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EX ER C ISES IN ENGLISH
GRAMMAR

373. 167.1: 811.111 + 811.111(075.3)


81.2 -922

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( 1997 )

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24

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.. . : -, 2009. - 384 . (
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373. 167.1: 811.111 + 811.111(075.3)
81.2 -9 2 2
24


/toroc-. ,
,
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- ; ,
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: 03057,
', . , . 21 , 404
. + 380 44 502 38 09 ()
E-mail: vp_logos@ukr.net

,:

MIN

I2-V.K4-7


II* RULE I-------------------------------------------------------- .......
,
, .
,
.
This is a book. This is an interesting book.
Vnp. 1. , .
I. Give me ... book, please.
W c have ... son and ... daughter.
. I have three ... sisters.
I. This is ... pen. It is his ... pen.
t>. Ill has no ... pencil.
0 My brother s ... watch is bad.
7. iSho wrote ... letter to her mother.
H. This is my ... sister. M y ... sister is ten.
I. They bought ... car last week.
HI. This is ... book. ... book is new.
ii r u l e | - ------ : --------- ;---------------- ; ----------.....
. .! a (a n )

, .
( >><> th e

, .
,
( ).
This is a book. The book is on the table.
I u|*. 2. , .
I.
I*.
.
I

This is ... pencil. ... pencil is red.


I huve ... ball. ... ball is big.
My brother has ... dog. ... dog is old.
Tlmy have ... flat. ... fla t is new.

..

5 . Is this ... pen? No, it isn t a pen, its ... pencil.


(j. M y sister has tw o ... children. Her children are a t ... home.
7. Is your friend at ... home? No, he is at ... work.
8 . M y son has no ... bicycle.
9 . This is our ... room. ... room is large.
10 .
There are ... books. ... books are interesting.
lijif R U LE |'


, :


:
This is m y /_ book.
f
:
M y m other s / fla t is clean.
:
There is no book on the table.
4 :
Open your books at /_ page ten.
:
p , :
I study English. She studies / History.
, :
In / September. On / Friday.

:
W hat / book are you reading?
. 3. , .
1. This is my ... desk. On ... desk I have ... book, ... pen,
two ... pencils.
Those are his ... pens. ... pens are red.
. Tins is ... bag. ... bag is black.
A. Tins is my brothers ball. ... ball is red and blue.
5. Hi* has ... child. His ... child is six.

0. your parents a t ... home? No, they are a t ... work.


7. 1 read ... book. ... book was interesting.
. I have ... daughter. M y ... daughter is ... pupil.
II. Is this ... book new?
10. He gave me ... red apple. ... apple was tasty.
REMEMBER

itI
ill
nt
nt

/ breakfast
/ lunch
/_ dinner
/ supper
after
after
after
after

/
/
/

for /
fo r
for
for /

breakfast
lunch
dinner
supper

breakfast
lunch
dinner
supper

to
to
to
to

have / breakfast
have / lunch
have
dinner
have supper

before breakfast
before
lunch
before / dinner
before
supper

HO

a ( a n )
:
:
She is a doctor.
:
million, a hundred, a thousand, a half, a third
W kat:
W hat a fine dayl
: such, quite
It was such a cold weather yesterday.
He is quite a child.
> . I. , .
I
7
!l
i
ft.
fi.
7

your ... sisters students? No, they are ... pupils.


My fiither is ... doctor. He is ... good doctor.
Mi* hns uo ... children.
My brothers ... book is interesting.
Till 1h my friends ... bag. It is ... brown.
Sin tins ... ball. ... ball is big. Her ... ball is green.
My niollirr is not ... teacher. She is ... doctor.

..

Ci

H. Thrrc are ... flowers in the vase. ... flowers are beautiful.
. IIn you like ... fruit?
10. She wrote ... letter to her friend. ... letter was long.
.Viip. 5. , .
I.
2.
3.
4.

This is ... good ... book.


This is ... girl. She is at ... school.
My ... brother is at ... work. He is not at... home.
This is my ... sister. She is ... pupil. My sister is ...
good pupil.
5. He likes to read ... books.
6 . They are drinking ... coffee now. ... coffee is hot.
7. My cousin is ... teacher. He is ... good teacher. He
works at ... school.
8 . She has ... long ... black hair.
9. I like these ... apples. Give me these ... apples, please.
10. W e live in ... beautiful city. W e like our ... city very
much.
REMEM BER
at
at
at

N.

to

I ,
:
/ school
go to school
/ work
To go to /
work
home
To go / home
to come / home
leave Z home fo r / school (fo r / work)

. 6 . , .
1 .1
am ... doctor. I work a t ... hospital.... hospital is large
2. You have two ... books. Give me one ... book, please.
3. A re you ... pupil? No, I am ... student.
4. Is he ... good pupil?
5. M y friend bought ... interesting ... book last week.
6 . He has ... daughter, but he has no ... son.
7. M y father is sitting a t ... table. He is writing ... letter
... letter is long.
K. His brother has ... cat. ... cat is old and ... fat.
!. II in very dark in ... street.
10. I tun at ... home. I am reading ... interesting book.

14V RULE I--------------------------------------------------------


jm * .4 ..
I the :

:
the sun
the earth
t- ,
:
P u t th e pen on the table.
:
M y flat is on the second floor.
:
Its the biggest cinema in Moscow.
1

'. 7. , .
1. 'Iliis is ... book. Put ... book on the table.
'. Nick has... 1% black d o g .... dog is old. Its name i s ... Rex.
Im there ... pen on the desk?
i This is ... shelf. ... shelf is on ... wall,
ft. This is ... fish. It is ... big fresh fish.
il My sisters name is ... Liza. Liza is ... little girl. She is
... six.
7. This is kitchen. ... kitchen is small.
H. Does she like ... butter?
w There are ... benches. ... benches are in ... park,
po I dont like ... apples.
Ifiip. H. , .
I Where is your ... friend? He is a t ... school. He is not
nl ... home.
2. Michael has ... car. His ... car is red.
. This ... book is on ... table. Put ... book on ... shelf.
I Whats that? Its ... pencil. ... pencil is long.
It's a bus. ... bus is ... big and ... yellow.
I> Where is ... dog? ... dog is under ... bench.
7. Where is his ... son? His ... son is at ... school.
H. ...sun is shining in ... sky.
II. This is ... street. I can see many ... cars and ... buses in
... street.
10 This is ... tram. What colour is ... tram?

..

. 1>. , .
1. has ... short hair. His ... hair is short.
2. There is ... pen in ... pencil-box. ... pen is black.
3. W e have ... room. Our ... room is large. There is ...
table and ... sofa in ... room.
4. Can you see ... cat on ... sofa?
5. Where is ... bird? ... bird is in ... tree.
6. ... weather is fine. ... sky is blue and cloudless.
7. That is ... cat. That ... cat is my. ... cat is grey.
8. I see many ... children. What are ... children doing?
... children are playing in the yard.
9. Where is my ... book? Your ... book is on ... table.
10. There is no ... butter on ... table. Where is ... butter?
g n REM EM BER |~
^
,
:
to the cinema

at the cinema

to the shop
to the theatre

at the shop
at the theatre

to the market
at the market
^
. 30. , .
1. I can see many ... people in ... street.
2. Can you see ... car?
3. She i s ... manager. She is a t ... work. She works a t ... office.
4. Do you see th ese... flowers? What colour are ... flowers?
5. There is ... big brown table in ... middie of our ... room.
6. There are two kittens in ... box. ... kittens are black.
7. Do you see ... boy in ... street? He is ... pupil o f our ...
school. He is ... good pupil.
8. My sister is ... student. She studies a t ... institute. She
is ... good student and ... good sister.
9. This is ... wolf. ... w olf is very hungry.
10.
There is ... carpet on ... floor. ... carpet is new.
. 11. , .
1. My friend works at ... office. He lives near ... office.
2 . Prtor is nlways in ... time fo r his ... lessons.

l/ i/

I. Who is this ... girl?


1 What is there on ... writing-table? There is ... tele
phone and ... radio set.
t*. My flat is i n ... new house.... flat is large and comfortable,
fl. There is no ... tea in my cup. My ... cup is empty.
7. There is ... nice park in our ... city.
H. ( oId you open ... window, please?
There is ... mistake in this ... sentence.
Id Where are ... books in your ... room? ... books are on ...
nhclf. ... shelf is on ... wall.
S\) K IM E M B E R I------------------------------------------------j ...................... :
to the left
to the right
in the middle

in the corner

in / front
}

12. , .

I There is ... cup on ... table. Give me ... cup, please.


?, Whnt is your ... child doing? She is playing with ...
hnll. ... ball is red.
I. There were many children in ... park yesterday.
I Mysister is ... pupil. She
goes to ... school.
ft When does your ... sister leave ... home fo r ... school?
n TIhtc are m any... schools and ... institutes in m y ... city.
T. This ... boy is ... fifth son in his ... family.
Monday is ... second day o f ... week.
You have ... book on ... table. Is this ... book interesting?
in There are many articles in ... magazine.
ii 1.4. , .
Tliin is ... picture o f my room. There is ... large window
In my ... room. ... ceiling is white, ... floor is brown, ...
wnlL lire blue.
Tlicri* is ... writing-table near ... window and ... chair
ni'Mi ll. You can see ... telephone on ... writing-table.
I id on ... telephone. There is ... bookcase to ...
ilplil nf... writing-table. There are not many books in ...
iHinld'Hsc. hut there are ... lot o f ... magazines in it. I usuiill\ *|ii'iid ... lot of time in my ... room.

IU

..

REMEMBER

in the morning
at
/ half past fiv e

in the evening

at a quarter past fiv e

in the afternoon

at

/ night

4
. 14. , .

1. A re there many ... magazines on ... table?


2. There are two windows in ... room.
3. His daughter is ... girl o f ten.
4. Their sons go to ... school every day.
5. Her parents live in ... K y iv .
6. My father often rests on ... Sunday.
7. Our flat is on ... third floor.
8. Today is ... ninth o f September.
9. Pete, go to ... blackboard.
10.
On ... Monday he comes from ... school at ... 5 oclo
R U L E I ; ---- ------------------------------------------------
^
1
:
, , , , , :
th e A lp s

th e A tla n tic Ocean

, ,
:
the U S A

th e Bahamas

th e Netherlands


, , , :
:

the Sudan

the Ukraine

the Crimea

the Congo

. 15. , .
1.
2.
3.
4.

... second lesson today is English.


What is ... day today? Today is ... Friday,
I will not go to ... work on ... Tuesday.
lesson o f English is ... last.

11

Jl

*. My son does not sleep a t ... daytime. He sleeps a t ... night,


i September is ... ninth month o f ... year.
7. The man is standing near ... door.
H. We have dictations twice ... week.
W. She is quite ... child.
III. My grandfather was ... very good man.
/ ii liEM EM BER I

to the north
to the south
to the west
to the east

in the north
in the south
in the west
in the east

. 16. , .
My sister lives in ... Kharkiv. She is ... doctor. She works
I ... hospital. ... hospital is ... new and ... modern build hospital is near my sisters ... house. My sister has
Mt ... family. She has got ... husband and ... son.
Her husband is ... teacher. He works at ... school. My
Iwters son is ... pupil. He is ... pupil o f ... second form.
Hr goes to ... school every day but ... Sunday.
up. 17. , .
1.
2.
3.
I.
ft.
U.
7.
8.
!).
10.

A fter ... work I usually go home.


He often comes from ... work late.
I begin my work at ... half past eight.
Close ... window, please. It is cold in ... room,
W e have tests three times ... month.
He made ... mistake in his dictation.
... lion is ... wild animal.
I need ... pencil. Give me ... pencil, please.
Yesterday our team won ... match.
He is not ... man I am looking for.

. 18. , .
1. She is eating ... apple. ... apple is ripe.
2. I do not go to ... school on ... Sunday.
3. This woman is ... typist. She works at ... office.
... office is not far from her ... house.

13

..

4. liis father is ... engineer. He works at ... plant.


5. Where is ... table? It is in ... corner o f ... room, near
... window.
6. A re there any ... flowers in ... vase?
7. She lives on ... fifth floor.
8 . Where is ... cheese? ... cheese is on ... plate.
9. There are ... plates and ... cups on ... tea-table.
10.
Is there... tea-pot o n ... table? Is there... tea i n ... tea-p
. 19. , .
Mary is ... woman of ... 30.
She graduated from ... Institute o f Foreign Languages.
She is ... teacher. She teachers English a t ... school. Mary
usually goes to ... school at ... quarter past eight in ...
morning. She spends at ... school four hours. She has got
... son and ... daughter. Her ... son is ... boy of ... 5 and her
... daughter is ... girl o f ... . 3. M ary takes her children
from ... nursery-school in ... evening.
. 20. , .
1. M y sisters son is ... school-boy. He studies at ... school
at ... ninth form . He is ... good pupil. He lives ... home
for ... school at
half past seven.
2. This ... young woman is ... engineer. She works at ...
factory. She usually has ... lot o f work. Every morning
she takes her ... daughter to ... school.
3. That man has two children. ... first child was born 5
years ago and ... second was born ... last year.
ia REM EM BER |----------------- -----------------------------
^
1 :

To play / football

to play the piano

To play / chess
m
m

to play the violin


III

Irfi

. 21. , .

1 .1
live in ... big flat in ... centre o f ... Kyiv. My flat is on
ground floor. There are three rooms in m y ... fla t.... rooms
are large. There is ... kitchen and ... bathroom in my flat.
2. On ... fifth o f ... October I visited my ... friend. He is ...
engineer. He has ... big family. He has got ... w ife, ...
two sons and ... daughter.

1| > |

13

* Tlirrii is not ... table in ... middle of ... living-room.


. liihle is in ... comer. ... table is brown.
1 Nlrk Iihs ... lot o f books a t ... home. ... books are intertsllng. They are in ... bookcase,
ft Will you go fo r ... walk tomorrow? W e will have ...
Hiiutl time.
* up U'4. 1{ , .
1

lot of people think that ... Scotland is ... part o f ...


1.Innd but this is untrue. ... Scotland is ... part of
<lt 1411 Britain. There are fiv e million Scots and ... most
nf tlii'in live in ... southern half o f ... country.
I Itvrlyn is ... good student. A t ... age of ... 20, she is one
il
lnvst students o f ... our institute.

lord is ... most popular tourist city in ... Britain.


Oxford is famous for ... university, which is ... oldest
In
Britain. ... Oxford is not only ... university city,
IhiI ... market too.
I I
up at ... eleven o clock. I never eat ... breakfast,
i ! imes I have ... cup o f ... tea. I live not fa r from ...
flli*\ 1 drive to ... office in ... my car.

ii|i TUI. , .
I I ytiu go to ... Edinburgh in ... August, you cant miss
l-Mhihnrgh Arts Festival. This event attracts visitors
li over ... world.
I lit n|iortsman is ... fastest man in ... world. He won ...
v.nlil Championship.
l<nliiK ... flight I g o t ... bad headache. I called ... stewanl niul asked fo r ... tabletes. ... steward helped me.
hlil '" 1m ... latest rock sensation from ... United States.
AMn ... concerts, ... fans wait outside ... concert hall.
% lnk nt ... pictures! Do you like ... city? ... city is
liiMiutiful and clean. I t is one of ... most beautiful
111* lii ... world.
*|i / 1 Hi-utubTe , .
I Ml works in ... shop in ... town centre. He can t
... phone at ... work.
I'-lfi In ... window cleaner. He cleans windows for ...
flli r<.

..

. I usually start work in ...j:entre o f K yiv at ... half pasl


srvrn.
4. This woman is ... housewife. She has ... big family. Shi
often goes to ... shop. In ... shop she buys ... food fo r hci
family.
\
5. Paul is ... sales representative. He works for ... bi>
company. ... company produces ... computers.
C. They went to ... cinemaAThey saw ... new film . ... filn
was ... very interesting. \
7. I want to buy ... pair o f *.. new shoes. My old ... show
are worn.
. 25. , .

1. Yesterday I signed all o f ... documents and bought ..


house. It is ... old castle. ... castle is mine!
2. Jane wants to buy ... new car. She thinks that Volvo ii
... most comfortable and ... faster.
3. Nadine has to catch ... school bus at ... quarter past
seven. She lives far from ... school.
4. He lives in ... Ukraine. She lives in ... small town near ..
K yiv.
5. Her pen-friend lives in ... United States. He is ... stn
dent. He studies a t ... university.
6 . M y brother is ... doctor. He graduated from ... Medicim
University.
7. ... USA is one o f ... largest countries in the world. It
separated from ...Europe by ... Atlantic Ocean.
. 26. , .
1. Have ... nice holiday! Thanks! I will send y o u ... post
card .
2. I want to see ... new film . Lets go to ... cinema.
3. That man is ... scientist. He graduated from ... universi
ty many years ago.
4. 1 like ... summer very much! ... summer is ... warmesl
season o f ... year.
5. Did you have ... good time in ... country? No, ... weathel
was bad and we couldnt play ... outdoor games.
G. We spent last summer in ... Crimea. W e had ... ver]
Koori lime there.
7. Mm. Johnson invited ... lot of guests to ... birthday party

1 | . / * I.

15

' When he was ... boy o f 10, he sold newspapers in ...


fllOt.
u llnw many days shall we travel ab ou t... country?
* tip 47. , .
I

unlight gives us ... heat. Some o f ... heat warms ...


t)liiinb|jhere, and some o f ... heat escapes back into ...
'1'.

*
I

t
*
*
HI
11
14

. d-4011 layer stops ... some o f ... ultrayiolet radiation


finiii ... sun.
.. Alaska has ... coldest winters in ... world.
Y1111 must decide which things are ... most important.
. Nilr is ... longest river in ... world.
Which is ... tallest cathedral in ... world?
hunt in this part of ... country is fertile. ... land in
west is ... less fertile.
i Imilrs Dickens was born in ... England.
1 In iHlchurch is ... small town in ... south of ... England.
Mnijim is ... long river.
I ... A frica ... island or ... continent?
lnliiii<] is to ... west o f ... Ukraine.

Vi 11 8. , .
I

mdinpologist discovered ... large tomb from ... sixth


1 rnlury A. D. in ... Somerest. I t is ... tomb o f ... imporImil person, probably ... king. A ll ... archaeologists ask
hi me question.
I llilit ... tomb o f ... K in g Arthu r? They have not
|(] ... tomb yet. They have to work slowly, and it
nirtV I... month before ... archaeologists know ... answer.
I 1 luu les Dickens, one o f ... greatest and ... most popular
novelists, was born on ... 7th o f ... February, 1812 in ...
iiinll Knglish town. He read ... lot o f book in ... childliniiil. A t ... age o f ... six someone took him to ... theatre
fin ... first time. He saw ... play by Shakespeare. ... play
liii|iii<HQed him and he decided to write ... play o f his own.
* Uinxioi Dreiser,... great American writer, was born on ...
'7,h ... f ... August 1871 in ... small town of ... America.
* Uuntilvc Flaubert was bom in ... Rouen, where his ...
fiilher was ... chief surgeon a t ... hospital, on ... 1 2 thof
Di-cmber 1821.

1C

..

5. ... London is ... capital o f ... Great Britain. It is situated


on ... river Thames. It is ... largest city in ... Europe and
... one o f ... largest cities in ... world. ... London is also
... very big port.
. 29. , .

1. I was ... fiv e years old. I went to ... railway station witli
my mum. I got on ... train with a l l ... other people. I had
... suitcase in one hand and ... doll in ... other.
2. Many people think that /.. idea o f ... take-away meals
come from ... USA. But it came from ... Britain. ... orig
inal British take-away meal was ... fish and ... chips.
3. Today ... people have ... telephones everywhere: in ...
house, in ... office, in ... car. You can see ... people
walking round ... streets with ... telephones.
4. ... Britain forms ... greater part o f ... British Isles, which
lie o ff ... north-west coast o f ... Europe. ... full name for
... Britain is ... United Kingdom o f ... Great Britain and
... Northern Ireland, while ... Great Britain comprises
... England,... Wales and ... Scotland. Thanks to ... influ
ence o f ... Gulf Stream, ... climate in ... Great Britain is
generally mild. ... Britain became ... worlds ... first
industrialised country in ... 18th and early ... 19th centu
ries. Now ... Britain is ... fifth largest trading nation. . .
English is ... main language spoken in ... Britain.
. 30. , .

1. On Saturday we w ill go to ... football match a t ... stadi


um in ... centre of ... city. There w ill be ... lot of ...
people a t ... stadium. They will come because it will be ...
most important match o f ... year. A t two oclock ... teams
w ill come on to ... field and ... match will begin.
2 .... famous Italian sculptor, Michelangelo, lived in ... Flor
ence. Once ... governor o f ... city asked ... Michelangelo
to make ... statue. ... sculptor worked fo r ... two years
and he made ... statue beautiful. When ... statue was
rea d y ,... lot of people came to ... square where it stood.
... governor didn t like ... sculptor s work because ...
statue s nose was long. He asked ... Michelangelo to
make ... statues nose shorter. B u t... sculptor did not do
... anything to ... statue, which is called ... David. David
is one of ... best Michelangelos works.

17

3. ... Australia is ... fifth continent. It is ... smallest conti


nent and ... largest island on ... map. ... Australia is ...
English-speaking country.
4. When you look at ... sky in ... morning or in ... a fter
noon, you can see ... Sun. ... Sun is ... great ball o f ...
hot gases. ... Earth is ... planet which moves round
... Sun.
6. ... Ruduar Kipling, ... famous ... English writer, was
born in ... India. His parents were ... English. His father
was ... professor and ... painter. He spent his early years
in ... India. When he was ... six, parents sent ... boy to
... England where he went to ... school. He came back to
... India at ... age o f ... seventeen. K ipling travelled ...
lot and wrote ... lot o f stories.
. 31. , .
1. Many years ago ... rivers began to speak against... sea___
rivers came to ... sea and said: W e bring ... sweet water
to you, and you make it in salt. ... people can t drink this
... water. W hy do you do that? " I f you do not like ... salt
water , answered ... sea, run to ... some other place .
2. Once ... two friends were in ... thick wood, when they
m e t... bear. One o f ... men was very much frightened by
... bear. He ran to ... high tree and got up into it. ...
other ... man understood that he could not stand up
against ... big bear. He lay down on ... grass. ... bear
w ill think that I am dead, he said to ... himself. ... man
thought that ... bears do not attack ... dead people. ...
bear came up to ... man on ... grass, sniffed a t ... his nose
and went away.... other man got down fro m ... tree. What
did ... bear say in ... your ear? he asked him. He told
me , was ... answer, not to go into ... wood with ... bad
friend who will not help you in ... danger.
3. ... man built ... house for ... himself. ... house was nice,
but very small. He invited ... friends to see it. ... friends
came and looked a t ... house. Every man said something
bad about it.
... front o f ... house is not nice.
"... windows are very small.
"... roof is not good, ... rain will come in .
"... rooms are not large enough fo r ... man.

I ..

... man listened and answered, You may be right. ...


house is small, but it is big enough fo r ... me and have
no ... good friends to invite to ... my house.
. 32. , .
... G ulliver was born in ... large fam ily o f ... farmer. A t
... sch oo l... boy learned well and his father sent him to ...
university, fo r three years. When
young man le ft ...
university, he worked w ith ... doctor and learned his pro
fession. ... G ulliver decided to learn ... navigation, too.
A fte r four years he began to work on ... ship as ... ship s
doctor. One day, when ... ship was at ... sea fo r ... long
time, there was ... great storm. ... ship broke to ... pieces
and only six people got into ... small boat. ... men were
tired and couldn t find ... water. Soon ... boat turned over
and ... men were in ... water. Five o f them were drowned.
B u t ... G ulliver swam well, and when he saw ... shore, he
swam to it. He got out o f ... water and slept on ... shore
fo r ... many hours.
When ... Gulliver woke, he found himself in ... country
where ... small people lived. ... name o f .... country was ...
Lilliput. ... people were afraid o f ... Man Mountain, as
they named... Gulliver. When they saw th a t... Gulliver was
... kind man, they let him go free. ... Gulliver lived in ...
country for two years and then came back to ... England.
. 33. , .
1. She is ... good musician: she plays ... piano beautifully.
2. ... Mississippi is lager than ... Thames.
3. This hotel is more comfortable than ... other one.
4. Mary is not at ... office. I think she has gone ... home.
5. A t ... age o f nineteen, he joined ... army.
6 . I saw ... beautiful dress in ... shop yesterday.
7. This is ... most expensive car o f them all.
8. ... weather here is colder than at ... home.
9. He studies ... French and ... English.
10. She doesnt use ... sugar when she cooks.
11. M y friend stayed a t ... home last night and listened to ...
radio.
12. It was ... summer afternoon: ... sun was shining.
13. Do you go to ... work by ... car?

19

14. Pete is not watching ... television at ... moment.


I ft. This man came from ... France.
16. He doesnt work at ... restaurant, he works at ... postoffice.
17. They eat ... lot.
18. W e were at ... theatre ... last week. There was ... very
interesting performance.
I !>. W e saw her when she was going to ... work.
. 34. , .
1. A fte r ... few minutes, he walked through ... park gates.
2. I w ill have ... bath tonight.
3. His parents give him ... lot of money.
4. ... police arrested him in ... evening.
ft. My friend invited all ... students in ... school.
0. ... cheese is made from ... milk.
7. Do you like ... cakes?
8. ... teacher told ... children to come to school in ... time.
!. He must stay a t ... home today.
10. I think we can go to ... London for ... holiday.
11. They like walking in ... mountains.
12. ... New Zealand is not far from ... Australia.
13. He has ... house and ... beautiful garden near it.
1. This computer is made in ... USA.
I ft. They choose ... new person for this job.
. 35. , .
... forester, with his dog, was riding through ... thick
forest. Suddenly his horse stopped. ... forester felt t h a t ...
something frightened ... horse. He saw ... pack of ... wolves.
II is dog run over to ... wolves, sniffed and disappeared
with them in ... forest. ... forester remembered ... day when
lie found ... wolf-cub. He picked ... cub up, brought it home
und put it in ... dog house. Soon ... cub grow up. Then ...
forester took ... young w olf to ... place where he found him.
N ow ... forester understood why ... wolves didn t attack him
mid ... dog. His ... friend was among them. ... foresters dog
returned home ... next morning.
. 36. , .
Once ... farmer met ... boy and asked him i f he wanted
... job. ... boy answered that he wanted. ... farmer asked ...

..

1 to bring him ... character from his previous master.


T i l bring ... character tomorrow , answered ... boy. ... next
day ... farmer met ... boy in ... street. W hy didn t you
bring me ... character? he asked ... boy. Because ... previ
ous master gave me your character ... answer was.
. 37. , .
1. In ... United States o f ... America ... national language is
... English. Four hundred years a g o ... some English people
sailed to ... North America, and they b ro u g h t^ English
language to ... new country. Now in ... USA people bpeak
... American English. Many ... worlds are ... same in^,.
American and in ... British English.
2. One o f ... first novels in ... history o f ... literature was
written in ... England in ... 1719. I t was ... Robinson
Crusoe by Daniel Defoe . ... Daniel Defoe was born in ...
London in ... fam ily o f ... rich man. When he was ...
schoolboy, he began to write ... stories.
A t ... age o f ... sixty he wrote ... novel Robinson
Crusoe . ... novel made him famous.
3. A ll ... world knows W illiam Shakespeare as ... one o f
...greatest poet and ... playwrights. He was bom in ...
small town o f Stratford-upon-Avon in ... England, He
grew up in ... large fam ily. N ot much is known o f ...
Shakespeares fam ily and his life. He became ... actor
and soon began to write ... plays for his company.
. 38. , .

1. ... Stonehenge is ... circle o f ... stones on ... Salisbury


Plain in ... England. ... Stonehenge is about 5.000 years
old. ... stones are huge and heavy.
2. There are lots o f ... pyramids in Egypt. ... most famous is
... Great Pyramid o f ... K in g Cheops. ... pyramid is about
5.000 years old.
3. ... London is ... capital o f ... Britain. ... London is famous
fo r ... its museums and parks. ... famous clock ... Big
Ben is also in ... London.
4. Hallowe en is ... evening o f ... October ... 31st. It is ...
childrens festival in ... Britain and ... USA. ... children
dress up in ... witch or ... host costumes.

1
,

,
|


* R U LE l - ---------------------------------------------------- v

:

a dog
a
a
a
a

bus
watch
lunch
box

a story
a boy

cars
dogs
buses
watches
lunches
boxes

stories
boys

a tomato
a hero

a half
a w olf

tomatoes
heroes

halves
wolves

> |>. 1. .
sister
banana
foot
tomato
ray
garden
window
disco
door
camera
house
roof
boy
bus
box
mouse
tooth
lady
sandwich
V n REMEMBER I

"

....................

a
a
a
a


"

1
:
man
men
a tooth teeth
woman women
a foot
feet
child
children
an ox
oxen
mouse mice
an Englishman
a German

a sheep sheep
a swine swine

Englishmen
Germans

a deer deer
a percon people

..

. 2. .
church
gentleman
goose
student
child

restaurant
w olf
deer
cartoon
chicken

sheep
leaf
box
potato
woman

country
man
swine
dress
ox

. 3. ,
a child, the library, a tree, the ox, the costume, a bone,
the desert, a factory, the science, a dictionary, the wolf,
the station, a pilot, a map, the city, a dolphin, the helicop
ter, a souvenir, the lorry, a sheep, the ship, the scissors:
a bank, the calendar.
(t a REM EM BER |-

"

"",l

this is

that is
there is
it is

these are
those are

there are

they are

. 4. .
this
this
this
this
this

envelope
factory
hotel
rule
club

this
this
this
this
this

man
deer
game
volcano
tooth

this
this
this
this
this

report
mouse
child
bus
lady

this
this
this
this
this

baby
city
leaf
candle
hobby

. 5. .
10. This is a student.
1. This is a baby.
11. This is a disco.
2. This is a port.
12. That is a roof.
3. This is a pilot.
13. This is an apple.
4. This is a factory.
14. This is a wolf.
5. This is a camera.
15. This is an ox.
6 . This is a car.
16. This is a woman.
7. This is a sandwich.
17. This is an orange.
8. This is a piano.
18. That is a patch.
9. This is a half.

23

. 6.
this capital
this
I liis college
this
I his diary
this
this purse
this
this horse
this


party
this comedy
disco
this radio
half
this year
country
this week
railway
this w ife

.
this cafeteria
this nurse
this fam ily
this uncle
this street

. 7.
.
1. This is a child.
9. Is that a teacher?
2. This isn t a baby.
10. That isnt a lamb.
3. This is a sheep.
11. This is a fish.
4. That isnt a path.
12. That isn t an atlas.
5. This is a stranger.
13. That is a leaf.
6. This isnt a mouse.
14. This isn t a camera.
7. Is this a man?
15. This is a half.
8. That is a doctor.
I up. 8.
.
I . This boy has a ball.
. This animal is wild.
:i. Does this girl study well?
I . My brother has a map.
fi This map is on the wall,
f). That goose is fat.
7. Does your friend work at school?
H. There is a chair in my room.
U Is this village very large?
10 His boot is large.
II Tliis pencil is in the box.
I T h i s woman is this mans wife.
I I I this a good disco?
11 Tlmt lady is our teacher.
I This boy isn t my son.
* ii|>. i).
.
I This factory is very big.
' is a desk in this classroom.
1 *ili> has a beautiful dress.
I 1><- this lady speak English?
Tlmt gentleman knows my brother.

24

.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

..

This girl isnt my niece.


That table is made o f wood.
A n apple isn t a vegetable.
There was a pen on this table.
This man was a student last year.
Is that sheep your?
This cat caught a mouse.
That game isnt interesting.
Does this deer live in the wood?

. 10.
.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

is this an ox? No, it isn t.


There is a new school in our town.
The woman is sitting in the room.
That boy is a good pupil.
Is that an Englishman? No, he isn t.
Is there a flower in the vase?
This hobby is not bad.
Is this a mouse? No, it is a rat.
Is that man a doctor? No, he isnt. He is a teacher.
Put that cup on this table.
Is there a dictionary on the table? Yes,there is.
The boy was w riting the rule.
Is this a good tooth?
That child has an interesting hobby.

. 11.
.
!
1. This is my foot.
2. That lady doesn t play the piano.
3. This child is watching the leaf falling on thegrass.
4. Is this mountain high? Yes, it is.
5. There is a knife on the kitchen-table.
6. This bird is in that tree.
7. That wolf has eaten a sheep.
8. There was a desert here.
9. Is there a calendar in this room?
10. That sandwich is not on that plate.
11. Where is a child? The child is in the yard.
12. Is this goose big or small? It is big.
13. Was there a leaf on the ground?

I '

25

14. That boy was playing football.


1., Where is the book? The book is on the shelf.
V a R U LE [",7 .
I

The childs ball
The childrens balls
The womans friend
The womens friends
My
friends
car

My friends cars
V
.'Up. 12. , .
I In flat o f my sister
I Iiii eon of her mother
I In name o f this man
I In mark of our student
I In* work o f those men
lliu sister of my friend
I hr parents of that boy

the
room o f these people
the
food o f those dogs
the hobby o f these gentlemen
the
voice of this singer
the
friend o f Susan
the foot o f the animal
the ball of my child

* up. J3. ,
. ,
. , .
I . .
'. .
I - .
I .
V ?
.
7. .
. .
.
10 .
I I , ,
lit. .
11 .
I i 11 .
I h ? .
I ii .
I - ?
IM. <1 .
I .
' .

1
RTTf IF| 1
---
---------

tall
wide

taller
wider

big
happy

bigger
happier

the tallest
the widest
the biggest
the happiest

BSr R U L E

careful

more/less
careful

the most/the least


careful

dangerous

more/less
dangerous

the most/the least


dangerous

. 1.
.
1. Shot, long, wide, d irty, clean, dark, ligh t, thick, thin,
cold, dry, s illy , weak, ta ll, strong, heavy, happy|
big.
2. Beautiful, old, bad, great, poor, large, good, bravej
cheap, hot, pretty, frien dly, careful, stupid, narrow,
dangerous, young.
3. Rich, interesting, expensive, comfortable, intelligent,
strange, d iffic u lt, quick, easy, rude, cheerful, fast
hopeful, lazy.

i'menenu

I / REMEMBER [

11

bad
good
far
old

worse
better
farther
older
elder
less

little

27

the worst
the best
the farthest
the oldest
the eldest
the least

'. 2. ,














. 3. .
I . .
. .
. .
I . .
. .
I. .
7. .
. .
. .
10. .
11. .
U . .
!. .
14 , .
IB. .
I . .
17. .
I .lie .

28

. ,

. 4. .
1. .

2. :
3 . .

4 . .
5 . , .
6. .

7 . .
8.
9. .

10. .
11. , .
12. .
13. .

14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

: ?
, .
. .
.
?

1 9 . , .

20- , .
. * ,
.
1 . The rooms are (clean) than they used to be.
2. Its (cold) here than in K yiv.
3. This is (expensive) book o f them all.
4 . His unswer was (bad) than I thought.
5. The N ile is (long) than Dnipro.
6. she thinks this shop is (good) than that one.
7. These people are (polite) than in my town.
8. Who is (old) student in the class?
g. is Michael (intelligent) than Stephan?
10.What is the name o f the (high) mountain in Europe?
. 6 ,
.
1. This is ... in our city, (big building)
2. She is ... we have ever met. (strange person)
3. The road becomes ... after some miles, (narrow)
4. peter is ... o f them all. (old)

I (

29

11 was ... time of my life, (bad)


weather is much ... than yesterday, (good)
was a bit ... than she usually is. (cheerful)
Cuing by train takes twice ... going by plain, (long)
11** thinks English spelling is ... than Russian, (difficult)
This test was ... of all. (easy)
Hlii works ... than her sisters (hard).

ft
*i
7

'J

11

/11 k k im e m b e r T

I(

as ... as

...

not so ... as

...

|irii|> 7. I{ as ... as so ... as.


I
*
1
I

I iki ... well ... my sister.


Tin weather is not ... bad ... had expected.
Tlmt chair is ... comfortable ... this one.
I'ftiT is ... intelligent ... my friend.
I'Ii Ih girl is not ... nice ... that.
I> I Iit child is ... tall ... my.
I M brothers French is not ... good ... Nicks,
TIii'Mi houses are ... high ... those.
0 I mu not ... lazy ... she.
Ill I< doesn t drive ... careful ... she.
11 lli r cat is ... old ... my.
11 IVI < is ... thin ... his brother.
/ 1(7 MEMBER I -------------------------------------------- -4
r
1 He

I hnn : I
Ann is taller than Nick.
I
^^/^
l
I

1
*

ii|i H .

Miirry is taller than John.


lir I more helpful than he used to be.
I lip mdaurant is more expensive than the cafe.
I In *111 is the youngest pupil in his class.
II l tin worst play I ve ever seen.
I If \<in rat a lot you w ill get fatter.

30

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

..

doesnt work so d ifficu lt as I.


It is slowly getting colder and colder.
This scientist thinks o f a better method.
That picture is much cheaper than that one.
This town is the smallest in our country.
The journey was longer than I had thought before.
His English is as good as my.
Volvo isnt the most expensive of all the cars.
Nowadays computers are more complicated.

. 9. .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

, .
.
.
, ?
, .
.
, .
.
, .
, .

. 10. as ... as, so ... as than.


1. His story isnt ... long ... yours.
2. Our mother is ... young ... her.
3. This writer isn t ... famous ... Jack London.
4. My wife is more beautiful ... his.
5. Second class isn t ... expensive ... first.
6. M y friend s dog is ... clever ... my.
7. This story isn t ... interesting ... I thought.
8. That furniture is a little bit cheaper ... this.
9. Their flat is nearly ... comfortable ... our.
10.
Her room is much more cleaner ...his.
. 11. ,
.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

She is (young) than Ann.


This film is much (good).
He speaks English (bed) than I do.
In spring the weather is (warm) than in winter.
I am not so (busy) as my mother is.

I ill n

Is the Arctic Ocean (cold) in the world?


Which book is (interesting)?
. 'I'lils problem is (d ifficu lt) than yours.
U My box isnt (heavy) as your.
Those exercises are (easy) than in the book.
11 Which house is (high) in your street?
I T o fly is (quick) than to go by car.
I I Whose child is (old) than my?
I I This example is (simple) o f all.
|r> ||p isn t so (stupid) as your brother is.
10 Which country is (beautiful)?
11 In this town the streets are (narrow) than in mine.
I Yo nr cat is (fa t) I ve ever seen.
IU In August (hot) month o f the year?
Mi Sin* is (attentive) child in her class.
. I My (old) sister is two years (old) than I.
I t Whats (near) station?

31


some, any, no, every
US" R U L E

some
any

I have some books.

I havent got any books.


I have got no books.


REM EM BER \

Have you got any books?


every -

. 1. some, any no.


1 .1
bought ... books.
2. Are there ... books, on your shelf?
3. I have ... good news fo r you.
4. Did you buy ... milk?
5. Would you like ... tea?
6 . Have you ... pencils?
7. A re there plates on the table? There are ...
8. There are ... high houses in his street.
9. I want ... bread, please.
10. A re there ... magazines on the shelf? Yes, there are...
11. He has ... information fo r us.
12. I d like ... water, please.
13. She sent me ... postcards from England.
14. Did you meet ... friend yesterday?
15. Are there ... new pupils in your class? Yes, there are ...
. 2. some, any no.
1.
2.
3.
4.

There are ... new schools in my district.


!
Only ... students came in time.
She bought ... books, but she didnt buy ... magazine*
Do you want ... milk?

*cm

33

. There are ... people in the streets, because its cold.


<J. Would you like ... juice?
!. I bought a pen but I didn t buy ... pencils.
H, At this time we usually have ... food.
W Did he spend ... days in Paris?
IU There is ... cheese on the plate.
11 Sorry, I haven t got ... matches.
I J. lie didnt give me ... money.
l:i Cnu you give me ... sugar?
N Ive got ... oranges, but I haven t got ... apples.
I ft. Are there .. people in this room?
I ft Do you learn ... foreign languages?
I i. We dont think weve got ... time today.
fr ii |>. 3. some, any no.

I There is ... water in my glass. I d like to drink.


I There a re ... beautiful pictures on the walls. Look at them.
I Cun I have ... more milk?
I llnve you got ... friends? Yes, I have... .
.*> Are there ... pencils is your pencil-box? Give me ...,
please.
ri She went to the shop, but she didn t buy ... eggs.
7. I In has read ... 20 pages.
Did they send you ... letters from England?
I Why have ... students gone home?
I Have you found ... mushrooms in the wood?
II I'm thirsty. Give me ... tea, please.
I ' llnve you got ... time to go to the cinema?
I I Are there... pupils in the class-room? Yes, there are ... .
I I Don t forget to buy ... sugar.
I . Where did you leave ... o f your books?
* n I. some, any, no, .

I,
*

1
.
il

Did you have ... salt in the soup?


I've got ... money. Give me ... money, please.
Will you take ... of these photographs?
They haven t got ... children.
Slu* doesn t like ... apples,
Are there ... fruit-trees in your garden?
Did they ask you ... questions? Yes, they asked... .
IW s be make ... mistakes in his dictations?

34

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

..

My friend has bought ... new shoes.


... people there are very unfriendly.
Do you like ... oranges?
Where can I get ... cigarettes?
They waited ... ten minutes.
You may come at ... time.
... people like to spend weekend in the country.

R U L E 1

...

anything

nothing

I have brought something.

I havent brought you anything


I have brought you nothing.


/&) REM EM BER )

Have you brought me anything'.


everythin g

. 5. something, anything, nothing everythin)


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

He saw ... strange in the dark.


Have you ... to read?
Did ... help you to do your work?
May I draw ... I like?
Im all right. ... happened.
They dont know ... about it.
Would you like ... special for dinner?
This pupil wants to know ... about animals.
W ill you have ... to eat?
There is ... in the box.

. 6. something, anything, nothing everything


1. Give me ... to eat, please. Im hungry.
2. I think they dont tell me ... about this accident.
3. Its dark in the room. I see ... .
4. What are you doing? ... special.

i.
H.
II.

35

You may choose ... you like.


Did he tell you the last news? No, he told ... .
(Jive me your hand, please. I didnt see ... .
... has changed in my city.
Is there ... interesting to see in your town?
There is ... in my pocket.

somebody
anybody
nobody

-, mo
-, -

She gave somebody her book.

She didnt give anybody her book.


She gave nobody her book.

11<>11j- Did she gave anybody her book?


REMEMBER )

everybody

'^
ii|i. 7. somebody, anybody, nobody everybody.
I
*.
1
I

fl

Open the door. ... is knocking.


... has told me the truth.
The train was almost empty. They weren t ... on it.
Did you invite ... to come?
I don t see ... in this room,
It s very simple. ... can do that.
... came to visit my friend when he was ill.
I found ... bag in the street,
u ... in the group did the homework.
Ill Did you ask ... to help you?
1 |. H. .
I There are some new buildings in my town.
' Somebody has taken my pen.
1 I may do everything I want.
I Hr has some pens in his pencil-box.
:4 saw everything with her own eyes.

6 . Somebody iss there.


7. Nobody helped him.
b r e a k fa s t,
g. I don t have anything
the tabi e.
9 . There were some applesio
tion.
10. Everybody ^a n answer , , es
11. W e didn t huy any veget^ foo't ball.
12. Everybody Vanted to Playter{jay.
13. Somebody Phoned you VeS
14. Nobody saw this lady.
eat.
15. He doesn t V/ant anythin
.
. 9. ^ **
.
1 . V ^ ^
2. ! - 15 ?
3 . -
;
4. ; -?

,? - . .

5. - #
.

6 . w
.
.
7. .
8. -
?
__ HeTj .
9. 0_,
10. ^ ^- .
11. *1
12. ^
13. - &
.
14.

15.
f .
. 10. * ^ .
1. ^ ^ .
2. ^ .
3 . ^ '
.
4. - ^ .
5 . ^
,
6. ,
Hit?
.
7. ? - ^
__
8. , -.
9. -

37

10 - ?
11 ! , .
I : > . ,
.
1.1 -, ?
I , .
Ift. .
I -A RULE

somewhere -, -, -\
anywhere -, -
nowhere

V 1- I put my key somewhere.


1

I didnt put my key anywhere.


I put my key nowhere.

11||1) Did you put my key anywhere?


| >1 |{ KMEMBER ^

everywhere

||. 1 1. somewhere, anywhere, nowhere every


where.
I
/
i
I

fl
f

U
II

Ur put his book ... yesterday.


11uve you seen that man ...?
I 1'iin t find my watch ... .
Where is your son? He has gone ... .
Tlio station isnt ... near here,
Tin weather is sunny. Lets go ... .
II autumn. There is a lot o f yellow and red leaves ... .
I want to go ... next holydays.
Where did you go on Sunday? . . . . I stayed at- home.
Where is Nick? He is ... in the garden.

I ii I 12. .
I ? .
' . - ?
. 111.

38

..

4. -
?
5. .
6. .
7. ,
.
8. , ,
.
9. - ? .
10. .
11. , .
12. - ?
13. . .
14. .
15. - >
?
. 13. ,
a) some, any, , every:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

There is ... water in the glass. May I drink it?


Have you seen ... o f these people before?
She bought ... bread in the shop.
Has she got ... children?
There is ... coffee in my cup.
I looked through ... magazines, but couldnt find U
article.
7. A re there ... pupils in the class-room?
) somebody, anybody, nobody, everybody:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Look! ... is coming to us.


W hat is his name? Does ... know his name?
... can answer your question. I t s very difficult.
I t s late. There is ... in the office.
Listen. ... is singing in the next room.
I can find ... to help me.
7. Is there ... at home?
c) somewhere, anywhere, nowhere:

1. I le ft my bag ... .
2. I don t want to stay at home. Do you want to go ...|
3. Did you go ... last Saturday?

I I on lit not find our dog ... .


I I I liInk lliis house is ... here,
t I nt find his book. He put it ... yesterday,
t ill will tomorrow. She will stay at home.
4l .Imcthlng, anything, nothing:
I

I
I
t

I* yon know ... about this country?


>-ni In write ... you want in this composition.
II tvp * found ... interesting in his story?
I >. ... in this room. Its too dark,
!* you wnnt to buy ... special?
I Ihivi never seen ... like this,
K..|i.nly tells me ... .
14 He some, any, no, every ,
|1:1 .

ilunt see ... in the corridor.

4 fi> > .I, tnke ... magazine you like.

like. to play chess.


I fiirv illiln't get ... letters yesterday.

IIIm-h to be ill.
I, ftNait I live ... coffee? Yes, you can have ... .
.
hnvfiit got ... questions.
I * . you put ... extra sugar in my tea?
*
IImi to play this game: its dull.
if iiiir pupils study well.
I ynu met ... in the street?
No, I
fit. . didn't say ... .

met... .

* I / some, any, every, no ,


.
|> like big cities.
H ninny of homeless people find ... to live?
* I I til fer you ... to eat?

u iiI to loose a job.


A m I ... news? Yes, there are ... letters for you.
I- IImiI* ... on the table? No, there is ... .
I - 1 nil i there is ... in the flat, knock louder.
young people couldnt find ... job.
* Hi*I* ... else you want to tell me? No,
.
I I..11 wr ({ ... for the weekend?
1 M* tinI |**il to earn ... money.

40

..

1 2 . ... serious happened to him that day.


13. They can t go with you. They all have ... to do.
14. There are ... students here from Poland, but there arc!
not ... from China.
15. Nick, there is ... downstairs who wants to speak to you.
. 16. |
.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

She can buy something in this shop.


W e can find somebody in your city.
He must learn something about it.
I want to see somebody.
You shall go somewhere tomorrow.
They have to meet somebody at the station.
I ve read some articles today.
Somebody must solve this problem.

. 17. some, any, every, no !


.
|
1. Would you like ... more ice-cream? Yes, I d like ...
2. Can ... o f you show us the way to the station?
3. I have ... good friends. Do you have ... ?
4. W e could recognize ... in the dark.
5. I ll take ... sugar with my tea.
6. I m going to read ... books this summer.
7. This company built ... new houses in our city.
8. Its so dark here! Can you see ... around us?
9. Has your friend got ... bad marks this week?
10. I was ringing you up the whole day, but ... answered.
11. Is it ... you would like to see here?
1 2 . ... o f these chairs are very comfortable.
13. You can enter ... institute i f you want.
14. Dont hope that ... will help you. You can do it yoursell
. 18. some, any, every, no, .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

There is ... cheese on the table.


Do you like ... cheese?
Give me ... cheese, please.
Some people like ... coffee.
Would you like ... coffee?
Your coffee is ready. Would you like ... ?
How much is ... meat?

41

. ... of wild animals like ... meat.


II. ... meat is ready.
HI. Cive me ... meat, please.
11. You can buy ... meat at ... shop.
12, Do you like ... plums?
lit. ... plums, please.
11 Are there ... plums on the plate?
If. ... plums are fruit.
. lie never eats ... plums.
I up. 19. some, any, no, every ,
.

1.
'i.
II.
t.
ft.
I.
7.
ft.
II.
Hi.
II

Pnm trying to find ... explanation to his behavior.


Tliis is a question that ... child can answer.
Tliere is ... strange in his appearance.
Do you like ... ice-cream?
Do you need ... from the shop?
Where are ... magazines which you bought yesterday?
W e use ... water to cook soup,
Me needs to buy ... new socks.
Could you do ... about this noise?
... sugar is very sweet. I don t like ... sugar.
My sister has just moved and she doesn t know ... in
tliis house.
III Hi* careful! ... could get hurt.
I J. INtss me ... slices of cheese, please.
II I )ies Nick still live here? N o , ... else is living here now.
I M o s t people dont like to eat ... onion.
Vnp. 20. some, any, no, every ,
.

I
2.
:i
4.
f.
<*
7.
H.
U,
HI.

We think they want to drive us ... .


Is here ... tea left? No, there is ... tea.
Ilo you like ... orange juice?
... days he can t get out o f bed.
Mother put ... slices of ... ham on the plate.
Tliank you, ... help would be welcome.
The painter uses water-colours to paint ... pictures.
"(Jo and play ... else , told our mother.
She is peeling ... apple with a knife.
Are ... o f your relatives coming for holidays?

42

..

11. W e spent a wonderful ... time in the country.


1 2 . ... can learn to drive.
13. There is ... juice in my glass.
14. Can you give me ... cigarettes?
15. His parents don t know ... about it.
16. He doesnt like ... pepper.
17. Did you go ... last night? No, I w e n t... .
18. My brother likes ... bread with ... butter.
19. The dog w ill eat ... you give.
20. He likes this sort o f ... coffee very much.
2 1 . 1 can t find my keys ... .
22. He doesn t like ... loud music.
23. He had ... else to do, so he went to bed.
24. I ll tell him almost ... about this event.
25. She bought a bar o f ... chocolate.
. 21. some, any, no, every, ,
.

1. Once upon ... time there lived a King.


2. I have ... to wear. I need ... new clothes.
3. W e still meet this man ... now and then.
4. This factory produced ... paper.
5. I w ill not give this magazine to ... else.
6 . I ve looked ... for my hat, but I still can t find it.
7. When will ... lessons begin?
8. ... pupil o f your group w ill pass this exam.
9. Young people like ... modern music.
10. You look upset. Is ... all right?
11. Some people don t like to write ... letters.
12. W hat did you say? Oh, ... .
13. Where did she put ... cheese?
14. He gets his newspapers ... day.
15. The book was ... special, but the pictures were nice.



RULE

to be ( )
Present S im p le Tense
-------------- a

am not

Am

is

He
She
It

is not

Is

I
?
he ?
she ?

are

We
You
They

Are

it
?
we ?
you ?

<
Slic

ll_
We
You
They

---------------------

am

(isnt)
are not
(arent)

they ?
-------------------------------

Yes,

I
he

am

she

is

they

am not

he
No,

it
we
you

she
it

is not
(isnt)

we
are

-------

you

are not

they

(arent)

I . I . to be Present Simple.
I lit ... a student. He ... a good student.
/ Ills father ... a doctor.
My mother ... not a teacher.
I ... your sister a pupil? Yes, she ... .
ft They ... at home now.
0 This ... my house.
7 ... they at school? No, they ... not at school.
... your father a pilot? Yes, he ... .
U Nick ... not a student. He ... a pupil. H e ... at school now.
Hi These men ... drivers.
II My friend ... an engineer. He ... at work.
1* ... your parents at home? No, they ... not.

4-4

..

13. I ... a pupil, I ... not a student.


14. ... this your book? This book ... not my. My book ...
in my bag.
15. Michael has a brother. His brother ... 20. He ... a stu
dent. He ... at home now.
16. These ... his newspapers.
17. ... there any books on your table? Yes, there ... .
18. I ... a doctor. I ... a good doctor.
19. ... his friends ... at school now? No, they ... in the
garden.
20. ... her sister a teacher? Yes, she ... .
. 2. ,
to be Present Simple.
1. . .
2. . .
3. . .
4. ? , .
5. ? , . .
6. . .
7. ? , .
8. ? , .
9. .
10. . .
11. . .
12. , .
13. . . .
14. . . .
15. ? , .
. 3. ,
to be Present Simple.
1.
2.
3.
4.

? . .
? .
? .
? .
.
5. ? .
..
6. ? .
7. ? .

45

I *<.

:> ? , .
? . ?
.
I :h u . .
I ! : h o . .
.

I ? .
I
? .
I I ! . . .
> I ? .
* IIULE [

t o be ( )
P a s t S im p le Tense
--------------

I
?
I
He
Was
was
was not
he ?
She
(wasnt)
she ?

*
1

tllf
II
w.

It
We

V<Mi
i liry
1-

--------

were

he
she

r ---

-j.

was

we
you
they

*r

they ?

------- ------I

it
,

j W ere

-----------------------------

---------------

were not
(werent)

You
They

No,
were

he

was not

she
it

(wasnt)

we
you
they

were not
(werent)

------------- -

I , to be
Past Simple.

1 II ... a pupil.
t *Hi ... not a doctor, she ... a teacher.

I lny ... workers.


I lie ... ill last week. He ... not at work.

it
?
we ?
you ?

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
14.
15.

..

W e ... at home on Sunday.


The weather ... not cold yesterday. It ... fine.
... he at school yesterday? No, he ... not. He ... ill.
... they students last year? No, they ... pupils.
There ... a lot o f books in his room.
When ... you at home yesterday?
There ... newspapers on the table.
W hy ... not you at work last Friday?
There ... a pencil in my pencil box.
W here ... his sister last week? She ... not at home.
She ... in the country.

. 5. ,
to be Present Past Simple.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

.
.
.
. .
.
.
. .
. .
.
9. .
10. ? , .
11. .
.
12. ? , .
13. , .
14. ? .
15. ? , .
16. . .
17. .
18. ? .
19. .
20. .
21. .
22. ? .
23. .
24. ? , .
25. ?

I fun.

I - ItULE

to be ( )
F u tu re S im p le Tense

.... -

shall be
(11 be)

W i

ll/
Un
it

47

w ill be
( 11 be)

shall not be]

We
He

(shant be)

She
It

w ill not be

Shall

we
he
she
W ill

(won t be)

----

be?

it
you

You
(They

Yu
I'licy

they
----- ---------------------- ---------- 4/

Yos,

shall be

we
he
she

( 11 be)

I
we

will be

he
she

it
you
they

( 11 be)

No,

----------

---r

it
you
they

shall not be
(shant be)
w ill not be
(won t be)

_____________ 1

* up . to be Future Simple.
II ... a student next year.
I ... at home tomorrow.
.. you be at home on Sunday?
She ... not be at work on Saturday.
Where ... you ... in two days?
Wc ... n o t ... in the country.
< ... a pilot when he grows up.
I ... at school.
Hho ... not ... a doctor, she ... a teacher.
Id It ... a good idea.
II ... he ... here in some hours?
11 I ... not ... a teacher.
II Where ... we ... next month?
they ... in the park?
It
IA Tlu*y ... not ... in the garden.

..

ip. 7. to be Present, Past


Future Simple.
. Where ... your brother now? He ... in his room.
. ... she ... at work tomorrow? Yes, she ... .
. ... you at school yesterday? Yes, I ... .
. My sister ... at school now. She ... not at home.
. ... you ... a teacher in some years?
. My pens ... not on the table. Where ... they?
. His brother ... a child. He ... 7.
>. W e ... pupils last year, but now we ... students.
. My aunt ... in Paris now.
. W h ere... your grandmother? She ... in the Richmond.
. When ... you at work yesterday? I ... there at 8 oclock.
!. My brother ... not ill now.
I. I ... not in K y iv now. I ... in London.
:. A ll my fam ily ... at home tomorrow,
. When he ... young, he ... a pilot.
. She ... a good student.
'. Where ... you last Friday? I ... at the cinema,
i. Nick ... ill last month.
I. Where ... your father now?
I. I think he ... not ... a doctor.

up. 8. ,
to be Present, Past Future Simple,
.. ,
. .
I. .
=. . .
1. . .
I. ? .
. . ,
. ? .
L . ?
|. .
. ? ?
. . . .
. ?
. .
.
. , .

I 4 .

49

. .
17. ? .
IH. ? , . .
11. ? , .
/ ? .
I4Y RU LE Y

to w ork
( ) P re se n t S im p le Tense
( )
I
You

do not
We (dont)
They
He
She
It

do

he
she
it

work

they
work?
he
Does she
it

we
they
Yes,

we

does not
(doesnt)

I
you

Do

does

I
you

you
we
they
No, he
she
it

--------do not
(dont)

does not
(doesnt)

----------I

|~>. I). ,
Present Simple.
I . Hlic (to learn) English.
3. I (to like) music.
3. My brother (to be) a school-boy. He (to go) to school.
1 Michael (to do) his lessons every day.
ft Hlic (to live) in this house.
After supper my sister (to go) fo r a walk.
>' W (to visit) our grandparents very often.

50

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

..

The girl (to sing) very well.


My father (to work) at school.
Usually I (to have) dinner at 3 oclock.
He (to want) to become a doctor.
Our mother (to come) home very late.
His brother (to go) in fo r sports.
She (to like) reading very much.
They often (to take) a bus.

. 10.
.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

goes to school every day.


My sister works here.
They eat a lot.
W e work every day.
I come from Ukraine.
He comes from Germany.
They live in the USA.
He plays football every day.
I visit my parents very often.
His father works at an office.
She gets up at seven oclock.
They play tennis very often.
W e go to the cinema on Saturdays.
He wants to become a pilot.
My brother watches television every night.
I read newspaper every day.
Her father finishes his work at six o clock.
Nick goes to bed at nine.
He goes to school by bus.
W e skate once a week in winter.

. 11. , |><|

Present Simple.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

I (not to walk) to work every morning.


She (to wash) her car once a week.
W e (to spend) our holidays in the country.
He (not to hope) to go there.
She (to go) to the theatre twice a month.
Mary (not to live) near the station.

M to

I i4wi

51

f V*'i (In I ) your dog for a walk?


I
Iways (to in vite) her friends to her birthday

I H* (In ilrink) coffee every morning,
tfc Hi I nt lirr (to study) in London?
1
uliopping) every day.
(I i|H'nk) Spanish?
I | (I- vM t) my friend every week.
l E ( ihiL Lo read) a lot.
A | | (in nlt-i'p) till nine oclock.
I ,
. Present Simple.
ttV'inlO 11 .
,
> .
.
I |> -?
,
^ - .
hi.... ?
- ,
,
?
,
.
?
11 ,
.
1<]|1 , .
|| ( >||1.|
,
filrm ! lives in London.
....lo speaks French badly.
h i i o w s in winter.
I inv brat friend.

Ii* >m nitn get up very early.


It'ili'ii to the news every evening.
H'niiilly spend our holidays in the country.

62

..

8. They are our relatives.


9. My sister wants to become a teacher.
10. Her child likes to read the fairy-tales.
. 14. , j
Present Simple.
. . .
. J
. !
. , , (
. . (
. ,
.
. .
. ypoi< |
.
. 15. , -^
Present Simple.
1. ?
2. ? .
3. ? <
.
4. ? , .
5. ? , .
6. ? , d
.
7. -? , |
.
8. ? ^
.
9. ? ,
10. ? ]|
.
11. ? :|
.
12. ? .
13. ? |
14. ? , .
15. ? .

I I.

53

to work ()
Present Continuous Tense
( )

'

I am
He

Wins

She is

Hes
Shes

It
We

Its
W ere

I'm

1 1 4 _______

w orking.

W n re

< Yinfre

I m

not working.

You are Youre


They
Theyre

Tlu'yre

a
I

:'.

He
She
It

nil'

j II

working?

isn t
working.

We
You arent
They

V I)!

Ilioy

I
I
4

----II 111

---

m not

he
she

I*

il

No,

s not

it

III

urc

=, J

you
they

she

isnt

it
we

we
til'

he

re not

you

aren t

they

I * ' ,

i*i.incut Continuous.
I
I

|l' ') n book now.


(l lo) her home work.
1 lit iitollini (ti sit) at the table now.

54

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

..

I still (to write) a letter.


They (to play) football.
It (to snow) now.
She (to explain) a grammar rule.
W e (to have) dinner now.
Who (to speak) with you?
It still (to rain).
W hy you (to talk)?
They (to eat) soup.
The girl (to draw) a picture.
My son (to swim) to the shore.
Her daughter (to play) chess at the moment.

. 17.
.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

She is watching television at the moment.


They are playing football now.
My sister is writing a letter.
W e are listening to the stereo.
They are talking to my friend.
Mary is sleeping.
You are listening to the radio.
He is having breakfast at the moment.
They are working now.
I am studying.
You are eating.
W e are drinking coffee.
Michael is holding a book in his hand.
His friends are playing volley-ball.
I am planting trees.

tta REM EM BER j~


, ynompr
Continuous,
,
to believe

to be

to feel

to like

to own

to know

to have

to want

to think

to conl

to understand to see

to wish

to late

to dop

to recognize

to desire

to hope

to hear

to bolm:

I H i t n i prf)

55

Hi ,
' Present Continuous.
*** ? , .
*>mi ? .
|}(|& .... ? , .
|| ! .
" ' .
%
?
|-! .
hi .
^ 1 !
1*11 ? .
? .
I | |hi ? .
| 11.1 ?
' .
.1 ? ,
.
. ? .
in .
? .
H i i- (? .
11 |'1* , Present Continuous, .
*| .
B iit .
0 ? , ,
m- .
.|> .
hi, .

H m N ii' ? , .
Itin p in n ii , ,
- *1 * .
h i 1<1? .
9 .-ini .
.
ip w e ?
f|l, < |,! -.
.
-< ? .

56

..

. 20. ,
Present Continuous Present Simple.
I (to rest) every day.
1 .1
(to rest) now.
They (to talk) every day.
2. They (to talk) now.
3. He (to drink) coffee now. He (to drin k) coffee *v
morning.
4. She (to go) to school now. She (to go) to school evei
5. My baby (to sleep) at the My baby (to sleep) every
moment.
6. Her son (to make) noise
now.
7. Jane (not to cook) at the
moment.
8. W e (not to eat) now.
9. Nick (not to skate) now.
10. You (not to work) at the
moment.
11. She (to play) now?
12. They (to have) dinner
now?
13. Bill (to laugh) loudly now?
14. Wliat she (to write) now?
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

Her son (to make) noise <


day.
Jane (not to cook) every il
We (not to eat) at work.
Nick (not to skate) once u v
You (not to work) on SumV

She (to play) in the event


They always (to have) dimi
two oclock?
Bill often (to laugh) loiuMy
W h at she (to w rite ) *
evening?
What he (to do) every Sim
What he (to do) now?
Whom she (to wait) now? Whom she (to wait) evei y
What John (to do) now? What John (to do) so ofM
What they (to eat) now? What they (to eat) at diim
Why he (to watch) TV
Why he still (to watch)
TV?

. 21. , <
Present Simple Present Continuous.
1.
2.
3.
4.

She (to read) at the moment.


You (to go) to work by car?
He (to drink) coffee in the morning.
They (to have) breakfast now.

57

I to wnlfh) television every night.


M )>lio (to dance).
(I linvo) breakfast every morning.
(I Mulcn) to the radio now?
41 look) for our things now.
Inol In wutch) television at the moment.
I l 1 up) at seven oclock every morning.
I (I muke) so much noise: mother (to sleep).
In'il In drink) coffee in the morning.
(In tnlk) to Susan at the moment,
it- (In In) your mother? She (to cook) dinner now.
nl Tliry (to discuss) an interesting problem.
( i n I I h I c i i ) to the radio in her room now?
( lo ridp) a bicycle every evening.
( wurk) in Paris at the moment?
(In I) in the garden now?
I'nt ,
/* .-ivrii Simple Present Continuous.
'illv iilwnys (to sleep) after breakfast,
laii'l tnlk to you now. He (to go) out.
I>i >itti ii h i me (to start) at nine o clock every night.
-n i y, hut my friend (to wait) fo r me.
Hu ) to the beach now.
nr- (to want) to go to the cinema.
I niy daughter! She (to read).
Hiniuliiiother (to sit) in the garden now?
(bi ciMk) dinner now?
(I* K ) to the cinema very often.
ii
oclock. Jane still (to play) chess with her
II" ili lvc) to her office every day?
In') in the library now?
I *ilndy) at the moment.
h i h I .J i i i i c (to be) in their room. They (to speak).
|l.i It4i v) the office every day at five.
I int'tfir/lne you (to read) now?
<l minute! I (to put) my coat on.
' ii 1 I lolen! She (to sing) a new song.
Iin (In In1) your husband? He (to fish) now?

58

..

A T T E N TIO N |~
---------- *

Present Continuous
, 1|
\
W e are goin g to the cinema tonight.
.
. 23. ,
Present Continuous.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

She is going to the cinema tonight.


W e are not moving in today.
I am taking my exam on Wednesday.
They are leaving by the eight oclock train.
I am seeing my friends this Sunday.
He is going tomorrow.
M y father is arriving next week.

. 24. -
Present Continuous.
1. .
2. *
3. .
4. ?
5. .
6. ?
7. .
8. ?
9. .
10.
.
. 25. , :
Present Simple Present Continue
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

? .
. ?
? , .
, .
.
? .

59

mi .
* \- : .
: 1 '? .
, .
t'rt'iiu .
in- , .
? , .
.
i i ? , .
| |>|( , . : t
.
?
-?
V
' | ,
r*m nt Simple Present Continuous.
ml
I'lliiinl (to be) great! W e (to have) a wonderful time

MWiin) every day. The weather here (to be)


fl'll
lli-| Uiis letter in a bar on the beach.
Junk) Juice now. Mary (to learn) to swim at the
I (not. to see) her now. But I (to hope) she (to be)
I ( In*) happy.
' * you soon. Love to all.
Peter.
Im<vh) ii very good friend. She (to be) interested in
|1| of modern life. She (not to be) at home now,
I In I ho library. My friend (to work) on her report
iiHHimil. She always (to work) hard on her tasks,
nlliri (In be) a vegetarian. He never (to eat) meat.
Hunk) lliat meat (not to be) healthy. He (to have)
mw. Ilr (to have) only vegetables for his dinner.
IMhy ||)1 the best season of the year (to be) au; I (In like) autumn too. I t (to be) September now.
t *r (In lie) red and yellow. I (to watch) how the
II full) on the ground now.

60

.. *

* R U L E | - ------------------------- -------- , ; - --------,


^
I to work ( )
Future Sim ple Tense (
)
shall/will

I
We
He
She

w ill

It

(11)

(11)
work.

You
They

shall not/will not


(shant/wont)

[i
We
He
She

w ill not

It

(wont)

Win ,

You
They
L ... .

Shall/will

W ill

we
he
she

work?

it
you
they
I
we

shall/will

shall not/will

(11)

we

(shant/wont).

he

he
she

she
Yes, it
you
they

---------- JJ

will
( 11)

No, it

w ill not.

you (wont)
they

. 27. ,
Future Simple.
1. (to see) them next Saturday.
2. They (to be) here tomorrow.
3. W e (to have ) the test in a week.

I ftrftnenue

61

lii> ) I) liolidays in the country.


|i >i i i i i i ' v

(to take) three hours.

|) tin door for you.


f t Li Ht liool tomorrow?
I In ) back next week?
|i li'iivo) K yiv this evening?
null) for me?
( flnlsli) school next year?
11- -u i) with you?
I* avvlni) tomorrow.
l In ilny) in the garden.
(not to be) fine on Sunday.
In In*) busy in the evening.
(ml I tfet) passport next year,
futlier (to help) you?
ig -In (In study) English?
' <1) there?
l-nifi I In journey (to take)?
iiiiny itrople (to arrive) today?
ii (to ) to the cinema?
. |h>ht; , Present
/tlr, Present Continuous Future Simple.
I. |iliv) football tomorrow.
' |ilnv) roquet tomorrow.
I In 1) at home next day.
-Iit\) lit home every Sunday.
*i Hi) letters very often.

* i l(i-) letter at the moment.


i ) a letter now.
Jt- |>lnv) the piano.
I*1 I'Imv) the piano next lesson.

(I play) the piano.


(( ) tip early every day?
Mi l) ii)i early next morning?
i 'VI ih k already! You (to get up)?
I* ) rxums every year?
|* i) rxmns in a month?
|l- |nn) her exam at the moment?
. * mi (In ro) every Saturday?
. nil (In go) now?

62

19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

..

Where you (to go) this Saturday?


Why she (to watch) television so often?
Why she still (to watch) television?
Why she (to watch) television in the evenings?
My aunt (to cook) every day.
My aunt (to cook) now?
My aunt (to cook) next day.

1^

.

:
if

after

when

till (u ntill)
before , as soon as
v
^
. 29. ,
Present Simple Future Simple. (
).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

When I (to see) him, I (to phone) you.


I f he (to decide) not to do it, he (to be) right.
Tell me when she (to come) to visit you.
I (to give) it to him when he (to visit) us.
You (to pass) your exam i f you ( to work) hard.
W e (to go) to the country next week i f the weather
(to be) fine.
7. As soon as we (to know) results, we (to inform) you.
8. Dont open the car door before it(to stop).
9. You (not like) this film when you (to see) it.
10. W ait fo r me till I (to return).
11. As soon as Beth (to phone) me, I (to contact) you.
12. I f the weather (to be) fine, my fam ily (to go) on a trip.
1 3 .1 (to give) a present i f he (to invite) me to his birthday
party.
14. Of course we ( to help) you i f we (not be) busy.
15. I (to see) my mother before I (to fly ) to London.
16. I f my daughter (not to come) in time, I (to go) without hei\
17. They (to wait) until we (to come).
18. W e (not to send) you the money before we (to leave).

I *##.

63

14 If .iune (to come) to see me, we (to listen) to the music,


o Win* they (to talk) to her, they (to give) her your news.
|t . ,
Present Simple Future Simple. (
).
1 1 1lie weather (to be fine), the plane (to leave) in time.
' 1* (to visit) their parents next month i f they (to get)
li'llcr from them.
I lin k (to miss) the train i f he (not to hurry).
4 When he (to feel) better, he (to invite) us.
\ iln (to finish) her work when she (to be) at the office.
i> Wluit she (to do) when she (to return) home?
I (to take) my child to the Zoo i f I (to have) time.
* Nick (to send) us a postcard when he (to get) to K yiv.
4 Tln*y (not to swim) i f the water (to be) cold,
rtl I (not to go) for a walk before my parents (to come) home.
11 W (to phone) our son when we (to come) home,
1 ine when they (to arrive).
* I (Ui go) to the country i f it (not to snow).
11 usually (to go) fo r a walk i f it (not to rain).
H lli (not to do) anything i f you (not to tell) him to.
I ( lo do) my homework i f I (not to be) tired,
f Tliry (to be) very surprised, when they (to meet) him here,
* W* usually (to have) dinner at two oclock i f mother (to
) in time.
0 When my mother (to hear) it, she (to be) glad.
W often (to watch) TV i f the weather (to be) bad.
.11. , Present
Simple, Present Continuous Future Simple.
I Yun (to be) busy tomorrow? Lets (to go) to the restaulllllt.
0. There (to be) someone at the door. Ok, I (to answer) it.
I (lo wait) fo r him now. When he (to come)?
I I Ihinilly I (to brush) my teeth, (to have) a wash, and (to
) to bed.
ft l.mikl John (to wash) his car in the yard.
II Don t touch the fire! You (to hurt) yourself!
' They never (to see) their parents again.
" bulk at the sky! It (to rain) tomorrow?

64

..

9. Lets (to go) to the cinema. I (to think) the film (to
a big success.
10. Beth (to read) many books.
11. They (to drive) Poltava tomorrow morning?
12. When he (to get) up every morning? She (to get)
very early.
13. I hope the (to rest) at the moment.
14. Kate (not to sleep) now. She (to do) her homework.
15. W h y your parents (to stay) with us fo r next weekend J
16. They (to refuse) to go fo r a walk next evening?
17. Who (to play) the piano in the next room?
18. Hurry up! W e (to miss) a train!
19. W hat (to be) your plans fo r tonight? You (to visit) youi]
mother?
20. Be careful with that cup! You (to break) it!
j

. 32. , Presen
Sim ple, Present Continuous Future Simple.
1. W e are sure he (to be) late.
2. Look! You child (to eat) an ice-cream.
3. I (to agree) to go there i f you (to go) there too.
4. She (not to like) to play this game, but now she (to plavl
5. He supposes she (to be) in Paris next week.
6. You (to achieve) a great success i f you (to work) hard
7. I (to think) he (to come) tonight.
8. John (to phone) your office fo r you tomorrow.
9. You (to go) fo r a walk only when you (to finish) doin
your lessons.
10. M y friend (not to work) tomorrow.
1 1 .1 (to be) sorry that you never (to see) your money aga
12. You (to help) me tomorrow? No, I (not to do) it.
13. Dont worry! I (to play) for the damage in some days
14. Look! Mary and John (to be) together now. Yes, thi
(to get) married in a week.
15. Sheila (to believe) she (to pass) her exam next montli
16. Your sister (to go) to the theatre next Friday?
17. W hat (to be) the matter? W h y you (to phone) the dot
tor now?
18. W hy he (not to sleep) now? He (to watch) TV.
19. I f you (to tell) her telephone number, I (to ring) her ii|
20. M y son (not to like) to eat soup but he (to eat) hi
soup now.
I

mmix.

65

! . ,
Present Simple Future Simple. (
).
I I f It (to rain), we (not to leave) home.
' lUuully I (to ski) i f it (to be) enough snow.
I (In write) him about this event if you (to tell) me his
ntltlress.
I Vini (to read) English books if you (to study) English.
r Kin* ( to see) her brother when he (to return) from EngIniid.
If (to go) to the airport by car, he (to catch) a plane.
U4 raining. A s soon as we (to go) out we (to get) wet.
W lirn mother (to go) shopping, she (to buy) some bread.
^mi (to worry) i f your children (to be) late tonight?
i Hi'lore she (to go) out, she (to switch) o ff the light.
11Mm (to recognize) him when she (to see) him again?
Ulvi* Beth this book as soon as she (to come).
4 Vnii (to phone) me after you (to come)?
I If there (not to be) coffee, I (to get) some from the
*hn|>.
mp :i l. 1' , Present
Simple, Present Continuous Future Simple.
I If vn (to be) in K yiv, you (to come) to visit us? Yes,
I 11<> rome).
I Wlmt they (to do) next Saturday? They (to go) on a
ill If the weather (to be) fine.
Win you (to come) home? I (to come) home at 7
nYliM'k.
II (lo go) shopping. I f you (to need) some butter, he (to
!> ) It for you.
% Wlnil the weather (to be) like? I t (to rain).
Wi (In hope) they (to return) tonight. I f they (not to
>1hi n) today, we (to worry).
I (in work) now. In two hours I (to go) home. I (to be)
linl. If I (not to feel) better, I (to go) to bed at once.
t|i till (to do) her home work? A s soon as she (to do)
her to help me.
4 II (not to sleep) now, he (to have) dinner.
II (Id ruin) now. Ask Beth to take her raincoat or she
11 jfct) wet.

66

.. >

11. They (to be) surprised i f they (not to get) this job
1 2 .1 (to think) Peter (to be) very glad i f we (to tell) hi in
news.
13. W e (to go) to the theatre next week? I (to hi^) j
(to go) there i f I (not to be) busy.
14. She (to return) home till 7 oclock? She (to i t-l
when she (to finish) her work.
15. W hat he (to do) now? He (to w rite) a letter iu|
friend who (to live) in France.
16. Dont forget to lock the door after you (to leave*).
17. Could you look after my child while I (to be) out?
18. She (not to start) supper until her husband (to rnfl
19. John (to feel) better after he (to have) something to <li |
20. You (to go) fo r a walk at 2 oclock? I (not to gu) in
mother (to come).
up 35. ,
.
1. , .
2. , *|
3. , .
4. ,
.
5. , .
6. ? ,
.
7. ,
8. ,
9. ,
.
10. , .
11. , .
12. , . I
, .
13. , <4
, .
14. .
15. , J
16. ,
.
17. , .

67

' , ?
, ,
, .
11|-111 ,
.
i i in , ,
ini, ,
^ . ,
.
, ,
. ? , ,
, ,
in , ||1.
\ , .
. , ,
, ?
.
icu.i ,
.
, ,
,
,
? ?
, .
t i I ll .
. .
, .
,

I l--------------------------------------------------, shall #>. .


/in//
-1
>
Shall we go there?
Shall I help you?

5 |

0 T.B.

WS?RV b J c nj)SlMeHue to work ( )


** ^ f t y t u r e Continuous Tense (

)
shall not/will not
I
W e j (shant/won t)
He
She w ill not
It
(wont)
You
They
Shall/will

be
work
ing.

I
we
he

W ill

she
it
you
they

-;---=-- ---J)

shall/will

shall not/will not.

(11)

we

(shan't/wont).

he

he
she
it
you

be
working?

will

she
No, it
you

w ill not.
(wont)

they

^ ,
future Continuous.
^ 1 . J /to vvateh) television all evening.
2.
(to work) at home the whole day tomorrow.

. .

69

* They (to stay) at a new hotel.


4 1h* (to live) in K yiv fo r the next few weeks.
Mi'th (to write) a letter at that time.
You (to do) your home task all these days?
Dun (to enjoy) the sunshine on the beach?
IV-ter (to read) the whole night?
u Wt* (to have) coffee?
I Tom (to have) a bath at this time?
11 Whore you (to wait) for me?
I * Wlint Susan (to do) at nine oclock tomorrow?
I W here he (to pass) his exam?
14 When she (to type) letters?
15 Wr (not to speak) at ten oclock.
fi!, . ,
Future Simple Future Continuous.
I You (to work) all tomorrow morning?
V III* (to see) them tomorrow. He (to tell) them what you
.
# I (to visit) her office next day. 1 (to ask) her then.
4 My son (to stay) with my parents for the holidays.
$ on (to stay) here all weekend?
9 Don t disturb him, at the moment he (to have) break1.

I I (to see) the manager at the meeting next week. And he


(In give) me all the information he knows.
9 Next year he (to come) to Paris.
9 Yon (to come) to our party? No, I (to work) on my
li|lort.
IV I lon t leave your child alone! He (to cry).
II Hu* (to give) me this book? No, she (to be) busy at
Unit time.
II Dont forget to take your umbrella. It (to rain) the
whole day.
H Wlint you (to do) at six oclock tomorrow? I (to play)
lln* piano.
I I M (to leave) the hospital, as feels better.
1 \Vi> (to be busy) this evening. W e (to pack) our
ililntfs.

70

..

. 39. ,
Present Simple, Present Cot
tinuous, Future Continuous Future Simple.

1. ,
.
2. , h i
.
3. ,
.
4. ?
, .
5. , ,
.
6. ,
, .
7. .
.
8. ? .
.
9. ? . .
10. , . . |
.
11. ? , . /
.
12. ? , ;
.
13. .
.
14. ? ? , |
,
.
15. , ?

I 1>.

I*

71

KULE I

to work ()
P a st S im ple Tense,
(
)

"

Infinitive + ed

did not Infinitive

Hr
*

He

II

She
worked

did not

(didnt) work
It
We
You
They
_....
br-r---

Wr

Ytill
''

I
he

he
Yes, she
it
we
you
they

did

No, she
it
we
you
they

did not
(didnt)

.. *

72

* R U L E 1 ~------------------------- .
------------- to g o (, )
Past Sim ple Tense, (
)
did not Infinitive ]
I

I
He

He
She

She
It
We

went

It
We
You

You
They

did not
(didn t)

go

j
I
j
1

They

J.

...
Did

Infinitive
I
he
she

Did it
we

I
he

I
he
go?

Yes, she
it
we

did

No, she
it

you

you

we
you

they

they

they

did not
(didnt)

. 40. ,
Present Sim ple Past Simple.
1. I (to watch) television at seven oclock every evening,
2. I (to watch) television yesterday.
3. She (to comb) her hair every morning.
4. Yesterday she (to comb) her hair.
5. They (not to rest) yesterday.
6 . 1 usually (to walk) to my school but yesterday I (to tali
a tram.
7. Yesterday he {t o have) a holiday. He (not to go) to tli
office. He (to get) up at eleven oclock, (to wash) h
face, (to have) breakfast and (to go) fo r a walk.
8. As a rule my mother (to cook) dinner. But yesterday she (H
decide) not to cook. She (to invite) us to the restaurant

I in ion.

73

U, Me (not to like) coffee. But yesterday he (to drink) a


cup o f coffee as he (to be) very tired.
Hi You often (to take) your brother fo r a walk? Yes.
Why you (not to take) him fo r a walk the day before
yesterday? He (to be) ill.
d|>. 41. ,
Present Simple Past Simple.
I They (to be) in London last month.
Who o f your friends (to speak) English?
1low many lessons you (to have) every day?
t I (not to be) at home yesterday, I (to go) fo r a walk.
- 1Ii* usually (to sleep) well. But last night he (to sleep) bad.
<i Your sister (to be) a doctor? Yes, she (to become) a
doctor two years ago.
< Mi* (not to shave) today because he (not to have) time.
You (to get) up early on Sunday? Yes. But last Sunilnv I (to sleep) till ten oclock,
When you (to leave) the meeting yesterday?
11> She* (to enjoy) the film , which we (to see) last week?
II Why your parents (to be) so angry last night? Bernuse my brother (to be) late.
11I* 42. .
in* gets up at seven o clock. He washes his face, cleans
114-th and combs. He goes to the kitchen and has his
I illfnst. For breakfast he has a cup o f coffee and cheese.
Win the breakfast is over, he goes to the office. He takes
to get to his work.
I the office he works till two o clock. A t two o clock he
1 dinner. He finishes his work at seven oclock in the
iiImK- He decides to walk a little after his working day.
if > 11-turns home at nine. He doesnt want to have supper,
I only drinks tea. Suddenly he remembers that he has to
(* liis friend. He dials the numbers that he has to phone
- friend. He dials the number but nobody answers. His
I irnil Is not at home. He goes to his room and decides to
tli h TV. When the T V programme is over, he sleeps.
I ui> I I .
11 weather is bad. There is no sun in the sky. Beth wakes
i(i Ini in the morning. She doesn t want to leave the bed.

74

..

She stays in her bed fo r some time. But Beth is hungry. She
wants something to eat. She makes herself to get up, and
goes to the bathroom. She washes and cleans her teeth. Beth
goes to the kitchen and has her breakfast. A fter breakfast
she thinks how to spend her day. Suddenly the telephone
rings. Her friend Tom phones. Tom says he has two tickets
to the theatre and he invites her to go and see the play. Beth
thanks him and agrees to go to the theatre. The play begins
at twelve. She has only two hours to dress and to get to the
theatre. Beth doesnt know what to put on in such a bad
weather. She thinks for some minutes and chooses her new
beautiful dress! The weather is bad but she is in a good mood.
. 44. ,
Present Past Simple.
1. His mother (to be) a housewife.
2. They (to be) happy to see you now?
3. You (to write) the test yesterday.
4. She (not to go) to school. She (to be) ill.
5. His brother (to come) yesterday? No, he (not to come).
He (to be) busy.
6. They (to have) a nice weekend last week.
7. Yesterday he (to get) home and (to take) his dog for a walk
8. You often (to go) to the theatre? - Not very often
Usually we (to go) there once a month.
9. W hy Susan (not to notice) us last night? W e (to be) in
the shadow and she (not to see) us.
10. What animals you (to like) better: cats or dogs?
11. She (to buy) a new dress two days ago? No, she (not to
buy) it.
12. What your sister (to do) every Sunday? She (to meet)
with her friends.
13. He (not to understand) the teacher at the last lesson.
14. Last month we (to move) to other place.
15. She (to be) ill now. She (to eat) an ice-cream yesterday.
16. They (to sell) their house a week ago? I (not to know).
17. My grandmother often (to forget) her spectacles in her
room when she (to leave) the house.
18. Can you tell me what the weather (to be) like?
19. I (to be) in this town last year.
20. Her daughter (to draw) very well.

I 1.

75

|>. 45. .
I . :> . ?
' . .
I. 11 ? .
\ I1 ?
.
h ?
.
,
.
. I ? .
. ?
.
<) ,
.
Hi ? ,
.
(1 ? , .
|> -.
1 ?
.
I 11 ?
.
I I ? ,
| .
* 1 ?
.
I ICiuc ,
.
I II . ?
.
I , .
| ? ,
.
| , .
I | 6. ,
Present Simple, Past Simple, Future Simple
Present Continuous.
I Tomorrow 1 (not to go) to school.
* 1.ook! Kate (to help) her mother about the house.
Where they (to spend) last month?

76

..

4. You (to go) shopping every day? - No, I (to go) shop
ping three times a week.
5. W ith whom you (to be) at the cinema? I (to be) there
with my friend.
6. Where we (to go) next week?
7. He still (to wait) fo r you at home.
8. W hat subjects we (to study) next year?
9. My son (not to do) his lessons now, he (to watch) television.
10. You (to be) at home at eight oclock tomorrow? I (not
to think) so.
11. They (to hope) to come here next year?
12. I (to see) a good film last Friday.
13. W e always (to drink) a good coffee in this bar.
14. You (to be) busy now? Yes, I (to be) very busy. I (to
do) my lessons now.
15. They (to do) the washing-up now?
16. Peter (to listen) to the radio at the moment?
17. She (to send) a letter to her friend tomorrow?
18. I (to be) sure now that she (to agree) with our plan.
19. He (not to clean) his room yesterday. He (to be) tired.
20. A t what time we (to have) dinner tomorrow?

. 47. ,
sent Simple, Past Simple, Future Simple Present
Continuous.
1. Where you (to work) last year? I (not to work). I (to
be) a student.
^ 2. Beth (not to go) shopping next day. She (to be) busy.
* 3. You (to like) cinema? Yes, but I (to prefer) to go to
the theatre.
4. What they (to do) now? They (to discuss) a very im
portant question.
5. Where you (to go)? I (to go) to the disco.
6. He never (to want) to argue.
7. You (to meet) your friends at the station tomorrow?
8. Many young people in the world (to be) fond o f sports.
9. She (to come) to our party tomorrow? She (to come) if
she (to want).
10. What the children (to do)? They (to write) the test.
11. They (to like) the play which they (to see) last night? I (not to know).
12. You (to be) sure that he (to come) in time?

I miiMt.

77

I , Where he (to be) born? He (to be) born in K yiv in 1970.


I My friend (to be) in a hurry. His parents (to wait) for him.
I r* They ( not to recognize) me yesterday.
In Nick (to look) after his sister till his mother (to come).
I Your baby (to sleep) now? No, he (to play) with his toys.
I ' What she (to write) now? She (to work) on her report.
I u Their father (to return) from his business trip last week?
I lie (not to play) computer games yesterday.
I i llU LE I
\
to work ( )
* Past Continuous Tense ( ,
. - - I * )
1
Mu was
ll.
II
Wi
You were
.-

working.

W as

W ere
--------

I
he
Yes, she
it
we
you
they

__

I
She
He
It
We
You
They
V .1= .

was not
(wasnt)
working.
were not
(werent)

I
he
she
it
working?
we
you
they

- ^

was
were

No,

I
he
she
it
we
you
they

was not.
(wasn t).
were not.
(werent)

--
S

78

i
T.B.

. 48. ,
Past Continuous.
1. I (to read) a book at two o clock.
2. They (to write) the test at this time yesterday.
3. He (to work) in the garden from two till five oclock.
4. W e (to watch) television the whole evening.
5. You (to play) football at six o clock?
6. You (to drink) tea at seven oclock?
7. He (to draw) from three till four oclock?
8. Who (to listen) to the radio at this time?
9. It (to rain) the whole day yesterday?
10. They (to skate) at three oclock?
11. You (not to sleep) at nine oclock last night.
12. I (not to write) a letter to my granny at eight oclock.
13. She (not to help) mother about the house from two till six.
14. George (to do) his lessons the whole evening?
15. He (to speak) in a low voice.

<-Z> ATTENTION I------------------------------------------------ \



, Past Continuous.
a t ... o clock
from ... t ill ... oclock
when somebody did something.
\___________________________ "_____________________________ ,
. 49 . , ^
Present Continuous Past Continuous.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

(to w rite) a letter now.


He (to write) a letter at two oclock yesterday.
She (to do) her lessons now.
She (to do) her lessons at this time yesterday.
My friend (not to sleep) now. He (to watch) television.
My friend (not to sleep) at eight oclock yesterday. 11<
(to watch) television.
She (to listen) to the music at the moment?
She (to listen) to the music at this time yesterday?
They (to play) chess when I saw them yesterday.
They (to play) chess now.
Listen! M y son (to sing).

I * .

79

I II (to sing) when I (to enter) his room yesterday.


I Why they (to work) in the garden? They (to plant)
I lowers now.
I i lli'th (to wear) a new dress now.
I :;>! (to play) the piano when I came in.
* M|i 49 . ,
Present Continuous Past Continuous.
I W hat you (to do) from seven till nine yesterday?
What she (to drink) now? - She (to drink) juice.
Nirk (to draw) a picture when I saw him.
Who (to stand) near the door now?
When I looked trough the window, the sun (to shine)
hut the wind (to blow).
What they (to discuss) at the moment?
It (to snow) when I le ft my house yesterday.
Kuhrrt (to have) dinner now? No, he (to read) a book.
I ( ur children (to make) noise the whole evening yesterday.
Whnt they (to speak) about when I (to enter) the room?
I I 1li* (to iook) fo r his keys at the moment.
I ' I .iok! Somebody (to swim) across the river.
ll< (to go) to the office when I met him in the street.
II .- (to read) a book while I was watching television.
U My friend (to wait) for a bus when I saw him at the bus
top.
f>(l. ,
Past Simple Past Continuous.
I (to cook) yesterday.
4 (to cook) at three oclock yesterday.
Mu (to cook) from two till four yesterday.
I I (lo read) a lot last month.
I (nut to read) at fiv e o clock.
I (not to read) when you came in.
f lirmn (to pass) her exam two days ago.
luisiin (to pass) her exam at this time yesterday.
Wlmt he (to do) when I came?
( Wlmt he (to do) the whole day yesterday?
IM (to work) in the garden yesterday.
IVtt (to work) in the garden at fiv e o clock yesterday.
Where Pete (to work) when I came to see him?
# My sister (to wash) the dishes after dinner yesterday.

80

15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

..

My sister (to wash) the dishes at eight oclock yesterday.


What your sister (to wash) when I entered the kitchen?
W hy your child (not to sleep) at ten oclock yesterday'/
They (to play) tennis two days ago.
They (to play) tennis from two till three yesterday.
They (not to discuss) this question last evening.

. 51. ,
Past Simple Past Continuous.

1. The pupils (to discuss) this problem yesterday.


2. The pupils (to discuss) this problem the whole eveninn
yesterday.
3. They (discuss) this problem from three till five oclock
4. They (discuss) this problem at four o clock yesterday.
5. They (discuss) this problem when I came in.
6. She (to learn) a poem yesterday.
7. She (to learn) a poem at five oclock yesterday.
8. She (to learn) a poem from five till six oclock yesterday.
9. She (to learn) a poem when mother opened the door.
10. She (to learn) a poem the whole day yesterday.
1 1 .1 (not to see) him yesterday. I (to see) him two days ag
12. She (not to write) a letter at seven oclock yesterday.]
She (to write) it two days ago.
|
13. Jane (to read) the magazine from fiv e till six o'clock
last evening.
14. He (to study) a rule in the morning last Monday.
15. Last month our team (to lose) the game.
16. W hat she (to do) when the telephone rang?
17. Whom they (to speak) to when I met them at the stationl
18. They (to have) lunch when the telephone rang.
19. Nick (to make) a report at three oclock yesterday.
20. Mike (to write) on the blackboard when I came into tlrt
classroom.
21. She (not to sleep) the whole night yesterday.
22. W ho entered the room when you (to watch) television?
23. W hat you (to think) about when I asked you a question?
. 52. ,
Past Simple Past Continuous.
1. When my father (to come) home, I (to have) dinner.
2. When A lice (to return), I (to listen) to the radio.

I tit tun.

81

.
1
ft
j

When mother (to enter) his room, he (to draw) a picture.


When my sister (to come) in, I (to do) my lessons,
When her aunt (to air) the room, she (to catch) cold.
The telephone (to ring) when I (to leave) the house.
When I (to meet) her, she (to go) to the office.
H Me (to wash) his face when somebody (to knock) at the
floor.
The young people (to dance) when I (to come) to the party.
Mi When he (to wash) the dishes, he (to break) a plate.
11 When I (to ring) him, he (to learn) a rule.
I ' W hen she (to play) in the yard, she (to see) her mother.
I .1 Mer son (to fall) when he (to climb) up the tree.
I I, When they (to see) their children, they (to play).
I : When I (to enter) the bar, I (to see) that they (to drink)
roffee.
Mi When he (to do) his homework, he (to make) a lot of
mistakes.
I i When the teacher (to come) into the classroom, all the
impils (to sit) at their desks.
I When I (to watch) television, the phone rang.
|u When she (to drive) her car, she (to feel) a headache.
I W p (to make) the beds when Jane (to open) the door.
11). 63. ,
Past Simple Past Continuous.
I We (to leave) the party when he (to arrive).
:* What they (to do) when you (to see) them?
it When he (to come) to see me, I (to have) a bath.
* I (to read) a book when I (to hear) the noise.
They (to have) supper when he (to visit) them,
Wp (to sit) here yesterday when he (to pass).
She (to cross) the road when she (to see) the accident.
* 1(lo choose) the present when my friend (to enter) the shop,
When my aunt (to go) home, she (to lose) her purse.
IU Mis brother (to sleep) when he (to leave).
II They (to wait) for me at fiv e oclock yesterday.
I ' What he (to do), when you (to arrive)?
ll. (to snow) when I (to go) out.
14 Who (to come) in when you (to translate) an article?
I When they (to play) in my room, they (to find) my noteIxtok.

82

. .

. 54. ,
Past Simple Present Continuous.

1. , ?
.
2. , .
3. , .
4. , ?
5. , .
6. ?
7. ? ,
.
8. Mbj , .
9. ,
.
10. , .
11. ?
.
12. , .
13. ,
.
14. ,
.
15. ,
.
16. , .
17. ,
.
18. , .
19. ,
.
20. .
|
. 55. ,
Past Simple Past Continuous.
1.
2.
3.
4.

(not to open) the window before classes yesterday.


You (to do) your homework at ten oclock yesterday?
I (to hurry) to the library when I (to meet) him.
She (to translate) a lot o f articles at the office last
week.
5. W e (to smoke) in the room when he (to see) us.

I .

83

1 Her sister (to stay) at her friends over the last week
end.
T We (to pack) our things when our taxi (to come).
The day before yesterday he (to finish) his work at
even oclock.
*. They (to have) their English lesson at nine oclock yes
terday.
10 II (to be) morning when I (to have) breakfast at six
oclock.
11 What he (to do) ten years ago? He (to study) at school.
I ' Yrsterday I (to ask) my friend not to ring me.
I I Lust week I (to be) cross with my friend.
You (to play) volley-ball last Sunday? No, we (to play)
football.
I My father (to write) a very interesting article last month.
I Klir (to come) home at eleven oclock thats why she (not
I call) you.
I Wliat the weather (to be) like yesterday? It (to be) fine.
I We (to talk) loudly but he (not to wake) up.
I m W hen you last (to be) in this city? I (to be) here five
years ago.
I (to be) angry when he (to ring) me so late yesterday.
kiip. 56. ,
Past Simple Past Continuous.
I Why you (to be) angry with me yesterday? I (not to
le).
Where you (to be) last night? W e (to be) at the
I lieatre.
I When I (to come) to the bus stop, I (to see) a boy who
(to play) with a dog.
4 11 (to be) eleven oclock, when I (to decide) to go to bed.
. What time they (to have) supper yesterday? They (to
luive) supper from seven till eight.
I When she (to see) him a year ago she (not to recognize)
hlin.
You (to prepare) fo r your lessons last night?
II lie (to like) the last show he (to see).
I (to be) very busy yesterday. I (to prepare) for my exam
t lie whole day.

84

..

10. My brother (to wash) the dishes while I (to sweep) tho
floor.
11. When Beth (to hurry) to the institute, she (to see) hei
friend.
12. W hy you (not to see) a doctor yesterday?
13. W hy he (not to pass) his exam yesterday? He (to
feel) ill.
14. I (to give) him a good advice when he (to meet) me in
the street.
15. You (to make) your report yesterday? No, I (to be) ill.
I
(to have) a temperature.
16. It (to rain) heavily when he (to go) out.
17. M y mother (to cook) dinner while we (to watch) TV
yesterday.
18. You (to go) to see your friend, When she (to be) ill?
19. I (to close) the window because it (to start) raining.
20. M y brother (to open) the door and (to take) a book
yesterday.

. 57. ,
Past Simple Past Continuous.
1. ?
. .
2. , ?
.
.
3. .
,
. .
4. ? , ,
. . ,
.
,
5. . |
.
.
.
6. . '
. ,
. ,
.
.

</.

85


. .
. .
II .
I 58. ,
Past Simple Past Continuous.
I It (to be) a rainy afternoon. Nick (to sit) at the table
mid (to write) to his friend. He (to write) about his last
Mimmer holidays. His mother (to cook) dinner when he
( lo write) the letter. As soon as his dinner (to be) ready,
mother (to invite) him to have dinner. Nick (to stop)
writing and (to go) to the kitchen.
< I jist summer we (to spend) in the country. W e (to live)
In n small house. Every day we (to go) to the river.
Hnddenly a big grey cloud (to cover) the sun and it (to
brgin) raining heavily. W e (to run) home. It (to rain)
I In whole evening and night.
I Yesterday I (to ring) up to my friend but nobody (to
nn.swer). I (to ring) him from 2 till 7 o clock. A t last he
4to answer) at eight o clock in the evening. He (to tell)
in that he (to pass) his exam at 3 oclock.
4 It (lo be) early morning when she (to get) up. She (to
) the window and (to see) that the weather (to
lr) fine. The sun (to shine) brightly, the birds (to
tliig) in the trees, the warm wind (to blow). She (not
11 close) the window and (to decide) to invite her
frlond fo r a walk.
I :>!l. ,
Past Simple Past Continuous.
iln Wlioii we (to meet) him, he (to go) to the shop. He (to
Winil) to buy some food.
I Wlint you (to look) for when I (to open) the door?
* Ymir daughter (to skate) on the pond from five till six?
I Wlint they (to laugh) at when he (to come) in? They
(ii laugh) at a funny story.
* VVIiore he (to go) when rain (to begin)? He (to go) to
llm office.
* VVlint she (to play) when I (to ring) her up? She (to
lilny) the violin.

86

..

7. Who (to quarrel) at that time? His friend (to quarrel)


8. Beth and Tom (to watch) a TV programme when th**n
mother (to ask) them to help her.
9. You (to help) your mother while she (to wash) up?
10. The scientist (to work) in the laboratory when soim
body (to switch) o ff the light.
11. Whom you (to talk) on the phone to, when I came ini<
the room?
12. Jane (to have) a walk in the park when it (to begin) ii
snow.
13. W hy you (not to have) classes at nine oclock? - Oui
teacher (to be) ill.
14. Yesterday the whole lesson we (to revise) grammar.
15. W hile Helen (to take) a shower mother (to wash) 1:
dishes.
16. I (to lay) the table when I (to break) a plate.
17. When I (to meet) them in the yard, they (to laugh).
18. She (not to get) up at six oclock yesterday. She (to w*
up at eight.
19. They just (to leave) the house when we (to arrive).
20. When he (to come) to the station, his friend already (I
wait) for him.
. 60. , |
Past Simple Past Continuous.
1. We (to be) on a school trip when the bus (to bre
down.
2. He (not to look) at him while he (to speak).
3. Beth and Ann (to wave) their hands in the direction
the ship which (to disappear) a minute ago.
4. When I (to see) my granny, she (to sit) in the arm-cln
and (to catch) the suns early morning rays.
5. She (to sing) a song while she (to go) to school.
6. He (to try) to open the door when we (to see) him in I
corridor.
7. It (to be) yesterday when she (to have) most brill ini
idea.
8. What you (to think) about when I (to ask) you a qi:*
tion?
9. He (to stare) up at the ceiling, when I (to enter) Iroom.
I

87

11
I/
I<
II

You (to feel) ill yesterday? Yes, I (to be) ill.


She (to take) her drawing class at seven oclock.
Mnrgaret (to write) a poem the whole evening.
Mis son (to take) his first steps when he (to see) him.
They (to speak) about the latest events when she (to
interrupt) them.
Why she (to sit) the whole day at home?
** They (to enjoy) a romantic evening at a restaurant yes
terday.
t Hr (to sit) in the arm-chair and then (to begin) reading
hook.
You (to see) her the day before yesterday? Yes, she
(to stand) in the corridor speaking with her friends.
% My brother (not to like) to play while others (to work).
Slit* (to eat) while she (to read).
|< i|. ,
Present Simple, Past Simple Past Continuous.
( nee, while I (to walk) in a park o f London, I (to see) an
iiiui. He (to sit) on a bench holding a book in his hands,
*) that the book (to be) of great interest. It (to be) a
nhl copy o f early Byrons works. I (to look) at the old
jiiuI (to understand) that he (to know) that I (to sit)
of him and the book. I (to smile). It is the last I (to
" , lie (to say) and (to stretch) it out to me. I (to take)
I tllli the words: I love the old books. I (to open) the
7 ^ mill (to look) at the date: it (to be) a remarkable book,
litive) a hard life and this book (to be) a comfort to
^ lint I have to sell it, (to say) the old man.

<(. ,
Past Simple Past Continuous.
,
.
ft - , ,
ft in , .
I. II in , , |. .
' I ' ? ,
1||| |).

88

..

6. ,
, .
7.
? .
8. , .
9.
10. , ?
.
11. .
12. , *
.
13. , ?
14.
.
15. ? .
.
16. - .
17. . ru|
.
18. , |
?
19. .
20. , |
.
. 63. ,
: Present Simple, Past Simple, Preset
Continuous, Past Continuous.
1. You (to know) him? He always (to tell) a lie.
2. What he (to do) here? He (to wait) for his friend.
3. When I (to come) yesterday, I (to see) that my brotln
(to do) his lesson.
4. Where (to be) Nick? He (to play) tennis. He (<
play) tennis well.
5. My wife (to be) in her room now. She (to sit) in the ant
chair and (to read) an interesting book. I (to want) I
read this book, too.
6. Where she (to be) yesterday? She (to visit) her frien
They (to play) chess the whole evening.
7. What they (to do) the whole day last Sunday? Tin
(to spend) the whole day in the country.

I * .

89

. When I (to look) out o f the window, I (to see) that it (to
Miow) and everything (to be) covered with snow.
>1 Somebody (to talk) in the next room? No, nobody (to
talk). M y son (to watch) television now.
I Why he (not to go) to school yesterday? He (to be) ill.
He (to stay) in bed the whole day.
II You (to work), when I phoned you last night? Yes, I
(to work).
I Why they (to sit) here now? They (to wait) for their
doctor. The doctor (to be) late.
I I, Me (to ask) you to work late last Tuesday? No, he (not
to ask). I (to decide) to work late myself.
14 Yesterday (to be) a typical summer day, the sun (to
ln*at) down, the sky (to be) cloudless.
I ii Yesterday, when he (to open) the door, he (to under
stand) that he (to do) it with a wrong key.
I't livery day she (to return) home, (to have) dinner and
(to rest). But yesterday she (not to rest) after dinner,
uhe (to work) at her report the whole evening.
prup. 64. ,
Present, Past, Future Simple; Present, Past Fu
ture Continuous.
1. We (to be) very busy now. W e (to discuss) a very importunt question.
2. Where (to be) Peter? He (to have) his English lesson
now? No, he (to have) his English tomorrow.
Where (to be) Susan? She (to work) in the library at
the moment. She (to stop) working in an hour.
I What children (to do) when you (to come) home yester
day? They (to play) in their room.
H. A t two oclock tomorrow we (to take) our French lesson.
This problem (to be) too difficult to discuss it now. I (to
think) we (to discuss) it tomorrow, when we (to have)
more time.
I le (to spend) last week in a hospital. He (to be) ill.
. Why you (not to put) your coat on yesterday? It (to be)
cold.
9 I le (not to eat) when I (to come) yesterday. He (to read)
book.

90

..

10. As a rule he (to translate) two articles a week. But he


(to translate) three articles last week.
11. She (not to see) me when I (to come) into the room. Sh<*
(to read) at that moment.
12. W e (to wait) fo r them at two oclock tomorrow. W e (to
be) sure they (to come) in time.
13. My friends (to walk) when it (to begin) raining.
14. Tomorrow he still (to work) when I come home.
15. Yesterday I (to return) home at eight o clock: it (to gel)
dark and (to rain) at the time.
16. I (to cut) my finger when I (to peel) an apple.
17. Lets go to the cinema when the lessons (to be) over.
18. He (to become) furious when he (to understand) that h
was late.
19. I f she (not to come) tomorrow, ring her up.
. 65. ,
Present, Past, Future Simple;
Present, Past, Future Continuous.
1.
2.
3.
4.

, .
! .
, .
,
.
5. , .
6. , .
7. , .
8. .
9. .
10. , ,
.
11. , *
.
12. ,
.
13. ,
.
14. :
.
15. , ,
.

I .

9 1

I R U LE ------------------------------------ ; -----------1 to w rite ( )


Present P e rfe c t Tense ( ,
1 >.! )
I

'

I We
1 You

have

We

have not

fv e )

You
They

(havent)

He

has not

has

She

(hasnt)

( s)

It

1hey
lie
Kite
11

written.

Have

Has

I
we
Yes, you
they
he
she
it

I
we
you
they
he
she
it

S=-Z--
7
-T-^

written?

have
No,

has

--
-

written.

I
we
you
they
he
she
it

have not.
(haven t)

has not.
(hasn t)
-- :--;---- :--r^

|W a t t e n t i o n
!

Present P e rfe c t
:
ever
already
never
lately
just
yet
: fo r, since

92

..

. 66. , '
Present Perfect.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

I (to be) in London this year.


W e (to see) this film before.
He (not to met) his parents.
She (to hear) this music before.
I (to write) a new book this month.
They (not to finish) their work yet.
Alan (not to have) his breakfast.
Cathy (not to get) up yet.
Martin (not to wash) up yet.
W e (not to tell) him the truth.
You (to mention) my name?
Your mother already (to come)?
Where Martin (to go)?
W hy John (to take) this book?
Jane (to be) at the theatre this week?

. 67. Present Per


feet.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

She is watering the flowers.


He is taking his examination.
Beth is opening the window.
I am dusting the furniture.
John is washing his car.
The teacher is explaining the rule.
Mary is reading a letter.
W e are having dinner.
I am cleaning my teeth.
Jane is translating the article.
Little Frank is breaking his toy.
He is having breakfast.
Nick is drawing a picture.
M y daughter is having lunch.
He is putting on his coat.

. 68. ,
Present Perfect.
1. .
2. .
3. .

I .

93

?
.
- ?
.
?
>) .
?
111 ?
I 11 ?
I I ?
I I .
I .
. 09. , s
Present Perfect, Present
Simple. .
I
'

1
&

I
I
U
|U
iI
tit
in
II
Ib

Shes tired.
I les stopped reading.
lie's worried.
Nlies died.
lies ill.
Shes come.
lie's angry.
lie's had dinner.
Its escaped.
Shes surprised,
Shes stopped working,
lies scared,
ties gone.
lies embarrassed.
Shes frightened.

I tip 70. ,
Present Perfect Present Continuous.
I
i,
.1
(
i.
fl

She (to have dinner) now.


She just (to have) dinner.
They (to talk) now?
They already (to talk) about it?
lie (to have) his English lesson today.
lie (to have) his English lesson at the moment.
What she (to do) now?

94

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

..

What she (to do) this week?


Beth (to translate) the article now?
W ho already (to translate) the article?
Our teacher (to explain) a new rule now.
Your teacher (to explain) you this rule today?
She already (to find) her key?
He already (to have) his dinner?

|
j

. 71. , !
Present Perfect Past Simple.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

She (to be) to all the capital cities o f Europe th is yciiii


John (to travel) around Europe last year.
You ever (to live) in a foreign country?
My friend knows a lot because he (to read) a lo t.
She (to go) home two days ago.
She is free now. She (to pass) her final exam.
David (to start) school in 1990.
Look! Somebody (to break) my window.
I (to leave) home early last night.
Is he still watching this programme? No, he just (I*
watch) it.
11. W e (not to see) them last week.
12. His fam ily (to build) a new house this year.
13. It (to stop) snowing an hour ago.
14. I (not to decide) where to go tonight.
15.1 (to learn) all the new words. Now I can translate this tex
16. When you (to arrive) to Paris?
17. W e (not to know) about the disco last night.
18. You (to read) this book before?
19. He (to work) here two months ago?
20. John (to be) to London before?
.

72.

, !
Present Perfect Past Simple.
.

1. W e just (to come) home but our children (to com e) hoina
an hour ago.
2 . 1already (to come) from school. Now I am having dinner |
3. You (to write) a letter to your friend today?
I
4. You (to send) him a telegram last week?
5. She never (to drive) a car before.

9*

95

(to read) the text and now he can retell it.


in u p (not to be) at the cinema this week,
ft Unii t you know who (to open) the door?
ft I'Ivp years ago he (to be) a typist,
ift W I i p i i he (to see) you? He (to see) me this week.
l| Ii mthe best thing he ever (to make),
tft Wlicre I (to put) my beg? I can t find it.
| Wi' (to see) her twice today.
|ft. I uiii . I just (to receive) a telegram from my friend.
l4 When they (to move) to a new flat? They (to move)
I lin e last month.
|| 'kiiinibody (to telephone) me? Your mother (to tele
phone) you three times this morning.
( I hV (to live) in France in 1970.
ill WIiiii it (to stop) raining? It (to stop) raining two
hours ago.
|| wind (to stop) blowing and the weather is getting
w i i riuer.
I lh (to stop) smoking some years ago.

VCi. ,
Present Perfect Past Simple.
L 1 . ? ,
* .
?
.
* hi ,
.
I ? .
I ?
.
I I .
I ?
,
ft Hill ? ,

mii .
?
.
I |
?

96

..

11. .
12. , .
13. ? !
.
14. , .
15. ?
.
16. ? ,
.
17.
.
18. .
19. ? ,
.
20. ?
.

. 74. ,
Present Perfect Past Simple.
1. It is the first time I (to fly).
2. You ever (to eat) birds nest soup?
3. Look! I (to hurt) my arm.
4. He (to work) there fo r a year.
5. You ever (to try) parachuting? No, I never (to tryl
this kind of sport.
6. W e (to live) here since 1990.
7. You ever (to be) in the USA? Yes, I (to go) there last
spring.
8. This is the worst meal I ever (to eat).
9. He (to study) English fo r three years but then he (to
stop).
10. She ever (to be) on a blind date? No, its the first timo..
11. W e (not to eat) since lunch time.
|
12. She (to work) fo r this firm since she (to leave) school
13. W e (not to see) him since he (to leave) our flat.
14. You ever (to meet) anybody famous?
15. My granny (to live) here since she (to be) a girl.
16. How long they (to be) married?
17. They always (to live) in this street.
18. Nick and Tom (to know) each other since they (to be) ;il
school.

i utton.

97

Do you know that his parents always (to work) hard?


*1 I low long you (to know) this girl? I (to know) her for
five years.
I You (to tell) the news to Beth? No, 1 (not to tell) her
nnything yet.
When she (to pass) her last exam? She (to pass) it
three days ago.
* < Please, give me a book, I (to lose) mine.
t They are cold and hungry as they (to walk) a long way.
I ii|i. 75. .
Present Perfect.
I ,
.
/ , .
* .
.
I ,
.
. .
I .
; ? ,
. .
? ,
.
*. ,
.
?
I I ) , -
.
t . IJ
.
I * ,
.
14 ?
4 .
I- ? .
| ?
| . >1 .
| .
, .

98

..

. 76. ,
Present Perfect.
for since.
1. I (to live) here (for/since) 1999.
2. He (to work) there (for/since) May.
3. They (to be) friends (for/since) they started collegt
4. W e (to know) him (for/since) three years.
5. They (to live) in our house (for/since) two years.
6. She (to be) ill (for/since) Friday.
7. I (not to be) in London (for/since) I (to be) a child.
8 .1
(to leave) K yiv last year and I (not to see) him (for/si
9. He (to study) French (for/since) ten years.
10. My mother (to work) in the factory (for/since) some yean
11. They (to live) in Brazil (for/since) 1960.
12. I (not to see) him (for/since) this Tuesday.
13. He (to be) in prison now (for/since) fiv e years.
14. She (not to hear) about them (for/since) almost a ye;ir,
1 5 .1 (to know) nothing about him (for/since) several monl
. 77. ,
Present P e rfect, Present Continuous, P re sf
Simple Past Simple.
1. Where (to be) my gloves? I (to look) for them.
2. Who can give him a pencil, he (to break) his.
3. Where your sister (to be)? She just (to go) to school
She (to leave) home ten minutes ago.
4. When she (to return) to Kyiv? She (to return) this wwl
5. What you (to read) now? I (to read) White Fan^
You ever (to read) this book?
6. You (to remember) me? W e (to meet) here this monlli
7. They already (to discuss) this question? - Yes, they (l
discuss) it last week.
8. Where mother (to put) my magazine? I (to look) for it
9. Whom you (to wait) for? W e (to wait) for the doctor.
The doctor (to go) out some minutes ago.
10. (not to have) any news from them since they (li
leave) K yiv.
11. Your children already (to read) this text? Yes, tlir
(to read) it at the last lesson.
12. There (to be) nobody here now. A ll the students (to rhI
home.

wiwi

99

11 II (to be) dark in the street now. The sun already (to sit).
VVIien you (to hear) the news? - I (to hear) them last
Kiiturday.
* What you (to do) now? I (to write) a letter to my
Iricnd. When you (to receive) his letter? I (to rei
five) it today..
' Your son already (to do) his lessons? Yes, he just (to
linish) doing them and now he (to watch) TV.
* II (to rain) now? No, it (to stop) raining an hour ago
and now the sun (to shine).
Nlic (to learn) the new words and now she (to translate)
I
In text.
I* Your child already (to get) a passport? Yes, he (to
K*t) it two days ago.
fr* 11 (to be) time to go. You (to finish) your work?
I ii . 78. ,
Present Perfect, Present Simple, Past Simple
Past Continuous, Present Continuous.
1 Him (to be) fifteen now but she (to travel) to over twen
ty countries.
Ii Mnme years ago he (to be) a doctor but he (to decide) to
i4* the world.
* The first time this man (to go) abroad (to be) three
vn rs ago.
I I rnnt go there now, I (to tell) you several times.
ft Now it (to be) the first time she (to drive) a car.
* Why he (to smoke) now? He never (to smoke) before.
* It (to seem) to me that somebody just (to knock) the door.
* I (lo visit) this country many times since that time.
* When he (to come), his family (to sit) in the dining
room speaking in a whisper. W hy you (to whisper)?
In asked them. What (to happen)?
|0 Where (to be) your husband? He (to be) in the kitchII. He (to come) home ten minutes ago and he (to have)
dinner now.
II When she (to enter) the room, her daughter (to draw) a
picture. When she (to finish) drawing, she (to say). Look!
What a funny dog I just (to draw)! You (to like) it?
' You (to wait) fo r Beth? Yes. W hy she (not to come)?
I
(to think) she (to be) late.

100

..

13. You {to know) what profession he (to choose) as a carreil


14. A s soon as she (to come) home, she (to understand) tlm|
her children (to sleep).
15. You (to have) money to pay for ticket? I (to be) afrnl^
I
(to forget) my purse at home.
16. W e (to make) some good friends when (to be) in Framr.

!------------------- -,

I J to w rite ( )
Past P erfect Tense (
,
)
1

He

She

She

It

had

We
You

Cd)

written.

They

I
he
she
Yes, it
we
you
they

--------- ----------

Js

It

had not

We

(hadnt)

You
They

--------

No,
had

written.

...

I
he
she '
it
we
you
they

had not.
(hadnt)

----- ----- _

A T T E N T IO N
11
J

101

-/ P e rfe c t
:
a fte r
before
by

- -1 I ------------ 11

Mil------

r*-i 711. ,
Past Perfect.
I I translate) the text before the bell.
f\ - (to do) her lessons by the evening.
IIn (to clean) his room by five oclock.

Wr (to speak) to him before the meeting.


Mother (to cook) dinner by seven o clock.
I ir son (not to do) the home task by nine o clock,
tin (not to make) a dress before party.
Yulint they (to do) by three oclock?
Wlio (not to write) the exercise before the bell?
Why you (not to sweep) the floor before your mother s
inning?
Vm r child (to go) to bed by ten oclock?
You (to reach) your house before the sunset?
>/ (to receive) the telegram by that time?
VVhy they (not to have) lunch by twelve o clock ?
We (to have) dinner by eight o clock.
. ,

Past Perfect.
.
II .
|> .
.
' .
II .
/(< ?
?
I-1 ?
.
II .
Hi | ?
.

102

..

14. ?
15. 1990 .
. 81. ,
Past Simple Past Perfect.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

When the police (to arrive), the car (to go).


George (to finish) doing his homework at eight oclock,
When she (to get) to the shop, it (to close).
The train (to leave) when he (to come) to the station
W e (to eat) everything by the time he (to arrive) at I Im
party.
6. I (to know) that he (not to learn) the poem.
7. When they (to leave) the beach, the rain already (to starl).
8. Arthur (not to know) that we already (to arrive).
9. When I (to come), I (to see) that mother (to cook) diniior,
10. M y friend (to study) English before he (to enter) th(
institute.
I
11. The car (to go) when I (to look) into the street.
12. He (to take) the decision before I (to come).
13. Nick (return) from office by seven oclock.
14. W e (to get) to the stadium at four oclock but the gum
already (to start).
15. She (to come) at six oclock.
16. 1 (to think) that my parents already (to return).
17. He (to be sure) that we (not to recognize) him.
18. You (to find) your key which you (to lose) before?
19. Meg (to say) that she (to be) in this city.
20. The doctor (to arrive) when we already (to help) him.
. 82. ,
Past Perfect Past Simple.

1. She (to telephone) him three times but he (to leave) III
city.
2. Alan (to hope) that they (not to come) yet.
3. I (to think) that he (not to refuse) to go to the thealn
4. When he (to find) his purse, somebody (to take)
out o f it.
5. You (to get) home before it (to start) raining?
6. Cathy (to say) that she (to find) this puppy in the street
7. The room (to be) empty: everybody (to go).
8. They already (to leave) when the trouble (to start)? |

I >.

Hi
11
1*
11
II
II

|l
|l
lit

103

Why you (not to recognize) him? He (to change) a lot.


.li'tiny (to have) dinner before mother (to come)?
It (to be) my first time I (to fly ).
Miii tin (to go) to the park before you (to arrive)?
Whrn he (to be) a teenager, he (to study) guitar fo r two
ViMrs.
II (to tell) me he already (to pay) a fine.
principal (to be angry) when he (to see) that pupils
(not to leave) the classroom yet.
When I (to open) the door, I (to see) that he (to look) as
If he just (to wake) up.
H (to be) his first time he (to jump) with parachute.
Hlic (to have) no doubt that I (to make) a great mistake.
It (to be) the second time she (to make) that mistake,
They (to be) surprised when they (to understand) that
In (to give) them a false name.

. HX ,
Past Perfect Past Simple.
I
I
I
I
I

f
I

III
II
11
14
ii
|fc
I*

, .
I , .
( iM-rpa , .
, .
, .
,
|?
.
, .
, .
,
.
> , .
, ?

.
? ,
.
, ,
|- .
> , ,
, ?
, .

10 4

.,

19. ,
.
20. , - ,
.
. 84. ,
Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect.
1. He (to do) his lessons by fiv e o clock and at fiv e he (Ui
play) football in the yard.
2. Gery (to be) at home when you (to arrive)? No, he (In
go) to school.
3. My parents (to come) home by seven oclock and lit
seven we (to have) dinner.
4. His father (to look) tired as he (to work) hard befon.
5. By eight oclock I (to learn) a poem and at eight oclorli
I (to watch) TV.

6. When he (to see) me, I (to read) the newspaper which


(to buy) in the street.
7. Beth just (to go) home when I (to phone) her.
8. When Alison (to enter) the house she (to see) that In i
son (to play) with a ball which she (to buy) in the shop.
9. They (to arrive) to the theatre late. The play already (V
begin).
10. When I (to come) into her room, she (to play) the pin
which her father (to buy).
11. He (to want) to impress her parents as he (not to jtipH
them before.
12. Mother (to tell) that she (to plan) fish soup and a <!
colate mousse for dinner.
13. His brother (to be) taken to hospital because he (5
have) an accident.
14. When we (to arrive), mother (to go) into the kitchen
do the last preparations fo r the meal.
15. Mary (to bring) him a glass o f water as he (to ask) 1
about it.
16. When David (to enter) the kitchen, he (to see) that hi
cat (to eat).
i
17. Jenny (to tell) her mother that she (to water) the flowrr
18. W e (to want) to know which way they (to choose).
19. She (to be) afraid that they (not to tell) the police the trull
20. They (to know) that he already (to start) his work f<
our firm .

I .

10 5

4 . 85. ,
Past Simple, Past Continuous,
Past Perfect.
I , ,
.
,
.
1 , ,
, .
, ,
.
> ,
.
I ,
.
,
.
* ,
.
<> ,
.
,
..
11 , ,
.
11 ,
.
I , ,
.
I I ( > , .
I > lira , ?
lh , ,
, .
| ,
.
I 1 , .
| U'icpa ,
.
* ,
.

106

..

. 86. ,
Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect.
1. Kate (to go) to the airport with her parents and lui
brother Nick. W hile they (to wait) at the airport, Nick
(to remember)that he (to have) something important to
tell Kate. Her friend (to phone) just as they (to leave
to ask at what time K ates fligh t (to leave). Previously
Kates friend (to think) that she wouldn t be all to gpt
to the airport in time but she (to turn) up while Kat
(to say) goodbye to her parents. She finally (to go) trough
passport control and everybody (to wake) goodbye.
2. It (to be) the day o f his English exam. He (to wake) up
and (to look) at his alarm clock. He (to see) that it (to
stop) raining during the night. He (to realize) he would
be late for his exam. He (to be) an hour late and exam
already (to begin). When he (to sit) at the table, he (to
find) that he (to leave) his pen at home. He (to ask) his
friend to give him a pen. Despite everything (to go)
wrong he (to pass) him exam.
3. Yesterday I (to read) a story. It (to be) a story about |
novelist who (to write) a novel that (to be) a great sue
cess. Once he (to meet) his friend that he (not to sec)
fo r many years. A fte r they (to talk) fo r some hours,
the novelist (to say): W e have already talked about
me. Now, lets talk about you. What you (to think)
about the last novel when you (to read) it?
. 87. ,
Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect.

1. ,
.
2. , ,
,
.
3. , ?
4. , ,
.
5.
.
6. , 1
, .

/ I.

107

7. , ,
.
. , ,
.
W. ,
.
*. , ,
: .
11. , ,
.
I ,
, .
I I. , , .
I I . 11- ,
.
hi. .
, ,
.
. , .
.
I ,
?
W . , , .
, .
| , .
<) , ,
-.
|. 88. , Present
Perfect, Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect.
,
.
I I just (to meet) him.
i. Look! Sam (to bring) some cheese biscuits.
il. They (to dance) from six till ten oclock.
4. We (not to see) each other before we (to com e) to the place.
ft. The meeting (to begin) before he (to come) to the place.
Yesterday we (to return) home late.
' We (to understand) that she (not to see) us before.
* A t seven oclock yesterday Cathy (to sleep) as she (to
he) tired.

..

9. How long you (to have) this pain in your shoulder?


For about three months.
10. Last year they (to work) very hard.
11. They are very happy as they (to get) home.
12. He (to sign) all the papers by the evening.
13. Steve just (to finish) school.
14. Jack and Jenny (to watch) television when their mother
(to come).
15. W e just (to watch) this TV programme.
16. You (to go) to the opera last night? Yes, we (to sec)
Tosca .
17. A t eight oclock last morning Beth still (to be) in becL
18. When my husband (to have) coffee, he (to go) to his
office.
19. She already (to have) her coffee.
20. They (to drink) tea at this time yesterday.
21. When I came and (to enter) the kitchen, I (to see) that
my parents (to drink) coffee.
. 89. ,
Present Perfect, Past Simple,
Past Continuous, Past Perfect.
1. ?
2. , .
3. ? .
4. ?
.
5. , ,
.
6. , .
7. ? ?
8. .
9. ,
.
10. ! .
11. , ,
, .
12.
.
13. , ,
.

I .

10S

11 > , .
* 1 , .
, , .
, .
I* ,
.
I , ? -
( .
, .
9 |>. 1. ,
Present Perfect, Past Simple, Past Continuous
Past Perfect.
I They are happy because their child (to enter) the uni
versity.
' 11 (to be) great to see her last week.
Sorry I (not to phone) you earlier.
t Hr was very sorry to hear that you (not to come) in time.
> We hoped they (to get) home before the rain (to start).
I am glad he already (to return) from his business trip.
Whenever I (to drive) past that restaurant, there always
(to be) a lot o f people.
You ever (to be) to an open-air concert?
My parents were angry because I (not to pass) my exam.
Ills brother told him that he (to eat) all the fru it which
hr (to buy).
II At this time two weeks ago we (to lie) on the beach.
t > lleth (to become) pale when she heard the news.
I (not to be) impressed with his new car when I (to see)
It yesterday.
11 The Aztecs (to be) an American Indian tribe who (to
live) in Mexico.
11 Yesterday when I (to look) out o f my w?indow, I (to see)
lliat my children (to run) in the garden.
I I (not to speak) to you since last week.
11 I was sure he always (to be) your best friend.
I * .Janet never (to take) part in the concerts.
IV When she (to come) home, her son (to have) supper.
>*. I (to read) all the articles before mother (to come).

110

..

. 91. ,
: Present, Past, Future Simple; Prencn
Past, Future Continuous; Present, Past Perfect
1. She (to go) to school every day.
2. Beth (to go) to school at the moment.
3. The lesson already (to begin).
4 He (to go) to school tomorrow?
5. Tomorrow at this time I (to be) at school.
6. What they (to do) at seven oclock yesterday?
7. Next Sunday he (to play) tennis from ten till tw elvi.
8. Where he (to be) now? He just (to go) to the libnn v
9. They (to go) to the cinema when I (to meet) them ><<
terday.
10. She ever (to be) in Oslo? Yes, she (to be) there Inmonth.
11. He (to tell) us yesterday where he.(to buy) this book.
12. Look! M y daughter already (to sweep) the floor and ni
she (to water) the flowers on the window-sill.
13. W e (to go) to play in the yard when mother (t- com')
14. He (to live) in France fiv e years ago.
15. They (to play) football the whole day i f you (to gi- '
them a ball.
16. Last month my dog (to run) away and nearly (to die) I
the street.

. 92. ,
: Present, Past, Future Simple; Pres*n I
Past, Future Continuous; Present, Past Perfect.
1 .1
(not to know) what time (to be) now. My watch (to st<i|
2. Usually he (to come) home at seven oclock but yestei
day he (to come) at nine.
3. W e (not to go) to the theatre next Friday as we (to In
there a week ago.
4. A t last we (to stop) working and now we can have a resi
5. What he (to do) now? He (to paint) the wall.
6. Yesterday she (to pay) fo r her ticket and (to leave).
7. Peter (to be) ready in ten minutes. He (to take) a batli
at the moment. I f he (not to take) a bath soon, I (l
go) fo r a walk alone.
8. Mary (to clean) the room and John (to make) the dinnci
9. She (to be) surprised now: someone (to put) flowers for hci

111

V, |* we (to warn) them about the danger, they (to


H li itvr) the city.
K M v non (to watch) television his favourite programme
(In In') on now.
I liny (to be) in our country fo r some years I think.
Nuw I (not to be) sure that he (to do) his lessons at four
'-'I'lock.
I Dm manager signed the documents and (to go) upstairs.
I l-W many times you (to see) him since he went to London?

*! .. ,
Present, Past, Future Simple; Present,
Past, Future Continuous; Present, Past Perfect.
I i n ? ,
. ,
,
.
) , , -
. ,
.
) ,
; - .
| : ,
* .
^ .
, .
.
I , .
, .
lie ,
.
.
! , .
?
I. .
: , :. . !
!
.
I ,
, .

112______ ..

12. ,
.
13. , -
.
14. , ,
.
.
15. . -
: , .
.
. 94. , .*
: Present, Past. Future Simple;
Past, Future Continuous; Present, Past Perfect.

1. Look! He (to look) strange without moustache. Why N


(to have) a shave?
2. She says that tomorrow she (to see) her favourite fHu
at six oclock i f she (to come) home in time.
3. There (to be) nobody at my office yesterday. I (to 1
everybody (to go) home.
4. I (not to think) that it (to be) comfortable to ring lili
now. He just (to arrive) from Europe and he (to ni
pack) his tilings at the moment.
5. When the old man shouted, the strangers (to jump)
the fence and (to run) away.

6. I am sure that i f they (to see) me again, they (to r e n J


nize) me at once.

7. Sorry, I (not to understand) you. Repeat please, w M


you just (to say).

8. Beth (to come) by fiv e oclock yesterday. She (to


into her room and (to begin) reading an interesting
which she (to take) at the library.

9. Andrew (to feel) very excited yesterday as somebody (


tell) him about the accident.

10. Nick (to be) happy last week because his father (to
low) him to drive his car.

11. Victoria (to be) always busy. She (to be) busy now 1<
Look! She (to look) through the papers.

12. Jane already (to have) three letters from his parenlM
since the day he (to go) away.
I

f * .

113

# lift. ,
: Present, Past, Future
Simple; Present, Past, Future Continuous; Present,
Past Perfect.
I ? , .
. ,
.
f ( .
,
: .
I !
, .
, .
I
. .
.
9 . .
.
. ,
I [ , ,
, .
, ,
.
t . ,
.
. ,
. ( ).
When David was at school, he (to be) very close friend
(lilt Peter. They (to be) at school together fo r about nine
C i .. Then David s parents (to move) to Paris. Although
*, (to write) very often to each other, David and Peter
wl nnlly (to d rift) apart. Many years later Peter (to get)
t iud. As he and his w ife (to save) up some money, they
t>
S decide) to spend their honeymoon in Italy. W h ile they
li*ur) the country, they (to decide) to stop at a small
b>iti-l. One day Peter (to discover) that his old friend David
| In) in the next room. David also (to get) married and
l* nnd his w ife (to spend) their honeymoon in Italy at that
utm, too.

114

.. .-

. 97. , .
. ( )
You (to hear) what (to happen) to me last month? I (in i
to Spain on business at that time. A fte r I (to take) my bags i>
of the car, I (to realize) that I (to forget) my passport at Imm
I (to find) a phone and (to telephone) home in hope th.t L
wife (not to leave) for work yet. A minute (to pass) but noUn
(to answer). I (to think) She (not to be) at home at tin in
ment. She already (to leave) . Then I (to think) that my v-t
might be in the bathroom. When some seconds (to pass)
wife (to answer). I (to be) right she (to take) a shower wliiii
(to telephone). She quickly (to jump) in her car and (to brnr
me my passport to the airport. She (to arrive) just in timr

. 98. ,
Present, Past, Future Simple; Pretu ]
Past, Future Continuous; Present, Past Perfect
1. .
.
2. . <
, .
3. , !
.
4. ! :
.
5. . |
.
6. -.

7. .
.
8. , .
,
9. ?
, .
10. .
, .
11. . 4
,
.
12. . -
, .

115

^ .
* . ?
*| .
* . . ,
l in* , .
IUjii , .

.
to w rite ( )
(ifre P e rfe ct Tense (
iho/m-
' )

-------- ..

----- .

shall

shall not

(4 1 )

We

(shant)

have

She

will not

by 7

It

(wont)

oclock.

written

You
They
Shall
W ill

I
we
he
Yes, she
it
you
they

I
we
he
she
it
you
they

have written by 7 oclock?

------ -------- --------- -- -

*.

--------shall.
No,
will.

I
we
he
she
it
you
they

shall not.
(shant)
w ill not.
(wont)

116

,,

. 99. , *
Future Perfect.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

I (to do) it by that time.


He (to write) a letter by the time she comes.
W e (to build) a new house by the end o f the year.
Mother (not to cook) dinner when we come home.
You (to do) your homework by seven o clock?
They (not to arrive) by the evening.
W hy she (not to come) by fiv e o clock?
W ho (to take) exam by this time?
He (to read) this book by the end o f the month?
I (not to look) by this time through all the magazin

. 100. ,
Future Perfect.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

.
.
?
?
?
.
?
?
.
?
?
.

. 101. , *
Future Simple, Future Continuous, Future Perfrt I
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

He (to write) a letter tomorrow.


He (to write) a letter at seven o clock tomorrow.
He (to write) a letter by seven o clock tomorrow.
When I come home tomorrow, he (to write) a letter.
Where she (to go) to buy a new dress?
What language he (to speak) by the next year?
They (to w rite) the test from two till three.
W e (to have) supper by half-past seven.
What time he (to come) this evening? >- He (to ) 1
seven o clock.

117

4 I (I meet) you at the station at nine oclock tomormw. My train already (to arrive) by that time.
L > (to finish) everything by this evening?
I
(to do) washing-up by the time mother comes.
4 Wlmt you (to buy) him fo r his birthday?
Inl dress she (to buy) by the party?
(to have) his French lessen at ten o clock.
2. ,
Present Simple, Future Simple,
Future Continuous, Future Perfect.
( .
| .
9*1 ,
IfceOoru.

^ ,
111 .
> ?
> , . >||.
lot ,

.
. .

.
ti . ,
- , .
Jp'iH ,
.

ffln ,
Mi? , .

, .
, .
| .
in ?
[pi ? , ,
,
, ?
, * .

.. 1^'

>

\
* ( i*r
^ ~ ^ ^ ^ ^
)

I
We

sh all

_(! ) _ .

He
She
It
You

have

I
We
He

v vill

been
working

( 11)

here

It
You

all day.

They

She

==%all not
Jshant)
*
not
Wont)

V ill

have
been
worliii
here
all dnv

They
-----
ghall
Will

I
we
he
she
it
you
they

1
have working

here ^ day?

-- --StT=

shall.
I
we
he
Yees, she
will.
it
you
they
--------- :
L_

shall not.
(shant)
No,

EW
it

will not.
(wont)

Vbt
iW

. 1 0 3 . ,,, ynoT|)
Future Perfect ^

1
1. She (t0 read) a magazin,ne fo r
when ciii
2. W e (tc watch) television,,,, pQr am
,
com e .
^ when our I,i,U

119

: I (I do) my lessons for three hours when my friend


> Vili'i>luies me.
(lo work) at your report when we arrive?
( ii it to clean) his room fo r some time when his granII ii'lurns?
iy (lo discuss) this question fo r some minutes when
unlcr the office.
11ncher (to correct) mistakes for an hour when puI mine into the classroom.
ho (to wait) fo r us at the station when we arrive?
In-other (to work) at the factory for some years
I finish my school.
y (to play) chess fo r half an hour when you entered
lit I. ,
Future Simple. Future Continuous, Future Per
fect, Future Perfect Continuous.
will be hungry because he (not to eat).
(lo go) by train fo r two days by the time we get
.
will be tonight as she (to work) all day.
Inn (to have) dinner when mother comes.
(lo meet) us by the time they have to leave Ukraine,
(lo work) at school fo r twenty years by 2001.
sister (to study) fo r fiv e years when she gets her
ll.
4 be late! They (to wait) for you in the cold.
\ (to live) in this house for some months by the time
I nul them a new flat.
(to be) a member o f the committee for three
hi :i by the time she retires.
>ii children (to play) fo r three hours by fiv e o clock,
A It'ven oclock she (to sleep).
I (U> lie) a member o f our team fo r seven months by the
ilnir tlie championship begins.
t morrow at this time I (to watch) television.
ll< husband (to wait) fo r her at the airport when her
iii- lands.
1 fli-plcmber they (to be) married for ten years.

120

17.
18.
19.
20.

..

W e let you know when Nick (to phone).


By seven o clock he (to drive) fo r nine hours.
You (to have) a house-warming when you move in?
Our friends (to dance) fo r an hour when we conndisco.

. 105. ,
Present Simple, Future Simf
Future Continuous, Future Perfect, Future
feet Continuous.
1. .
2. .
,
.
3.
.
.
4.
,
. ;
.
5. , |
.
, (
.
6. .
. '|
.
7.
. ,
.
8. ,
.
9. ? , '*|
.
, .
10. ,
. ,
.

121

IIIILE
to w ork ( )
4 l*i reen t P e r fe c t C o n tin u o u s Tense (
fevu ,
)
------------- '

f1
We

have
( ve)
has

have not
(havent)

been

You
They

working.

He

has not

She

(hasnt)

fs )

been
I
working.

It

Have

Has

I
we
you
they
he
she
it

been working?

-----I
we
you
Vr, they
he
she
it

have.
No,
has.

I
we
you
they
he
she
it

i
have not.
(haven t)
has not.
(hasnt)

10(1. ,
Present Perfect Continuous.
I Uo do) my homework fo r half an hour.
Win (to write) the test fo r ten minutes.
II (to rain) fo r two hours.

122

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

.. .<

They (to wait) fo r us since seven oclock.


He (to teach) English since 1991.
She (to read) a lot lately.
How long you (to live) in K yiv?
They (to work) since nine o clock?
W hat she (to do) here since morning?
How many months they (to build) this house?
Since when you (to look) fo r our key?

. 107. , <**<
Present Perfect Continuum
1.
2.
3.
4.

.
.
.
? .
5. .
6. ?
7. .
8. ?
.
9. .
10. ?
.
11. .
12. ? rap;im|
.
13. .
14. 10 .
15. 1970 ,
. 108. , ^
Present Perfect Present Perfect Contimu*
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

She (to be) ill since last week.


He (to know) me since childhood.
I (to try) to understand you for half an hour.
He (to be) in K y iv fo r three years.
She (to look) for her key since she came home.
They (to be) here since two oclock.
M y sister (to sleep) fo r ten hours.
W e (to be) married since 1977.

!<1

123

4 IIhw long Mary and Ann (to know) each other?


4 Wr (not to see) them for three months.
I Hi* rar is very old. He (to have) it fo r many years.
I II ( I I I snow) for four hours.
,
: Present Simple, Present Continuous,
Present Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous.
|) Uni children (to be) in the yard. They (to play) football
imw. They (to play) it since ten o clock.
I Mm (to speak) English well. She (to study) it for five
I mi i s. Listen! She (to speak) English to her teacher.
II son just (to return) home. He (to be) dirty. He (to
lilnv) volley-ball.
Vr Ihm'i David (to be)? He (to be) in the library. He (to
k) there at the moment. How long he (to be) the't
He (to work) fo r three hours,
hy she (to look) tired? She (to work) ail night,
when they (to wait) fo r us? They (to wait) for
ill' hour. W e (to be) late.

i bister (to drive) a car. She (to leam ) to drive for two
uiilhs.
Hi (to be) busy this morning, hasnt she? Yes. She
I oiidy (to write) some letters and (to interview) four

Ini already (to return) home. She always (to come)


at this time. She (to do) her lessons. She (to do)
since three oclock.
v l>aby (to sleep) at the moment. My baby (to sleep)
two hours.
* (to write) letters now. He (to write) since seven
'< luck. He (not to finish) w riting yet.
I W lnit they (to do) now? They (to discuss) a very im|nntaut problem. They (to discuss) it for two hours; but

124

. . .|

15. Where (to be) the pupils? They (to be) in the gm^
now. They (to plant) and (to water) the trees. Thi*\
ready (to plant) twenty trees.
16. You (to decide) where to go tonight? - I (to tin*
about it since eight o clock but I (not to take) the il
sion yet.
17. Where my purse (to be)? You (to put) it into your 1
18. W hy you (not to like) this woman? I (to hat*)
since I met her.
19. He (to work) as a translator fo r already five yeais.
20. I can say nothing about this ballet as I (not to so)
. 110. , 11
Present Simple, Present Continun
Present Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous
1. ? . J
, .
2. . ^
.
3. . , ^^
. .
4. ? .
. ,
.
5. ^
.
6. , . 1
O r . .
7. , Hciif
^
.
8. ? ^
. .
9. ?
,
. ?
10. . ?
, .
11. ?! < .>(
12. .
.

125

f 11>><> ?
i iim.e, .
|||| .
| t !? .
|
- ? .
| , .
| . ^?

t '

to w ork ( )'
P e rfe ct C on tin u ou s Tense ( to ,
)

had
Cd)

been
working.

'
I
He
She
It
We
You
They

had not
(hadnt)

been
working.

Had

I
he
she
I
1Y.*, it
we
you
they

I
he
she
it
we
you
thev

been working?

---------- --------------- j*

had.

No,

------

he
she
it
we
you
they

had not.
(hadn t)

126

..

. 111. , *
Past Perfect Continuous.

1. I (to do) my lessons for an hour when my p;n<


came.
2. He was tired as he (to play) badminton for sc-v.i
hours.
3. She (to sleep) fo r two hours when we returned.
4. It (to rain) for half an hour when I left home.
5. The weather wras cold as the severe wind (to blow)
yesterday.
6. W ho (to wait) fo r you at the station for a quarter <'j
hour when you arrived?
7. How long you (to watch) television when your nmli|
entered your room?
8. She (to take) the bath fo r ten minutes when I i<
her.
9. They (to swim) in the swimming-pool when nioll
appeared.
10.
Since when you (to clean) your flat when your gi
came home?
. 112. , <|>|
Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous.

1. They (to discuss) this question for an hour when 1


into the room.
2. W e (to be) in Paris for three days when our lat
railed on.
3 .1
(to wait) fo r this letter for a month when the postm
brought me it.
4. Only she dared to tell him the truth, as she (to kiu
him fo r many years.
5. They (to be) married fo r ten years when I met thrmj
6. M y sister (to unpack) her things for half an hour w||
her friend rang her.
7. They left the flat where they (to live) for twenty yi-m
8. She (to be) in her room fo r two hours when somcl
knocked the door.
9. He (to serve) in this house for six years when the war fowl
10.
The pupils (to w rite) the test fo r twenty minutes w
their teacher le ft the classroom.

- I

It

127

friend was angry, as somebody (to ring) him all

r lil.

. I illiln l like the house, even though I (to live) in it for


p<. years.

--------------- 5-----------------,--------------------- '

F u tu re in the Past
',
- 0 .> ,

IIIIL

F u tu re in the P a st

11< unid that) he would work in the garden the next day.
ff>n , )
. u tii/ .
ill tmid that) he would be working in the garden at
..' lock the next day.
(tin , ) 9
,
(II said that) he would have finished his work by
: nYlock the next day.
1 1 >n , )
.
I (II said that) he would have been working in the
||i)(ii (Ion for 2 hours when I carae.
I ! . , )
'
, .

'(. ,
Past Continuous, Past Perfect,
Past Perfect Continuous, Past Simple.
\ I ? .
>. , .

128

.. .

2. ? ^
. , 1
.
3.
, . ra-iH
.
4. , ||
.
5. - .
.
6. *
, .
7. . *
.
8. , .
.
9. , .
.
10. ? ,
,
.
11. : -
.
12. ,
.
. 114. <-4
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

I know he will come in time.


W e are sure they w ill recognize us.
She thinks she w ill get up early.
I hope he w ill help us.
Do you think they w ill agree with us?
I am sure she w ill not refuse to go to the theatre.
Is he afraid he w ill be ill?
W hy do you suppose they will win the game?
Do they promise they w ill send us a letter?
He is sure she w ill finish her work soon.
Does she consider they w ill make a mistake?
W hy is he sure they will help him?
Tom feels he will be late.
I can not understand why they w ill stay here.

129

Wi* want to know when he w ill go out.


My doctor thinks this medicine w ill help me.
Mr doesn t know when her train w ill arrive.
WI dont suppose she w ill know the news.
I ft friend is not sure he w ill be working at 7 oclock.
I Impe I w ill have finished working by the evening.
115. , Future
Simple, Future Continuous, Future Perfect
Future in-the-Past Simple, Future in-the-Past
Continuous, Future in the-Past Perfect.

. .
, 11 Hays he (to phone) me in two days.
I lli> naid he (to phone) me in two days.
I Rays she (to arrive) at six.
|JMn enid she (to arrive) at six.
Hunk they (to work) from two till seven on Friday.
I imught they (to work) from two till seven on Friday.
Is sure he (to finish) translating by the evening.
|| was sure he (to finish) translating by the evening.
IV . nuppose Beth (to play) the piano at six.
Nii'y were sure he (to arrive) by nine oclock.
Ill understood she never (to forget) him.
[V believe we (to pass) our exam.
In4ird Nick (to return) by Sunday.
hV. knew he (to bring) good music.
It ini sure he (to help) to get the party ready.
supposed she (not to wait) him after work.
It hi|ie you (not to jump) to conclusions.
VS were sure our child (to sleep) at ten oclock.
Mv brother was sure his w ife (to cook) dinner by his
iiiiiiug.
|Mi>' was afraid her son (not to remember) about her.
I lli. .

.
I , .
, .
! ' , .

130

..

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

, .
, .
,
, - .
, .
, .
, ,
.
, ?
,
.
, *
.
, )
.
, ?
, .
?
, -iwi
.

,
.
J
, .J
.
|
,
.

, .

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

Or

. 117. . .1

.

1. , .
11
2. , ^
.
S
3. , 11]
4. , jj
5. , .

6. , .

7. , '
.
|
8. , ^

!>'.

131

| . ,
<1 ?
t i in , .
,
.

t| , ?

16

I

I . ,
.

1(I be) very happy when I (to see) him yesterday.


Mu (to hope) now that the weather (to be) fine tomorrow.
!* ship (to be) in the open sea when the storm (to
iilriik) out.
I.n.l week he (to find) a kitten in the street. He (to see)
(lint it (to be) absolutely helpless.
I Mv uncle, who (to live) in the USA now, (to o ffe r) me to
iniv for my studying.
TIi In time next week I (to lie) on a beach.
I Hunt never (to think) to go to medical school.
\Vlirn Sally (to get) to the station last week, she (to
ii'iilize) that she (to be) too late. The train already (to
lunve).
rule she (to run) in the park every day.
hmkl He (to try) to find his watch. He (to lose) it.
Mn| her just (to make) some sandwiches. You (to like)
tllllO ?

i|, two (lays ago Sam (to write) her a letter and (to send) at
.
Voil ever (to be) to Cayman Isles?
, tease the dog! It (to bite) you.

182

.. .

18. Dont you think that marriage (not to change) her?


still (to be) the same.
19. She (to give) him your message tomorrow, as soon
she (to see) him.
20. Look at this childl He (to notice) everything
tely.
. 119. , ^
.
1. Yesterday at the moment we (to start) eating, the l<
phone (to ring).
2. She was worried that her child (not to like) her u
husband.
3. Look! Her hands (to be) dirty. She (to work) in the ganl*
4. I f you (not to warn) him just now, he (to fall) in 1i|
water.
5. Yesterday I (not to want) to stay late so I (to make) >]
excuse and (to leave).
6. M y friend always (to criticise) the way I (to dress).
7. When we (to see) them last?
8. She never (to want) to commit herself to six yeaiH
study.
9. I f you (to come) at six tomorrow, you (to find) him
home.
10. I f you (to know) her address, you (to send) her a 1H(
today.
11. I know what kind o f person she is. She always (to
that she never (to tell) a soul but then she (to bi>
her promise.
12. This letter (to be) from John. W e (to stay) with him in!
summer.
13. I (to meet) them when they (to run) round the park.
14. When they (to go) out, the rain (to stop), but a strmlj
wind (to blow).
15. Look a t him! He never (to be) so insulted!
16. It (to be) dark now. The sun (not to rise) yet.
17. There (to be) an accident near our house last night. Y
(to hear) it?
18. W e (not to recognize) the hotel. W e (to stay) in it lli|
year before.

fta .

II
0

133

I .nut year when the play (to be) first performed on stage,
it (to become) a hit.
When I (to come) to my friend, his parents (to tell) me
Hint he (to go) ten minutes before.

fbl' 120. ,
.
| Vmu already (to see) this film ? Yes, I (to see) it two
ilnys ago. I (to think) it (to be) rather interesting.
j. riiey already (to get) to the railway station and I (to
Hiink) they (to wait) fo r their train now.
) What he (to do) now? He (to play) the new piano
which his parent (to buy) him this morning.
>llie already (to walk) in the park for two hours.
I jist night my telephone (to ring) four times. Each time
I ( lo answer) the phone, the person at the other end (to
m ig) off.
* police just (to discover) a bomb in this office. They
nIready (to evacuate) the building.
Mu* (to see) very tired when she (to get) home vesterilny. She (to have) a bad day.
After he (to work) fo r ten hours, he came home and (to
lull) asleep.
Y
ini ever (to be) frightened by something? Yes, I (to
lie) frightened by a strange noise in the bushes when I
do run) round the park last week.
I'lie day before yesterday he told me that he (not to
miiic) home by seven on Sunday.
In the programme we (to watch) last night, they (to

11) animals for their fur.


4
Nlie (to begin) doing her lessons at five. It is seven
) i>'elock but she still (to do) her lessons. When she (to
finish) doing them at last?

I (not to be) sure now that they (to write) the test by
oclock.
When we (to help) our mother about the house last
Itnnday, our father (to come) and (to invite) us to caffe,

134

.. .

17. They (to have) a lovely time touring the USA last
18. You (not to read) inv project yet?
19. Her mother (to be sure) yesterday that she (to rcvi<
for her exam for the following day.
20. In three years time, his parents (to be married) '
twenty years.
. 121. ,
.
1. W e (not to imagine) yesterday that the meeting (to ini
so long.
2. I am afraid my friend (to be) still in hospital.
3. He (not to finish) medical training till he is twrn
five.
4. Some days ago I (to go) through mv wardrobe ami
pick) out all the clothes which (to be) small for inc.
5. She picked the magazine from the floor where il
fall).
6. You already (to see) this play? W e (to see) ii I
Friday. It (to be) a bit boring at firs t but it (to pic k)
later on.
7. Now scientists (to predict) that by the year 202 I
population (to rise) to eight billion and by the \
2050 it (to reach) ten billion.
8. How you (to feel)? I (to feel) so tired today. I
work) in the laboratory since early morning.
9. Be quiet! M y baby (to wake up) i f you (to shout)I 1
baby (to sleep) now.
10. M y friend wants to open a sport shop. He nevci |
run) a business before. Now he (to want) to ask
bank loan.
11. She (to be) very happy when he (to thank) her ami (
give) her flowers two days ago.
12. Last September I (to spend) my holiday with my frin*
From the firs t day I (to realize) that I (to make
mistake.
13. I f you (not to pay) the bill immediately, the waiter
call) the police.
14. The number o f cars (to rise) by fifty-eight per
since 1973.

135

I I uni sure Sally (to marry) Peter i f he (to propose) to


In t .

\ mi still (to think) they (to finish) the new motorway


In the end o f the year?
' Why he (to open) a shop? He always (to want) to open
>.weet shop.
I ,n:<t week her sister (to borrow) her sweater. W hile she
do wear) it she (to spill) some juice on it.
I *'lu (to be) tired yesterday as she (to drive) all that way.
I Hi just (to be) to the bank to pay in a cheque.
I 12*2. ,
.

I Wlirre you (to be) just now? I (to wait) fo r you for ten
minutes. Let s go to the cinema. W e (to be) late.
I WIhmi I (to enter) the house, I (to see) that the old man
110 nit) near the fireplace and (to read) the book. He (to
ni) there for a long time.
I Wlint you (to do) now? I (to translate) an interesting
liny. How long you (to translate) it? I (to work)
fin even hours. I (to hope) I (to finish) translating by
Inr o clock.
I I in lecture (not yet to begin) and the students (to talk)
111 the corridor.
I I ii <t night Beth (to thank) Chris for the lovely flowers
I'lnrh he (to buy) for her.
I Oh. I (to see) he (to stop) smoking. When he (to decide)
ml to smoke?
I We (to be) in the forest a week ago. W e (to hear) how a
>lld animal (to cry) out. It (to get) in a tramp.
I (In be) nervous at the dentist this morning as it was
I In first time I (see) him since august 1998.
W In-ill was a child I (not to like) the girl next door. She
>ilwnys (to tease) me and (to figh t) with me.
I I <m t worry! You (to see) your children playing in the
if you (to look) out o f the window.
I VVln*n (to be) last time you (to see) Tom? Five years
I Inut (to finish) the book which you (to give) me for my
Mi Unlay.

136

.. .<

13. Last night he (to see) a light in the neighbours houm


14. M y father (to look) tired the day before yesterday. Ilf
(to work) at his computer fo r many hours.
15. She (to be) at the birthday party now. It (to be)
most exciting holiday she ever (to have).
16. You ever (to eat) octopus? Yes, I . . . . What il (*4
be) like? It (to taste) nice.
17. Last year my friends (to stay) in my house while I (|
be) on holiday. They (to stay) there for three weeka.
18. When I (to come) home, my fam ily (to drink) tea iii Hi
kitchen. I (to take) my coat o ff and (to ask) for mj
o f tea.
19. W e were glad to kuow that our relatives (to a rrive)!
the New Year.
20. A n important letter (to arrive) when he already (to t i
away for two weeks.
. 123. , ]
.
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.
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.
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. 1977 .
7. ? .
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8. .
,

137

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.
t 124. ,
.

' (to have) your contract soon: the secretary (to type)
II now.
Mow long he (to wait) for Steve yesterday? He (to
wnit) fo r twenty minutes when Steve (to come) at

138

..

6. You already (to feed) your baby? I (to feed) it an limit


ago. My baby (to sleep) now. It (to sleep) for half an Imur
7. They always (to go) to the country in summer? Yu,
as a rule. But they (to spend) their holiday at the .
side next summer i f they (to get) enough money.
8. A s the day (to be) sunny last Sunday, we (to decidc) t|
go to the country. W e (to get) to our place by ten -
W e (to enjoy) ourselves the whole day.
9. W hat your father (to do) at the moment? He (to hiiv
breakfast. A s a rule he (to have) breakfast so late* un
Sundays.
10. W e (to see) them last week, but we (not to see) tin!
since then.
11. She (to be) a typist for our firm since 1997. She ((<
work) here for three years. But now she (to want) Ii
change her job.
12. This year he (to w rite) a book which (to describe) all Mi
life.
13. They (to walk) a long way when she (to begin) to insl
on a taxi.
14. Last night he (to be) furious because someone (to dnv
into his car while it (to be) parked.
15. I (to tell) you a million times (not to take) my swejil
W hy you (to wear) it now? I f you (to put) it on a^.n
we (to quarrel).
16. They (to decide) to go to Spain. Because their fn rn l
often (to tell) them about their glorious holiday thn
17. His brilliant intellect (to win) him an international |
utation.
18. Nick already (to get) tickets for the concert? Hi (I
have) the tickets but nobody to go with him.
19. M y friend (to ask) me to explain him new rule bec.ui
he (not to understand) it.
20. He was sure that she (to invite) him to her birtlnln
party whidh (to take) place in a week.
. 125. , 6(
.
1. ? .
. , - |
.

tun.

139

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140

.. *.

20. , .
.
21. ,

.
. 126. ,
.

1. Cora (to want) to have a dog. She says I f I (to have)


dog, I (to have) a friend . When she (tc come) fim||
school in the afternoon, she (to decide) to ask her mol In !
to let her to have a dog.
2. He (not to sleep) that night. He (to think) till the nun !
ing: his head (to be) fu ll of thoughts. When the nun ii.'
iiig (to come) he (to take) decision at last.
,
3. A fte r we (to say) good-bye to the old man we (to go) <>ul
o f the house. I t (not to be) anybody in the street. 'IV
sun (to shine) brightly in the sky.
4. I (to clean) my room and (to put) everything in 1
place , she said. You see, now I (to go) away .
5. When I (to look) at my friend, I (to see) that he (<
smile) from ear to ear. He (to read) a funny story.
6. M y parents (to look) at me as I (to come) in. Win-r^
you (to be)? exclaimed my mother. W e (to wait) 1^
you since five o clock . She (to be) very angrv with ni7. It (to be) a nice party last night. Everybody (to dan <l
and (to be) happy. M y friend (to bring) great music.
8. I f he (not to have) the money tomorrow, they (to givll
this puppy to another boy and he never (t- see) iil^
again.
9. Last night John (to be) at his sports club. He (to tliiuM
he (to recognize) a girl who (to come) into the gym. I
(to think) I (to see) you somewhere before, he said.
10. Yesterday my father (to want) to telephone his old friend)
They (not to see) each other fo r ages. M y father (t,
think) that he (to forget) his telephone number.
11. Two hours ago we (to speak) in my room. W e (to 1|
that nobody (to hear) our conversation.
12. R igh t now he (to need) to improve his social English
his job.

| .

141

Viwlcrday, I (to come) to my dentist. I (to wait) for him


In Ilie recept ion. When his secretary (to come), and (to
) me to read a magazine I (to refuse) as I (to wait)
fin him for fifteen minutes and (to read) all the maga* lll S .

teenager she (to be) a shy person but she (to behiiim) very self-confident after she (to return) from a
*Hiir abroad.

| morning, when Beth (to look) out o f the window,


lir (to realize) that it (to snow) all night. Beth (to
ild-iile) she (not to go) fo r a walk at three oclock.
I 127. ,
.

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142

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.
. 128. , *
.
Sam: How long you (to be) a doctor?
Lis: I (to graduate) from the university fiv e years

>

143

AN) That (not to be) a long time. You always (to work) in
this city?
No, some years ago I (to work) in a small town.
mi I low long you (to be) here?

I (think) I (to be) here already fo r two years.


Bi And you always (to work) at this hospital?
^
Vos. It (to be) a nice place to work.
Mu You (to have) any fam ily here?
to I (to be) married for over a year. I (to have) a daughter.
|b< ll*ally? What your husband (to do)?
to 4o (to be) a doctor, too. H e (to work) at the same
hospital. But he (to work) here over seven years.
b|> 129. ,
.
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144

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11. .
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.
12. ? .
.
13. ,

.
14. ? 1>
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.
15. ,
.
. 130. ,
.
John: H i, Beth! I (to try) to get in touch with you all wn
First I (to phone) you on Monday evening. It (to
about seven o clock.
Beth: Oh, I already (to leave) for a walk with Ann.
John: Then on Tuesday evening I (to phone) you at cl
oclock. You parents (to tell) me, you (to go)
the cinema.
Beth: Yes, I (not to be) at home. A t that time I (to leave)
the cinema. I (to see) a very interesting film. I
return) home by ten oclock
John: I (to try) again on Wednesday at about ten ocloelt
the evening but nobody (to answer).
Beth: I (to go) to bed by that time. I (to sleep) when
(to phone) me.
John: I (to phone) you on Thursday and on Friday. An-I
(to^phone) you today in the morning. You (to nv1
me?
Beth: Don t think so. I (not to try) to avoid you. I (to br)
the library this morning. I (to work) there since
oclock. I just (to come) home.

*' .

145

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Vixana .
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.

146

.. .:

. 132. ,
.
1. They already (to announce) the results of our tes1.-.7
Yes, they (to do) it some minutes ago. What nun
you (to get)?
2. W hat (to be) wrong? I see you (to be) in a bad mood?
I (to translate) this article since morning, but I (imt
finish) it yet.
3. Where they (to be)? Last week they (to leave) f
Paris. I f I (to receive) any news, I (to let) you krrnw
4. You (to know) him well? I (to know) him since clilld
hood. He always (to be) a very honest man.
5. W hat he (to do) in the garden some minutes ago?
(to find) a little bird. He (to think) it (to fall) on I
the nest.
6. Yesterday on my way home I (to meet) my daugblm
She (to tell) that (to wait) fo r me fo r two hours. She
lose) her key.
7. He always (to dream) to become an actor. He (to di
about it since childhood.
8. 1 (to be) very tired, when I (to come) home yestenl
When I (to begin) to warm my dinner, my frieml (i
phone) me. W e (to speak) only fo r fiv e minutes. In
when I (to enter) the kitchen, I (to see) that I i
burn) it.
9. A fte r they (to spend) their holidays together, sin
understand) that her friend (not to be) such nice \*
son as she (to think).
10. You (to take) you children to the zoo next Sund;iyV
Yes, they never (to be) in the zoo before. 1 (to lm|i
they (to like) it.
11. One morning a letter (to arrive) to them. The letter '
that their aunt (to arrive) the next day.
12. W ho (to give) you my phone number? I (to ask) N k
to give me your number as I (to want) to tell you s h k
thing very important.
13. She thinks (to have) ice-cream fo r dessert. She (iml
have) it fo r a long time.
14. W hy you (not to write) this exercise yet? I (to Ii
you (to finish) w riting by seven o clock. I f you (iml

1
.

147

1 write) it by that time, I (not to allow) you to watch


I division.
III* (to talk) to the gardener, outside the door, when his
drniier (to arrive).
mi (to like) K yiv? Yes. I (to love) this city. I (to be)
lirrc three times, you know.
\ csterday, when I (to hear) how he (to sing) in the next
I , I (to realize) that I never (to hear) anyone worse,
hull (to telephone) me today? I (not to want) to speak
In liim.


/
I

R U L E f - --------------------------- -------------------

1
(- *
)

Present Simple
Present Continuous
Present Perfect
Present Perfect
Continuous
Present Perfect
Past Simple

Future

Past Simple
Past Continuous
Past Perfect
Past Perfect
Continuous

npudami>v
/
,


Future-in-the Past *m
-
/ .*


Past Perfect

will
must/have to
can
may

would
had to
could
m ight

Sequence of Tenses
She lives in Kyiv.
I knew that she lived in K viv.
He is working.
I thought he was working.
He has left Kyiv.
I did not know that he had left Kyiv.
She lost her keys.
I knew that she had lost her keys.
They w ill come in time.
I hoped they would come in time.

+ * .

149

I .

.
I I bought that he finished his work at fiv e every day.
I I I lidiight that he had finished his work.
oln' supposed that they always came in time.
, hli supposed that they had come in time.
II hoped that she studied well.
Ili hoped that she had studied well at school,
Wit knew that he was ill.
Wi knew that he had been ill.
t illil not know when they le ft home.
I illil not know when they had le ft home,
ill. uid his father was a pilot,
Ii- Hrtid his father had been a pilot.
I 'I- were sure she wrote letters to her granny.
I 1 were sure she had written a letter to her granny,
n|n eaid that she would vis it us in a week.
1tui teacher said we would be w riting the test at two
'flock.
S . .
I
,
I
.
M i eays she likes roses.
^|| bays he has already written the article.
H t ic y say they will come to see us next Friday.
B ^ Bays she is glad to see me.
do not know when he comes home.
m i .ii is sure we w ill arrive on Friday.
BftH iT thinks his friend has just returned home.
U f i v teacher believes I will succeed in my studying.
I I now he always gets up early.

Wn expect Dorothy will join us in the evening.


I| i> ays he has left his bicycle in the yard.
I uppose they met in the street.
k II .
J
,
I
.
L i hristy says he will tell you the truth.
Nobody knows what she means.

150

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

..

W e think that he is joking.


John says he knows how I feel.
Harry doesnt know when his cousin will come.
I cant believe she has done it.
He thinks they are driving to the country.
She is sure we w ill be glad to meet her.
I don t know where she is.
I dont think they will be having breakfast so eailv
W e hope they have noticed us.
He doesn t suppose she speaks so much.
She says she will let me know when they come.
I think he came in a taxi.
They are sure we w ill be waiting fo r them in tlx I

. 4. ,
1. She realized that nobody (w ill come/would comi-).
2. W e understood that she (sees/saw) nothing.
3. He said he (w ill arrive/would arrive) in some dny*
4. M y mother was sure I already (have come/had con
5. I didnt know they (are/were) in the room.
6. W e supposed the rain (will stop/would stop) in some I
7. He said he never (has been/had been) to K yiv.
8. W e wanted to know who (is singing/was singing)
next room.
9. I always thought he (is/was) a brave man.
10. When I saw him, he (is working/was working).
11. W e know she always (comes/came) in time.
12. They thought he (w ill have finished/would li;iv
nished) his work by the evening.
13. She said she (has/had) a terrible headache.
14. W e supposed they (w ill send/would send) us the
ments.
15. He said he (has not seen/had not seen) us fo r ag<
. 5. , > >
.
1. Her brother said he never (to see) this film befon
2. He came home and listened: his son (to play) the |>i
3. They didnt worry too much because they (to lock) tin <
4. I asked her when she (to give) me this book to rvml
5. W e wanted to know i f they (to enjoy) the meal.

> .

151

Biipposed she (to like) the hotel.


I afraid they (not to come) yet.
ii wanted to know i f the station (to be) away.
Hie doesnt know who (to phone) him at fiv e o clock.
Ii* admitted he (not to be) here for weeks.
iln apologies she (to arrive) so late,
ttani promised she never (to speak) to me again.
(Ainlv said he just (to buy) a new car.
M mother decided that she never (to drink) coffee late
*1 night.
I lii-nr you already (to find) a new job.
wore sure our children (to sleep).
I ilnlnt think they still (to discuss) this problem.
4* in remarkable that you (to come) at last.
doctor thinks I (to be) allergic to pineapples.
>|ihiH knew her aunt (to be) glad to visit her in two
it'IV h .

^ 1 ,
.
^ I opened the window, I saw the sun (to shine).
lire sure Simon (to marry) her some time later.
}|r rnn t remember where he (to put) his glasses,
tiooi-ge thought the restaurant (to be) expensive.
|Mi was disappointed that she (not to get) the job.
I ilhln t understand why they (to destroy) their relai niship.

not sure they (to find) their way in the darkness.


'tin asked me i f 1 (to invite) Ann to the party.
(INi|li say that he always (to be) very rich.
iiM' siiid she (to wait) fo r me since seven oclock.
I liry thought (to give) them my telephone number.
I Hin ufraid I (not can) answer you question.
wanted to know what (to happen) to John.
tl*4ii(*e thought he (can) repair the car himself.
(tin 1 very upset: she (to break) her watch.
aid he (to feel) ill.
VVr thought she still (to be) in hospital.
I kin w he (to pass) his examination at that time.
\ -ousin promised he (to visit) me in a week.
" didn t know they (to be) tired. .

152

..

. 7. ,
, .

, f
1. , . /
2. , .
3. ,
4. , .
5. , .
6. , .
7. ,
8. , ..
9. , .
10. , <
.
11. , .
12. , .
. 8.
.
, . aaji

1. They are working in the garden. (W e were sure).
2. I have never been to Paris. (I told).
3. They have been waiting fo r him fo r ten minute,
didn t know).
4. Tim hasn't written fo r them for ages. (She knew).
5. Kath w ill not see us. (M y mother wrote).
6. He is going to the park. (He told me).
7. They are skating. (I supposed).
8. Somebody has stolen his purse. (He did not noti<
9. Sophie is a very clever girl. (Everybody knew).
10. He doesnt agree. (He told).
11. She haven t done her homework. (She said).
12. I dont like going to parties. (I told them).
13. She doesnt know how much the dress cost. (Mary told
14. W e w ill come again next year. (W e wrote them).
15. I am washing the car. (I told him).
16. He has already seen this play. (He didnt tell us).
17. She is not feeling very well. (She told the doctor)
18. He is translating the article. (I saw).
19. She w ill talk to Susan. (She promised).
20. He can not swim. (I didnt suppose).

153

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I , .
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I , .
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, .
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,
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,
.
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,
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154

..

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.
12. , ,
13. ,
.
14. , ^
-.
15. , |*1
.
16. , ,
.
17. , .
.
18. , |< |
19. ,
I 3 R U LE



D irect speech
today
yesterday
tomorrow
ago
this
here
tonight
last year
last month
next
the day after tomorrow

Reported speech
that day
the day before
the next day/the following <lnv|
before/previously
that
there
that night
the year before
the month before
the following
in two days time

R eported commands
Don t move! Stop!
He told them
^ He ordered them

not to m ove and to stop.

155

I--- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

ATTE N TIO N

uv diec.nie te ll say. te ll
.
told me he didnt agree.
Its too late, they told him.
tell .

1 say .
said he didnt agree.
Its too late, they said,
iriii .
I dont agree, he said to me.
W hy did they say that to you?

. I N I

! ! !

11.
.
! Ivo me a cup o f tea, please , said my mother to me.
>i>nt ask me such stupid questions , said Susan to him.
i|H4i your books at page ten , said our teacher to us.
I iimt make so much noise , said mother to her children,
dense, open the window , asked his friend.
Diint lock the door , said her granny.
I said to me: Turn the sound down .
Hoiit phone me so late , said my sister to me.
In asked me: Please, give me his address .
I >ont tell her the truth , said they to him.
I said to his daughter: Dont tease the dog!
T l v e us a drive, please , they asked him.
I innt be late for the lesson , Susans teacher said to her.
Marry told me: Don t be frightened .
12. .
.
.
.
,
t - .

156

..

6. .
7. c\,i\
8. .
9. .
10. .
. 13.
.
1. Sit down children , she told us.
2. Hurry up , my friend told me.
3. Leave your keys on the table, please , mother tol<l h
4. Have your tickets ready , two men told us.
5. Dont eat fo r several days , my doctor told me.
6. Nicks father said to him: Please, pass me a cigar!
7. Dont smoke in my room , she asked me.
8. Don t go there, Janes parents said. Stay at hm
9. Mary said: Give me his telephone number, ple;i.'
10. Mr. Jones said: Dont stop!
11. Janes mother told her: Dont spend so much rnon
12. Take the children from school fo r me, please , he
13. Please, help me to translate this text , David saiil Ik
14. Dont go near the dog , he told to his son.
15. Give me a cup o f tea, please , my granny asked
16. My teacher said: Please, bring the register .
17. Stay back! ordered the police.
18. Give me a lift into city, please , she asked me.
19. My friend said to me: Lend me some money, pin
20. Dont forget to post this letter , she said to me.
. 14.
.
1. My son is a student , said Henry.
2. She is working at the library , said her mother.
3. My friend said to me: I have not seen you fo r
4. I shall solve the clues tomorrow, said A ll.
5. He said: There is nobody here to stop them .
6. The soldier said: W e w ill find a place to lie up I
afraid they w ill kill us .
7. My friend said to me: W e have been waiting foi
fo r ten minutes .
8. Jane said: I am all right. Nothing worries me .
9. I am busy now. I am doing my lessons , said Tom

^ ' ofianue .

157

A T.hi is not here. She has just left the office , the secreIm said to us.
A l l rnrid to me: This man is the doctor for the hospital .
( '' is no one by that name here , they answered.
I inn ill. I have a high temperature , he said to us.
ft *Wn have tried to telephone to Odessa for him , they said.
I I ilont think I w ill have done this work by the even Hit , she said.

).
.
f 'l was to London last year , she said to me.
lnive never been to K y iv before , he said to the girl
,-.> t to him.
said: One o f these men is my husband .
s I have come here to meet Jane , he said to me.

* can not help you: we are too busy , they told me.
I will come to visit you the day after tomorrow , she
bild to me.
* aid: I was tired so I came home after party .
1 are at the little hotel near the station , said Mike.
Jdn said: I am trying to listen to music. Go out!
-I luivent been waiting long , said Stephen to her.
* Ihcy are getting m anied tomorrow , he said.
thought: I will do it on Sunday ,
limy said to me: W e are meeting them at four oclock
ilny .
"I nin going to the cinema , she said to me.
Ml can not speak any foreign languages , Mary said to us.

' MTENTIONl
tell the truth

!
te ll the time

158

..

4. Simon said: I must go now. I am in a hurry .


5. I like swimming and playing tennis , she said.
6. Mike said: My parents are arriving tomorrow .
7. W e were in this city two years ago , he said.
8. She said: My friend doesnt like this film .
9. David said: I will help you tomorrow if I have tin
10. I have already translated two articles , said Jam ,
11. W e are going to stay in this hotel , they told us.
12. Julia said: I will have finished my work by seven '
tonight .
13. I want to know where you spent last night , he
14. I w ill be working the whole day next Friday ,
cousin.
15. Mind your business , he said to me.
. 17.
.
1. The publisher has told me that he is going to nr
my book , he said to me.
2. M y mother said: Speak in a low voice. The Iml
sleeping .
3. I have my English lesson today , my brother said In
4. The student said: I am afraid I w ill not pass my
tomorrow .
5. I have seen two nurses. I w ill find out when I
are , said the man.
6. John said: I have never tasted anything so tasty
7. Your joke is stupid. I dont want to listen to
jokes any more , she said to Peter.
8. I am not crying , Julia said.
9. I w ill not leave you alone i f you want me to
Catherine said.
10. W e are going to go to the disco , my friend said In
11. Ann said: Last Saturday I was at the theatre, bill I
not like the play .
12. The doctor told me: Beer will not be good for ynn
13. He said: It is too late to start to ski i f you have n
done it before .
14. W e have been married four years , they said to i
15. Don t worry about me. I feel fine , she said In
mother.

^ .

159

| I. .
I itin very hungry. I want to eat something now , a boy
Mid.
1 will never finish this work if you dont help me , his
wifi* told him.
\ II said: This machine is no good but the others are
mirh better .
, ' I 'vo heard about it before , she said.
I "You will come with me to see Ann , said Miss Barkley.
> I don t know , he said. There isnt always an explana
tion for everything .
I "lh* didn t join us in the bar , my friend said.
I "I inn awfully sorry, but I can t help you , my cousin
iid.
* VV< know all about it now , his parents said to him.
"I was working hard the whole day yesterday , Nick
nid.
"They will have returned by nine oclock , my granny
Id to me.
*1 dont know why he wanted to go to war , she said.
* is no work for you now , said the manager to him.
did exactly right , she said . I dont mind at all ,
lie has been leading a sort o f an interesting life , his
(i lend said.
t ). .
"We are going to have dinner , my mother said to me.
*.*llu has made great progress in her English , her teachf i unid.
\*1 will be glad to help you, dont mind , Joe said to Polly.
I *4Vp are playing a boring game , his children said.
Uoliert said: Nobody has mentioned about it .
I I mn t stay here , he said.
I ''As soon as you see him, give him my telephone numlii'r , Henry said to me.
I'll just step out the door fo r a minute , Julia said,
j Hi* a good boy and be careful , his father said.
i "If I go back my parents w ill not let me go out , the boy
uid to his friends.
think you don t know anything about it , Victor said
In me.

160

.. \

12. They have been discussing this question foi


hours , said the secretary.
13. I am all right. I feel better now , the patient >1
14. I f it is possible I w ill return in time , he said.
15. Her sister said to me: She is still doing her homcvu
d r* R U L E b
' " " I

Reported questions
( )
He
He
He
He

asked (me).
wanted to know
did not know.
wondered.

A re you happy?
Do you speak English?

I was happy.
I spoke English.
If
whether
Does she work at school?
She worked at sdm
Is he watching TV?
He was watching 1
Have you done our
I had done my 1....
homework?
work.
I had borrowed 1li<
Did you borrow the
dictionary?
dictionary.
W ill she come tomor
She would come 11
row?
next day.
He
He
He
He

asked (me).
wanted to kimW
did not know
wondered.

Why are you late?

Why I was late.

Where does she live?

Where she lived.

What are they doing?

What they were doin|

What have you bought?

What I had bought.

When did you start learning


English?

When I had started


learning English.

Where w ill you go?

Where I would go.

< .

161

% . .
I said she had already found her book.
{ Mv father told me that he was busy.
I In pupil said he had not learnt the lesson.
I All said that he was ill and fe lt unwell.
My sister told me that i f she got that book she would
|lvi it me to read.
her asked me to stay at home as the weather was bad.
flm man said he had never been to K yiv.
.Iniit* told us she would be working the whole day on
'hiiiriay.
f l In man said that there was not room for us.
Ilia father asked him to put the papers on the table.
>1 hurry said that he thought he had left his watch at home.
Imm said that she is going to go for a walk,
l l I In teacher told the boy to leave the room immediately.
4 li-irk told me he had got to entertain his cousins on
niintlay evening.
i lilir said she would bring me a glass o f milk every night.
VI. .

I
I

ji
:*

Wh told me she was not surprised at the news as she


!knew about it.
Ili> said he had had an accident.
1/. said she could borrow me the newspaper as she had
finished with it.
Tin boy said he was afraid he had broken my vase.
I ,nli told her mother she would not be out fo r long.
I'ln-y said they didn t understand why he had been late.
* woman said she was taking her four-year-old niece
to nee Bambi.
I eve told me he had been working sixty hours a week
Ini the past month.
Hi aid it would be difficult to go back.
Alison told me she was having dinner.
lull said he was sorry he hadnt phoned me before.
linrry told the doctor he fe lt ill as he had an enormous

ini'lll.
' Hit said she was right after all.
I'liry told us they were leaving on January 7.
asked me not to open the window.

162

..

- <.

. 22. .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
1213.
14.
15.

Jane said: W hat are you doing ?


She said: Did you invite him to the party?
Have you finished your exams? he asked me.
M y friend said: Does your sister live in K yiv?
Mother asked her daughter: Have you hurt your Irrf
He said to the shop assistant: How much does it owl
Have you ever been to the USA? they said to nu
Steve said: W here did you stay in Odessa?
M y father said to me: Can you pass me the rnn
ne?
They asked: W hat time will the train arrive?
M y mother said to me: W hy didnt you buy breiul/'
His friend asked: How do you get to school?
j
Barry said to me: How long have you been waiting f
your friend?
She asked: W ho is singing in the next room?
I asked my friend: When did you telephone me?"

. 23. .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

asked me: Can you give me your pen?


She said: Has he already come home after lesson*
They said to him: Which school do you go to?
L iz asked: A re you seeing the manager tomorrow
My mother told me: Where have you put my bool
She asked: How long have you been translating
article?
Jane asked: Did you go to London last year?
A re you busy now? Nick asked his brother.
K ate s mother said: W hat marks have you K"
school?
She asked me: When w ill you go to K yiv?

. 24. *
1. said that he had studied English before he pul
the institute.
2. She said that her parents lived in K yiv.
3. He told me that his son would arrive the following
4. David said he had broken his bicycle.
5. They told us they were busy: they were discuss i i
very important question.

163

* lorn said he had been working at school for three years.


1 Mie said her daughter would go on a trip the following
month.
* Inmes said he liked to see adventure films.
* My friend said she wanted to buy a dog fo r her chil
li n*n.
i .lime told me she would return me my book the follow
ing week.
t 11mother told him not to go to school because he was ill.
I lue said Ann had invited her to stay in her house for
I ln following weekend.
I Ills friend told him that he didnt think he could help.
I In said she could not go fo r a walk with me as she was
wiilching an interesting TV programme.
I llicy told me that the train was leaving at the moment.
ik|> 25. .
I Hlic said: My parents are arriving tomorrow .
I "We w ill be waiting at the station when you arrive ,
Lliey told him.
I When I get money, I ll buy a new car , said my friend.
4 llo said: I must go and post a letter .
i rtlie said: I stayed in a hotel for two weeks .
I "Dont speak in a loud voice, your brother is sleeping ,
lulil mother to him.
{ I can see you tomorrow , she said.
Iirlh said: When father comes, I shall show him my
inrture .
* I've made some discoveries for myself today , said Meg.
I "If you go straight, you w ill lose your way , the warn
ing said.
( I t*s a nice country. You can reach the sea from any
|ilnce , my uncle said.
t Don t play with a dog. Go and do your lessons , his
rhlcr sister told him.
>1 "If they come to see me, I ll bake my favourite cake for
I linn , said Jane.
I lli said: I w ill take the place o f the man o f the fam ily
iinw .
* "Itomember the warning! Dont play with fire , said
tin man.

164

.. .

. 26. . I
.
1. Last year we spent in the Crimea . (They said)
2. They moved to a new fla t yesterday . (They saiil)
3. I don t remember what she said . (He said)
4. W e have seen him today twice . (They said)
5. I shall help you if you like . (She said)
6. I have been translating this text for two hours . U
said)
7. They are watching us at the moment . (Beth saiill
8. He will be retired next month . (H is father said)
9. You are have to be more polite . (Our teacher sniil)
10. I am not doing something special now. I am wall Ii
TV . (M y friend said)
11. She will go for a walk i f she has time . (Her mother
12. I have not told anybody about it . (Nick said)
13. It w ill be nice o f you i f you apologize for your beli
iour . (Polly said)
14. I am going to go to university . (H is friend saiil)
15. You w ill fail your exams i f don t work hard , i
parents said)
16. Two years ago they were students. (She said)
17. N ext year I w ill go to the USA. (K ate said)
1 8 .1 was not at school yesterday as I was ill. (The pupil
19. I think he w ill become a singer as he sings well. (I
teacher said)
20. W e are not sure she has already finished her w
(They said)
. 27.
.
.
1. W hy did not he come to the yacht-club? (He didn'l
us...)
2. Where has she been? (W e didnt know...).
3. Do you often play basketball? (She asked me...).
4. W hy doesnt she come early? (He wanted to know.,
5. When will the next train leave? (W e asked...).
6. What are you doing? (M y friend asked me...).
7. How long have his parents worked for the compm
(They didnt know...).

< .

*
*
*
I
I
t
I
*

165

When did Jack phone me? (H e wanted to know...)


llw often does she visit them? (He asked me...).
Who borrowed him money? (She didn t know...).
llow many times have they seen this film? (H e wonili'red...).
Why will not she come to the party? (He asked...),
What is the little boy playing with? (She wanted to
know...).
What w ijl they be doing at 5 oclock? (M y friend
ii'iked...).
What are your hobbies? (He asked me...).

fit I 2H. .
I I .iiid: Did you become a manager fiv e years ago?
i Hi asked me: Does your sister study at school?
I :Hu said: Is he working on his report?
I .lurk said: Did you meet anybody at the party?
I Knte said to him: Do you like modern art?
I I'ut said to Nick: A re you busy?
I June asked me: Have you already found the keys?
I My friend said: Have you already chosen a book to read?
I They asked us: A re you tired?
if Wo asked: W ill you come to see us on Friday?
tl IVtcr said: Have they been waiting for hours?
tfe asked me: Have you known him since childhood?
<| Murk said to Kate: Do you prefer coffee to tea?
<| I nsked my brother: Can you help me?
*| ; asked her: Has he already received a letter?
* June said to me: Do you agree with his decision?
1 I nsked her: Can you give me a new cassette?
* 2!). .
,
.
t there any people in the house? (The policeman
H ik ed ...)

I
I
I
t
t
'

tins he already returned? (H e asked me...)


UiiI you sister refuse to go to the cinema? (She asked...)
Will you return my book in time? (He asked me...)
l lie a good-looking man? (She wanted to know...)
Iluve they ever been to Odessa? (W e asked...)
An you coming back today? (They asked us...)

166

.. .>-<

8. Did the bus come in time? (He wanted to know...)


9. Does she know anything about his problem? (They askcii
10. Can you translate this text without any dictionm
(She asked him...)
11. Is she cooking dinner in the kitchen? (He didnt know
12. W ill they recognize us in the crowd? (They wantiil
know...)
13. A re you in a hurry? (She asked me...)
14. W ill she return in time? (They did not ask me...)
15. Can you think about the future and not about the i:
(He asked...)
. 30. >
.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

My friend asked me: Which book did you take?"


Father said to Kate: W hat are you doing now?
Tom said: Have you met Pat before?
Judy asked Nike: Did you invite your friends?
M y aunt asked me: Have you already finished \iexams?
6. The teacher asked his pupils: Do you like the stoi
7. The passenger said: W hat time does the plane arrivtl
8. Grandmother said to Jack: W ill you send a telc^m
tomorrow?
9. She asked her guest: Do you prefer coffee to tea?"
10. Mother asked her children: Who has broken the ni|i
11. The child asked his father: W hat is this toy mack of'
12. The doctor said to his patient: How are you frol
now?
13. Sam asked Jane: Haven t I seen you somewhere bebu
14. He asked his friend: Can I get you something to dunk]
15. John asked Chris: When are you leaving?
. 31. .

1. She asked me i f I liked Coke.


2. My friend asked me i f he could borrow my car.
3. John wanted to know i f that had not caused any i>n
lem.
4. She asked me i f I would not mind about it.
5. They wanted to know where I was going.
6. Kate asked Mike whether he preferred eating at luunt ^

| .

167

( Wo wanted to know when he would tell us the truth.


# I nsked her where her father was.
I They wanted to know i f the results o f that experiment
wrre exciting.
4 Husan asked Ann when she would give her new tele
phone number.
< 2. .
I asked me: Have you been shopping here all morn
ing?
t said to me: I am married and I ve got one daughter .
I The woman told me: I m talking my niece to see the
. ity .
I I'liry said to me: How long have you been a hairdresser?
1 llr asked the man: Could I possibly borrow your magn/.ine?
I She asked him: Do you have any family in K yiv?
I Aim said to her friend: I am meeting my cousin but
I hr train is late .
I I lold him: You are much more open-minded then
oilier people .
N ick asked Tom: How long have you been married?
A I usked Liz: Do you mind very much if I open the
J j window?
(j) .Imie said: I hear someone playing the guitar in the
Hut above .
I| Min asked me: W ho cooks and cleans for you?
I I I naked them: A re you going to see anything interest
ing?
I Tliry said to me: W e have just moved into a new flat ,
v Nicks father asked him: Bring me a cup o f coffee,
please .

pi> :13. .
| ' passenger asked: W heres the information desk?
The teacher said to his pupils: Turn to the first page
uf Unit two .
lie asked us: Is it all right i f I open the window?
V- * **uid to my friend: I am afraid I cant come out for a
m-ii with you .
I Jie told Jack: I will not forget to send you a telegram .

168

.. ,*

6. They asked: How much are the tickets?


7. He wrote in his letter: I know you are ill and 1 I
you shall get better .
8. The man asked me: Do you know what time the 11
gets to Odessa?
9. Mother told Pete: Don t forget to call me when
reach the place .
10. M y friend told me: I ll help you to do your homr-wi
i f you like .
11. He asked his grandson: Have you any idea what I
with my glasses?
12. His granny asked him: Don t open the window .
. 34.
1. The teacher asked the boy: W h y are your hamln
dirty?
2. Father said: Look at these clouds. I t is raining am
3. Jack said to Sam: A re you doing anything this evenin
4. I havent learnt a poem for today , said Pete.
5. She said: I like this song from the sixties .
6. H e asked me: W here was Richard going when
met him?
7. M y grandmother said to me: Youre grown up now
8. W hat did you do at the lesson yesterday? saiil I
mother.
9. Have you paid for everything? the security riiu
said to him.
10. N ellie said: I want to keep this because it remind
o f my grandfather .
11. W e have got about twenty hard Rock Cafe in oui
ty , the manager said.
12. My mother said: Don t brush too much oil on the mml
13. She said to him: I have not spoken to you for three (In
14. Eric said: Sorry I didnt phone you last night .
15. Father said: Don t lean out of the window .
. 35. ->
1. asked me: When can I talk to you?
2. Eric said to me: Come and have a look at my new
3. I ll get the ticket to the concert. I promise! Hnv
said.

< < .

169

I Della said: has invited me to go sailing at the


weekend .
The man said: Don t park your car in front o f the
Rate .
**. The manager said: W e have received a complaint about
the prices .
"Do you know the cause o f the fire? asked the police
man.
" When I get a job, I ll buy a new car , said Mike.
u You w ill get a sunstroke if you spend more time in the
nun , he said.
In She asked me: Have you ever made a speech in front of
one thousand people?
II I f time allows, discuss this question with me , my
brother said.
11 W ill you refuse to see your best friend for a million
pounds? he asked me.
t* I'aul said to us: Someone has stolen my case .
II The tourist said: I don t speak French and can t order
u cup o f coffee .
|fc My sister said: I ve got a headache .
I

h i .

36. .

V. She said: I dont know where I have lost my hotel key .


. The firefigh ter said: The main cause o f fires is care
lessness .
1 We will have finished building by the end o f the year ,
they said to me.
t My mother said to me: Go to bed .
When did you receive a telegram? asked the boy.
ft My friend asked me: Have you ever used electric tooth
brush?
Sit down at the table and have a cup o f tea , said Alice
to me.
She said to Mike: Have you got a lot of relatives?
" I m afraid I w ill be late fo r dinner , said Helen.
III Julia asked us: A re you going away in the summer?
II This time next week we ll be doing our exams , said
they.
) "How much do you earn? he asked his brother.
t * Dont hope we ll get there in time! said Mike.

170

.. . 1

14. Ann said to her little sister: I ve told you several tun. J
not to take my pen .
1
15. He told me: They have invited to go to an archam}.
gical dig .
. 37. 4
1. How long do you work every day? said the >
Peter.
2. Ann said: Put the milk back in the fridge!
3. They w ill come back in time for college , said tin!
father.
4. The guide said to the tourists: W e can t go
passport control together .
5. B ill said to the boy: I ve just realized you are tel
the truth .
6. Her friend said to her: W h y do you keep complain
all the time?
7. I ll earn nothing as it s voluntary work , said the*
dent.
8. She said: I hope we get there in time to get a
seat .
9. The boy said to his father: I am doing my home taisik
10. Mother asked: W h y havent you had breakfast yrtV"
11. The manager said to us: You will be working six
every day .
12. I think you are lying , she said to the boy.
. 38. ,
1. My cousin asked me: W ill we go to the cinema >
Monday?
2. I met your sister in the street yesterday , she saiil Ii
Johnny.
3. Mother asked her children: W h e re are your toys?
4. Please dont tell a lie , asked Susan.
5. Janet asked Helen: How did your husband reail fa
the news?
6. I feel very sorry for you , said George to Hester.
7. Your w ife has le ft the hospital. She s on her wny
home , said the doctor.
8. Dont you want them to help you, theyll do it wiili
pleasure , said Pete.

* .

171

"Don t look at me like that , said the woman.


U The pupil said: London is not as big as Tokyo .
! I "What will you have achieved by the next year? asked
lie .

I'lie man said: I ll go and get some roses to welcome


lirr home .
"Tliere is nothing to worry about , said George.
Il lie said to us: I have no idea how to help you .
I* "Lot me show you how to do it , the old man said to
Ilie boy.
|>iI .49. .
I

Mow are you today? asked the doctor politely.


I'll have read this book by then , said my friend.
Ulio shouted to them: Get out!
"What game is the boy playing? said Nick.
"New York is on the same latitude as Lisbon , she
mid.
T h ere is not the right way to do it , Peter said. I can
nhow you the right way .
f Tin* policeman said: This man has spent four weeks in
prison .
t The title o f todays discussion is the greenhouse efIcct , said the teacher. A re you ready to discuss this
problem?
$ I think he wont have finished studying until he is
twonty-five , said Jane.
f|> The woman said: I think I m going to give the police
ring .
II Do you think I am fool? he said to me. I don t think
m .

II Ive just received some money from my aunt , said


.liilia.
U They asked him: Where did this woman die?
14 Klie said to me: Last week I visited Seattle .
IA lie said: They dont know any Ukrainian and their
piirents spoke English .
np 10. .
I I Ic asked us politely: How long w ill you stay here?
Kyiv is much larger than Kharkiv , he said.

172

..

3. The pupil said to the teacher: I got most of my I


mation from this book .
4. Their older son went to work in the factory , she suiit
5. M y mother said to me: This letter is from the Jnm
fam ily .
16. Did you stay with them last summer? they asked h i
7. I m in the kitchen. M y mother said to me: Come mull
help me .

8. Helen said to me: I know theyre your best friend:/'


9. Do you often meet at the institute? Mike asked hid .
10. W e didn t recognize that place , said Fred.

11. He said: I m sure they will not refuse to come .


|
12. M y father was the first member o f the family to go
college , said John.
13. Ann said: I hate borrowing other people s things".
14. W h y did he decide to turn back? , my friend nslti
me.
15. You are kidding! said James. I ve just read ulmnj
that .
. 41. .
1. How long are you going to stay here? asked Jam.
2. Look at this , she said to us. He is on a life sujipnij
machine .
3. They dont teach anything about politics , he saiil.
4. When did they run out? said James.
5. I dont agree that boys always get into fights , <"i]
teacher said.
6. W h y are you talking to a stranger? said my fricnil.
7. I think she works in a bank , said Andrew.
8. He said: I am not tired, I can go fo r a walk with yon*
9. It has been snowing fo r two hours , she said to .
10. I ll never read his novels again , said Nellie. I ve Im
enough of this .
11. She likes to dance and she goes to the discos ahnu
every day , her mother said.
12. The secretary said: There is nobody in the office. Tlu
staff has gone home .
13. W a it for him a little. He w ill be ready soon , John']
mother said to us.

I .

17 3

1 "Whom are you waiting for? , he asked them.


*'l want to talk to you about this , said the boys mother.
"What s this?
42. .

Hlio said: My grandmother hates leaving doors open .


"I>n you think you always right? she asked me.

"In there something wrong with you? my friend said


I I me. What can I do fo r you?
IK "You told me to be objective and that s what I do , said
v Mnry to her mother.
1 Iuink said to Jane: I suppose nothing will change your
T ilorision .
"Ilease, don t help him! said woman. H e can do it
ly himself .
f t "Which of you is free now? asked the teacher,
f t "Don t criticise your friend , said Nike.
L Ifita said to me: W hat has mother told you to do
iinlay?
f l . "( ran look after myself , said the old man.
"W hy did you use the phone without asking? said John.
"Don't fold back the pages of my book? Frank said to
V Mnry.
Murk said to me: You have never been so insulted!
"Do you think it s strange that he wants to sleep on the
V floor? Julia asked Tom.
" feel better, I w ill come to see you tomorrow , said
I 11Hen to me.
ftl> lit. .
*lir asked me: W hat are you planning for summer .
I "Dont smoke in the compartment , asked the passenK'-r.
I "Why did you return home so late last night? my mother
mil to me.
Hi asked Jane: How long have you been waiting for
ioiir cousin?
I "I'm not paying fo r your lunch, Tom , said his friend.
I havent got any money .
I Mio said to Mabel: I ve never heard anyone worse. He
li a bad singer .

174

. .

7. When did they leave the country? he asked Helm


8. Bob said: I dont think it w ill happen .
9. I won t do it until you give me some money , saiil I
boy.
10. What is that book in your hands? he asked me.
11. Please, let me go , she said.
12. What do you think we w ill do on Sunday? my
asked me.
. 44. -.
1. Paul said to me: I f he phones, tell him that I am iml
home .
2. Do you think that the doctors are good? asked Lin
3. Listen, Ann! said her friend. I ve met Boris w
another girl .
4. W hats the weather like? Is it still raining? askcil
aunt.
5. Don t be late. W e w ill be waiting fo r you , they s;ilii
me.
6. Do you believe him? said the old lady.
7. W hat is this play about? said Tom to Mary.
8. Jennys father said to her: Stop talking!
9. Have you left a message on an answer phone? I
him.
10. M y granny said to me: Turn o ff the radio immediati
11. W h y hasn t Bruno finished the conversation? Ron.
12. She said to the policeman: Can you show the ii
direction?
13. Get out o f the car and don t move! they told him.
14. Do you think hole ozone layer will get bigger? u-*k
the scientist.
15. I asked my friend: W hat did they tell you to dt>7"
Bnp. 45. . .
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"Why hasnt she paid repairs yet? asked father.


I I.. librarian said to children: Return books in time .
"Wliere were they last night? said Dan to them.
teacher said: The children are doing their sums at
I ho moment .
nti said: I have read the story and now I am making
up u plan .
Arc you playing tennis this afternoon? asked Bill.
Aim said about Jack: He never thinks about other
|i4iple .
"What happened to Jane last night? said Mary.
"ll will take me an hour to cook the dinner , said Helen.
Mv parents said to my younger brother: Cross the street
* the traffic light is green .
"l liave lost my key. I m looking fo r it , said Tom.
'Wliy do you think the exam will be easy? she asked me.
Iliiw long has Ann lived in Poltava? asked he.
'Your English is very good , he said to me. You
iiuike very few mistakes .
Hi will be away till next month , his w ife said to us.

$
I
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17 6

. . .

. 47. .
1. His father told him to cross the street where he wanti-il
2. My husband said he was thinking about buying new r
3. The teacher told him to keep the books clean.
4. He told me that he never got letters: nobody wrote to
5. Alice said she was tired and she was going to lie (low
6. M y friend asked me how long I had known Ann.
7. She asked us we would agree to help her.
8. Peter said he had learned the rule and he was doiiitf I
exercise.
9. George said he didnt want to catch cold and stny
home.
10. She asked Tom where he had left his umbrella.
11. They told me they had been waiting fo r me for twci;
minutes.
12. I asked my friend what time he was going home.
13. Our teacher told us that we would write the test in u wi
14. I asked my uncle when he would take me to the .
15. She said she was busy as she was working on her |
. 48. .
1. :
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2.
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177

7. ,

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fii|. 49. .

I "W hat shall we do with Tom? asked Nick. He w ill not


finish his work himself . I think we can help him ,
unid Mike.
.0 "Where is my magazine, Alice? asked mother. I have
v put it on the table , said Alice.
"Dont draw in your books! the librarian said to chil
li ren. The children answered: W e w ill keep our books
dean .
1 I can t do this task myseif , said my brother. Ask
your friend to help you , I said to him.
ft Have you finished your exams, Dan? said Julia. I
finished them a week ago , said Dan.
t Are you hungry? said Ann to us. No, we have just
luid lunch , we said.
I "W hy didnt Ben take any money with him? said his
futher. He was in a hurry , we said.
I*. "Where is Peter? said Alec. He has been doing miliil Inry service already fo r fiv e month , said we.
"W hy are you so angry? she said to me. I can t find
niy purse , I said.
I I lo asked Tracy: Have you ever been to Australia?
"I want to go there next year , said Tracy.
II "When will you phone again? she asked him. I don t
know exactly , he said.
I f "Are you allergic to oranges? said the doctor. I m
nfraid I am , said the patient.
I I Dont you think this play is boring? said Gail. I
ntfree with you , said Ben.
H What is the secret of your success? the woman said
lo
Jane. I always work hard , said Jane,
tft Why did you damage your eyes? asked Nick. I said to
him: I worked too long at the computer screen .
I iiI, RO. .
I

1 asked me i f I would be working late that night.


I'rank asked her where she had bought that book.

178

. . -

3. M y aunt said she could hardly stop herself from lauglinij


4. Peter said he would have his appendix removed.
5. Mother told me she hoped I had already stopped smokini
6. She asked Tim if his cold was any better that day.
7. Ann said she was not sure which profession to choiwtf
8 . The stewardess said the airlines had a comfortable c j i M i
9. Michael said he had been to R io twice.
10. Mother said she was afraid we hadn't got any fisli In
our cat.
11. Dan asked i f I felt so angry and why didn t I do sum
thing about it.
12. They told me they didnt live in London.
. 51. .

1. :
1. ,


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2.
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179

| h i . 52. .
I l.iiura said: I go to bed at eleven but I m never asleep
lirfore midnight .
1 The man asked us: Is there a post office near here?
I Father asked: Adam, have we got any eggs? Adam
aid: I don t think so .
Ann said: I m a nurse at the hospital. I m on night
iluty at the moment .
* I said to James: There is something wrong with the
lick . No, there isn t. I ll show you , said he.
t Michael asked Jane: How many times have you seen
this film ? Jane said: I ve seen it three times .
I Tlie pupil said to his teacher: I cant answer this queslion as its too d ifficu lt . I can explain it to you ,
id the teacher.
Dont forget to send a telegram to your granny , said
my mother. I ve already sent it , said I.
li. Why dont you go to bed? asked his wife. I want to
we a new film , he said.
|l> Is your brother still sleeping? she asked Nick. No,
lie is taking a shower , said Nick.
11 What will you be doing at ten oclock on Friday? asked
Iten. I think I will be having breakfast , said Mike.
| Dont forget to phone Clare , Alec said to Ann. I m
Koing to phone her at fiv e oclock , said Ann.
" A T T E N T IO N I ------------------------------------------------ '

I :
I.i*ls go to the cinema ,
inid Ptete.
II righ t , said Jane.
"Oh, no , said Ann.

Pete suggested going to


the cinema.
Jane agreed.
Ann refused.

ft up. 53. .
I Lets go to the theatre next week , said Alec. W ith
pleasure , said Laura.
. ljets run a race , said Tom. Oh, no , said Kate. 1
fan t do it as I m ill .

180

. .

3. I cant go fo r a walk with you because I will be vmj


busy , she said to me.
4. L ets take them to see the houses o f Parliament , |
Peter. A ll right , said Jane. Let s do it in the evening"
5. W ill you go to England for summer with us? nil
parents said to me. I dont want to spend sum
there , said I.
6. Let s invite Lisa to the party , said Clare. I think 11]
a very good idea , said Bob.
7. Bob is working in the garden. Lets help him? {
Mike. He can do it himself , we said.
8. L ets go to the park , said Joe. I dont think it'
good suggestion as it s raining heavily , said Tony.
9. Lets get a job at the college , said Peter. A ll, rigid'
said Bob.
10. Lets start learning Chinese , said Barry. Ok, I'H
always wanted to learn it , said Sandra.
. 54. .
1. W ill you take this brown sweater, Lisa? said .Jti
No, I won t , said Lisa.
2. She said: Can you come and see me today? "I'll
afraid I can t , said Lisa.
3. They said: W e have forgotten to phone our friend*
4. I m going to the cinema straight from work. W ill ynl
go with me? said Barry. No, I seen this film twie<4
said Ann.
5. The girl asked: How does this dress cost?
6. M y sister said: I f you need my dictionary, I can givn ll
to you . No, thank you , I said. I ve got mini",
7. Please, help me with the dishes , said mother. All
right , said Kate.
8. Let stay at home , said my brother. M y favourite I 4
programme is on .
9. Read this book , father said to his son. It will l|
interesting fo r you .
10. The old man said to me: What do you think, the weatlir
w ill be like tomorrow?
11. W h y have not they come yet? said Eva.
12. W e have already been to this museum. Let s go to lli1
new art gallery , said Barry.

.* - .

181

. .
* IIvans: Tell me about you present job.
v:
I work for the youth organization. I m an
accommodation officer.
4 hvans: How long have you been working fo r this
organization?
Since last September.
- I:vans: W hy do you want to leave it?
<n:
I want a change. I like to travel.
. Kvans: W hat languages do you speak?
m .
I speak four languages.
- vans: Do you like a job as a tour guide?
v
Oh, yes!
I ftp >. .
1:
Good morning.
(|'> assistant: Good morning. Can I help you?
mini:
Yes. I bought this skirt here but its the
wrong size.
%! ussistant: When did you buy it?
ilia:
I bought it on Friday. But I havent the
receipt.
assistant: I m afraid I can t change the skirt with
out the receipt. W ho sold th is sk irt
to you?
nilra:
I don t see this assistant now.
pi

Mi

7. .
What sort o f music do you like, Carol?

': I
like classical music, opera.
4
I find opera boring. I prefer modern music. My
other great interest is sport. Do you like sport?
ml- I like basketball. But I dont have a lot o f free time
for playing.
t*li
Its a great game. I play every Sunday. Oh, I am late
for work! Nice to meet you. Bye!

182

. .

. 58. .
Patient: Good morning doctor.
Doctor: Good morning. Your cough is terrible. How I
have you had it?
Patient: For about a week.
Doctor: I want to listen to your chest. Take o ff your
and breath deeply. Do you smoke?
Patient: Yes, I do. But only seven cigarettes a day.
Doctor: You have to stop smoking. Smoking will In
good fo r you health.
Patient: O.K. doctor. I w ill follow your advice.
. 59. .
Josh: Hello, Martin! I haven t seen you for a long ll
M artin: Hello, Josh. I have moved house.
Josh: When did you move?
M artin: About three years ago.
Josh: It has been a long time then. Funny, you hnv
changed a lot. Lets go to the cafe and have >i I
M artin: Sorry, but I w ill be late for work i f I stay w
you. Lets meet in the evening.
Josh: I finish working at seven. Here is my telcplt
number. I f you are free we w ill meet at a hal |
seven.
M artin: I m sure I w ill not be busy at this time. Good
. 60. .
A lice: How are things with Ann?
Jane: Shes just come back from France. She spent a
derful week in Paris.
A lice: I want to give her a ring next week. Perhaps sin
agree to have lunch with me.
Jane: i m sure she w ill but I think she is going to Ausl
next week.
A lice: Let s ring her now. 1 w ill be glad to see her brf
her departure.
Jane: A ll right!

183

<11. .
I have to entertain my Italian cousin on Saturday
fvening. I have no ideas where to take him.
Take him to the cinema.
I think its boring. He can see a film at home.
I recommend you to take him to a restaurant and
then you can go to discos.
I dont like discos as they are always crowded.
All good discos are crowded. Anyway you have to
fiitertain your guest.
You are right. L ets go there. W ill you join our
rompany?
With pleasure.

P a ssiv e Voit
to be + Past P a rtic ip le . <

Present Sim ple

am/is/are + Past Participle


The telegrams are delivered Im

Continuous am/is/are being + Past Parti* #


She is b e in g exam ined by lit
doctor now.
Past

Sim ple

was/were + Past Participle


His car was removed,

Continuous was/were being + Past Participle


M y car was bein g washed at I h
time.
Present Sim ple
P erfect

has/have been + Past Participin


A ll the books have been sold.

Continuous
Past
Sim ple
P erfect

had been + Past Participle


He said the papers had bi**i
signed by him.

Continuous
Future

Sim ple

will be + Past Participle


W e w ill be m et at the station.

Continuous
P erfect
w ill have been + Past Participlu
This work w ill have been finish*!
by 7 oclock.
In fin itiv e (to ) be + Past
Participle

Gerund

He doesnt likr
being told wlini
to do.

^/ Voice

185

| l RULE I to take ( ,
)
S im p le Passive Voice
Presen t S im p le Passive
am

am

Am

He
-

is

She

he

We

ill are

You

They

Is

is
not taken

taken It

I
she
it

taken?

we
are

Are

you
they

P a st S im p le Passive
I
was

He

I
she

She
taken It

*
hi

Was he

was
not taken

it

We
were

we

You were

Were you
they

They

PY

taken?

F u tu re S im p le Passive
Am

he

He
will

She
taken It

be

We
|l|
VjirY

You
They

will
not
be

Is

she
be

it

taken

tak en ?

we
Are
they

you

18 6

. . >

. 1. ,
Past Simple Active Past Simple /

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

. 2. ,
Present, Past Future Simple Passive
1.
2.


3.


4.

!
5.


6.

7.

8.

9.


10.


11.


12.

. 3. ,

Past, Future Simple Passive.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

His car (to steal) last night.


Cheese (to make) from milk.
The dog (to give) some food in ten minutes.
The telegram (to receive) last week.
These televisions (to make) in Japan.
He (to give) a lot o f money last month.

Voice

18 7

I Ml the students (to invite) to the party next week.


I I (lo allow) to go fo r a walk now.
I I'll is man (to arrest) last year.
My question (to answer) soon.
I I lor book (to finish) this month.
I * article (to translate) in three days.
I Furniture (to make) from wood and plastic.
>| Tin* news (to announce) tomorrow.
I Tin patient (to take) to hospital last Friday,
t * pupils (to explain) a new rule at the next lesson.
I lie (to appoint) a new manager.
4 Dictations (to write) every day.
i| i'll is newspaper (to sell) everywhere.
4. ,
Present, Past, Future Simple Passive Active.

I )l .
1 .
.
.
, j .
, .
. .
,. ha .
.
,
,
11 ?
()( .
I .
I .
| .
| .
{ ?
.
/u* ?
). ,
Present, Past, Future Simple Passive Active.
I ?
I ?

188

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

..

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
?
.
?
.
.
.
?
.
?
.
?

. 6. ,
Present, Past, Future Simple Passive Aefl
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

.
.
?
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.
?
.
.
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.
.
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.

189

iw Voice

>i|). 7. ,
.
I They (posted/were posted) the letters yesterday.
The letters (posted/were posted) yesterday.
You can (leave/be le ft) your case here.
I The case can (leave/be le ft) here.
I I lo will (tell/be told) me the truth.
I The truth (tell/be told) me.
I You may (put/be put) your hat on.
I The hat may (put/be put) on.
I The machine mustn t (use/be used) after six o clock,
p They mustn t (use/be used) the machine.
I Tomorrow I will (pay/be paid) the bill.
I Tomorrow the bill will (pay/be paid).
ill______________
REMEMBER l1

I :
( )
to talk about
to send fo r
to look at

She is talked about,


He was sent for.
She was looked at.

to laugh at
to wait for

He is often laughed at.


I was waited for.

to care fo r

The child is cared for.

to listen to

They are listened to.

,
, ,
#/< by:
This book is written by Hemingway.

8. Passive Voice,
.

often thinks about her.


[
Wc looked fo r her everywhere.
I (Vople speak much about this film.
I They sent fo r Alice.

190

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

.. *

She cares for her baby well.


They always laugh at Tom.
W e w ill listen to the teacher attentively.
I always wait fo r my friend for a long time.
She asked fo r this book.
He w ill look fo r his key.
They will speak about this accident long.
He never listens to mothers advices.

. 9. ,
Present, Past Future Simple Passive
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. ?
5. .
6. .
7. .
8. .
9. .
10. .
. 10. Passive Voice.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

broke his bicycle.


She w ill write a new book.
W e will forgive his mistake.
Mother does not allow me to come home late.
She teaches us English.
The guide organized excursion well.
W e will discuss this question in our office.
The pupils planted many trees near school.
She w ill serve dinner at two oclock.
My little sister broke a cup.
W e wash the dishes every day.
Our grandmother will send the telegram.
M y doctor prescribed me this medicine.
A man showed me the way to her house.
My brother booked the tickets.
I w ill translate this text in the morning.
Jane wrote an interesting article.
The doctor examined patients every day.

191

Voice

* hry w ill build the bridge next month.


* enemies attacked the city.
II. Passive Voice.
11 In parents sent him to London.
1 I hoy didn t invite Ben to the birthday party,
I'hc teacher announced our marks at the lesson,
will spend all her money on clothes.
* Hi teaches them English at school.
'* I hope they w ill forgive my mistake.
Kute lost all the documents.
Tin* professor operated on Jane last month.
* * told me they would leave soon.
* I forgot my purse at home.
My parents will take me to the country.
I Wc will finish this work in the evening.

4 . |{ I MEMBER
# " ' ---------It must be done.
It can be done.

!
.
.

Vq|i 12. Passive Voice.


t
I
I
<
I
fl
f

I
It
M
i
I
11
Ifc

.In must help her mother in the kitchen.


Homebody must send fo r the doctor.
You can buy this book at any book shop.
must take his cousin to disco.
Slip cant do this work.
The doctor must take the patient to the hospital,
I cun translate this text in an hour.
Hi* must clean the garage.
I 'nn you give me this book?
Nlie can feed a dog with meat.
1'ied must forget about it.
Up must sign the documents.
You can show them the letter.
Tliey must publish the article in the magazine.
Wliere we can put our bags?

192_______ ..

. 13. .
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. .
8. .
. .
10. .
11. .
12. .
. 14. .
1. .
2.
3. .
4. ?
5. ?
6. ,
7. ?
8. .
9. ?
10. ?
11. .
12. ?
13. .
14. ?
15. ?
. 15. ,
Voice. .
1. My father (to send) to the rest-house yesterday.
2. This work must (to finish) in an hour.
3. I m sure your voice (to hear) in the next room.
4. The question (not to discuss) at the last conferenn.
5. She (lo introduce) to them next week.
6. The letter (to receive) some hours ago.
7. His picture (to show) in this museum now.
8. When they (to ask) to come here?

<vr Voice

193

Wliy my things (not to pack) yesterday?


* child (to take) for a walk by his mother.

* car (to buy) next month?


I (not to give) their address the day before yesterday.
What language (to teach) at his school?
My dinner must (to cook) in time.
^9

16. ,
Passive Voice.

.
.
, .
: .
.
.
11 ?
>1 , .
, .
, .
> .
I .
Ift , .
?
.
17. Passive Voice.
.
I bought flowers yesterday.
I damaged his car last night.
Hhe cleans the garage twice a week.
Hi* will open the meeting at nine.
I paid him a lot o f money to do the job.
Nhe has just received the letter.
We will send the newspapers by train.
They have already sold all the tickets.
Iltiming coal or oil cause acid rains.
I have told my friends about the party.
They w ill show this programme on television.
You mustnt touch this button.
She didn t allow me to come in.
Mo hasnt cleaned the carpet yet.

194

.. .

. 18. Passive Voice.


1. His parents invited many people to the wedding.
2. They were discussing this question at three oclock
3. W e w ill pack the things.
4. She is still translating the article.
5. Marriage didnt change him.
6. The police havent found the man yet.
7. Sam didn t say a word.
8. Who has done this work?
9. People are poisoning millions o f fish in the sea.
10. Jack realized that someone was following him.
11. When she received the telegram, she decided to lr
the country.
12. Ann said someone had given her the wrong 1
13. They are announcing the winner s o f the competitu>n
the moment.
14. I can spend two weeks camping near the lake.
. 19. Passive Voice.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

She has put her keys in her pocket.


Who has written this letter?
W e didnt recognize A lex.
Tom gave us a completely false idea.
Where have you bought these flowers?
He is givin g a big party. He invites us.
Last year we rented the cottage from this coupIc.
Paul Hogan plays the leading role in this film.
Mother was cooking dinner from two till three.
My younger sister borrowed my book without askli
W e are planning the redecoration o f our house.
Derek is repairing my car now.
She always criticizes the way I dress.
Kate was doing the washing at that time.
He said he had seen a miracle.

. 20. Passive Voice.


1. James took the wrong decision.
2. The doctor is consulting him at the moment.
3. This event didnt surprise me.
4. She promised to help me.
5. R ita can tell the truth.

%h'e Voice

'

't
I
n
!I
'*

195

Hurry has interrupted the teacher.


We knew she had copied the documents.
The children have left clothes lying around.
Hiilly missed opportunity to get job.
lie has already paid the bill.
You can meet here people from different countries.
Hlie has just had some soup.
Wi> must prevent pollution o f the rivers.
Hi* is tasting a delicious cake.
I'll give him your massage as soon as I see him.

(ni>. 21. ,
Passive Voice.
I .
9 ( .
I , .
1 .
I .
I , .
I .
! ?
. <> , .

.
, .
-?
.
* > , .
* , .
' |> 22. Active Voice.
I Hi* was exhausted by his hard work.
My pen was taken by somebody.
Hi* said his wallet had been stolen by someone.
Their steps were heard by us.
Irfink. Someone is being attacked.
Who has been invited to dinner by Tom?
1 l.iz said the fish had been eaten by her cat.
the books were left at home by me.
new rule is being learnt by the pupils at the moment.
This story, was written by my brother.
Tin* dog has already been taken for a walk,

106

.. .

13. The work can be finished by Christy.


14. The agreement w ill be reached by them tomorrow.
15. The bicycle was being repaired by my father at srw
oclock.
. 23. , > <
Passive Voice.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

.
.
.
,
, .
.
.
.
.
.
?
, .
.
, :1
.
?
.
.
.
.
.

. 24. ,
Passive Voice.
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. ?
5. .
6. .
7. .
8. .
9. .
10. ,

/Mf Voice

197

It ' .
|| .
.
. .
.
)1 , .
II ?
lice, .
)1 , .
I .
25. Active Voice.
I I sure I will be asked by police about this accident.
11 is honesty was acknowledged by all.
The leading role w ill be performed by my favourite
nrtress.
Tin article has been altered by Nick.
11
is decisions are always approved by her.
The city was attacked by the enemies.
The window has been le ft open by somebody.
Ills adventures were described in his book.
The equipment has just been delivered.
My departure has been planned by me before.
W<* were told that our order had not been fu lfilled by
he manager.
The children were not punished by their parents.
This poem is being learnt by heart by Mary.
1 lo was recognized as a brilliant musician by all.
f. The newspaper is being published at the moment.
\ The animal was being fed at four oclock.
F. Ills behaviour can t be understood by us.
h Hhe was not taken to the concert by her brother,
i Our cafe is visited by a lot o f people.

|i> 26. , Pas


sive Voice.
11: ,
.
1\* ?
?
.

198

.. .-

6. , .
7. .
8. .
9. .
10. , .
11. ?
12. ?
13. , .
14. .
15. ?
16.
.
17. .
18. , .
19. .
20. , .
. 27. , 14
sive Voice.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

, .
.
.
, .
.
,
.
?
.
.
,
, .
12. -
13. - .
14. ?
15. ?
16. .
17. .
18. .
19. , ,
.
1
20. .
1

'*Wi>> Voice

199

| 28. ,
Passive Voice.
?
11 .
.
.
(1 , .
11, .
f : .
.
* .
1,1 1| .
11 .
I 1 ?
, .
;>
.
I , ,
it II .
11 .
'.> .
* , .
* , .
* |i 29. ,
Passive Voice.
I ,
.
11 .
* lire .
.
?
.
.
* -> .
" 11 ?
"
.
Kii .
11 ,
.

200

.. <

14. .
15. .
16. .
17. .
18. .
19. .
20.
. 30. , .<
Passive Voice.
1. .
2. - .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7.
8. , .
9. .
10. .
11. .
12. :>.*
.
13. .
14.
.
15. .
16. .
17. .
18.
19. , .
20. ,
.

. 31. ,
Passive Voice.
1. , unit I
.
!
2. .
3. .

tfissive Voice

4.
.
6.
7.

201

.
.
- .
,
.
8. .
0. , ,
.
10. .
11. ?
12. .
13. , .
. '.
I .
16. , ,
.
17. ,
([
.
I . .
. II). .
20. .

**
1-' R U L E I----------------------------------------------------^ ,
to :
;
to m ake to le t;
: w ould ra th e r ..., had b etter ...,
would sooner ...;
"
to see, to w atch, to h ea r, to feel, etc
. 1. to , :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

likes ... play football.


She can ... speak English.
W e let them ... go there.
Dont help her ... do it.
May I ... take your dictionary?
He made me ... do it.
Mother let us ... swim in the river.
I don t want ... see him.
W e would rather ... go home.
They wanted ... speak to us.
Would you like ... drink?
You had better ... take this medicine.
They couldnt ... find their child.
Its time ... go fo r a walk.
I d like ... believe you.
W e were ready ... go out.
M y parents didn t let me ... go to that party.
Do you like ... dance?
Would you like ... listen to my song?
His joke made me ... laugh.

. 2. " to , .
1. I think I cant ... help you.
2. W e had better ... say it at once.
3. May I ... come in?

j
1

203

lie likes ... watch television.


'< .Inne couldnt ... open the door.
Tom works because he needs ... eat.
' I lo isnt going ... answer my question.
You would rather not ... tell them the truth.
I lieard him ... sing.
ll I'm planning ... visit Rome.
I Tlie children were not allowed ... eat an ice-cream.
I Klie said she would sooner ... stay in the city.

|n|i. 3.
.
E x. has a lot o f books which he can read.
He has a lot of books to read.
I I would like to offer you the dress which you can buy.
llnve you chosen the project o f the house which you
will build?
Im there something which you can show us?
4 I lore is a man who will do this work.
% Could you give me a book which I_can read?
IS .lucks brought us a new film which we can see.
? Tlicy have a lot o f work which they must finish in time.
t She has less time in which she will tell you everything.
I lore is an interesting physical process which we can study.
A Mother bought a lot of fru it which we can eat.
I) You can put on the coat which w ill warm you.
ftf Our teacher gives us many rules which we must learn.
( an you give me a pen which I can write w ith?
it Here are some proposals which we have to discuss,
. I Ins she typed the documents which I will sign?
* up. 4. ,
.
Ex. , .
Here is an article to translate.
, .
,
.
, .
, .
, .

204

.. .

6. , .
7. , .
8. , .
9. , .
10. , .
11. , .
12. , mi
.
13. , .
14. , <>>
.
15. , !..
. 5.
.
Ex. is so busy that he can t answer your call
He is too busy to answer your call.
1. She is so weak that she can t go out.
2. They w ill be so busy that they w ill not meet you at (In
station.
3. This cat is so fat that it cant catch a mouse.
4. The game was so boring that we didnt want to play
5. This story was so unbelievable that we didn't believe Inn
6. The weather is so hot that we will not leave the honm
7. That bar was so dirty that nobody wanted to eat thru
8. The water is so cold that I dont want swim in the rivw
9. He is so stupid that he can t learn a single thing.
10. She had very little money and she couldnt buy that dun
11. The rule is so d ifficu lt that pupils don t understand I
12. H er dress is so dirty that she can t wash it up.
ESP R U L E f

* ____ ______ _

Active

Indefin ite

to ask

Continuous

to be asking

P erfect

to have asked

P erfect
Continuous

to have been asking

Passive
to be asked
to have been aski-l

205

tu

A T T E N T IO N

Indefinite

I am (always) glad
to help you.

( )
.

Continuous

I am glad to be
helping you now.

,
.

I'erfect

I am glad to have
helped you.

.
.

IVrfect
Continuous

I am glad to have
been helping you
since morning.

,
.

Indefinite

I am (always) glad
to be helped.

() .

.

Perfect

I am glad to have
been helped.

,
.

1
1
*

*
\
1*

fh)i (i. ,
Active Infinitive Passive Infinitive.
I
I
9
I
I
I
I
I

It

I niri glad to meet him.


lit was glad to be met at the station.
Hlie is sorry to tell you about it.
iilie didnt want to be told about it.
The child doesn t like to be punished.
I'o buy a new dress is her only dream.
I It* wanted to be invited to this party.
We hope to be sent to the conference.
I liave a great desire to spend next summer in Paris.
Nobody wants to be laughed at.

f>i|i 7. , A c
tive Infinitive Passive Infinitive.
I )l , .
,
.
< Oil , .

206

. .

4. .
5. , .
6. ,
.
7. ,
8. .
9. , ,
.
10. ,
11. .
12. , .
13. , .
14. , *
. 8. '
Infinitive. .
1. is sorry that he has said it .
2. She is glad that she has received his letter.
3. Tom was happy that he had been taken to the zoo
4. I remember that I had met this woman before.
5. Susan is sorry that she has spoilt my picture.
6. I wasnt glad because I had been appointed to tin
of manager.
7. He was angry because he had been interrupted.
8. The pupils are in a good mood as they have writlni
test without mistakes.
9. The boy was sorry because he had forgotten L ois
at home.
10. W e are glad that we have been invited to the party.
11. She is very happy as she has achieved her aim.
12. He is very upset because he has not passed his
. 9. , |>|
.
1. She seems (to translate) scientific articles.
2. She seems (to translate) a scientific article at tin- ii
ment.
. 3. She seems (to translate) two articles already.
4. She seems (to translate) this article since early morn
5. Beth likes (to run) every morning before breakfast
6. He was glad (to find) his gloves.

207

liiiir is sorry (to break) a cup.


\V<* were very pleased (to receive) their invitation.

I li< pupil wants (to help) by his teacher.


I inn disappointed (to miss) him.
Hhi is pleased (to meet) her friend finally.
I i-xpect (to tell) the news by them.
pretended (not to listen) to the teacher.
I liry are glad (to do) all the work before.
II*- Is glad (to speak) with her now.
10. ,
.
, I mu glad (to work) with you.
I urn glad (to work) with you now.
, I in glad (to work) with you since morning.
Wi wanted (to recognize) by them at once.
HIh* always wants (to talk) about him.
, II' pretended (to sleep) and (not to hear) the telephone
illiK.
I'lipy are lucky (to see) so many countries.
, My younger sister doesnt like (to treat) like a child,
A mi seems (to discuss) a very important problem now.
! This actor doesn t like (to interview) by the reporters.
Tin* child didnt want (to forbid) to go fo r a walk.
* teacher wants (to tell) i f the student can t attend a
!<
lure.
(
Mi* seemed (not to understand) what I told him.
rilio hates (to wear) a suit.

The policeman told him (not to drive) so fast.


k 11. ,
.

I *# .
.

208

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

..

, .
.
, .
.
, .
.
.
,
.

. 12. ,
.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

, .
, .
, ,
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .

Complex Object

/ HEMEMBER I---------------- -------------------------------^

,
< omplex Object :

,
:
I like him to dance.
, .
I want you to g iv e me this book.
, .
C om plex O bject + .
.
!!
_

I C om p lex O bject
. , , :
to want
to lik e
to desire
to wish

to hate

should (w ould) lik e

h>- I- pa , Com
plex Object.
I II , .
| , .
% , .
4 , .
, .
I , .
1 ,
.
, .
, .
0 , .
I , .

210

.. . .

12. , .
13. ,
.
. 2. , /1
lex Object.
1. , .
2. , .
3. , .
4. , .
5. ,
6. ,
7. ,
.
8. , .
9. , .
10. ,
.
11. , ?
12. ,
.
13. ,
.
14. , ?
15. , .
. 3. , |
plex Object.
1. ,
2. , .
3. , !
4. , .
5. , .
6. , ?
7. , .
8. , .
9. ,
10. , - .
11. , .
12. ,
13. , .
14. , .

ijiii /l e

211

x O b je c t

J - I^ULE j

fin m jd w

n h jv r t

n n r 7tt>

, :
to expect
to consider

to suppose
to believe

to think
to find

to imagine

to declare

// :

to know

W e know him to be a kind man.


, .
, Com
plex Object.
.
, .
, .
, .
) , .
, .
, .
. , .
, .
, .
, .
!
, .
,
' , ?
I It .
, .
! 1 , ?

I |>. 4 .

I
i
*
4
)
"
<

It

II

*
'
*

I >i|>. 5. , Com
plex Object.
1 , .
* 11 , .
, .
<> , ,
> , .
1 , .

212

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

.. *

, .
, ?
, ?
, .
.
.
, ?
?
,
RULE

---

C o m p le x O b ject
:

nake
1et
1lave

somebody do something
somebody do something
somebody do something

-------1I
A T T E N T IO N

,
to:
I made them vvork.

. 6. , Cmt
pie: Object.
1. .
2. .
3. ,
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. , .
8. ?
9. .
10. .
11. ,
12. .
. 7. , Own
plex Object.
1. .
2. ,

213

i m p le x O b je c t

1
I
|
1

, ?
.
.
< .
11<> ?
.
?
)1 , .
IIULE

Complex Object , , , :

>rder
commend

to advice
to ask fo r

to request

to command

to allow

to perm it

Jielu'd fo r the telegram to be sent at once.


, .
V "

8. , Com
plex Object.
>iui , .
, .
> , .
.
< > , .
, ,
tiro , .
( ><|> , .
)1 , .
I >iin , .
ItU L E l--------------------------------------------------------

, t r hi :
to see
to notice
to watch
to hear
to observe
to fe el
f^nm um ue "to ;
I noticed her enter the room.
, .
-

214

.. jmmi

. 9. ,
Object .
1. They approached the house. W e saw them.
2. They began to laugh. I heard it.
3. The boy jumped into the river. She watched him.
4. He called my name. I heard it.
5. W e noticed how the dog opened the door.
6. The wind blew o ff his hat. I saw it.
7. Her voice trembled. He felt it.
8. Tom saw his friend. He crossed the street.
9. The cat caught a bird. Children watched it.
10. The weather changed. W e observe it.
11. The telephone rang. The old man didn t hear it.
12. The animals behaviour became dangerous. They IVIl
. 10. , (
plex Object .
1. , .
2. , .
3. , .
4. , .
5. , ?
6. , ?
7. , .
8. , , '
9. - , ?
10. , .
11. , .
12. , .
13. , .
14. , .
15. , >|
3 R U L E

, ^
lljt\
(T h e Objective P a rticip le Comfit

.
The Objective P a rticip le C om plex

Present Participle.

+l>lrx Object

215

AT T E N T IO N I-------------------------------------^^^
!

.
iHit/wm .* ( ).
9 ^i*a

:
I saw her enter the room.
, .
I saw her entering the room.
, .

*l> II. , Com


plex Object .
( I In- were playing football. W e watched them.
I llt< was going along the street. I saw him.
I was telling lie. W e heard it.
I 11 were dancing. I didn t see them.
I Mi- wind was getting stronger. He felt it.
i I In two man were laughing at him. He noticed it.
I Mv grandmother was sitting in the arm-chair. I saw her.
I ; niiirbody was touching his hand. He felt it.
4 I I..* man was getting angry. W e felt it.
4 liildren were playing with a dog. Did you see them?
I lli i wife was washing up. He watched her.
* flu* typist was typing a letter. I watched her.
I 12. ,
Complex Object .
. , .
I .hi , .
L , ,
f > , .
| , .
| , ?
( , .
9 ,
III .

9 , .

216

..

10. , .
11. , ?
. 13. , ('
plex Object .
1. , .
2. , .
3. ,
4. ,
5. , .
6. , ?
7. ,
8. - ,
9. , - .
10. , <|
.
11. , ?
12. , ,
.
13. , .
14. - , ?
15. , .
. 14. , ('
plex Object ,
.
1. , .
2. , iijmh
3. , .
4. , .
5. , .
6. , .
7. , .
8. , ,
9. , .
10. ,
11. ,
12. ,
?
13. ,
14. , .
.

m / ile x O b je c t

217

, .
> , .
1 , .
> (> , .
>1 ,
.
' , , .
Jl

I : , Com
plex Object ,
.
I ,
.
, .
I , .
I JI , - .
| >1 , .
( 1| , .
, .
, .
, .
, ?
|. , - .
II , .
< > , .
, , .
I , ,
<>11 , .
I , .
I , .
I )1 ,
.
I ,
.
| , .
fc ). , Com
plex Object ,
.
| > , .
I II , .
I , .

218

..

j i

4. , im
5. ,
6. , .
7. , .
8. , *
9. , ?
10. , .
11. , >
12. ,
.
13. , .
14. , .
15. ,
.
16. , .
17. , *
.
18. , *
19. , |
20. , .
. 17. , ( \
plex Object .
1. , .
J

,
,
- >|
2. ,
|
!
?
,
3. ,
.
,
]
,
,
*
,

w * l 'U x O b je c t

219

uni ,

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
* ' 1 , .
,
,
,
,
.
.
1 * , .
.
- .
.
- .
.
.

!
>1>1 Object Past Pa r
, ) , , .
She wants the work
finished.

She wants the work


to be finished.

, .
IH. , Com
plex Object Past Participle.
I , .
I <tit , .
| ( , .
I , .

220

.. .

5. ,
.
6. ,
7. , .
8. , ?
9. ,
.
10. , ,!

ATTENTION I------------ ----- ------------------- !

C om plex O bject Past P a rtia p ltl


to have, , '/
, <)*
, - .
( ) .
mended his car.
( )
had his car mended.
. 19. , ('(
plex Object Past Participle.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

.
.
.
.
.
?
.
.
?
.
?

,
.
14. .
15. .
.
^

ih'X Object

221

20. , Com
plex Object Past Participle.

I )l .
?
.
I 11 ?
?
I> .
Una .
?
I ?

|) .

?

.
?
I It( ?
?
?
?
<> : .


C om plex Object

>1 71. , Com


plex Object.
I )1 , .
$ , .
| 11 .
, .
) , .
lil.T , - ?
?
I , .
, .
It > , - .
II , .

222

. .

12. , .
13. ,
14. ,
15. , .
16. , ?
17. , ?
. 22. , *
plex Object.
1. ,
2. , .
3. , .
4. .
5. , !,
.
6. , pui
.
7. ,
8. , .
9. , ,
, .
10. , ?
11. , .
12. .
13. .
14. , .
15. ,
.
16. .
. 23. ,
plex Object.
1. , .
2. ,
3. , .
4. ?
5. , .
6. .
7. , , ,
.
8. .

1>1

'9
I
I
I
I

Object

223

) , - .
, .
, .
, , .
.
II* ,
, !

>t|i '-.1. , Com


plex Object.
I ,
.
| , .
| )1 , .
| , .
I ll .
, .
I hi , .
| , , , .
{ .
,
III1M.

I ll .
, .
?

11( , ?
?
, Com
plex Object.
I . , .
tin ,
.
I , .
I ?
t v
1 1 * .
* . ?
1 , .
>1 , .

224

. . *

9. ,
.
10. !
11. ?
12. ?
13. , >
14. , nacnoirri
.
15. , ?
16. .
17. , -
. 26. , ('
plex Object.
1. , .
2. , .
3. .
4. ?
5. .
6. ,
7. ,
8. , .
9. ,
10. , .
11.
?
12. , , .
13. , .
.
14. .
15. , .
16. ,
.
17. , -
18. , .
19. , .
20. , .
21. ,
.
22. ,
?

Object

225

'27. , Com
plex Object.
11 ,
:| .
I'ffteHOK , .
II , .
, ?
, ?
Hi- , .
, ?
I , .
, .
. , .
II , .
111<* , ?

Com plex Subjv


t
* R U L E \
C o m p le x S u b ject :
*
1
/

.
.
is said to liv e in Moscow.
, .
T h e y are known to be good pupils.
, .
T h e y were known to be good pupils.
,
She is said to h a ve le ft Moscow.
, .
She was said to h a ve le ft Moscow.
, .
C o m p le x S u b je ct , c k u .i
,
V oice:
to say

to hear

to state
to suppose

to announce
to believe

to expect
to know
to understand

to see

to think

to consider

to order

to ask

to allow

W e were asked to w a it in the o ffice.


.
T h e y are supposed to com e at seven.
,

/ilrx Subject

227

I . ,
Complex Subject.
Hlit is said to be a very kind woman.
Mi is considered to have finished his scientific researches.
Wliut are they supposed to be doing?
, lilldren were supposed to have stayed in the country-house.
I'hls student is believed to know four foreign languages.
Hu is believed to have been instructed about everything.
Mr was believed to be preparing a report.
I In* new invention is considered to be applied in some days.
They arent supposed to take part in this conference.
Wlint am I expected to answer?
'J. , Complex
Subject.
work is considered to be finished in some hours.
You are supposed to have told the truth.
Ill, parents were not expected to come so early.
pupils are not considered to know the answers to
ilii-se questions.
Wliat are they expected to do now?
My friends are believed to be on their way to my place.
I* you know the ship is reported to call in the port
1 tomorrow?
Ibiit he considered to be one of the best surgeons?

father was known to have been appointed to this post.


I'hrse plants are known to grow in subtropics.
I '!ln was heard to have left fo r France.
I W |io is considered to be the best specialist in this field
f Bcience?
I documents are reported to have been received.
' are said to have been travelling fo r a long time.
I Tlu'se reforms are thought to be difficult to carry out.
n# Tin train can be expected to arrive at seven.
11 i t

, Com
plex Subject.
I 11, .
, .

228

.. >

4. , .
5. , >
.
6. ,
.
7. ,
8. , ^
.
9. , ...
10. ,
11. , .
12. *!
.
13. , rmciind
.
14. , .
:
15. ,
.
. 4. , < 4
plex Subject.
1. .
|
2. , !
3. , II
.
4. , .
1
5. , .

6. , 4
.

7. ,
.

8. ,
9. , .

10. , .
]
11. , !
.
12. , ||
.
13. , .
14. , *
15. , .
.

I^mplrx Subject

229

I ItULE I-------------------- -----------------------------------ly *


I C om plex Subject ,
t ,
A ctiv e Voice:

to happen
to appear
lo chance
to p ro ve
to turn ou t
lie seem to notice nothing unusual.
, .
They seems to h ave fo rg o tte n their promise.
, .
fcl- . ,
Complex Subject.
This pupil doesnt seem to know the answer.
Tin* young specialist proved to be a good doctor.
My mother seems to be cooking a new kind o f soup.
Hlit* appeared to have been ill for two days.
Tlu-y didnt seem to be rich.
doesnt seem to be a fool.
man seemed to have been hurt.
I'ln front gate didnt happen to be open.
Tin old woman seems to be in a good health.
I Imppened to overheard his words.
(1. , Com
plex Subject.

I l'hcy are very happy. It seems so.


IL noems he is a genius in math.
l( eoemed she was working hard.
I 11 lurned out that the translation o f this text was uneasy.
I ll happened that she was stopped by the police.
11 turned out that my watch was wrong.
11 M*ems that they are looking for something.
11 iippeared that we have lost the way in the darkness.
I (I did not seem that the question had been solved.
ftp 7. , Com
plex Subject.

230

.. .

3. ,
4. ,
5. , .
6. , .
7. , .
8. , , .
9. , .
10. .
11. , .
12. , .
13. ,
14. , ,
15. , .

. 8. ,
plex Subject.
1. , .
2. ,
3. ,
.
4. , .
5. , .
6. ,
7. ,
8. , .
9. .
10.,
.
R U LE
I C om p lex S u bject , /

to be likely

to be certain

to be unlikely

to be sure

They are certain to come.


, , .
H e is likely to telephone.
, .

ilex Subject

231

. , Com
plex Subject.
I Hlie is likely to get upset i f you ask about it.
* I'lioir work is certain to take a long time.
R .lime is not sure to obtain information from the article.
4 Hlio is sure to call while I am out.
A I'liis question is certain to be discussed.
I * results o f you examination are likely to be known
In a day.
f They are sure to welcome us warmly.
^ Wi* were not likely to finish our research before the end
. nf the month.
* llrr brother is not likely to help us.
iff I h is sure to be attractive, but I am not interested.
10. , Com
plex Subject.
I 11|>, .
| |1<>, ,
t , .
| 11,
.
I , .
! 1, .
)1 .

, .
, .
1l I, .
* II. , Com
plex Subject.
I 11|>:1, .
# , .
I .
I I , .
9 > .
, .
1 (,
.
><vi,, '1

232

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

.. .**

, ].!.
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .

. 12. ,
plex Subject.
1. ,
2. .
3. , .
4. , .
5. .
6. ,
.
7. , .
8. , .
9. ,
10. ,
.
11. ?
12. , ,
.
13. ,
14. , .
15. , .


The P a rtic ip le
I| .

r u le

I-

i f - ---------- 1

Active
1

Passive

' l*rrsent
j lnnt
IVrfect
j

asking

having asked

being asked
asked
having been asked

(T h e P a r tic ip le )

.
R e s tin g ; .
f . I. ,
(Present Participle Active).
I
N
.I
4

V
I*)

'Ihe girl standing at the window is my sister.


We looked at the playing children.
Entering the room he dropped his keys.
lie set in the arm-chair thinking,
She came up to us breathing heavily,
The hall was fu ll o f laughing people.
The boy smiled showing his teeth.
The singing girl was about fourteen.
Mother put eggs into the boiling water.
Writing letters is a waste o f time.

Phi>. 2.
Present Pa rticiple Active.
The woman who is looking out o f the window is my aunt.
f The children who are p laying in the garden are very
noisy.
* Hhe came up to the man who was standing at the door.
There was a lot o f work which was w aitin g fo r us.
Hr didn t like the people who w ere surrounding
lilm.

234

.. ..

6. I noticed the people who were w aitin g for the taxi.


7. The vase which stands on the table is my daughln ]
present.
8. W e are not the fans o f the team which is losing.
9. I don t know the man who is entering the room.
10.
There is a man who is hurrying along the street In
front o f him.
. 3.
Present Participle Active.
1. The woman called the boy who was working in ]
garden.
2. A s the wind was blowing, it was very cold.
3. Since I needed a pen, I asked my friend to give im ll< I
4. A s he was afraid o f the dog, the boy ran quickly j
the yard.
5. Since th e lessons were over, the pupils went honn
6. W e decided to go to the cafe as we had plenty o f lime, |
7. Tom can translate this article as he knows English wi ll j
8. A s we thought they were w aitin g fo r us, we wen h i ]
a hurry.
. 4.
Present Pa rticiple Active.
1. W h en she came home, she turned on the light.
2. W hen you read English text, copy out the new woi it j
3. W h ile he was w aitin g fo r me, he became the witm'
o f an accident.
4. W hen I was w alkin g through the park, I saw soiii)
flowers.
5. W h en you are lea vin g the house, dont forget to I k]
the door.
6. He didnt write the truth when he was w ritin g a let I*
7. W h en she saw them, she smiled with pleasure.
8. W hen he begins to work, he will not forget our ni l
structions.
. 5. , < <
Present Pa rticiple Active.
1. ,
.

;
U

235

,
.
, .
, , .
, .
,
.
I ) , .
, .
, .

I >|. . ,
(Present Participle Passive).
I The question being discussed now is very important.
Up doesn t know the song being heard.
t The house being built in our street is a new supermar
ket.
Do you like the film being discussed?
' Iteing asked at the lesson, the boy answered nothing.
The experiment being carried on by this scientist is
very important.
lleing packed in the beautiful box the flowers looked
very lovely.
I . 7. , Present Pa rticiple Passive.
I

, ,
.
, ,
.
1' : ,
, .
4 , 11.

, ,
.
' , ?
, ,
.
, .

236

..

R U L E j
1
* ...............J

P a s t P a r tic ip le = P a rtic ip le I I

bou gh t

w ritte n

discussed ; ;

. 8. ,
Past Pa rticiple.
1. He doesn t like boiled milk.
2. A broken cup liays on the floor.
3. The books w rit en by this author are very interesting
4. I remember wel 1 his words told at the meeting,
5. Asked about th at event, he replied nothing,
6. I dont like the book bought last week,
7. The stolen thin gs were returned to the owner,
8. W e are interestsd in the goods produced by this factory,
9. He looked at he;r and was gone,
10. This is the hou se built many years ago.
&

A T T E N T IO N

P articiple I ( ing )
Participle I I ( I I I )
taking

discussing -
doing
- ,

taken

discussed
done

. 9. ,
Participle I Participle II.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

A person taking a bath is our patient.


A person taking to the hospital was his brother.
The letter written by him was very long.
Dont make mistakes w riting a letter.
The question put to the professor were important.
W hile putting the flowers into the vase he broke it.

237

j . I saw my friend saying good bye to his girl-friend.


She didnt understand the word said by him.
lie* didnt see the things kept in her box.
Ann entered the room keeping a book in her hand.
f i i >. 10. .

I Who is the girl (doing, done) her task on the blackboard?


V The book (writing, written) by him is not very interesting,
The translation (doing, done) by me was very easy.
1 The (loosing, lost) keys were not found.
* The (loosing, lost) team w ill not get the prize,
I dont like the video ( buying, bought) yesterday.
I Do you know the boy (coming, come) towards us?
9 Wp like the songs (singing, sung) by this singer.
The woman (singing, sung) is his wife.
Il* The question (discussing, discussed) at the meeting was
vrry important.
> 11. , P a r
ticiple I Participle I I .
1 11, , .
{ , .
11' , .
J , .
11 , .
:>< , 1 .
, ?
, .

, we .
It , .

Present P a rtic ip le P e rfe c t P a rtic ip le

havin g bought

In iy in g

Irrfect P a rticip le ,
'/ ,
*
.

238

.. .

. 12. , *
Perfect Participle.
1. Having lost his address, I couldnt write to him.
2. Having traveled about the Europe for two months,
returned home.
3. She went home, having finished her work.
4. Having shaken hands with them, we continued our wf \
5. H aving collected all the necessary materials, he bi-*j
w riting the report.
6. Having made the report, Tom left the room.
7. H aving answered all the question, she began retrll^
the text.
. 13. , Present Partii lfii
Perfect Participle.
1. (to write) out all the new words, I started to iearn Un i
2. (to live) in K yiv, he was able to see all the aiii inj
monuments.
3. (to hear) my friends voice, I left the room to open tin ilH
4. W e went home, (to look) through the documents.
5. (to drink) coffee she was talking to her friend.
6. (to go) down the street, the boy was looking back
time to time.
7. (to throw) the ball, the little girl ran home.
8. I think that the man (to stand) there is her fathi-i.
9. (to buy) food, they le ft supermarket.
10. (to know) French well the pupil can translate this I4
11. She entered the room (to smile).
12. (to see) the stranger the dog began barking.
13. (to bark) dog doesnt bite.
14. (to find) the keys, we were able to open the door.
. 14. ,
Present Participle Perfect Participle.
1. ,
-.
2. , ^
3. , .
4. , <
5. , <
6. , *

239

11 , .
> , .

REMEMBER
- 11

|i m issin g

|i*\ ing discussed

brlni; discussed

ting been discussed

# H i-n s s e d

(Hiding

mg built

|ii built
I!
| been built

ILi
ill

*1 :

throwing

throwing

( )
()

f p >1
^*iiri ( )
(
)
^..1 ( )

being thrown
thrown
throwing
throwing
having thrown
throwing
being thrown
being thrown
having been thrown^

240

. . $

. 15. , !
.
1. Being busy, he could not answer my questions.
2. I received some illustrated magazines.
3. Having told the news, she stopped speaking.
4. They showed me the book, written many years ago.
5. The articles being written by modern journalists dil'U
from those written years ago.
6. Having received his letter, they left fo r Lviv.
7. W h ile waiting fo r them, I was reading this newspii|>*
8. The boy was reading the book making notes.
9. W e study at the university founded hundred years iijfti]
10. She ran to the steps leading down the street.
11. Seeing them we decided to tell them the truth.
12. Having cleaned the room he went for a walk.
13. Being ill, she couldnt go to the cinema with us.
14. W hile being asked about that accident, the woiim
couldnt say anything.
. 16. , |]
.
1. walked down the road (to sing).
2. (to enter) the room I recognized him at once.
3. (to put) on the coat, she ran out o f the house.
4. The man (to teach) math at their school studied in 0(l<-n
5. (to translate) into a foreign language the story lost
its charm.
6. (to come) home she found nobody there.
7. He woke up (to think) o f his parents.
8. (to be) a woman o f taste she always dresses well.
9. There are some people (to come) in now.
10. (to translate) seven articles, he decided to have a broul
11. You make mistake (to judge) people by their appearand
12. (to be) very tired, she soon fell asleep.
13. The boy went in, (to carry) his case.
14. W hile (to discuss) this problem, we sat on the window
. 17. , *
.
1. (to have) dinner, he went out.
2. (to examine) by the doctor, the patient could not slnj
talking.

241

4 (to write) her first text-book, she thought about the


next book.
4 the children looked at me (to listen) with a great
attention.
(to prescribe) the medicine, the doctor le ft our house.
(to see) that nobody was coming, Tom rose.
! I looked up and saw the sky (to light up with) the sett
ing sun.
While (to translate) the text you may use a dictionary.
Klie felt tired (to run) such a long distance.
(lo hear) his voice, we stepped.
11 They approached the boys (to water) the flowers.
Tlie wind blew (to bring) the smell o f coffee.
M We are going to London, (to have) relatives there,
l i (to hear) the mans steps, the w olf disappeared.
I \ (to run) in anger, he gave me money with trembling hands.
flip. 18. ,
.
1 11 , .
I , ,
.
4 , ,
, .
I JI , .
V I inn , .
I( , .
i , .
,
,
, .
(I , .
It , .
(1 .
,
.
! - I ||*, , .
u|t. 19. ,
.
, .

242______ .. ..

2. , .
3. , ,
4. , , |>
5. , .
6. , , !
.
7. ,
.
8. , .
9. ,
, .
10.
,
. 20. , *-
.
1. ,
.
2. ,
.
3. , , pemnl
.
4. , , >\
.
5. , .
6. , ,
.
7. ,
.
8. - .
9. ,
.
10. ,
?
11. ,
?
12. , .
13. , .
14. , *
.
15. , <
.

crime

243

*|1 l\ . ,
.
I <>0 , ,

.
I ,
.
I - , 1.

I ,
.
* Hi* , .
* I' , .
1 , .
, .
11 , .
It ,
.
II , .
I f , .
U 1, .
. , .
| , .
|| , .
|f . ,
.
|| )1 ,
.
IIULE

N om in ative A b s olu te P a r tic ip ia l C o n s tru ctio n


lino ,
, , .
weather being fine,
Hpent a whole day in
I In country.
1In-


,
.

244______ ..

. 22. ,
.

1. M y brother havin g lost the key, we couldnt enter IU


house.
2. The wind being favourable, the ship will reach IN
shore in time.
3. The sun having set, they continued their way.
4. The teacher being ill, the lesson was put off.
5. The weather having changed, he decided to stay at 1*
6. There being much tim e le ft, she wanted to have a nn|
7. The keys having been lost, the man couldnt open IN
door.
8. There being a strong wind, the flig h t was put off.
9. The weather being favourable, we will have a good n<*|
10. The work having been finished, the workers went
11. A l l being understood, the discussion was over.
12. The task done, all the pupils handed in their campiwl
tions.
13. The work finished, they hurried home.
14. Supper being over, women went to the hall to rest. ,
15. The w in ter being cold, we spent three month in 1
city.
A T T E N T IO N I---------------------------------------------

IV
The work finished, the staff
left the office.

j u
,
.

stood silent, his teeth


pressed.

,
.

She rose to her feet (w ith)


her arms folded.

,
.

The young woman looked at


h im , h e r eyes s h in in g
brightly.

nn
,
( ) .

The weather permitting, we


shall go for a walk.

, *
.

f t * mue

245

ip */II. ,
.
II having decided that they should leave fo r London,
11 secretary booked three tickets.
I In night being dark, I could see nothing in the yard.
< I In sun having set, it began getting dark.
Mi . Brown being tired, we couldnt continue our way.
II being Sunday, the shop was closed.
I li river being overflowed, the crossing was impossible.
I h goods having been unloaded, the ship le ft port.
I here being nothing to eat, the boys returned home
Imiigry.
I liv article translated, the young woman had nothing
Id do.
1 I hr signal given , the skaters rushed forward.
Hu field havin g been ploughed, the peasants expect
Hu good harvest.
I hn door closed he couldnt enter the room.
I Hi encyclopedia being bought, the pupil found all
I hr necessary information.
I being weekend, his can go to the country.
I I In concert finished, the time o f the lottery came.
24. ,
.

S. I ho hour being late, Ann went to bed.


li*-lh looked at the old man, her fists clenched,
I Ini dog curled near the fire place, w ith his eyes run
ning from one man to another.
I swimmer got ready fo r the jump, his hands raised,
II being the day o f m y English exam, I got up early.
I I lwy walked home, adm iring the beautiful evening.
' Me down , Mr. Rochester said to his dog, w ith his
voice trembling.
I I lie evening being warm, we went fo r a walk.
I I lie boy didn t answer w ith his eyes dropped.
I i t meal was over, she turned from the table.
I I n-irk was sitting silent, his eyes fixed on his fath er s
.

I heard the little g irl speaking, her voice rin g in g


with joy.

246

.. >

13. This thought broke her down and she wandered ii


w ith the tears ro llin g down her cheeks.
14. She was going slowly along the road, w ith her I
fly in g in the wind.
15. He opened the door w ith his heart beating fast.
16. The third b ell done, people crowded the hall.
. 25. ,

1. , /
.
2. , .
3. ,
4. , .
5. , .
6. , .
7. ,
.
8. , .
9. , .
10.
, .
11. , mi
12. ,
.
13. ,
.
14. ,
.
15. , .
. 26. ,
.
1. , .
2. ,
.
3. ,
.
4. , ,
.
5. ,

rtnue

247

I ,
.
.
,
.
< , II .
- ,
in .
Ilmicap , nwiocb .
,
.
,
' .

,
.
,
( .
,
.
. , .


The Geru
eg
'

ru le

(T h e G erund)
-ing.


I like reading books.

Reading is my favourite
occupation.

I can not live without


reading books.

,
.

I remember reading this


book.

, .
.

I think o f reading this


book.

.in
.

I like reading aloud.

ecjii/t

. 1. ,
.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Taking medicine is unpleasant thing.


He sat without answering.
Smoking is forbidden here.
He is fond o f painting.
My shoes need repairing.
They went on talking.
It looks like raining.
The band began playing music.
She has' a habit o f interrupting people.
I like learning foreign languages.
They continue their studying.
M y parents insist on my staying there.
Thank you fo r helping.
M y friend cant help speaking about this event.

, 1 ter coming home the boy had dinner,


Wr enjoyed playing tennis.
-r child is afraid of swimming.
I 1'lu-y were informed o f our arriving.
i libi* is incapable o f doing it.
I li is suspected o f stealing money.

I 22. ,
.
r Mho does a lot of (read).
, Whnt he likes is (drive),
No (park) here.
, We heard a lot o f (shout) last night,
ijnirk (run) saved him.
I nin not against his (come),
Who does (wash) in your house?
We did some (shop) this morning.
Min- hates (do) the washing-up.
(m l) is an interesting profession.
, No (camp).
I'lMTes no (regret) my decision.
Their (shout) woke people up.
We dont mind (invite) him.
, Excuse me, I (be) late,
f I iy it on before (complain).
My friend enjoys a bit of (sing).
Hu*) late is a shame.
I like his (guitar play).
Tins is used fo r (cut) meat.
, No (smoke) here.
Thi'se (draw) are expensive.
, (Mie has done very little (iron) today,
I > you like (cycle)?
^ Yesterday he had some (train).
I (nut be) late is a good habit.
I There was (ring) of a bell.
I l>oes she like (make) plans?
I No (fish) here.
I ilon t like (watch) football.

250

..

1= R U L E V

hf----- ------1

A c tiv e

Passive

writing

being written

having written

having been writlm

Indefin ite
P erfect

A T T E N T IO N K

I

A c tiv e

I like in vitin g my friends.


.

I like being invited to the parties.


Passive ,
.

t
-

A c tiv e

Passive

I remember having shown you this le tlri,


,
I remember h aving been shown this lclUt
, nun, hi

. 3. ,
.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

I can t remember having seen him before.


This film is worth seeing.
W e can t excuse their not answering our invitation
I am sorry fo r having disturbed you.
She entered the office without being noticed.
He doesnt like having been invited to their parti*H.
She is angry at having been sent for.
Everybody enjoy working with him.
W e are proud o f having been her pupils.
You should avoid breaking rules.
The boy hates being scolded.
The child is proud o f having been praised by his parcnl

IjfiiituH

251

,

1 nvoid
I nilinit
|t> nppreciate
h< 11nmider
* ib'lny
ih-ny
|c ilftoct
l fiijoy
^L plain

to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to

fancy
finish
forgive
imagine
help (on)
mention
mind
miss
pardon

to
to
to
to
to
to
to

postpone
put o ff
stop
give up
go on
suggest
resent

-1. , ,
.
>1 , .
> .
, .
'IVfic ?
, - .
.
> ,
>1 , .
IV .
1| .
11, .
11 , .
* I .
|1 >1 .
0. , .
I .
I , .
i <) , ,
t , .
* >1 .
* , .

252

.. .

7. ,
, |
9. .
10. .
11. .
12. !
13. .
14. , !
8.

0 3 REM EM BER I------------------------------------------- . . . . I


4
:

to agree to

to persist in

to think of

to accuse of

to be engaged in

to be capabh nf |

to approve of
to be afraid of

to spend in

to be fond of
to be proud nf

to consist in
to complain of

to result in
to hear of
to suspect of

to insist on
to depend on

to prevent from to inform of


,to succeed in

to object to
to give up the idea of to be surprise* I *1

. 6. ,
1. .
2. .
3. , .
4. , .
5. .
6. , ]
7. .
8. ,
9. J
.
10. imi
11. , .
12. , ^
.
13. ,

253

fftfctwluu

I 11- ,
.

tl 7. ,
.
| .
| |> , ,
t * .
4 I Inin , ' .
I .
I .
II , .
$ , .
% ( , .
, .
,
* .
)| , ,
^ , .
11| , , .
.
.
ATTE NTIO N
!
to need, to want, to require
^^ worth ( )
Active.
This book is worth reading.
.

f|p . , .

( .
I ,
f .
I .
' .
.
I

254

..

7. ,
.
8. .
9. ?
10. ?
11. !

9. ,

1. ?
2. , ?
3. .
4. , .4
5. , .
6. , -4
.
7. ?
8. ! .
9. , .
10. , .
11. .
12. , .


to feel like
to be for
to be against
She couldn t help crying.

can t help
cant avoid
cant afford
.

W e dont feel like walking.

. 10. , ,
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

, ?
.
.
, .
?
, ?

255

r iiid u u

>
1.
.
> .
11 , ?
' , .
.
I , .
.

1 - 11. , .

II * , , .
- , .
I ,
.
:|
|1.
II' .
, .
, .
I hi - , ?
. ! .
.

II , .
.
.
N
VATTENTIO

,
!
inn.
^,


:
It II hi*
.
by

of

to

illiinit

in

at

besides

r|

on

for

apart from

b iiil

before
with

256

..

. 12. , !
: about, of, for, in, on, to, at. <i/i|
by, without, with.
They talked (go) to Italy fo r their holiday.
They talked about going to Italy fo r their holitlnyf)
1.
2.
3.
4.
.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

This is used (cut) metal.


He is good (listen) to what people say.
I am tired (work) in the garden.
W e are looking forward (meet) with you.
She was not interested (hear) my excuses.
I am very happy (see) you again.
He can get into the house (climb) through a wiuilnwj
(open) the door, she walked trough it.
A re they interested (join) our expedition?
She improves her pronunciation (read) aloud.
I was busy (cook).

. 13. , i]
.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

{

.
, peuirn^
, .
.
.
.
, ,
.
, |
.
,
.
- .
.
, .
, .

257

ATTENTION I-----j - -------------------------------- !

f l
9 .
complains o f m y walking too slowly.
* *i , .
I InHisted on her arriving here.
, .
tin doesn t object to the doctors visiting.
hiti .
*

.

.
,
.

M l nhouid consider
T
4 h denied

a) my leaving till the next


day
b) her taking more respon
sibility

1 will agree to delay

c) our postponing the ques


tion till later

very much appreciate d) your helping us


Tin chairman suggested e) the band s playing very
much
\ Wr enjoyed
f ) their meeting that evening
*! I ft. , .
| ,
.
| , .
I
.
I ,
..

258

..

5.
.
6.
7. , cm
, .
8. , .
9. palm
10. .
11. ,
12. .
13. , >
14. , CTapuuiij
.
15. , ><{
CD- .
16. ,
1.
2. , ,
.
3. .
4. , |
5. .
6. .
7. , .
8. , ^
9. ]
.
10. *\
.
11. , *
.
12. .
13. , , .
14. .
15. .
16. , .
. 17. ,
1. , ?
2. , ^

259

I^ fu ilu u

I I 1.1 ?
I .
| , ?
f t 4 ,
?
I , .
ft
.
I >11 .
,
'.
|) .
.
i f II ,
.
IW 18. , .
art of (cook) requires (use) of garlic.
1 I In (eat) o f garlic is not approved of.
(Work) beside someone who has eaten garlic is as bad as
i) beside someone who smokes. But while (smoke) is bad
, there is no doubt that (eat) garlic is good fo r the
ID.
YYc can see more No (smoke) signs, but we cant see
(l>reatli) signs fo r garlic eaters. (Cultivate) and (ex11 garlic is a big business. Many people use it fo r (flai) nnd (add) to different dishes. Some people buy it
in they do (shop). You can t deny (use) or (eat) it. (Be)
f|inlic eater is something to be proud of. I t shows you
iy good (live).
A T T E N T IO N I


, :
|i is (of) no use

It is useless

It is no good

Its no use crying.


.

260

..

. 19. , ..1>
.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

.
?
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

Conditional Sentences

I W ISH

ft

(First Conditional)

I present simple
l you come at ten,

) I lie weather is fine,


' (
,

Future
I w ill be ready to start.

.
we w ill go fo r a walk.

.

ft (Second Conditional)
it past simple

w ou ld /cou ld /m igh t +
indefinite infin itive

> you came at ten,


I 111
- /,
Ii the weather was fine,
I t
>/ ( , )

I would be ready to start.



.
we would go fo r a walk.
.

(Third Conditional)
if past perfect

w ou ld/cou ld/m igh t +


perfect infin itive

II vou had come at ten,

I would have been ready


to start.

.
we would have gone for
a walk.

.

Hr

- ,
If the weather had been
fine,
Hi
, ()

262

.. .|

. 1. ,
Conditional.
1. , .
2. ,
.
3. , | q
4. , ?
5. ,
6. , .
7. , - ^
8. , |<(
9. ,
.
10.
, .

. 2. , 4
cond Conditional.
I
1. ,
.
2. , .
3. , .
.
4. ,
.
5. ,
6. ,
7. , I
.
]
8. , ]
9. ,
10.
,
.
1

. 3. , Tht
Conditional.
1. , |
.
1
2. ,
.
3. ,
4. ,
5. , .

wulilional Sentences

263

* ,
.
,
.
* , !
* ) , ,
|. .
* 1- ,
irfic .
* | -I . , First, Second Third
Conditional .
.
I 11 she (to find out) the truth, she (to be) very happy.
I (to visit) him in the hospital, i f I (to know) about his
illness.
11 we (not to like) his suggestion, we (to tell) him about it.
I II John (to want )the advice, he (to ask) you.
* If his sister (to have) better qualification, she (to be
utile to) apply for better job.
* They (to find) the solution, i f they (to understand) the
|iroblem.
I I Beth (to go) to her native town, she (to be) happier.
I II you (not to agree) with me, I (to go) to the director.
What you (to do), i f he (tell) you to leave?
Vk| . , First,
Second Third Conditional.
I I i.i ,
.
I <> , .
I ,
.
I , .
I , .
1- ,
in .
* ,
.
* lv- ,
.

..

264

9. , *
10. , .

. 6. , <
F irst Conditional.

1
help you.
I
has time
go to the doi l
he
he
is busy
she
If

fall ill
come tomorrow

be very happv

she

be very sorry.

receive my letter
will
you

find the keys

you

we

phones me

we

be displeasoil
won t
wait.
play chess.

they dont come in time they

be upset.
go for a walli

stay here

. 7. ii. ]
Second Conditional.

he

he

help you.
visit the doctor.

she

she

go to the theatre.

were you

had time
I f you liked it

we

werent busy we

phoned
they were free
came in time

buy it.
write me a letter.

asked me

take a taxi.

had money

take you to the - t

felt sick
<

be very happy.
wouldnt go to the restaur!
be late.

would
you

they

265

( -n d ttio n a l S e n te n c e s

I up. 8. ,
Third Conditional.
1
I

had known the truth

2. come there.

phoned yesterday
lit

had told about it


earlier

1. been very happy.


3. helped him.

he

lie had won the last game she


would
have
you had keen invited
before hand

4. written more
often.

wouldnt 5. been so upset.


you have
6. been pleased.

we

had had more time

we

Uicy had had more practice they


in languages

1
1

heard about it

7. done the work


better.
8. gone to the
country.
9. had problems.

earlier asked me

it|>. 9. ,
.
I If I (to have) time tonight, I (to finish) this book.
i . lie (can) take you to the concert tomorrow i f he (to
have) a spare ticket,
If they (to have) plenty o f time yesterday, they (to miss)
the train.
i I she (to leave) at seven oclock, we (to ask) her to give
us a lift.
* I f my friend (to phone) now, I (not to feel) so lonely,
If someone (to give) you a million, what you (to do)?
' If you (to be able) to finish the job tomorrow, you (to
liuve) a holiday.
_ R. Li he (to check) the oil before driving, he (not to have)
I
problems with the car.
. If she (to be) here now, she (to help) you.

266

..

10. I f they (to be) picked for our team, we (to win) the r;tc
next month.
11. The London fire never (to start) i f the baker (to put) lii
oven out properly.
12. I f somebody (to invite), you (to go) to the blind dal<-7
13. I f they (to stay) in K yiv, they (to live) here for tliii lv
years.
14. I f I (to meet) him earlier, he (not to be) late fo r supp-
15. The baby (to wake up) if you (not to stop) speaking lik
that.
A T T E N T IO N I------------------------------------------- J
!
,
(t o wish), Past Suh
junctive ( no Past Indefinite) !
Perfect Subjunctive ( no Past Perfect l
I wish you were here. ,
, .
(Second Conditional)
I wish 1 had not told
you the truth.

,
. (Third Conditional)
, *
.

I wish he would agree ,


. (Would
to go there.
+ Infinitive)
V
. 10. , I wish "
Past Subjunctive. *: .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

I d love to know fiv e foreign languages.


W hy don t they have a bigger flat?
W hy don t we go to the restaurant more often?
She hates going to school on Saturdays.
She d love to study to cook.
I d like to live in Australia.
He hates doing housework every day.

I mulltional Sentences

267

b up. 11. , 7 wish +


Past Perfect Subjunctive.
.
I . I decided to study in England.
They didnt go to the party.
lie went to live in Odessa,
She decided to stop working as a teacher,
. lie lost all his money.
*. was his mistake to say those words.
. She didnt realize that the time passed.
A T T E N T IO N I-------------------------------------------------.
1^
J ,
<1< , J to wish, would +
infinitive, ,
,
.
I / , .
I wish + subject + would + infinitive
I wish he would rin g me up.
, .
|. 12. , I wish +
would + infinitive. .
I lleth never comes home before eleven.
t I Ic doesn t wear uniform very often.
< I le doesn t speak French.
I doesnt agree with you.
4 Id like John to stop smoking.
14 The child doesn t wash very often,
She is unkind to the visitors.
I dont like my son playing basketball all the time.
frii|i. 13. ,
.
I I he (to be) here now, he could give you a good advice,
lit wouldn t have been so upset if Susan (to write) to
Inin earlier.

268

..

3. I f I (to work) at this firm , I d earn more.


4. I f she (to fa il) in her present job, she could think abiml
another one.
5. I f he (to know) that Chinese was going to be so difli
cult, he would never have started to learn it.
6. I f father (to manage) to repair his car, he could hnv
driven us to K yiv.
7. I f they (not to reach) the land, the sailors would have (In <1
8. The car w ill start i f you (to turn) the key.
9. I f they (can) have some more lessons, they could
prove their pronunciation.
10. I f Emma (to know) the clue, our team would solve il
11. I f I offered them money, they (to stay) here?
12. I f she (to borrow) your book, she might return it.
13. W e would have taken her for barbecue i f she (to ask) ,
14. I f he (to ask) politely, they might have helped him.
15. Tell us i f there (to be) anything wrong.
. 14. ,
.

1. I f Franks (to go) out, we would ask John to help us,


2. I f Sally (to have) spare time, she could pay you ......
attention.
3. I f she (not to hear) the news, she wouldn t have r <hi
there.
4. I f the factory (not to cut back) production, many prn|il
would have lost their work.
5. I f the train (to be) less crowded, we would be nmr
comfortable.
6. W hat would they have done i f we (not to help) them 7
7. I f we (to be) there, it wouldnt happened.
8. He might have heard the news, i f he (not to turn ni!|
the radio.
I
9. I f the boy (to be) attentive, he won t make any mistjikuf
in his dictation.
10. I f you (to ask) her fo r tickets, she could have given v ti
some.
1
11. I f he (not to come) home, he wouldn t have noticed Mid
fire.
1
12. I f I (not to be) in a shower, I would answer the call. '
13. W e wouldn t have gone to this party i f we (to know) 11
truth.

I mtJLUional Sentences

269

H If you (to visit) the dentist, you wouldn t have a prob


lem with your tooth.
If I (not to be) out o f university, I w ill be working as a
foreign correspondent.
fill. 15. ,
.
I If Beth (to go) to her home town, she could visit her
lnrents.
i If you (to be) still ill tomorrow, you w ill have to stay at
home.
If she (not to drink) coffee late at night, she would have
liccn able to sleep.
t She wouldnt have married him i f she (to know) what
w h s he like.
I I he (to phone) tomorrow, please say we are ou t..
If they (to know) the significance o f this event, they
would be more alarmed.
1 If her son (to be born) two years earlier, he wouldn t
^ luive had to do military service.
I f you (to look) everywhere fo r your passport, you will
find it.
i lf Joe (to get up) earlier, he would get to institute on
tune.

I)
Ml

II
If

If the fire (not to happen), their house wouldnt have


ln*en destroyed.
If the sound (not to be) so loud, she wouldn t be so
nervous.
If the child (not to fa ll), he wouldnt have burst into
Irnrs.
If Barry (to come) to visit us fo r the weekend, we will
Ih very glad.
If Jane (to be) more careful, she wouldn t have le ft her
wiitch in the changing room.
If he (not to leave) the door open, his cat wouldnt have
ruten the fish.
16. .

I lit drinks too much coffee. He doesnt feel calm. I f ...


* You can t type. You are not able to operate a compuIrr. I f ...

270

..

3. They didn t know the sign language, so they didn t, in*


derstand the indians. I f ...
4. Frank ate too much sweets, so he fe lt sick. I f ...
5. I w ill not phone them, because it s too late. I f ...
6. She doesn t understand the problem. She won t fiml
solution. I f ...
7. The travellers lost their way, because it was dark in tfa
wood. I f ...
8. I am not in your position. I am not able to advice *
I f ...
9. She le ft the child alone, so he hurt his hand. I f ...
10. W e w ill have been working all afternoon, we will m*!
glass o f juice. I f ...
11. He walked to the office in the rain, so he got wet. II
12. Steven didnt study at all, so he failed his exam. II
1 3 .1 don t want to be late for plane, so I will take taxi. 11 (
14. They ran out o f money, so they returned from tli
holiday early. I f ...
15. I t is late, and we have to go home. I f ...
. 17. .
1. Im not a millionaire. I will not buy my wife a palace. I,
2. The colour o f this drink looks wrong, I will not tasli I
I f ...
3. A1 is not fit. He w ill not go surfing. I f ...
4. M y mother w ill come at seven, so we will have s u | ijx
together. I f ...
5. His house didn t burn down. The firemen came at on'
I f ...
6. This fish isnt fresh. It smells so disgusting. If ...
7. This boy is short. He cant play basketball. If ...
8. The weather isnt sunny. They will stay indoors. 11'
9. I dont know what you want, so I cant help you. I .
10. She wasnt back early, she couldnt buy some bread .If
11. Tom had an accident. He wasnt watching the road. If
12. This room belongs to man, because there is a pip
the table. If ...
13. I will not visit him, so he will be upset. If ...
14. The pupil didnt enjoy school, so he didnt do well. If
15. She will call in the evening, so you will take the
sage. I f ..

271

nriltional Sentences

/ ItEMEMBER I------------------------------------------------->
r. mmimm
-. Zero Conditional
I f + Present Sim ple

Present Sim ple

! 11ic temperature is below zero

water freezes.

If Ihe camera is on

the red light appears.

Present Sim ple

I f + Present Simple

iln always complains her


Htlher
( In red light appears

i f somebody offends
her.

i f the camera is on.

18. , Zero Conditional .


,
llor child says hello i f he (to see) you.
11 the dog is angry, it always (to bark),
The toy (not to work) i f the batteries are flat.
I the machine (not to have) enough oil, it doesnt work.
If you go in the best seats, you (to get) a free drink.
I the hot-air balloon (to be) filled with air,it rises.
The alarm (to raise) automatically if fire is discovered.
Water (to change) into ice i f it (to freez).
If water boils, it (to change) into steam,
II she puts her money in a bank, she (to get) fiv e per
-rnt interest.

i
<
a
I
A
I
I
I
$
tt

| 19. ,
Subjunctive 7 wish .
| I wish I (to know) French.
She fell and broke her leg. I wish she (to be) more
riireful.
I 1 wish you (to read) more English books in future.
4 I feel sick. I wish I (not to eat) all the ice cream.
A They need a singer for the choir. 1 wish I (can) sing.
I My parrot has died. I wish I (to look after) it better.
) I rnn t remember her telephone number. I wish I (can),
i I wish I (not to lend) him my car: he has broken it.
* My watch has stopped. I wish'I (to have) a better watch.

272

.. n.imh

1 0 .1 feel so tired. I wish I (not to stay up) so late last niu


11. My apartment is rather small. I wish I (to have)
ger one.
12. I wish I (not to spend) all my money last night.
13. I wish I (to know) the answer to this question.
14. I wish you (to phone) me yesterday.
15. I wish I (to know) then what I know now.
. 20. , I irixh"
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

I am not very fit.


W e weren t together.
He was too upset that day.
They couldnt come here.
I t s very hot today.
My parents are abroad.
I t s snowing.
He has read my letter.
She doesn t know enough English.
M y son didnt take my advice.
His room is untidy.
They wasted much time watching TV.
He doesn t have a lot o f friends.
I cant swim.

. 21. , I >1*h1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

!
, .
!
, .
, -*,
, .
, .
, .
!
, .
, .
, .
, .
!
, - *
.

274

.. .>

10. I f they (to invite) me yesterday, I (to come) to tliN


place tonight.
. 23. .
1. , .
2. ,
.
3. , |
.
4. , .
5. ,
.
6. ,
.
7. .
8. ,
.
9. ,
?
10. , .
11. , ><
.
12. , ,
.
13. , .
14. , . j
.
15. , mf
.
. 24. .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

, .
.
, .
, .
, (
.
6. ,
.
7. , .

mthlional Sentences

275

- ,
?
. ,
.
, .
>1 , .
, ,
.
!
,
.
, !

1\

r u l e ] ---------------------------------- 1
, could
, ,

, .
( , )
I can do it now.

She can speak English.


-.

I cannot do it.

She cannot speak French.


-.

Can he swim?

?
I could help him.

could ski when he wun


five.

mi
,
.

. 1. .
. .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

They can understand me.


Polly could go there.
You can stay here for some time.
She could skate very well.
Peter can help me now.
He could answer all the questions.
She can open the window.
They could talk to him fo r me.
Peter can speak German.
She can do it fo r you next week.

277

J u l

l> 2. , ,
could.
> ,
t ?
I ?
I .
I ?
4 .
I I ?
) ?
?
4 , .
! 1' ?
I .
() .
I 1.( ?
I II., .
!
to be able to.

fi t -en t

can am able to

('it

could was able to

foture

can w ill be able to

I hiii able to do it. ( )


wiin able to do it yesterday, ( )
-fill be able to do it tomorrow, ( )
< linve been able to swim since I was three. (
/ ).
. , to be
able to.
* II .
* )1 .
.
I .
*in ?

278

..

6. , .
7.
.
. 4. , if
could to be able to.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

, .
.
!
, ,
.
, .
,
.
,
.

.
?
?

3 R U L E ---------------------------------------------------<
^
I
:
You can go there. ,
:
You cant go there. ,
:
Can/could you show me this book?
/ ?
. 5. , i
could.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

, ?
?

?
.

'

279

f
I
I

. .
?
I .
1 ?
)1 ?
?
I , ?

ft ------------------------------------------------
ntuld .

nn/could/to be able to + Indefinite In fin itiv e

^4 , * , .
> (is able to) run fast. .

could + P erfect In fin itive


,
.

Plic could have gone earlier, but she didn t.


/hi

( ) , .

. <*. , ,
could Indefinite In fin itive Perfect.
?
, .
.
)1 , .
1' , ?
. ?
11 ?
I .
11 ?
i l , .
. ,
J -.
.
I , .

280

..

. 7. ,
could Indefinite Infinitive Perfect Indefinite,
1. .
2. , .{
3. .
4. . \ 4
?
5. .
6.
7. ,
.
8. ?
9. ?
10.
,
I
, can, cou ld /

.
Can she know English?

/I
?

Can she be w orking now? *


Can she have said it?

nt

Can she have been


w orking so long?

. 8. ,
.
1. Can she be fifty ?
2. Could he have done it?
3. Can they have been waiting fo r us so long?
4. Can she be sleeping now?
5. Can he have helped you?
6. Can the g irl be ill serious?
1
7. Could they have reached agreement?
8. Can this laboratory carry on such an important rescnn
9. Can they tell a lie?
10. Can this question be o f great importance?

| b / fl/ 8

281

^. I). ,
could .
I 11 ?
I ?
I ?
4 11 ?
?
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* I ' ?
* 11 ?
?
| 11 ?
II ?
|
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tup. 10. ,
could .
I 11 ?
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ft I ( ?
4 ?
11 ?
11 ?
f 11 ?
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W 11 ?
> ?
?
I.. ?
?
14 ?
?
I* ?
1. 11 - ?
I* ?
I# ?
>0. 11 ?
I (

282

.. .in

* R U L E I-------------------------------------------------^ * , co u ld '
, ]
.
cant know English.

( .
),

cant be working now. He , .


.
cant have said it.
can t have been
w orking so long.

H e , mi |
.
He , > .

. 11. ,
could .
1. , .
2. , ,
3. ,
4. , , j t .
5. , .
6. , .
7. , .
8. , , .
9. , .
10. , .
11. , .<<
12. , .
. 12. ,
could .
1. , .
2. , .
3. , .
4. , '
5. , <*-.||
.
6. , ^
7. , .
8. , .

283

^ 1 1

I*
I*
It
I*

lie , ,
, ,
, .
11|, , .
<> , .
, .
, .

ti*|i. 13.
.

1 III

t -nld

I
he
she
we
you
they

be tired now?
be late?
be making a phone call?
be watching the news?
be playing the piano?
have stolen my wallet?
have painted the ceiling?
have decided to move to England?
have been studying all night?
have been cooking?

fii|. 14.
.

i
1

1
II.
Mb'
w,.

cant

Hiii couldnt
'

be surprised,
have plenty o f time.
be ready to start.
be crying.
be doing his homework.
be riding.
have given you a lift.
have fallen ill.
have le ft the city.
have been sitting quietly for so long time.

fri|) 15. ,
could .
I 11 , .
?

284

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

.. ju u i

, .

,
, , |
.
,
?
, .
.
- ?
?
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,
?
m ay, m igh t



( , )
You may take my book. .-<
You may not take it.
M ay I go out?

.
?

said I m ight take


his .

, t
.

>

.......

. 16. , ninj
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

.11
?
, .
.
?
.
, !
.
8. ?
9. .
10. .

285

**

|< 17. , may,


might.
I , ?
, .
,
.
4 , .
.
, .
?
,
.
.
(t , .
|| , .
A T T E N T IO N I------------------------------------------------ !
may to be allowed to.
is allowed to go for
wnlk.

was allowed to go
u walk.

II* w ill be allowed to go


I Ini u walk.
.
I I I
..................

*|. 18. , to be
allowed to.
I
|
I
I
4
I
I

*U

.
.
.
lift .
.
?
11 ?
.
1 ?
?

286

TJB.

. 19. , may
might, to be allowed to.
1. .
2.
3.
.
4. .
5. ?
6. ,
7. , .
8. ?
9. ,
10. ?
11.
.
12. ?
13. , pa:i|
.
14.
15.
.

RU
LE I ;
_____
------------- m ay, m ig h t
\
.
may be at home now.

, .

may be working now. ,


may have been at
home yesterday.

,
.

may have been work- ,


in g at home yesterday.
.
He might know her
telephone number.

, ,
.

. 20. , ,|
might .
1. , .
2. , , .

>l"daltt

287

, .
I. , ,
. , .
. , , .
. , , .
. , .
0. , .
II). , , .
11., ,
, .
. 21. , may,
might .
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11. , -
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1t. , .
I Ik. , , .
. . .
I . . .
1. , .
II A R U L E I---------------------------------------------------------
, - m ig ]it .

'

She m ight be more polite.


, ()

lie m ight have helped us.

.
( )

^^^

288

. . .*

. 22. , /^
.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

!
!
.
!
.
?
! ^
.
.
!
?
?
.

. 23. , 1#
.
1. .
2. , .
3. .
4. , .
5. , , .
6. .
7. , .
8. .nt
.
9. .
10.
, .
. 24. may .
1. ... I come in?
2. ... not go out because he is ill.
3. Y o u ... translate this text; you dont know French enonflj
4. Take the umbrella: i t ... rain.
.5. She ... visit us i f she has time.
6. Do you think h e _answer all these questions?
7. ... she use your phone?
8. ... you help me just now?
9. I ... not find my key.
10.
... he drive a car if it is necessary to?

289

w ^ d a lu

* . 25. may, m ight can,


c o u ld .

I
'
i
4
'

'
*
*

|j

lie ... not find his notebook last night.


... I come and see you tomorrow?
Nlie said that she ... be late.
You ... stay in our house i f you like.
f tried to see something in the darkness but I ... not.
Kuther said that I ... swim well enough.
... I join you in the evening?
You ... take this job or rebuse.
You ... not believe.
... you pass me juice, please?
They ... not help us because they were abroad.
We ... not imagine him without his motorbike.

> 26. , ,
could may, m ight.
?
i 11(* ? , .
* lit, .
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.
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I .
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* 11 ?
.
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.
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.
1* ? .
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>4 ?
.
I >1 . , .
Nil 27. , ,
could, cant, couldnt may, m ight.
* ! ?
! , .
.

290

.. .

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

, .
?
, .
, .
?
, ,
.
9.
10. ? ,
.
11. . , eii fn
.
12. , , <
.
13. ,
14. ,
. , , |1
15. ! , '
.
16. . , .
17. !
18.
, , .
19. ,
, .
20. . .
c s F r u le \

m ust

.
m ust
, *
m u st
.
( , )
must go there now.

'

She must go to the


bank tomorrow.
You must not leave.


.
.

Must I leave?

291

28. , must.
.
1 .
.
( .
?
.
.
?
.
* , .
.
11 >1 ?
I ,
.
I .
, , .

!
must to have to.
I*i enent

must
have to

mustnt/
dont have to
doesn t have to

I 'n h I

had to

didnt have to

have had to

haven t had to

w ill have to

w ill not have to

l* i

rsent Perfect

lure

1Imve to stay here.

1ilunt have to stay here.

II had to explain everyliiiug.

II w ill have to explain


rfvorything.

lo

you have to go there?

292

.. .

. 29. , }
have to.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

.
.
.
.
.

.
?
.
?

. 30. , :
have to.
1. .
2. , .
3. ?
4. .
5. .
.
6. , .
7. .
8. ,
.
9. .
10.
,
.
. 31. ,
to have to.

.
,
,
.
- |

.
,
,
,
.

293

I in

.
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
.

I . 32. must to have to .



, .
I She ... leave the party yesterday she wasn t well.
? lie was late fo r work today because he ... visite the
doctor first.
. You ... borrow my things without asking.
4 We are sorry, you ... smoke here.
- She said we ... wash all the windows in the house,
Since the new manager came, they... change their meth
ods o f research.
Her son is happy as he ... do his home task today.
W( (not) ... speak German since I was at school.
The teacher told us that we ... answer all the questions.
I llo ... get up early on Monday i f he wants to catch the bus.
I I Her brother has been ill. He ... stay in hospital since
last week.
ft ... you have a visa to come to France?
I r- ---------- 1.
- RULE |----------------------------------------------------- m ust,
,
.
I It- must be about sixty.

, ,
.

I li* must be w ritin g now.

, , .

Hi must have w ritten


lliem already.

, , .

I In must have been


writing all the night.

,
.

294

..

. 33. , |
.
1. , , .
2. , .
3. ? , .
4. , , .
5. , , .
6. , , .
7. . , , .
8. , , .
9. . , , .
10.
, , .
. 34. , /*
.
1. , , .
2. , , .
3. , , .
4. , , !
5. , , .
6. , , .
7. , , )
8. , , .
9. , , -.
10. , , .
11. ? , eio.l
. 35. , ]
to have to.
1. .
2. , , .
3. ?
4. ?
5. .
6. , , .
7. .
8. , runt]
.
9. , .
10. ]
11. .
12. , .

ill/

295

ft 11(1 ?
1 , , .
2 .

--------------- , ------------------------------- '


ifr , . ) , ^ , .
come at seven.
.
to come at seven.
.
t.ry are to discuss it

Miiiorrow.
.
(imi was to have come

M*ven.
( ).
if|i 36. , to be
to .
I
I
i

f
*

.
,
.
,
.
, ,
.
,
.
.
U , .
I 1 .
.

R U L E . _, _
_
,
.
t o be .
are to leave the room.

I*1

aid I was to g ive you


^In* documents.

.
,
.

296

TJB.

. 37. , to 1>
to .

1. .
2.
.
3. .
4. ,
.
5. ,
.
6. .
7. .
8. .
9. .
10. , i .ih |
.
11. .
12. .

I to be
Passive In fin itiv e .
She w as often to be seen in this restaurant.
.
W here are they to b e found?
?

. 38. , to be
to .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

.
.
.
.
?
.
?
?

M o d a ls

297

. 39. , to be
to .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

.
, .
.
.
.
,
.
7. .
8. .
9. .
10. .
. 40. to be to to have to.
1. I was late because I ... to finish my work.
2. Where ... the meeting to take place?
3. W e ... to go home because our mother is waiting fo r us.
4. He ... to wear specs.
5. As it was decided, I ... to write an essay about this country.
6. He ... to go to the dentist twice a week!
7. She insisted that the child ... to have lunch.
8. The agreement was that you ... there in time.
9. I am afraid you ... to find the solution to this problem.
10.
He told that we ... to return his money in a month.
. 41. to be to to have
to .
1. You ... to pay a fine i f you are caught speeding.
2. As they had agreed, the meetings ... to be held every
Monday.
3. Can you visit us next week? I ... to check my diary.
4. The lessons ... to begin at nine.
5. Thank you for the present, but you ... to bring anything.
6. The manager ordered that the goods ... to be packed very
carefully.
7. They ... to meet me at the railway station.
8 .1
decided that I ... to consult the doctor every six months.
9. W e ... to meet in the restaurant.
10. You ... to be so polite. W e are good friends.
11. According to the order they ... to leave.

298

..

. 42. , to hr
to to have to.
1. ?
2.
.
3. .
4. , , ,
5. : <
.
6. .
.
7. , ,
.
8.
.
9. , !..
10. .
11. ?
12. ?
13. , .
14.
.
15. .
. 43. , must,
to be to, to have to.
1. , .
2. .
3. ?
4. , .
5. .
6. , .
7. .
8. . , .
9. . .
10.
.
11. .
12. .
13. , , .
14. ..
15. , , .

299

M o d a ls

Can t/m ay/m ight/m ust


.
M ust
M ay
M igh t
Cant
4i



( )

. 44.
.

She
You
They

cant
may

be at home now.

might
must

be hungry.

>

leave at ten tomorrow.


be busy next week.
know the answer.
be sleeping at the moment.
be having breakfast.
be looking through the newspapers.
be driving.
have left.
have been at home yesterday.
have bought a car.
have missed the plane.
have sold the club.
have been digging all day.
have been film ing this week.

. 45. , must,
may, m igh t cant.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

, , .
, .
, , .
, .
, , .

300

..

6. , , .
7. , .
8. , , .
9. , .
10. , .
11. , <
12. , .
13. , .
14. , .
15. ,
16. , .
17. , .
should/ought to
, ,
, should ou g h t to .
O u gh t to
, a shou ld
, .
You should do it.

You ought to be more


attentive.

shouldnt be
sitting here.

( )
.

oughtn t to be
working for this firm .

You should have told


us about it.

You ought to have


sent the warning.

(
)
.

You shouldnt have


done it.

Should we go?

Modals

301

. 46. , should
ought to.
1. .
.
2 . . !
3. .
4. . .
5. .
6. .
7. .
8. .
9. .
10. .
. 47. , should
ought to.
1. You ... follow instructions before taking medicine.
I t s very late. Children ... be in bed.
3. You ... not smoke here.
4. Its his anniversary next week. Maybe we ... to sent him
a telegram.
6. Her room is dirty. She ... clean it.
6. This hotel is very expensive. You ... not stay here.
7. She drives too fast. She ... drive carefully.
8. They ... not let the children see such films.
9. They invite us to have barbecue. ... we take something
to eat?
10. You ... not read in the car. You may feel sick.
11. He ... book the tickets in advance.
1 2 . She ... leave valuable in the car. Someone broke in and
stole them.
2.

U p a t t e n t i o n I-------------------------------------------------v
^
!
He should have done it.


. ( )

shouldn't have
done it.


. ( )

302

..

. 48. , should
ought to Perfect Infiniteve.
1. ,
.
2. .
3. .
4. .
0. .
6. .
7. .
8. .
9. ?
10. .
11. ?
12. .
13. .
14. .
. 49. , should
ought to .
1. .
2. .
3. .
.
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. .
8. .
9. .
10. .
11. .
12. .
13. .
14. .
15. .
. 50. , should
ought to .
1. .
.

M o d a ls

2. .
3.
.
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. .
8. .
9. .
?
10. .
11. .
12. .
13. . , .
14. ,
.
15. .
. 51. , should, ought
to, must, to have to. .
1. She ... be arriving in some hours.
2. He ... go home at nine because his father is waiting for
him.
3. You ... try to find a new job.
4. Mother insisted that I ... have a meal.
5. Don t you think he ... ask before taking my book with
out asking.
6. There are no planes today, so I ... to go by train.
7. He ... never say that again!
8. They ... book the tickets i f they want to go to the con
cert.
9. W e think you ... tell your parent you will be late.
10. He ... do what he says.
11. Do you think she ... tell my parents what happened?
12. You ... have a favourite pupil.
. 52. , should,
ought to, must to have to.
1. .
2.
.

304

..

3.
4.
5.
6.

.
.
.

.
.
, .
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
?
.
?

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

. 53. ,
should, ought to, must to have to.
1. .
2. .
3. ,
?
4. .
5. ofi
.
6. .
7. .
8. .
9. ,
, .
10. .
11. .
12. .
13.
.
14. .

305

M o d a ls

1. .
1. .
17. ?
1. .
19. .
20.
.
* R U LE

need


In d e fin ite
In fin itiv e .

.
P e r fe c t In fin itiv e need
, ,
.
needn t go there.

( )
.

Need he go there?

needn t have
gone there.


, ( )

need .

,
.
I don t need advice.
Does he need our help?
. 54. , need.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

It is necessary for him to leave the city.


I bought milk but it was not necessary.
W hy does she want to inform them immediately?
I t was not necessary him to work in this project.
Is it necessary fo r me to fix you like today?
It is not necessary fo r him to do it today.

306

..

7. There is no reason for you to worry about them.


8. Is there any reason for her to repeat it so many times?
9. W hy do you want to get up so early tomorrow?
10.
W hy did you send it by post?
. 55. ,
1. .
2. ?
3. .
4. : .
5. ?
6. ,
.
7. ?
8. .
9. ?
10.
.
. 56. , need
1. : .
2. .
3. :
.
4. ,
.
5. :
.
6.
.
7. : .
8. : ,
.
9. :
.
10. : .
. 57.
. , ,
() .
need, shouldnt should.
1. I was not present at the discussion o f the new project.
2 .1
le ft home without umbrella.

Ifo

d a ls

307

.4. I bought cheese which was not necessary.


4. I didnt visit the doctor.
f>. I watched TV till twelve o clock.
(>. I will not apologize.
7. I rewrote all the text but it was not necessary.
8 . 1 didn t know the answer.
9. 1 am not going to clean my room.
10. I typed the documents which were not necessary.
11. I went to the party without asking my parents.
12. I never return the books to the library in time.
13. I have a terrible headache.
. I air my room very seldom.
1&. I was worried but it was not necessary.
. 58.
. , ,
() .
needn't, shouldn't necessary.
1.1 told him about the situation but it was not necessary.
2. I want to drink cold milk.
3. I didnt ask him to help.
4. I put salt on the meat before grilling.
. I read in the train last night.
6. I came there at seven but it was not necessary.
7. I smoke twenty cigarettes a day.
8. I didn t count the money before taking them.
9 . 1 havent taken a holiday in two years.
10. I took them to the station but it was not necessary.
Vnp. 59. .
1. They cant have taken the job.
2. They may have taken the job.
3. They might have taken the job.
4. They must have taken the job.
5. They didnt have taken the job.
6. They had to take the job.
7. They must take the job.
8. They were to take the job.
9. They need not take the job.
10. They neednt have taken the job.
11. They should have taken the job.
12. They shouldnt have taken the job.

308

..

. 60. ,
.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

.
, .
?
, .
, .
, .
.
.
.
, , .
.
.
.
.
, .

. 61. ,
.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

?
.
?
.
, .
.
.
.
?
10. , .
11. .
12. , .
13. ?
14. , .
15. .
. 62. ,
.
1. .
2. .
3. , .

itudals

309

I. , .
. ?
0. , .
7. .
8. .
I). , ?
10. , .
11. .
12. ?
. : .
. ,
?
11. ?
V. 63. ,
.
1. .
2. .
. ?
I. .
>. , .
0. .
7. ,
- .
8. .
1>.
.
10. , .
11. , . , ,
.
IU. ? , .
13. ? ,
.
11.
.

Infinitive

Past

Past Participle

Translation

abide [a'baid]

abode [a'boud]
abided [a'baidad]

abode [a'boud]
abided [a'baidad]

arise [a'raiz]

arose [a'rouz]

arisen [a'rizn]

awake [a'weik]

awoke [a'wouk]

awaked [a'weikt]
awoke [a'wouk]

be [bi:]

was [woz], were [wa:]

been [bi:n]

bear []

bore [bo:]

born(e) [bo:n]
born [bo:n]

, ,
,

beat [bi:t]

beat [bi:t]

beaten [bi:tn]

become [']

became [bi'keim]

become [']

befall [bi'fo:l]

befell [bi'fel]

befallen [bi'fo:ln]

begin [bi'gin]

began [bi'gaen]

begun [bi'gAn]

()

bend [bend]

bent [bent]

bent [bent]
bended ['bendid]

()

beseech [bi'si:tf]

besought [bi'so:t]

besought [bi'sort]

bid [bid]

bad(e) [beid]

bid(den) [bid(n)]

370_______________________________________________________________

LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS

Past

Past Participle

Translation

bound [baund]

bound [baund]

bite [bait]

bit [bit]

bit(ten) [bit(n)]

bleed [bli:d]

bled [bled]

bled [bled]

blow [blou]

blew [blu:]

blown [bloun]

break [breik]

broke [brouk]

broken [broukn]

()

breed [bri: d]

bred [bred]

bred [bred]

bring [briq]

brought [bro:t]

brought [bro:t]

build [bild]

built [bilt]

built [bilt]

burn [:]

burnt [ba:nt]

burnt [ba:nt]

burst [ba:st]

burst [ba:st]

burst [ba:st]

buy [bai]

bought [bo:t]

bought [bo:t]

cast [ka.st]

cast [ka:st]

cast [ka:st]

; ()

catch [ksif]

caught [ko:t]

caught [ko:t]

choose [tju:z]

chose [tjouz]

chosen [tjouzn]

cleave [kli:v]

clove [klouv]
cleft [kleft]

cloven [klouvn]
cleft [kleft]

);

371

bind [baind]

List of Irregular Verbs

Infinitive

Past

Past Participle

Translation

clung [kl\q]

clothe [klouS]

clothed [klouSd]

clothed [klouSd]

come []

came [keim]

come []

cost [kost]

cost [kost]

cost [kost]

creep [kri:p]

crept [krept]

crept [krept]

cut [kAt]

cut [k\t]

cut [k/vt]

dare [dsa]

durst [da:st]
dared [dssd]

dared [dead]

deal [di:l]

dealt [delt]

dealt [delt]

dig [dig]

dug [d\g]

dug [d\g]

do [du:]

did [did]

done [dAn]

draw [dro:]

drew [dru:]

drawn [dro:n]

dream [dri:m]

dreamt [dremt]

dreamt [dremt]

drink [drigk]

drank [drseijk]

drunk [drAijk]

drive [draiv]

drove [drouv]

driven [drivn]

dwell [dwel]

dwelt [dwelt]

dwelt [dwelt]

; ,
( ...)

.. -

clung [klAq]

cling [klii)]

372

Infinitive

Past

Past Participle

Translation

eat [i:t]

ate [et]

eaten [i:tn]

fall [fo:l]

fell [fel]

fallen [fo:ln]

feed [fi:d]

fed [fed]

fed [fed]

feel [fi:l]

felt [felt]

felt [felt]

fight [fait]

fought [fo:t]

fought [fo:t]

find [faind]

found [faund]

found [faund]

flee [fli: ]

fled [fled]

fled [fled]

fling [fliij]

flung []

flung [fUq]

()

fly []

flew [flu:]

flown [floun]

forbid [fa'bid]

forbade [fa'be rd]

forbidden [fa'btdn]

forget [fa'get]

forgot [fa'got]

forgotten [fa'gotn]

forgive [fa'giv]

forgave [fa'geiv]

forgiven [fa'givn]

freeze [fri'.z]

froze [frouz]

frozen [frouzn]

get [get]

got [got]

got [got]

gild [gild]

gilt [gilt]
gilded ['gildid]

gilt [gilt]
gilded ['gildid]

List of Irregular Verbs____________________________________________

Infinitive

Past

Past Participle

Translation

go [gou]

went [went]

gone [gon]

, ,

grind [graind]

ground [graund]

ground [graund]

();

grow [grou]

grew [gru:]

grown [groun]

hang [hserj]

hung [hurj]

hung [hug]

()

hanged [haerjd]

hanged [hserjd]

have [hsev]

had [hsed]

had [hsed]

hear [hia]

heard [ha:d]

heard [ha:d]

hew [hju:]

hewed [hju:d]

hewed [hju:d]
hewn [hju:n]

hide [hard]

hid [hid]

hidden [hidn]

()

hit [hit]

hit [hit]

hit [hit]

hold [hould]

held [held]

held [held]

hurt [ha:t]

hurt [ha:t]

hurt [ha-.t]

keep [ki.p]

kept [kept]

kept [kept]

kneel [ni:l]

knelt [nelt]

knelt [nelt]

given [givn]

..

gave [geiv]

give [giv]

374

Infinitive

Past

Past Participle

Translation

knit [nit]

knit(ted) ['nit(id)]

know [nou]

knew [nju:]

known [noun]

lay [lei]

laid [leid]

laid [leid]

lead [li:d]

led [led]

led [led]

lean [li:n]

leant [lent]
leaned [li:nd]

leant [lent]
leaned [li:nd]

leap [li:p]

leapt [lept]
leaped [li:pt]

leapt [lept]
leaped [li:pt]

learn [1:]

learnt [ta:nt]
learned

learnt [h:nt]
learned

leave [li: v]

left [left]

left [left]

lend [lend]

lent [lent]

lent [lent]

(-.)

let [let]

let [let]

let [let]

lie [lai]

lay [lei]

lain [lein]

light [lait]

lit [lit]

lit [lit]

lose [lu:z]

lost [lost]

lost [lost]

make [meik]

made [meid]

made [meid]

375

knit [nit]

List of Irregular Verbs

Infinitive

Past

Past Participle

Translation

meant [ment]

meant [ment]

meet [mi:t]

met [met]

met [met]

mishear [mis'hia]

misheard [mis'haid]

misheard [mis'haid]

mislead [mis'li.d]

misled [mis'led]

misled [mis'led]

mistake [mis'teik]

mistook [mistuk]

mistaken [mis'teikn]

mow [mou]

mowed [rnoud]

mown [moun]

pay [pei]

paid [peid]

paid [peid]

put [put]

put [put]

put [put]

, ()

read [ri:d]

read [red]

read [red]

rid [rid]

rid [rid]
ridded ['ridid]

rid [rid]
ridded ['ridid]

() ( -.,
-.)

ride [raid]

rode [roud]

ridden [ridn]

ring [nij]

rang []

rung [rug]

rise [raiz]

rose [rouz]

risen [rizn]

run []

ran [r$n]

run []

..

mean [mi:n]

376

Infinitive

Past

Past Participle

Translation

saw [so:]

sawed [so:d]

sawn [so:n]
sawed [so:d]

()

say [sei]

said [sed]

said [sed]

see [si:]

saw [so:]

seen [si:n]

seek [si:k]

sought [so:t]

sought [so:t]

sell [sel]

sold [sould]

sold [sould]

send [send]

sent [sent]

sent [sent]

set [set]

set [set]

set [set]

sew [sou]

sewed [soud]

sewed [soud]
sewn [soun]

shake [Jerk]

shook [Juk]

shaken [feikn]

shave [Jeiv]

shaved [feivd]

shaved [Jeivd]
shaven [Jeivn]

()

shear ]

sheared [fiad]

shorn [fo:n]

shed [Jed]

shed [Jed]

shed [Jed]

; ()

shine [Jain]

shone [Joun]

shone [foun]

(),

shoe [fu:]

shod [Jod]

shod [fod]

List of Irregular Verbs___________________________________________

Infinitive

Past

Translation

Past Participle

shoot [ju:t]

shot [Jot]

shot [Jot]

show ]

showed tfoud]

shown [joun]

shrink [frirjk]

shrank [fraqk]

shrunk ]

();
( ),

shut [j\t]

shut [/At]

shut [/At]

sing

sang [saeg]

sung [ saij]

sink [sirjk]

sank [saeijk]

sunk [s\qk]

();
)

sit [sit]

sat [saet]

sat [saet]

sleep [sli:p]

slept [slept]

slept [slept]

slide [slaid]

slid [slid]

slid [slid]

smell [smel]

smelt [smelt]

smelt [smelt]

sow [sou]

sowed [soud]

sowed [soud]
sown [soun]

speak [spi:k]

spoke [spouk]

spoken [spoukn]

speed [spi:d]

sped [sped]

sped [sped]

spell [spel]

spelt [spelt]
spelled

spelt [spelt]
spelled

[ siij J

378___________________________________________________________

Infinitive

Past

Past Participle

Translation

spent [spent]

spent [spent]

spill [spil]

spilt [spilt]
spilled [spild]

spilt [spilt]
spilled [spild]

spin [spin]

spun []
span [spaen]

spun [spAn]

spit [spit]

spat [spast]

spat [spaet]

split [split]

split [split]

split [split]

spoil [spoil]

spoilt [spoilt]
spoiled

spoilt [spoilt]
spoiled

spread [spred]

spread [spred]

spread [spred]

()

spring [spnq]

sprang [sprat]]

sprung [sprAq]

stand [stand]

stood [stud]

stood [stud]

steal [sti:l]

stole [stoul]

stolen [stouln]

()

stick [stik]

stuck [suk]

stuck [stAk]

sting [stiq]

stung [stAl)]

stung [stAIj]

stink [stirjk]

stank [staerjk]
stunk [sUqk]

stunk [stAqk]

379

spend [spend]

List of Irregular Verbs

In fin itive

withdraw
[wiS'dro:]

withdrew
[wiS'dru:]

withdrawn
[wi6'dro:n]

;
,

wring []

wrung []

wrung [rj]

write [rait]

wrote [rout]

written [ritn]

..

Past

382

Past Participle

Translation

Infinitive


............................ ....................................................... 3
.................................................................. 21
.................................. 26
some, any, no, e v e r y ..................................... 32
. ..............................................43
16
........................ ................................ .

131

. ........................... 148
Passive V o ic e ..................................................................... 184
........................................................................ 202
Complex Object. ............................. 209

Complex O b ject............................................................... 221
Complex Subject.
................... ...................................................... 226
. The P a rtic ip le ................................................ 2-33
. The G erund..................................................... 248
Conditional Sentences. .
I W ISH ....................................... 261
Modals. ........................................... 276
- .................................................. 310
- ...........................................355
L is t o f Irregu lar V e r b s ................................................... 370