 ,
CK = 2 , CN = 3 .

38

2.
7.
K

~
M 
Q
6

Ab
B

8.

M 6


Ab

10.

Q

M 
6

Q

Ab

M 
6
B

P~
N D

b
H
b

C
P~
N -

b
H

9.
b
H

~
Q

Ab

C
~
P
N D

D
bH

b
~
P
N C

= 1 /, P = 7 ,
Q = 17 , M = 30 ,
= 60 , = 60 , = 30 ,
AB = 4 , BC = 11 ,
CD = 6 , DH = 6 ,
BK = 3 , CN = 3 .
= 2 /, P = 8 ,
Q = 18 , M = 50 ,
= 60 , = 60 , = 45 ,
AB = 6 , BC = 10 ,
CD = 6 , DH = 5 ,
BK = 3 , CN = 3 .
= 3 /, P = 9 ,
Q = 19 , M = 70 ,
= 60 , = 60 , = 60 ,
HB = 7 , BC = 11 ,
CD = 4 , DA = 4 ,
BK = 3 , CN = 2 .
= 2 /, P = 8 ,
Q = 20 , M = 50 ,
= 60 , = 60 , = 45 ,
AB = 6 , BC = 8 ,
CD = 4 , DH = 3 ,
BK = 2 , CN = 2 .

MA (Q)
1 104.500
2
84.000
3
18.385
4
74.862
5
26.136
6
85.259
7
44.167
8
46.765
9
131.636
10
138.564

MA (P )

12.990
10.392
27.215
20.785
12.124
6.928
6.062
20.785
15.588
27.713

k MA (Gk )
243.5
468.0
487.5
104.3
187.0
754.5
251.5
487.0
281.3
313.0

8.696
13.107
14.258
4.464
9.571
9.526
6.500
7.778
9.526
12.538

XA
34.901
30.914
22.341
28.795
5.480
41.750
34.704
44.868
24.027
23.455

YA

12.963
27.478
47.561
23.526
38.307
3.112
20.820
23.720
51.973
19.225

RH
35.074
37.508
42.298
28.746
12.850
76.873
41.805
64.867
49.054
7.714

2.2. .

39


1. .

.
2. , . , ,
.
3. ()

, . ( ",
"). ,
, .
4. , ( ).
,
, .
5.
. , RH , ,
, , .
, ? .
6. ,
. .

2.2 .
.
. .
1 .
1.1,

,
1

(1826-1906) .

40

2.

. , , , , , -,
( 6.1, c. 139), -,
,
, , .
, , ,
.
.

1. . . .
2. ,
.
3. , ,
2. ,
( ).
,
, .
( ,
). ,
, ( ).
. .
,
,
,
.
. ,
.
4. ( 1.1).
,
. ,
2

, .

41

2.2. .

.
. .
,
.
.
(. 22). P = 90 Q = 40 F = 38 , = 55 ,
= 15 . 15.
b

~
Q
*

b

1
2

b
2

3
~

P
?

b
A
A
F~ U
A 3

P
?
2

b
aa

. 22

1. . . ()
XA , YA , ()
YB (. 23).

x 3 :
P

Xi = XA + F cos + Q cos = 0,
MA = 2 P + 2 Q sin 4 Q cos 5 F sin 8 P + 10 YB = 0,

MB = 8 P 8 Q sin 4 Q cos + 5 F sin + 2 P 10 YA = 0.


, ,
YA = 81.827 , YB = 118.948 , XA = 60.433 .
2. , 3

y YA YB .

42

2.

y:
P
Yi = YA P + Q sin F sin P + YB =

= 81.827 90 + 40 sin 15 38 sin 55 90 + 118.948 = 0.

XA ,
, D.
3. 1, 2, 3. II (. 23) ,
. .
I
~
Q
*



b

1

2
~A
X
-b

6
~
Y

3
~
P

I
3

b
Cb

A
~A
F
UA 3

Db

II

~ II
P
?2

b
6
~
Y

. 23
(. 24),
~ A, Y
~A , P~ , Q
~ ,
X
. R1 , R2 , R3
~1 , S
~2 , S
~3 .
S
,
.
R2 1.
, 1 :
tg = 1/3.

43

2.2. .
Q
*


M
b

PP
PP
q R3
S1 P

S2

XA- b

R1
6
YA
2

S3
b 45 -

R2

12

. 24

P
MR1 = 4 S1 cos 4 Q cos 2 YA = 0,
P
MR2 = 12S2 cos 45 4Q cos 12Q sin + 12 P 14 YA = 0,
P
MR3 = 3 S3 1 Q cos 3 Q sin + 3 P 5 YA + 3 XA = 0.

: S1 = 83.854 , S2 = 40.584 ,
S3 = 130.04 .
4. S4 . C
(. 23) y (. 25),
:
X
Yi = S4 F sin = 0, S4 = 31.128 .

y
S4

6
S3 

Cb

A
A
F U
A

. 25

S6

S7 b



4
S8


S9 b

R7
6
YB

y
D
b



)
S10

S7
-

?
S5

. 26

. 27

, , 4 .
5 ,
. .

44

2.

. S5
D. . S7 . IIII (. 23)
(. 26). S7
R7 :
X
MR7 = S7 4 + YB 2 = 0.
S7 = 59.474 . , S8
,
y.
D (. 27):
X
X
Xi = S7 S10 cos = 0,
Yi = S5 S10 sin = 0.
S10 ,

S10 = S7 / cos , S5 = S10 sin = S7 tg = 19.825 .


:
XA

YA

YB

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

60.433 81.827 118.948 83.854 40.584 130.04 31.128 19.825

.
.
P Q F . .
15.
~
b
+ Q

1.
b

b
aa

b
3

2.

A
?
P~ F
~ U
A
2

?
P~

2
2

P = 2 , Q = 9 , F = 9 ,
= 60 , = 30 .

3~

b Q

b
2
b 3 b4
A
?
P~ F
~ U
A
1

b
3

b
b5

?
P~
3

b
b
aa

2
1

P = 2 , Q = 8 , F = 10 ,
= 60 , = 15 .

45

2.2. .
3.

b
aa

~
 1 Q
b
+
b

~
?
P
2

b
A
F~ U
A

b
b

4.
1

b
aa

2
3

~
?
P
2

3~

b Q

?
P~

b
A
F~ U
A

2
3

~
?
P
2

~
b
+ Q

b
A
F~ U
A

?
P~
2

b
b
aa

2
3

~
?
P
2

b
b4
A
F~ U
A

?
P~
3

b
aa

2
2

?
P~

b
b

b
A
F~ U
A

1
2

P = 8 , Q = 5 , F = 20 ,
= 45 , = 30 .

1
2

b
aa

b
b

1
2

?
P~
2

P = 6 , Q = 6 , F = 4 ,
= 45 , = 15 .

~
?
P

?
P~

~
?
P

~
b
+ Q

b
A
F~ U
A

b
aa

~
?
P

2
2

P = 8 , Q = 3 , F = 7 ,
= 30 , = 30 .

10.
b
b5

3~

b Q

8.

~
 Q
b
+

P = 7 , Q = 7 , F = 5 ,
= 60 , = 15 .

9.

b
A
F~ U
A

P = 4 , Q = 4 , F = 2 ,
= 30 , = 45 .

6.

P = 5 , Q = 5 , F = 3 ,
= 45 , = 45 .

7.

b
aa

~
?
P

P = 3 , Q = 7 , F = 1 ,
= 60 , = 45 .

5.

~
b
+ Q

~
?
P
2

b
aa

1
2
3

3~

b Q
4

b
A
F~ U
A

?
P~
3

1
2

P = 3 , Q = 6 , F = 15 ,
= 45 , = 45 .

46

2.

XA
YA
RB
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
1
3.294 4.129 12.165 1.880 9.891 16.118 5.665 2.129
2 12.727 2.563 8.027 14.552 28.897 41.136 8.660
8.027
3
4.450 4.423 7.393
0.022
1.016 4.084 0.866 3.000
4
1.096 2.375 9.453 2.938
8.157 4.000 3.525
1.583
5 5.657 7.942 0.644 0.429
6.161 3.927 2.121 3.333
6 8.624 1.305 11.971 0.870
6.640 4.799 2.485 11.971
7
4.261 12.776 7.366 6.388 7.219 6.458 6.602
7.000
8 3.464 19.485 1.515 16.971 26.257 3.206 3.500 0.742
9 9.812 14.272 18.370 9.515 41.577 51.690 7.870
8.000
10 14.849 5.477 6.886
2.000 5.496 1.886 10.607 1.826


1. :
.

.
.

. ,
, N > 3 .
N 1 (,
).
2. . . 4, . 16
AB (?). , .
3. ,
.
.
4. , , - . .
5. ( )
. . .
, , , -

2.3. .

47

.
, . , ,
,
.
6.
. .
(
)
.
7. .
Maple V c. 139.

2.3 .
. 4
.

, .
.
- .
1. .
2. . . . .
3. ,
.
4. , ( ), .
, .
.
5.
, .
6. ,
.
4 (18311879) , , . (18301903) .

48

2.

7.
( ) .
8. . ( ). . ,
, .
..
.
9. . , , , .
, , ,
. , ,
. ,
.
.
10. . ,
- .
. , .
, , .
, .. .
b
b
 b
~
Q

A b

F~

P
?

bB
b

. 28
. (. 28). Q = 15 , P = 30 , F = 20 ,

49

2.3. .
= 60 , = 60 . .

1. ,
. (
) O1 , ..., O4 , () D1 , ..., D4 ,
U1 , U2 , U3 (. 29).
~
Q


O1

~A
X
-b

6
~A
Y

b
U1

O2
D1

D2

O3
D3

U2

D4

O4

U3
~

P
?

~
F

~B
R

. 29
~ B
2. . R
, .. (. 29).
:
P
Xi = XA Q + F cos + RB cos = 0,
P
MA = Q 2 F 2 sin + RB 8 sin P 6 = 0,
P
MB = Q 2 + F 6 sin YA 8 + P 2 = 0.

XA = 8.32 , YA = 24.24 , RB = 26.65 .


3. , :
X
Yi = YA F sin P + RB sin = 0.
4. , . XA ,
,
(. 30). |XA | =
= 8.32 .
5. , , , D, E, G, H, I (. 31).
, A, B, Q, P , F ,
.

50
~
Q

2.

8.32
 b

~
P

~
F

24.24

26.65

. 30
6. K, L, M , N , R (. 31).
~
Q

E
8.32
 b

D 6
24.24

G
L

~
F

26.65

P
?

. 31
7.
( ) .
.
F

Q XA YA RB O1 O2 O3 O4 D1 D2

D3

D4 U1 U2 U3

IC HI EG DE CD GH EK GK GN GR KL LM M N N R KC M I RH

8. . . , , F = 20 .
,
i c, I
C.
YA = 24.24 . c F .
d. ,
. P = 30 , HI. i (. 32).
9. . , , , . ,
R, H G

51

2.3. .

, K E C (. 31).
K. EK KC e c .
k (. 33). ek kc
.
`
h
h

RB

`
g

P
e XA

Q
g

YA

. 32

l`

`
g
k `

`i

`i

. 34

. 33

`c

l`

`c

e`

k `

e`

`
g
k`

e`

`i

`c

. 35

. 3437 l, m,
n r.
. , r nr
gr, rh. RH, .. ,
. ,
. ,
.

52

2.
`

n`

l`

`
g

r`

e`

`i

k`

n`

l`

e`

`i

k `

`c

. 36

`
g

`c

. 37

10. . , , O1 .
, O1 .

U1 . , (. 38).
,
(. 39). (
)
.
e

~1
 O


8.32




6

~1
U
-

24.24

. 38

. 39

cdek YA =
= 24.24 (cd), XA = 8.32 (de).
, , . O1 (ek) ,
. . , U1 > 0.
. ,

53

2.3. .

,
.
:

O1

O2

O3

O4

D1

D2

D3

D4

U1

U2

U3

27.10 9.24 23.08 25.80 27.10 9.79 9.79 25.80 20.45 29.49 24.87

1. , , .
, , , , ,
5 .
2. ,
. ,
,
.
3. ,

Maple V, Maple 7, Mathematica
4 , .
.
.

. ,
P , F Q. ,
. , .

Maple V c. 139.

54

2.
b Q-

1.

~
?
P
2

b
A
~ U
F
A

~
?
P
2

b Q-

b
b
b
A
~ U
F
A
1

~
?
P
2

b Q-

b
b

~
?
P
1

b
b

b Q-

~
?
P
1

b
A
F~ U
A

P = 4, F = 2, Q = 6,
= 50 , = 45 .

b Q-

6.
2

b1
A
~ U
F
A

~
?
P
1

b
A
~ U
F
A
2

P = 6, F = 3, Q = 6,
= 60 , = 45 .

8.

P = 2, F = 4, Q = 3,
= 65 , = 45 .

~
?
P
1

P = 5, F = 1, Q = 7,
= 55 , = 45 .
7.

b
A
~ U
F
A

4.

P = 2, F = 5, Q = 3,
= 40 , = 30 .

P = 3, F = 8, Q = 4,
= 45 , = 30 .

5.

b Q~

P = 1, F = 10, Q = 1,
= 35 , = 30 .
3.

b Q-

2.

b 1
A
~ U
F
A

b Q~

~
?
P
2

P = 3, F = 6, Q = 4,
= 70 , = 60 .

b
1

b1
A
~ U
F
A
1

55

2.3. .
b Q-

9.

10.

?
P~
1

b
1

b
A
~ U
F
A

b Q-

?
P~
2

b
b
A
~ U
F
A
1

b
2

P = 5, F = 9, Q = 7,
= 35 , = 30 .

P = 4, F = 7, Q = 6,
= 75 , = 60 .

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

XA
18.158
13.820
13.348
9.552
15.772
16.830
3.815
5.527
10.075
28.705

YA
1.559
1.178
6.525
3.266
2.379
0.732
6.500
9.548
6.841
1.887

RB
10.354
8.071
4.263
3.205
11.595
13.195
1.238
1.050
4.527
16.550

,

U1
19.197
14.998
1.560
0.000
14.186
16.586
0.000
0.384
4.000
3.333

U2
22.055
14.058
0.298
0.532
12.875
12.366
2.875
5.203
4.916
19.195

U3
11.555
11.025
6.823
6.286
0.027
1.098
1.935
3.586
4.877
27.446

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

O1
1.874
1.667
3.014
3.205
2.860
0.772
1.238
1.286
5.657
6.009

O2
O3
O4
D1
D2
4.172 5.177 5.788 3.459 2.100
1.700 5.820 5.707 0.333 2.120
4.263 10.318 9.228 3.014 1.228
4.532 0.841 4.619 3.205 2.452
8.280
2.363 0.984 2.660 3.941
6.536
5.196 3.674 1.407 6.597
1.384
5.732 5.127 0.619 3.447
1.819
8.915 7.974 1.286 5.529
8.000
1.672 4.712 5.657 4.018
0.452 3.411 2.268 5.838 3.821

D3
0.625
2.893
3.386
2.828
8.583
9.521
6.629
9.516
5.329
2.456

D4
5.788
1.141
4.614
4.995
2.560
3.674
2.563
3.987
3.597
3.565

56

2.

2.4

. , . .
, .

, , .
,
.
1-
1. .
.
.
2. , ,
.
3. . .
4. , () .
2-
1. .
.
.
2. , ,
. .
3. . .
4. , () .
. , C . M = 100 , P = 20 Q = 10 . = 4 /, (. 40). : = 60 ,
= 50 , AB = 4 , BC = 6 , CD = 4 , DE = 2 , KC = 2 ,
AN = N B.

57

2.4.

1-
1. . (. 4142).
.
b
A
N

- P~

~
Q

) C
K
b

M

6

bE

. 40

A XA YA , E XE
YE . C
. 3- , XC YC
.
YA 6
A -XA
3.464 N

-P

YC
Q sin 6

K -XC
Q cos

GAB

GBC

X
C C

M

6
?

YC

GCD

YE
6

3.464

E -XE

GDE
2

. 41

. 42

, , (
) XA , YA , XE , YE ,
XC , YC .
2. :
X ()
Xi
= XA + P + Q cos + XC = 0,
(1)

58

2.

Yi() = YA + Q sin + YC GAB GBC = 0,

(2)

MC()
= XA AB sin YA (AB cos + BC)
i
P NB sin Q KC sin +

+ GAB (NB cos + BC) + GBC (BC/2) = 0;


X

()

Xi

(3)
(4)

= XC + XE = 0,

()

Yi
= YC + YE GCD GDE = 0,
X ()
MCi
= XE CD sin + YE (DE + CD cos ) + M

GDE (DE/2 + CD cos ) GCD (CD/2) cos = 0.

(5)

(6)
3. (16) XA , YA , XE ,
YE , XC , YC .
( 2.1). .
, , (16) .
G = L, L
.
GAB = 4 4 = 16 , GBC = 4 6 = 24 ,
GCD = 4 4 = 16 , GDE = 4 2 = 8 .
(16) :
1
0
0
0
1
0
3.464 8
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0 3.464

0
0
0
0
1
4

1
0
0
1
0
0
1 0
0 1
0
0

XA
26.428
YA
32.339
XE
134.038
=
.
YE
0
XC
24
YC
60

59

2.4.
:
XA
73.202

YA
14.943

XE
99.630

YE
71.282

XC
99.632

YC
47.281

4. ,
() (. 43):
P

ME()
= YA ((AB + CD) cos + BC + DE) + M
i

P (N B + CD) sin XA (AB + CD) sin

Q CD sin cos Q(KC + CD cos + DE) sin +

+ GAB ((N B + CD) cos + BC + DE)+


+ GBC (BC/2 + CD cos + DE)+

+ GCD ((CD/2) cos + DE) + GDE (DE/2) = 0,


(7)
P

MA()
i

= YE ((AB + CD) cos + BC + DE) + M +


+ P AN sin + XE (AB + CD) sin +
+ Q AB sin cos + Q (BK + AB cos ) sin
GDE (DE/2 + (AB + CD) cos + BC)

GCD ((AB + CD/2) cos + BC)

GBC (BC/2 + AB cos ) GAB (AB/2) cos = 0.


YA 6
A

-XA
-P

Q sin

3.464

6
K - bC

Q cos

5.2 GAB

GBC

M

6

GCD
2

. 43

YE
6
E -XE

GDE
?
2

3.464
x

(8)

60

2.

2-
1. . (. 4142).
.
2. C c (3) (6).
c (7,8) A E.
3. (3,6,7,8) , , :
(3) (7) XA YA (6) (8) XE YE .
4. , () (. 43):
P

Xi() = XA + P + Q cos + XE = 0,
Yi() = YA + Q sin GAB GBC + YE GCD GDE = 0.

. , C . M , P Q.
, .
Cb
N

1.
Ab

2.
Ab

P~
B

3.
P~
Ab

aa

@
~@
Q
R

Cb
N

Cb

@
~@
Q
R

~
P

@
~@
R
Q

La


M
6

P = 4 , Q = 1 , M = 3 ,
= 1 /, = 60 , = 30 ,
AB = 5 , BC = 4 , CD = 9 ,
DE = 6 , CN = 2 , CK = 2 .

P = 5 , Q = 1 , M = 3 ,
= 2 /, = 60 , = 30 ,
AB = 4 , BC = 6 , CD = 9 ,
DE = 6 , CN = 3 , CK = 2 .
LD = 2

bE

M

6
bO
bE
aa

M = 9 ,

M P = 7 , Q = 2 ,
6

= 3 /, = 60 , = 45 ,
AB = 3 , BC = 7 , CD = 10 ,
DE = 4 , CN = 3 , CK = 2 .

2.4.
4.
B
P~
N
C b

bA ~
Q
K

 N
C

7.

Ob

~
Q

6. B
~
P
N

bA

P~

6
M

5.

bE

~
Q

aa
bA

Ab
b
~
M 
6Q O

]
J
J a
KL

K
9. B

~
M
6  Q
A

10.
B

M
6

P~
N -

bC

8.

D
Eb

Ab ~
Q
M 
]
6 J
J
B
K


M
6

E a ba

P~
N -

bC

bC

P~
N -

E a ba

@
R
@
~
Q

bC

~
P
N

P = 5 , Q = 2 , M = 5 ,
= 1 /, = 60 , = 45 ,
AB = 4 , BC = 4 , CD = 14 ,
DE = 6 , CN = 2 , CK = 2 .

a a E P = 7 , Q = 2 , M = 6 ,
b
= 2 /, = 60 , = 60 ,


M
6
AB = 5 , BC = 6 , CD = 13 ,

61

b
a aE

DE = 4 , CN = 3 , CK = 2 .
LD = 2

P = 8 , Q = 3 , M = 9 ,
= 3 /, = 60 , = 60 ,
AB = 6 , BC = 4 , CD = 12 ,
DE = 4 , CN = 2 , CK = 2 .
P = 7 , Q = 3 , M = 9 ,
= 1 /, = 60 , = 75 ,
AB = 4 , BC = 11 , CD = 6 ,
DE = 6 , CN = 3 , BK = 3 .
P = 8 , Q = 3 , M = 9 ,
= 2 /, = 60 , = 75 ,
AB = 6 , BC = 11 , CD = 4 ,
DE = 5 , CN = 2 , BK = 3 .
LC = 7 .

P = 9 , Q = 4 , M = 9 ,
= 3 /, = 60 , = 75 ,
AB = 4 , BC = 11 , CD = 7 ,
DE = 4 , CN = 3 , BK = 3 .

P = 6 , Q = 4 , M = 9 ,
= 3 /, = 60 , = 30 ,
AB = 6 , BC = 7 , CD = 6 ,
DE = 3 , CN = 3 , BK = 2 .

62

2.

XA

YA

1 11.062
8.270
2
4.134
9.499
3

9.779
4 14.529
18.835
5
6.000 5.005
6

1.964
7 10.323
4.504
8 7.224 12.671
9 7.965 144.598
10 9.464
59.348

XE
YE
SOL
MA
ME

7.928
16.230

50.005 91.006

5.586
63.635

376.867
10.943
7.751

188.232 247.505

6.500
77.366

684.804
16.547
19.598

5.619 67.392

62.735

1559.959

8.652

415.158

,
1. E 3,6
A 9?
. , , XE
YE ME .
2. ?
( )
, . ,
, .
3. ?
,

(2+2+2). 3+2+1, 3+1+2
6 . ,
. ,

,
P ()
P ()
P ()
, ,
Xi
= 0,
Xi
= 0,
Xi
= 0,

.
4. , -
, , ?
, , , X Y ,
. 6 4,
.

2.5. C

63

. ,
, .


( ).

2.5 c
. ,

, .

1. .
.
, , .
2. qmax , , Q
(1/3 L , ). Q = qmax L/2.
3. q,
R 2,
Q = q 2R sin , ([19],
21).
4. .
5. . .
6. ,
() .
. ,
q1 = 10 / AB
q2 = 2 /,
CK O (. 44). AB = 3 ,
BC = 6 , DE = 4 , R = 5 , CK = R/3.

64

2.
C b

q1

30

O
q2

A b

. 44

bE

~ A, Y
~A , X
~ E, Y
~E .
1. X
. ,
(. 4546).
YC
6
XC XC bC
Cb 
O
30

YC ?

B
1

Q2

Q1

YA
6

2
A

-XA

YE
6
E -XE
5.196

. 45

. 46


, , ,
(
2.4, c. 57).
2. , , Q1 , AB/3 q1 (. 45).
Q1 AB q1 :
Q1 =

1
1
q1 AB = 10 3 = 15 .
2
2

65

2.5. C

3. q2 ,
CK,
Q2 = q2 2R sin

CK
2R

= 2 2 5 sin(/6) = 10 ,

6 KOC = 60 (. 47).
2R sin(/6) = CK, Q2 , CK,
q2 . , .
Q2 C
O
30

O. , O , - "
, .
Q2
K
CDE
O, , , Q2
. 47
.
4. :
P

Xi() = XA + XC Q1 = 0,

Yi() = YA + YC = 0,

MC()
= XA (AB + BC sin 30 ) YA BC cos 30
i
Q1 (AB/3 + BC sin 30 ) = 0,

()
Xi
= XE XC Q2 cos 30 = 0,
P ()
Yi
= YE YC Q2 sin 30 = 0,
P ()
MCi
= XE (DE + R) + YE R Q2 R sin 30

(1)

= 0.

5. (1) . :
XA
18.322

YA
9.609

XE
5.338

YE
4.609

XC
3.322

YC
9.609

6. -

66

2.

(. 48):
P

ME()
= XA (R + DE AB BC sin 30 )
i

YA (BC cos 30 + R) + Q1 (R + DE AB/3 BC sin 30 )+


+ Q2 cos 30 (R + DE) = 0,
P ()
MAi = XE (R + DE AB BC sin 30 )+

+ YE (BC cos 30 + R) + (2/3)Q1 AB


Q2 sin 30 (BC cos 30 + R) + Q2 cos 30 (AB + BC sin 30 ) = 0.

. ,
(c. 56). ,
, C.
(. 48).
C b
1

Q1

30

Q2

6A

2
A

-XA

6E
x
5.196

E -XE
5

. 48

A E.
. ,

q1
q2 , . CD
R
O.

2.5. C
1. A b

q1

30

2.
A

aa
bD

E
O a ba

q1

Cb

30

q1 = 11 /,
q2 = 5 /,
BC = 9 ,
DE = 5 .

q2

bE
aa

3.

30

4.
A b

Cb

q1

q1
B

Eb

q2

30

bE

5.
q1
B

30

q2

q1 = 8 /,
q2 = 7 /,
BC = 8 ,
DE = 6 .

R = 8 ,
AB = 8 ,
DK = R/3 ,

q1 = 11 /,
q2 = 6 /,
BC = 9 ,
DE = 5 .

R = 7 ,
AB = 6 ,
DK = R/6 ,

q1 = 11 /,
q2 = 5 /,
BC = 8 ,
DE = 6 .

R = 9 ,
AB = 7 ,
CK = R/4 ,

A b

R = 6 ,
AB = 6 ,
CK = R/6 ,

q2

A b

67

E
O a ba

q2

a a q = 9 /,
bD 1

q2 = 7 /,
BC = 9 ,
DE = 5 .

R = 6 ,
AB = 6 ,
CK = R/4 ,

68

2.
6.
30

Cb
K
O

A b

q1

R = 8 ,
AB = 7 ,
DK = R/6 ,

7.

K
B

8.

q1 = 11 /,
q2 = 4 /,
BC = 8 ,
b E DE = 6 .

q2

q2

Eb

30

A b

q1 = 9 /,
q2 = 8 /,
BC = 9 ,
DE = 5 .

q1

aa
bD

E
O a ba
A

q1

30

q1
30

q2

10.
B

30

Eb

A
C

q1 = 12 /,
q2 = 5 /,
BC = 9 ,
DE = 5 .

R = 7 ,
AB = 6 ,
DK = R/6 ,

q1 = 8 /,
q2 = 9 /,
BC = 9 ,
DE = 6 .

R = 7 ,
AB = 6 ,
CK = R/3 ,

q1 O

R = 6 ,
AB = 6 ,
CK = R/6 ,

A
b

q1 = 11 /,
q2 = 5 /,
BC = 9 ,
DE = 5 .

q2

9.

R = 7 ,
AB = 9 ,
DK = R/4 ,

q2

E
b
aa

2.6. ,

69

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

XA

YA

37.019
16.497
13.010
42.002
12.302
34.480
29.021
4.019
29.207
31.500

13.882
0.287
27.675
37.663
15.158
6.584
24.549
96.489
43.005
61.598

YD
XE
YE
MA

4.600

3.482

27.713 110.646

18.637
15.675

10.182 14.017

11.191

6.665

20.020
2.297

85.923
15.049

10.875

89.363

24.518
24.505

16.962 122.290

2.6 ,

. , , .

1.
. ,
,
.
2.
,
.
3. 11 11 .
4. , .
. ,
, C . B , D E ,
A . F = 40 , P = 20 , Q = 10
M1 = 100 , M2 = 30 (. 49); = 60 , = 30 .
.

70

2.


M1
6

bD
aa


P~

~
Q

- bC

~
F

Q
k
Q
Q


M2
6

b bA

bE
aa

. 49

1. ADC, CB, CE
C . ,

C,
(. 50).
Y

YD

6B


M1
6

X3 X

2 X
1 C
b

-X3


M2
6

XA- A
2

Q
k
Q
Q

Y2
6
1 X2
-C
C XY1 6
Y3
6

-XB

YE 4

6
E

F
-

?
Y1
?
Y2
?
Y3
. 50

2. (AC, BC, EC)

71

2.6. ,

C 7 . , C,
(. 50). :
P (AC)
Xi
= X1 P cos + XA = 0,
P (AC)
Yi
= Y1 P sin + YD = 0,
(1)
P (AC)
MC
= XA 4 YD 5 + M1 + P 4 cos = 0,
P

(BC)

Xi

= X2 Q cos + XB = 0,
(BC)
Yi
= Y2 + Q sin + YB = 0,
P (BC)
MC
= XB 4 + YB 6 + Q 6 sin
P

(2)
= 0.

(EC)

Xi

= X3 = 0,
(EC)
Yi
= Y3 + YE = 0,
P (EC)
MC
= YE 6 M2 =
P

(C)

Xi

(C)
Yi

(3)
0,

= X1 X2 X3 + F = 0,

(4)

= Y1 Y2 Y3 = 0.

4. 11 11 . :
XA

YD

XB

YB

YE

X1

Y1

X2

Y2

10.90 19.28 10.44 11.96 5.00 20.90 1.96 19.10 6.96

X3

Y3

5.00

5. , (. 51).
K ,
XA , YD , XB , YB , YE :
P ()
MK = XA 4 + YD 2 + M1 M2 + P cos 4
P sin 7 + Q sin 13 + YE 13 + YB 13 XB 4 = 0.
. . , , , ,
7 , .

72

2.

( CE, . 50), ,
(CE) .
.
y
YD

6B

6

M1
6


P

qK

QQ
k
Q


M2
6

XA- A
2

- bC

-XB x

YE 4

6
E

. 51
,
.
( )
.
. ( ),
, C . .
1.
~

Q
?
Ab

aa

Bb
2

~
F
6
bC

P

bE

M
6

3
1

P = 20 ,
Q = 30 ,
F = 70 ,
M = 100 ,
= 60 .

2.6. ,
2.
~
F

~
Q
?


M
6

bA
~

P

3.

Ab

~
F

~
6
Q

b
a aA

4.
~
Q
?

Bb

C
b?


P~
+

~
F

6
bC

b b
A

Q ~
sP
Q

12

P = 20 ,
Q = 40 ,
F = 70 ,
M = 125 ,
= 30 .

bE b
M 6

b b
D

2
2
3

P = 30 ,
Q = 50 ,
F = 90 ,
M = 175 ,
= 60 .

2
3
3
2

P = 20 ,
Q = 40 ,
F = 50 ,
M = 125 ,
= 30 .

] PD 2
J
Jb b
~

~
F
 bC
16

2
3

bE
M 
6

P
Da b
a a baB

~
Q

aa

Bb

P = 30 ,
Q = 40 ,
F = 60 ,
M = 75 ,
= 60 .

F~ - bC

6.

aa
bE

~
Q

Bb

b
a aB


M
6

5.

?
bC

bE

6
M


M
6

12

M 

6
bE
4

bA b

5
5
4

P = 30 ,
Q = 60 ,
F = 80 ,
M = 175 ,
= 60 .

73

74

2.
7.

A b

~
Q

8.

~ C
F

b

M
6

Bb

aa

P = 30 ,
Q = 60 ,
F = 90 ,
M = 225 ,
= 30 .

Q

2

bA b

~
F
- bC

Bb

~
Q

~
F

Bb

~
P

]
A b J
J
2

aa

bA

C
b?


M
6
bD
aa

C
b?


M
6
4

M

6
b
a aE

3
3

2
1
1

P = 30 ,
Q = 60 ,
F = 100 ,
M = 275 ,
= 60 .

P = 30 ,
Q = 70 ,
F = 90 ,
M = 50 ,
= 60 .

~
F

Q
6

M 
b6
a aE

P

10.

b Db

9.

bDb

~ b b
+

~ b
P
a aE

+


bB

2
1
1

P = 40 ,
Q = 60 ,
F = 90 ,
M = 100 ,
= 30 .

2.6. ,

75

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

XA

103.529
9.240

40.000
256.148
45.000
267.449
15.000
100.785

YA
XB
YB
XE
YE
XD
YD
30.000 74.785 97.177 64.785
9.856

47.500

37.500 88.529 84.019

44.620
8.080 74.620

10.000

100.000
22.500 15.000 29.286
114.195

42.679 10.000 41.667


151.667

10.938 154.505 36.918 256.643

10.000

25.000 45.000

55.981

1.276
4.575
30.556 213.724

50.514

25.000

16.667

41.838
19.215 66.144 49.215

20.000

,
1. ,
C?
.
2. , , A, D E 5?
. , , ,
. . .
3.
. , ?
. , c , .. ( ), .
aa
: b
aa
4. M .
() .
,
.

76

2.



3.1
. .
. ,
. , .

1. ,
. , .
N F = N f , f ,
.
2. .
,
( 2.4, 2.5). .
3. .
. 77

78

3.

,
.
. , C (. 52). B
f = 0.2, A .
M = 10 , Q = 10 = 60 .
. P , = 30 , .

(


M
6
bA

~

Q

bC

QQP~
k
Q
( Q

. 52

1. ,
B
, F~ (. 53). N
:
F = N f,
f = 0.2 .

(1)

79

3.1.
N


M
6


Q

F
? -

(

bC

Q
k
QP
Q
( Q

XA A

6YA

. 53
2. .
C AC CB. C XC , YC
(. 54). A
XA , YA .
N
F
B ? -

(


M
6


Q

P
YC
6
XC
-

C XC

Q
k
Q
Q
( Q

YC

XA A

6YA

. 54
N ,
, , F . ( 2.4, c. 62)
A (. 53)

80

3.

C :
P ()
MA = N 13 F 8 + M Q 7 sin +
+ Q 8 cos + P (4 cos + 13 sin ) = 0,
P ()
MC
= N 6 F 4 + P 6 sin = 0.

(2)

(2) (1) N , F , P .

N=

3P
3 + 2f
, P =
.
6 + 4f
0.978 + 0.746f

(3)

f = 0.2 P1 = 3.015 .
.
3. . B .
F~ . ,
F~ (2) , ,
(3) f . (3) f = 0.2, P2 = 3.136 . P1 P2
.
, , P f = 0. ,
(3) P1 < P = 3.066 < P2 .
(3) N , f = 0.2 N > 0,
. ,
Pmin P Pmax ,

Pmin = 3.015 , Pmax = 3.136 .


: N(min) = 1.330 , N(max) = 1.806 .
. N(min) < N(max) .
. . B f . P , ( ). .

81

3.1.
bB

1.
Cb

Q
~Q
s
Q

bD
aa

aa
bA

P~

4
3
3

Q = 30 ,
M = 10 ,
= 60 , = 30 ,
f = 0.3.

82

3.
2.
~
Q

bB

Cb

@
I
@

+~

bA

bD
aa

bB

Cb

Q Q
s~
Q
12

P~

4
6

Q = 60 ,
M = 40 ,
= 45 , = 30 ,
f = 0.1.

18

bB

5.

Ab

Q = 50 ,
M = 30 ,
= 60 , = 45 ,
f = 0.3.

12

4.

bA

P~

@
RQ

Q = 40 ,
M = 20 ,
= 30 , = 45 ,
f = 0.1.

10

3.
aa
Ab

20

Cb

~
Q

Cb

bB

Q
s
~Q

Q = 20 ,
M = 70 ,
= 30 , = 60 ,
f = 0.1.

83

3.1.
6.

J
~
J
^Q
M

bA

Cb

Cb

~
Q

 M bA


Cb

Q
s
~Q
bB
P

aa
bA

M
6


J
^
~J
P
bB

aa
b

~
Q

I
@
@
Cb

9.

Q
s
~Q

I
@
@

Q
s
~Q

Q = 20 ,
M = 70 ,
= 30 , = 60 ,
f = 0.1.

8.

M
7. A b aa 
b b

bB

bB
7

J
J
^ P~

2
4

Q = 30 ,
M = 80 ,
= 60 , = 30 ,
f = 0.07.

Q = 40 ,
M = 90 ,
= 30 , = 45 ,
f = 0.1.

Q = 50 ,
M = 100 ,
= 60 , = 45 ,
f = 0.3.

84

3.
10.



+
~
Q
bA


6M
b

14

~
P

@
I
@

bB

Q = 60 ,
M = 120 ,
= 45 , = 30 ,
f = 0.1.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Pmin
35.019
47.392
48.951
14.705
38.807
37.163
67.892
103.805
45.587
2.319

N(min)
28.238
22.726
36.266
66.891
18.191
19.446
61.674
49.694
41.872
18.121

Pmax
115.080
54.669
163.360
27.849
41.937
40.139
120.648
112.148
139.065
6.877

N(max)
105.197
27.028
154.415
54.217
22.466
19.216
99.826
58.682
113.924
16.740

3.2
. , . , , . ,
, ?
.
. . , M = N ,
N , ,
. , ,
. ,

85

3.2.

, ( ) .
,
.

1. . (, )
, , . , .
2. .
.
. .
,
. .
3. . ,
.
. G1 = 20 ,
G2 = 30 R = 50 ,
G3 = 40 .
, 1 , 2
.
'$
 bA
M

30
1
&%'$

bB 2

&%

~ 45
F

. 55

= 2 . 1
M . 2 F = 10
(. 55). M
?

86

3.

1. . ,
M , F . , 2,
(. 57).
M = N2 .
2. . (. 56, 57, 58).
F1 , N1 , F2 , N2 .
y
6
X
1
Ab
N1
N2
6
6
30
Y1
Y2
M'$
M
6
6
'$
Y1


?
X
2
XB
B
1
X
45
2
bA b
b
x
?
G
3
G1 F1
G2 F2
?
?
r
r
&%
&%

Y2
F
K1
K2
?
. 56

. 57

. 58

F1 F2
, ()
. X1 , Y1 , X2 , Y2 .
X1 , Y1 ,
N1 , X2 , Y2 , N2 , M ,
F1 F2 .
1 (. 56):
P (1)
Yi
= Y1 + N1 G1 = 0,
(1)
P (1)
M K1
= X1 R M = 0.
2 (. 57)
P (2)
Yi
= Y2 + N2 G2 F sin 45 = 0,
P (2)
M K2
= X2 R M + F cos 45 R = 0.

AB (. 58)
P ()
Xi
= X1 X2 = 0,
P ()
Yi
= Y1 Y2 G3 = 0,
P ()
MA
= X2 AB sin 30 Y2 AB cos 30
G3 (AB/2) cos 30 = 0.

(2)

(3)

87

3.2.
(13)

3R F R 2 (G3 + 2G2 + F 2)

M=
.
2
R 3+

(4)

R = 0.5 ,
= 0.002 . M = 3.414 . :
N1 = 36.058 , N2 = 61.013 .
, N1 > 0 N2 > 0, .
, , N 0
( ).
3. .
M . (. 59).
, ,
N
2
M 6
(2).
Y2
6
'$
M = N2 ,

45
X
M (4)
b
- 2
M ?

G2
?
r
-F
&%
F
. , ( 2
K2
) (13)
. 59
, , (4):

3R F R 2 + (G3 + 2G2 + F 2)

= 3.658 .
(5)
M=
2
R 3

: N1 = 35.776 ,
N2 = 61.295 . ,
1, ( ) 1
3.414 M 3.658.

1 , , F
1
F2 F1 = F1 < f N1 , F2 = F2 < f N2 ,
f .

88

3.

. G1
G2 R, G3 . ,
1 , 2 ().
M ?
1.

2
1


M
b
b F~

 
60

60

G1 = 10 , G2 = 23 , G3 =30 ,
F = 5 , R = 35 , = 3 .

3.

1

bM

2

30
b F~


G1 = 5 , G2 = 25 , G3 =10 ,
F = 30 , R = 65 , = 5 .

5.

2.

2
1


M
b
b F~



60
30

G1 = 25 , G2 = 29 , G3 =30 ,
F = 25 , R = 35 , = 1 .

2

b
-F~
1
30


b
M

45

G1 = 22 , G2 = 23 , G3 =50 ,
F = 10 , R = 50 , = 4 .

4.

2
1


M
b
b F~




60

30

G1 = 24 , G2 = 27 , G3 =20 ,
F = 20 , R = 50 , = 3 .

6.


b F~

1
M 30
b

 45
2

G1 = 21 , G2 = 26 , G3 =40 ,
F = 5 , R = 25 , = 2 .

89

3.2.
7.

2

b -F~
1


30
b
M


G1 = 22 , G2 = 24 , G3 =50 ,
F = 10 , R = 40 , = 3 .

9.

1

b
M
30
2


b - F~


8.

30

G1 = 23 , G2 = 24 , G3 =30 ,
F = 15 , R = 55 , = 4 .

10.

2
1


b
b -F~
M
 
45

30

G1 = 24 , G2 = 26 , G3 =50 ,
F = 20 , R = 70 , = 5 .

2

b
30
1


M
b



~
F

30

G1 = 25 , G2 = 28 , G3 =10 ,
F = 25 , R = 35 , = 1 .

2

N1

N2

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

64.058
36.095
30.366
53.078
59.996
93.257
9.591
32.909
40.326
25.330

74.888
53.526
47.532
42.872
87.567
140.078
54.537
47.861
69.191
38.168

2.841
11.279
4.896
4.308
8.371
3.211
16.585
0.703
10.516
5.984

2

N1

N2

66.315
36.352
29.638
52.565
60.499
100.988
10.413
32.909
41.303
25.507

77.145
54.023
47.111
42.576
88.438
148.699
55.012
47.461
67.500
38.042

3.297
10.799
4.622
4.456
8.675
4.326
16.395
1.143
9.333
5.922

90

3.


4.1
. , .

1.1, c. 15,

. ,
.
b

4
5

b
d

~
G

?
b
3

~
F

. 60
1. . ,
91

92

4.

.
. , ,

. , .
2. . .
. 16 ,
G = 100 F = 40 . a = 12 , b = 16 , c = 10 ,
d = 5 (. 60).

1. A B . ,
,
(. 61).
z

S5

S4

-y

S1

S6

c
S1

S2

S3

G?
. 61
1 ,
S1 .
A, B.
2. A,
.
:
P
Xi = S1 cos S2 cos S3 = 0,
P
Yi = S1 cos + F = 0,
(1)
P
Zi = S1 cos + S2 sin G = 0.

93

4.1.

(1) S1 , S2 , S3 .
, ,
c
a
sin =
= 0.640,
cos =
= 0.768,
2
2
2
a +c
a + c2
b
a
cos =
= 0.716, cos =
= 0.537,
2
2
2
2
a +b +c
a + b 2 + c2
c
cos =
= 0.447.
2
a + b 2 + c2
(1):
S1 = 55.902 , S2 = 117.154 , S3 = 120 .
, 1 2 ,
3 . B:
P
Xi = S1 cos + S5 sin = 0,
P
Yi = S1 cos S4 S5 cos S6 sin = 0,
(2)
P
Zi = S1 cos S6 cos = 0.

(2) S4 , S5 , S6 , S1
A.
:
a
d
sin =
= 0.923, cos =
= 0.385,
a2 + d2
a2 + d2
d
c
= 0.447, cos =
= 0.894.
sin =
2
2
2
d +c
d + c2
(2):
S4 = 65 , S5 = 32.5 , S6 = 27.951 .
, 5 6 ,
4 .
( ) :
S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

55.902

117.154

120.000

65.000

32.500

27.951

. 16
~ , G
~
F . .

94

4.
1.

~
G

b
b

F
b?

a = 2 , b = 3 ,
c = 4 , d = 3 ,
G = 2 , F = 1 .

a = 4 , b = 6 ,
c = 5 , d = 4 ,
G = 7 , F = 6 .

a = 5 , b = 4 ,
c = 3 , d = 2 ,
G = 4 , F = 2 .

a = 7 , b = 6 ,
c = 5 , d = 4 ,
G = 6 , F = 4 .

2.

~
G

b1
d

3.

6
5

b
~
G
~ ?
F
 b

5
2

4.
b

F~
?
b-

~
G

4
3

b
b

F~
?
b-

95

4.1.
5.

~
G

b
b

F~
5


b?

a = 2 , b = 3 ,
c = 4 , d = 3 ,
G = 8 , F = 5 .

a = 4 , b = 6 ,
c = 5 , d = 3 ,
G = 6 , F = 3 .

a = 5 , b = 4 ,
c = 3 , d = 1 ,
G = 8 , F = 4 .

6.
b
b

~
?
b F

~
G

7.
b

~
b?-F

~
G

8.

~
G

~
F
?
b6

a = 7 , b = 6 ,
c = 5 , d = 3 ,
G = 7 , F = 3 .

96

4.
9.

~
G

b
b
d

?
b
5

a = 2 , b = 3 ,
c = 4 , d = 2 ,
G = 9 , F = 8 .

a = 4 , b = 6 ,
c = 5 , d = 3 ,
G = 8 , F = 7 .

~
G

10.

F~
b?-

~
F
a

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

4.2

S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
0.000
4.000 4.472 2.000 2.693
1.500
11.325
5.000 16.008 7.211 8.964
1.600
5.333
6.667 7.775 6.667 9.428
7.333
32.249 26.034 28.674 6.146 10.323
3.733
0.000 10.000 11.180 5.000
6.000 10.000
5.831
3.202
2.500 3.606 8.500
3.202
4.079 5.657
2.400 4.000
0.000 8.000
0.000 5.244
2.500 4.610 4.500 4.301
19.596 17.889
0.000 8.000 10.062
4.500
13.606
7.470
5.833 8.413 8.000
4.667

. . .

1. - ~r0 .
2. ~ 0 = ~r0 F~ .
M

97

4.2.

~ 01.
x, y, z M0x , M0y , M0z M
. F~
(. 62); F = 20 , a = 6 , b = 11 , c = 8 .
x, y, z.
z

a
~
F

@
R
@

*@F~ c

R B
~r0 @

- 

~rB


x
. 62

. 63

1. - ~r0 (. 63): ~r0 = {a, b, c}.


2. :
~ 0 = ~r0 F~ =
M

~i
a
Fx

~j
b
Fy

~k
c ,
Fz

~i, ~j, ~k x, y, z. F~ , AB ,
~
~
F~ F~ = F AB/|AB|.
AB

~ = ~rB ~r0 = {a, 0, c}. |AB| = a2 + c2 .


AB

F
{a, 0, c}.
F~ =
2
a + c2
~ 0:
M0x , M0y , M0z M

M0x = bFz cFy = cbF/ a2 + c2 = 176 ,

M0y = cFx aFz = (caF + acF )/ a2 + c2 = 0,

M0z = aFy bFx = abF/ a2 + c2 = 132 .


1 F
~
2 + M2 + M2 .
M0x
0y
0z

: M0

98

4.

. ,
.
( ). ,
.
1.

2.

10

5
6

H
J H F~2 F~1
J HH
j
H
J
J
J
^
~J

4
6

* F~3

~2
F
:




F1 = 2, F2 = 2, F3 = 5.
4.

10
6
J
8
 J

J

J
~
F2
J

^
~3J
F


x

6
4









~1
F


x
6.

* F~3


F~2 

~1
F
?

6
X
y
XX F~1
X y

5
6

H
J H F~2 F~1
J HH
j
H
J
J
J
^
~J

F3


x
F1 = 1, F2 = 1, F3 = 2.

~3
F




10

F1 = 4, F2 = 5, F3 = 6.

 F~2


F1 = 3, F2 = 4, F3 = 6.
5.

F3

F~1

F1 = 1, F2 = 2, F3 = 4.
3.


x
F1 = 2, F2 = 2, F3 = 5.

99

4.3.
z

7.

6
J
 J
J

J


 F~2





J
^
~J
F3


~1
F

6


* F~3


 F~2 


F~1

F1 = 3, F2 = 3, F3 = 5.
z

9.
8

8.





F~2

F1 = 4, F2 = 4, F3 = 5.

10

10.

10


F~1

8
6

~3
F

X
y
X
XX
~1
F

 F~3
*
~
F2

F1 = 1, F2 = 2, F3 = 5.


:


F1 = 2, F2 = 3, F3 = 6.

M1x
M1y
M1z
M2x
M2y
M2z
M3x
M3y
M3z
1
0.000 0.000 10.000 0.000
0.000 12.494
0.000 0.000
0.000
2
6.000 0.000
0.000 4.685
3.748 0.000 10.607 8.485
0.000
3
0.000 0.000 30.000 0.000 19.200 0.000 25.456 20.365
0.000
4 40.000 32.000
0.000 0.000 24.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000
5
5.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
2.400 0.000
4.243 0.000 5.657
6
6.000 0.000
0.000 4.685
3.748 0.000 10.607 8.485
0.000
7
0.000 0.000 15.000 0.000
7.200 0.000 10.607 8.485
0.000
8 20.000 16.000
0.000 0.000
9.600 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000
9
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000 9.600 0.000 21.213 0.000 28.284
10 12.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 18.741
0.000 0.000
0.000

4.3
. . , . .

.

100

4.


1. , , .
2. . ,
.. ( )
, . ,
.
3. . ,
.
.
4. ,
.
5. . ,
.
6. , .
. G = 15
A B (. 64). 1
N F = 0.1N .
T~1


*

3




 2
z
Q
T~2
c
6 ~



F # B pb
6
b
~
N
1
-

a
 "!
-x


A bp

. 64

2 T1 = 30 , T2 = 57 .
Q = 18 , 3.
N .
: P1 = 35 , P2 = 10 , P3 = 15 .
. ,

101

4.3.

R1 = 26 , R2 = 10 , R3 = 11 : a = 22 , b = 25 , c = 26 , d = 26 .
L = a + b + c + d; =30 .

1. A B ZA ,
~ .
XA ZB , XB (. 65). G
~
Q.
T~1


*

3


z0


~
6
~
Q
z
~B G  2
??
Z
~3 c
6
T~2 P
6 ~

F# B ?
-6
~ B x0 ?
X
P~2 b
~
N
~
1
ZA 6
a
P~1
?
- "!
-x
A
L/2

~A
X

. 65
2.
:
X
My = F R1 + (T1 T2 )R2 + QR3 = 0.
F .
y
.

F =

(T1 T2 )R2 + QR3


= 2.7692 .
R1

N = F/0.1 = 27.692 .
3. .
, A B. zy (. 66).
A B.
:
, , . , zy (

102

4.

. 66),
.
L/2
z

6
~A
Z
6

z0

~
6 G
~B
Z
6

F~

T~1 cos

B ?

~1
?
P

~2
?
P

P3
?
d

~
?
Q

. 66

P
Mx(A) = (F P1 )a + ZB (a + b) + (T1 cos P2 )(a + b + c)
P

G L/2 (P3 + Q)(a + b + c + d) = 0,


Mx0(B) = ZA (a + b) + (P1 F )b G(L/2 a b)+

+ (T1 cos P2 )c (P3 + Q)(c + d) = 0,

ZA = 11.324 , ZB = 75.574 .
4. , z (. 66):
P
Zi = ZA + F P1 + ZB G + T1 cos P2 P3 Q =
= 11.324 + 2.769 35 + 75.574 15 + 30 0.866 10 15 18 = 0.

5. . ,
.
(. 67):
P
Mz(A) = N a XB (a + b) (T1 sin + T2 )(a + b + c) = 0,
P
0
Mz(B)
= XA (a + b) + N b (T1 sin + T2 )c = 0.

, XA = 25.100 , XB = 124.792 .
6. ,
x
:
P
Xi = XA + N + XB + T1 sin + T2 =
= 25.1 + 27.692 124.792 + 15 + 57 = 0.

103

4.3.
T~1 sin
B

~B
?
X
?
x0

?
T~2

A
~A
?
X
?
x

~
?
N
a

. 67
:
N

XA

ZA

XB

ZB

27.692

25.100

11.324

124.792

75.574

. G
A B. 1
N F ,
N . 2 T1 T2 . Q
, 3. N
( ).
P1 , P2 , P3 . .
, .
1.


*
~
F
q

6
z
3 Q

~
N
q1
6
c


B pb 
T~2
b


Y
H
pb
H

H A
a
q x
2 ~

T1
?

y
d

F = 0.1N, T1 = 50,
T2 = 97, P1 = 16,
P2 = 10, P3 = 14,
Q = 18, G = 25,
= 30 , R1 = 14,
R2 = 8, R3 = 9,
a = 22, b = 25,
c = 26, d = 23.

104

4.

2.

F~ 
y
6
*
~
N
q1


H
Y
pb 
H

H B 
c
q
b
 2

A pb 
T~1 a

?
q x
3

z

T~2

F = 0.2N, T1 = 70,
T2 = 136, P1 = 36,
P2 = 30, P3 = 34,
Q = 22, G = 35,
= 60 , R1 = 18,
R2 = 12, R3 = 13,
a = 22, b = 26,
c = 29, d = 23.

3.


*
T~1
q

z
3 Q
 q

6
~
c

T
~

2
2 F 
B pb 
6
b
~
N
- q1
a

A pb 
x

y
d

4.


*
 q
 2 -T~2

z
B pb 
c
6


A pb

b
F~ 
q
6
a
3 Q

~
N
q1 x

T~1

5.

*
~ 
N
q
F~
?

z
3 Q

q1
6
c


B pb 
T~2
b


Y
H
pb
H

H A
a
q x
2 ~

T1
?

y
d

F = 0.2N, T1 = 30,
T2 = 56, P1 = 22,
P2 = 10, P3 = 14,
Q = 22, G = 15,
= 30 , R1 = 26,
R2 = 8, R3 = 9,
a = 22, b = 26,
c = 27, d = 26.

F = 0.4N, T1 = 60,
T2 = 117, P1 = 26,
P2 = 10, P3 = 18,
Q = 18, G = 30,
= 30 , R1 = 26,
R2 = 8, R3 = 10,
a = 24, b = 27,
c = 28, d = 28.

F = 0.1N, T1 = 50,
T2 = 26, P1 = 26,
P2 = 20, P3 = 24,
Q = 10, G = 25,
= 45 , R1 = 16,
R2 = 10, R3 = 11,
a = 22, b = 23,
c = 25, d = 23.

105

4.3.
6.


*
q

z
3 Q
Y
H
pb 
H

H A
6
c
q
b

~

2 ~
F 
B pb 
T1a
?
6
~
N
q1 x


T~2

7.


*
~
F
q

6
z
3 Q

~
N
q1
6T~2
c


Y
H
pb
H

H A 
b
q
a


2
b
p
B
T~1
x ?

F = 0.3N, T1 = 40,
T2 = 78, P1 = 22,
P2 = 10, P3 = 18,
Q = 14, G = 20,
= 30 , R1 = 18,
R2 = 8, R3 = 10,
a = 24, b = 26,
c = 27, d = 26.

8.

 *

T~1
b
p
A

 q
z
c
6F~

2 -T~2
pb 
B

6
b
~
N
q1

a
q 
x
3


F = 0.2N, T1 = 60,
T2 = 118, P1 = 38,
P2 = 30, P3 = 34,
Q = 14, G = 30,
= 60 , R1 = 22,
R2 = 12, R3 = 13,
a = 22, b = 24,
c = 27, d = 24.

y
d

F = 0.4N, T1 = 70,
T2 = 136, P1 = 36,
P2 = 20, P3 = 28,
Q = 22, G = 35,
= 45 , R1 = 28,
R2 = 10, R3 = 12,
a = 24, b = 28,
c = 30, d = 28.

9.


*
Y
H
q
H

H 
z
3 Q
q
6
c

 2
B pb 
T~1 b
~
?


N
~
F
? A pb

a
q1 x

T~2

y
d

F = 0.1N, T1 = 60,
T2 = 31, P1 = 16,
P2 = 10, P3 = 14,
Q = 26, G = 30,
= 30 , R1 = 14,
R2 = 8, R3 = 9,
a = 22, b = 27,
c = 28, d = 23.

106

4.

10.

~
N
~
y
F
?


*
q1
d
z


B pb 
6~
c


T1
A pb

b
 q
2 T~2
a

q x
3


F = 0.2N, T1 = 70,
T2 = 37, P1 = 20,
P2 = 10, P3 = 14,
Q = 10, G = 35,
= 30 , R1 = 22,
R2 = 8, R3 = 9,
a = 22, b = 23,
c = 24, d = 25.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

4.4

N
194.286
165.000
1.154
34.038
261.250
136.818
29.487
43.214
411.429
100.000

XA
359.986
104.855
58.706
50.963
7.573
86.784
38.734
75.085
46.826
161.833

ZA
44.654
84.680
15.924
218.368
290.264
74.302
77.517
75.861
647.889
130.593

XB
470.267
201.855
24.428
232.001
36.936
164.602
102.395
153.627
21.164
109.833

ZB
114.726
3.459
130.614
165.945
693.129
10.143
56.637
166.078
90.960
269.971

.

.
. .

1. ,
. , .
.
2. , .
, .

4.4. ,

107

( ). .
3. ,
- .
.
G = 20
. F = 10
(. 68). : a = 7 , b = 8 , c = 6 .
.
b
b

-F
c

5
6

. 68

1. ,
. , .
(. 69).
2. (. 69)
. x S1 , S3 ,
S4 , S6 , F G, , Ox. y S1 , S2 , S5 , S6 G,
, Oy, z , F :
X
Xi = S2 cos S5 cos = 0.
(1)
X
Yi = S3 cos + S4 cos + F = 0.
(2)
P
Zi = S1 S2 sin S3 sin S4 sin
(3)
S5 sin S6 G = 0.

108

4.

S1 , S2 , S3 x, . S4
x,
S4 cos c x S4 sin ,
.
z
b
6
~ y 00
F
-b
G
~
?

~1
S

~2
S

~4
S
b

c
0
-y

~6
S

-y

~5
S
a

~3
S

. 69


:
P
Mxi = S4 cos c S5 sin b S6 b F c G b/2 = 0,
P
Myi = S1 a + S3 sin a + S6 a + G a/2 = 0,
(4)
P
Mzi = S3 cos a + S5 cos b = 0.
:
p
6
c
=
sin =
= 0.651, cos = 1 sin2 = 0.759,
9.219
a 2 + c2
p
c
6
sin =
=
= 0.6,
cos = 1 sin2 = 0.8.
2
2
10
b +c
(14) , , ( ):
S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

2.500

3.841

4.167

16.667

3.841

5.000

3. ,
y 00 , -

109

4.4. ,
y:
P
My00 i = S1 a + S2 sin a + S3 sin a+

+ S5 sin a + S6 a + G a/2 =
= 2.5 7 + 3.841 0.651 7 4.167 0.6 7

3.841 0.651 7 5 7 + 10 7 = 0.

. ( ) P . ,

Zi = 0,
, y 0 :
X
My0 i = S4 sin a G a/2 = 0,

S4 = 10/0.6 = 16.667 ,

Zi = 0 , ,
.
P

. G = 25 .
F = 10 . ( ).
1.

b
b

F~
b

b
b

2
3

2.

b
b

a = 2 , b = 3 , c = 4 .

b
b

b
5

F~

b

b
b

6
4
2
3

a = 2 , b = 3 , c = 4 .

110

4.
3.

F~ -b

6
3

4.

c

F~

a = 2 , b = 3 , c = 4 .

5.
F~ -b
1

5
4

F~

b

2

F~

4
3

6
4

b
b

1
6
4

-~
F
b

a = 3 , b = 4 , c = 3 .

10.
b

a = 3 , b = 4 , c = 3 .

b
6

a = 3 , b = 4 , c = 3 .

9.

8.

F~ -b

6.

a = 2 , b = 3 , c = 4 .

7.

a = 3 , b = 4 , c = 3 .

a = 3 , b = 4 , c = 3 .

c
2

b
b

F~

b

5
6

a = 3 , b = 4 , c = 3 .

4.5.

111

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

S1
8.385
17.702
12.500
1.179
13.333
2.500
28.284
12.500
31.820
16.667

S2
S3
5.000 9.375
20.000 5.208
14.907
0.000
10.000 1.389
39.167 14.907
7.500
0.000
7.500 33.333
12.500 10.607
35.000 20.833
2.500 14.142

S4
0.000
11.219
16.667
3.239
25.833
5.000
40.000
20.000
0.000
2.500

S5
S6
13.975
9.375
4.658 5.208
25.833 14.907
15.321 1.389
0.000 17.951
10.607 14.577
28.284 20.833
10.607
0.000
17.678 20.833
14.142 19.437

4.5
. , ,
( ) . , . .

1. .
.
. .
.
2. (
). .
3. ,
- .
. G = 6
A ,
, (
) B (. 70).
F = 5 , .
a = 2 , b = 4 , c = 3 . .

112

4.
A b

b
a

~
F
-

a
b

. 70

1. .
~ , H
~
. V
.
6
z
~A 6
Z
~A
Y
A
~
V
6 X
~A
x

~
G

~
H

-y

?
~

F
 PP
q

 B u



~
S

-y


x0
. 71
~ . S
~ A, Y
~A , Z
~ A , A X
. , ~
. G.
xyz A (. 71).
2. ,
, , (-

113

4.5.
. 4.4, . 108):
P
Xi = XA + H = 0,
P
Yi = YA S cos + F = 0,
P
Zi = ZA + V S sin G = 0,
P
Mxi = S b sin G b/2 = 0,
P
Myi = V a + S a sin + G a/2 = 0,
P
Mzi = H b S a cos + F a = 0.

(1)

,
.
S, H V .
:
p
p
sin = c/ b2 + c2 = 3/5 = 0.6, cos = 1 sin2 = 0.8.
(1), ( ):
XA

YA

ZA

4.5

9.0

3.0

4.5

5.0

3. ,
x0 y 0 , :
P
Mx0 i = YA c ZA b V b + G b/2 + S c cos F c = 0,
P
My0 i = XA c V a + S a sin + G a/2 + H c = 0.

. (1) V = 0.
u, AB (. 71). ~ ,
, , V
P
.
Mu = V h = 0,
~
h V AB.
h 6= 0, V = 0.
. G = 2 A , ,

114

4.

( ) BC.
F = 3 ,
. ( ).
1.

bA

~
F

b b
a

F~c

b
a

bA

Bb

~
F
b

a
b

F~-Bb

b b
a

4.

Bb

c
Ca

bA

a
b

b
a

bA
b

- ~
F

c
a

a = 6 , b = 10 , c = 4 ,
AD = 5 .
6.

Bb

b
a

bA

~
F
Ca

a = 3 , b = 8 , c = 3 .

b b
a

a = 3 , b = 8 , c = 3 .

a = 5 , b = 8 , c = 3 ,
AD = 4 .
5.

bA
b

a = 2 , b = 6 , c = 4 .
3.

2.

a
C

a = 3 , b = 8 , c = 3 ,
AD = 4 .

115

4.5.
b b
a

7.

~F

Bb

8.

bA

bA

a
C

a = 5 , b = 8 , c = 3 ,
AD = 4 .
b
a

9.

bA

Bb F~

10.
Bb

Ca

a = 6 , b = 10 , c = 4 ,
AD = 5 .

a
b

b
a
b

b
aD

bA


H
0.500
1.125
4.667
1.800
1.125
4.000
7.083
1.500
2.100
1.333

V
0.000
0.000
0.000
2.000
0.000
0.000
2.000
1.000
1.000
1.000

a
b

a = 5 , b = 8 , c = 3 ,
AD = 4 .

XA
3.500
2.125
0.000
3.300
0.125
1.000
7.083
3.000
3.600
3.333

~
F

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

~
F

a = 6 , b = 10 , c = 4 ,
AD = 5 .

aD

Bb

b b
aD

YA
ZA
1.500 1.000
5.667 1.000
0.000 1.000
3.000 1.000
0.333 1.000
2.667 1.000
5.667 1.000
2.500 2.000
3.000 0.000
0.000 2.000

BC
S
1.803
3.018
1.944
1.803
3.018
2.848
2.848
3.082
1.803
1.944

116

4.

4.6

. , , . .
O ~ M
~ O .
R
. , , . (
), .
,
, , (
). ,
, (),
.

1. ,
:
X
X
X
Rx =
Xi , Ry =
Yi , Rz =
Zi .
2. R =

q
Rx2 + Ry2 + Rz2 .

3.
:
X
X
X
MOx =
Mxi , MOy =
Myi , MOz =
Mzi .
q
2 + M2 + M2 .
4. M0 = MOx
Oy
Oz
5. .
, ()
:
~ M
~ 0 = Rx MOx + Ry MOy + Rz MOz .
I =R
I = 0, .

4.6.

117

6. M = I/R.
M M0 . R = 0,
( , MO = 0.)
7. p = M /R. p < 0,
,
p > 0 , p = 0,
.
8. 2 :
MOx yRz + zRy
MOy zRx + xRz
MOz xRy + yRx
=
=
= p.
Rx
Ry
Rz
(1)
y

x

z.

,
.
(1) .
, ,
Rx = 0, :
MOx yRz + zRy = 0.
9. A
xy ( 1.11). xy, . (1) z = 0,
y = yA , z = zA .
xz yz ( ).
10. , (, xA , yA ). ,
,
. 34 . M .
. F1 = 4 , F2 = 10 , F3 = 21 , F4 = 4 ,
, (. 72).
xy. a = 3 , b = 5 , c = 4 .

2 .
1.10

118

4.
z
a

6
b
Q
Q
Q
Q ~
Q F4
O
Q
Q
s
Q


F~

F~

F~3

. 72

1. .
~
F
4 , L = a2 + b2 + c2 ,
F4x = F4 cos(F~4 x) = F4 a/L,
F4y = F4 cos(F~4 y) = F4 b/L,

F4z = F4 cos(F~4 z) = F4 c/L.

:
P
Rx = Xi = F1 F2 + F4x = 12.303 ,
P
Ry = Yi = F3 + F4y = 18.172 ,
P
Rz =
Zi = F4z = 2.262 .
2. :
q
R = Rx2 + Ry2 + Rz2 = 22.061 .

3. :
P
MOx = Mxi = F4y c = 11.314 ,
P
MOy =
Myi = F1 c + F4x c = 9.212 ,
P
MOz = Mzi = F1 b + F2 b F3 a = 7.00 ,
4. :
q
2 + M 2 + M 2 = 16.182 .
M0 = MOx
Oy
Oz
5. :
~ M
~ 0 = Rx MOx + Ry MOy + Rz MOz = 290.745 2 .
I=R

119

4.6.

, , .
6. :
M =

I
290.745
=
= 13.178 .
R
22.061

M M0 = 16.182 . ,
M , .
7. :
p=

M
= 0.597 .
R

, , .
8. :
MOy zRx + xRz
MOz xRy + yRx
MOx yRz + zRy
=
=
= p.
Rx
Ry
Rz
:
2.262 y 18.172 z 3.964 = 0,

(2)

2.262 x + 12.303 z + 1.644 = 0.

9. xy. (2) z = 0, ,
y = yA = 1.752 ,

x = xA = 0.726 .

:
Rx

Ry

Rz

MOx

MOy MOz

MO

xA

yA

12.303 18.172 2.263 22.061 11.314 9.212 7.000 16.182 0.726 1.752

10. , A . A
x0 , y 0 , z 0 , (. 73).

120

4.
z

z0

66
b
Q
a
Q
Q
Q ~
Q F4
O yA
Q
Q
xA
s
Q
A


x
x0
F~3

F~1
F~2

. 73
A:
P
MAx0 = Mx0 i = F4z yA F4y c = 7.350 ,
P
MAy0 =
My0 i = F1 c + F4x c + F4z xA = 10.856 ,
P
0
MAz = Mz0 i = (F1 + F2 )(b yA ) F4y xA +
+ F4x yA F3 (a xA ) = 1.352 ,
q
2
2
2
MA = MAx
0 + MAy 0 + MAz 0 = 13.179 .

MA
M ,
.
. , , . xy.
, .
z

1.
4

2.

5
6
H
HH
jF~2

10

* F~3


x
F1 = 1, F2 = 1, F3 = 2.

6
~1
F

* F~3


~1
F

F~2
:




F1 = 2, F2 = 3, F3 = 5.

121

4.6.
z

3.

4.

5
6
HH ~
jF2
H

F~3
*

y
~
F
1


x
F1 = 2, F2 = 2, F3 = 5.
z

8.
4
6

6
J
 J

J
~
J

 F2


F~3


~
F1

J
^
~J
F


x
z

9.

6
8

*~
F~2 
F3



10.
4




F~1


F1 = 1, F2 = 2, F3 = 5.

F1 = 4, F2 = 4, F3 = 6.

10




~3
F

F1 = 3, F2 = 4, F3 = 5.

5
6

H
J HH
jF~2 F~1
J
J
J
J
J
^

10
6
J
 J

J
F~2
6
J
F~1

J
J
^


6.

F1 = 1, F2 = 2, F3 = 4.

F1 = 4, F2 = 5, F3 = 8.

10
6
J
8
J
J ~
JF3
J
~2
F
J
^
:




~1
F

x

7.

F1 = 3, F2 = 3, F3 = 6.
5.

10
6
J
8
~1
F
J 
J
J
J
~
F2
J
^
:

~3
F


6


~
*
F3
~

F
 2


~1 ?3
F


x
F1 = 2, F2 = 2, F3 = 3.

122

4.

Rx

Ry

Rz
R
MOx
MOy
MOz
MO
xA
yA

1 1.756 2.195 1.849 3.364


2.657
1.874
0.000 3.252 0.093 0.701
2 2.954 5.878 2.121 6.912
0.000 12.000 1.259 12.066 1.721 1.978
3 5.268 3.585 2.546 6.862 7.028
5.622 12.000 15.000 3.627 0.677
4 1.402 5.561 3.394 6.664 9.941 27.153 0.765 28.926 2.848 4.228
5 2.013 4.390 1.697 5.119 16.971 13.576
2.494 21.876 5.907 10.960
6 4.078 3.097 2.121 5.543 9.292 12.233
0.000 15.362 5.767 4.380
7 0.372 3.536 3.279 4.836
8.787 26.229
0.000 27.662 3.574 2.215
8 2.594 4.243 4.946 7.013 12.728
7.782 20.000 24.951 3.299 1.519
9 1.228 2.536 3.321 4.355
0.000 9.600
0.000 9.600 1.911 0.475
10 3.297 2.121 1.927 4.369 10.000
4.800
0.000 11.092 3.805 3.146

. Maple V.
3.
: F[1] F1 , T[1] F1 , R , M
, II .

>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>

with(linalg):
F[1]:=vector(3,[-4,0,0]): F[2]:=vector(3,[-10,0,0]):
F[3]:=vector(3,[0,-21,0]):
F[4]:=evalm(4*normalize(vector(3,[a,b,-c]))):
T[5]:=vector(3,[0,0,0]): T[1]:=vector(3,[0,b,c]):
T[2]:=vector(3,[a,b,0]): T[3]:=vector(3,[a,b,0]):
T[4]:=vector(3,[0,0,c]):
R:=evalm(add(F[i],i=1..N)); R0:=evalf(norm(R,2));
M:=evalm(add(crossprod(T[i],F[i]),i=1..N));
M0:=evalf(norm(M,2));
II:=dotprod(R,M);

linalg. Maple
6,7,8 LinearAlgebra.

DotProduct CrossProduct.

3

www.academiaxxi.ru/solverTM.html.


5.1
. .


1. , .
2. .
xi , yi .
.
P
3. A = Ai .
4. :

xc =

Ai xi
, yc =
A
123

Ai yi
.
A

124

5.

.
. Ox (. 74).
.
y
36
2
1

. 74

-x

125

5.1.

1. , .

, ,
, . 75.
a
a

4R
3

q1

3q
1

. 75

y
36
2

q 4R

4R
3

3
b
3

y
36

q2

. 76

q4

q2

2
1

-x

q1
1

q3

q4

-x

. 77

1,2, 3 4 (. 76).
2. ( 2 ) ( )
:
1
2
2
2 1 = 1, x1 = 1 = 0.667, y1 = 2 = 1.333,
2
3
3
1
2
1
A2 = 4 1 = 2, x2 = 4 = 2.667, y2 = 2 + 1 = 2.333,
2
3
3
1
1
A3 = 3 2 = 6, x3 = 1 + 3 = 2.5, y3 = 2 = 1,
2
2
3.142 12
41
A4 =
= 1.571, x4 = 3, y4 =
= 0.424.
2
3
.
A1 =

126

5.
3. A =

Ai = 1 + 2 + 6 1.571 = 7.429 2 .

4. :
P

Ai xi
0.667 1 + 2.667 2 + 2.5 6 3 1.571
=
= 2.192 ,
A
7.429
P
Ai yi
1.333 1 + 2.333 2 + 1 6 0.424 1.571
=
= 1.526 .
yc =
A
7.429
xc =

i
1
2
3
4

Ai
1
2
6
1.571
7.429

xi
0.667
2.667
2.5
3

yi
1.333
2.333
1
0.424

Ai xi
0.667
5.333
15
4.712
16.288

A i yi
1.333
4.667
6
0.666
11.333

Ai , xi , yi ,
Ai xi , Ai yi . ,
.
16.288
11.333
xc =
= 2.192 , yc =
= 1.526 .
7.429
7.429
1.
. .
3 43
4 1 2 (. 77).
2. Maple V 6.2, c. 145.
. ( 2 )
( ). .
.

127

5.1.
1

y
76
6'
4

2
1

11

6
5

3 4

y
6
6'
5
4

2
y
56
4
3
1

-x

-x
5

y
5 6
4
3 
1

2 3

-x
5

10 y
66 $
5
4


3

10

-x
3 4

6 7

y
66
5
4 
2
1

y
66
5
4

11

2
1

-x

-x
5

y
56
4
3
1

-x

2&
1

4
3
2
1

2&
1

-x
2

y
76
6

-x
5

2
1

%
3

-x
8

128

5.

3.
.

1
2
3
4
5

A
40.642
35.642
27.071
26.071
39.783

xc
5.203
4.764
3.887
3.755
4.702

yc
3.627
3.495
2.492
2.441
3.351

6
7
8
9
10

A
17.858
27.358
19.429
23.929
22.217

xc
2.380
3.582
2.668
2.668
3.593

yc
2.964
2.653
2.945
3.585
2.950

5.2
. , N .

1. .
2. .
xi , yi , zi , i = 1, ..., N . .
N
X
3. L =
Li .
i=1

4.
N

xc =

1X
1X
1X
Li xi , yc =
L i yi , zc =
Li zi .
L i=1
L i=1
L i=1

. , (. 78). : a = 12 , b = 16 , c = 10 , d = 5 .

1. .
2. (. 78). xi , yi , zi , i = 1, ..., N .

129

5.2.
z

4
5

6
2

3
d

-y
a

. 78
3. :
L=

6
X

Li = 79.162 .

i=1

:
i
1
2
3
4
5
6

Li

2 + b 2 + c2
a
a 2 + c2
a
d
2
2
a + d
c2 + d2

xi

yi

zi

a/2
a/2
a/2
0
a/2
0

b/2
b
b
d/2
d/2
d/2

c/2
c/2
0
c
c
c/2

4.
N

xc =

1X
1X
Li xi = 4.774 , yc =
Li yi = 6.921 ,
L i=1
L i=1

zc =

1X
Li zi = 5.379 .
L i=1

. , (
). .

130

5.
z

1.

2.
c
y
-

c
y
-

a = 3, b = 4, c = 3, d = 2.

a = 5, b = 4, c = 3, d = 2.

3.

4.
c
y
-

c
y
-

a = 6, b = 5, c = 4, d = 3.

a = 4, b = 6, c = 5, d = 4.

5.

6.
c
y
-

c
y
-

a = 3, b = 4, c = 3, d = 2.

a = 5, b = 4, c = 3, d = 1.

7.

8.
c
y
-

c
y
-

a = 6, b = 5, c = 4, d = 2.

a = 4, b = 6, c = 5, d = 3.

9.

10.
c
y
-

c
y
-

a
b

a = 3, b = 4, c = 3, d = 1.

a
b

a = 6, b = 5, c = 4, d = 2.

131

5.3.

1
2
3
4
5

L
24.764
28.065
40.097
38.231
23.933

xc
1.439
2.945
3.105
2.744
1.124

yc
0.605
1.929
1.007
2.476
0.556

zc
1.924 6
2.216 7
2.883 8
3.233 9
1.939 10

L
29.164
30.986
39.460
21.648
31.021

xc
2.500
1.548
2.000
0.796
2.807

yc
1.563
2.856
2.680
1.635
2.177

zc
2.092
2.452
2.957
1.985
3.019

L ( ).

5.3
. .

1. ,
.
2. . Vi xi , yi , zi .
.
P
3. V = Vi .
4. :
X
X
X
xc =
Vi xi /V, yc =
Vi yi /V, zc =
Vi zi /V.
. (. 79); a = 10 , b = 12 , c = 6 , d = 8 , R = d/2.
z

6
c
R
@
I
@
d

-y
a
x

. 79

132

5.

1. 1, 2
3 (. 80).
2. . Vi xi , yi , zi .
1 C1 , C0 C1 = C0 O1 /4,
V1 =

1
3
5
1
abc, x1 = a, y1 = b, z1 = d + c.
3
8
8
4

2
:
1
1
1
V2 = abd, x2 = a, y2 = b, z2 = d.
2
2
2
3 :
V3 = R2 a/2, x3 =

1
1
a, y3 = b l, z3 = d,
2
2

l = 4R/(3) y
1 .
O1

1
C1
C0

d
R

@
I
@
q

. 80
3. :
V =

3
X
i=1

Vi = 240 + 960 251.327 = 948.673 3 .

,
, , R R
R
V =
dx dy dz, , ,

xc xc =

1
V

Z Z Z

12.9.

xdx dy dz; . -

133

5.3.
4. :

xc =

3
1 X
240 3.75 + 960 5 251.327 5
Vi xi =
= 4.684 .
V i=1
948.673

3
240 7.5 + 960 6 251.327 10.302
1 X
Vi yi =
= 5.240 .
yc =
V i=1
948.673

zc =

3
1 X
240 9.5 + 960 4 251.327 4
Vi zi =
= 5.391 .
V i=1
948.673

. . .
z

1.

2.

x
z

3.


x

10

-y

6.

5
1
6

-y

-y

R = 2 .
z

4.

Rq

5.

-y

-y

134

5.
z

7.

14

11

8.

8
2
8

Rq

x
z

9.

10

10.

-y

R = 4 .
z

-y

V
xc
yc
zc
V
xc
yc
zc
1 114.667 1.744 6.872 1.884 6
717.500 3.193 12.584 4.263
2 180.000 2.361 8.463 1.741 7 1458.000 3.000 14.897 5.333
3 237.699 2.823 9.491 1.882 8 625.664 2.500 12.131 3.616
4 558.000 2.903 12.129 3.000 9 816.000 3.176 13.343 3.608
5 490.000 2.334 12.995 2.893 10 266.667 2.469 12.600 1.800

3 ,
.

II


MAPLE V

135

137
, , , , Maple V, Mathematica
4, Derive.
, , , , , ,
, .
.
, ,
.
, ( 4).
Maple V
. Maple V
[8], [9], [12], [13].
restart
.
Maple V > , ,
, . > #.
Maple V ,
(CTRL 3...CTRL 6),
(Format Styles C Maple
Input Modify).
19 ( , )

: www.academiaxxi.ru/solverTM.html.

138

6.1
. (. 28,
c. 48).

1 .
N , 2N 3.
N 2N x, y. (
A B, . 29). , .

(. 143, 144) .
1. . ,
( ), . evalf
Pi, .
(. 81). 8, 9, 10 12, 13, 14.
.
x,y () N + 3
. A ( 1).
1

.., ..

139

140

6.

< > , |.
(Nbeg)
(Nend).
, ,
.

141

6.1.

2. .
Maple V. display.
5

12
1 13
9

10

11

2
2

9
4

3
3

. 81

14
10

i R[i]
, .
Maple
for i from i1 by i2 to i3 do ...od.
by i2 from i1
1 . PLOT(CURVES([[x1,y1],
[x2,y2]])) (x1 , y1 ) (x2 , y2 ).
. . Maple ,
. [i] , [i] .
COLOR(HUE,n). n.
COLOR(RGB,n1,n1,n3) , , 0 < ni < 1.
arrow.
( , ,
) arw2 .
, seq(R[i],i=1..M)
R[1], R[2],..., R[M].
2 plots plottools Maple 7 arrow
,
.

142

6.

display (); scaling=constrained ,


. display
, ,
(. 81).
3. . S[i], i = 1, ..., M
x, j, G[2j-1,i].
y G[2j,i]. G
restart.
G[i,j]. Si :
Nbeg[i] Nend[i] . M-2, M-1, M
, if < M-2... fi3 .
Fjx Fjy , j,
2j-1 2j B
.
LinearSolve(A,B)
A B. ,
,
with(LinearAlgebra). G[i,j]
, LinearSolve
Matrix(M,G). S.
printf. (
), . % , . g
. N.Mf
N , M .
.
\n.

3 end
od fi.

6.1.

143

1.

> restart: with(LinearAlgebra):


1.
N - , M - .
(),
> N:=7: M:=2*N: P:=30: Q:=15: F:=20:
> alpha:=evalf(Pi/3): beta:=evalf(Pi/3):

> d:=1.:

>
x:=<0|2|6|8|1|4|7|-d|0|8-cos(beta)*d>:
>
y:=<0|0|0|0|2|2|2|0|-d|-sin(beta)*d>:
-
>
Nbeg:=<1|2|3|1|2|2|3|3|4|5|6|1|1|4>:
>
Nend:=<2|3|4|5|5|6|6|7|7|6|7|8|9|10>:
2.
> with(plots):with(plottools):
> for i to M do
>
R[i]:=PLOT(CURVES([[x[Nbeg[i]],y[Nbeg[i]]],
>
[x[Nend[i]],y[Nend[i]]]])):
> od:
> :=FONT(TIMES,BOLD,8):
> for i to N+3 do
> [i]:=PLOT(TEXT([x[i],y[i]+0.3],convert(i,symbol)),
>
,COLOR(HUE,1)):
> od:
> for i to M do
> [i]:=PLOT(TEXT([(x[Nbeg[i]]+x[Nend[i]])/2,
>
(y[Nbeg[i]]+y[Nend[i]])/2+0.3],
>
convert(i,symbol)),
>
,COLOR(HUE,0.3)):
> od:

> arw:=0.05,0.2,0.2,color=red:

>
Fx:=F*cos(alpha): Fy:=-F*sin(alpha):

144

6.


>
F1:=arrow([x[2],y[2]],evalm([Fx,Fy]*0.05),arw):
>
Q1:=arrow([x[5],y[5]],evalm([-Q,0]*0.05),arw):
>
P1:=arrow([x[3],y[3]],evalm([0,-P]*0.05),arw):
>

>
display(F1,Q1,P1,seq(R[i],i=1..M),
>
seq([i],i=1..N+3),
>
seq([i],i=1..M),
>
scaling=constrained,axes=none);
3.

>
for i to M do
>
Lx:=x[Nend[i]]-x[Nbeg[i]]:
>
Ly:=y[Nend[i]]-y[Nbeg[i]]:
>
L:=evalf(sqrt(Lx^2+Ly^2)):
>
G[2*Nbeg[i]-1,i]:=Lx/L: G[2*Nbeg[i],i]:=Ly/L:
>
if i<M-2 then G[2*Nend[i]-1,i]:=-Lx/L:
>
G[2*Nend[i],i]:=-Ly/L: fi:
>
od:
-
> B:=<0|0|Fx|Fy|0|-P|0|0|-Q|0|0|0|0|0>:

> S := LinearSolve(Matrix(M,G),-B):
> printf(%s\n, n
S
n
S
);
> for i to M/2 do
>
printf(%3.0f%9.3f %3.0f%9.3f\n,
>
2*i-1,S[2*i-1],2*i,S[2*i]);
> od;
. .
n
S
n
S
1
20.446
2
29.486
3
24.865
4 -27.102
5
27.102
6
-9.786
7
9.786
8
25.804
9 -25.804 10
-9.240
11 -23.080 12
8.325
13 -24.240 14 -26.651

145

6.2.

6.2
.
(. 74, c. 124).

. , L (xi , yi ), i = 1, ..., n,
4:

A=

1
dA =
2

Z
(L)

1X
ydx xdy =
(xi+1 yi xi yi+1 ).
2 i=1

:
n

1 X
(xi+1 yi xi yi+1 )(xi + xi+1 ),
6A i=1
n
1 X
yc =
(xi+1 yi xi yi+1 )(yi + yi+1 ).
6A i=1
xc =

, (n + 1).
(. 82). .

xi = 3 + R cos(i/N ),

yi = R sin(i/N ), i = 1, ..., N, R = 1,

N . ,
,
(. 83). ,
, , , .
4 .. ..III,
.:1970, c. 35.

146

6.
y
36
2
1

2
KA
A

A
A

A
A1
1

q
N-1
qN

. 82

?
4x
-

1








MB
B
B
B
?
B
B
?

. 83


K N . X,Y
Xcircl, Ycircl, T.
2. c

> restart:
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>


N:=20: K:=4: pi:=evalf(Pi): n:=K+N:

F:=i*pi/N: X:=1,0,4,4: Y:=0,2,3,0:

Xcircl:=seq(3+cos(F),i=1..N):
Ycircl:=seq(sin(F),i=1..N):

T:=matrix(2,n+1,[X,Xcircl,1,Y,Ycircl,0]):
with(plots):polygonplot(T,scaling=constrained);

Z:=T[2,i]*T[1,i+1]-T[1,i]*T[2,i+1]:
A:=add(Z,i=1..n)/2;

Xc:=add(Z*(T[1,i]+T[1,i+1]),i=1..n)/6/A;
Yc:=add(Z*(T[2,i]+T[2,i+1]),i=1..n)/6/A;
A := 7.435655350
Xc := 2.193077180
Yc := 1.524739473

x, y.
K+1+N .
polygonplot , -

6.2.

147

, T. , , . 74, c. 124
Pn .
add([i], i=1..n)
i=1 ci . .
N > 100.
.
Z . , F " , i . :=
.
. .
.

n

1 X 2
(yk+1 + yk+1 yk + yk2 )(xk+1 yk xk yk+1 ),
12
k=1
n
1 X 2
Jy =
(xk+1 + xk+1 xk + x2k )(xk+1 yk xk yk+1 ).
12
Jx =

k=1

Jxy =

1 X
(xk+1 yk+1 +xk yk +(xk yk+1 +yk xk+1 )/2)(xk+1 yk xk yk+1 ).
12
k=1

Jxc = Jx yc2 A,
Jyc = Jy x2c A, Jxyc = Jxy xc yc A.

r
Jxc + Jyc
(Jxc Jyc )2
2 .
Jmax,min =

+ Jxyc
2
4
p
p
imax = Jmax /A, imin = Jmin /A,
A . , .
, J = i2 m, i , ,
, .

148

6.


[1] .., .. Maple 6: , - . .:
, 2001.
[2] .., .., .., .., .. . . .
.: , 2001.
[3] .., .., ..
..1. .: , 1984.
[4] .., .. . .:
, 1980.
[5] .., .., .., .
.:, 1998.
[6] .., .., .. . . :
. .: , 1990.
[7] .. . .: - , 1998.
[8] ., . .
. .: , 2001.
[9] .. MAPLE 7. . .: , 2002.
[10] .., .., .. . . .: , 2001.
[11] .., .., .. .
. .: , 1989.
[12] .. Maple V Power Edition. .: "", 1998.

149

150

[13] .. Maple 6. .
.:-, 2001.
[14] .. . .: , 1981.
[15] .., ..
. .: , 1986.
[16] .., .., .. . . : ., 1990.
[17] : .
. / .., .., ..
.; . ... 3- .: , 1972.
[18] .., .. .
.: , 1973.
[19] .. . .: ,
1998.
[20] .., .. . .:
, 1975.



132
132
123
132
125
131
125
128
125
116
22

139
116
145
16
16
16, 40, 47, 139
91
16
.. 145
142
116
116
47
145

84
77
. 47
. 77
. 47
142
.. 6, 22, 27, 150

40
126
40
40
15, 40, 139
M 117
47

126
85

147
147
147
147
147

12
11
40
21
49
.. 6, 150
. 57

141
147
142
141
12, 75, 116
11, 113
106
75
33, 60

151

152

47
47
11

147
49

63
63
116

31
34
33
111
62
117, 132, 149
. 39
46
27
69
116
56

62, 75
117
15
.. 16
.. 63, 150

27
40

84
77

117
15
15

99

12, 39, 65
12


49
116
.. 6, 150
62
80

12, 101
39
52
62
AcademiaXXI 13
add 122, 147
arrow 141, 144
axes 144
BOLD 143
COLOR 141, 143
constrained 142
convert 143
crossprod 122
CrossProduct 122
CURVES 141
display 141
dotprod 122
DotProduct 122
end 142
evalm 122
HUE 141, 143
if ... then 144
linalg 122
LinearAlgebra 122, 142
LinearSolve 142
Matrix 142, 144
matrix 146
none 144
norm 122
normalize 122


Pi 139
PLOT 141
plots 141, 143
plottools 141, 143
polygonplot 146
printf 142
restart 137, 142
RGB 141
scaling 142
seq 141
solve 13
sqrt 144
symbol 143
vector 122
with 142, 143
www.academiaxxi.ru 13, 122, 137

153