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. .

1976

621.039.51.15

. .
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29.VII.1976 .
3.XII.1976 .
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, 1976

1.
1.1. .

1.2. ,
1.3.

2.
2.1.
2.2.
2.3. .
. .
2.4.

3.
3.1.

3.2.
3.3.
3.4.
3.5.
4.
4.1.

4.2.
4.3.
4.4.
.

4.5.
4.6.


4.7.

5.
5.1. .
5.2. .

5.3.
5.4.
. . . .
6.
6.1. (k^,
KB .)

6.2.
6.3. ,


3
5
9
9
13
17
19
19
22
25
31
35
35
35
41
45
47
50
50
54
57
62
67
71
77
81
81
85
89
95
102
102
108
114
121



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1.

1.1. .

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- )
, ,
t
V.
v
: i> = | v | (
) ft .

v = VQ\
= 112.

N (, v, ft, /), nr,Vt QJ


( / dr
v dv
dft ft)
drdvdQ :
N(r,v9Q9f)=

Jim ^ L U J L L .
(drdvdQ)-*0 drdvdQ

(i.i)


,


.

:
< (, v, ft, i) vN (r, v, ft, t) = (r, v, /).

(1.2)


, [21].

, :
(, vt / ) $ ( , v, )dQ9
4

(1.3)

(

: , . .).
(1.3)
(, v, f) :
(, v, t) = vn (, v, f),

(1.4)

(, v, /)= N(r9 v, Q, t)dQ.

(1.3) (1.4) .
,

,
, :
1(, v, <)=$ Q<p(i\ v, t)dQ.

(1.5)


(1.3)
( )
.


(1.2).
.
, . . (, v, /),
,
, (
) ,
,
. ,

(, v)
t.
, .
, ( )

: (, v, t) s (, v) /.
, ,
,
Sn (, v) .

,
(, v, t)
.
.
,

(, V, 0 (, V)i4(0.

(1.6)

,
A (t)
.

, ( )
,
.

(, v)
.
1.
v,
: 2>t (, v) ; 2q (, v -> v')
.
.
: ,
, , (, 2/), (/, /?), (, )
. ., . .
2* = 2 + 2 / + 2 + 2 * + 2 | 2 -]-2 > + 2> + . . .

.
2 (, v -+ v')
v
v' , : ,
, (, 2) . .
[2123].
, [21]
: ?
, , ,
, ( ).
( )
,
, :
S g (r, v - v ' ) = - ^ - v 2 / ( r , v) + 2a(r, v - v ' ) .

(1.7)

, v,
% (v')} v v
2 (, v).
11

2 S (, v -v v')
: ,
(, 2/1) . .


(, v)
.
2.

.

, . . < (, v)
,
(, v) | r6R = 0 (vn ) < 0,

(1.8)

R ,
.
3.
(. .
) ,
, Sn (, v).
. 13
,
( ).

(, v, t) (. . 2)
(. . 3) , ,

,
(, v, t):
(, v, t = 0) = / (, v).
, ,
, (1.7;,
:
1 (v) =

(v) + %d (v),


X p H v S ^ r , o ) - S d - P 0 ^ ( o ' ) v 2 ; ( r , v),
/ , '
,
.

/{(v') / i,

Pi.
12

td

(V) vS, (r, ) = S S (H H (') v S/ (, o)


/

,
%\ . , ,
< (, v, t)
,
.
.
, .
1. F
J Fdv

^F(r)dr = ^F(x9y$

2)dKiyizsaW

F(p, 6, ) 2 sinQdpdQdy.

,
Vp.
2.
ft:
Jdv/(v)sijdi;JdQ/(v)e j f(v)dv,

f (v) ,
f(v)^f(v)dQ

= ^f(vf Q)dQ.

ft
/()=/(;)/4.
, , ft
4.
,
, v = 0
= < (,
10 ).
1.2. ,

(, v, /),
, - [2126]:
13

I / M y * 3 =(l-p)/p(v)Jdv'v2!/(r,
+ f dv'S,(r. v'-*-v)q>(r, V , 0-S(r,

)(,

')(,

v',/) +

v, / ) - ^ - ( , v t) +

+ S f i ( v ) X , C , ( r , / ) + S n (r, v , / ) .

(1.9)

,
Ct (, /)
, i-

*iJL=

-btCi(r,

/) + j v S ^ r , i>')<p(r, V , O d V .

(1.10)

( .)

(
) (1.9) (1.10)
(, v, /)
/>0.

: S (, v, t) = 0 (
/ > 0 ) .
(, v, t)
(, v, t = 0) Ct (, / = 0).
[23],
,
:

[f(t)] = l f(t)e->4t=}(s),

(1.11)

(, v, /)
(, v, s) s (
, ).
(, s) (1.10) (1.9).
(, v, s):
(, v, s)
V

(1-P)/P(V) + 2

fi{

Tf'

frfv'vS/(r.') X

(, v', s)Js,(r, v ' ^ v ) 9 ( r , v ' , s)dv' + S t (r, i>)<p(r, v, s) +


+ V<p(r, v, s)=F(r,

v),

(1.12)

F (r, v) *
14

(, v, s),
(1.9) :
(, v, 0 = 2" 1 [(, v, 5 ) ] ^ - 1 - ( ( , v, s)estds.

(1.13)


5, [77], s = sJf
(1.9)
(, v , / ) = 2 (, v ) e s / ' .

(1.14)

I= o

Sj
,
[21, 25, 27].
,
( )
s0. s0 ,

0 (, v), v,
(1.8).
s0 Sj,

(1.14)

0 (, v),
:
(, v, t) -> 0 (, v) exp (s0 /) / -> #
s0
( s 0 < 0 ) , (s0 > 0)
(s0 = 0). ,
s0, , .
s0

( &)
[21, 25, 28].
(s0 = 0)
F (, v)
(1.12)
X(v)J v2 y (r, 10(, v')dv' + $2 e (r, v'->v)q> 0 (r f v')dv'
- S , ( r , ) (, v ) - 0(, v) = 0.

(1.15)

,
,
15

= J 2 , (, v ' - > v) (, v') dv' - 2 , (, v) .

(1.16)

,

. (, v),
v,

.


, . (
),
.
.
(, ft). (
)
(, ft) = vS y (r)0(r)+JJ2 s (r, , -^)(, ft')dft'
-2,()(,

ft),

(1.17)

() == | (, ft) dft. (
-) ft
(
( - ): (, \i)\
1
(

[^ ^ ^ = J 2 g ( * f |1'->|1)<(*,

^^+1=^^

|'-2,(*)(*,

|i);

j S g ( r , '-^)(, ,

- ( , |i).

(1.18)

(1.19)

.
(, v),
(, v) = [ (, v) + 3Q] (, v)]/4n.
(, v) [ (1.3)]
VD(r, v) (, w) + x()Jv2 / (r > v')<b{r, v')dv' +
+ J 2S (r, v'-*v)<b(r, v')dv'-2t{r,

v) (r, v) = 0,


D (r, v) = 1/3 2, P (r, v).
16

(1.20)

1.3.



.

-


.
v ,
, v(J)I1KT = / ,
:
(
) .
(, v) -
h (v) J vS y (, v') (, v') rfv'] + J 2 5 (, v' -> v) (, v ' ) d v ' - 2 , (, v) < (, v) - QV<pk (, v) = 0,

(1.21)

X s= .
- .
, & = 1, (1.21)
(1.15), . . = 1.
,
, 9
- . ,

v (1.21)
( 1)
, .

,
, (, v). ( ,
,
.)
(
< 1 + )

0 (, v). ,

= 1/,
:
*,-1

JgL

V
17

{1.22)

(
)
s0 = o ) > 0 . (, v)
, (1.12),
F (, v)
</:

[(l-P)fp(v) + 2 ^ ^ ]

^2f(r,v')<v(r,v')dv'

+ $2 s (r, ' ^ ) , ( , v ' ) d v ' - 2 , ( f , ) ) (, v)


QVcPo)(r, v ) - 0 .

(1.23)

/v,
(1.22), 105
2* (, v) .
-
, .
{ )

,
(1.23) [21]
1-

(l-P)fp(tO + 2 n T T
%(v)
?

P i CD

^-

()=

=^X(v).

, , -
^- ^ (, v) = (, v)
, (1.21).
^-, , .
, , (
= 0).

,
( s0 < 0).
,

( ).
,
, ,
/ ,
( )
.

18

.
,
(, v),
0 - P ) / p ( v ) J v S / ( r , t ; ' ) 9 a ( r > v ' ) d v / + J S e ( r , v ' - > v ) V a ( r , v')dv'
- 2 , (, ) _ + - ^ - (, V) = 0.

(1.24)

a-

(1.12) s = ,
( Xt 0). s0/v,
-.
[39] , a = ( + )//,
, a/v, ,
.


s0 = ^/( + )> ^
.
, .
-,
[47].
,
(
) [aBe, (7, ), 262Cf . .].

X (V) J VS, (, V') 5 (, v') dv' + | 2 S (, V' -+ V) 5 (, v') d v ' - 2t (, v)'<ps (, v) 5 (, v) + Sn (, v) = 0.

(1.25)

s-n (fs


. ,
-, .
2.

2.1.


(, v). ,
+ (, v),
,
.
, 19

,
[2124].
(, v)
,
v ' ( )
(,

v) = J d r ' P v ( r ' | r ) ? ( r ' f

v).

(2.1)

q (', v) ; Pv (' | )
,
' ,
:
'

I,t(rQsfv)ds\\

Pv(r'|r)^

L6(--Z=lL-).

4 | ' |2

\ v

|' \ I

(2.2)
V

-
,
v .
( )
q (', v)
(', v')
q (', v) = J dv'2 q (rf, v' - * v) < (', v').

(2.3)

-
,
( R):
(, v ) | r e R = 0 (vne) < 0.

(2.4)

(2.3) (2.1)
:

(, v) = J dvf j dv'P v (' | ) (', v' -> v) < (', v'),

(2.5)

(1.16)
(, v).
.
(, v) q (', v),
' = Qs [/ - (2.2)1, . .
,

(. 1, ).
s = | ' |

J 4|'

J 4ns2
20

J'

(2.5)
(, v) = C dsexp

2, ( s' Q, i>)ds' X

X J d v ' Z ^ r s Q , ' - ^ ) ( s Q , v').

(2.6)

. 1. ( , v)
q(rf, v) ' ()
' ()

( s ,
2 0, ).
(2.6)
. 1, .
,
-
(1.15).
(2.6) QAs,
.
:

oo

(,

( QAs, v) __
As"
~~

-S,(r-Q<As>, v)x

; d v ' 2 L ( r - s O , v'-*v)q> +

J ds exp I J Zt (rs' Q, v) ds' jj


L As < As>, v) As] ^dv' lJq (rQ <As>, v' -> v) q>. (2.7)
[ 1 - 2 * (

As
+

21

,(s'Q, v)ds' = 1 2t(rQ<As>, v)As+ ...,

0<<As><As.
As->0
(, v) (2.6),
d<p( v) = _ 2 ! { ( > ) ( |

rs

v)+

(>

^)()

V')dv'.

(2.8)

as

, -
(1.15),
-f53L = QVcp 2q(r9v'^v)

= x(v)v2f(r9

')+ 2. (, v'-^v).

(IS

2.2.
, ,
(
) . q (, v)
(, v)
, (2.5).
2 g (, v -> v")
v, (2.3)

:
?(, v) = $ d r ' J d v ' / V ( r ' | r ) 2 , ( r , v'->v)<?(r', v').

(2.9)

(2.5)
, ,
.
(2.9) ,
=
v = wk
q (rfe, vfe),
q (', v') ',
v'. , ,
q (', v') q (vk, \h)

w (', v' | rh, vk) = / V (' | rk) 2 , (rfcr v' -* Vft).

(2.10)

: ) > (' | )
v' , , ' rfe;
) 2tf (rft, v' -> vA) rh 22

vk
v'. ,
' v' ,
,
(r'lf v[) (r'2> v'2) , ,

</(rk> yk)-
v

,
q (rk, vk) rk
vft.
,
(2.10), . .
(, v)
(rft, vA):
+(, v|r fc , vh) = Py(r\rk)2q(Th9

v-+yk)CrkVk.

(2.11)

v ( rk vh
)
(, v)
(rk> vfc)- [
<+, (. 3),
.]
Crk,vk,
, ,
v (, ,
rk vk).
(2.11)
, (, v)

v*. (, v)
'
v'. ,
, + (, v),
(, v)
:
<+(, v) = j j d r , ^ v ' c p + ( r , v | r ' , v') =
= \dr'\dY'Py(r\r')2q(r'9

v->v')Cr^'.

(2.12)



, , .

(, v)
q (', v') ,
23

(2.12)
Cr\vf-
(2.11), ,
(, v)
Pv (r\rk) 2 g (rfe, v-^v f t )
rk xh. ,
,
q (', v') ',
v \ , Crk, vk -
, rk
Vfc, (, v)
(rfc> vfc).
,
(2.11) q(r, v)
v. (2.9),
q (rfe, \k) CVfe, vh, . .
Crk, vk = drd\q>+ (r, v | rft, vfc) q (r, \)lq (rft, \h) = /(r fc , yk). (2.13)
, Crk,vk rk vfe
/ (rft, vft),
+ (, v) rft, vk)
q (rkt vh)>
, . .
(, vft).
/ (rfc, \k)
+ (*, vfc)
. (2.12):
q (, v)
v, (2.9),
J d r j d v 9 ( r , v)q>+(rf v ) = J d r ' | d v ^ ( r ' ,

v')Cr>9*9

. e. Cr\v' + (', v').


, ,

. ,
,

.
,
, -
- (, , , ,
!) , ,
, , .
^
, ,
24

(
. . [1]),
(, v), , .
-

... .
(
) ,
, . , ,
(., , [3, 8,
22, 3136),
.
, ,
(, v)
(', v')
(2.11) :
+
(2.14)
+ (, v | r ' , v') = Pv ( | ') 2 (', V-* v') (', v'),
Cr\v'.
(2.14) ' v'
(2.12), ,
( )
+(, v) = Jrfr'5dv'Pv(r|r')S Q (r' f v-*v')q>+(r' f v'). (2.15)
,
,
(2.5)

.
2.3. .

. (2.15),
. 2.2 ,
+(, v).
,
(2.5) (2.4).

,
()
.

+ (, v) | r R = 0 (vne) > 0 .
(2.16)
,
(2.4).
25


(2.15) (2.5)
.

Pv 2 g ,
: , ', v, v', -.
(2.5)
',
(2.15)
(. . 1, , ). , (, v)
(2.5) (', v'),
+ (, v) (2.15)
+ (', v').
(2.5) (2.15)
(2.4) (2.16)
(, v) + (, V)
.
.
3.

,
, (2.15).
+ (, v) (2.15) ,
(2.8) (, v).

. 2.1 (2.8) (2.5).
, ' Pv
- [. (2.2)] (2.15)
, ,
v
, . . ' = + sft (.
. 1, ). ( :
' = sQ.)
(2.15) :

"~|

+(, v ) - C dsexpl ^ 2 t (r-f s'Q, v)ds'

x $ d v ' 2 9 ( r + sQ, v-^v')cp + (r + sQ, v ' ) .

(2.17)

: ,
v,
+ ( + sQ, v'), '
v'.
[36], , ,
.
(2.17), - ,
26

. 2.1
(2.6) (2.8). + (, v)
s , (2.17)
-

V)

= j V s g ( r - > ' ) + ( , v ' ) - S , ( r , v)<f+(r9 v),


(2.18)


-QVq>+ = vS y (, v) I % (v') + (, v') dv' +
+ J 2 S (r, v -

v') + (, v') dv' - 2, (, v) + (, v).

(2.19)

, -
+ -
(1.15) (1.16)
V H V ' B ,
. *, ,
, + (, v) (, v)

.

.
, (2.19) + (, )
QVq>+ (, Q) - v2y () + () + jj 2 S (, -> ') + (, ') dQ'
- 2 , ( ) + ( , ),

(2.20)

+ () s J + (, ) dQ (1.3)
.
(2.20) ,
(1.17)
:
+ (, ) -

(, ) + () - ()

(2.21)

[ , 2 S ( -+ Q') = Z 8 (Q' -> 0)1.



.
(1.3) (1.5):
+ (, v) = ^ <+ (, v) dQ;

j+ (, v) = + (, v) dQ. (2.22)

(2.22), + (, v) =
= [+ (, v) + 3Qj + (, v)]/4n. (2.19)
+ (, v):
27

V>(r, ))+(, t;) + vS y (r, t/) jjx(f') + (, i > ' ) ^ ' +


+ CS s (r, ->') + (, v')dv'-I>t(r,

)+(, i>) = 0.

(2.23)

, (2.23) (1.20)
(, v)
, .
.

(
),
,
-.
( = 0)
,
.
, (1.20) (2.23),
%(v)Q + ^8(v'-+v)Q>(v')dv'-2t(v)<t>(v)

= 0\
(2.24)

vlf (v) Q++[ 2 S (v-+v') + (v') dv' 2t (v) + (v) = 0.


( = 0 ) , Q Q+
Q = jj vS y (v) (v) dv\

Q+ = J % (v) + (v) dv.

(2.25)

(
),

J 2 (<;'-> ) (v')dv' = CZ(v)\
I 2 S (v -> v') + (vf) dv' = 2 S (p) Z+ (u),

(2.26)

Z (v) [57]
1- (. [22, 30])
[
Z + (v)
]; = const.

^

x(v)Q + Z(v)C .

v2f(v)Q+ + 2a{v)Z+(v) ^

(2

2?)

% (v) v exp (v2) [22]



. 2 , (v)

(v) [53]. , 28

,
.
+ (v)
, (
)

. (
, Z + (v), -

10

10

W'1

10 ,

10

10' 105L%dB

. 2.

+ (
)
(),
()
() ( .
[51, 52, 54, 62])

v ,
.)
+ (v) , ,

.
,
, .

,
(. 2)
. + [.
(2.11)]: , , v 2 g (v-+v')9
;
29

2 f (), . . P v ,
.
, ,
,
( ).
, + ()
()
1. (2.21)]. dy+/ds

. 3.
+ :

; (, ) (, )
( [22, 36, 67]).

s .
(2.18),
(2.19)
_ * = [vlf (, v) + 2 S (, v)-2, (, v)} <+>

(2.28)

as

<+> + (v).
2 2 S
2 7 , (2.28) .

,
[. (1.15)1

2 , (, v).

(
)

[22, 36].

< (, v) + (, v) . 3.
30

2.4.

+ (^, v0)

0 v0
q (, v)
.
+ (, v) [. (2.15)]
q (, v) [. (2.9)1
. ,
. ,
' Q :
Q = J dr$dvq (, v) = J dv j dv S e (r, v) (r, v),

(2.29)

q (, v) [ (, v)]
, Q.

. q (, v)
+ (, v), ,
, ,
J dv j dwq (, v) + (, v). Q,

(, v)
< (, v ) > c p S ^ r ^ v 9 Q + ( r , v) 9 (r, v)/^dr^dvq(r,

v ) = l . (2.30)

,
,
. .

,

. 8 (r0, v0)
0 v0, 4 (, v | r0, v0)
(, v),
<? (0, v0) :
(0,

)=*1*'*\**'*)

(, v)
^

(ro>

o)

J dr0 J dv 0 (r 0 , v 0 ) ^ ( r 0 , v 0 )

^ ( r o,

o)

( 2 3 1 >

, ,
2 (, v), ,
(0, v0),
31

(> v0) = ^dr^dy2A(r9

)(,

v|r 0 , v0) =

= (,, v0) = -iq>tf(r Uf vu),

(2.32)

A = | dr Jdv 2A (r, v) (r, v)


, .
a (r0, v0)
(r0, v0)

:
$dr$dvqtf(r, v)<7(r, v)ssjdr 0 $dv 0 a(r 0 , v 0 )?(r 0 , 0) = .

(2.33)

(2.32),

+ (, v),
.
,

.
2* (
2 , , ...,
) [26].
,
,
, ^-
( = 1/) a- (. . 1.3).
(, v) (1.21)
(, v) (1.24)
(1.15), v Xv [ (1.21)1
2j (Zt a/v) [ (1.24)]*.
,
(1.21) (1.24), -
,
(1.15),
.
- a-
,

. + (, v)
(2.19). ^-
* - % (v), (1.15),
(1 )/ (v),
(1.24). ,
.
32

(1.21),

MvZ,(r, f)$X(v')<P+(r, v')dv']+ 2, v-*-v')9+(r,

v')dv'~

2, (r, v) + (r, v) + QVq>+ (r, v) = 0,

(2.34)

- X = .
-
(1.24),
vZ,(r,o)$(l-P)/ p (v')q>+(r,v')dv' +
+ $S s (r. v--v')q>+(r, v ' ) d v ' - 2 t ( r ,

)+(,

v) +

+ + (r, v) + + (, v) = 0.

(2.35)

,
- -
(2.19) .
5-
(. . 1.3),
, Sn (, v)
.
(1.25).

(, v),
(r0, v0) = J drPVo (01 ) 2 (, v0) +
+ $ drPVo (01 ) $ dv\ (, v0-> v) (, v).

(2.36)

(r0, v0) 2 (, v)
,
2 (, v0), 2 (, v0->v)
v, ,
, q% (, v) .
(2.36) - ,
. 2.1 . 2.2 .

v2,(r, tOjxOOqtffr v')dv' + $2 s (r,

+ ')5(,

V)dV-

- 2 , (, iO<pi(rf vJ + QVqtf (, v ) - - 2 (r, v).


33

(2.37)


(, v),
2 (, V).

,
.
<ps (, v)

Sn (, v),
, ,
q>s (, v),
Sn (, v) .
, (1.25)
5 =$2 (, v ' - > v ) 9 s ( r , v / ) d v / - S t ( r f t ; ) 9 S + S n (r > v), (2.38)
(2.37) :
- 1 = $ 2 ( , v-*v')qtf (, v ' ) d V - 2 , ( , ) ^ + 2 ( , v).

(2.39)

(2.39) (2.38)
(, v) ^ (, v)
v. , ,.

^^[^5 + 51]-^^15./-^^25.(2.40>
(2.40)
()
do:
Jdv$drdiv(Q<p;i ys)=\do\dv\dQ(Qn)q)X

<ps = 0. (2.41>

Q .
, Q q>s
(2.4), ft,
, }[ (2.16).
(2.41) (2.40)
= jj dr $ dv 2 (, v) 5 (, v) = J dv $rfvq>$ (, v) Sn (, v), (2.42)
. . ,
(, v),

<pi (, v).
34


, [1,7,21,
24, 26, 36].
3.

3.1.


, - .
, ,
, ,
.

, ,
.

,

, , ,
.

(
) .

.

,
[25]. ,
,

,
, ,
, . (
, : [71, 78] ,
125, 73 76, 79] .)
3.2.
.
,
,
, , . .
, , .
j| || = + Y*% + 2 + z2 ,
||||. 35

,
( ), ,
, , | | .

, : = \ + \ + azk.
<, > = +
+ + azbzy
cos (, ) = <,1 >/1[ || II b || .
,
:
<, b> = <b, >; <, (gb + r)c)> = g <, > + | <,>.
(),
,
(
).
( > 3). ,
:
la|| = V<a, > = 1 /

af

f(H)

; <, >= < ! , & , .

Ufa+fiZi

(3.1)

+ fibg

-**. 4. f(x) (
)

,
,-: = ^ + 2 2 + ... +
^ = (0, 0, ..., 1, 0, ..., 0), 1
/- .
- -
/- 36

.
- , ,
.

. , . ,
. .,
.

,
.
/(*),
^ : ^ (. 4).
8, xt
/ ()
: / (), /(* 2 ), / (*3), ..., / (*J- /- f et,
, "j/e/ (xt) = ft:

f-S/ie,.

(3-2)

,
n- (3.1),

<f, g > = i *H*i)e(xt)-

(3.4)

n 8 ,
f (), (3.3) (3.4)
:

11/11 = 1 / $[/(*)

(3.5)

<f>g> = lf(x)g(x)dx.

(3.6)


(
). *
* (3.3) (3.6)
.
37



:
cos<(/, g) = </, g>/||/Hl;
(3.7)
,
.
, (3.5) (3.6)
,
:

> 0 ; | | / 1 ; 11/ + 11<11/11 + 11;


</, > = <,/>; g>Kll/Hlgll;
</, ( + )> = 6< > + </, >.

(3.8)
(3.8)
(3.8)

( (3.5) ,
. . .)

/ (:) - f

, -
.
(3.3) (3.4) -> . (3.86) ,
:
||/(*)|P=lim 2 eP(xi) = {p(x)dx<

+ co.

(3.9)

(3.5) (3.6)

(, ),
.

*.
, , ,
, f(x)
:
/W=S/ie,.

(3.10)

* , ,
,
(
),
.
38


2 , ,
^ (),
(. .
) (3.7),
, . . || || [( (3.5)], .

^ ^
:
/
1
sin
= ( ) : ; ^.

cosnx
=r>

1
=1,2,3...

/ ii\
(3.11)


.
(3.9)
:

/ \
^
/ \
, ^ / cos . Q sin * \ /Q
12)
/1 = 0
2 = 1 V
I
0, fin ,
(3.12) :

/ = </, > = \f{x)^dx


J

=
J

[f(x)S-^dxt

(3.13)
< -, 7-> = 6^ ( ).

,
,
.
.
,

. ,
, ,
/ ()
g ().
L,
f{x)
g(x):
Lf(x)=g(x).
(3.14)
:
L
i / = i (, ...) = / (, ...) + (*, . . . ) ; LJ =
39

= (> ) = / (*> ) (:, ...);


L3^ = g-3 (, ...)== f (, ...); [
, / (;, /, )] L4/ = g4 (> z)
= J (*, tjy z) f (xt y) dx . . [ (, ...), h (, ...),
(, ) ]. ,
:
Uf = eb(x> > *) = - - / ( * . > z) + h(x9 y)Xf(x,
ox
^dxdyf(x,

, )

, ...)-

, ,
,
,
.

, ,
( ) g: {gX7 gy, gz}
- ( )
f: {/, fyy fz)
:

^ ~ / + *^xz> tz

ey^Lyxfx
ez

+ Lyyfy + Lyzfz

\.

Ix + L>zy 1 + fz

(3.15)

f g
:

f.
Ltj ( < Lij < )
f g:
Ln L12 L13 \
L21 L22 L23 | .
(3.16)

L31

L 32

L 33 J

, f g
L f:
L u L12 L13
L21 L22 L23
(3.17)
^31

^32

^33

,
. .
* i = 2 Ujfj

( f = l , 2, 3).
40

(3.18)


,
,
, ft
/ () ( )
gi g () ( )
gi= ZUjfj
oo

. e.

g(x) = ^ gi*i(x)=
;=i

(*=1. 2... oo)f

(3.19)

2 2

i;/; e iW- e fj=<f> ei>-

/ = l / = l

(3.20)

3.3.

,
, ( )
.

L () + )# ()] = () + r\Lg (),

(3.21)

I \ , / () g ()
. (,
,
!) .
, . .
, ,
[ (3.9)], .
(3.19),
||#|| ||/||:

2
2 1 < <=1
2 L \ /2= i // \ / 2
= i \/=1
=i

2 2 4
. .
L, *:
||Lf = 2 2 / < > ,
* :
{/}.

41

(3.22)

|| L || = sup || L/ || / || / ||

[71, 78] , L
, . . / ()
(*) /2 (*) :
gk () ""^* (*) ,
.

, :
: = + , / = / + /;
: = , / = X (/);
: = , / = (/), . .
/ (:) , .
: .
,
.


.


.
= :

c=2 4 V

(3-23)

.
1. I
: I/ = /. ,

, .

- [77]:
lf(x)=S8(x-t)f(t)dt=:f(x).
2. L - 1
L, :
[L- 1 L = I; L- 1 L/ () = / (*); LL" 1 = I.
,
.
,

()-1 = - 1 " 1
( , :
, !).
4

:
L/ () = g (), / () = L" 1 ^ ().
L
L - 1 . ,
.

. L = { ; }, Lr 1
= {lij}/A, ltj ( ) -

. 5.

Ljt L, L.
,

, [ (3.22)]
, (I )
[72]:
(I _ )- 1 = I + + 2 + 3 + ...
(3.24)
3. L +
L ( ).

,
(. 5).

, . . = cos /^ (/ /),
. (,
.)

(
)

43

, ).
L + ,
, .
1) ,
L ( Lj^ssL/i), L+
, L.
2) L+ , L, :
||L + || = ||L||.
3) L L ,
(L+)- 1 = (L- 1 )*.
4) :
(L+)+ = L; (L + )+ = L+ + +; ()+ = ++.
5. ,
,
:
</, lg> = <L+/, g\
(3.25)
,
*.
,
,
:
Lf = f(x, y...)xh(x,
...), ]
+
L / = /(*> y...)xh(x,y...)
= Lf;
L/ = p(#, ...)f(x,

...),

L+/ = (

(3.26)

L/ = C/C(*, y)f{x)dxy

^f =

\K{x,y)f{y)dy.

4. ,
(
):
) [/ (:)] = < / (:), h ()>\
) T)L [/ (), g ()] = < / (), Lg (*)>,
h () L , / () g () ,
[79].
* :
L+ = L. , ,
,
44

3.4.

. , ,
:
L/ () = / ().

(3.27)

,
ft () Xit
L. ft {)
(3.27) ,
L, Xt
( ).
-
. (3.27) ,
,
. - La =

(L n X) + L12 2 + ... + L ln = 0; ]
(3.28)
a

L n i i + L n2 2 + . + () = 0. ]
ak,
.
X :
+

Cifr-i

+ = 0.

(3.29)

(3.29)
{Lj7-},
(, , Xt)
-
:
2 , - - ^ - - 2 ^ ;

^ = (-1) = | < ; |. (3.30)

Xt (3.28)
ai, . . <<>: {[1\ ^\ ..., {).
,

{LJ} = {L/J

L+ L .
(3.28)
,
L+ (/>.
45


, ,
ft () ff ()
Xt kj (
):
(L - h) ft () = 0; (L+ - Kj) ft (*) = 0.
(3.31)
ff(x)>
ft () ,
<//(*), L M * ) > - < L + / / ( * ) , ft (x)> = {bt-bj)<fi(x)>n(*)>-

(3-32>

5 (. . 44) (3.25)
. ,
L L + ,
Xiy :

<, //(*={ ; [1:

(.)

Ni , / / + :
Kj ( ) ||L||,
|| L||>|| Lft ||/||/, || = | ^ | (. . . 41), (3.30)

, | - / | < .
Kif
0,
,
.
/ 0 () /+ ()
, , .
0> f0(x), fo ()
.

( Kt) L .
0
/ ()
.
^- (. . 1.3)
[58]
kt ft (),
:
() = 2 ck fk (*), ck = (z (), tf (*)> - J - .

(3.34)

(L - XI) y(x)=g
(),
(3.35)
46

y(x) = (L-Xl)-ig(x).

.
(3.36)

(L XI)'1
{), (3.24),
, || || = || L A | | < 1, . . ||L|(
<5 \\. (3.35)
g(x)
()== _ - ^ [ l + L A + (L/X)2 + ...]gW.

(3.37)

Xt
|L||, (3.31)
. , | ^ | ^ | | L | |
(3.31) ft(x) ft () X = Xt.
() (3.35)
,
g(x):
<*(*). ft(x)> = 0.

(3.38)

, (3.35) ft(x) ( X = Xt):


<(L-bt)y, ft> = (g, ft).
(3.39)
(LXt) ,
(3.25)
L,) yt ft> = <y, ( L + - * , ) / ? > .

(3.40)

L+ft=^ifty
(3.38).
(3.35)
178].
( ):
(3.35) ,
(3.31)
g ()
fk () .
(3.31) .

, [71, 7578] .
3.5.
,
, (, v)
+ (, v).
47

: {:, , ) [
(2.4) (2.16) ]
: 0 < vx, vyy vz < 1>- ,

(
, ) [21,
25].
+ (1.15)
(2.19) :
Fy = J % (v) v2 y (, v') (, v') dv'\

(3.41)

Zy = J 2 S (, v' -> v) (, v') dv'\


= 2^ (, v) (, v);

(3.42)
(3.43)

= ( v)^v
:

(3.44)

0 = (F + Z) = J 2 , (, v' ^ v) (, v') dv';

(3.45)

1 s ( + Y) = 2^ (, ) (, v) + ; (3,46)
= (L Z) = ( + Y Z) .
(3.47)

:
(1.15) (1.16)
(F G) = 0 (Q L) = 0;

(3.48)

^- (1.21)
(KF - G) = 0;

(3.49)

S- (1.25)
(F - G) 5 = - Sn (, v);

(3.50)

- (1.24)
(Fp-G)ya=-

(3.51)

[ F p F (3.41) % (v) % (v)].



+ (, v), ,
(3.26)
(3.41) (3.47). (2.18), (2.19), (2.34), (2.35),
(2.37) :
48

(F+-G+)cp+ = 0; (Q+-L+)<p + = 0; (F+-G+)cpl = 2A(r, v);


(3.52)
+
(XF+-G+)cp = 0; (F p -G+)cpcN=- <p.
(3.53)
, ,

,
. ,
(3.49)(3.53)
( ),

( 0 , %'
\NU

= '

+ 1

\ 0, '
[Na% = '
(3.54)


l/v F.

</, > = J dx tyvf (, v) g (, v) = jj dr
Vp

S ^ S d Q / (r> " >fl) (r> . 0).

(3.55)
, ,
-

.
. . [41],
. . [15, 24, 42], . . [25, 82, 83]
.
, ( ,
)
(
)
( ,
).
,

( ) ,

<^ = (rh9 vt) /" =
= + (rm> vn). ( X ) , ,
(, /), (, ).

, ,
.
49

4.

4.1.

-

,
. ,
(, v)
. ,


.
, , ,
^ < 1. ,
-
,

. .
(
) .
,
,

,
( ) ,

- < (, v)
<+ (, v).

,
.

,
: , .
-
- (. 6).
. 6, ( ).
(2.4) ,
,
(
):
* =

* D

^-3 = D

-^-

( \)

:
Vw
50

(. . 6) ,
( ).
,
. -,
,
(
).

. 6.
:
;
( Vw
Sw)\
( ,)


, ^-
(. . 1.3), . .
( > 1, . . X < 1),
.

(2.4),
. .
,
. ,
51

.
(4.1) .

, . (1 X < 1 1 < 1),
(1.21)
, .
,
(
) .

,
. (
)

, .
Sw


, . .:
S w (r > v) = 5 [ S q ( r > v ' ^ v ) - S g ( r f v ' ^ v ) ] 9 ( r f v ' ) d V -l%(r,v)-2t(r,v)]q>(r}v).
(4.2)
(. . 3.5)
Sw (, v) = (6Q 6L) Sw (, v) = (6F 6G) <, (4.3)

6 Q E = Q - Q ; 6L = L L; 6F = F F;

6G = GG.

(4.4)

Q, F, 2^ . .
.

,
(1.25) (3.50):
( F - G ) 9 s = - S u , ( r , v),
(4.5)
, Vw
Sw(r, v),

( -
Vw).
( ),
, . 6, .
( )
,
(, ,
). , -
(. . 6, ).
52


(. . 6, ).
, 3
, [22].
5 (. . 6, )
(. . 6, ) ,
1 1 5 | | / 1 1 1 ~ 3 ^ Swdrdv
I Qcpdrdv.
(4.6)
,

, . . 6Q 6L Q, [. (4.3)]
1|/||||~^ . 3 .
(4.7)
, ~ 1 %
, cps,
, ~ 3%
. , ,
, -
<ps 3%
(23 )
.
, 100%*!
q>s

,
. 6, . ,

.
,

( , !)


.
, ,
, .
Vw
, ( X) ,
F , < 1. ,

,
(4.2),
. . :
^ drUv<p+(r,v)Sw(r,y)

= (l-K)

J dr$dvq>+(r,v)Fq>, (4.8)
V

* ,
.
53

. 3.5:
< + ,

Sw> = (1 - X) < + , F<p>

(4.9)

[, < / , g> (3.55)


, :
Vw Sw = 0, F = 0 1/.3].
, Sw (, v)
(4.3),
+ :
* 1 _

( 1

?__

<+>^>

<9+,(6F-6G)9>

< + > >

&

< + >

( 1 ) ^ <-,(-)>
<+,

(4.10)

>

>

(4.11)

4.2.

, . 4.1,
,
,
.
.
. Vw
,
(,
) . .
Vw < Vpy .
- .

Vw. , , S g , Ht ( ^ 0),
v -
.
,
( )
(4.2) Sw (, v), ,
, ,
(
X > 1).
[ / = 0, 2 = 0,
2 s (v' -> v) 0]
Sw ^ 0. ^
: + (v) :g + (v').
(
,
). 54

,
- .

(
, ,
. .).
,
, , .
(
), 2 2 ^
.

,
- . .
.

.
< (, v) (2.4) + (, v) (2.16)
,

<+,(_)(^>=^^(+

+ +)

(42)


[. . 2.4, (2.40) (2.41)].
G L ,
:
8G = G - G - ( C ) (Z Z); 6 L = L L = C . (4.13)
(, 5,
, .)
- .
,
,
: ,
, ,
,
,
. . (. [7, 24,44, 53]).
.
,
.

:
55

[ (v) v2, (, v')] - (X (v) v2, (r, v')]-[% (v) vZ, (r, i;')];
6[2 s (r,v'^v)] = 2 s ( r , v ' - > v ) - 2 s ( r , v ' - > v ) ;
6[2t(r9v)] =

(4.14)

t(rtv)-2t(r9v).


*.
,


:
62 (, v'-* v ) = S {Mh () ok (v'-> v)+[Nk (r)+Mh ()] 6ah (V -+ v)>.
k

(4.15)
8Nk () k
, : 8Nk () = Nk () Nk ();
6 (v'-> v) :
ton = ok (v' ->- v) aft (v' -> v).
6Affe :
,
, , ,
, ,

. .
8ok (v' ->- v)
: ( -
) , -

(., , [44,
45, 139, 140]) , ,
-
(, -),
, (
,
k).

.

.
(, )
6.
2 / , v, % ().
56

4.3.


,
(
)*, (1.21), (1.24), (1.25)
(3.49) (3.51).
( [61, 63])
- **.
Vp9
(2.4) (2.16).
2^ It ( 2, 2 5 , 2^)
, v', v. , (, v)
(3.49), F G
(3.41) (3.47):
( X F - G ) 9 ^ = 0.
(4.16)

(3.53) -:
(XF+-G + )cp = 0.
(4.17)
(4.16) (4.17)
, 0, 1 2, ...,

: 0, q>i, <2, ... <+, +, +, ...
;+
[ (3.54) ^-]:
? . , > = { __0' \1:

,__

..

(4.18)

,
( ) / (, v),
0 < < ,
, . 3.3:
f(r.v)=2*ft<P fc (r,v) f

= ^<Vif,F/>.

(4.19)

, ,
0(, v) (4.16),
* ,
, ,
(
) .
**
. 4.7.
57

^ *.
0 (, v)
,
^- (
).
(4.17)

0 + (, v), ^
v


(, -) .
[21, 25, 58], 0(, v) " (, v)
,
,0 (.
. 1.2) ,
[74, 77].
(4.16)
(4.17) 0 +
<0) + ( ), A<>
<>, . .
(0) ( ) v )

(> v ) ;

+ (| v )

+ ( v ) ;

(0)

0.

(4.20)

,
, ,
v ,
,

(4.14) .

^ (, v),
( X F - G ) 5 r = 0.

(4.21)

^-
, .
* (4.16), . .
-, - L,
G = L Z [. (3.47)]. L ~ I>t + QV
, ( ).
L [25, 41] L - 1 ,
Pv (' | ) [. (2.2)]. (4.16)

= (. L: (I - L-1!)-1
L" 1 F
|| || < . = l/Aj.
jx0,
0 ( . 3.4),
0. , \i0 = 1/,0 = 58

:
6F = F F; = 0 G,

(4.22)



6,=W>;

6cp = q L ().

(4.23)

(4.22),

(4.21),

<> (0)

.

,
.
,
, < 1:
6F->e-(6F);

6G->e.(6G).

(4.24)
:
6 = X> - + <2> 2 + 83 + ...;
= ~(>- (1) + <2)2 + (3) 3 + ...

(4.24)
(4.25)


<
,*> (1> (, v). (
Xt ^ !).
(4.21)
(4.24) (4.25)

W> + | j W)enW + e.(6F)MG + e.(6G)]U9<>+ 2 ^ 6 ") = (4.26)


, 8 = 0 (4.16)
[ (4.20)], = 1
(4.21),

59

-= W< + W + <2> + X(3) 4 - . . . ;


JjL = (0) + (1) -j- (2) + (3) + ...

(4.27)
(4.28)

,
, ^ ,
(4.21), , .

.
< 1 (, ~0,1),
(4.26) ,
,
:
8 = 0 (W> F G)q><> = 0;

(4.29)

(G X()F)9<1> = (6G M>6F)9<> + X^FcpW;

(4.30)

82

( G _ (0))(2)

_ ( 6 G _ ,(>)<1> + X^(Fcp^

+ 6Fq><>) + W8>F<p<>;

(4.31)
2

83

(1)

(2)

( _ <>)<8> = (6G X<>6FW > + ^ ( +


+ ^>) + <2> (FyW + ()) + <3><>
. .
:

\ = G ;

(4.33)

(4.34)

W^ = 6G X(>6F.

(4.32)

( X
%w = k0 .)
(4.30) (4.32) ()
1\<p<"> = - S n .
(4.35)
(>
(4.35)
Sn
Sn=Wx <"~*>% [<*> (?&"-*) + 8<*-*- )]_()(0). (4.36)
, Sn 1
, . .
, (4.30), *1)
<0)
[. (4.20)]. Sn
<*> k = 1 k = ,
.
60

. (4.35)
(. . 3.4) ,
, , ^
: <Sn, > = ,
, . .
Tf < = 0 , (4.33), (XF+ G+)q>Z = 0.

(4.37)

(4.37)
+ [. (4.17)].
(/)
<+, 5> = 0. ,
*) (), (4.19)
,
0, . .
00

q>M(i\v)= V cft<pft(r,v),

(4.38)

(> [. (4.28)] (0)



.
(4.38)
<+, Fq><n>> = 0.
(4.39)
(4.18).
, (4.36) + ,
+
< Sn> = 0 (4.39)
^)<+,()> = <+,\</-1)>"^ [ ^ ( + ^ - * - ^ ) ] .
(4.40)
(4.30) (4.32)
:
( 1 ) =

=
<3)

+ I

()

<+, ( 0 ) >

< +,1<>)

<+,<>>

'

+, W^ >>_( <+, <>>};

( 4 4 1 )

(4.42)

= 7 4 ^ - + ' W * <2) >-^ (1) <+> 6Fq><>- <+, 8F<p<>>}.


<+, ^'>

(4.43)
, ()
<*> 1.
& (0)
,
(4.16). (0) ,
Si".
61

Sx = Wx<p0 AWcpW,
(4.44)
(4.35) (4.30), . .
<<>. (4.42) <2>, . . S 2 ,
<2> . .

() () :
((^^+)^^1)-^(51)-^(1)->(2)-^(52)-^(2)->^3)->...

(4.45)
, ,
,
( 0=,(0),
0 = <> + =
= 2"), ()
<>,

- (, v)

[ (4.27)
(4.28)].


, ^
: , , <+.
,
- .
,
,
( /),
- .

. 4. 1

(4.11).
, W*, 6G 6F,
8 (1> = X 1.
4.4.
.

. 4.3 ,
( F, G, , +)
(6F, 6G)
^ ^
.
: (, , ) 62

() [ (4.35)],
\ ,(2>(3)
^ .
*1) (, v) 1-

,
. ,
, :
, (KB
. .), .].
, , ,

(G X F ) $ r = 0.

(4.46)

.
-, W1* (
) (4.41)
: (X ,)
II /1| || , || 6F II 11| F II
. ,
, (4.46),
G - G + 6G; F - F + 6F;
%= + 6; = + .

(4.47)
(4.48)

(4.46)
[(G + 6G) (X + ( + 8F)](q> + ) = 0.

(4.49)

(4.49)
(G < = 0

(4.50)


+ ,
6?>==

<+> (6Ga,6F)y> + < y +, (G-A,F)69> + <9+,(SG-X6F)69>


<+, >+<+, > + <+, > + < +, >

, (4.34): WA, = (6G


X6F),

(+. \ ) ^
<+, F >

<+,

\ ) + <+, ^)

<+, > + +, > + <+, 6>'

<+, (G )> = <(G+ +)(+, ) = 0,


(4.28) (4.39)
< +, 6 ) = 0,
63

(4.53)

(4.52) :
<+, F >

1 + <+, >/<+, >

= W1) [ 1 + 0 (/) + ( F/F) + ( )]

(4.54)

6, = (+0(6/)],

( ^ <9 + ' ^ )

(4.55)

<+, F >

(6,)* 8
( (1>), (6,)*

+ ( F = F + 6F).
( , . . 6F = 0,
(^)* = ^ (1) ).
(6,)# = +
, , :
= || ||/|| ||S || ( 11/1 || > || + I/I

<*>

|.

(4.56)
(1

, , >
,
\\). (4.56)
,
:
g a ( | | 6 G | | + M 6 F H ) HG-Ml.
(4.57)
g
, [74] , [81],
:
<2/(1-2).
(4.58)
(4.28) , , (4.27)
, ] < 1. (4.58)
: | < 1/4.
. ,

*. ,

1 = %0+* + 0(\
~ <),| =

0 ( 1 ),

(4.59)
(4.60)

, ,

* ,
;
, < 0,1, 0,1,
64

,
.
, ,
, . .
6, =
= (& 1)/*. W*,,
,

: , + , . :
,
,
, KB, . .,
q^1).

,
.
-, ,

(,), (4.35) (4.30) (1).

Sn * (4.46),
. . - = 0. , (4.35)
,
. .
[19]. ,
/ / = q [, (q, +> = 0 ,
(. . 3.4), / !], . .
( G - * F ) / = ?;

f=(Q-X?)-%

(4.61)

:
G~lq;

G/l = XF/0;
G/2 = A.F/i;

Gfn'=mn'-i

1
h = 0-1 (;

- = G- (^F/ );
1

(4.62)

/n~G-W-i).

G~\ (G A,F)-1, [80],


G ,
[. (3.42), (3.43), (3.47)] 2 , 2 S ,
* (4.46)
(4.35),
Sn - 0, 1| F<pn || / || F<p_x II -> [15, 21, 24, 42].
6S

*,
(
F , , \). Ffn
fn ( ).
(4.62) ( ),
(G-kF)n4fk = q-Gfn.

(4-63)

/ 0 , , / 2 ,... ->
, (4.62), q>
(4.50) : lim fn = , ,

(. . 2.1).
, (. . 3.4),
\/ = q <+, q) = 0,
/-> (4.63) (G/*, = XF/J:
<q,<P+> = <GL, <?+)-= <+, >,

(4.64)

(q, +> = 0,
<+, > = 0.

(4.65)

<+, > 0, = 0.
, fn -> 0 ->
(4.61)
:
/ = S / f t = /o + /i + / 2 + . -

(4.66)

= 0


/.
[63, 68, 70, 156], 510 /
1%.
-, ,
,

( , . .
^ 0 , 1 ) ,
(1). (, ,
(2)).
(1) / (4.61) .


.
(2) ,
( ) .
66


(4.46) [63], .
,
[70].
(4.49) :
(G % F) = W^ + 6XF ,

(4.67)

X. 6, (6)*
(4.55). (4.67)
(G-K

F) ()* = - W* + (6Xb FV

(4.68)

()*
1. (4.61)4.66)]; (2).
,
W*,
G1.
4.5.

(
) , ,
,
6 ( [1, 9, 12, 21, 24, 37, 42,
61, 85, 86] .).
1. | .
(4.57)
,
( ):
^(||6G9fl + X|^)||G-4p||.

(4.69)


, 6G, 6F, G, F
^
.
2. 6 ().
6, (4.67)

^ = <+, \\>/<+, F?>,


67

(4.70)

. .

SX=-|Cdrf<:/vq)+(r,

)[2 (, )(> v)

$62 e (r, v'-*v)Jp(r, v')dv'


- X j 6 [ X ( v ) v 2 / ( r , ')](, v')dv']},

(4.71)

7 ^ = ^dr^dv9+(r, v)^ (x(v) vS y (r, y') +


+ 6[ X (v)vS / (r, ')]>(, v')dv'.

(4.72)

,
(, v) .
, (6)*,
(6)* (4.68).
(6,)* (4.71) :
(^)* - 6 [ f - > ]; 7/ [] ->- J? [ ].

(4.73)

(6)* ,
W[!) W[H) ( 6F(I) =T^6F (II) )
Jf, .
, (. .
IxvSy] = 0) (||6F|| < || F||),
[yy2f] Jj :
Jj JF.

, a JF
( [84]).

, {\ = ?^(1)
(. . 4.3):
)
( ^ = - ( ^ ^ + ( , v)J6Z,(r, )(, V ) - J 6 E s ( r , ' + ) (,
-l^6[X(v)vlf(r,

v')dv'-

1>')](, v ' ) d v ' l } ,

(4.74)


/ F = $dr$dv9+(r, v ) x ( v ) J v S / ( r , i ; / ) 9 ( r , ')<*' =

(4.75)
68


( . . [1]);
)
{b\)1 =

-j-^dr{[g(r)b-Zt(T)-%b^t(T)]<^(T)-

CdQjdQ'6Z,(r, Q', Q)q>(r, 0)<(, Q')},

y f =$drv2,(r)<D a (r); (r) = - ^ J q > ( r ,

(4.76)

)(> - 0 ) d O .

)
(6) 1= =- fdrfdu{a>+(r, ) [62, (, )(, I) Jj62s(r> '--)(, o')do' XCeixWvS^r.t')!^^. o')rf"'l3D (, v) (V<D+) S2ir (r, v) D (, ) ()}
JF={dr[dvO+(r,

v)%(v) v2,(,

(4.77)

')(, ' )dt>';

)
(6 x) 1= -L
J
F

2 dr/; [^ -2
g J

62,*-

k^g

-^2(^)]-3^(+)2()( ,

(4.78)

yiUr[0+g%g^y^r)Oj.

JF =
g


(, ) -
: g ,
k k ^ g, . . ,
g.
: ^ Og;m)

: 2/*\ 2| , 2{f; 2?"**
( ) k
\ Xg ; D^l/32/?
( , +
, );
)
6^ = - j - j d r (r)-Mv2,()] 2(r)-3D()262,()}, (4.79)
JF = $ drv2f ()2 ().
69


: 62^ 6 2 s = 2 ,
82 / .
(4.71) (4.79)
62,, 62 s , [!*;], 2 /
(4.14);

, 62 = 0, JF , 2 = 0.
3. .

($)* (4.68), (6,)* (4.73)
( ).

, (4.68),
G~\
.
()! = (1), , (4.30),
(G ^)()! - (6G ) + ( ^ .

(4.80)


, () = |)(, v):
QVH> + 2,(r, )(, v ) - j j 2 s ( r , v'->v)l>(r, v')dv'
- b $ X ( v ) v 2 , ( r , v')^(r9 v')dv' =
= (e^)iSx(v)v2 / (r f i>')<p(r, v ' ) d v ' - { 6 2 , ( r , ) (, v ) - J 6 2 s ( r , v'-*v)q>(r,

v')dv'-kl6[%(v)v2f(r,v')]<p(r,v')dv'}.
(4.81)

,
() = {tyg ()},
V(D,V^,)-2f ^ + V

s )

% + ?>%gv2^

= ezf - 2 s s ^ e ) , - x 2 (x, vsr) o m - ^ . - ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ( ^ = 1 , 2,... , ).

(4.82)

,
. ) . 69.
70

4.6.




: X ( )
, .
,
( ,
, KB,
. .)
6, .
( )
,
.
. . . . [7, 32]


.
. . [19],

,
(
,
).
[20,
3335, 38, 40, 65, 87]
, .

[35, 37, 38].
[38]*,

.
( [19, 34, 35, 38, 66]
).
- ,

(G - ) = 0,

(4.83)


(G+ XF++ = 0.

(4.84)

* [32]
.
71

, + ,
,
-,
- . , ,
ct
i 2 ^ (, v)
(. . -)

= , / / = < ^ , >/<2 , >,


(4.85)
, , / .

,
238U,

= 8/9 = <2?38, >/<(2 9 + 2? 39 ), >,


(4.86)
8 238U ,
9 239,
240.

:
| = 6/6<2> = <+, \^11)>/<+, \ \ f \ p ) .

(4.87)

( )
Jp 6,(1) 6,(2)
.
[39],

= nlJF - <+, | > / < + , FV>.

(4.88)

;
JF +.
( )
- (4.85),
(4.86) - (4.87), (4.88) .

,
(, ), ,
( ) .

, + :
R = alb = <+, >/<+, >.
72

(4.89)

, , ,
:
-> X = + 6;

-^ - + 6,


( 0).
G F, (80,
6GB, 8FA, 6FJS), 6 6
. ,
- ,
6 6, (,
. .).
/? ,

, :
(G F)cp=-0;

( G + - F + ) $ + = 0.

(4.90)

6 6 , -
, 6G
6F
. ( 80, 8FA, 8GB, 8FB
, 6 6 .)
R :
_

1 + <6+, )/ 0 +( + > 6)/0


bo [ 1 + <+, >/&0 + <+> 6>/0 J

<+, > __ 0

<+, >

(4.91)

+ =

+;

0 = <+, >;

- ;

60 = <+> >.

(4.92)
(4.93)


R0,
: R0 = a0/b0.
(4.91)
+:

+ +

\ ' (*7"~~) 6 /j + 0[(p2, (6cp+)2j +1 (4,94)

,
+).
73


+ (4.80) ,
T\ W^ [. (4.33)
(4.34)]:
8=Wbcp + ; Tj|;6q> + =W<p + + 6A,F+<p+.
(4.95)
( + ,
(4.49) ,
(4.90) +).
(4.95) :
= (\^?.6A,Fq>); + = ( ) - 1 ^ + - 6 ? + + ) .

(4.96)
(4.94)
(T?t)_1 (/0 /^1
( )

/ +, f A_JL 9 \\ = _^(W<p+-6XF+p+).

_| ^ \

);

. (

= - < ( ) -

^ - ^

0
+

(4.97)

6\ =

(WMP-6XF<P)).

(4.976)

(4.97)
> + :

e^-lW-^JL)q> ; Sh^in)-1!

^ V - (4.98)

@ = /0/60;
(4.99)
Tjf = + + / 0 - + +/6 0 .

(4.996)

,
+ : ^+ = 0
(4.99) ^ = 0 (4.996) . ,
F+*
[
(4.35) (4.39) ,4.3]. 74

, (4.97) (4.98), (4.94)


R R
:
R i - ~ [l-<Wjtq>+, &>-,

W*cp>l .

(4.100)

R1


, + ( +), (4.94)
& SAB (4.99).
[. (4.99) (4.996)]
,
,
.
(4.99)
(4.61) (4.66), . 4.4
. (
.)

6 6,
SAB ,
.
. . . . [34].
(4.99) :
/ 0 -*/; /6 0 -^/6; + / 0 ->+/;

+10-*+/.

( )
QAB
8R = Rx R
:

Ei= - T ^ - O W '

W - < e ; U Wxq>>].

(4.101)

(4.85) (4.86) -^
. R

, (4.100),
. , KB ()= || II / II II ):
KB=<Ss'

>

<29,

>

[1 < 8 + 9 , Wxq>>l + 0(T|8).

'

(4.102)

, (4.996)
8,9.
75

.
0s", 9 :
8 8 + ( 9 = 2 8 / 8 - 2 9 / 9 ,

(4.103)

2 8 = 2? 38 (r, v) S ^ S ^ r , a) + 2? 39 (r, v)\


8 = <28, >

/? 9 <2 9 ,

>; KB = 8/9.

6 6,
[. (4.89)],

, 6G SF:
6 = 8GA + SFA + ...; 6 - 8GB + 6F 5 + ...
(4.104)
W* - (6G4 + 8GB) (6F^ + 8FB) 0.

, [20].
, (4.104)
, . .
6Fc = yF,

<+, (Wa )>

2-5---0.

(4.105)

<+, F >


,
< +, \ ^ >

=--

<+, >

<+,

= . , ,

W^>

U&WF,

^< + > >

W*(p>] + 0(T|2).

(4.106)
@WF
ne$F

= mv+/w0F+4+/f\

0=<+^>;

/=<+,>.
(4.107)


(4.100), (, > = 0 , ++> =
= 0. , Rx
X = F = 6F.4 + 8 + (1 + ) F. [
Yi = < + W^>/X^ + F^p> (4.106)].



.
[40, 87].

76

8,
, (6)* (. .
]).
8 (4.52) ,
- , (4.91).
:
6==

. <+>

^ >

w0

<+, \6>

< +, )

fo

<+, F >

fO(if),
(4.108)

0 = <+, W?,cp>; /0 = ( , ?> 0//0 = (6,)#. ,


] , , 8,
(6)*.
'


.

(4.96) (4.108), :
6 X = - 5 j L [ l - < e ^ f Wxq>>] + 0(Tf).

(4.109)

@WF

WF = W q>+/w 0 -F + +//0,
(4.110)

[. (4.61) (4.66)].
4.7.

, ,
-
. , . 1.3,
- S-, .

, ^-.
- 5-,
.
-.
(1.24) (, v) (2.35)
.
(3.51) (3.53).

77

(G-F P )<P = ; (G+~F p + )<pi = ^


V

(4.111)


(G-FP)^ =

(G+-FP+)Ut= .

~5

(4.112)

:
6G=-G G; 8Fp = F'p F p ; 6a = ; 6 = ^<pa.
a a , :
->; ^-^; -* + ; -^ + . ,
+ -, , , -

< , ' > =

KJ

[ (4.18) ^-: </", ,> =


(4.112)

Nfiij].

G + e G - ( F p + e F p ) - ^ ^ ] ( V + e9)-0>
(4.111)
:
(G-Fp-4)8--W+-7L.

(4.113)

W = (8G 6F7>) ,
, ^-,
W = 6G A6F.
(4.113) +
(4.111)
:
_
\ _()1
^ Fi , <+,\6>
= < + ^ > ^ / + , 1
) =

<+, \> J

()1=<+,>>^/+,-1-\.

(4.114)

()

~ || || / || || .
6G, 6F P , ,
, (4.113)
() [
(4.30)]:
78

[(-fH

(69)!=Wq> +

(6)!

(4.115)


(4.62) (4.66), (G /), G,
, (G /) -1 .
(),
\:
() = [<+ W9> + <9+,W(6 V ) 1 >]^/9+, -i-q>\. (4.116)
. 4.3,
-.
, . 4.6 -, -
- -
,

. , ,
-
128, 8993].
5-.
(1.25) 5 (2.37)
+ [ ,
2 (, v)]
(3.50) (3.52).

(G - F) 5 = Sn; (G+ - F+) <pj = 2 (, v);


(4.117)
(,
, , ,
)

( G - F ) 5 ? = Sn; ( G + - F + ) W = 2 ^ ( r , v ) .

(4.118)

,

- ,
2 (, v):
^ < 2 , ? > - < 2 , 5 > ) 0 + (2, );
(4.119)
( ) 0 ^ < ( - ^ ) , 5>,
()0 ,
. (4.118)
(4.117) :
79

(G F)6q>=Wcps + 6S,

(4.120)

W = 6G 6F, a 8S=Sn Sn.


(4.120) (
1])

(G - F)(fi9)1 = Wcps + 6S

(4.121)

() (
. 4.4) ()
(),
< (G-F)(8<p)1> = <(G+-F+)cpJ, ( ) 1 >^<2, ()^.

(4.122)

, (4.121) ,
(\ - ()0 + <2 , ()> - (6)0 + <, 5 > -<5,^5>.
(4.123)

5- ^-.
, (4.102) -
R = <2, >/<2, >
( 2)
# 1 - ^ ^ [ 1 - < , ( W 9 - 6 S ) > ] + 0(r 1 2 ).

(4.124)

2 , >

R
(G+ - F+)QXB = 2 /<2, > 2 /(2 >

>

(4.125)

( 62 82; ).
-
R = <+, >/<+, >,
+ ,
S + : (G+ F+) + = 5 +
7? (
6 6):
i = - ? - [ l - < e i B , ( W 9 - 6 S ) > - < e ^ > ( W + ? + - 6 S + ) > ] >

(4.126)

(G + -F+)61 B = ^ - ^ 1
0

b0

( - ) ^ ^ -'
aQ

(4.127)
80

0 = <+> >;

= < + , >,

. 4.6.

,
. ,
- ^-,
(G + -XF+)cp = 0.

(G-F p )<r a = ;

(4.128)

, F = F /; + Fd,
Fd9 = J x d ( v ) v S / ( r , i/')q>(r, v')dv',
(. . 1.1 1.3).
(4.128) <pjt,
,
(,1)<, > = /", <cpLFdcpa>,
\

- 1 = 0-0,

(4.129)

0 = < ^ , ) /<<P;t,F<Pa>;

0 = <^ ( ^>/<31,>

(4.130)

.
(4.129) ,

[56],
(1 )/^ (^ 1),
. , (4.129)
X,

(
[29]).
5.

5.1. .

()
.
81


6 = 8 (1/&), . . ,

[912, 16, 54, 55].
,
, ,
: ,= 1.
(4.15),

Nt () I,

62 (, v' -> v) = > (v' -> v) 6Nt () + Nt () 6<<> (v' -* v). (5.1)
8Nt ()
(/)
(. . 4.2). (4.14)
:
[ (v)v2, (, v')] = xi (v) va</> (vf) 6Nt ();
6 [ 2 5 ( r , v ' + v)] = a<<>(v'-+v) 6tf,(r);

(5.2)

6 [E. (, )]== a}') () 6 ^ ().



(4.74)
:
6*,=

~* - - { dx ^+ (, v) }*) (v) (, v)
^

-ja(p(v'^v)9(r,v')dv'-5xf(v)vaf)(c;')^(r,v')dv']6^ar)j,
(5.3)
JF ()
(4.75), , (
), .
, ^^, V0,
, (, v) + (, v)
, 6^ ()
8Nt V0:

e^-j6^(r)dr f

(54)

Vo


6X^-b^=~J-j^v9+rr ) v)[x i (v)5va < / ) (^')9(r,v')dv'
+ 5gi (v'+ v) (?, v') dv' -a ( /> () (?, v)]J 6tf,.
82

+
(5.5)


V0, -
( ) . (
, , ,
.)

/- V0

fe,(r~) = - l i m

f W

lim (-*b2L).

(5.6)




.
ki(r) /-

kt ()0 [. (5.6)] V0

' kt () = lim kt (r)y0. (5.5) (5.6) kt v0-*o


, + :
kt () j - { j dv + (, v) [ (v) j vof (v') (, v') rfv' +
+ J < (v' + v)cp (, v')dv' ~ a l ' > ) c p ( r , v ) ] ) .

(5.7)

[16], [46],
(8Nt > 0)
: kt () > 0
kt () < 0, (5.6) [
(5.5)]*.
( ) kt ()
, . .
1 ( 1 -) .
( ) , :
k[j^LU02_l023=..k.\JE^]

L J

= k.\^!E_].Ah

L - J

[_

(5 .8)

A t ; 6,02 1023 .
kt () kt (r)vQ
* [20, 104]
/j ()
: 2/^6'
83

V0
.
, ,
,
(
) . ,
8Nk ()
,
,
-8 =

7-f[2Mr)6JVft(r)

dr.

(5.9)

J L k

JF

,


() k ()
,
:
k(r)^^kj(r)Nj(r)/^Nj(r).
(5.10)
/

, :
()

]-iV(r)A(r)[-S^L]. T (r),
(5.11)

() ; N () = 2W/ ().
[10, 17, 1081
(8 < 0)

( ) VQ
:
*(r)v.= - Y ( r ) H m - A - .

(5.12)

6v-*o 07


() ,

( ).

, (4.77):
kt () = dv [/+ () vof (v) (, v) + 6+ (, v) o(J\v) (, v)
G>+(r,v)oW(v)<I>(r,v) + 3o<pr(v)D2(ryv)y$>+S7h
84

(5-13)

JF = ^dv j dvOf () vS y (, )(, ^-


(); (Df+ () == j % (^)+ (, v)dv
, 65+
: 6+ (, v) [1) (v)^
= [.(' ? (-> v') + (, v')du' + (, ) < (v)l
( = 0)
(5.13) t'-ro :
k. (0) = dv [,+ va</> (v) (v) + 6+ <*>
' () ()
0+(v)oW(v)<b(v)].

(5.14)

,
k (0) - dv va, (v) (1>)+65+ os (v) (v) -+() {v) ()]
(5.15)
( , , (5.10),
U)
a = %o Ni/liNi, . . i

,
).

(),
.
5.2. .

, (5.7),
, ( )
/- ,
.
(, v) ,

+ (, v). , kt ()
+, . .
. ,
,
(
,
, 10, Cd, 197Au .)
-
, kt ()
(
+) ,
85

.
, ,
, -
. .
, ,

, ,
, ,
.

, ,
.
,
[9, 17].
kt () (5.7) (4.76)
(
)
kt () = j^Uvof

+ <'>) 2 ( ) - 4<<> f (, Q) (, - Q)dQ 1, (5.16)

(4.79)
^ ^ r ) - ^ [ ( v a ( / ) ^ a ( / ) ) 0 2 ( r ) + 3a, r D 2 ( V 0) 2 ].

(5.17)

JF

. 7

(
90%- )

.
kt ()

(. . 7, )
(5.17). , ,

.
239 236jj VOy > (ja ;
238U
,
.
(Bi, Fe, , )
9 kt (0)
, Fe (
) .
,
(5.14):
, ,
86

65+ > 0.
, .

(. . 7, ) ,

V
i

10 ,

10
^\^%
-
200
0

_ \

100

'

^^^'''
10

10 -

cVl>5^
0 z^y^t
\

-10

^ ^

0,03

- f

0,01

10 ,

-10

|_
10 ,

^
"

N
i
10

. 7.

:
; ;
;
( [9, 17])

, .

(5.17),
87

.
(. . 7, ), kt ()
,
(vof ), . . , Fe, , . .

, ,

(. . 7, ).

, ,
!
kt ()
/), ,
, .
( (/) , +
v, . . Q,
.)
,
, (5.10), ,
,
. (5.11),

:
^(r)=^"{Jrfv9+(r,v)[x(v)JvS/(rft;')9(rfv')dv' +
+ $2 s (r,v' + v ) 9 ( r , v ' ) d v ' - 2 , ( , * 0 ( , ) ] ) ,

-
Z00 V

^ ^

(5.18),

It3
5.

<
>

*:
^

100 V

S3

.
5

10}

t3

81

^j

<5i

S:
t5

5
=3
:

^
*

100

^r

10

. 8. () ()

,
(. 8),
,
88

5.3.

, ,
(,
, ,
).
,
[55].
[96, 97]*.
,
.
, 1-
Vh
/<*$)*,

(5.19)

kt () (5.7).

Z Vk

4* > $[2 ).()]-.

(5.20)

i,
Z. [ ,
Nt, / ,
(5.19), /.]
(
)
[. (5.11) (5.18)]
:
= j " / C ( r ) d r s s UF + fdr fdvcp+(r,v) x
X [ J 2 e (r, v' -> v) (r, v') dv' - 2 , ( r , v) (r, v ) ] j .

(5.21)

, (5.18) J
() JF ,
. 4.5. (
.)
,
, [10
* [12, 55] , [13, 20, 104]
, [46, 108] . .

89

13, 16, 17, 20, 43, 46 .]


.
.
[
(5.11) (5.13)], . .
* () = j - f J dv [? () vS, (, v) (, v) + 6+ (, v) 2 S (, v) X
X (, v)~ -^, v) 2 rt (, ) (, v) + D (, v) +1-

(5.22)

(5.21)
[55]:
J^-j-F{^T(r)dv-\-

J t/(r)dr} = - ^ - J r ( r ) d r =
= j-^U(r)dr.

(5.23)

T () U () :

U (r)ssC [Of+ vS, (, ) + 6/ 2 S (, ) + 2 (, ) ] dv.


(
!) ,

(1.20) (2.23): ]'() dv = J +V (DVO) dr +
+ +DVCbdS, + | = 0.

(5.23) . . [46]
, (
) k^
k+ :
^
= 2(1-1/*+),
(5.25)

k+ s JF/) dr f dv (+ + Es ).

[10, 12, 13, 20, 55, 108]


/ , /-, JF
,
, ,
. .
,
.
,
() U () [. (5.24)]

90

[109, 111], (5.23)


(
)
:
8S = J X () dv = J [ () ( ()] dv - 0.

(5.26)

X () = () [/ () - X [, +, , V<D+]
,
, +
+ . (
.)

,
. . [41] .

[113]
* [70, 112].
,
,
,
^

(2.4) (2.16).
-

e { J r f r j d v V + ( r f v ) [ s p + r(vS p ) + ^ " c p ( r , v ) = 0 ,

(5.27)

S p (2 ) , :
S p =

(v) $ vE, (, v') (, v') dv' + J 2S (, v' -> v) < (, v')dv' -2,(r,i;)q>(r f v);

(5.28)

( V S P ) = % (v) J {r v [vS, (, v')]} (, v') dv' +


+ \ { [2. (, v' -* v)]} (, v') d v ' - { r V [2, (, v))} (, v). (5.29)
( (5.27)
,

.)
,
-, = 0 ,
(v) %(v), X vS^;
, , .
* [114, 118] [115110],
(. . 4.6).
91



(5.27) [95, 96]
[49, 59].
. .
. . [97].
(5.27) (5.28),

(5.21). (5.27)
,
,
(2.4) (2.16).

, . . (5.18) l/Jj?
, :
() s I dvcp+ (, v) [ (v) j v 2 , (, v') < (, v') dv' +
+ J 2 S (, v' - * v) < (, v') dv' - 2, (, v) (, v)]. (5.30)
,

=2;

+ = 2++,

(5.31)

[ 2 2 (5.28) % (v)
X (v)], (1.15) (2.19).
(5.30) :
() = \ d\ (+ 2) = \ d\ (+ ) = \ dv (2+ +) =
= ^(+),

(5.32)

(5.21) :
= / ( ) = ^ ^ ( + 2 ) = ?((+0) = ... . .

{5.33)



:
J dv jj dv (+ 2) = dx \ d\ (+ Q).

(5.34)

2,
, [22]
\1
, . .

7= /; 2()=2() 72 = 2.
(5.35)
92



[153 155]. :
= 1 + , <1.
62 = 2 () 2 (),
2 () = /2 ( /) = (1 + ) 2 ( + ) =
= 2 () + 2 () + erV2 + ...

(5.36)

,
:
6 = ^(+62) = 0;
JF

| ^ ^ + [ 2 + (2;)] = 0| ( =1).

(5.37)

[96, 97]
, ,
[49, 59].
, (5.33)

J=\dr\dvy+

2 = \& \/+ (?2),

(5.38)

, [. (5.34)]
,
.
,
,

6rs = ers 2 in t
2 ex t dV = |n6r s \ dS = e\nrs\dS (. 9).

:
(s)dS $dvq>+(2mt Sext)<P, (5-39)

/=^^+2=2$
1

Sj
, . ,

(. . 8):
J () d r = 2 $ (rn) [Kmt Kext] dS.

(5.40)

,
, ,
.
93

(5.37)
(5.27) (
).

, -

. 9.


[70, 109 114, 118].
, (5.37)
, . .
{ $ $ ^ + [ 3 + (2)]]=0 = 1 ,
(5.41)
.
-,
, -,
+, ,
; -,
(5.41) (
).
V1
2 + ,
2, <, + V2
V0 (,
). (5.41) :
$
V2-V0

dr$dv$+[l+(rvl)]ip

J
V.-Vo

^ + [ 2 4(2)] +
^

+ jj ^{+[2 + (2)] + +[1 + (2)] + +[2 +


V0

+ (2)] } = 0
94

(5.42)

.
( ) .
5.4.



(
[101 1031)
,
,
S/
:
( V 2) = {V2} + [Sext (rs,)-2int (r s .)] ( - r s p f
(5.43)
( rs.)- , a {V2}
. ,
,
(
),
(
) [49, 95].

:
J=^K(r)dr=Z($(rne)lKint(r)-Kext(r)]dS.
J

(544)
'SJ

( ,
.) ,
(5.44)

R

= 4 f K{r)r2dr=4nK(R)R\

(5.45)

. . ,
1/3 .


:

^.

-^ = j

K*.a(r)r*dr+

J
R

Kmv{r)r*dr=

a.3

[^.(.) ^ ( ^ . ) ] ^ . + ^(^)^ -

95

(5.46)

,
, ,
.
, (5.44), [77]
(rn)dS=3VV

(5.47)


, (5.44)

. ,
,
R ,
( )
J 0 $ () UV = 2 h [/. (, ) - * (, )] + /? 2 / (, ).
(5.48)

/ :
(, h) = 2 / 3 /CGOK + V3 /,

/2

^ = - ^ j /C(p,z)rfz;

/ = - ^ f / c ( r , | y | J 2 n r r f r

/2

. .



.
. 10.
(5.44)
(5.45), (5.46), (5.48) . . ,
.

,
, . .
,
,
*.


, ,
, .
,
, ()
* , [97] ,

( 23%).
96

^(^)^

Romp

. 10.
:
[. (5.45)];
[. (5.46)].
;

. (,
, )

Jp>
. ,
,
JF ().

(5.27),
- ( ,
) :
97

$ / (r)dr + S [ (r)-Kext ()] (,) dS +


+ dv dvcp+ q>=0.

(5.49)


: )
: 8 = 2 ^ () 8Nt (); ) : 7; )
, :
. , ,
,
,
,
.

,
,
[95, 99].

:

v ^ (j ki(r)8Nidr +

^^(^ki(r)[N^^N^}(nbrj)dS=0
(6 = 0),

(5.50)


, .
(5.50)
(5.44) . . [43, 99]

, .
, (5.50) (5.44)

,
,
.
,
,
.

- ,
(5.45) (5.46).

.
3
98

(
R)

. - ^ + > - ^ + ^
?.

(5.51)

/ # /
: J = / . 3 + /*
(5.46), (5.51)

d(lnYa.a) + w d ( l n ) + din = 0,
(5.52)

= JaJU 4 nR3 /0 (R)h w =

3
= ^/I^ 4# / (#)!
, (5.52)

(?.3)=(&0 ( ^ ) ~
\ . /

f e r (5-5)

\ /


[10, 17,122]
,
.

[10, 17],
50%
YHOM.
.

R
( )

4 V 1/.() - ^()] Sp + 4 2 # () 8R = 0. (5.54)
(5.46), (5.54)
dlnp _
4/?2/(/?)
dR
J-inR*KovV{R)

_ r / m _

/ \
V / '

/555)

F [(0 )/01
R ; 0
, .
[0 ^ ( )/0 ^ 1/2] F
99

. R
= R ,
(5.55)
= /{1 + [1 - ( - jiA)]},
(5.56)

= ( ; = ()/ . (). (5.57)



( ); /. 3 ()> ^ ()
,
.
(5.56)
-
( 0 < ^ ) 1,5%
( 2 0, Be, , Fe, Ni, W, 238U .)
[99] ( [122, 123]).
\i [96] ,
[9, 17].

.
,
(235U,239 . .)
Nf
N /3.
:
IfbNt + Ix8Nx + 4/() 26 = 0.

(5.58)

If 1
[ (5.19)].

[. (5.45)]
J = IfNf

IXNX = 4/()3.

(5.58)
[77]:
dNl + -!f-dNx+(Nf

+ - L N^-te- = 0 .

(5.59)

I JIf
, , ,
= Nx/Nf. IxIIf = f(ax) (5.59)
[77],
, 100

{} / () :
/ (*) = {} const.
(5.59)
(jV Nx)=
WK f

^
Nf+NxC(ax)

(5.60)
\ -w'

0
Nf:
(5.60) , ().
(20, Be, ,
ZrH . .) () [99]:
() (1 In )

IJIf * = 1 (. . Nx = Nf),
, ,
= 1. (5.60)

(Nf> )=

J , .

(5.61)

Nf (1 + *)
(5.61)
Nf Nx :
p0Nf ,
,
-. ,

1,5%
: 0 ^ ^ 103. (

, ,
,
.) (5.61)
, ,

[50] .

,
. . [121].

101

6.

6.1.
(&, KB .)

,
. 5.1,

,
, .
(5.13), ,
kt ()
.
__
(/)
: ft (), st (),
at (), yt (), () = J (, v) dv
vt ft () = J vof (v) (r, v) dv= (wp}) (r);

(6. la)

st(r) . j j o ? (v)(r, v)dv=^](r);

(6.16)

at (r) = J of (v) (r, v) dv=^

(r);

(6.1)

yt (r) = J ofr (v) (r, v) dv = of) (r).

(6.lr)

,
+ (, v), :
/- () = J (v) + (, v) dv\

(6.2)

6+ () = - J - f + (, V) [9 (v) (, v) f or5 (v' ->- v) (, v') dv'] dv\


J (r) _

- L

f + (, v) oa (v) (r, v) dv;

(r) = - J f atr (v) D2 (r, t;) + VOdv.

(6.26)
(6.2B)

(6.2r)

(5.13)
kt () = - J -

() v,/, ()-[ + () , () +

+ 8+()5()] + (+()()};
102

(6.3)

kt () = - L - { () (vof)

- [+ () of

+ 65+ () of] + () #} ().

(6.4)

kt ()

,
,
).
(6.4)
,
.

(. . 4.5): ^+ = + = ; |V<D+| = ||,
kt () = - 4 - v f] ~ ( + <#> + 8 () ] 2 (')}
J

(6-5)

g () _ ^
, of = ^
<<\ of [9] ( );

,

(, Be, . .) .

, ,
.
, . . ,
g () = ,
kt (0) = - f - [v, of-(of

+ <#>)] * (0).

(6.6)

( )
/>, (6.6)
:
a ^ v , - l ) o ? > - - ( ^ + af)
(6.7)
(
< : = of235+ 239
).
( U, Pu, 233U) (v 1) of
, 1%
1124]*, , ,
? (v, 1 - , ) ^ , a, = oflofK
(6.8)
*
.
103

(3 c&i KB
.) </0 vi9
aj.
,
(, 10, 6Li), aXi
. ,
(, ),
,

[9, 17, 21].

(6.5)

kt () = - - 1 - (<# + <#) 2 () + - - 2 ( ) 2 <$


JF

<6-9>

JF

V<D ,
(2) 0, kt () $ .

kt () (. . 7),
[9, 17]
(. . 5.2).
otr
. 1,2.
atr
(6.9) ,
atr (. . 7). atr
= R,
[. (5.16)*]
1
atr (),
[9,17]

239
\]
288U

Fe
Bi

<*tr

3,55
1,87
0,30
0,6
0,72
0,03
0,006
0,02

(7,6)
(6,5)
5,0

2,62
2,17
2,29
4,60

3,66
1,89
0,24
0,61

0,02
0,02
0,04

<>tr

(6,2)
(6,5)
5,1
2,0
2,13
2,29
4,64

* ,
(5.13) (6.5) (5.16).
104

2
,
, ^ / [9,17]

a f,

1,87
1,29
0,20

V-Oc/Of

3,01
2,48
2,18

3,07
2,59
2,61

-c/af

1,87
1,35
0,19

3,04
2,47
2,12

3,10
2,59
2,61

*f ()

1 [( V| ajr> + a) ()],

(6.10)

J (, Q) < (, Q) dii = 0
(2.4) (2.16). (vaf + <*8)
.
(very + os) Op = 8 + of + ac = ot

(6.11)

, atT. at . 1
atr .
(
)
( ) , (5.7),

, . . [62, 64,
125 130 .].
,

, , ,

.
k^ [5,221
^ ()
;
:
^ - J v 2 , (v) (v) dv/$Za (v) (v) do.

(6.12)


,
,
(). [8, 46, 96,
105

119, 120 .I - ,
,

. k+ (5.25) [46] &*
* = <+, Fcp>/<cp+, (C-Z)(p> a . 3 .

(6.13)

(. [96]) . .
,
km [105 107],

:
$dv<b+(v)% (v) f vlf (') (') dv'
t + _
Km =. ^

^. IT^J

J + 2 () <bdy | 2S (v) ;


,
.
[. (6.1)]
* ( 0 ) = - 7 - { [ ^ - ( 1 + ) + ] / - ( + + 1+)},
J

(6.15)

+
85+ s.
(6.8)

*/(0)= - 7
- [ O f v - ( l + a)<D+lA
J

(66)

(6.15) kf (0) (6.16) km (


: a s== <D+c<f> + ):
km

^/
Ot a + b<bt s

1_
1-glb (0)/kf (0)] #

/ 6 17)
V
*

g ( , )

(l + a)

WY

<618)


+
/* .
106

k (0) kf (0) :
)
)
, .
(6.18), ,
[
(. . 2.3) +ADf"
]. = </{

( ,
)*,
[124, 131, 133].

0 ) = - - { [ ^ - + ( 1 + )]/- 5 + / 5 / }

(6.19)



orW (v) ( ,
).
- ! 3% 235U [131],
ZPR-9 [124] 9%-
6Li [124].
^ + , :
kA (0) = - [+ + 60}SAVJF.

(6.20)

,
Q
(
22 Cf) :
kQ (0) = ? Q/JF.

(6.21)

(
,
kQ [84];
,
[132]).
: 6<X>sjf5/<^
< ft/ (0) JFf + + ; ,+ , (6.19) (6.21)

{1+-)_*1-9
* . (4.86).
107

(622)

,
,
Q (
[84, 124, 131, 132 .]).
6.2.


,
. 6.1.
, ,
. 5.1, .


.

~10""6 [135], ~ 5
10~8 [124],
.

, .

, , ,

(. 11).
,
,
. -,
h ( h = 4VJAWf Vw
, Aw ,
[21]),
.

, .
(. . 2.1),

2 3 [62].
-,
(10 30 )
/ , ffy fe
[134]
= \INh (N
).
[128, 136]:
108

=,

iW <W+t)PfrjOf] (*& + )
(o^+of)

\1\) of+/<'> (am) <#>+#> (am) o<,/> + c m ]

-,

(6.23)

aPot , ae
.
-,
(

0,2 */*

. 11. (
h N)
[128, 136]. (

)

) ,
(-
.)

.
[135, 137],
S a 2

1-/2'

/+

2(1+/2 )

1 2 , 1-/

(6.24)

2 , 2 S .
, , ,
( )

[126, 128, 129, 130, 138 .] (. 3). ,
109

() () kid/kip
[149] [129, 138]

ZPR-III

239
295TJ
238TJ

Fe
Na


ZPR-6

48

49

50

0,78
0,82
0,81
0,96
0,77

0,77

0,82
0,79
0,80
0,83
0,94

0,83

0,77
0,81
0,83
0,80
0,63

0,76

_
0,94
1,09
0,99
0,87
1,28
0,99

1,01
0,89
0,98
0,68
0,50
" *

,

,
( ): ,
JF (),
, , . . [84, 127, 130].
(. 4),
JF- ,
,
, .
, -
(
)
4

23 [kt (0)/k 235 (0)J8/[kf (0)/k235 (0)] p
[150, 151] [128]

/
239
238(J

Li

12
23,Na

26

27

1,01

1,03
1,16
1,20
11,1

1,00

1,12
1,12
1,20
1,08

110

28

1,05

1,64
1,00
1,21
4,7

30

1,02
0,82
1,49
1,01
1,32
1,85
3,8

,
,
.
5


,
ZEBRA-II [141]
,


, 10 2 2 /3


2351J
0,0301
0,2523
238(J

1,555
4,0999
0,523
0,4777
Fe 4-Ni+Cr
12
3,795

.
.
1.
ZEBRA-II [141].
. 6.
45
30 . -
20 .
: 235U,
t0
B, 12 ( , 10 ).

. 5,
. 6. . 6 ,
,
(. . 4.3)
,
: \ ,<2>, ,<3>.
6

[63]

235JJ

12

,
10 2 2
/3

0>

0,0275
1,566-- 3
0,1375
7,829 -3
0,2750
1,566 10-2
0,0286 1 1,348 10- 3
0,143
6,739 -3
0,286
1,348 10-2
0,0286
4,421 -8
0,143
2,211 -6
0,286
4,413-10-5

<2)

3,06-10-
7,60-5
3,02-- 4
5,00-- 6
1,252.10- 3
5,00.10- 3
1,06-10-8
2,65-- 7
1,06-10-

111

<>

1^++

1,569-10-3
2,73-- 7
3,42-- 5
7,939--
4
2,74-"
1,623-10-2
3,17-- 6 1,301--
3,97-- 4 5,884--
3,19.10-3 1,167-10-2
3,99.10-"
4,432-- 6
4,80-- 10
2,237-- 6
3,74-- 9
4,519-- 5

. 12 (0) ,
* ) <2> ( 11- , . . ~ 15 )
10 ( 0,143 1022 /3).
[63] 26-
[134] . ,
( , )
.
,
*.
,
*1*,
(. . 12).
2. ,
-
( 1

7


[142]

..\


, 10" /*

239
240
238U
28

Na

Fe+Cr+Ni
UQ

. 12. <>, cpW <2>




ZEBRA-H. (
;
; .

) [63]

0,0887
0,0119
0,5780
0,9290
1,6919
1,3980

3,962

0,649
0,002

) [142].
(. . 6).
90

32 .

^
,
, . 7.

* (. . 5,6),

, . . ^
. .
.

112


~ 10% (
).

(. . 4.6),
(4.109). (4.109) [142]

:
6 = <$+^*>/< + , > = <+ W x ?>/<9+ F$>.
(6.25)
, (4.108), wjf0 = >
1+ <+, WA, > <6cp+,F(p> 1
(6.26)
-

+ (4.96),

%,
-

W,

<e V F,Wjt V +>]=

[ 1 - < < P + , W ^ F > ] (6.27)

(4.109), 6.
WF
(4.110):
T&WF = W x / 0 - F<p//0.
(6.28)
WF cpW.
. 13.

. 8. ,

..\

.,10-3

^/

()


6*=,0)

(6*=6 );

(QWF=Q)t :
122 ( )
90 (
)
66 ( ^)
50 (
)

7,725
6,972

0,902

7,966

1,0308

7,967
7,955

1,0309
1,0293

7,687

1,9947

113

. 13.

QWF


( ) (
,
[142])

&WF
,
[64].
6.3. ,




*.
1. . .

/
.. ,
( -)
[39]
\

= ./,

(6.29)

(& = 1).

(. . 1.3; 2.3; 4.7)
[89]:
= <(, >/< , >;

(6.30)
/ = /, \ / < , Gcpa>; = \ 1/.


,
10 1/,
= /
[8]. , (5.13),
&IOF

JF

(0 v0 (+ -L ) + 65+ os - 3a,r D2 + 1 dv.


(6.31)

* - 5-


(. . 1.3).
114


[134], (6.31)
o{s10) ^10) 11) ^11>.
, ,
,
[
(5.17) ]:
/ B ( - ^ ^ ) - / u B = ^ 0 J r f r J / v O + - L o = aoOoA.

(6.32)

<0 10
0.
,
( ).

, (Be, .),

[100].

,

,
[39, 89, 90]
.
8Vk ,

(
. . 6.1), ,
(4.114),
=

+ FpVadv.

(6.33)


8Vk9 *,
:
J" ( i S L ) * = [ < > / < * , > > ] - 1 1/.

(6.34)

, / (6.30).
. 14
- .
* , ,
, ,
.
115

(
),

(6/8) 8Vk .
/


- [28, 39, 47, 143]:
( p /

p)^Z^

^L.

_1.

(6.35)

, / ( )

(

I
0/h

0,5

0,6

0,1

Qfi

0,9

. 14. , /, / ,

(/

, )
[89, 93]

50%, 100%!).

I .
.

.

,

( ,
116

!).
[39]
^-1

2 P^JrfrJd^+A(v)JvS/(r,^')9(r,v')rfv'.

(6.36)

,
.
1. 8Vk
( ,
)
6 ( ), |
,


1, . . 1/
{39].

.
2.
[
. ], = 1 (
, ).
< = 0 . [90]
,
, .
3. (.
. 5.2) [10, 144] ,
.
( ) (8R/R),

. (

-)* |.

235U, 239Pu, 233U (, , ) [10, 39, 144].
4. J (
) (5.25) 2(1 1/+)/ k+ , J
* , , ,
4nR2K (R) dR = , (5.45) ( = JSR/R-
J
2% [97] .
117

. [146]
zlR-4 ,
[39].
5. , ,
, (
V )
KF () =
W

AV =

AV.

J<D/ + (r)v/(r)dr

JF

/()
,

(6.38)

= lKF{r)dv.

(6.39)

,
/ (0) (, )*
q () = / ()// (0)
.
(22 Cf)
Q
:

I*Q ()/1 = /+ (/.

(6.40 )

(6.38) (6.40)
=

^ | ? ( ) .

(6.41)


(40%- )
[127].

. 9.
, ,
,
(, , , . .),
[, (6.36) JF }
[145]. / , ,
[143].
2.
. .


.
* , .
. .
118

9
;

[]

, ,
, ,
:
3
()
()
,

, :
(40%-
),

1 [152]

0,0080 0,0002

0,0080

2 [90]
0,00810,0001
[10, 39, 144]
0,00659 0,00009
0,001940,00006
4 [146]
0,0076 0,0003
5 [127]

0,00664
0,00195
0,0079

0,0078 0,0003
0,002330,00010

0,0072
0,00230

0,0079

(, /), (, ) Sb Be, Po 7 Li, Po


CaF2, P o n B , Po Be
39 4,5 [147],

[147].


.
[69]. . [67].

, ,
[28, 56, 98, 145].
$
r s (252 Cf)
Q (. . 1.3)
Fcps Gcps = %Q8 ( r 5 ).
(6.42)

- (2.34), . .
XF+cp+ G+cp+ = 0.
(6.43)
+
(6.42) (6.43) cps
.
j ,+ () f ( | r s ) dr = --

of

(rs),

(6.44)

/ ( | r s )
r s .
119

Vt (
*) (,) = ]/ (*), \

. ( N
6VV)
6Vs (6.44) ,
(
N ):
2 OlCis6Vt = $Ws\

S=l f 2,...,JV.

(6.45)

/= i

<Df <Df,
bVt\ ds ^
Vs. | = Q/r|(A, 1)

(6.45),
, . .
? ,
.
[98, 145].

().

JF (),

.
JF

( )
. (6.21)
JF, Q
.
(
, ) [84, 148].
*



.
,
,

. ,
[157, 158].

120


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