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2005

CZU 572.1/.4 + 316.722 + 930.85 (075.8)


B55
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Descrierea CIP a Camerei Naroionale a Crnoii
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, 2005 (Tipogr. Tipografia Centralr). 396 .
ISBN 9975-9607-9-0
500 ex.
572.1/.4 + 316.722 + 930.85 (075.8)
ISBN 9975-9607-9-0


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0.
0.1.
0.1.1.
0.1.2.

0.2.
0.2.1.
0.2.2.

0.3.
0.3.1.
0.3.2.

10
13
14
14
14
75

16
16
19

20
20
22

26

I.

1.
1.1.

1.1.1.
1.1.2
1.1.3.
1.1.4.

27
27
27
28
32
34

1.2.
Homo
41
1.2.1.
41
1.2.2.
57
1.2.3. Homo
62

1.3. Homo
1.3.1.
1.3.2.
1.3.3. :
1.3.4. :

2.

2.1.

2.1.1. , , ?
2.1.2. -

69
69
78
86
91
99

101
101
101
103

2.2.

106

3.

3.1.

3.1.1.
3.1.2.
3.1.3.
3.1.4.
3.1.5.

3.1.6.

3.2.4. : Homo neanderthaiensis Homo


sapiens

4.

146
150

152

4.1.
152
4.1.1.
152
4.1.2.
153
4.1.3. .... 157
4.2.

160
4.3.

162

167

111

.
112
112
112
117
121
122
125
134

3.2. Homo sapiens.... 140


3.2.1. Homo sapiens :

140
3.2.2.
142
3.2.3.
Homo
144

5.
.. 168
5.1. .
:
168
5.1.1.
168
5.1.2. .

171
5.1.3.
174
5.1.4.
178
5.2.

181
5.2.1.
181
5.2.2.
182
5.2.3. ... 187

5.2.4.

192
5.2.5.

196
5.2.6.
200
5.3.
206
5.3.1. .

206
5.3.2. .

213
5.3.3.
217
5.3.4.
223

6.2.5. , ,
263
6.2.6. .

270
6.3. ....276

7.

282
7.1.

282
7.1.1.

282
7.1.2.
286
7.1.3.
291
7.1.4.
295

5.4. .
.
229
5.4.1. .

229
5.4.2. .
.
234
5.4.3.

237

7.2. -
?

298

303

244

8.

6.

245

6.1. .245
6.1.1.
245
6.1.2. 246
6.1.3.

247
6.2.

250
6.2.1.
250
(^ ' - & 2.2.
254
\
6.2.3
259
6.2.4. .. 261

281

,j
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8.1.

8.1.1.
8.I.2.
:
8.1.3.

8.1.4. -

^-/- 8.2.
<
8.2.1.

304
305
305
306
312
318
323
323

8.2.2.

8.2.3. -

8.2.4.

324

382
386

388

336

389

9.1.
9.1.1. ,
9.1.2.

338
338
339

9.2.
9.2.1.
9.2.2.
9.2.3.
9.2.4.
9.2.5.
9.2.6.

346
346
347
357
356
358
360

367

10.

380

329
332

9.

337
s

10.2.4.
10.2.5. -

10.2.6.

368

10.1.

368
10.1.1.
368
10.1.2.

370
10.2.
372
10.2.1.

372
10.2.2.

375
10.2.3. .. 378

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.. . .: . 1979.
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.. . .: . 2001.
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.: . 2002.
.. //
. . 1. .: . 1983.
.. . .: . 1980.

27

I.

1.
1.1.

1.1.1. .

, , Homo
sapiens, ,
{Primates), () .
.
, , , . , ,
, . , , , ,
Homo sapiens,
, , . sapiens sapiens
H. sapiens neanderthalensis.
,
,
(, Homo
sapiens Linnaeus, 1758),
.

28

, , ,
, : , . , - -
(, , ).
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- . ,
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Homo Homo sapiens (. 1.1).
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29
.

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N.

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30

, (
) . , ( )
(1 ), 80 . . ., ,
.

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,
(Insectivora). , , , , , (Purgatorius),
, .

. , , (. 1.2).
, ,
, .
- .
, , ,
, . ,
3

Rose K.D. The earliest primates // Evolutionary Anthropology, 1994/1995,


vol. 3, 4.

31

. 1.2. .

, ^ . , ,
.
, ,
.. ,
(. 1.3), ,
.
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,
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32

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). 40 . . ., , , , , -

33

, - , , ,
(Anthropoidea). , , . , ,
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, -
,
( homo - ).
, , .
, .4
() . , , , ,
, , , ,
. ,
, ,
,
.
,
,
, .5
4

Gunnell G.F., E.R. Miller. Origin of Anthropoidea: Dental Evidence and


Recognition of Early Anthropoids in the Fossil Record, With Comments on the Asian
Anthropoid Radiation //American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2000, vol. 114,
2, p. 189.
Homo sapiens 6 .

34

35

( ), , , , , ,
,

. :
(Platyrrhini),
, (Catarrhini),
(. 1.4).
, 25 . , -
,
, 31-35 . . ., , , .
1.1.4. .
(. . 1.1)

: Cercopithecoidea (, ) Hominoidea (, .. ).
, , ,
( ) , ( ) . , , . ( ) ,
, . , - , -
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,
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, : , - .

,
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" , ,

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, ,
30 , ,
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Hominoidea, .6 ,
6
Ward C.V. et al. Function and phylogeny in Miocene hominoids // Function,
Phylogeny, and Fossils: Miocene Hominoid Evolution and Adaptations. New York,
1997, p.1-2.

36

I
. 1.5.
() ().

- , .
,
Cercopithecoidea Hominoidea , , 30-35 . . ., . , ,
(), ,
. , Cercopithecoidea Hominoidea. , ,
, , - .
31 . , , , 23 26 . . ., , , 5 . .

37

(Kamoyapithecus),
.7
,
27,50,3 . , 24,20,3 .
, .
(, ),
.
,
, , - , .
(
) ,
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,
, .

(, 1 4 - ), . , , , ,
(, ) . , , , , , ( , 7

Leakey M.G. et al. A new genus of large primate from the late Oligocne of
Lothidok, Turkana district, Kenya // Journal of Human Evolution, 1995, vol. 28, 6.

38

i ), - . , ' ,
.
, , , , , , .

, , , , , - 22
28 . . . , , , , Hominoidea,

(, , , , ), 25 . . .

: (Hylobatidae),
, (Pongidae), (Pongo), (Gorilla)
(Pan), (Hominidae), .. .
, , , ..
, , , . , ,
(
) , ,
. ,
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39

.
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,
.
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, 10 .
.
, ,
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Proconsiilidae).
,
-
, (.
1.6), , , ,
, - .


: , , , ,
.

, 3 (Micropithecus clarki), , 100 , (Proconsul major,
Turkanapithecus heseloni), a
. , .8
, , , , ,
s

Benefit B.R., M.L. McCrossin. Miocene hominids and hominid origins//Annual


review of Anthropology, 1995, vol.24; Pilbeam D. Research on Miocene hominoids and
hominid origins. The last three decades // Function, Phytogeny, and Fossils: Miocene
Hominoid Evolution and Adaptations. New York, 1997.

40

. 1.6.

.

41


13-15 . {Pliopithecus, Dryopithecus,
Ouranopithecus), - 12 . . ,
, , - ,
, (, , ), ; , , ,
. .
: 7 . .
. ( 15 5 . . .)
,
. , , . .

1.2.
Homo

Oreopithecus bamboH, , ,
, . , .8-9 . , , , , , .9
, (16-17 . . .), .
' Rook L. et al. Oreopithecus was a bipedal ape after all: Evidence from the iliac
cancellous architecture // Proceedings of the national Academy of Sciences USA, 1999,
vol. 96, 15.

1.2.1. .
,
, , (Hotnim'dae), .. , , .
( , ), , , , (clade) . ,
4 1.7 1.8.
,
.

'42

, , ' ,
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Homininae, ( ) Hominini, a
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, .
, - , -
- 8 4,5 . , .. , , . ,
, ,
, , , , (. 5). , , - ,
10

: Goodman M. et al. Toward a phylogenetic classification of primates


based on DNA evidence complemented by fossil evidence // Molecular Phylogenetics
and Evolution, 1998, vol. 9, 3.

'

Sahelanthropus
tchadensis
Orrorin tugenensis
Ardipithecus ramidus
Ardipithecus ram idus
kadabba
Australopithecus

anam ensis
A ustralopithecus
afarensis
A ustralopithecus
bahrelghazali
Kenyanthropus
platyops
A usrtalopithecus
africanus
Australopithecus

garhi

Paranthropus
aethiopicus*

43

(. ..)
2002

>6,0

2001
1994

5,8/5,2 -4.4

2001

5,8/5,2

1995

4,2-3,9

1978

3,9 - 3,0

1996

3,5/3,0

3,5

1925

3,0-2,4

1999

2,5

1968

2,7 -2,2

2001 _

6,0

Paranthropus

rohustus

1938

1,9 - 1,4

Paranthropus

hoisei**

1959



(?)

2,3 - 1,2

Homo habilis
Homo

rudolfensis***

Homo ergaster
Homo

erectus****

1964
1986
1975
1894

Homo antecessor
Homo heidelbergensis

1997
1908

Homo ne ndert hale nsis

1864

Homo sapiens

1758

2,4 - 1,8
2,4

(?)
1,9/1,8- 1,6
,
,
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0.8
, ,
0,6 -0,2
,
0,13 -0,03

0,12 - 0

4. , ,
2003 .
* Australopithecus aethiopicus
** Zinjanthropus boisei
*** Pithecanthropus rudolfensis
**** Pithecanthropus erectus

44

. sap/ens

45

. neanclerthalensis
Homo
A.(P.) boisei

A.(P.) robustus
^

H. rudolfensisf^

A. /arhi

A.(P.) aethiopicus
I A. africanus
I OppopHIl

K. platyops
anamensis*
^ Ard. ramidus

i O- tugenensis
S. Ichadensis

Pue. 1.7. .
Homo sapiens . , 1994 .
11

.
, , ,
, , . "Verhaegen M.J.B. Australopithecines: ancestors of the African apes? // Human
Evolution, 1994, vol. 9, 2.

. 1.8. . .

, . , , ,
, .
- , , ,
, . , . ,

, ,
- , , -
.
70- . ,
{Ramapithecus).

46

Sarich, Wilson 1967

7,7-11

5,5-7,7

Holmes et al. 1988

16,2-9,2

5,9-8,9

4,3-5,9

3,2-4,6

5,1-6,5

4-5

7,0-8,4

3,2-4,5
4,2-5,2

Horaiet al. 1995

6,3-6,9

4,7-5,1

Ruvolo 1995

7,4-8,9

5-6

Hasegawa et al. 1990

9-15

Adachi, Hasegawa 1995


Estreal et al.
Horai et al. 1992

7,3-9,8

Hedges et al. 2001



10 . .
,
, ..
.12 ,
, , , - ,
, ,
.
,
, 90- ,
, ( , .. ,
- ). , , .
( , , ) , (. 1.7 1.8).
,
, .
1994 . , ( , ), ,
4,4 . . . ,
, .
- - ,

Sib ley, Alquist 1987

4,5-6,5
15

47

>4,5

5. ,
. . , , ,
1\ . .
, , . , , 15 7 .
,
. , , , , , ,
.


(Ouranopithecus), {Graecopithecus). -

12

Bonis L., Koufos G. 1995. Nouveaux documents sur les ancestres de la ligne

humaine // L'Anthropologie, t.99, 1, p. 26.

48

- ,
Australopithecus ramidus
Ardipithecus ramidus. ,
( ,
, ), . ,
, ,
- , . , (,
), , - . ,
, ,
, , , .. . -
, 90- . , 5,2 5,8 .
Ardipithecus ramidus
kadabba, , , .
, , ,
, , , .
, , , ,
13
. . kadabba . ,
17

Y. Haile-Selassie. Late Miocene hominids from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia //


Nature, 2001, vol. 412, p. 178-181.

49

.
4,4-4,5 . .14

. ,
, - , ,
. , 2000-2002 .,
.
, 2000 ., ,
, , . ,
, 6 . ,

.|5 (Orrorin tugenensis), ,
(), , .
, , .. 16
, .
14
Deino A.L. et al. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and paleomagnetic stratigraphy of
the Lukeino and lower Chemeron formations at Tabarin and Kapcheberek, Tugen Hills,
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, , ,
y
# , (Pikford M. et
al. Bipedalism in Orrorin tugenensis revealed by its femora // Comptes rendus Palevol,
2002, t.l, p. 191-203). ,
,
, .

50

, 2001-2002 .,
-
,
6 . .17
( ), . {Sahelanthropus tchadensis),
()
(), . ,
, . , : 380 3, ,
. , , , ,
, .18
,
, -, 5 . , , -,
,
, .
, . , , 17

,
. , , , , 2500 .
18
Brunet M. et al. A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central
Africa//Nature, 2002, vol. 418, p. 145-151.

51

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.
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52

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55

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.

(A. anamensis, A. afarensis, A. aethiopicus, A. africanus, A. boisei,
A. robustus, A. bahrelghazali, A. garhi)20, a
: Australopithecus Paranthropus.
() (A. afarensis, A. africanus, A. garhi), a (P. boisei, P. robustus, P. aethiopicus), , , . , (.. )
, , , , .
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1994-1997 . ,
20

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: A. praegens.

56

Pwc. 7.75.
A. anamensis.

Pan troglodytes

(. . .)

Australopithecus

57

()

()

49

41

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51

33

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45

29

151

105

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africanus

3,0-2,4

41

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138

115

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garhi

2,5-?

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2,7-2,2

2,3-1,2

49

34

137

124

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40

32

132

anamensis
Australopithecus
afarensis

, . , 4,2 3,9 . . ., Australopithecus anamensis.


, . , ,
,
. , A. anamensis, , . ,
, , ,
- - . A. anamensis , ,
, .21
( 1998-1999)
( . ),
21

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