Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 37

A

Project Report
ON

“Harley Davidson”

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR


THE AWARD OF THE
DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF BUSINESS
ADMINISTRATION

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF


Dr. Amit Gupta
Project Co-ordinator
SUBMITTED BY:
VIPUL
Batch BBA
Enrollment No

HARLEY-DAVIDSON

The Brand
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I gratefully acknowledge
and thank my Principles Of Marketing Teacher
Mrs. Riya Sharma for her support and help, The
classroom teachings provided by her were
extremely beneficial and guided me on how to work
on my project. I am also thankful to my parents for
providing me with the resources and encouraging
me. I am thankful to everyone who’s helped me
complete the project.
Last but not the least I am thankful
to the almighty for giving me this wonderful
opportunity.

Vipul
CONTENTS
Harley-Davidson Motor Company (NYSE: HOG, formerly HDI) is an American
manufacturer of motorcycles based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The company sells
heavyweight (over 750 cc) motorcycles designed for cruising on the highway. Harley-
Davidson motorcycles (popularly known as "Harleys") have a distinctive design and
exhaust note. They are especially noted for the tradition of heavy customization that gave
rise to the chopper-style of motorcycle.

Harley-Davidson attracts a loyal brand community, with licensing of the Harley-


Davidson logo accounting for almost 5% of the company's net revenue ($41 million in
2004). Harley-Davidson supplies many American police forces with their motorcycle
fleets.

HD Mission Statement says:


“We fulfill dreams through the experiences of motorcycling, by
providing to motorcyclists and to the general public an expanding line
of motorcycles, branded products and services in selected market

segments”

MISSION analysis
COMPONENTS YES / NO
CUSTOMERS YES
PRODUCTS & SERVICES YES
MARKETS YES
CONCERN FOR SURVIVAL YES
TECHNOLOGY NO
PHILOSOPHY YES
SELF CONCEPT YES
CONCERN FOR PUBLIC IMAGE YES
CONCERN FOR EMPLOYEES NO
MISSION STATEMENT EVALUATION MATRIX

Harley Davidson – The company -- The Brand


Harley Davidson has been in business since 1903. According to the website,
“four young men experimented with internal combustion in a tiny wooden
shed. Not only does the shed not burn, but the motorcycle they build goes on
to serve for over 100,000 miles” (Harley Davidson, n.d., 1). In 1901,
William S. Harley draws a blueprint of a motor to fit a bicycle. Later, he is
joined by Arthur Davidson and they build the first Harley Davidson
motorcycle.

Harley Davidson has excess demand for its products. Its products include
motorcycles, accessories, and apparel. It is the only U.S. born motorcycle
manufacture. Its website provides the internet user, or motorcycle enthusiast,
with interesting, useful, and visual information on its products and services.
Harley Davidson’s market niche is a wealthy or above average income
individual. Many of their buyers are older adults who like to ride for
relaxation.

Harley Davidson uses customer surveys and motorcycle rallies to conduct


their marketing research. This research has influenced Harley to start to
manufacture motorcycles for women. Women riding motorcycles has
increase 10% since 1987. On their website, Harley has a separate web page
for women riders. On this page, topics include why women ride, learning to
ride, women riders making headlines, and the history of female riders

Harley Davidson appeals to consumers through brand identity. “The value of


brands in today’s environment is phenomenal. Brands have the power of
instant sales, they convey a message of confidence, quality and reliability to
their target market” . Everybody recognizes the bar and shield symbol of a
Harley Davidson. Owning a Harley Davidson motorcycle signals American
pride, and depending on what type of motorcycle the individual has it could
also signal wealth. Harley Davidson’s target market can be subdivided into
smaller niches. These niches include the motorcycle itself, fashion, charity
runs, the Harley Davidson Owners Group (also known as H.O.G.), and
social events.

Harley Davidson has chosen the strategic direction of targeting a younger


market. With the introduction of the V-Rod motorcycle, Harley Davidson is
trying to capture the performance cruiser marketplace. “To target the
younger market with the new product line, the company has adopted the
following marketing objectives: to expand its current market (market
expansion), diversify its product line (product diversification), and modify
its marketing mix to target a younger demographic” (Thompson, 2006).
Currently, Harley Davidson’s marketing mix consist of riders in the age
group of 35 – 44. Harley Davidson is trying to gain a new mix of motorcycle
riders. They are aiming for younger riders with the introduction of the V-
Rod. If they obtain this new marketing mix, they will control the American
motorcycle industry.

Other marketing strategies Harley Davidson uses is that it is cheaper on gas.


Their slogan is “Live to Ride.” Also, they create an image by telling
consumers that while riding one of their bikes it relieves a lot of stress. Since
Harley has a huge recognizable brand image, this gives the Harley
motorcycle a favorable resell value. Many motorcyclist treat their Harley’s
as investments. After all, Harley cannot build the motorcycles fast enough to
keep up with demand. Harley also uses their website as a marketing strategy.
The website provides a means of communicating with all of the riders and
soon to be riders. It is a way to stay connected to Harley and the Harley
mystique.

The most important aspect of understanding the functionality of the


marketing plan is the feedback involved from the consumer. “To
comprehend why or why not a certain aspect of the marketing mix is
working, consumers of the product must be allowed to give their input”
(Thompson, 2006, 5). Continual and efficient uptake of data from the
customer, whether through surveys or questionnaires or any other technique
is critical in order to see whether the marketing plan implemented is working
accordingly as planned.
Rev of brand
Harley-Davidson has been able to build a community of enthusiasts around its brand that
includes members from very diverse groups, and with almost no advertising. How does
the king of heavyweight motorcycling keep its fans so loyal? It gives them a reason to
"belong."

In the pantheon of powerful American brands, most, like Coca-Cola, Tide, McDonald's,
Levi's and Nike, have reached icon status through long-term, high-visibility campaigns
marked by a consistent trumpeting of a simple message. Theirs is a story of deep pockets
and relentless promotion.

Occasionally, however, a brand emerges without the panoply of wall-to-wall advertising


and in-your-face marketing. Instead, recognition comes from a quiet, behind-the-scenes
effort to sell a product more directly on its merits, in its own time and in its own way.
And the brand's idiosyncratic path to success becomes a rich field for marketing gurus
and academics to mine, offering lessons not only for other offbeat efforts but also for
those seeking to better the odds of mainstream campaigns.

Perhaps no product exemplifies this non-traditional route to


brand excellence more than America's freewheeling symbol
of the road, the Harley-Davidson motorcycle. Twice at the
brink of bankruptcy since the 1960's, the Harley-Davidson
Motor Company and its parent, Harley-Davidson Inc., have
undergone a stunning metamorphosis in the past decade,
fueling a level of demand that is the goal of corporate
chieftains everywhere.

The change has not only enhanced Harley's standing in the highly competitive and
lucrative market for big motorcycles, where it had been pummeled for years by waves of
aggressive Japanese imports, but it has also extended the brand's reach to previously
untapped businesses as far afield from two-wheel behemoths as fashion and food. Having
largely reinvented itself, as both a company and a brand, the Milwaukee-based
motorcycle maker is now reaping the benefits of a hip, with-it image even as it prepares
to celebrate its 95th birthday next year.

With its feet firmly planted in both the present and the past, Harley offers traditional --
many say retro -- styles and the best, most-refined 1940's technology around. That
approach -- marked by ample bulk (some models weigh almost 800 pounds, about twice
that of otherwise comparable BMW machines), twin cylinders and a throaty growl -- has
been derided by high-tech motorcycling enthusiasts as an inefficient relic of a bygone era.
But to Harley's customers, the motorcycles are lovingly crafted works of art. And many
genuine artists agree. In a recent exhibit of global design held at London's Victoria and
Albert Museum, the object chosen to represent America's design sense was a Harley-
Davidson.

How Harley came back from death's door to reach this enviable state is a story of
marketing and brand enhancement that can apply as much to tools and furniture as to
motorcycles. In large part, the revival stems from a hard-eyed comparison of the
competition's strengths (in particular, the ability to quickly turn out new products studded
with high-tech innovations) with its own (a unique tradition and a powerful mystique).

The company's conclusion, said Clyde Fessler, vice president for business development,
"was to turn left when they turn right. 'Let's be the alternative and do the things they can't
do.' And that became our strategy in everything we did and still do."

That meant hitching a clearly defined marketing plan to the goal of capitalizing on the
company's special place in American pop culture, including its retro look. By finding new
ways to reach out to three core constituencies -- customers, employees and dealers --
Harley managers fanned a lingering loyalty for their products into a revived passion, one
powerful enough to prove contagious to many thousands of new buyers. Along the way,
the company reversed a painful decline in quality that caused some of its old customers to
cross the street to the foreign competition. .And it softened its outlaw image just enough
to entice a new generation of clean-cut buyers to join a club that had long been
synonymous with the Hell's Angels -- yet without taking away the frisson of excitement
that came from being a member.

Indeed, membership now doesn't even require a driver's license. Shoppers dropped $100
million last year on Harley-Davidson Motorclothes and an unknown amount on
hamburgers and other fare at the Harley-Davidson Cafe in midtown Manhattan. Even kids
can join, with toys for the boys and leather-clad Harley Barbie dolls for the girls.

The company accomplished all this by spending very little on advertising -- in fact, by
running no ads at all last year. This year, it plans to spend a minuscule $1 million on
advertising out of a total marketing budget of just $20 million.

Harley's return has almost been too successful for its own good.

Sales have grown at a compound annual rate of 16.2 percent since 1987, with profits up
even more, soaring at a comparable rate of 29.2 percent. Last year, the company reported
net income of $166 million on sales of $1.53 billion. To get to those numbers, it moved a
lot of metal, posting worldwide sales of 118,000 big bikes -- those with engines of 650
cubic centimeters or more -- up from 55,000 in 1989. This year, the company plans to sell
130,000.

But that will not be enough to satisfy demand. The appetite for Harley motorcycles is
now so strong that it can take a year or two to get one, even if a customer is willing to pay
the thousands of extra dollars that some dealers are tacking onto the usual list price of
$15,000 or more.
To catch up, the company has committed $200 million to expand production capacity to
200,000 units by 2003, its centennial year. In the meantime, the inability to meet demand
is decidedly a mixed blessing.

On the plus side, Harley enjoys some of the production economies that have made direct
computer sellers like Dell and Gateway 2000 such spectacular successes. Every
motorcycle that Harley makes has already been sold; in effect, the company is now
building to order. That means no steep inventory costs for the big bikes relating to
storage, financing and other expenses. (The company is reducing inventory costs for
spare parts and accessories in another way: through a sophisticated intranet system that
connects its nearly 1,000 dealers worldwide to a central customer data base..)

The downside to not keeping up with demand, of course, is the loss of business to the
competition. Just how much of a loss is not clear. Harley's share of the heavyweight
motorcycle market in the United States was 48.2 percent in 1996, virtually unchanged
from the 48.5 percent share it held in 1991, according to R.L. Polk & Company, a market
research firm based in Detroit. Harley managed to hold its own during that period even as
the overall big-bike market in the United States nearly doubled, to 166,000 units. But
some Harley dealers say they could easily sell twice as many bikes as they now get.

Whatever the actual number of lost sales, Harley's gap between supply and demand
represents an opportunity for Japanese and other importers to exploit, giving them that
much more of a perch from which to build their own brand loyalty.

Why the shortfall? Harley executives say they have been reluctant to expand too fast for
fear of compromising their renewed commitment to quality. But there is a "Depression
mentality" at work as well, said Christopher Hart, a management consultant in Boston
who has worked with the company. Having gone to the edge of bankruptcy twice before,
Harley's top brass are in no hurry to tempt the fates again.

The bottom line, then, is rich in irony: the senior managers of one of the most recognized
symbols of American excess -- the chrome-laden, ultraheavy Harley is known
affectionately as "the hog," after all -- turn out to be conservative keepers of the flame.

And therein lies still another lesson for managers in other industries who wouldn't know a
Harley from a Ducati: fashions change. If the hog fell out of favor before, it might fall out
of favor again. But by guaranteeing quality, rather than pushing for every last sale, the
company can count on a core group of customers to remain loyal. And by extending the
brand's good name in different directions, Harley is finding new customers who don't
necessarily want to own a motorcycle at all. In both ways, Harley's managers are tapping
into a more stable revenue stream that should help to keep the company afloat during
whatever bad times lie ahead.
The Lifestyle Hook

What kept Harley going in its darkest days, and what is driving it now in high gear, is the
plain fact that the motorcycle it makes is not just a product but rather the centerpiece of a
lifestyle -- even for its managers.

The Harley management team, in fact, has a visceral connection to the brand and to its
customers that is difficult to match in most corporate boardrooms. The senior executives
own the motorcycles and ride with their customers. Indeed, they are customers,
journeying to Harley rallies and taking their places on the same
waiting lists to get new bikes.

"We are committed to motorcycling," Richard F. Teerlink,


Harley's chairman and former chief executive, said in a recent
interview. "It's not hardware; it is a lifestyle, an emotional
attachment. That's what we have to keep marketing to."

As an American icon, Harley has come to symbolize freedom,


rugged individualism, excitement and a sense of "bad boy
rebellion."

"Harley reflects many things Americans dream about," said Benson P. Shapiro, a
consultant and a marketing professor at the Harvard Business School. "They're a little bit
naughty, a little bit nice, which is a very attractive brand image to have."

Significantly, Harley benefited from its unsought association with outlaw bikers and films
like "The Wild Ones" and "Easy Rider." Harley riders like the awe the bikes inspire at
stoplights or when groups ride into small towns. Many Harley owners and employees (at
least of the old school) feel such a bond to their bikes that they have a weakness for
tattoos of the company's logo.

Rather than quietly observe this strange cultural phenomenon, Harley executives publicly
boast about it. In the 1996 annual report, Mr. Teerlink wrote: "Most people can't
understand what would drive someone to profess his or her loyalty for our brand by
tattooing our logo onto his or her body -- or heart. My fellow employees and I understand
completely. We also understand very clearly that this indescribable passion is a big part
of what has driven and will continue to drive our growth."

Harley has marketed this emotion across a broad consumer population, from blue-collar
craftsmen and bearded, beer-bellied "motorheads" to a growing legion of chief
executives, investment bankers and high-profile entertainers, including Arnold
Schwarzenegger, Jay Leno and Billy Joel. The profile of the typical Harley owner has
steadily gone up during the past decade, in both age and household income (from 32 to 44
years and from $30,000 to $72,000), as more white-collar baby boomers have bought the
bikes to fulfill a lifelong dream. How many boomers are holding the handlebars? One
rough measure: 31 percent of all Harley owners are college grads.
Yet while catering to this new upscale market, Harley has managed to avoid alienating its
traditional customer base, the hard-core Harley lovers, whom Mr. Teerlink referred to as
"the enthusiasts." "It's an honor to be a status symbol," he said, "but status symbols go
away. We want to be part of your life."

To keep that role, Harley-Davidson has become adept at fostering "customer intimacy" --
and even extending the concept to dealers and employees. Harley's 5,500 employees, for
example, vie with each other to attend rallies and other company-sponsored events during
the year. Being a Harley employee at a rally is a "badge of honor," said Joanne M.
Bischmann, the company's marketing vice president.

Indeed, it would be difficult, said Mr. Hart, the Boston-based consultant, to find a
management team that stays as close to its customer base. "I don't know of any company,
and I've worked with all sorts of companies," he said, "where the senior executive team
goes out to the Four Corners and spends over a week riding with a group of customers to
an event celebrating the product."

And Harleys, without question, are celebrated products, functional works of art to their
owners, much like a Rolex watch, a Bang & Olufsen stereo, a Wurlitzer jukebox.

George Conrades, the chief executive of BBN, a software company in Cambridge, Mass.,
owns six motorcycles, three of them Harleys. "They are Barbie dolls for grownups," he
said, explaining the propensity of many Harley owners to spend thousands of dollars
adding customized parts and accessories to their machines.

Mr. Conrades, a former senior vice president for marketing at I.B.M., chatted rationally
about Harley-Davidson's marketing challenges -- including the need to take more
advantage of the customization craze, which the company has largely ceded to third-party
vendors. But his eyes lit up -- and emotion took over -- when he mentioned a new Harley
model. "Have you seen that Heritage Springer?" he asked. "You don't know whether to
ride it or put it in your living room. It's just gorgeous."

That kind of passion explains how Harley has been able to cross so many socioeconomic
boundaries. Its owners are buying much more than a mode of transportation. What bonds
them to the bikes -- and ultimately to each other, at rallies and other events -- is a mutual
appreciation of the look, feel and sound of the machines.

The Japanese competitors, such as Honda, Kawasaki, Suzuki and Yamaha, along with
German giants like BMW, have taken straight aim at the heavyweight or so-called cruiser
market, which accounts for about 45 percent of total motorcycle sales in the United
States. And while they have captured a bit more than half of that market -- producing
high-quality machines that look and sound something like Harleys, while costing less --
they have been unable to match the Harley mystique, at least so the Harley camp says.

"The people buying the other bikes are new to the cruiser market and don't know any
better," said Mark O'Neil, the marketing manager at Cycle-Craft, a 38-year-old Harley-
Davidson dealership in Everett, Mass. "But to those who already own a Harley, they just
laugh and say, 'Good try, bad result.' Harley's heritage evolved over a long time. You
can't just come in and say, 'We have that, too.' "

The Bumps In The Road

But for many years, from the 60's to the early 80's, it was far from clear that Harley's
heritage would continue to be a living one. Time and again, the company seemed to be
heading into a wall.

By the mid-1960's, Harley was the last of more than 200 American motorcycle makers to
survive. But poor family management, a decline in quality and the sudden onslaught of
Japanese motorcycles were all pushing it to the brink of bankruptcy. A rescue came in
1969, when the American Machine and Foundry Company purchased Harley for $21
million.

But A.M.F. saved Harley only to run it back into the ground. To its credit, A.M.F. started
by pouring millions into the company. By 1973, Harley was turning out 37,000
motorcycles a year and pulling in $122 million in sales. A.M.F. forced the company into
overproduction, however, further compromising quality. Harleys, which already had a
reputation for leaky engines and creaky temperaments, were now almost untouchable.

In the mid-70's, A.M.F. went too far when it replaced the


Harley name with its own. Apparently unaware of the
magnitude of that marketing blunder, which sent sales
plummeting, A.M.F. soon began looking to unload the
troubled company. In 1981, Vaughn Beals, Harley's chief
executive at the time, pulled together a dozen other
company officers who found outside financing and
became the new owners.

Saddled with $70 million in debt from the buyout amid a terrible recession and a
continued push by Japanese competitors, Harley-Davidson was a company on life support
for several years. It lost more than $50 million in 1981 and 1982 and by 1983 was facing
bankruptcy again.

In desperation, management publicly railed against the Japanese for allegedly "dumping"
their bikes on the American market below cost in a bid to capture a bigger slice of the
business. Harley squawked loud enough to persuade President Ronald Reagan to impose
a stiff tariff on the Japanese imports, gaining the American company some breathing
room. Ironically, at the same time, Harley executives were touring Japan and bringing
back such vaunted production methods as just-in-time inventory control and quality
circles.
Mr. Beals later acknowledged to The New York Times that after years of blaming the
Japanese, Harley finally admitted that its troubles were internal. "We realized the problem
was us, not them," he said.

With a complete make-over of its manufacturing processes focused on quality, Harley


commenced its rebirth. Desperately needing cash to finance the revival, the company
went public in 1986 and quickly became a darling on Wall Street.

Mr. Beals and Mr. Teerlink were clear with investors from the outset that the company's
main asset was its brand, which had managed somehow to survive all the corporate
miscues. The company certainly was in need of a jump-start in the marketplace, they
conceded. But, they quickly added, once it got moving again, Harley knew where it
wanted to go.

A road map had already been drawn by Mr. Fessler, now the company's vice president for
business development. Mr. Fessler joined Harley in 1977 as the advertising and sales
promotion manager and became part of the marketing strategy team in the early 1980's,
with a mandate to put a new face on the company's tarnished image.

He recently recalled a four-day strategy meeting he held back then with Harley's new ad
agency, Car-michael Lynch of Minneapolis.

"On a big piece of paper, we drew up a list of comparisons between the Japanese bikes
and ourselves," he said. "We put down all the strengths and all the weaknesses. The
Japanese were global, into long-term strategic planning, did a lot of advertising and had
great diversity in their global markets. They could take a concept from idea to product in
18 to 24 months.

"As for Harley, we had heritage, tradition, mystique. How were we going to compete
against these giants? We looked at where they had been the previous five years and were
able to project where they were going in the next five -- new engines, new frames, new
suspensions, very high-tech. So we decided to be the alternative."

Out of that decision came a number of key concepts that determined Harley's fate:

Back To The Future: Harley made a clear choice to stay with its traditional styling, a
classic 1940's and 50's design that aficionados believe motorcycles were meant to have.
In Willie G. Davidson, the grandson of one of the founders, the company had a vital link
to its design heritage. Dressed in black leather and beret, Mr. Davidson, now the 64-year-
old head of the design department, took to the road and met with Harley customers,
listening to their comments. Voicing disdain for the slick Japanese
machines, they expressed nostalgia for old Harley models and the
outlaw touches that had turned Harleys into "choppers." Willie G.
designed new lines like the Softtail to mimic the beauty and elegance of
40's classics like the Hydra Glide.
"We experimented with radical designs inside," Mr. Fessler said. "But every time we did
that, we found out the customers didn't want it and we had to fall back."

Build A Community: In 1983, at the urging of Mr. Beals, Mr. Fessler set out to create
a company-sponsored club for Harley riders. The Harley Owners Group, or H.O.G., was
started as an organization that would sponsor rallies, offer special promotions
and keep Harley owners in close contact with the company and each
other. For as long as anyone could remember, Harleys had been called
hogs, but the connotation was a negative one, of outlaw bikers like Hell's
Angels. "My thought was to turn a negative into a positive," Mr. Fessler
said. For many Americans, the sight and sound of an entourage of
Harleys roaring into town meant a nasty motorcycle gang had arrived. So
Mr. Fessler pushed hard to get H.O.G. associated with the Muscular
Dystrophy Foundation. Under the club's banner, groups would ride for
charity. Slowly, the perception began to change. Today, H.O.G. members constitute the
fourth-largest contributing group to the Jerry Lewis Telethon each September.

Give Them A Reason To Belong: At the first H.O.G. rally in 1984 in California, 28
people showed up. Today, H.O.G. has 365,000 members in 940 chapters throughout the
world. The organization sponsors hundreds of rallies around the country each year,
including massive gatherings in Daytona Beach, Fla., and Sturgis, S.D. With the Fly and
Ride program, H.O.G. members who are on vacation or traveling on business can call
ahead and rent Harleys through local chapters. And every five years, the company and
H.O.G. sponsor anniversary reunions in Milwaukee. More than 100,000 riders are
scheduled to converge next year to mark the company's 95th birthday. Already, there are
no hotel rooms available for that weekend within 100 miles of Milwaukee.

Extend The Brand: Mr. Fessler realized that legions of Harley riders in black leather
jackets and black T-shirts also hurt the company's image. Unfortunately, that is what the
company sold them. So in 1986, he launched Harley-Davidson Motorclothes, which
offered shirts with collars, denim blue jeans, baby clothes and bright-colored fashion
items for women.

At the same time, Harley began to license its popular shield-and-bars logo for hundreds of
products, from train sets to Christmas ornaments to the special edition Barbie. In Europe,
L'Oreal licensed the name for a line of cologne. Mr. Fessler insisted that the merchandise
had to be durable and high quality. The logo was licensed to a Zippo lighter, for example,
rather than a Bic disposable.

Each decision to go upscale in ancillary products led to another. Realizing that most of its
dealers were ill-equipped to sell fashion items, Harley began to require them to remodel
their stores (at their own expense) to showcase the merchandise. Despite grumbling from
a few of the 600 domestic dealers, the clothes operation has become a big success,
helping to boost sales of Harley parts and accessories, which now account for $210
million a year in revenues.
Meanwhile, the Harley-licensed restaurant in Manhattan, modeled after the Hard Rock
Cafe, will soon be joined by another, in Las Vegas. And Harley-Davidson stores selling
clothes and other paraphernalia have become familiar tenants
in malls around the country.

Mr. Fessler acknowledged some bad decisions -- like licensing


the Harley name to a line of cigarettes -- and the company's
licensing department now has strict operating guidelines. The
idea is to give people access to the Harley experience, whether
they own a bike or not. "We always ask, 'Does it somehow lead
back to the motorcycle?' " said Ms. Bischmann, the marketing
vice president.

She added that Harley toys, built by the likes of Mattel and Kenner, are an excellent way
to extend the passion for Harleys to a younger audience, and with an aging customer base,
this is a key marketing challenge. "What better way is there to get a 3-year-old to feel the
Harley motorcycle experience?" Ms. Bischmann asked.

Critics suggest that Harley is "selling out" and diluting its brand by putting its logo on so
many products. But Harvard's Professor Shapiro disagreed. "As long as they don't get
distracted from their core business, this helps build the mystique," he said. "If you don't
continually change and extend the brand, you die. If you change too much, you also die.
But I don't believe Harley has come close to burning out."

Extend The Enterprise: Even through its bleakest period, Harley has maintained
close ties to its dealers. Of the 600 domestic dealers, most have been with Harley for
decades; many dealerships have been in the same family's hands for three generations,
with one family tracing its ownership back to 1914. The company holds quarterly
meetings with an elected 10-member dealer advisory council. In July, every senior Harley
manager is expected to attend the annual dealer meeting, where new models are
previewed and problems get aired. Six years ago, the company opened Harley-Davidson
University, where dealers can take three-day courses in such topics as "How to Manage
Your Business" or "How to Create a Succession Plan."

Harley, said Mr. Hart, the consultant, is cognizant of the fact that it was the dealers who
came to the rescue as the company went through its rebirth during the mid-1980's. During
the first years following the management buyout, "the quality of the bikes was terrible
and Harley counted on the dealers to fix them," Mr. Hart said. "They went through the
war together and the dealers didn't charge the company back for any of this."

Of course, the dealers make more money from service and the sales of parts and
accessories than from sales of the motorcycles, so few are complaining. The relationships
are long, deep and symbiotic. Harley understands that the dealer is the customer's conduit
to the company. Indeed, for many Harley owners, the local dealership is a second home, a
gathering place. "I can set my watch by certain people coming in every day," said Mr.
O'Neil of Cycle-Craft.
Add Value: Like Mercedes and Porsche, a Harley holds its value to an astonishing
degree, and the company has taken advantage of that fact. In the late 1980's, Mr. Fessler
created a marketing campaign called Ride Free, designed to move owners up to bigger,
more expensive motorcycles. The company promised owners who bought new Harley
Sportsters, the entry-level bike which sold at the time for $3,395, that they could trade
them in a year later for a bigger Harley and get the full $3,395 credited toward the price
of the new bike.

There is also a huge aftermarket for Harley parts and customizing kits, which Harley
shares with legions of independent third-party "chop shops." Personalizing a Harley by
innovative paint jobs, scads of new chrome and pricey saddlebags has become its own
time-honored Harley tradition. In fact, industry watchers agree with Mr. Conrades that
Harley could get a big boost in sales by focusing on this market more than it does.

Not surprisingly, as production shortfalls over the past six or seven years have led to
waits of up to two years for new bikes, the value of used Harleys has skyrocketed and
owners can often sell their machines for more than they originally paid.

Sometimes they don't have to wait very long at all to make a profit. John Atwood, owner
of Cycle-Craft, recalled the day, some four years ago, when he sold a new Harley Road
King to a customer who then walked out the door and resold it to someone else in the
parking lot for $2,000 more. "He didn't even have the decency to leave my lot," Mr.
Atwood said. "I felt like I had a big 'stupid' sticker on my forehead."

Looking Ahead

Harley is quite sensitive to the production shortfall. A new plant, scheduled to open next
year, should ease the wait considerably. In the meantime, management watches nervously
as some dealers take advantage of the situation by adding $5,000 or more to the suggested
retail prices, inevitably turning some would-be customers off for good. Dealers like Mr.
Atwood, who have held the line on prices, believe Harley will solve the backlog by 1999.
"When Harley gets the bugs worked out with expanded production, things will explode,"
he said.

Company executives agree that the backlog is far too long. "Our mystique has never been
about being hard to get," Ms. Bischmann said. "We don't want the waits; our dealers don't
want the waits. This is just an obstacle we have to overcome."

Customers like Mr. Conrades worry that in a society of instant gratification, the supply
shortfall "gives people a reason to go elsewhere and explore the other options."

That is Harley's worry, too, of course. The big fear is that significant numbers of
motorcycle enthusiasts will opt for the Japanese competition, form
their own groups, gain their own cachet and, perhaps, even become
accepted by hard-core Harley riders. To prevent this, consultants
say, Harley must drive its brand deeper and deeper into the culture, yet without
cheapening its image.

Mr. Teerlink agrees, but he says customers will be patient as long as Harley makes it
clear that the wait is because "we want to guarantee the same level of quality."

Beyond that, Harley can always count on the staying power of its brand, and on
customers like Mr. Conrades. "If I had only one bike," he will tell you, making a vow that
sounds unshakeable, "it would be a Harley."

Leveraging The Brand

How powerful is the Harley-David-son brand? The tangible evidence is compelling:

In 1996, Harley spent not a single penny on advertising. It didn't have to. Madison
Avenue thinks the company's bikes are so cool that it puts them in ads for countless other
products, giving Harley millions of dollars' worth of free exposure. While companies paid
$1 million for each 30-second spot during the 1997 Super Bowl, 100 Harleys were on the
field as part of the half-time show, again at no cost to the company. Harley's marketing
vice president, Joanne M. Bischmann, reports that she is constantly barraged by requests
from celebrities to serve as the company's official pitchman. Since Harley has no national
television advertising and only a small print campaign , Ms. Bischmann politely declines
all requests.

With or without paid advertising, Harley motorcycles -- there are four basic categories,
with about 20 different models -- are in such demand that dealers consistently report
waiting lists of a year or longer. Even the wife of Harley's chairman, Richard F. Teerlink,
had to order a new bike nearly a year in advance to get it in time for his birthday.

The company now regularly reports record sales and


earnings each year -- $1.53 billion and $166 million,
respectively, in 1996. Harley has quadrupled production in
the past decade, to about 130,000 this year, but still can't
keep up with all the orders.

Nearly out of business in 1985 because of its own


mistakes and stiff Japanese competition, Harley now has
such cachet that its name adorns everything from a popular
Manhattan restaurant to L'Oreal cologne to a limited-edition
Barbie doll.

Harley-Davidson Motorclothes -- mixing black leather jackets with French-cut


women's underwear and fashions for tots -- is now a $100 million-a-year business. To sell
the merchandise, most of Harley's 1,000 dealers around the world have transformed their
greasy showrooms into airy boutiques.
Competitors are so intent on grabbing market share in the lucrative heavyweight class
that they sometimes try to copy Harley's styling and even its sound. Accordingly, Harley
has filed papers with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office to protect its tailpipe rumble.

Harley employees, like those in every great marketing company, take personal
responsibility for maintaining the luster of the brand. That was so much the case at Harley
that the company shut down its branding department in 1995. "We didn't need it," Ms.
Bischmann said. "We're all brand managers." Harley employees model in the company's
Motorclothes catalogue, attend rallies and act as tour guides at the
manufacturing plants. Last year, more than 60,000 visitors toured the
biggest plant, in York, Pa., where the bikes are assembled.

All this has fueled shareholder value: $100 invested in Harley


stock in 1986, when the then-beleaguered company went public, was
worth $3,488 a decade later.

Quality As A Survival Tool

"Buy a Harley, buy the best --ride a mile and walk the rest!"

In the 1970's, when Harley-Davidson was owned by the American Machine and Foundry
Company, the reputation of its motorcycles sank so low that sarcastic ditties about the
legendary bikes made the rounds of the riding community. Under A.M.F., Harley-
Davidson ramped up production sharply at the expense of quality. It almost drove the
company to ruin.

During that decade, Japanese motorcycles, known for their reliability and lower prices,
took over the heavyweight market and left the leaky and temperamental Harleys in their
dust, a relic of biker glory past.

Even Harley's cachet would not have been enough to save the day if 13 Harley executives
had not bought the motorcycle maker from A.M.F. in 1981 and turned the company
around on quality.

"Quality became our method of survival," said Ken Sutton, vice president and general
manager of Harley's engine plant in Milwaukee.

Indeed, quality has driven the Harley turnaround story more than any
other factor. By re-engineering its production process, redesigning its
engines and instituting a raft of Japanese-style manufacturing and
quality-control methods, Harley coupled its survivor's mentality with
an aggressive revitalization of its brand.

After the 1981 buyout, Harley instituted a policy of building bikes strictly on advance
orders from dealers, rather than anticipated market demand. Every motorcycle has a
dealer invoice number on it before it leaves the
factory. This policy, followed later with such tremendous success in the personal
computer market, allowed Harley to do away with vast stocks of
parts awaiting assembly by adopting the Japanese just-in-time
methodology. A continuous flow of quality parts into Harley's
factories not only reduces money tied up in inventory but drives
quality throughout the manufacturing process.

Harley employees take 80 hours of courses each year in such subjects as statistical
process control, learning techniques to enhance quality and productivity. Harley has also
instituted self-directed work teams throughout the company, from line workers to senior
management. And a continuous open dialogue with management is not only encouraged
but rewarded.
Harley-Davidson AD
EXTERNAL ANALYSIS
PESTLE

• Harley-Davidson is one of the most admired and recognized


companies in the world today.
• Academy of Motorcycling for those interested in learning to ride a
motorcycle.
• “Riders-Edge” the motorcycling academy of Harley-Davidson
introduced more than 1000 aspiring motorcyclists to the sport in
2000.
• Average purchaser of a U.S Harley-Davidson motorcycle is a
married male in his mid-forties
• Average purchasers of a U.S Harley-Davidson have a household
income of $78,600.
• Over two thirds of the sales of Harley-Davidson motorcycles are
to buyers with at least one year of education beyond high school.
• 30% of the Harley-Davidson buyers have college degrees.
• Only about 9% of Harley-Davidson U.S retail motorcycles are to
women.
• Confidence in economy is directly proportional to the purchasing
of consumer items.
• Repeat business is strong as about 42% of motorcycle
purchasers have owned a Harley-Davidson previously.
• U.S Government and People are considering Harley-Davidson as
an American icon.
• Opportunities in emerging economies [India, China] but uncertain
operating situations.
• A new assembly facility opens in Manaus, Brazil, the first
operations outside of the U.S, reduces taxes, make them more
affordable to a larger group of Brazilian customers.
• Harley-Davidson is one of the main manufacturer and user of V-
ENGINE configuration.
• Harley-Davidson’s have a wide variety of products according to
Standard, Performance, Touring & custom.
• Harley-Davidson is facing some legal problems in Asian
countries, in India there is 60% tariff and various other taxes will
cause the price of the bike to double.
• Noise pollution and some emission standards of Harley-Davidson
bike is not up to the level of some countries across the globe.
SWOT ANALYSIS
STRENGTHS

 Net income of 2003 was $760mn, its more than 30% as


compared to the previous year 2002.
 The standard and performance segments of Harley Davidson
make up 70% of the European heavy weight motorcycle market
 Harley-Davidson operates in two segments: Harley-Davidson
motorcycles & related products and HDFS (Harley-Davidson
Financial Services).
 Harley-Davidson is the only major American heavyweight
motorcycle manufacturer.
 Strong brand name.
 The HOG (Harley Owners Group), which have a 7,50,000
members world wide is the industry’s largest company sponsored
motorcycle enthusiast organization.
 Buell Riders Adventure Group (BRAG) was also formed recent
 Customization of the bikes, this is Harley-Davidson’s major
revenue maker.
 Harley-Davidson have a good marketing division and its divided
as dealer promotions, customer events, magazine and direct-mail
advertising, and public relations.
WEAKNESS
 High price
 Harley-Davidson has problems in gaining more market share in
some European countries (That’s one of the main markets for
Heavyweight motorcycles outside U.S).
 They didn’t yet start its sales in India, one of the biggest
markets.
 Required production is not met, analyzing the future of
Heavyweight motorcycle market

OPPORTUNITIES
 The European demand for Harley Davidson is the highest in the
international market and represents the single largest
motorcycle market in the world.
 Women and younger riders are increasing becoming interested in
bikes
 The international heavy weight market is growing and is now
larger than the U. S. heavyweight market
 Market share increasing in Europe and Asia for the last two years
 Increasing demand in US markets for bikes
 Customers value quality parts

THREAT
 Harleys ongoing capacity restraints caused a shortage supply
and a loss in domestic market share in recent years
 Harleys average buying age is 42 years old and increasing
 The European Union’s motorcycles noise standards are more
stringent than those of Environmental Protection Agencies in the
U.S and increased environmental stand
 Some competitors of Harley Davidson have larger financial and
marketing resources and they are more diversified
 Environmental protection laws
 Buell division needs to continue to produce a quality motorcycle
under Harley’s brand name.
STRATEGY RECOMMENDATION & IMPLEMENTATION:

 MARKET PENETRATION
 Get some more market share from the existing market, like U.S,
U.K, and Japan etc through more marketing techniques like
advertising. Harley-Davidson has a good brand name so it’s easy
for them to eat up the competitor market share if they can
provide some more customer benefit.
 Competition is high in this segment mostly in U.S so market
penetration can be a good choice for the company.
 Expand the HOG (Harley Owners Group) to Asian countries, if the
company can provide the customer satisfaction that they are
providing to the U.S customers to the Asian customers they can
increase the sales.
 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
 Younger generation and female are now coming to this segment
so expand the motor cycle segments to younger generation and
females.
 In Europe they can increase or expand the Buell’s market share
by introducing new motorcycles.
 MARKET DEVELOPMENT
 Harley-Davidson can bring in their vehicle to Asian countries like
India and China, because these countries have a high population
and the market potential is also high.
 The cost to bring in the old vehicles (old product) to India is so
much difficult because there are so much environmental laws are
there which won’t allow that type of vehicles to come to India,
and its difficult that taxes and levis are high in India so starting
new plant in India can solve this problem. Negotiations with the
Government can solve these problems.
 DIVERSIFICATION
 Bring in new vehicles to new markets like India and China is a
good choice, but it’s too costly.
 Bringing new types of recreational vehicles is a best choice.

RECOMMENDATION
 Expand European and Asian market.
 Increase the sales of Buell sport bike and Harley-Davidson to
younger customers and females.
 Horizontal diversification: acquires or develops new products that
could appeal to its current customer groups even though those
new products may be technologically unrelated to the existing
product lines.
 Concentric diversification: Bring in new recreational vehicles.
SUMMARY
Harley-Davidson is the largest market share holder of motorcycles over
750cc in the United States. Growth potential appears very good especially in
the overseas market. Gaining a larger market share in these area may require
a further increase in production and distribution capacities.plan for
expansion now and continue to grow as a company.

COMPANY DESCRIPTION In Milwaukee, William Harley, 21, and


Arthur Davidson, 20, began experiments on taking the work out of bicycling.
They were soon joined by Arthur’s brothers, Walter and William. Many
changes were made to the engine design before its builders were satisfied.
After the new looped from was finalized, they were ready to begin
production. In 1903 they produced three motorcycles. Harley-Davidson
erected its first building the current Juneau avenue site in 1906 and
incorporated in 1907. In 1907 Harley-Davidson produced 150 motorcycles.

SITUATION ANALYSIS The motorcycle market over 750cc has been


increasing over the last five years. The Harley-Davidson 1996 model year
production line, sold though a world wide network of more than 1,000
dealers, includes 20 cruiser, factory custom and touring motorcycles, as well
as police motorcycles. Harley-Davidson benefits form having one of the
world’s most recognized and respected brand names and our motorcycle
model names are among the best known in the industry: The Competition
and Market share This chart shows the competition and market share for
1995 in the United States:

Current Market Situation Overall Net sales for 1995 of $1.4 billion were
$191.6 million, or 16.5%, higher than net sales for 1994. Net income and
earnings per share from continuing operations were $111.1 million and
$1.48, for 1995 as compared with $96.2 million and $1.26, for 1994. Net
income and earnings per share from discontinued operations were $1.4
million and $.02, for 1995 as compared with $8.0 million and $.11, for 1994,
which included a $4.6 million, or $.06 per-share, one-time tax benefit related
to the legal reorganization of Holiday Rambler. On January 22, 1996, the
Company announced its strategic decision to discontinue the operations of
the Transportation Vehicles segment in order to concentrate its financial and
human resources on its core motorcycle business. The Company does not
anticipate a loss on the discontinuance of the Transportation Vehicles
segment. The results of the Transportation Vehicles segment have been
reported separately as discontinued operations for each year presented. On
November 14, 1995, the Company acquired substantially all of the common
stock and common stock equivalents of Eaglemark Financial Services, Inc.
that it did not already own. The purchase price was approximately $45
million, which was paid from internally generated funds and short-term
borrowings. The Company has included the results of operations of the
Financial Services segment ($3.6 million) in its statement of operations for
the year ended December 31, 1995 as though it had been acquired at the
beginning of the year and deducted the preacquisition earnings as part of
non-operating expense. The Company increased its quarterly dividend in
September from $.04 per share to $.05 per share which resulted in a total
year pay out of $.18 per share. Units Shipped and Net Sales The Motorcycles
and Related Products (Motorcycles) segment's net sales increased 16.5%
over 1994 due primarily to a 9,293 unit (9.7%) increase in motorcycle
shipments, as well as a 14.0% increase in its Parts and Accessories business.
The increase in motorcycle shipments is the result of ongoing
implementation of the Company's manufacturing strategy and efforts to
satisfy demand. The manufacturing strategy is designed to increase capacity,
adjust to changes in the market place and further improve product quality
while reducing costs. Sales of Buell motorcycles (which are distributed
through select Harley-Davidson dealers) increased to $14 million in 1995 as
compared to $6 million in 1994. The Company began 1995 at a scheduled
motorcycle production rate of 395 units per day. As the implementation of
the manufacturing strategy continued, the rate increased to 470 units per day
by the end of the year. The Company exceeded its production goal of
100,000 units in 1995 and anticipates 1996 production will reach at least
115,000 units. The Company is currently reviewing alternative sites for the
construction of a new manufacturing facility to enable it to achieve its long-
term goal of doubling motorcycle production by 2003. Year-end data
indicates that the domestic (United States) motorcycle market continued to
grow throughout 1995. Compared to 1994, industry registrations of domestic
heavyweight (engine displacements in excess of 751cc) motorcycles were up
11.3%. The Company ended 1995 with a domestic market share of 55.8%
compared to 56.1% in 1994. This decrease is a reflection of the Company's
constrained production capacity in a growing heavyweight motorcycle
market. Demand for the Company's motorcycles continues to exceed supply
with nearly all of the Company's independent domestic dealers reporting
retail orders on all of their remaining 1996 model year motorcycle
allocations (production through June, 1996). Export revenues totaled $394.8
million during 1995, an increase of approximately $63.6 million (19.2%)
over 1994. The Company has exported approximately 30% of its motorcycle
unit shipments since 1990 and expects to maintain approximately the same
percentage during 1996.

The Company distributes approximately one-half of its exported units


through its wholly owned subsidiaries in Germany, Japan and the United
Kingdom, which allows the Company flexibility in responding to changing
economic conditions in a variety of foreign markets. While definitive market
share information (engine displacements in excess of 751cc) is not available
in many foreign countries, the Company believes it holds an approximate
11% market share in the European markets in which it competes and a 22%
market share in the Pacific Rim. During 1995, the Parts and Accessories
business generated $292.3 million in revenues, an increase of 14.0% over
1994. The rate of increase is lower than experienced in recent years,
however, management believes the 1995 increase is more indicative of the
long-term growth potential of the Parts and Accessories business. The
Motorclothes business, which accounted for approximately $100 million of
Parts and Accessories sales in 1995, is expected to remain stable in 1996,
while the Motor Parts and Motor Accessories businesses are expected to
increase. The Parts and Accessories business is expected to grow at an
annual rate similar to the annual growth rate in motorcycle shipments. The
Company is developing an improved system to better monitor domestic
dealer inventories and retail traffic. In addition, the Company initiated
several promotional programs in the fourth quarter of 1995 to increase dealer
floor traffic and plans to continue this promotional strategy in 1996. To
further strengthen its ability to process and fill orders for the Parts and
Accessories business, the Company plans to construct a new distribution
center (at an approximate cost of $17 million). Construction is scheduled to
begin in the second quarter of 1996, and the facility should be fully
operational by the first quarter of 1997. Gross Profit Gross profit increased
$53.1 million, or 14.8%, in 1995 as compared with 1994 primarily due to an
increase in volume. The gross profit margin was 30.5% in 1995 as compared
with 30.9% in 1994. The gross profit margin was negatively affected by the
overtime incurred to produce additional motorcycle units and make up for
production time lost because production employees were involved in
numerous strategic planning sessions during 1995. Internal & External
Analysis Strengths ¨ Customer Loyalty and Following ¨ Very High Product
Demand ¨ Profitable Product Line and Market Mix ¨ Highest Market Share
for Motorcycles over 750cc in the United States ¨ Union Contract That is
beneficial to both the Firm and the Employees ¨ Significant opportunities in
the growing worldwide motorcycle market ¨ A proven management team
that’s committed to build a beneficial relationship with all of the
stakeholders for the long term ¨ Increased capacity with the construction of
new plant and distribution center Weaknesses ¨ Inefficiency due to Large
Production Level ¨ More Demand than Supply ¨ Lower Than expected Sales
in Motor Clothes ¨ Lingering biker image

MARKETING PLAN OBJECTIVES Harley-Davidson, Inc. is an


action-oriented, international company-a leader in its commitment to
continuously improve the quality of mutually beneficial relationships with
stakeholders (customers, dealers, employees, suppliers, investors,
governments and society). Harley-Davidson believes the key to success is to
balance stakeholders' interests through the empowerment of all employees to
focus on value-added activities. This value added mentality helps us to
improve our product quality. It important to us to offer the highest quality
product possible. In addition to quality we have also been focusing on
service. Many of our dealers are continuing to make major investments in
the future growth of their businesses-such as converting their dealerships
into world-class retail sales establishments through our Designer Store
program, building larger dealerships, expanding their existing service areas
or opening alternate 'satellite stores in high traffic areas. Both we and our
dealers are investing in training and education, to better serve the
motorcycling community. We will also be focusing more strongly than ever
before on new product development. With worldwide motorcycle market
growth expected to continue, we're dedicated to maintaining leadership in
our traditional motorcycle segments and gaining further penetration into the
performance market through our joint venture with Buell. We want to ensure
that while our competitors are busy copying our past work, we're re-defining
the market with exciting new products. Our new Product Development
Center, expected to be completed by year-end '96 in Milwaukee, should give
our staff the room and tools they need to maintain our market leadership.
Organization Goals ¨ By the year 2003, we will produce 200,000
motorcycles annually ¨ Complete the production of our Product
Development Center in Milwaukee by the end of 1996 ¨ Meet the demand by
expanding our existing distribution and manufacturing capacity, and where
necessary, adding new production and retail distribution points ¨ Grow Parts
and Accessories sales volume, as a percent of total revenue, for both new
and used vehicle customers ¨ Drive financial results to the levels achieved by
acknowledged high performing companies

TARGET MARKETS THE HARLEY OWNERS GROUP The


Harley Owners Group, or H.O.G., is the world's largest factory-sponsored
motorcycle organization, with more than 300,000 members and 900 local
chapters located around the globe. Besides the H.O.G. pin and patch,
membership card and H.O.G. atlas, members get treated to benefits that are
as helpful as the suspension under a Softail seat. There's Hog Tales magazine
to keep you up on club events. If you're off to certain far flung spots, our Fly
& Ride program can get you aboard a rental Harley. The owners of Harley-
Davidson motorcycles are among the most diverse group of consumers in
any industry. They range from blue collar factory workers to Doctors and
Layers. Recently our target market has shifted more toward the upper end of
the buyer market, but we will never forget where we came from. Harleys are
not just for men. Over the last decade women have become a significant
purchaser of motorcycles, especially Harley-Davidsons.

MARKETING STRATEGY The Americas Our top priority in the


United States is to grow primarily through our existing dealers. Plans for
1996 include analysis of dealer five-year plans and local market variables to
establish priorities for implementation of dealership improvements and
additions. We'll also begin to bring more consistency to our dealer network
by helping dealers improve their businesses based on a best practice model
that incorporates local market data and customer input with characteristics of
our most successful dealerships. Our second priority is to grow through new
dealers on an as-needed basis, while adding new satellite outlets where
necessary to increase customer convenience and satisfaction. These outlets,
typically located in high traffic areas, are smaller, dealer-owned motorcycle
service facilities or stores carrying mostly MotorClothes, Genuine Motor
Accessories and Genuine Motor Parts. Although still in the developmental
stages, we're allocating more resources to future growth of South and Central
America, Mexico and the Caribbean. In 1995, new dealerships opened in the
major market cities of Bogota, Colombia and Lima, Peru. We are currently
considering new markets in which to open additional dealerships in 1996 and
beyond. Europe Although our European presence goes back over 80 years,
we consider this to be a market that is ripe with new opportunities. Our
emphasis in 1995 was simply to focus on the basics by establishing Harley-
Davidson Europe headquarters in the United Kingdom and creating an in-
country management team dedicated to improving the bond between Harley-
Davidson and our distributors, dealers and customers there. The start-up of a
European Distribution Center in Rotterdam has consolidated our motorcycle
and P&A distribution under one roof, allowing us to improve service levels
and develop a stronger competitive advantage in the marketplace. To further
bolster Harley-Davidson's brand image, we've opened two flagship stores in
major markets-North London and Central Paris-and are currently studying
the feasibility of opening similar stores in other markets. Going forward, our
short-term focus will remain on improving customer satisfaction through
gradual expansion of our dealer network, conversion of more existing
dealerships into Designer Stores, improved management information
systems, better product availability and consistent pricing, enhanced
technical service training, expansion of Harley Owners Group activities and
development of new markets. Asia/Pacific This evolving market is one we're
watching very closely. The infrastructure and strategies that we've put in
place will provide a solid foundation for continued success as the
heavyweight motorcycle market grows and develops here. Findings of an
intensive market study, the early stages of which were completed in 1995,
show that short-term growth opportunities will come from existing markets
in this region-led by Japan and Australia-with long-term growth coming
from developing new markets. Like Europe, we'll also be focused intensely
on the basics to ensure consistency among our dealer network, but with
special emphasis on increasing technical service competencies. We'll also
work to enhance customer relationship-building activities through Harley
Owners Group and cohesive direct marketing and brand image-building
initiatives.

MARKETING MIX The sportster, First introduced in 1957, the


Sportster is Harley-Davidson in its purest form. It is an uncompromising
exercise in getting power to pavement. As it turns forty, the Sportster
certainly isn't experiencing a mid-life crisis. It just keeps getting better. The
Softtail The Softails offer a retro look, inspired by the classic hardtail frame,
brought up-to-date with the reliability of modern technology. These bikes
move you ahead by moving you back in time. Dyna There is a place where
the past and future mingle, taking on each other's qualities until they become
a new incarnation of the here and now. This is the land of the Dyna Glides -
with a smooth ride dictated by computer-aided engineering and a look
inspired by classic Harley-Davidson styling. Touring Harley-Davidson
touring motorcycles offer a lot more than meets the eye. Like small town
coffee shops and historic landmarks. Distant rallies and forgotten highways.
Campgrounds, sunsets, burger joints and national parks. Even
thunderstorms. And now it's all available with electronic sequential port fuel
injection on most models. Racing In his first year of superbike racing, Chris
Carr won rookie-of-the-year honors and finished twelfth in overall points,
while still winning dirt-track races. This year, he is committed full- time to
road racing and his poll position at Laguna Seca proved it. This year, he is
joined on the VR 1000 racing team by Thomas Wilson, fresh from
tremendous success in the 600 and 750 Supersport classes. On the dirt track,
Scott Parker, coming off his record sixth AMA Grand National
Championship, continues to dominate aboard his XR 750. Other Segments
Eaglemark Eaglemark began in 1993 as an independent company with
Harley-Davidson holding a minority stake. Following Eaglemark's success in
achieving our initial goals, Harley-Davidson acquired essentially full
ownership in November of 1995 to fully benefit from future growth and
value creation. Eaglemark was established to better meet the financial needs
of Harley dealers and owners, while producing attractive returns. We use the
name Harley Credit and Insurance, rather than Eaglemark, to build on the
loyalty customers have for the Harley-Davidson brand. Consistent with the
brand's image, our services aim to provide real value to customers through
one-stop shopping, fast personal service, competitive terms and a thorough
knowledge of the products we finance and insure. Parts and Accessories As
successful as our P&A business has been over the last several years, we took
some major steps in 1995-including repositioning our replacement parts and
mechanical accessories lines-to re-energize our approach and maintain our
market leadership. To address dealer and customer dissatisfaction with
backorders on popular items, we're establishing closer ties with our
suppliers, to ensure they have adequate capacity to handle demand. And the
new P&A distribution center, when it comes on stream, will help speed the
flow of parts to dealers. Ninety percent of our MotorClothes revenue comes
from the domestic market, which has become a very tough environment for
apparel sales. And we've found that our international markets have very
specific needs for fit, styling and pricing that our current broad-based line
doesn't adequately support. From these challenges come opportunities. In
1996, we're creating a global, unified MotorClothes product line, developed
by a centralized styling department. This group will develop overall
concepts, then work with regional MotorClothes managers to produce
market-specific products. We're also increasing our promotional efforts
toward the non-riding public, to attract them into our dealerships. Buell
Although still a start-up operation- approximately 1,400 Buell units were
shipped in 1995-the Buell team is continuing to explore and evaluate new
opportunities in the sport/performance market. While traditional sportbikes
utilize complex technology with the sole purpose of increasing speed, Buell's
mission is to develop and employ innovative technology to enhance the ride
and give Buell owners a motorcycling experience that no other brand can
provide. Buell expanded its 1996 model year product line by adding two new
models, the S1 Lightning and S2 Touring, to support its flagship S2
Thunderbolt. Buell also added more than 100 new dealers in 1995 (Buells
are distributed only through select U.S. Harley-Davidson dealerships),
bringing the year-end total to approximately 150. In 1996, the Buell team
will complete its study of the European sport/performance market, which is
four times larger than its U.S. counterpart, to prepare for a possible future
launch there. Promotion The majority of our advertising comes from bike
rallies and special events that are held that are held across the United States.
Rallies draw between 5,000 and 200,000 people. The majority of the
attendants are Harley owners. Harley Davidson as an organization does very
little mainstream advertising.
REFERENCE

I have taken help from the following


sites :

1. www.researchandmarkets.com
2. www.e-referate.ro
3. www.harley-davidson.com
4. www.financialexpress.com