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-

( )

..

..

..

2008

532.5(075) + 621039(075)
22.253.37
-69
.., .., .. :
. .: , 2008. 124 .
, ,

. ,
( ,
), ,
( , , ).
.
., . .-. . .
ISBN 978-5-7262-0960-9
-
( ), 2008

. .
26.09.2008. 6084 1/16.
.-. . 7,75. . . 7,75. 150 .
. 4/134.

-
( ). 115409, , , 31
.
.

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,
,
.
,
( , ), , (
, , ).
, , :
,
, ,
, .

,
.
.
.
,

,
. , ,
.
.
.
.. ( 13, 5
6), .. ( 4 6), .. ( 6
).
4

1.



. , . .
:
- ()
r

+ divu = 0 ,
(1.1)

-
r
r
r r
u

+ (u)u = PV grad p ,
(1.2)

-
= ( p , T ) .
(1.3)

(1.3a)
p = RT .

.
= (T ) ,
(1.3)
= (1 (T T )) .

= const .
(1.3)
, ,
(). ( )
. , 5


, , .. ,
(, , ) .
, , (, ..)
s = const .
(1.4)
(1.4)

p = const .
(1.4)

, ..
r
PV = grad V
(1.5)
( = ( p ) ),
(1.2)
r
u2

r r
u
(u ) = grad + V + ( p) ,
(1.6)

r
r
rot u , () ,

( p) =

dp

( p ) .

P0

(1.7)

r
u
= 0)
(1.6) (


u2
(1.8)
+ V + ( p ) = const l ,
2
:
, 6


.
r
r
( rot u =0) (1.8)
, .. (1.8)
.

r
r
( rot u = 0 ), ( x, y, z , ) ,

r
u = grad .
(1.9)
(1.6)
u 2
(1.10)
+
+ V + ( p ) = F ( )
2
.
( = const)
( V = gz )

2 = 0,
r
(1.11)
u = grad ,

u2
p
+ gz + = const.
2

((,), ((,))
( x, y ) , , ( x, y ) =
= const .

ux =
, uy =
.
(1.12)
y
x

7

u x u y
+
= 0.
(1.13)
x
y
( x, y ) , ( x, y, z , ) , ,
..
2 2
(1.14)
+ 2 = 0.
x 2
y

, .. (x,y ) = const ( x, y ) = const . = ( x, y ) +
+ i ( x, y ) z = x + iy

.

1. ? ?
2. ?
3. .
4.
?
5. ? ?
6. ?

1.1. , = 0.
p0.
8

1.2.
.
. p0 0.
1.3.
, u0, p0,
0.
1.4.
, u0, p0,
0, T0. .
1.5. ,
. 1.1.
P

U
. 1.1

1.6.
,
. 1.2.
P

U
. 1.2

1.7. .
9

1.8.
, , , h .
l. ,
. g.
1.9. 1.8
V.
1.10. , r0,
,
(. 1.3.). h,
h
p0. , m.
g. .
? [1]
. 1.3

1.11. 1.10 , .
1.12. R ( ) .
, . . p0 .
1.13. p0 r0 p,
p > p0. , ,
[1].
1.14.
.
10

u0, p0, . , .
1.15. ( x, y, z ) u0
r
n .
1.16. ( x, y )
( x, y )
r
u0 n .
1.17. ( x, y, z )
() Q [3/], .
r
r0 .
1.18. ( x, y )
( x, y ) () V [2/],
. r
r0 .
1.19. ( x, y )
( x, y )
( , ). r
r0 .
1.20. = az .
, .
1.21. ,

2
( z ) = u ( z + r0 z ) , u
M = 2 u r02 , , r0.
1.22. , ( z ) = cz n , c
n n > 1,
/ n.
11

2.


Pji
u
u
i + u j i = PVi +
, i = 1, 2, 3 ,
(2.1)

x j
x j

PVi , Pij

, 1 3.

u u j
r
2
Pij = ( p + div u )ij + i +
x j xi
3

(2.2)

(2.1), (2.2) (1.1), (1.3) (),


c p

T
T
T
p
p
+ c p u j
=

+ qV +
+uj
+ D , (2.3)

x j x j x j

x j

,
() . (2.3) , ,
. D
u u j u j 2
r

(2.4)
div u 2 .
D= i +
x j xi xi 3

qV
.

12

,
= const = const ,
r
(2.5)
div u = 0 ,
r
r r r 1
r
u
(2.6)
+ (u )u = PV grad p + 2u ,


u x u y u z
+
+
=0,
(2.7)
y
x
z
u
u
u
ux
1 p 2ux 2ux 2ux
+ 2 , (2.8)
+ ux x + u y x + uz x = g x
+
+
x x2 y2
x
y
z

uy

+ ux

uy
x

+ uy

uy
y

+ uz

uy
z

= gy

2
2
2
1 p uy uy uy
, (2.9)
+
+
+
y x2
y2
z 2

uz
u
u
u
1 p 2uz 2uz 2uz
. (2.10)
+ ux z + uy z + uz z = gz
+
+
+

x
y
z
z x2 y2 z 2

(2.8) (2.10) .
(r, , z)
1
1 u u z
(rur ) +
+
= 0,
(2.11)
r r
r
z

u u r
u 2
u r
u
u
+ ur r +
+ uz r
=
r
r

r
z

u
1 p
2 u
,
= gr
+ 2 u r 2r 2
r
r
r

u ur u
u u u
u
+
=
+ uz
+
+ ur
r
r
z
r

u 2 u

1 p
= g
+ 2u 2 + 2 r ,
r
r
r
13

(2.12)

(2.13)

u u z
1 p
u
u
u z
+ 2u z ,
+ uz z = g z
+ ur z +
z
z
r
r

(2.14)

1
1 2
2
.
+
r + 2
r r r r 2 z 2

( r , , )
1 2
1 u
1

(r ur ) +
+
(u sin ) = 0 ,
(2.15)
2
r sin r sin
r r
u u r u u r u2 + u2
ur
u
1 p
+ ur r +
+

= gr
+
r
r

r r sin
r

+ ( 2ur
u

+ ur

2ur 2 u 2
2 u
),
2
2 uctg 2
2
r
r r
r sin

u
r

r sin

= g

(2.16)

u u uur uu ctg
+
+
=
r
r
r

p
1
+
r sin

u r
2
2 cos u
,
+ 2u 2 2 + 2
+ 2 2
r sin r sin r sin

(2.17)

u u u u ur u u2ctg
u
u
+ ur +
+
+

=
r
r
r

r r sin
= g

1 p
+
r

(2.18)
2
u
2 u r
2 cos u
,
+ u + 2

r r 2 sin 2 r 2 sin 2




1 2
1
1
2
2 = 2
.
r
+ 2
sin + 2
r sin 2 2
r r r r sin

14


.
,
,
() , .
r r
(2.6) (u )u ,
,
r
(2.19)
div u = 0 ,
r r
r
u
1
(2.20)
= PV grad p + 2u .

. , ,
, .

, . -
, .. ,
.

:
,

, ,
(1.1)(1.3).
15


. , .
( y = 0, x > 0)
u x u y
+
= 0,
x
y

(2.21)

u x
u
dp u x
.
(2.22)
+ u y x =
+
x
y
dx y y


dp
du

= u0 0 .
(2.23)
dx
dx
(2.21), (2.22)


u 2
(2.24)
( x) = c f (Re x ) 0 ,
2

u x
0,664
, Re x = 0 .
(2.25)
c f (Re x ) =

Re x
u x

(2.21), (2.22)
. , (x) , ..
u x ( x, y )
y
= F(
),
(2.26)
( x )
u0

( x ) = k
16

x
u0

(2.27)

,
F (Y ) = 2Y 2Y 3 + Y 4 k k = 5,83.

u 2
(2.28)
F = C D (Re) 0 S ,
2
u0 , S ( ), C D (Re) , , Re = u0l , l .

. 2.1 . 2.2.

. 2.1

17

. 2.2

,
. uz ,
.. u x = u y = 0,
u z
= 0 , u z = u z ( x, y, ) . z
:
2u
u
p
2u
z = + 2z + 2z ,
(2.29)

z
y
x
p p
=
=0.
(2.30)
x y

(1.1)

18

, (.. )
.
p
p
= const =
, p l.
z
l
u z ( x, y )
2u z 2u z
p
+ 2 =
(2.31)
2
l
x
y
u z

=0.


u0 l
:

l u 2
(2.32)
p = + (Re) 0 .
d 2

(2.32): (Re)
, ud
Re = 0 , ,

, ( ,
, , ..), d , d = 4S , S ,
.
= Re ,
A .

1.
?
2. ? .
19

3. , , ()?
4. ? ?
5. . ?
6.
?
7. ?
8.
?

2.1. r0 .

u0 p .
, , .
2.2.
. 0,01, 0,03, 0,10
0,30 . 3 6 .
2.3.
. 4 . 10500 /3, 830 /3,
2,910-7 2/.
2.4.
1250 /3 , 3 ,
, 8,00,2
. 300 .
2.5. . ,
, .
20

2.6. , 16 . 5 .
2.7.
l = 3 ,
u0 = 1,5 /.

= 15.106 2/ ( p = 1 , t = 18 o C ).
2.8.
,
u0 = 1,0 /.
l = 0,4 , b = 1,0 .

= 1,0 10 6 2/, (t = 20 ).
2.9. ( x)
(. 2.3).

*(x)
y
U0
(x)
. 2.3

2.10. 2.8
, h0 = 50 . ,
.
2.11. , d = 12 ,
.
u0 = 33,3 /.
21

2.12. ,
100 /,
. ,
12
13 . 20%. 44 /,
30%.
2.13.
d =10
Re d =104. ,
(2.27) , ,
u0 ( x) .
2.14.
, , u0 . h.
2.15. 2.14 .
.
2.16.
,
= 0
u0 .
2.17. , u = u0 cos .
2.18.
r0 .
.
. 22

0. r = r0
. ,
.
2.19.
r1, r2,
, . ,
.
2.20. r1 r2 . , 0. .
( )
.
2.21. 2h.
.
2.22. r1, r2.
2.23.
a b = n .
.
2.24. .
.
2.25. .
Vl 2/. 23

.
.
2.26. .
. 20 , 22,6 /.
2.27. D = 100 l = 100
d = 5 u0 = 0,4 /
(. 2.4). F
, -20
( = 1,0 /, = 892,5 /3).
F

D
U0

. 2.4

2.28. (. 2.5). , , = 8 . D = 60 , d = 2 , l = 200 .


H = 0,32 . :
,
. .
H

H
2

d
D

l
. 2.5
24

2.29.
(. 2.6). , F . , h() .

r0, h0 (h0 << r0). .


F

h(r)

2r0
. 2.6

2.30. ,
l , .
( x, ) ,
.
2.31. r0 . = 0

. u (r , ) .
2.32.
r0 . = 0

.
u (r , ) .

25

3.


, ().

.
( ) , , .
:
(); (); ();
(); ();
().
, ,
u = l . [u ] = L T ,
L [u ] = .

F = m a , [F ] = MLT 2

[F ] =

2 .
( )
- ,
[] = L M T = .
(3.1)
, ,
(3.1) , ..
- .

().
26

s , .
: X = x x , R = r r0 ;

M = u a ; Kn = l L . ,
. , , , , - ,
2
.


a
l
. : Bi =
, Fo = 2 ,

ul
Re =
..

(3.2)
= a1n1 a2n2 amnm ,
a1 , a2 ,..., am , n1 , n2 ,..., nm
.
, ,
(, , ).
,
. ,
. . , .
,
, . ,
.
-.
f ( a1 , a2 , , an ) = 0
(3.3)
27

, l ( l n ), k

( k < l ),
n k ,
n l l k :
F ( s1 , s2 , , sn l , 1 , 2 , l k ) = 0 .
(3.4)
Cnk (n l ) .
(3.3), ,
,
(3.4).

: . , .
.

. p
u0, d l , .
p = f (u0 , d , l , , ) .
(3.5)
.
1. , ,
[] = 2 , [u0 ] = ,

[d ] = ,
[l ] = ,
(3.6)

[] = 3 ,

28

[] =

2. n, l, k
-.

n , (3.6):
n = 6.
d l . ,
.
l
:
l = 5.
2

,
,
, 3
(

2

l) , ..
.

,
.
, , ,
3
, :
2


= 3 .
= ,
(3.7)
2


,
2

,
, : ,
3

2
,
. ,
,

2
. ,
k :
k = 3.
n, l, k , -, (n k = 3)
, (n l = 1)
(l k = 2).
29

3. (
k) . : ,

3 . ,

Al, Au A

.
(3.8)

Au
A
Al
3

. , , Al = 100, ,
l d 100 100l 100d.
, , Au A
u0 Au A . , p
, (3.8). (3.7) Au Al
pA Au2 . (3.8)

(3.5)
p u2 = f (u0 Au , dAl , lAl , A , Au Al ) .

(3.9)

4.

, Al, Au A . ,
( k) (3.9) , :
u0 Au = 1 , d Al = 1 , A = 1 .
(3.10)
5. (3.10) Au = 1 u0 , Al = 1 d , A = 1 , (3.9),

p
l

,
= f 1, 1, , 1,
2
d
u0 d
u0

30

(3.11)

l
= F , Re .
2
u0
d

(3.12)

, -, , 3 4
. , 4 (3.10)

(3.13)
p u2 = 1 , d Al = 1 , Au Al = 1 .
(3.13) Al =

d
2
1
, Au =
, A =
d

p d 2

, (3.9),
u d
2
l
.
1 = f 0 , 1, ,
(3.14)
2

d

p
d

(3.14) ,
p d 2
l

(3.15)
= f1 , Re .
2

(3.15) (3.12), ,
(3.15) (3.12) . ,
(3.15) , (3.12)
p
1
l

(3.16)
= 2 f1 , Re = F , Re .
2
u0 Re

d
n k = 1. -
F() = 0
= const .
(3.17)
(3.2) (3.17) ,
-
31

a1 = C a2 a3 an1 .

(3.18)

. T = f ( g , l ) .

.
n k = 1 , T = Cg l .

= 2 .

. : 0 = + ; :
1 = 2 . , = 0,5 , = 0,5 T = C l g .
. k ,
-, , ..
,
. [3] .
,
x , y , z .


. ,
.
.

,
( ), : , , .

.
32

. 2h l.
. , , (
):
u
u
2u
1 p
+ 2z ,
u y z + uz z =
y
z
z
y

uy

u y
y

+ uz

u y
z

u y
y


y = h, 0 z l
z = 0, h y h

2u y
1 p
+ 2 ,
y
y

(3.19)

u z
=0,
z

u y = uz = 0
u z = u0 .

(3.20)

.
1. ,

y, z, u y , u z , p .
(3.21)
2. , .
, , . .
h, l , u 0 .
(3.22)

.
3. ,
uy
y
z
u
Y = , Z = , Uy = , Uz = z .
(3.23)
h
l
u
u0
4. (3.23)

y = Y h, z = Z l , u y = U y u 0 , u z = U z u 0
33

(3.24)

(3.24) (3.19), (3.20).


u02
1 p u0 2U z
U z u02
U z
Uy
+ Uz
=
+ 2
,
h
l
Y
Z
l Z
h Y 2
2
U y
U y u02
1 p u0 U y
u02
=
+ 2
,
+ Uz
Uy
Z
h Y
l
Y
h
h Y 2

(3.25)

u0 U y u0 U z
+
=0,
h Y
l Z
u0U y = u0U z = 0 ,

Yh = h, 0 Zl l

u0U z = u0 .

Zl = 0, h Yh h

(3.26)

(3.25) (3.26) , , : , ,
, , .
5.

. (3.25) , ,
u02 h u0 h :
Uy
Uy

U z h
U z
h P 1 2U z
+ Uz
=
+
,
Y
Z
l
l Z Re Y 2
2
U y
P 1 U y
h
+ Uz
=
+
,
Y
Z
Y Re Y 2
l

U y

U y

h U z
=0,
Y
l Z
Y = 1, 0 Z 1
Uy = Uz = 0 ,

(3.27)

Z = 0, 1 Y 1

(3.28)

Uz = 1.

(3.27) p
P =
,
u02
34

, h
uh
: Re = 0 .

l
.
, .
(3.27) (3.28) , U y , U z

U y = f1 (Y , Z , Re, h l ) ,
U z = f 2 (Y , Z , Re, h l ) ,

(3.29)

P = f3 (Y , Z , Re, h l ) .
,
P = f 4 ( Z , Re, h l ) ,
(3.30)

p
P
= f 4 (0, Re, h l ) f 4 (1, Re, h l ) = F (Re, h l ) . (3.31)
u02

,
:
1) ;
1)
.
,
, .

,
35

= .

(3.32)

, .
, :
r
r
X = x X .
(3.33)
, , , , ..
.

:
= .
(3.34)
C , C x , C ,
, ,
, . i = 1, .
, , .. l. k
.
l k .
,
:
,
.
.
, , () .
,
.
36

, .
, :
, , .

,
(3.32)(3.34). , CC
u x = 1 .
C

1. ?
r
2. u , , .
3. -.
4. ,
n k = 0 ? ?
5. ,
n k =1?
6. , ?
?
7. .
8. .
9. ?

3.1.
p l
0, d, . 37


.
3.2. ,
F, ,
0, d, . .
3.3. 3.2 , .

.
.
3.4. r0
, .
, , , .
3.5.
u = f ( y, , , ) . .
3.6.
. = 0
.
, , ?
3.7. . = 0 0. 38

, ,
?
3.8. (. 3.1), , ,
, T = f(m, s, , g). T .

. 3.1

. 3.2

3.9. (. 3.2) , , E = f (, g , A, ) . -

.
3.10. , ,
, , . , , r = f ( E , , ) .
3.11. (. 3.3)
, g
h, ..
M = f (, g , h) . .
39

. 3.3

3.12.
D ( ),
g , . D .
3.13. , , ,
V,
g . .
3.14. 3.8 .
3.15. 3.9 .
3.16.


. u .
3.17. 3.16 , .
.

40

4.

,
.

, .
( , , .), . ,

: u = u + u , u ; u
r
; u .
,
.


.

ui uiu j
P
ui
+
=
+

ui'u 'j ,
(4.1)

xj
xi x j x j

ui' u 'j (
). ( i = j)
41

, ( i = j) .
(4.1) .
:
u j
(4.2)
=0.
xj
- ui' u 'j ,
, (4.1)(4.2) .
(4.1) (4.2) ,
.
PxyT x :
du x
.
(4.3)
dy
. (1877 .)
= Vl , (
, , V , l ) (4.3) :
PxyT = ui' u 'j = l 'u 'y

t = u 'y l ' .

(4.4)

'
du
u y u x' l ' x
dy

:
42

PxyT l '2

du x du x
du du

= l 2 x x ,
dy dy
dy dy

(4.5)

l = l '2 ( ); l
.
, :
l = y ,
(4.6)

.
= 0,4.

:
du
t = l 2 x .
(4.7)
dy
, x,
(4.1) :
P
du

+ ( x ui'u 'j ) = 0 ,
(4.8)
x y
dy
.
P
(
= 0 ) x
y :
du
x ui' u 'j = = const .
(4.9)
dy
(4.9) , u x = f ( y, , )

43

ux
yu
= f * ,
u*

u* =

(4.10)

.
: = u x u*
yu
= * , ,

= const
, , :
= () .
(4.11)
()
.
, .
, , <
= .
(4.12)

.
> t
,

1
= ln + C .
(4.13)

: 5, t 30 , = 5,5, :
- :
=;
< 11,7 ,
= 2,5 ln + 5,5 ; 11,7 ,
(4.14)
44

- :
= ;
< 5 ,
= 4,92 ln + 3,06 ; 5 30 , (4.15)
= 2,5 ln + 5,5 ;
> 30 .


u
= 0,3 x * .
(4.16)
u0
0,2 , 75%
25% 0,8 .

ux
yu
y
= f * + H f1 ,
(4.17)
u*


yu
f * = f () ,

y
f1 = 1 + sin (2 1) ;
2
= 1,375 .

:
u 2
= C f (Re x ) 0 ,
(4.18)
2
C f (Re x ) ,

u0 x
.

Re x =

45

C f = 0,0576 Re x 0, 2 ,

5 1055 < Re x < 107 ,

C f = 0,0262 Re x 1 / 7 ,
= 0,3x

Re x < 109 ,

(4.19)
(4.20)

Cf

.
(4.21)
2
,
t ( y ) ( y = R r ; R, r ):
y

(1 y / R)
dy .
+ t ( y )
0

u x ( y) =

(4.22)

3 :
1) , >> t ,
2)

, t ,

3) , << t .

,
,
( y ) = const , .

l u 2

P = + (Re) 0 ,
(4.23)
d 2

l
, (Re)
d
, (Re) , :
u 2 8
(4.24)
= 8 *2 = 2 .
u0 u0
46


:
0,316
( Re) = 0, 25 Re 105
(4.25)
Re
:
0,221
(Re) = 0,0032 + 0, 237 105 < Re < 108 .
(4.26)
Re

:

0,68
(, Re) = 0,11 +

Re
d

0, 25

(4.27)

0,316
.
Re 0, 25

.
(4.23), (4,25) (4.27)
d ,
4F
,
(4.28)
d =

F , .
.. ,
(Re)

u n,

u R ,

(4.29)

n
, R , u ,
47

.
u
8d
.
(4.30)
u =
(Re) Re
, ( ..). ,
,
.
( k )- .

(k )-

( k )- (4.31),
(4.32), k (4.33) (4.34) :
u j
(4.31)
=0,
xj
ui

u i' u 'j ,
xj

k
k

k
+ t
+uj
=
+

xj xj
k x j

u i u i u j
P

+
=
+

xj
xi x j

u uj
+ t i +
x j xi

2
ij k ui ,
3
xj

48

(4.32)

(4.33)

+uj
=

xj xj
+ C1


+ t
+
x j

ui u j
+
t
k x j xi

2
ij k ui ,
3
x j

2 ui
2
C 2
+ C3 t
xk x j
k

(4.34)

C1 , C 2 , C3 , k , , ij
.
() u i u j
(4.32) t
u uj 2
k .
ui uj = t i +
(4.35)
x j xi 3 ij

, t
, :
k2
t = C ,
(4.36)

C .

C , C1 , C 2 , C3 , k , ,
(4.28)(4.33) ,
, , , :
C = 0,09 exp[3,4 /(1 + Ret / 50) 2 ] , C1 = 1,44 ,
49

C 2 = 1,92(1 0,3 exp( Ret 2 )) ,


C3 = 2,0 , k = 1,0 , = 1,3 ,
Re t = k / .
2

1. . ?
2. ?
3. . ?
4. u ?
5. ?
6.
.
7. ?
8. ?
9. l
,
? ) , ) .
10.
.
11. ?
12. ? : , ?
13. ?

50


4.1. . . Re = 50000.
. :
) , ;
) , P
.
4.2.
, . P . .
4.3. :
. .
4.4. Nu =
= 0,023Re0,8Pr0,4 ( u 0,8 ).
,

. .
4.5.

. Re 104, 105. (: ,

.
1
= 2,0lg(Re ) 0,8 .)


4.6. (
P )
. . (
).
51

4.7. Re, s d = 1,2


. (: .. )
4.8. . d, s.
4.9.
N .
Fi , -

d i , li , i .
.
4.10. N
Fi d i .
l,

0, 25
i = 0,316 (ui d i )
, .
4.11.
.
, p . p , -

1 r 2
, u0
u x (r ) = u0 1 + 3,48
2 r2
2

.
4.12.
16,0
4 /c 300 1 10 = 10 , :
52

) 12 ;
) 2 ;
) ?
4.13. , , , ( ),
:
) 16,0 12,0 ;
) 300 330 ?
4.14.
, p l ,
, 150 ,
T = 293 50 /.
4.15. , cD = 1,3; . 0,5 , 0,125 , 15 /
.
4.16. 150
60 /. l = 24 - ,
89 .

, ,
.
4.17.
d1 =150
d2 =100 1 3/. :

d2
= 0,5 1 22 .
d1
53

4.18. , d1 = 200 d2 = 300 , 0,2 3/ T = 293 .


, d1 d2

6? : , .. h = h + h ,

dh

dp
dl u 2
(u u ) 2
=
, h = 1 2 . 2g
g
d 2 g

=sin ,
=1/(1,8 lg Re 1,5)2.
4.19. 100
100 /, 6105 ,
293 . ,
M .
4.20.
,

u = umax [1 (r r0 ) n ] , umax ,
n = 2, 4, 6, 8.
4.21.
5 /, 760 . . 288 . ,
3 ,
?
4.22. , Rex = 3,2105,
, ,
, , 20 / T0 = 288
p0 = 760 . .
4.23. (T0 = 288
p0 = 760 . .)
54

30 /. ( y = 0 y = )
x = 50 .
x = 200 . Re 5105.
4.24. ,
. : 3 , 3 .
4 /, 800 /3,
14 , 0,03,
4,5.

55

5.



( , )
.

1
1
=
dV ,
=
dV ,
(5.1)
V V
V V

V , V
V, . . 5.1 .

. 5.1

V , .
56

, .
,
s ( 5.2, ). ( ,
).
s 60
(. 5.2, ).

)
. 5.2

(5.1) - , V V :

= .

(5.2)

, ,
- ,
() .
,
V.
(5.1)
, , , . , , (5.1).
57


( = const )
u j
(5.3)
=0,
x j

ui

+
ui u j = g i +
T ji .

x j
x j

(5.4)

(5.4) Tji , , ,
u j

u
(5.5)
Tij = Tij + Tij = p ij + ( i +
) (u u j ) .
x j xi
(5.3) (5.1), V V:
u j 1
+
u n dS = 0 .
(5.6)
x j
V S

(5.6)
, ,
1 r
= +
n dS ,
(5.7)
V S

r
S V, n
S. (5.7) , , .
(5.7) , . (5.2) (5.6)
j
=0.
(5.8)
x j
(5.4)
58

ui
1

+
ui u j +

x j
V

1
= g i +
T ji +
x j
V

u nui dS =

(5.9)

n jT ji dS.

(5.9) ,
i- .
1
fi =
n jT ji dS .
(5.10)
V S

- , ..
ui = ui + ui ,
(5.11)
u .
(5.11) -
ui u j = ui u j + ui u j ,
(5.12)
ui u j , ui u j
.
(5.8) (5.10)
ui


+
ui u j = g i + f i +
Tij ,
(5.13)

x j
x j
Tij , ,
.
u
u j
Tij = p ij + i +
x j xi

+ (u u j ) ui u j . (5.12)

59

(5.8) (5.13),
, fi Tij ,
.

,
, - ( )
r
r
f = K u
(5.13)

(5.13)
fi = kijuj.
, . () () .
kij = k ij + (k k )ni n j ,
(5.14)
r
n , .
[4] (z) (r)

u
u
k = z
k = r
,
.
(5.15)
2d
2d

z, r [5].
[6]
1 )
1
,
, , .
60

u u j
r 4 u
2

Tij = P + 1divu + 2 n ij + 1 i +
x j xi
n
3
3

u j u k
2 ni nk
+
xk x j

+ nk n j ui + u k
x

k xi

(5.16)

r
n, ni ,
; ; :
(5.17)
P = p + (c sin 2 + c cos 2 )u 2 ,

, .
( )
c c ; 1, 2 ,
,
:
(5.18)
1 = + ( ) cos 2 ,
2 = ,
(5.19)

, . , , . 5.3. u
Tij = ij i , ij x j
.

,

61


= d Re ,
(5.20)

Re = ud , , d -


4
8 3
.

, ,

. 5.3

. ,

i
(5.21)
= i ( s d ) Re , i =, .

i 0,01.
, , (5.13) ,
u
k =
,
(5.22)
2d

,

u
u j
r
2

.
(5.23)
Tij = P + divu ij + i +
x j xi
3

(5.23) = .
62

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4.
?
5. ?
6. ?
7. .
8. ?

5.1.
, : 1) = = ; 2) = = = .
5.2. 0 0
p
= const . u x ( y ) ,
x
u
u
x x
= 0 , lc
lc
y
y =0

.
63

5.3. 2h
.
. 5.4.
p
= const
x
. ( ) u x ( y ) ,
y = h : )
u x ( y = h) = 0 ; )

u x
y

=0.
y =h

. 5.4

5.4. 5.3
u1
u 2 .
5.5. k (5.15)

,
[5]
.
5.6. k (5.15)
, 64

[5] .
5.7. h
,
r
r
n . , n
.
y
U

r
n

0
. 5.5

.
. 5.5. , ..
, .
(5.16), (5.17). , , ,
= =
. y = 0 y = h : )

u x
y

= 0 , ) y = 0, h

u x ( y = 0) = u x ( y = h) = 0 .
5.8. 5.7
h
65


.
5.9. 5.7
.
5.10. () l, r0 , , r
r2
qv (r ) = qv ( k r 2( k r 1) 2 ) .
r0
t. .

2 d
P P
mz 0 =
g ,
l
z

r2 z
0 t (r , z ) t = t 0 k r 2( k r 1) 2 .
r0 l

, ,
= [1 (t t)] = .
.
z r

. .

66

1.1. p ( z ) = p0 0 g z , z .
1.2.
r
p
p p
=
= 0,
= g , ,
0 = g grad p
z
x y
. p = RT T = const

= 0

p
p0

p (z )

g
g
dp
= 0 dz . , p ( z ) = p0 exp 0
p
P0
p0

g
( z ) = 0 exp 0
p0

z
,

z
.

u02
.
2
1.4.

p = RT ,
(1.4.1)
( )
p
p
= const = 0 ,
(1.4.2)

1.3. p = p0 +


u2
+ P ( p ) + gz = const .
(1.4.3)
2
(1.4.2)
1

( p) = 0 ( p p0 )
67

dp
dp p
p
P( p) =
= 0 =
1 0
( p )
0 p

p0
+ C
p

p
(1.4.4)
+C .
1
, ,
(1.4.4)
u02
p0
p
.
(1.4.5)
+
=
2 1 0 1
P( p) =

p = RT (1.4.1), (1.4.5)

T
1 2
1 u02
M ,
, = 1 +
(1.4.6)
T = T0 +
T0
2
2 R
M u0 a0 , a0 RT0
T0 . (1.4.1) (1.4.2) :


1 2 1 p
1 2 1
M ,
= 1 +
= 1 +
M .
0
p0
2
2

1.5. u = 2p .
1.6. p =

u 2
2

0 S 1 , u =
min

u 2 S 0
S

, u = min
1.7. p =
2 S min
S0

2p
.
(( S 0 S min ) 2 1)

2p
.

1.8. r
FV = l 3 g g , .. .
68

, . ,
, ,
.
, . .
, , ,
, FS = ( p(h + l ) p(h))l 2 .
, .. FS
.

3
p ( h + l ) p ( h) = gl , , FS = gl .
, , F = ( ) gl 3 .
1.9. r
FV = Vg g , .. .
,
, ,
, [2]. ,
d , (. 1),
r
r
dFS = p( z ) n d ,
(1.9.1)
r
n , p (z ) .

. 1

(1.9.1)
.
69

FSx = p ( z ) n x d ,

FSy = p ( z ) n y d ,

FSz = p ( z ) n z d .

(1.9.2)

(1.9.2)

r
nx , n y , nz n

.
r
FS

0 x : d
0 x (. .2).

. 2

r
d n .
n x d nx d ,
0 x ,
.
, FSx (1.9.2) . ,
, .. FSx = 0 . , FSy = 0 . ,
, , .
FSz .
d
0 z . 70

r
d n . 0 z , d d ,
(1.9.3)
dFSz = p ( z1 ) n z d , dFSz = p ( z 2 ) nz d ,
z1 z 2 .
, nZ d = d z , nz d = d z , d z ,
p ( z ) = p ( z = 0) + g z , , ,
dFSz + dFSz = g ( z 2 z1 )d Z g dV ,
(1.9.4)
dV ( z 2 z1 ) d z .
(1.9.4)
(1.9.5)
FSz = gV .
(1.9.1) (1.9.5) , ,
(1.9.6)
Fz = g ( )V .
, ,
, , ,
.
.
1.10. (. 3)

p ( z ) = p 0 + g ( h z ) .
, r0 d
z = r0 cos ,

dFx = p(r0 cos ) dS x ,
(1.10.1)
dFz = p(r0 cos ) dS z ,
dS x dS z dS = r0 sin r0 d x z:
71

. 3

dS x = 2r02 sin 2 d ,

dS z = r02 sin cos d .

(1.10.2)


. p (z ) ,
p0 , ,
,

, .

Fx = g (h r0 cos ) 2r02 sin 2 d = r02 g h ,

(1.10.3)

Fz = gm g (h r0 cos ) r02 sin cos d =


0

2
(1.10.4)
3
,
, gm .
, , ,
. .
1.11. , .. (1.10.4)
2
m = r03 .
3
1.12. (1.1) (1.2) :
1

1
( u ) +
+ 2
( r 2 u r ) +
r sin
r r
1

(1.12.1)
+
( u sin ) = 0 ,
r sin

= gm + r03 g .

72

u u r
u r
u
+ ur r +
+

r r sin
2
2
u u r u + u
1 p

= PVr
,
r
r
r
u
u
u u u u
+
+ ur
+
+
r

r sin
r

u u r
r

uu ctg
r

= PV

1 p
,
r

(1.12.2)

(1.12.3)

u u u u
u
u
+ ur +
+
+

r r sin
r
2

u ctg
u u
1 p
+ r
= PV
.
(1.12.4)
r
r
r
: = const ,

r
PV = 0, u = u = 0 u r = u r ( r , ) .

2
(r ur ) = 0 ,
(1.12.5)
r
u
u r
1 p
.
(1.12.6)
+ ur r =

r
r
u r
dR() &
u r (r = R) =
R,
(1.12.7)
d
(1.12.8)
p ( r = ) = p0 .
,
C ()
(1.12.5), u r (r , ) = 2 . ( )
r
(1.12.7),
73

R 2 () R& ()
.
(1.12.9)
r2
(1.12.9) (1.12.6) ,
r
(1.12.8)

&&R 2 + 2 RR& 2 R& 2 R 4


p ( r , ) p0 R
.
(1.12.10)
=

2 r4
(1.12.10) ,
&& + 1,5 R& 2 ) .
p(r = R) = p0 + ( RR
(1.12.11)
1.13. , , 1.12. , 1.12, (.. ) R() (. (1.12.11)). p ( ) u ()
( u () = R& () ), (1.12.11)
u r ( r , ) =

du 3 2 1
(1.13.1)
+ u = ( p ( ) p 0 ) .
d 2


( pV = const ) R()
R

r
p () = p ( 0 )3 .
(1.13.2)
R
p ( ) (1.13.1) d
d
R () = u
,
dR
d


74

d
2 R 2 r0
3 2
(R u ) =
p p0 ,
R
dR

2R3
1
r
p0 + .
R 3u 2 =
p 0
3
R 1

(1.13.3)

(1.13.4)

, ,
R = r0 , u = 0 .
3( 1)
3

+ 2 p0 r0 1 . (1.13.5)
1 r0

3 R
R

.
p 0 , -

2 p r0
u =

3( 1) R
2

. (1.13.5) R()
, R() .
( u 2 0 ),
R() .
Rmax , , .. u 2 . Rmax
(1.13.5) u 2 = 0
3
r 3( 1)
Rmax
p
1 0
.

= 1 +
(1.13.6)
R

r
(
1
)
p

0
max

(1.13.5)
. u () , .
, Rmax .

p0 , ,
75

u ( ) 0 . (1.13.5) ,
r0 , u 2 ( R = r0 ) = 0 .
. .
, , p

, ,
( 1) p0
(1.13.6),
1

p 3
.
(1.13.7)
Rmax r0
( 1) p0
1.14. (r , ) , ,
1 1 2
r
+
= 0.
(1.14.1)
r r r r 2 2

=0
(1.14.2)
r r = r0


r
u 0

= u0 cos ,
r r
1
= u0 sin .
r r
(1.14.1) (1.13.3)
r2
( r , ) = u0 ( r + 0 ) cos .
r

76

(1.14.3)

(1.14.4)

r02
r02
u
r
u
)
cos

(
,

)
=

(
1
+
) sin .
,
(1.14.5)

0
r2
r2

p(r , ) u r2 (r , ) + u2 (r , ) p0 u02
+
=
+
.
(1.14.6)

2
2
, , .
1.15. , ,

= u0 nx ,
= u0 n z ,
(1.15.1)
= u0 n y ,
x
z
y
ur (r , ) = u0 (1

nx = cos , n y = cos , nz = cos r


r
n , , , n .
(1.15.1) = u 0 xn x + C1 ( y , z ) , ,

C1 ( y , z ) = u0 yn y + C 2 ( z ) ,

C 2 ( z ) = u 0 zn z + C3 .

( x, y, z ) = u0 ( xnx + yn y + zn z + C ) .

(1.15.2)

1.16. ( x, y ) = u0 ( xnx + yn y + C1 ) , ( x, y ) = u0 ( ynx xn y + C2 ) .


1.17. ,
. 4.
Q

Q
ur =
.
4 r 2

ur =
,
. 4
r
77

Q
, =
r 4 r 2


( x, y, z ) =

Q
.
4 r

(1.17.1)

(1.17.1) . (1.17.1) r ()
, r = x 2 + y 2 + z 2
r = ( x x0 ) 2 + ( y y0 ) 2 + ( z z0 ) 2 ( x0 , y0 , z0 ).
1.18. ,
V
ur =
, u = 0 .
(1.18.1)
2 r

1
1

ur =
=
=
, u =
.
(1.18.2)
r
r
r r
(1.18.1) (1.18.2)
V
V
ln r , (r , ) =
.
(r , ) =
(1.18.3)
2
2

V
V
y
( x, y ) =
ln x 2 + y 2 , ( x, y ) =
arctg .
2
2
x
(1.18.4)
r
r0

V
ln ( x x0 ) 2 + ( y y0 ) 2 ,
2
y y0
V
( x, y ) =
arctg
.
(1.18.5)
2
x x0
1.19.
( x, y ) =

78

u r = 0 , u =

.
2 r

(1.19.1)

1
ur =
=
=
, u =
.
(1.19.2)
r r
r
r
(1.19.1) (1.19.2)

V
(r , ) =
, (r , ) = ln r .
(1.19.3)
2
2

y
( x, y ) =
arctg , ( x, y ) = ln x 2 + y 2 . (1.19.4)
2
2
x
r
r0

( x, y ) =

y y0

arctg
,
2
x x0

ln ( x x0 ) 2 + ( y y0 ) 2 .
2
1.20. = ax , = ay , u x = a , u y = 0 .
( x, y ) =

(1.19.5)

1.21.
= u ( z + r02 z )

z = r exp(i) r (cos + i sin ) , , = + i ,



= u (r + r02 r ) cos , = u (r r02 r ) sin .
(1.21.1)

r2
r2
u r (r , ) = u (1 02 ) cos , u (r , ) = u (1 + 02 ) sin . (1.21.2)
r
r
(1.21.1) (1.21.2) ,
r = r0 ( (r = r0 ) = 0,
u r ( r = r0 ) = 0 ),
u ( r = r0 ) = 2u sin . ( r )
u . , r0 u .
79

1.22. ( z ) = cz n -

z = x + iy

z = r exp( i) ,

r = x2 + y2 ,

y
, , = + i , x

= arctg

= cr n cos(n) , = cr n sin(n) .

(1.22.1)


u r = cnr n 1 cos(n) , u = cnr n 1 sin(n) .

(1.22.2)

(1.22.1) , = 0 ,
= 0 = n (. 5).

. 5


u , u r = cnr n 1
= 0 u r = cnr n 1 = n
(1.22.2). . 5. , 0
= 0 , 0 .
,
, .. ( z ) = cz n = 2(1 1 n) ,
n 0 ( r = 0 ) .
80


u r = cnr n 1 . n = 2

(. 6).

. 6

2.1.
. ,
= 0. ,
ur(r, ) u(r, ). (2.15) (2.18)
u r 2u r 1 u u ctg
(2.1.1)
+
+
+
= 0,
r
r
r
r
1 p 2u r 2 u r 2u r
1 2u r
=
+

+
+
r r
r
r2
r 2 2
r 2
ctg u r
2 u
2ctg
+ 2
2 2 u ,
(2.1.2)

r
r
r

1 p 2u 2 u 1 2u
=
+
+ 2
+
r r
r r 2
r 2
u
ctg u 2 u r
(2.1.3)
+ 2
2 2 ,
2
r r sin
r

ur (r = r0 , ) = 0 , u ( r = r0 , ) = 0 ,
(2.1.4)

, .. ,
81

ur (r , ) = u0 cos , u (r , ) = u0 sin ,
p(r , ) = p .

(2.1.5)

(2.1.5)

u
ur
= f ( R) cos ,
= g ( R) sin ,
u0
u0
r
(2.1.6)
( p p ) 0 = h( R ) cos ,
u0
R , R = r r0 .
(2.1.6) (2.1.1) (2.1.3)
f , g , h

2
( f g) = 0 ,
(2.1.7)
R
2
4
h = f + f 2 ( f g ) ,
(2.1.8)
R
R
h
2
2
= g + g + 2 ( f g ) .
(2.1.9)
R
R
R
(2.1.7) (2.1.9) g (R ) h(R) ,
f (R)
f +

R 3 f + 8R 2 f + 8Rf 8 f = 0 ,
(2. 1.10)

f = Rn .
(2.1.11)
(2.1.11) (2.1.10), n , n1 = 0, n2 = 2,
n3 = 1, n4 = 3 , (2.1.10)

f ( R ) = C1 + C2 R 2 + C3 R 1 + C4 R 3 .
(2.1.12)
g (R ) h(R) f (R) .
(2.1.4) (2.1.5).

82

ur (r , ) = u0 (1

3 r0 1 r03
+
) cos ,
2 r 2 r3

(2.1.13)

3 r0 1 r03

) sin ,
(2.1.14)
4 r 4 r3
r
3
p (r , ) p = u0 02 cos .
(2.1.15)
2
r
,
,
u (r , ) = u0 (1

F = ( p(r = r0 , ) cos
0

u
r

r =r0

sin ) 2 r02 sin d .

(2.1.16)


F = 6 u0 r0 ,

(2.1.17)

(2.28)
ud
24
D =
, Re = 0 .
(2.1.18)
Re

( ) gd 2
2.2. u =

18

4 gd
u = 1
Re 4,0 .

3C D (Re)
C D (Re) . 2.2. 3 /, 27 /,
0,3 /, 1,64 /. 8,66 /, 12,2 /.
2.3. 1,23 /.
2.4. 0,86 .
2.5. .
2.6. 0,325 /
2.7. =32 .
2.8. F = 0,84 .

2.9. ( x) = (1
0

u ( x, y )
u x ( x, y )
= 2Y 2Y 3 + Y 4 ,
)dy . x
u0
u0
83

Y=

x
x
y
, ( x) = 5,83
( ) = 1,75
.
(x)
u0
u0

2.10. -
( )
, .
, , ,
, (x) .

h0
u0 ( x) = u
,
(2.10.1)
h0 2 ( x)

u 2 u 2 ( x )
.
(2.10.2)
p ( x ) = p + 0
2
2

.
p .

l

u 2 ( x)
u 2
F = ( p p ( x)) b dx = b ( 0 2 1) dx .
2 0 u
0

(2.10.3)

2.9
( ) = 1,75

x
u0

(2.10.4)

(l ) = 1,1 .
84

u02 ( x)
2 ( x)
4 ( x) 4 (l ) x 0,5
1 = (1 ) 2 1
=
( ) ,
2
h
h0
h0
l
u
0
F=

4 (l )
u2
b l X 0,5 dX = 11,7 H .
2
h0 0

(2.10.5)

2.11. 9,56 .
2.12. u0 =

100 1,2
= 33,3 /.
3,6

u0 d 33,3 0,012
=
= 2,66 10 4 . . 2.2
6

15 10
C D = 1,2

Re =

u02
1,2 33,32
d l = 1,2
0,012 13 = 124,6 .
2
2

M = F u 0 = 4148 .
M
4148
=
= 3,14 10 4 /, G =
6
r 0,3 44 10
100 ( 100 /) 1,13 1,55
.
x
2.13. ( x) = 5,83
,
u0 ( x)
F = C D

, u0 ( x) , , . u 0 ( x ) = 2u sin 2u sin( x r0 ) .
x = 0 u0 ( x) = 0.
,
( x = 0) = 5,83 r0 2u r0 = 5,83 Re d .
d 2r0 = 10 Re d = 10 4 = 0,29 .
85

2.14. u z = u0

y
, h

Pyz = u0 h .

u
1 p
y 1 p
(h 2 y ) .

y (h y ), Pyz = 0
h 2 z
h 2 z
2.16. , y 0.
u z ( y, ) .
2.15. u z ( y ) = u0

u z ( y , ) :

u z
2u
= 2z .

y
u z ( y , = 0) = 0 ,

(2.16.2)
(2.16.3)
u z ( y = 0, > 0) = u 0 .
(2.16.1) (2.16.2)
(2.16.3) , u z
(2.16.4)
u z = f ( y , , , u 0 ) .
(2.16.4) (. 3 ) ,
u z u 0 = f1 ( y 2 ) ,
(2.16.1) .

u
y
U = z , =
.
(2.16.5)
u0
2
(2.16.1)
(2.16.6)
U + 2U = 0
(2.16.2) (2.16.3)
U ( = 0) = 1 , U ( ) = 0 .
(2.16.7)
(2.16.6)
2

U () = C1 e d + C2

86

(2.16.7)

u z ( y, )
y
),
(2.16.8)
= 1 erf (
u0
2
x

2
2
e x dx .

0
2.17. , y 0 .
u z ( y , ) .
u z ( y , ) :

erf ( x) erf ( x) =

u z
2u
= 2z .

(2.17.1)


(2.17.2)
u z ( y = 0, ) = u0 cos .

.
y = 0 .
U ( y, ) = f ( y ) ei .



(2.17.3)
u z ( y, ) = u0 exp
y cos
y .
2
2

2.18.

= 0 ) ,
u z = 0 , z (
z

(
= 0 ).
, (2.11)
, u r = 0 .
87

(2.12), (2.13)
u2
1 p
,

=
r
r
1 u u
2 =0.
r
r r r
r
u (r = r0 ) = r0 ,
p ( r ) = p0 .
:
r
u (r ) = u0
r r0 ,
r0

u (r ) = u0

r0
r

r r0 ,

p (r ) = p0 u02 +

u02 r 2
2 r02

(2.18.1)
(2.18.2)

(2.18.3)
(2.18.4)

r r0 ,

u02 r02
r r0 .
2 r2
(2.18.3) (2.18.6) u0 = r0 .
p ( r ) = p0

(2.18.5)
(2.18.6)

,
(2.18.4) ( z )
Q=

r0

u2 (r )
2

2rdr =

u02 r02
2 r 2 2rdr =
r0

u02 r02 ln r r = .
0

(2.18.7)

, (2.18.4)
.
r r0 (2.18.4), .

88

2.19. u (r ) =

r12 r22

r ,
r22 r12 r


Pr = r

d u

dr r

= 2
r = r1

r22
r22 r12


r22 r12
2
.
M = Pr ( r1 ) 2 r1 l = 4 l 2
r2 r12
2.20. u z (r ), ur = u = 0 ,

p
=0.
z

:
ln(r r1 )
u z (r ) = u0
,
ln(r2 r1 )
u z (r ) = u0

ln(r2 r )

.
ln(r2 r1 )
, , .

96
ph 2
y2
2.21. u z ( y ) = 1,5u0 1 2 , u0 =
, =
.
Re
3 l
h

2.22. .7.

. 7

(2.31)
:
1 d
du
p
.
(2.22.1)
(r z ) =
r dr
dr
l
89


u z ( r = r2 ) = 0

u z ( r = r1 ) = 0,

2 ln(r r1 )
r 2 + r12 .
(2.22.2)
( r2 r1 )
ln(r2 r1 )


u z (r ) =

p
4 l

1
u0 = 2
r2 r12

r2

u z (r )2rdr .

(2.22.3)

r1

,
2
p r12

1 + 2 1 ,
(2.22.4)

8 l
ln

= r2 r1 . (2.22.4) -

u0 =

p u0 .
(2.32)
A()
64 ( 1) 2
=
, A() =
.
(2.22.5)
2
Re

1 +

ln

2.23.
. 8.

(2.23.1)
u z ( x, y ) = B( x, y ) ,

x2 y2

a 2 b2

a b

, (2.23.1)
.

( x, y ) = 1

. 8

90

(2.23.1) (2.31), , , B,
p a 2b 2
B=
.
(2.23.2)
2 l a 2 + b 2
, (2.23.1) B, (2.23.2),
, .

a

4
u0 =
dx
ab 0

b 1

x2
a2

B(1

3
x2 y 2
8B
2 ) dy
(1 X 2 ) 2 dX . (2.23.3)

2
3 0
a
b

B
p a 2b 2

.
(2.23.4)
2 4 l a 2 + b 2
(2.23.1) (2.23.4), ,

u max = 2u 0
a b = n .
(2.23.4) p u0 .
(2.32)
.
A(n)
2( a 2 + b 2 )
2(1 + n 2 )
=
, A( n) = 64
.
(2.23.5)
64

Re
( a + b) 2
(1 + n) 2
(2.23.5) ,
4ab
,
d =
a+b
u d
Re = 0 .

u0 =

91

2.24.
. 9.

y
a

x
. 9

(2.31)
2u z 2u z
p
+
=
, uz = 0 .
(2.24.1)
2
2
l
x
y
, y = a 3 2 ,
y = 3 x , ,
:
( x, y ) = ( y 3 x)( y + 3 x)(a 3 2 y )
(2.24.2)
,
(2.24.5)
u z ( x, y ) = B( x, y ) .
(2.24.5) (2.24.1), , (2.24.1)

p 1
.
(2.24.6)
B=
l 2a 3

( x = 0, y = a 3 )

u max =

1 pa 2
.
36 l


u0 =

8
a2 3

a 2

a 3 2

x 3

dx

92

u z ( x, y )dy

(2.24.7)

u0 =

1 pa 2
.
80 l

(2.24.8)

u max u 0 = 20 9 =
= 2,22.
(2.24.8) p u0 .
(2.32)
.
A
160
= , A =
= 53,3 .
(2.24.9)
3
Re
(2.24.9) ,
a
d =
, 3
u d
Re = 0 .

2.25. , u x = u y = 0 ,
u z ( y ) ,
p
= 0 ), y

dp
= g . (2.10)

dz

d 2u z
.
(2.25.1)
0 = g ( ) +
dy 2

(2.25.2)
u z ( y = 0) = 0 .
,

93

du z
dy

=0.

(2.25.3)

y =

(2.25.1) (2.25.2) (2.25.3)



g ( )
y
u z ( y) =
y .
(2.25.4)
2

Vl = u z ( y ) dy =
0

g ( ) 3
,
3

=3

3Vl
g ( )

(2.25.5)


Vl 3 g ( )Vl 2
.
(2.25.6)
=

3
2.26. , ,
, . , 2.25.

V
22,6 10 3
Vl =
=
= 1,00 10 4 2/.
3
3
d 3,6 10 20 10

uz =

=3

3Vl
g (1 )

=3

3 10 4 1,003 10 6
= 0,31 10 3
9,8(1 1,205 998,2)

( = 1,003 10 6 2/, = 998,2 /3, = 1,205 /3).



V
10 4
u = l =
= 0,32 /.
0,31 10 3
94

( d = 0,015 ),
. :
u 4 0,32 4 0,31 10 3
Re =
=
= 396 .

1,003 10 6
.
2.27. F = 18149 .
gd 4
= 4,74 10 6 2/.
2.28. =
32 ln 2 D 2l
2.29.

u
1
(rur ) + z = 0 ,
(2.29.1)
r r
z
1 p 1 u r 2u r u r
+
+

,
(2.29.2)
0=
r
r r r r
z 2 r 2
1 p 1 u z 2u z
(2.29.3)
r
+
+ 2 .
z r r r
z

. , (
h r ). (2.29.2) (2.29.3)
0=

p
p
<<
, z
r
p = p (r , ) . , ,
, (2.29.2).
(2.29.2) (2.29.3)
1 p 2u r
+
,
(2.29.4)
0=
r z 2
1 p
.
(2.29.5)
0=
z
95

(2.29.1) ,

1 vh
(ru r h) + u z ( z = h) = 0 ,
(2.29.6)
r r
urh

1
u r ( z , r , )dz .
h 0

dh
, . u z ( z = h) =
d
(2.29.6) ,

1 dh r
urh =
.
(2.29.7)
h d 2
(2.29.4).

1 p
(2.29.8)
ur =
z (h z )
2 r
, (2.29.8),

1 p 2
(2.29.9)
h .
u rh =
12 r
(2.29.7) (2.29.9) urh ,

p 6 dh
r,
(2.29.10)
=
r h 3 d
, p0 ,

3 dh 2
p = p0 3
(r0 r 2 ) .
(2.29.11)
d

h
96

F , , ( )
r0

F = ( p p0 )2 rdr =
0

3 dh 4
r0 .
2 h 3 d

(2.29.12)

(2.29.12) h() .
h ( )
4 Fh02 0,5
= (1 +
)
.
h0
3 r04

(2.29.13)

2.30. , ,

, ,
, ,
p
= g . ()
x
, ,

u x u y
+
= 0,
(2.30.1)
x
y
2u x
(2.30.2)
=0.
y 2
(2.30.2)
u x ( y = 0) = 0

( ) g +

u x
y

= 0
y =

u x ( y) =

( ) g
y
y .

97

(2.30.3)

V = u x ( y )dy =
0

( ) g 3
.
3

(2.30.4)

y ,
,
V
+
=0.
(2.30.5)
x

.
(2.30.5) , u y ( y = )

(2.30.5)
(2.30.4), ,
:
( ) g 2
(2.30.6)

+
= 0.

x
(2.30.6) :
= 0
x = 0 .
( x = 0, ) = 0 .

(2.30.7)

(2.30.6),
.

( x, ) = f ( x) T () .
(2.30.8)
(2.30.8) (2.30.6),
( ) g df
1 dT
(2.30.9)
f
= 3
=m.

dx
T d
(2.30.9) , ,
m , ,
, .
f (x ) (2.30.9) (2.30.7)
98

2 m x

f ( x) =

( ) g

(2.30.10)

T () (2.30.9)
T ( ) =

1
.
2 m + c

(2.30.11)


( x , ) =

( ) g ( + c1 )

(2.30.12)

c1 = c 2m .
(2.30.12)
x
1 .
c1 ,

0 0 x0 .

x0
1 =
0 .
(2.30.13)
( ) g 02
0 M 0
l

l ( M () = ( x, ) ),
0

l
2l

0 .
c1 =
(2.30.14)
3M 0 ( ) g
2.31. u ( r , ) (. (2.13))
2
1 u u 1 u u
=
+
2 ,
r r

r
r 2

99

(2.31.1)

u ( r , = 0) = 0 ,

(2.31.2)

u (r = r0 , ) = u0 r0 .

(2.31.3)

2.18

r
u (r ) = u0 .
(2.31.4)
r0

r
u (r , ) = u0 u1 (r , ) .
(2.31.5)
r0
u 1 ( r , )
2
1 u 1 u 1 1 u 1 u 1
=
+
2 ,
r r

r
r 2
r
u1 (r , = 0) = u0 ,
r0

u (r = r0 , ) = 0 ,
.

r
r
u ( r , ) = u 0 C k exp k2 2 J1 k ,
r0 k =1
r0 r0

Ck =

J1 ( k )

u 0 01

(2.31.6)
(2.31.7)
(2.31.8)

(2.31.9)

, k J1 () = 0 .

J12 ( k )d

u0 d l
) u02 . d
(2.32).

3.1. p = f (

100

3.2. F = f (

u 0 d
) u 02 d 2 . (2.28).

3.3. F = f (u0 , d , ) . -

[ u0 ] = /, [ d ] = , [ ] = /(), [ F ] = /2.
- n = 4 , k = 3
,

-
F = u0 d .


=
, ,
2


, , , , :

1= + ,

1= ,

2 = ,

, = = = 1 . , F = u0 d .
(. 2.17) = 3 .
r02
.
3.4. M = r052 f

y
u
3.5.
.
= F

3.6.
. ,
x , u x ( y, ) :
u x
2u
= 2x ,

(3.6.1)

u x ( y, = 0) = 0 ,

(3.6.2)

u x ( y = 0, > 0) = u0 .
101

(3.6.3)

(3.6.1) (3.6.3) ,
u x = f ( y, , , u0 ) .
(3.6.4)
(3.6.4)
y2
ux
.
= F
(3.6.5)

u0

, . , (3.6.5), (3.6.1) (3.6.3)


.
3.7.
. ,
x , (, ) :
u x
2u
(3.7.1)
= 2x ,

u x ( y , = 0) = 0 ,

(3.7.2)

u x ( y = 0, > 0) = u0 ,

(3.7.3)

u x ( y = h , > 0) = 0 .

(3.7.4.)

(3.7.1) (3.7.4) ,
u x = f ( y, , , h, u0 ) .
(3.7.5)
(3.6.4)
y2 y
ux
, .
= F
(3.7.6)
h
u0

.
(3.7.1) (3.7.4) .
3

s s 2
f(
3.8. T =
).
g
m
2

3.9. E = g3 f ( A ) .
102

3.10. r = C ( E 2 )

3.11. M = C gh 3 .
3.12. D = f ()
3.13. =
3.14. T = C

V
g

.
g ( )

m
.
g s

3.15. E = CgA2 .
3.16. , y = 0
z .
u y u z
+
=0,
(3.16.1)
y
z
p
0= ,
(3.16.2)
x

u y

2u y 2u y
p
),
+ ( 2 +
=
+ u z
y
z
y
y
z 2

u y

u y

u z
u
2u
2u z
p
+ u z z =
+ ( 2z +
).
y
z
z
y
z 2

u z ( y = 0, z 0) = 0 ,
u y

(3.16.3)
(3.16.4)

(3.16.5)

u z ( y , z 0) = u .
(3.16.1) (3.16.5) , u y u z
(, )
u z = f1 ( y , z , , , u ) ,
103

u y = f 2 ( y, z , , , u ) .

(3.16.6)

(3.16.6) , .

[u y ] = /, [u ] = /, [y ] = ,

[z ] = , [] = /3, [] = /().

(3.16.7)
(3.16.7) :
n = 6 , l = 4 ,

k = 3 . -
( n k = 3 ) , ( n l = 2 ) ( l k = 1 ). k
, .

(3.16.8)
l , , m

(3.16.6)
A
A
A
A
u z l = f1 ( yAl , zAl , m3 , m , u l ) .
(3.16.9)
A
Al A
A
Al

A
A
zAl = 1, m3 = 1, u l = 1 .
A
Al

(3.16.10)

1
1
u
, A = , Am = 3 .
z
z
z
(3.16.9), u z :
(3.16.10) Al =

y u z
uz
y

f 3 , Re z .
(3.16.11a)
= f 3 ,
u

z

z
u y :
104

uy

y u z
y

f 4 , Re z .
= f 4 ,
u

z

z

u
.
= z
y y =0

(3.16.11)

(3.16.12)

(3.16.12) u z
z
(3.16.11) = f 5 (Re z ) ,
u
Re z :

= F (Re z ) .
(3.16.13)
u 2
, c f Re z :
u 2
.
(3.16.14)
2
3.17.
, u ,

u
u
2u
(3.17.1)
u y z + u z z = 2z ,
y
z
y
u y u z
+
=0
(3.17.2)
y
z

u z ( y = 0, z 0) = 0 ,
(3.17.3)
= c f (Re z )

u z ( y , z 0) = u .
(3.17.1) (3.17.3) , u y uz

u z = f1 ( y , z , , , u ) ,
(3.17.4)
105

u y = f 2 ( y, z , , , u ) .

(3.17.5)

(3.17.4) (3.17.5) ,
,
, , z , y, z.
u z .

[u z ] = z , [ y ] = y , [z ] = z , [] = ,

x y z
y

z
.
(3.17.6)

x z
(3.17.6),
.
(3.17.1) , .
(3.17.6) n = 6 , l = 5 , k = 4
-
( n k = 2 ),
( n l = 1 ) ( l k = 1 ).

(3.17.6), , Ai
:
y

, z z ,

A ,
y
Az x y z
x y z
Ay

[] =

, [u ] =

z Au .
(3.17.7)


(3.17.4)
u z Au = f1 ( yAy , zAz , A , A Au Ay2 Az , u Au ) .
(3.17.8)
106

(3.17.8)

yAy = 1,

zAz = 1,

A = 1,

u Au = 1 .

(3.17.9)

Ai (3.17.9) ,
(3.17.8), uz
u
z

uz

.
(3.17.10)
, 1 = f 3 y
= f1 1, 1, 1, 2

u
z

y u


(3.17.5). , u y , u z ,

(3.17.10)

u
uy z

.
(3.17.11)
= f4 y

u y
z


u
y
,
z
,
u y :
u
u z

.
= f4 y

z
u


u
.
= z
y y = 0
uy

(3.17.12)

(3.17.13)

(3.17.13) u z
(3.17.10),
u
f 4 (0) .
(3.17.14)
= u
z
(3.17.14)

107

= c f (Re z )


2 f ( 0)
c f (Re z ) = 4
=
Re z

u2
,
2

u z
C
, Re z = .

Re z

(3.17.15)

(3.17.16)

4.1. ) 16,5 , ) 5 .
4.2. 1,49 .
4.3. 1,54 .
4.4. 10,8 .
4.5.
um
ru
= 2,5 ln 0 + 5,5 ,
(4.5.1)
u
v

u m u
u
=
(2,5 2,3 lg Re + 5,5)
2u0
u0 u0

, u u0 = 8 ,

um
=
(5,75 lg Re + 5,5 5,75 lg 2 8 ) .
u0
8

1
lg Re = 0,5
+ 0,8 .

(4.5.3) (4.5.2),
um
= 1,01 + 1,25 .
u0
108

(4.5.2)

(4.5.3)

(4.5.4)

: Re = 10 4

u m u0 = 1,22 , Re = 10 5

u m u0 = 1,165 .
4.6. V V = 0,917 .
4.7. << n << R << d ( s d 1)

1 s

d 1 .
(4.7.1)
20 d
= 8d (Re ) .

= 0,316 Re0,25 d
25d 4 s 2
1 .
Re 0,75 d

(4.7.2) (4.7.1),
500 4 s 2
Re 0,75
( ) 1 .
( s d 1) d

(4.7.2)

(4.7.3)

s d = 1,2 Re 26,6 103 .


4 s 2
4.8. d = d 1 , d

2 3 s 2
d = d
1 .

4.9.

i - p = i

( i = i + i
2p

ui =

0 ,5

ui2
,
2

li
), i -
d i
1
.
i0,5

109

ui Fi

2 p

u=
ui i =

1
F
i
N

1
N

0,5 N

0i ,5 ,

i = Fi F i -
.
2

N u 2
u 2
,
(4.9.1)

p = 0i ,5
2
2
1 i


2

1 N i
.
=
1 i0,5
4.10. i - -

p =

u1i ,75
l ui2
0,316

p
=
c

,
d 1i, 25
(ui d i ) 0, 25 d i 2

i -
4

p 7 5 7
ui =
d i ,

c =

(4.10.1)

0,316 l 0, 25
. 2

u=

ui Fi
1
N

Fi

p
ui i =


1
N

7 N

i d i 7 ,

(4.10.2)

i = Fi /F i -
.
110

p = c

5
N
i d i 7
1

(4.10.3)

(4.10.3) d 1, 25 ,
(4.10.3)

p = A

l u 2
0,316
,
(u d ) 0, 25 d 2

(4.10.4)

5 4
N
i d i 7 .
A=

d 1 / 25

4 Fi

4 Fi

1
.
(4.10.5)
4 Fi
i

i d d
1
1
1
i
i
(4.10.4) (4.10.5)

= 0 ,
(4.10.6)
d =

0 =

1
N

0,316
(u d ) 0, 25

,
1
.
=
7
1.25
5 4
N i N
7

d i d i
1
1

4.11. p = 1,01 (Re)

u02
.
2
111

4.12. ) 1,01 , ) 3,90 , ) 1,71 , 0,12 10-6 2/.


4.13. ) 1,01 , ) 1,06 .
4.14. dp dl = 588 /.
4.15. F = 1413 707 .
4.16. = 0,151.
4.17. h = 0,064 .
4.18. h =0,62 , h = 0,51 .
4.19. Re = 4,2106, , = 0,29.
4.20. = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 u max u 0 = 2,0, 1,50, 1,33, 1,25, 1,20 .
4.21. l = 0,165 , Re x = 6,3103, .
4.22. l = 0,86 , = 6,9 .
4.23. x = 50 = 0,71 ,
(z)y==0. x = 200 = 1,42 .
4.24. 4,94.105 .

(z)y=0 = 3,17104 /,

5.1. ,
2

r
Tij = P + ( sin 2 + cos 2 divu ) ij +
3

) u

+ sin 2 + cos 2 i + j ,
x j xi

u u j
r
2

.
Tij = P + divu ij + i +
x j xi
3

112

5.2. u y = u z = 0 , u x = u x ( y ) .

(5.13) (5.22) (5.23)


0 =

u x2
u
p

+ x .
x y
y
2d

(5.2.1)

(5.2.1)
u x u x


= 0.
lc
y
y =0

(5.2.2)

= u u x2 :
0 =

u x2
p 2u x2
.

+
x
2d
2 y 2

(5.2.3)

u x
p 2d
.
= 0 , u =
y
x

U x = u x u
2U x2
(5.2.4)
0 = U x2 + 1 + b 2
y 2
b =

C d

(5.2.4),
(5.2.2),
1
y
exp .
(5.2.5)
1 + lc 2b
b
lc = 0

u x ( y) = u 1

y
u x ( y ) = u 1 exp , lc
b
u x ( y ) = u .
113

5.3. u y = u z = 0 , u x = u x ( y ) -


= C u (. (5.13) (5.21)) u x2
0 = r

u x2
p 2u x2
.

+
x
2d
2 y 2

(5.3.1)

0 = 1 U x2 +
: Y =

1 2U x2
,
k 2 Y 2

(5.3.2)

r
y
u
p 2d
, U x = x , u =
, k =h
.
h
C d
u
x r

(5.3.2)
(5.3.3)
U x2 (Y ) = 1 + C1sh kY + C 2 ch kY .
C1 C 2 .

chkY
u x (Y ) = u 1
,
(5.3.4)
chk

(5.3.5)
u x (Y ) = u .
5.4. 5.3 ,

1

u1
chkY
= 1
dY (k ) .
u2 0
chk

(5.4.1)

r
k = h
. 10.
C d
k C, , .. .

, 114

0,95
0.95
0,9 0.9
0,85
0.85
0,8 0.8
0,75
0.75
0,7 0.7
0,65
0.65
0,6 0.6

11

10
10

100
100

1 . 103
110

. 10

5.5. [5]

2
= ,
2
, u m
.

1 :
x1 = 1,1 7; x1 < x2; 0= 0,06 1
1 = 2(x1 1)0,5 Re m0, 2 ;

(5.5.1)

x1 = 1,1 7; x1 > x2; 0= 1 8


1 = 0,38(x1 1)0,5 (0 0,94)0,59 Re m0, 2 / 02 ,
115

(5.5.2)

0 = (x11)/( x21); x1 = s1/d; x2 = s2/d ; d .


Re .
r
2

l u
(5.5.3)
p = r
d 2

. k
(5.15). r
3

1 2
( x)
4x
r ( x ) =Re - 0,2 x 3, 2

.
2,3
Re 0,2
(x 1)

(x) , . 5.5.1.
5.5.1

1,02 1,12

(x)
( x) =

ax + b
( x 1)

1,13 1,30

( x) = a x 2 + b x + c

1,30 1,80

( x) = a x + b

1,80 10,0

( x) = a x + b

116

a = 2,168
b = 1,495
n = 1,5
a = 348,2
b = 904,5
c = 602,1
a = 2,323
b = 17,14
a = 1,762
b = 8,111

5.6. [5]
:
=

u m2
,
2

(5.6.1)

, u m
.

1 :
1 = C Re m0, 27 .
(5.6.2)
. 5.6.1. Re m
. .

r
2

l u
(5.5.3)
p = r
d 2

.
5.6.1
*

x1

0,1 1,7

1,44

0,1 1,7

< 1,44

C =3,2+0,66(1,7 ) +
1,5
1,44 x
[0,8+0,20(1,7-) ]
0,11

1,7 6,5

1,44 3

C = 0,44 ( + 1)

1,7 6,5

< 1,44

C = [0,44 + (1,44 x1)]( + 1)

1,7

3 10

C
1,5

C = 3,2 + 0,66 (1,7 - )


1,5

2
2

C = 0,062 + 0,21 (10 x1)

-0,24

= (x1 1)/( x2/ 1), x2/ = x12 / 4 + x22 - -

.
117

k (5.15).
r
3

r = CRe -0,27

1 1
1 +

0, 27

42 3
( x)
2 3 x2
3, 27
x
0,27 , (5.6.4)
1, 73


Re
(x 1)

x 1,44 , C = 3,587 ; x < 1,44 ,


C = 3,587+ 8,338 (1,44 x).
(x) , . 5.6.2.
5.6.2


1,02 1,06

(x)
ax + b
( x) =
( x 1) n


a = 2,50, n = 0,5

1,06 1,40

( x) = a x + b

a = 7,91, b = 1,01

1,40 6,0

( x) = a x + b

a = 17,48, b = 13,79

5.7. , ..
ui
= 0 , i = x, y , z .
(5.7.1)
x
, z ,
ui
= 0 , i = x, y , z ,
(5.7.2)
z
z u z = 0 .

u x u y u z
(5.7.3)
+
=0,
+
x
z
y
118

(5.7.1) (5.7.2)

u y
y

= 0 u y = const = 0 ,

.
, ,

(5.7.4)
u x = u x ( y) .
(5.7.4) (5.13) :
u
P
(5.7.5)
0 = k xx u x
+ 1 x ,
x y
y
P
.
(5.7.6)
0 = k yxu x
y
(5.7.5), (5.7.6)
(5.19):
P = p + (c sin 2 + c cos 2 )u x2 p + c ()u x2 , (5.7.7)
(5.20):
1 = sin 2 + cos 2 ,

(5.7.8)

(5.16), (5.17):

k xx =
( sin 2 + cos 2 ) u x
() u x , (5.7.9)
2d
2d

( ) sin cos s u x
()u x . (5.7.10)
2d
2d
(5.7.5), (5.7.6)

p 1 u x2
,
(5.7.11)
0=
() u x2 +
2d
x y 2u y
k yx =

u 2

p
(5.7.12)
()u x2
c() x .
y
2d
y
(5.7.11) . (5.7.12) u x ( y ) .

.
0=

119

u x
y

= 0 . y = 0, h

(5.7.11)
p 2d
.
(5.7.13)
u x ( y) = u0
x ()
()
.
(5.7.12)
.
p
p ()
.
(5.7.14)
=
y
x ()
) u x ( y = 0) = u x ( y = h) = 0 .
(5.7.11)

u x (Y ) = u0 (chb 1)
Y =

shbY
+ 1 chbY ,
shb

(5.7.15)

y
p 2d
()uh 2
, b=
, u0 =
.
h
x ()
1 ()d

(5.7.12)

p(Y ) + c()u x2 (Y ) = p(0) +

u 02 h chb 1
1

(chbY 1) + Y shbY .

2d b shb
b

(5.7 16)


p p(1) p(0) =

u02 h 1
shb
(chb 1) 2 + 1

.
2d b shb
b

(5.7.17)

5.8. : 5.7.
5.9. :
u x ( y ) ,
.
120

5.10.
( = t ( r , z ) t ) :
m 2 mr m z
P
m
r r +
=
+ r r k rr mr ,
(5.10.1)

z
r
r

mz
mz mr mz2
P
k zz mz ,
+
=
g + r

z
z

r mr +
mz = 0 ,
z

r mr c + m z c = r
+ qv ,
z
r
m
m
k zz = z
,
.
k rr = r
2d
2d

(5.10.2)
(5.10.3)
(5.10.4)
(5.10.5)

1
r.
r r
, (5.10.1) (5.10.5)
r =

P P
2 d
m z 0 =
g ,
l

r2 z
z
0 t ( r , z ) t = t 0 k r 2( k r 1) 2 = t 0 f ( r ) . (5.10.6)
l
r0 l

, .. .
.

M r

AZ
=
+ A
RM r KM r ,
(5.10.7)
Z
R
R
121

AZ

M Z
M Z

=
+ A R
Z
Z
R

2 M Z + Zf ( R ) , (5.10.8)

M Z
(5.10.9)
= 0,
Z
M i ,

,
M 1 = mi m z 0 ;

RM r +

= p g t 0 l ;

R = r l , Z = z l , K = r z .

1
mz 0 c
=
r
+ q ,
(5.10.10)
z
r r r
,
0

1 0
q =
r
mz c 0 mr c 0 ,
(5.10.12)
r r r
r
z
(5.10.7)(5.10.9) mr , mz , p .
, AZ A ,

1
Mr =
,
(5.10.13)
K R
1

M Z = ( Z f ( R)
),
(5.10.14)
2
Z

2 1 2
R
+
= f ( R)
(5.10.15)
K R R R Z 2

(Z = 0) = 0,

(Z = 1) = 0,

=0.
R R = R
0

122

(5.10.16)

(5.10.13) (5.10.16) .

(5.10.17)
= kr 1 + 2 ( k r - 1) L2 2 ,

1
1 = ( Z 2 Z ) ,
2 (R, Z) = 2 Pk ( R ) sin( kZ ) ,
2
k =1,3,5..

Pk (R) =

I 0 ( k R )
4 R0
2 8

,
+ R 2
3
2
4
(k ) k (k )
(k ) k 2 I1 ( k R0 )
k = k K 2 ,


Mr =

I ( R )
( k r 1)
R sin( kZ )

, (5.10.18)

16 L2 1 k
R0 ( k ) 3
k
k =1,3,5.. I 1 ( k R0 )

MZ =

kr
(k r 1) L2 R 2 Z 2 kPk ( R) cos(kZ ) , (5.10.19)

4
k =1,3,5..

Pk ( R ) k (5.10.17).

. 11

. 12

(. 11)
(. 12) -1000 (1
, 2
).
U/U0

1.1

0.9
R

0.8
-1

-0.5

0
. 11
123

0.5

U/U0

1.1

2
1

1
0.9
R

0.8
-1

-0.5

0
. 12

0.5

1. .. , . .: , 1970.
2. : / .. , .. , ..
. .: , 1993. 8081.
3. .. . .: ,
1968, .42-43.
4. .., .., .., ..
. .: , 1988.
5. .., .., ..
( , , ). .: , 1984.
6. .., .., .., ..,
.. // -
. 29 1 2007 .,
, . . .

124