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MB SPOTTS ro Mechel pnering othe ‘The Technological Fnatitite "vonturs User Design of Machine Elements THIRD EDITION PRENTICE-HALL, INC. Brgleod CB Nd Introduction 1, Machine design, Machi design isthe art of planning or devis ing’new ot improved machines to accomplish spovite purposes In ‘general, a machine will const of a combination of several diferent ‘mechanical elements properly designed and arnged to work together as ‘whole. During th intial planting of a machine, fundamental dele ‘ons must be made conceraing loading, typeof kinematic elements tobe sed, and correct utilation ofthe properties of engineering tnteraa eonomic consideration are usually of pine importance when the design ‘of new machinery i undertaken. In general the lowest over-all cots ‘dsired. Consideration shoo be given not only to the eost of design, ‘manufscture, ale, and installation, but also to the cost of tervicing ‘The machine should of coure incorporate the neeasay aaety feats and bo of plesing ortrmal appearance. The objective isto prodace © ‘machine which isnot only sticiently rugged to fuetion property fot & reasonable life, but i atthe eame Une chesp enough to be economically fea. ‘The engineerin charge of the design of « machine shold aot only Ihave adequate technical traning, but must be a man of sound judgment ‘nd wide experience, qualities which are ually acquired only alter ‘considerable time has been spent in actual profesional work, A start inthis diretion ean be made with good teacher while the etudent is Yet at the-univenity. However, the would-be designer must expect 10 tots substantial portion of hin training after leaving school through further reading and study, and especially by being associated in hit work with competent enginers 2. Design of machine elements. This book, asthe tite indicates, rill not dea with the Broader aspect ofthe design of complete machines, ‘ut will attempt to explain the fundarental principles required for tht correct design of the separate elements which compose the machine ‘The principles of design are of cour universal ‘The sme theory ‘oF equations may be applied to a very small part, as inn instrument, oF to a langer but similar part ued fn piece of heavy equipment. In Bp ene, however, should mathematial calculations he looked upon as sbsotute and final, They are all subject to the aceuraey of the various - Inopvomio: vemptions which must peearly be made in engineering work, Some: sag potonof the total umber of paris ina machine ar designed tine lin of analyte eleulstions. The form and size of the remaining cr fo then wualy Glermined by practical conaidertions, On the ar Arpt the mache every expensive, oi weight factor, at itt anes, decgn computations may then fe made for nlmost all the pars i purpose of the dein calculations is of course to attempt to prebet th eran or deformation inthe part order that it aay saely Pree leds which il be imposed upon it and that it may Tat for cae eetod ifs af the machine. All alulatons are, of cour, depend {he exe pcalpropertins ofthe construction materials as determined Ta boro teste A rational method of design attempts to take the eeneelssvely simple and fandazmental testa suc as tension, om ‘don corfon, ad fatigue and apply them to all the complicated and otved vutions encountered in present-day machinery. Ta sltfon i has been amply proved chat such detalles surface conlition, let notches, anfacturng tolerances, and beat trestment Panam thed Merton the strength and wefl fe of a machine part ‘The dovign and drafting departments must apecity completely all uch Duvticular, and thus exerci the noessary close control over the fished product. Tracing im rapid and accurate numerical work is iavaluble to the designer. "The desgoer should keep an accurate notebook, as iti fre aeatly necusary for him to refer to work which he has done in the pat. ete aretliy dawa to scale a also 8 necessty, and provides & ‘Gonvenieat place fr putting down a portion of the dats used in conneetion SHE the problem. It goss without saying thst all dats, astumptions, week tend ealulations ahou!d be wetten dow i fll inorder to be (Matighe when referred to at a later date. The student should start ‘Rum ouch bbits and its recoramended thatthe problemsin this bok: ‘be worked out and preserved as reference materi, Contents 1. Fundamental Principles 1 St eon. 2 Rang maa 2 Tn ad ‘ompresion tran” 4, Satelyfoetermiaie probleme In tain selon, 5\Che df wey See tm eam evans Yo. Defoton of uma HE of on casings 2, Sharing tree, 1, Trane seing ret eames, Shear and bonding some dagrans. 15. Sender compraion membersorsmas_6. Earn dnt {2 Mob Ge. 1h Sra ah Strat oto ie {Sem is Dea ham cigs Pl ‘Working Strestes| 1, Streseatenin dia 2, Stress ue v2 woman ty seiner 2 Stra omarion, Eaten Peerage a eee ge eel yaaa aro BSS iis pets Eye eeae ee SS Se ene eshte emcee cok caren Reva fh actotig na By Dem nea ‘Factor of safety. Ses cee Shafting. 1 Ten of dai ha. 2. Hager Maina se these al tered tna sin hr they ng te Haye Sate ow ene 8 Gopi 1.