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UNIVERSITY OF SULAIMANI COLLEGE OF SCIENCE DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY COURSE BOOK FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2010-2011

Contents: Course coordinator Lecturers of the course Course overview Course objectives Course references Syllabus Subjects Exams

Practical Petroleum Geology Course Book


College: Science Department: Geology Course: Petroleum Geology/ 4th year students Course coordinator: Dr. Dler Hussein Baban Lecturers of the course: Name Scientific title E-mail 1) Dr. Dler H. Baban Assist. Prof. dler.mohamad@univsul.net 2) Shadan M. Ahmed Assist. Lecturer shadan.ahmed@univsul.net Course overview: The practical course of Petroleum Geology is an application for the basics that the students will learn in the theoretical part of the course. Accordingly, the subjects of this practical course will be arranged according to the theoretical subjects and that to prepare the students for better understanding the practical problem. The student will learn in the beginning of each lab some principles in relationship with the subject of the lab. The course starts with a problem about the heat flow, thermal conductivity, and geothermal gradient as the temperature and sources of heating consider an important factor in transferring organic matters to hydrocarbons. Organic matter components, their classification, maturity, kerogen type determinations are all subjects of a number of lab problems within the title of source rock evaluation. Compaction and its consequences on migration, porosity, and pressure is a subject of more than one lab to show students the effect of this factor on expulsion and migration of petroleum. Drawing of stratigraphic and structural maps and cross sections from well data for reservoirs of clastic and carbonate natures will teach the students the differences between properties of those two types of reservoirs. Type of trap determination and plotting G/O, G/W, and O/W contacts using different methods and various types of data improves the student's skills in drawing maps and cross sections from seismic and well data. Hydrodynamic conditions affecting oil accumulations will also be taught the students in lab problems holding hydrodynamic phrase in their titles. Reservoir characterization methods like net to gross thickness determination using different cut offs or movable oil index determination from log data will teach the students how to get benefits from the principles of reservoir characterization in solving lab problems. The last subject of the course will deal with reserve calculation using methods of volumetric analysis and material balance. In these labs

students will learn how to estimate reserves at different stages of the field's life and how to calculate the factors used in the equations of reserve calculation. N.B: The course of Practical Petroleum Geology includes: 1. Practical lectures (3 hours per a week) for thirty weeks (90 hours per an academic year) 2. At least one field trip to an oil rig site to see the drilling operation and be familiar with the drilling equipments and jobs of the well site geologist. Course objectives: The main objectives of the course are: 1. Teaching the students how to use the basic knowledge that they learned in the theoretical part of the course in solving practical problems. 2. Preparing students to be familiar with field and real numerical data and to learn how to use these data practically. 3. Improving students' skills in drawing maps and cross sections using data related to petroleum exploration. 4. Teaching the students how to write comprehensive scientific reports in which the problem, processing, interpretations, and conclusions are well arranged. 5. Preparing geologists that can work with petroleum exploration teams or as a well site geologist in the national or foreign oil companies. Course References: Text books available in the College or University libraries: 1. Allen, P.A. and Allen, J.R., 1990, Basin Analysis (Principles and Applications) Ch.10, Black Well Publishing Ltd., Malden, USA, 451p. 2. Beckman, H., 1976, Geology of Petroleum Vol.2 (Geological Prospecting of Petroleum), Pitman Publishing, London, 183p. 3. Dahlberg, E. C., 1983, Applied Hydrodynamics in Petroleum Exploration, 4. Leverson, A.I., 1967, Geology of Petroleum (Second edition), San Francisco, 174p. 5. Moody, G.B. (edit.), 1961, Petroleum Exploration Hand Book, McGraw-Hill Book Company.

6. Muayyad, H. K., 1992, Geology of Petroleum Modern Basic Principles and Laboratory Exercises, Dar Alhikma Press, Baghdad, 644p. 7. North, F.K., 1985, Petroleum Geology, Bulter and Tanner Ltd., London, 607p. 8. Selly, R.C., 1998, Elements of Petroleum Geology (Second edition), New York, 470p. Useful References: 1. Badgley, P.C., 1959, Structural Methods for the Exploration Geologist, Harper and Brathers, New Yourk, 280p. 2. Baker Hughes, 1999, Petroleum Geology, Houston, 237p. 3. Chapman, R.E., 1983, Petroleum Geology, (Developments in Petroleum Science, 16), Elsevier, New York, 415p. 4. Dikkers, A.J., 1985, Geology in Petroleum Production, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 239p. 5. Halliburton, 2001, Basics of Petroleum Geology and Log Analysis, 80p. 6. Hunt, M.H., 1996, Petroleum Geochemistry and Geology (Second edition), Freeman and Company, New York, 743p. 7. Gluyes, J. and Swarbrick, R., 2004, Petroleum Geoscience, Black Well Publishing Ltd., Malden, USA, 349p. 8. Jahn, F., Cook, M. and Graham, M., 2003, Hydrocarbon Exploration and Production, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 384p. 9. Tissot, B.P. and Welte, D.H., 1984, Petroleum Formation and Occurrence (Second revised edition), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 699p. 10. Welte, D.H., Horsfield, B., and Baker, D.R., 1997, Petroleum and Basin Analysis, Springer, 535p.

Syllabus of the Practical Part Instructors: Assist. Prof. Dr. Dler H. Baban Assist. Lecturer Shadan M. Ahmed NO. Subjects 1 Subsurface temperature and Geothermal Gradient 2 Determination of the true (static) formation temperature from Horner plot 3 Source rock evaluation using palynofacies 4 Source rock evaluation using quantity, quality, and maturity of organic matters

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Representation of the evolution of kerogen (H/C, O/C, and Ro%) Evaluation of source rocks (Pyrolysis Method) Thermal maturity indication using Burial History Method (Application of Lopatin's Method) Calculation of pore pressure from shale compaction data Calculation of fluid losses from shale compaction before and after maturation Estimating the thickness of the eroded beds using Sonic log data Determination of G/O and O/W contacts from PressureDepth diagram Thinning of reservoir beds (uses of Isochore map) Stratigraphic cross section from oil well data Structural cross section from oil well data Isolated reservoir pressure systems Structural contour map & facies lines (Sandstone Reservoir) Timing of oil accumulation (Limestone Reservoirs) Type of Oil Trap identification using log data Hydrodynamic Structural Traps ( Z,V,U Method) Seismic and Well data for Oil Exploration Oil Field Development (Faulted Dome) Strip log plotting and sample correction from lag time Control of hydrostatic pressure and drilling mud density Net to Gross (N/G) pay zone determination Movable Hydrocarbon Index (MHI) Reserve calculation I (Volumetric Analysis Method) Reserve calculation II (Material Balance Method)

Lab. Subjects Lab. 1: Subsurface Temperature and Geothermal Gradient Objectives: 1. To give students information about the sources of the subsurface temperature, heat flows, and thermal conductivity of sediments. 2. Teaching students how to calculate geothermal gradient in an area and how to estimate temperatures at different depths

depending on heat flow values and thermal conductivity properties. 3. Teaching the students in a simple way the importance of geothermal gradient values in the process of oil generation. Note: the student must bring scientific calculator and graph paper to the lab. References: 1. Allen, P.A. and Allen, J.R., 1990, Basin Analysis (Principles and Applications) Ch.9, Black Well Publishing Ltd., Malden, USA, 451p. 2. Welte, D.H., Horsfield, B., and Baker, D.R., 1997, Petroleum and Basin Analysis, Springer, 535p. Lab. 2: Determination of the true (static) formation temperature from Horner plot. Objectives: 1. To give students information about the formation temperature and what true or static formation temperature means. 2. Teaching students the method of Horner in calculating true formation temperature. 3. Teaching students preliminary information about mud circulation during drilling as the calculation of the true formation temperature depends on time data obtained from mud circulation process. Note: the student must bring scientific calculator and semi-log paper to the lab. References: 1. Allen, P.A. and Allen, J.R., 1990, Basin Analysis (Principles and Applications) Ch.9, Black Well Publishing Ltd., Malden, USA, 451p. 2. Welte, D.H., Horsfield, B., and Baker, D.R., 1997, Petroleum and Basin Analysis, Springer, 535p.

Lab. 3: Source rock evaluation using palynofacies. Objectives: 1. Teaching students the different types of organic matter in terms of palynofacies. 2. Teaching students how to get benefits from palynofacies data in determining the different types of kerogen along studied wells. 3. Teaching students how to interpret paleoenvironments where deposition took place from the obtained data. 4. Teaching students how to evaluate the potentiality of the sedimentary organic matters exist within the source rock. Note: the student must bring graph paper to the lab. References: 1. Batten, D.J., 1996, Palynofacies and Petroleum Potential, in Jansonius, J. and McGregor, D.C. (edts.), Palynology, Principles and Applications, AASP Foundation, Vol.3, pp 1065-1084. 2. Tyson, R.V., 1995, Sedimentary Organic Matter: Organic Facies and Palynofacies. Chapman and Hall, London, 615 p. Lab. 4: Source rock evaluation using quantity, quality, and maturity of organic matters. Objectives: 1. To give students information about the main parameters of quantity, quality, and maturity of organic matters and their importance in evaluating source rocks. 2. To give students information about the data representing quantity, quality, and maturity of organic matters and how to use these data in evaluating source rocks. 3. Teaching students some standards and scales used in evaluating source rocks. Note: the student must bring graph paper to the lab. References: 1. Tissot, B.P. and Welte, D.H., 1984, Petroleum Formation and Occurrence (Second revised edition), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 699p.

2. Waples, D.W., 1979, Geological Notes-Simple Method for Oil Source Bed Evaluation, AAPG Bulletin, Vol. 63, No. 2, pp 239-248. Lab. 5: Representation of the evolution of kerogen (H/C, O/C, and Ro%) Objectives: 1. Teaching students the role of H/C and O/C atomic ratios in determining type and maturity of organic matters when their values plotted on special cross plots. 2. Teaching students the importance of Vitrinite Reflectance (Ro) as a maturity indicator technique. 3. Teaching students how to detect values for Ro in depths where no real measurements of Ro have been done. 4. Teaching students how to follow changes and evolution of kerogen with depth in studied wells. Note: the student must bring graph paper to the lab. References: 1. Allen, P.A. and Allen, J.R., 1990, Basin Analysis (Principles and Applications) Ch. 9, Black Well Publishing Ltd., Malden, USA, 451p. 2. Tissot, B.P. and Welte, D.H., 1984, Petroleum Formation and Occurrence (Second revised edition), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 699p. 3. Waples, D.W., 1979, Geological Notes-Simple Method for Oil Source Bed Evaluation, AAPG Bulletin, Vol. 63, No. 2, pp 239-248. 4. Welte, D.H., Horsfield, B., and Baker, D.R., 1997, Petroleum and Basin Analysis, Springer, 535p. Lab. 6: Evaluation of Source Rocks (Pyrolysis Method) Objectives: 1. To give students information about the Pyrolysis technique as one of the most important means of source rock evaluation. 2. Teaching students the main parameters obtaining from Pyrolysis methods.

3. Teaching students how to use the obtained and calculated parameters from Pyrolysis method in evaluating source rocks. 4. Making students familiar with the some cross plots and standards which commonly used in determining potentiality of source rocks from Pyrolysis data. Note: the student must bring graph paper to the lab. References: 1. Allen, P.A. and Allen, J.R., 1990, Basin Analysis (Principles and Applications) Ch.10, Black Well Publishing Ltd., Malden, USA, 451p. 2. Tissot, B.P. and Welte, D.H., 1984, Petroleum Formation and Occurrence (Second revised edition), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 699p. 3. Welte, D.H., Horsfield, B., and Baker, D.R., 1997, Petroleum and Basin Analysis, Springer, 535p. Lab. 7: Thermal maturity indication using Burial History Method (Application of Lopatin's Method) Objectives: 1. To give students information about Lopatin's method in determining Thermal Alteration Index (TTI) as a tool for determining maturity of organic matters. 2. Teaching students how to reconstruct burial history of beds from time of deposition to present using age and depths of contacts between beds. 3. Teaching students how to calculate TTI and the scale used in determining zones of oil and gas generation. Note: the student must bring scientific calculator and graph paper to the lab. References: 1. Comer, J.B., 2010, Thermal Alteration, Geochemistry of Organic Matter in Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks, Vol. 1, pp73-100. 2. Hunt, G.M., Lewan, M.D., and Hennet, R.J.C., 1991, Modeling oil generation with time-temperature index graphs

based on the Arrhenius equation, AAPG Bulletin, Vol. 75, No. 4, pp 795-807. 3. Waples, D.W., 1980, Time and Temperature in Petroleum Formation: Application of Lopatin's Method to Petroleum Exploration, AAPG Bulletin, Vol. 64, No. 6, pp 919-926. Lab. 8: Calculation of pore pressure from shale compaction data. Objectives: 1. To give students information about overburden pressure, interstitial fluid pressure, and compaction pressure which shale matrix is subjected to at different depths. 2. Teaching students how to use values of porosity in different depths to distinguish between normal compacted and under compacted zones (normal and abnormal pressure zones). 3. Teaching students how to calculate hydrostatic and excess hydrostatic pressures in the normal compacted and under compacted zones respectively. Note: the student must bring scientific calculator and graph paper to the lab. References: 1. Selly, R.C., 1998, Elements of Petroleum Geology (Second edition), New York, 470p. 2. Tissot, B.P. and Welte, D.H., 1984, Petroleum Formation and Occurrence (Second revised edition), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 699p. Lab. 9: Calculation of fluid losses from shale compaction before and after maturation. Objectives: 1. Teaching students how the volume changes due to compaction will affect expulsion of fluids from shale beds. 2. To give students information about the way calculating the volume of the fluid lost due to compaction of the shale bed at different depths before and after maturity and that from data of porosity and maturity for a given area. Note: the student must bring scientific calculator and graph paper to the lab.

References: 1. Selly, R.C., 1998, Elements of Petroleum Geology (Second edition), New York, 470p. 2. Tissot, B.P. and Welte, D.H., 1984, Petroleum Formation and Occurrence (Second revised edition), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 699p. Lab. 10: Estimating the thickness of the eroded beds using Sonic log data Objectives: 1. Teaching students how to follow compaction of shale beds from data of Sonic log (Transit travel time t). 2. Teaching students how to calculate the thickness of any eroded bed at the surface from the measured t values at different depths. Note: the student must bring scientific calculator and semi log paper to the lab. References: 1. Welte, D.H., Horsfield, B., and Baker, D.R., 1997, Petroleum and Basin Analysis, Springer, 535p. Lab. 11: Determination of G/O and O/W contacts from PressureDepth diagram. Objectives: 1. Teaching students how to use pressure data obtained from drilled wells at different depths in a field to determine gas, oil, and water pressure gradient and depths of G/O and O/W contacts. 2. Teaching students how to plot the contacts on structural contour maps and cross sections and calculating the height of gas and oil columns. Note: the student must bring scientific calculator and graph papers to the lab. References: 1. Dahlberg, E. C., 1983, Applied Hydrodynamics in Petroleum Exploration,

2. Muayyad, H. K., 1992, Geology of Petroleum Modern Basic Principles and Laboratory Exercises, Dar Alhikma Press, Baghdad, 644p. Lab. 12: Thinning of reservoir beds (uses of Isochore map). Objectives: 1. Teaching students the terms of Isochore and Isopach and how to construct Isochore map for reservoir beds from thicknesses measured from drilled wells. 2. Teaching students how to define thinning and missing of reservoir bed, G/O or O/W contacts, and type of traps from the drawn map. Note: the student must bring trace and graph papers to the lab. References: 1. Muayyad, H. K., 1992, Geology of Petroleum Modern Basic Principles and Laboratory Exercises, Dar Alhikma Press, Baghdad, 644p. Lab. 13: Stratigraphic cross section from oil well data Objectives: 1. Teaching students how to use the interval depths of the formations obtained from drilled wells and out crops to construct stratigraphic cross section. 2. Teaching students how to follow the lateral extension of the formations in the different wells during the correlation process to identify lateral facies changes or existence of unconformities. 3. Teaching students how to select suitable horizontal and vertical scales when drawing the cross section in order to get more realistic view for the situation of the beds. Note: the student must bring graph papers to the lab. References: 1. Muayyad, H. K., 1992, Geology of Petroleum Modern Basic Principles and Laboratory Exercises, Dar Alhikma Press, Baghdad, 644p.

Lab. 14: Structural cross section from oil well data Objectives: 1. Teaching students how to use the interval depths of the formations and structural information obtained from drilled wells (dip angles and directions) to construct structural cross section. 2. Teaching students how to follow the lateral extension of the formations in the different wells during the correlation process to identify missing or duplicating of beds in order to determine any faults if existed. 3. Teaching students how to determine the extension and height of the gas and oil pools within the wells and detecting the type of the trap. Note: the student must bring protractor and graph papers to the lab. References: 1. Badgley, P.C., 1959, Structural Methods for the Exploration Geologist, Harper and Brathers, New Yourk, 280p. 2. Muayyad, H. K., 1992, Geology of Petroleum Modern Basic Principles and Laboratory Exercises, Dar Alhikma Press, Baghdad, 644p. Lab. 15: Isolated reservoir pressure systems. Objectives: 1. Teaching students how to use water pressure values obtained from drilled wells at different depths in isolating reservoirs depending on differences in their pressure system. 2. Teaching students how to evaluate economically parcels of land at the surface depending on the data obtained for reservoirs in at the subsurface. Note: the student must bring graph papers to the lab. References: 1. Dahlberg, E.C., 1983, Applied Hydrodynamics in Petroleum Exploration,

2. Muayyad, H. K., 1992, Geology of Petroleum Modern Basic Principles and Laboratory Exercises, Dar Alhikma Press, Baghdad, 644p. Lab. 16: Structural contour map & facies lines (Sandstone Reservoir) Objectives: 1. Teaching students how to construct structural contour map from depth values obtained from drilled wells to top of a sandstone reservoir bed. 2. Teaching students how to get benefit from values of sand/shale ratio to construct sand/shale map and valuating the sandstone reservoir bed in the field. 3. Teaching students how to propose best locations for drilling depending on the constructed structural and ratio maps. Note: the student must bring trace and graph papers to the lab. References: 1. Badgley, P.C., 1959, Structural Methods for the Exploration Geologist, Harper and Brathers, New Yourk, 280p. 2. Muayyad, H. K., 1992, Geology of Petroleum Modern Basic Principles and Laboratory Exercises, Dar Alhikma Press, Baghdad, 644p. Lab. 17: Timing of oil accumulation (Limestone Reservoirs) Objectives: 1. Teaching students how to get benefit from values of isochore thickness and limestone percentages from drilled wells in constructing isochore and percentage maps for reservoir beds. 2. Teaching students how to use the isochore and limestone percentage map in concluding limestone abrupt areas, situation of carbonate deposition, time relationship between high areas and age of the reservoir bed, areas from which oil migrated, detecting paleohighs, and how to suggest best areas for exploration and drilling. Note: the student must bring trace papers to the lab.

References: 1. Badgley, P.C., 1959, Structural Methods for the Exploration Geologist, Harper and Brathers, New Yourk, 280p. 2. Muayyad, H. K., 1992, Geology of Petroleum Modern Basic Principles and Laboratory Exercises, Dar Alhikma Press, Baghdad, 644p. Lab. 18: Type of Oil Trap identification using log data Objectives: 1. Teaching students how to use elevation and log data for a reservoir bed in a number of drilled wells in constructing a structural cross section. 2. Teaching students how to use the mentioned data with information from structural map of the top of the reservoir in detecting the type and properties of the trap and the distribution of the oil and gas with their heights in the trap. Note: the student must bring trace papers and scotch tape to the lab. References: 1. Muayyad, H. K., 1992, Geology of Petroleum Modern Basic Principles and Laboratory Exercises, Dar Alhikma Press, Baghdad, 644p. Lab. 19: Hydrodynamic Structural Trap Maps (Z, V, U Method) Objectives: 1. To give students information about the combination of structural and hydrodynamic factors in trapping oil and gas. 2. Teaching students how to get benefits from depth and isopotential energy values of water, oil, and gas to plot maps for detecting hydrocarbon accumulations. Note: the student must bring trace papers to the lab. References: 1. Dahlberg, E.C., 1983, Applied Hydrodynamics in Petroleum Exploration,

2. Muayyad, H. K., 1992, Geology of Petroleum Modern Basic Principles and Laboratory Exercises, Dar Alhikma Press, Baghdad, 644p. Lab. 20: Seismic and Well data for Oil Exploration Objectives: 1. Teaching students how to use seismic data (two way time of waves from seismic lines) to top of any reservoir bed and information from few drilled wells in constructing structural contour map for the reservoir bed. 2. Teaching students how to use seismic data in constructing isopach map for the reservoir bed, detecting type of the trap, evaluating productivity of the drilled wells depending on their location. Note: the student must bring trace and graph papers to the lab. References: 1. Badgley, P.C., 1959, Structural Methods for the Exploration Geologist, Harper and Brathers, New Yourk, 280p. 2. Muayyad, H. K., 1992, Geology of Petroleum Modern Basic Principles and Laboratory Exercises, Dar Alhikma Press, Baghdad, 644p. Lab. 21: Oil Field Development (Faulted Dome) Objectives: 1. Teaching students how to plot a combination data including depths of bottom and top of beds, information about depths of G/O, O/W, G/W contacts if existed, net thickness of oil and gas columns, and structural data like dip and strike values, and depths of faults and their throws if existed in each well. 2. Teaching students how to use the information mentioned above in making correlation between nearby wells to follow extension of the beds, detecting the type of the trap, and determining the distribution of the gas and oil in the trap. Note: the student must bring protractor and graph papers to the lab.

References: 1. Badgley, P.C., 1959, Structural Methods for the Exploration Geologist, Harper and Brathers, New Yourk, 280p. 2. Muayyad, H. K., 1992, Geology of Petroleum Modern Basic Principles and Laboratory Exercises, Dar Alhikma Press, Baghdad, 644p. Lab. 22: Strip log plotting and sample correction from lag time. Objectives: 1. Teaching students how to use values of Rate of Penetration (ROP) during drilling operation in detecting lithologies of the penetrated beds. 2. Teaching students how to construct a strip log for the drilled well from ROP and thickness of the penetrated beds. 3. To give students information about Lag time and delay of the cutting samples until they reach the shale shaker at the surface. 4. Teaching students how to calculate lag times and determining the correct depth of any received cutting sample at the surface during drilling (especially drilling at great depths). Note: the student must bring scientific calculator and graph papers to the lab. References: 1. http://ipims.com/data/fe33/G1307.asp?UserID=&Code=3580 2. http://www.metu.edu.tr/~kok/pete424/PETE424_CHAPTER1. pdf. Lab. 23: Control of hydrostatic pressure and drilling mud density. Objectives: 1. To give students information about piezometric surface and formation pressure that must be controlled during drilling. 2. To give students information about how to increase drilling mud density until achieving the requested hydrostatic pressure in the well to control the pressure of the formation being penetrated. Note: the student must bring scientific calculator to the lab.

References: 1. Baker Hughes, 1999, Fluid Facts (Engineering Handbook), Houston, 475p. Lab. 24: Net to Gross (N/G) pay zone determination. Objectives: 1. Teaching students the differences between the effective reservoir intervals from the whole reservoir bed. 2. Teaching students how to differentiate the potential and productive intervals from the whole reservoir bed using different log data. 3. To give students information about the used cut offs in evaluating reservoirs. 4. Teaching students how to calculate the net reservoir thickness as cumulative thickness, percentage, or N/G ratio. Note: the student must bring color pencils to the lab. References: 1. Gluyes, J. and Swarbrick, R., 2004, Petroleum Geoscience, Black Well Publishing Ltd., Malden, USA, 349p. 2. http://infohost.nmt.edu/~petro/faculty/Engler370/PETR370Lchap3-netpayfromcore.pdf. Lab. 25: Movable Hydrocarbon Index (MHI) Objectives: 1. To give students information about the benefit of log data in detecting the movability of hydrocarbons in the reservoirs. 2. Teaching students how to calculate MHI from well log data and how to interpret the results and differentiate between oil and water productive zones. 3. Teaching students how to calculate other related parameters like Bulk Volume of Water (BVW), Bulk Volume of Oil (BVO), and Residual Oil Saturation (ROS) in order to well evaluate the reservoir. Note: the student must bring scientific calculator to the lab.

References: 1. Ali, J.A. and Al-Saadoni, F.N., 1990, Basic Well Log Analysis for Geologists, (Translation of Asquith, G. and Gibson, C., 1983, Second revised edition, to Arabic, Dar Alhikma Press, 338p. 2. Asquith, G. and Krygowski, D., 2004, Basic Well Log Analysis (Second edition), AAPG (Methods in Exploration Series, No. 16), 244p. 3. Asquith, G. and Gibson, C., 1982, Basic Well Log Analysis for Geologists, AAPG, Oklahoma, 217p.

Lab. 26: Reserve calculation I (Volumetric Analysis Method) Objectives: 1. Teaching students how simply calculate oil and gas reserves by Volumetric Method (without pressure consideration). 2. Teaching students how to measure the extended area of the reservoir (from structural contour map of the reservoir) and the net thickness of the reservoir (using log data and cut offs) for applying them in the equations of reserve calculation. 3. Teaching students how to calculate in place or in stock tank oil and gas reserves and the used units for expressing each one. Note: the student must bring scientific calculator, trace and graph paper to the lab. References: 1. Ali, J.A. and Al-Saadoni, F.N., 1990, Basic Well Log Analysis for Geologists, (Translation of Asquith, G. and Gibson, C., 1983, Second revised edition, to Arabic, Dar Alhikma Press, 338p. 2. Asquith, G. and Gibson, C., 1982, Basic Well Log Analysis for Geologists, AAPG, Oklahoma, 217p. 3. MacKay, V., 1994, Determination of Oil and Gas Reserves (Petroleum Society Monograph No.1), The Petroleum Society of the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, 362p. 4. http://www.fekete.com/resources/papers/reservoir_engineeri ng_geologists3_paper.pdf.

Lab. 27: Reserve calculation (Material Balance Method) Objectives: 1. Teaching students how to calculate oil and gas reserves in different pressure cases. 2. To give students information about variations in estimating reserves occurs due to changes in pressures, recovery factors, or water saturation. 3. Teaching students how to calculate reserves at the abandonment stage of the field's life. Note: the student must bring scientific calculator to the lab. References: 1. Ali, J.A. and Al-Saadoni, F.N., 1990, Basic Well Log Analysis for Geologists, (Translation of Asquith, G. and Gibson, C., 1983, Second revised edition, to Arabic, Dar Alhikma Press, 338p. 2. Asquith, G. and Gibson, C., 1982, Basic Well Log Analysis for Geologists, AAPG, Oklahoma, 217p. 3. MacKay, V., 1994, Determination of Oil and Gas Reserves (Petroleum Society Monograph No.1), The Petroleum Society of the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, 362p. 4. http://www.buet.ac.bd/dce/course_material/pdf/material_bala nce_method_presentation.pdf Examinations During practical examination the student must take in his consideration that he has to know all the equations or constant values that he learned during the course. Given information in the questions are only raw data, cross sections, maps, or log sheets with the requested items to be answered. The student must bring with him necessary tools for the examination like scientific calculator, protractor, trace and graph papers. During the course not less than three examinations will be executed of two hours duration for each. The average of the

gained marks by the student is measured out of 20 marks from the total 30 marks of the practical course. Students must expect quizzes at any lab. The average of the gained marks by the student from the quizzes is measured out of 3 marks from the total 30 marks of the practical course. Weekly report of the student at the end of each lab is checked and evaluated finally out of 7 marks from the total 30 marks of the practical course.

Example of a practical question:


From the given data below calculate the requested information:

29200 acres 55 ft 11% 42% 3020 psia 310 psia 1.61 bbl/STB 1.17 bbl/STB 28% 18%

Answer:
7758 x At x (1-Sw) Initial Oil In Place (IOIP) = ---------------------------------FVF Where: 7758 Number of barrels in 1acre/ft A Area t Net thickness Porosity Sw Water saturation FVF Formation Volume Factor

1) 7758 x 29200 x 55 x 0.11 x (1-0.42) Initial Oil in Place = -----------------------------------------------1.61 = 493 MMSTB (493000000 STB) 2) 7758 x 29200 x 55 x 0.11 x (1-0.42-0.28) OIP after volumetric depletion to Pa =----------------------------------------------------1.17 = 351MM STB (351000000 STB) 3) 7758 x 29200 x 55 x 0.11 x 0.18 OIP after water invasion to Pi = ---------------------------------------------1.61 = 153MM STB (153000000 STB) 4) Oil reserve by volumetric depletion to Pa = 493MM STB 351MM STB =142 MM STB 5) Oil reserve by full water derive = 493MM STB 153MM STB = 340 MM STB