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1.

0 Introduction

Dress code is a standard of dress establish for a given environment, as in the military,
in a school or business, or in a cultural group. It is also one of the symbols of formality.
The definition of dress code is a set of rules specifying the correct manner of dress while
on the premises of the institution (Word Web Online,1999). Example of dress code is a
combination of smart casual such as dressing that the officer’s wear when they want to go
to work. Many races in Malaysia have their own dress code to compare 1 race with
another races and its symbol of their own personality. For example Malay has baju
kurung and kebaya, for Chinese they have cheongsam and for Indian they have sari. For
many events in Western cultures, a dress code is specified, and the invitee should wear
clothes at the specified level, and, at his discretion and more formal (Wikipedia, n.d.).

1.1 Background of Problem

Nowadays, dress codes ethics in public universities become something that


students can take lightly. Almost of students in Institut Pengajian Tinggi (IPT) ignore the
dress codes ethics everyday.

Basically, public universities have their own dress codes ethics for students to
dress modestly. Thus, students should put on suitable dressing according to occasions.
However, some students are stubborn and not know of this etiquette. University’s
administration did not have other choice but to take action in order to control student’s
dressing by sending the students out of classroom, or fine them. If the university’s
administration did not take action, this problem become worse than it does and can effect
the university’s dignity and student’s future life. It also give students more freedom in
dressing, and students will dress with immature dress that conservative, not suitable and
too sexy to attend class.

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1.2 Statement of Problem

Dress code is known at all institutions. Each school, university or other institution
have their own dress code. Several, when some the student of University Teknologi
Malaysia (UTM) did not follow the dress code due to some reason. We can say that by
observing the UTM student on how their dressing during lecture time. The student’s did
not dress properly and did not follow the dress code due to the effect of overslept. They
do not have enough of time to wear properly and follow the dress code because they have
late to go to their lecture.

Sometimes, the student did not follow the dress code because they feel
uncomfortable with the dress code that had been set by University Administration. It is
also because of the student attitude. The students take easy dress code for graduated.
They did not bother at all about the dress code. They enjoy on how they are wearing.

Rarely, the student from village or rural area is also cannot follow the dress code
because they do not fell comfortable with the dress code. They feel uncomfortable to
wear something that they rarely do. Therefore, it is indeed to find and identify the reason
and the ways to overcome this problem.

1.3 Purpose of Study

The purpose of this research was to investigate the undergraduates in UTM,


specifically the second year Chemical Engineering (2SKK) undergraduates of the Faculty
of Chemical Engineering and Natural Resources (FKKKSA) dressing style during
attending their classes. Thus, this research is to analyze the number of students which
follow the dress code, student’s excuses for not following the dress code ethics, and the
benefits of dress code ethics towards students.

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1.4 Objectives of Study

The objectives of this research were:

(a) To investigate the number of 2SKK-FKKKSA student who obey the dress code that
has been set by the administration
(b) To find out the 2SKK-FKKKSA student’s excuses for not obeying the dress code
ethics
(c) To identify the benefits of dress code ethics towards undergraduates

1.5 Research Questions

This research seeks to answer the following research questions:

Research Question 1:
How many 2SKK-FKKKSA undergraduates in UTM obey the dress code?

Research Question 2:
Why the students disobey to the dress code?

Research Question 3:
What are the benefits of dress code ethics among undergraduates?

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1.6 Scope of Study

The study involved all the 2SKK-FKKKSA of the 2008/2009 undergraduates in


UTM. The participants involved in this study are consisted of Malay, Indian, and Chinese
students. The number of the participants is 50 students. Besides, the data was collected
through questionnaires which were distributed among all 2SKK-FKKKSA students, and
also through some random interviews and observations.

1.7 Significance of Study

The significance of this study is important because this finding can discover
student’s prevalence towards the dress code ethics. Besides that, this research can identify
student’s excuses that make them disobey dress code ethics. Thus, the result of this
research can emphasizes the benefit of dress code ethics towards student.

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2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter discusses the benefits of dress code to students, disadvantages of

dress code and students’ opinions about dress code. Many researchers have piloted this

subject of study. First of all, the benefits of obeying dress code are briefly explained.

Then, disadvantages of dress code will be discussed about side effects if we disobey dress

code ethics. After that, we included students’ perception about dress code that they

applied. Finally, this chapter ends with a conclusive statement.

2.2 Benefit of dress code

This part discussed about the benefits of dress code.

2.2.1 Reduce Violence

By recent studies that had been done in the past, application of dress code in

certain venue can overcome certain problems. Application of dress code can reduce

outrage that can occur among students like lowering student victimization (Scherer

1991), decreasing gang activity and fights (Kennedy, 1995; Loesch, 1995), and

differentiating strangers from students in the school building (Department of Justice,

1996; Gursky, 1996). Safety is one reason for a dress code; however, many educators

believe that a dress code also promotes a positive educational environment. In an attempt

to counter violence, many public schools implement a dress code or require students to

wear uniforms. The idea of uniforms even reached the halls of Congress when then-

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President Clinton endorsed them in his 1996 State of the Union address. After this

speech, the U.S. Department of Education disseminated the Manual of School Uniforms

to all 16,000 school districts in the nation. The manual stated potential benefits, such as

decreasing violence and theft, preventing students from wearing gang-related colors to

school, instilling student discipline, helping to resist peer pressure, helping students

concentrate on academics and aiding in recognition of intruders.

2.2.2 Increase Student Learning and Attitudes

Uniforms are asserted to increase student learning and attitudes towards school

through enhancing the learning environment (Stover, 1990), raising school pride

(Jarchow, 1992), increasing student achievement (Thomas, 1994), raising levels of

preparedness (Thomas, 1994), and promoting conformity to organizational goals

(LaPointe, Holloman, and Alleyne, 1992; Workman & Johnson, 1994). According to

Larry Wilder (November 12, 2007), other results of the research revealed that 68 percent

of the parents believed the uniform policy improved overall academic performance.

Eighty-eight percent of the parents thought the code reduced teasing between boys and

girls. Eighty-four percent felt the uniform code promoted equality between the sexes.

Perhaps most revealing was the fact that 80 percent of the girls and 62 percent of the boys

reported liking to wear uniforms.

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2.2.3 Decrease Behavior Problems

Uniforms are attributed to decreasing behavior problems by increasing attendance

rates, lowering suspension rates, and decreasing substance use among the student body

(Gursky, 1996).

2.2.4 Psychological Outcome

Many psychological outcomes are attributed to wearing uniforms including:

increased self-esteem (Thomas, 1994), increased spirit (Jarchow, 1992), and increased

feelings of "oneness" among students (LaPointe, Holoman, & Alleyne, 1992). Nathan

Joseph (1986) has formulated an analysis of clothing as communication which provides a

framework within which uniform proponents claims can be better understood. He asserts

that clothing can be considered a sign, which he defines as "anything that stands for

something else." Clothing, as a sign, coveys information about values, beliefs and

emotions. If the clothing that adolescents wear can be considered a sign, then that which

they freely choose as individuals can be seen as conveying an expression of their personal

identity. School uniforms, by contrast, are clothing which is selected by school officials

and mandated to students. It is simple in style and color and it is intended to convey the

institutional values of the school. Joseph suggests that for clothing to be considered a

'uniform' it must fulfill the following criteria: 1) it must serve as a group emblem, 2) it

must certify the institution's legitimacy by revealing an actor's status position, and 3) it

must suppress individuality (1986). Within the context of an educational institution,

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school uniforms clearly function as a symbol of membership to the school community.

The presence of a uniform in schools automatically implies a two-tiered hierarchical

structure, those that wear uniforms (subordinates) and those that do not wear uniforms

(superiors). School uniforms serve as a clear sign of this status distinction between

students and faculty and therefore, certify the legitimacy of that distinction by all

members. School uniforms act as suppressers of students' individuality by mandating

standardization of appearance and removing student expression through clothing.

2.3 Disadvantages of Dress Code

Besides the benefits of following the dress code, there are also negative effects of

dress code. Based on answer.yahoo.com, dress code stifles students' creativity in

dressing.

Besides that, for some students who do not agree with dress code will rebel to

express how they feel. On the other hand, students will make unacceptable addition or

deletion on their formal dress and this reaction will make the dress code awkward.

In addition, school uniforms are transparent, where we can see through their body

shape. If this type of school uniforms been apply on school girls, it will passionate

another students and lecturers. This may attracts male students from concentrating in

class and it will lead to sexual criminal.

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2.4 Student Opinions

Some people like the idea of a dress code, other people don't. Based on online

magazine (topics-mag.com), some people say a dress code is bad because there is no

freedom or individuality. Students like to wear simple attire and they hate to be burden by

too many rules. In addition, some students feel that the dress code were irritating because

certain attire in dress code will make them uncomfortable.

But some students think when they wear uniforms, they don't need extra money

for buying clothes. For example, if they have a school uniform, they have to wear it every

day, so they don't need to buy other dresses to wear to attend class. To wear the same

clothes is an effective way to unite people into one way of thinking. In some societies,

they want to increase their unity and power by making people wear the same clothes.

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3.0 Methodology

This chapter discusses the research design of the study. As the study objectives

were to investigate whether the students obey the dress code, the benefits of dress code

and the students’ opinion about this issue. A pilot study was conducted to gain

information from a group of respondents.

3.1 Selection of respondents

The respondents’ selection was conducted based on non-random (non-probability)

purposive sampling technique. This method was chosen because it is easier to collect the

data needed from the respondents due to the relevant knowledge and experience of the

respondents. Moreover, it is more convenient to interact directly to the respondents. The

respondents involve in this research were from Second year undergraduate Chemical

Engineering course (2-SKK) in Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Natural Resources

University Technology Malaysia (UTM).

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3.2 Research instrument

Three methods were chosen in order to collect the data for this research, which

were questionnaire, interview and observation. This study emphasizes on the quantitative

approaches in gathering and analyzing data.

Questionnaire was selected as the main data method. Interviews were conducted

to make sure the validity and reliability of the gathered information from the

questionnaire. On the other hand, observations were made in order to identify the real

problem that occurred in real situation.

3.2.1 Questionnaire

As discussed earlier, in order to gather the information, a set of questionnaire was

designed. The questionnaire was really beneficial to our investigation and study. The

questionnaire contain of a number of close-ended questions. It was also consisting of

yes/no, scale, listing, ranking, and category questions. By doing the questionnaire, it

would be easier to collect data, analyses and collate data in quantitative form.

Nevertheless, some open-ended were also included as more useful information could be

gathered.

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3.2.2 Interview

Besides the questionnaire, interview was used to support the data collected from

the questionnaire. Interview has been doing via Yahoo Messenger. The respondent was

selected randomly to be interviewed. The interview was conducted by asking the

respondent via Yahoo Messenger. The interview was done by recording the whole

interview via chatting in Yahoo Messenger, through the respondent emoticon, the

respondent react and how the respondent answering the question.

The interview was carried out on the same day after the questionnaire was

distributed to the all respondents. The researchers also make and add some other

questions during the interview session to acquire more data to complete the objective of

the research.

3.2.3 Observations

Other than questionnaire and interview, observation also has been used to collect

more data. The observation was done by observing all of the respondents on how they all

dressing. This method will acquire more specific data by observing the respondents. The

respondents could not hide their dressing because the researchers were observed all the

respondents on how they all dressing. The researchers could know whether the

respondents follow the dress code or not.

The observations were made while the respondents go to their lectures on

weekdays. The information obtained were noted down and being analyzed in Chapter 4,

Data Analysis.

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3.3 Data collection process

The data collection process of this research involved two stages that are the pilot

study and the actual study.

3.3.1 The pilot study

The pilot study has been made by distributing the questionnaire to all the

respondents. The pilot study was conducted by giving the questionnaire to UHB2422

lecturer. The lecturer was guided the researchers at the same time. The lecturer was also

corrected the errors in the questionnaire. The lecturer was asked something from the

questionnaire because she does not understand about the questionnaire. At the same time,

the questionnaire was corrected.

3.3.2 The actual study

The actual study was divided into three part; the distribution of questionnaire,

interview session, and the observations.

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3.3.2.1 The distribution of questionnaire

There were fifty respondents who were involved in the actual study. The

respondents were picked randomly. The questionnaires were being distributed

during the lectures period to all the respondents. It was taking about almost two

hours for the respondents to answer the questionnaire. After that, the

questionnaires were collected by the researchers. If the respondents got any

problems while answering the questions, the researchers will guide and help them

to understand the questionnaire. The questionnaire was bringing a lot of

information to the researchers. The responses were analyzed by the researchers as

well as to get information through the questionnaire.

3.3.2.2 The Interview sessions

One of the respondents who answered the questionnaire was selected

randomly by the researchers. The respondent was interviewed by the researchers.

The interview sessions was made via Yahoo Messenger. The conversation session

was taken about half an hour. From the interview, the researchers could extract

some other information about the dress code issue among the undergraduates

second year SKK.

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3.3.2.3 The Observations

The observation was done at FKKKSA during before and after lecture

period. The researchers were observed some other respondents during the

observation session. Furthermore, observation session could help the researchers

to obtain more information. It was also become easier to analyze the results.

3.4 Analysis of Data

The analysis of the research from the interview, questionnaire, and observation

involved some stages. The questionnaire involved three stages that are sorting; coding

and recording the data that were obtained from the questionnaire. The data that the

researchers obtain from the questionnaire were being arranged based on the question in

the questionnaire. After that, the data were being coded manually by the researcher.

Then, the data were transferred to Microsoft Windows Excel. The graph and chart from

the Excel was used to represent all the data.

Besides that, the analysis data from the interview involved four stages. First is

transcribing the interview to a simple data. Then, the data were being sorted. After that,

the data was coded and the last stage was recorded the data in Excel. All the responds that

were obtain from the respondent being analysis by the researcher.

The observations also involve some stages like the interview. Data that the

researchers get from the observation were changed to simple data. This method was used

because the researchers could easily sort the data.

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4.0 Data Analysis

This chapter discusses the analysis of data collection from questionnaires,

interview and observations of the study. The data were plotted in graphs and pie charts.

This data consisted of number of respondents who were comfortable with dress code

ethics, the number of students displayed their matric card, the way of the students dressed

when attended their classes, number of students who followed the dress code based on

days, the factors why the students followed dress code, and factors why the students

cannot follow the Smart Day (Monday) attire. This chapter also includes the analysis of

the interview session via Yahoo Messenger.

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4.1 Findings and Discussions

No
17
Yes
33

Figure 4.1: Number of Respondent Who Comfortable With Dress Code

Figure 4.1 shows the number of students from 2-SKK from Faculty of Chemical

Engineering and Natural Resource (FKKKSA) who are comfortable with dress code. This

chart shows that 33 respondents are comfortable with dress code and 17 respondents are

uncomfortable with dress code.

Some of the students were trained to follow dress codes since they were in

schools and matriculation. Therefore, they felt quite comfortable to obey the dress code

because they used to wear it. On the other hand, the respondents who are uncomfortable

with the dress code think that it were a burden to them.

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50 Respondents 46
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10 4
5
0
Yes No

Figure 4.2: The Graph of Students Who Displayed Their Matric Card

Figure 4.2 shows the number of students from 2-SKK from Faculty of Chemical

Engineering and Natural Resource (FKKKSA) who displayed their matric card during

attending their classes. The graph shows that 46 students did not display their matric card

during their classes while four students displayed their matric card.

There were several factors that students did not display their matric card. Some of

the students claimed that wearing the matric card did not affect in their academic

achievement. This is fact supported by David Brunsma, and Rockquemore, (1998) who

say there are no relationships between wearing uniform and increased academic

preparation. Besides that, the students felt that they were senior if they were not

displaying their matric card because normally, only juniors like to display their matric

card.

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ud
en
St

ts
30 27

25

20
14
15
9
10
5

Sandals Shoes Slippers

Figure 4.3: Students Attire When Attend Classes

Figure 4.3 shows the number of students from 2-SKK from Faculty of Chemical

Engineering and Natural Resource (FKKKSA) who wore sandals, shoes and slippers

while attending classes. From Figure 3, there are 27 students wearing sandals, 14 students

wearing slippers and nine students wearing shoes during classes.

Most of them preferred to wear sandals while attending classes because it is

simple, comfortable, fashionable (articlesbase.com, January 2008), and it is still obeying

dress code. On the other hand, students felt more comfortable to wear slippers when they

attended their classes because it is simple, easy to wear and flexible. Meanwhile, the

students who wore shoes were the least compared to the others. However, wearing shoes

is officially following the dress code ethics.

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Practice for Future Career

Discipline 16
15

8 6
University 5 Look Cool
good Enhance confidence
perspective in public

Figure 4.4: Factors Why the Students Followed Dress Code

Figure 4.4 shows the number of students from 2-SKK from Faculty of Chemical

Engineering and Natural Resource (FKKKSA) who follow the dress code ethics upon

some reasons. The factors that encouraged them to follow the dress code ethics are

discipline, university good perspective, enhance confidence in public, look cool and

practice for future career. From the figure, 16 students followed the dress code as a

practice for future career, 15 students thought by following the dress code it can help to

build their discipline, eight students want to maintain their institutions’ good perspective,

six students follow the dress code because they want to look cool while five students

believe that by following the dress code they can enhance their confidence in public.

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Chemical Engineering students will have career that requires them to wear formal

attire. Therefore, following dress code was a practice for their future career. Besides that,

by obeying the dress code students could help to maintain the university perspective

(shsu.edu, June 2001). University will be respected in producing the best graduates to

generate economy of the country as well as to discipline the students. Employers also will

be attracted to hire the students who have good personality in term of their attire besides

their academic achievement. In addition, students who followed the dress code are look

more confident.

Worthless Irritating
6 6
Rushing
9

30
Lazy
20
Uncomfortable

Figure 4.5: The Factors That Students Cannot Follow the Smart Day Attire

Figure 4.5 shows the number of students from 2-SKK from Faculty of Chemical

Engineering and Neutral Resource (FKKKSA) that cannot follow the Smart Day

(Monday) attire. This chart shows that 30 respondents were lazy, 20 respondents were

uncomfortable, nine respondents were rushing to class, six respondents thought that

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following dress code were worthless and six respondents thought that following dress

code were irritating to them.

Students were lazy to follow dress code because they did not want to be burdened

by too many rules and they love to dress simple. Most of the students did not follow the

Smart Day attire because they were not used to wear shirt, necktie, and black shoes that

make their foot smelly. While they were afraid if they displayed their matric card it can

be easily broken or lost. When the students overslept, they had no time to prepare

themselves with proper attire required because they had to rush to class. Some of students

believed that following Smart Day attire were worthless and were not effecting their

study while some of them believed it was irritating.


Number of Students

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15
14
13
12
10 9
8
7
6
4
3 3
2
0

0 day 1 day 2 days 3 days 4 days 5 days


Days

Figure 4.6: The Number of Students vs Days of following Dress Code in a Week

Figure 4.6 shows the number of students from 2-SKK from Faculty of Chemical

Engineering and Neutral Resource (FKKKSA) follow the dress code in a week. There are

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seven respondents that did not follow dress code for the entire week, while 15

respondents follow dress code for a day, and 13 respondents follow dress code for two

days only. Respondents who follow dress code in three and four days both are three

respondents. Meanwhile, nine respondents follow the dress code for entire week.

The students who did not follow the dress code for the entire week because they

strongly disagree with dress code ethics set by the administration. Most of students just

barely followed the dress code for one to four days in a week. This was due to Smart Day

attire and rule of laboratory that emphasis the dress code such as wearing shoes as a

precaution while doing experiments. Meanwhile, the students who followed the dress

code for entire week strongly believed the benefits of following the dress code.

4.2 The Interview Session

The previous dialogue was an interview session with one of the interviewee. From

the previous method of the study, the distribution of the questionnaire was to gain the

quantitative data. Meanwhile, the purpose of the interview session was to obtain the

qualitative data via Yahoo Messenger.

First of all, the interviewer greeted the interviewee to start the conversation. Then

the interviewer proceeded with the first question. The interviewee was being asked about

their opinion upon the dress code issue among Second year student of Chemical

Engineering (2-SKK) in Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Natural Resources

(FKKKSA) of University Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). The interviewee thought that it

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was really important to follow the dress code. The interviewee also mentioned that

students could get some benefits if they followed the dress code ethics. Meanwhile, the

interviewee said that the ladies usually followed the dress code however gents were the

opposite. This scenario occurred because the dress code set by the administrator gave

some advantages to the ladies. Generally, the attire for the ladies was ‘baju kurung’ while

for the gents were shirt with necktie and long pants especially on Monday (Smart Day). It

was common for the ladies to wear ‘baju kurung’ even if they were not going to the

classes or lectures. It was suitable for any occasion or event. However, the disadvantage

for the gent was the attire set by the administrator only suitable for them during attending

to their classes. These phenomena caused the gents to disobey the dress code. They feel

more comfortable by wearing round neck, jeans and slippers or sandals when attended to

their classes.

Next, the interviewer asked the interviewee on how to encourage the students to

follow the dress code set by the administrator. First of all the interviewee suggested the

authorities to be stricter towards the students who disobey the dress code ethics. They

should fine the students who are not following the attire rules. Other than that, the

interviewee also recommended that the staff or lecturer should be more strict with the

students. They should not allow the students who were not wore proper clothes during

attending the class. The staff should ignore and admonition those who disobey the attire

rules. Besides that, the interviewee also suggested to set up a campaign about the benefits

of following the dress code ethics toward students. This campaign could give some

impacts to the students. Some of the students maybe did not realize on how important the

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dress code ethics. This interview session took about half an hour. The interviewer

thanked to the interviewee for the information and the commitment.

4.3 Observations

Based on observations on Smart Day (Monday), most of 2-SKK students follow

the Smart Day attire because they did not want to look awkward in front of bunch of

students who followed the attire. Besides that, the students who did not follow the attire

would make lecturers targeting them to ask questions because they look obviously

different from the other students who wore proper attire.

Meanwhile, most of 2-SKK students did not follow the dress code during Tuesday

to Friday. They thought it was unnecessary to follow the dress code ethics on the other

days except Monday. In additions, the observations method was more effective to

observe the way the students really dress while attending their classes rather than

questionnaire and interview methods.

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5.0 Conclusions

5.1 Overview of Study

This research was constructed to investigate the number of 2SKK-FKKKSA

students who obey the dress code ethics that has been set by the administration. The

2SKK-FKKKSA students’ excuses for not obeying the dress code ethics were determined

and the benefits of dress code ethics towards undergraduates were identified. The primary

data were collected by designing and distributing a set of questionnaire to 50 respondents

from 2-SKK undergraduates randomly. Other than that, an interview was conducted via

Yahoo Messenger.

5.2 The Objectives

From the research questions at the beginning of the study, it is now possible to

state that this study sets out to (1) investigate the number of 2SKK-FKKKSA students

who obey the dress code ethics that has been set by the administration (2) find out the

2SKK-FKKKSA students’ excuses for not obeying the dress code ethics, and (3) identify

the benefits of dress code ethics towards undergraduates.

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5.3 The Findings

From this study, the following conclusions can be made:

i. Most of the 2-SKK students did not follow the dress code ethics that had been set

by the administration.

ii. The students who did not follow the dress code claimed that they were lazy,

uncomfortable, rushing to class, irritate and worthless.

iii. The benefits of following the dress code were as a practice for future career,

discipline, to maintain university good perspective, look cool, and enhance

confidence in public.

5.4 Implication of the Findings

As we know, most of the 2-SKK students did not follow the dress code. It may

affect to the students’ future career because employers are more attracted to the

candidates who have good appearance instead of their academic achievement.

From this study, it shows that most of 2-SKK students did not follow the dress

code. However, these findings only valid for 2-SKK students and cannot be generalized

to other courses in UTM. A larger sample in which similar methods should be used is

needed to better represent the entire university population.

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5.5 Limitation of the research

This research faced several limitations. One of them is the research was

conducted only among 2-SKK students and only 50 respondents from 2-SKK students.

This result may vary if the research was conducted with more samples because the result

will be more accurate.

Besides that, this research did not include the gender of the respondents. This

result may vary if we compare the respondents’ gender. Generally, the attire for the ladies

was ‘baju kurung’ while for the gents were shirt with necktie and long pants especially on

Monday (Smart Day). It was common for the ladies to wear ‘baju kurung’ even if they

were not going to the classes or lectures. Meanwhile, male students feel more

comfortable by wearing round neck, jeans and slippers or sandals when attended to their

classes. As a result, they refused to obey the dress code ethics.

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6.0 Recommendations

6.1 Recommendation Based on Findings

Based on the implications of the findings, there were several recommendations

that could be considered. The following recommendations could help to encourage the

students to follow the dress code such as:

1. The authorities should be more strict towards the students who disobey the dress

code ethics. They should fine the students who are not following the attire rules.

2. Lecturers should be more strict with the students. They should not allow the

students who disobey the attire rule and do not wear proper clothes to attend

class.

3. The staff should advise those students who disobey the attire rules while doing

official matter.

4. Campaigns about the benefits of following the dress code ethics toward students

should be held. This campaign could give some impacts to the students.

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6.2 Recommendations for future researches

Based on the research, there are some suggestions how to improve the future

research upon the dress code issue such as:

1. The obvious mistake made by the researchers is only specific to the men dress

code issue. The researchers also should emphasized more on the ladies dress code

in the future.

2. The observations should be carried out more frequent to gain more accurate data

and to confirm the validity of the data collected.

3. Further researches should be carried out on a larger sample which would better

represent the university or faculty population instead of taking a small population

as the sample. More accurate data can be obtained by collecting the data from a

bigger sample. The issue upon the dress code can be observed not only limited to

2SKK FKKKSA but also among all the FKKKSA students or perhaps the whole

university.

4. The interview session should be carried out on more respondents. Therefore, the

researchers will be able to get more data from the respondents.

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6.3 Final remarks

The research was carried out to know whether the students obey the dress code,

the benefits of dress code and the students’ opinion about this issue in 2SKK students. A

total of 50 students of 2SKK were selected to be the respondents of the research. The

main method of collecting data was distributed a set of questionnaires. From the

questionnaires, the information was analyzed. Meanwhile, an interview was conducted to

support the research. Other than that, some observations were made during the class

period to get some additional data.

In a nutshell, the overall findings of the research signified that most of the 2SKK

undergraduates were not following the dress code ethics. Therefore, some initiatives

should be taken as recommended earlier.

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Reference

Wilder, L. & Key, S. (2007, November 12).Helping students dress for safety and
helping students dress for success. Pros and Cons of School Dress Code from
http://www.fresno.edu/scholars_speak/key_and_wilder/

Taverner, A. (2008, January 29). 10 Reasons Why Sandals are Just Better than Shoes
Any Day from http://www.articlesbase.com/clothing-articles/10-reasons-why-
sandals-are-just-better-than-shoes-any-day-318760.html

David L. Brunsma, D.L. and Rockquemore, K.A. (1998). Effects of student uniforms on
attendance, behavior problems, substance abuse, and academic achievement. Journal of
Education Research, 92(1), 53-62, from
http://www.gate.net/~rwms/UniformBrunRock.html

Creel, J. & Stallings, A. (2001, June 15). Educators' Dress Code Study Shows Numerous
Positive Effects from http://www.shsu.edu/~pin_www/T@S/2001/DressCode.html

Mitchell, Harold, W, Knechtle & John, C (2003, Fall). Uniforms in public schools and
the first amendment: a constitutional analysis. Journal of Negro Education from
http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200310/ai_n9248747

Writing assignments. (n.d.). Retrieved February 25, 2008 from


http://www.lycos.com/info/uniform.html

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Appendix

Appendix A: Questionnaire

Research question 1:

What are the student reactions toward the implementation of smart day
dress code?

1) Do you display your matric card every day?

YES

NO

2) Do you wear tie every Monday?

YES

NO

3) When you attend lecture, do you wear

A pair of sandals

A pair of shoes

A pair of slippers

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Research question 2:

What are the perceptions of student toward the implementation of dress


code?

1) Do you find it comfortable to wear the attire suggested by the dress code?

YES

NO

2) How often do you follow the dress code in a week (including smart day)

0 day 2 days 4 days 6 days

1 day 3 days 5 days 7 days

3) Do you obey the smart day dress code perfectly?

YES

NO

4) In your opinion why students cannot follow the dress code ethics?

Irritating uncomfortable worthless

Lazy rushing

5) Do you agree with the implementation of the dress code, why?

As a practice for future career discipline

Look cool

Enhance confident in public

University good perspective


Research question 3:

34
What are your suggestions to encourage students to follow the dress
code ethics?

1) What should the UTM administration do to encourage student to follow the dress
code :

Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly


Agree disagree
• Sue the student that not follow the
rule
• move advertisement about dress
code
• emphasise more on dress code
towards students
• disallow students that not follow
dress code ethics from attending
classes
• organize the campaigns about
advantages of dress code

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Appendix B: Interview scripts

Interviewer (IR): Ubaidullah

Interviewee (IE): Saifa

IR: Assalamualaikum..

IR: Can I interview you about the dress code?

IE: ouwh, yes you can.

IR: First of all, I would like to thank you for your cooperation to be interviewed.

IR: Okay I would like to start to ask about your opinion upon dress code in UTM?

IE: You are welcome.

IE: oo.. In my opinion, it is good to have a dress code in UTM.

IE: it is because the students will wear the proper clothes to the class.

IR: But, how far does it work?

IE: erm...so far from what I have see, I think it is work for the girl.

IE: For the boy, just a few of them wear according to the dress code.

IE: Especially on Monday.

IR: Then, what do you think the reason why most of them do not follow the dress code..?

IE: hmm.. It is so hard to answer this question because I followed the code, but I think,

boys don’t like to wear formal clothes and it is not comfortable.

IR: ok...

IR: what are your suggestions to encourage all students to follow dress code ethic?

IE: erm..I think the guard should be everywhere to 'saman' the students who doesn’t wear

according to the code and in the future, they will wear the proper clothes

IE: haha….

36
IR: hooo..

IR: that is a good idea...

IE: thanks

IR: hermmmm.....

IE: this idea is base from my friends who study at UITM Shah Alam

IR: haha…okay, you may proceed.

IE: The guards will fine if they wear the improper clothes during the class time.

IR: then, any other suggestion..

IE: erm, other than that, the lecturer should not allowed the students to enter the class

IE: that all I can give to u, I have no idea right now.

IE: maybe campaign will help

IR: why do you think campaign will work?

IE: because from campaign, the UTM administrator can expose the students about the

important and the reason why the UTM do the dress code. It is for their future especially

to enter the interview and go to the work.

IR: ouwh, ok…..

IE: ok

IR: That’s all from me

IR: thank you very much for your cooperation

IE: u r welcome...

37